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Sample records for cavity frequency doubling

  1. Frequency doubled, cavity dumped feedback laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Jr., Donald L. (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Higher efficiency in cavity dumping and frequency doubling in a laser used to produce modulated output beam pulses is achieved by deflecting light out of the resonant cavity to a third mirror through a frequency doubler using an electro-optic modulator and a polarizing beamsplitter in the resonant cavity, or using just an acousto-optic modulator to deflect light out of the laser cavity in response to a control signal (electric or acoustic). The frequency doubler in front of the third mirror rotates the frequency doubled light so that it will pass out of the laser cavity through the polarizing beamsplitter, while undoubled frequency light is reflected by the polarizing beamsplitter back into the gain medium of the laser. In the case of using a type-II frequency doubler, a dichroic beamsplitter deflects out the frequency doubled light and passes the undoubled frequency light to the polarizing beamsplitter for return to the laser gain medium. If an acousto-optic modulator is used, it deflects light out of the primary laser cavity, so a polarizing beamsplitter is not needed, and only a dichroic beamsplitter is needed to separate frequency doubled light out of the path from the third mirror.

  2. In-phased second harmonic wave array generation with intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling.

    PubMed

    Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-03-23

    The Talbot cavity is one promising method to synchronize the phase of a laser array. However, it does not achieve the lowest array mode with the same phase but the highest array mode with the anti-phase between every two adjacent lasers, which is called out-phase locking. Consequently, their far-field images exhibit 2-peak profiles. We propose intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling. By placing a nonlinear crystal in a Talbot cavity, the Talbot cavity generates an out-phased fundamental wave array, which is converted into an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array at the nonlinear crystal. We demonstrate numerical calculations and experiments on intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling and obtain an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array for a Nd:YVO₄ array laser.

  3. Semi-monolithic cavity for external resonant frequency doubling and method of performing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The fabrication of an optical cavity for use in a laser, in a frequency doubling external cavity, or any other type of nonlinear optical device, can be simplified by providing the nonlinear crystal in combination with a surrounding glass having an index of refraction substantially equal to that of the nonlinear crystal. The closed optical path in this cavity is formed in the surrounding glass and through the nonlinear crystal which lies in one of the optical segments of the light path. The light is transmitted through interfaces between the surrounding glass in the nonlinear crystal through interfaces which are formed at the Brewster-angle to minimize or eliminate reflection.

  4. Red laser based on intra-cavity Nd:YAG/CH4 frequency doubled Raman lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Pengyuan; Liu, Jinbo; Liu, Wanfa; Guo, Jingwei

    2017-01-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is a powerful tool for the extension of the spectral range of lasers. To obtain efficient Raman conversion in SRS, many researchers have studied different types of Raman laser configurations. Among these configurations, the intra-cavity type is particularly attractive. Intra-cavity SRS has the advantages of high intra-cavity laser intensity, low-SRS threshold, and high Raman conversion efficiency. In this paper, An Q-switched intra-cavity Nd: YAG/CH4 frequency-doubled Raman lasers is reported. A negative branch confocal resonator with M= 1.25 is used for the frequency-doubling of Nd: YAG laser. The consequent 532nm light is confined in intra- cavity SRS with travelling wave resonator, and the focal of one mirror of cavity is overlap with the center of the other mirror of the cavity. We found this design is especially efficient to reduce the threshold of SRS, and increase conversion efficiency. The threshold is measured to be 0.62 MW, and at the pump energy of 16.1 mJ, the conversion efficiency is 34%. With the smaller magnification M, the threshold could further decrease, and the conversion efficiency could be improved further. This is a successful try to extend the spectral range of a laser to the shorter wavelength by SRS, and this design may play an important role in the fulfillment of high power red lasers.

  5. Efficient frequency doubling of femtosecond pulses with BIBO in an external synchronized cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanseri, Bhaskar; Bouillard, Martin; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the second harmonic generation (SHG) of infrared femtosecond pulses using a BIBO crystal placed in an external ring cavity, synchronized with an input mode-locked laser at 78 MHz. A frequency doubling efficiency of 53% is achieved which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest value ever reported for a low energy input beam of 1.4 nJ/pulse. Theoretical analysis of cavity related issues such as design, fundamental mode characteristics and fidelity against misalignments are also presented. The modeling of SHG cavity enables us to estimate the cavity losses and the mode matching visibility. Such synchronized SHG cavities in pulse domain, having higher SHG conversion efficiencies compared to their continuous wave counterparts, may find potential applications in scientific areas such as in photonics, and in quantum optics.

  6. Frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Thomas D.; Alford, William J.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-doubled semiconductor vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is disclosed for generating light at a wavelength in the range of 300-550 nanometers. The VECSEL includes a semiconductor multi-quantum-well active region that is electrically or optically pumped to generate lasing at a fundamental wavelength in the range of 600-1100 nanometers. An intracavity nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal then converts the fundamental lasing into a second-harmonic output beam. With optical pumping with 330 milliWatts from a semiconductor diode pump laser, about 5 milliWatts or more of blue light can be generated at 490 nm. The device has applications for high-density optical data storage and retrieval, laser printing, optical image projection, chemical-sensing, materials processing and optical metrology.

  7. Compact intra-cavity frequency doubled line beam green laser by a laser diode array pumped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Boxia; Qi, Yan; Wang, Yanwei

    2016-10-01

    Compact, high power, and low-cost green laser light sources are needed in projection-related applications such as digital cinema, rear-projection television, simulators, and command and control stations. We report a LD array directly pumped intracavity SHG Nd:YVO4/PPMgLN laser without lens or waveguide in this letter. A compact 3.12 W green laser was demonstrated by intra-cavity frequency doubled using a PPMgLN bulk crystal by a 19-emitter LD array pumped(single bar), the conversion efficiency from input LD array was 9.2%. A line-beam output suitable for laser projectors was generated, which has the potential to be scalable to small volumes and low costs for laser projection displays.

  8. A novel approach to a PPM-modulated frequency-doubled electro-optic cavity-dumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    A technique which can provide frequency doubling, with high efficiency, while cavity dumping a laser for pulse position M-ary modulation while being used for an optical communication link is discussed. This approach uses a secondary cavity that provides feedback of the undoubled fundamental light, which is normally lost, into the primary cavity to be recirculated and frequency doubled. Specific operations of the electrooptic modulator and frequency-doubling crystal are described along with the overall modulation scheme and experimental setup.

  9. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  10. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  11. 532-nm laser sources based on intracavity frequency doubling of extended-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchegrov, Andrei V.; Umbrasas, Arvydas; Watson, Jason P.; Lee, Dicky; Amsden, Charles A.; Ha, Wonill; Carey, Glen P.; Doan, Vincent V.; Moran, Bryan; Lewis, Alan; Mooradian, Aram

    2004-07-01

    We introduce a novel type of cw green laser source, the Protera 532, based on the intracavity frequency doubling of an extended-cavity, surface-emitting diode laser. The distinguishing characteristics of this platform are high compactness and efficiency in a stable, single-longitudinal mode with beam quality M2 < 1.2. The laser design is based on the previously reported NECSEL architecture used for 488nm lasers, and includes several novel features to accommodate different types of nonlinear optical materials. The infrared laser die wavelength is increased from 976nm to 1064nm without compromising performance or reliability. The intracavity frequency doubling to 532nm has been demonstrated with both bulk and periodically poled nonlinear materials, with single-ended cw power outputs of greater than 30 mW.

  12. Study of Gain in C-Band Deflection Cavities for a Frequency-Doubling Magnicon Amplifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-26

    surface cleanliness , and background vacuum pressure. The threshold for multipactor in the drive cavity, in the presence of the axial magnetic field, was...different degrees of surface cleanliness . In order to make an unambiguous test of the linear interaction theory, the experimental gain measurements were

  13. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled green laser for precision Compton polarimetry at Jefferson Lab

    DOE PAGES

    Rakhman, A.; Hafez, Mohamed A.; Nanda, Sirish K.; ...

    2016-03-31

    Here, a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled continuous wave green laser (532 nm) has been built and installed in Hall A of Jefferson Lab for high precision Compton polarimetry. The infrared (1064 nm) beam from a ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier seeded by a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator laser is frequency doubled in a single-pass periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The maximum achieved green power at 5 W infrared pump power is 1.74 W with a total conversion efficiency of 34.8%. The green beam is injected into the optical resonant cavity and enhanced up to 3.7 kW with a corresponding enhancement ofmore » 3800. The polarization transfer function has been measured in order to determine the intra-cavity circular laser polarization within a measurement uncertainty of 0.7%. The PREx experiment at Jefferson Lab used this system for the first time and achieved 1.0% precision in polarization measurements of an electron beam with energy and current of 1.0 GeV and 50 μA.« less

  14. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled green laser for precision Compton polarimetry at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhman, A.; Hafez, M.; Nanda, S.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Cates, G. D.; Dalton, M. M.; Franklin, G. B.; Friend, M.; Michaels, R. W.; Nelyubin, V.; Parno, D. S.; Paschke, K. D.; Quinn, B. P.; Souder, P. A.; Tobias, W. A.

    2016-06-01

    A high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled continuous wave green laser (532 nm) has been built and installed in Hall A of Jefferson Lab for high precision Compton polarimetry. The infrared (1064 nm) beam from a ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier seeded by a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator laser is frequency doubled in a single-pass periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The maximum achieved green power at 5 W infrared pump power is 1.74 W with a total conversion efficiency of 34.8%. The green beam is injected into the optical resonant cavity and enhanced up to 3.7 kW with a corresponding enhancement of 3800. The polarization transfer function has been measured in order to determine the intra-cavity circular laser polarization within a measurement uncertainty of 0.7%. The PREx experiment at Jefferson Lab used this system for the first time and achieved 1.0% precision in polarization measurements of an electron beam with energy and current of 1.06 GeV and 50 μA.

  15. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled green laser for precision Compton polarimetry at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhman, A.; Hafez, Mohamed A.; Nanda, Sirish K.; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Camsonne, Alexandre; Cates, Gordon D.; Dalton, Mark M.; Franklin, Gregg B.; Friend, Megan L.; Michaels, Robert W.; Nelyubin, Vladimir V.; Parno, Diana S.; Paschke, Kent D.; Quinn, Brian P.; Souder, Paul A.; Tobias, W. Al

    2016-03-31

    Here, a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with a frequency-doubled continuous wave green laser (532 nm) has been built and installed in Hall A of Jefferson Lab for high precision Compton polarimetry. The infrared (1064 nm) beam from a ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier seeded by a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator laser is frequency doubled in a single-pass periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The maximum achieved green power at 5 W infrared pump power is 1.74 W with a total conversion efficiency of 34.8%. The green beam is injected into the optical resonant cavity and enhanced up to 3.7 kW with a corresponding enhancement of 3800. The polarization transfer function has been measured in order to determine the intra-cavity circular laser polarization within a measurement uncertainty of 0.7%. The PREx experiment at Jefferson Lab used this system for the first time and achieved 1.0% precision in polarization measurements of an electron beam with energy and current of 1.0 GeV and 50 μA.

  16. Blue light generated by intra-cavity frequency doubling of an edge-emitting diode laser with a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Yao, Aiyun; Copner, N J; Gawith, C B E; Knight, Ian G; Pfeiffer, Hans-Ulrich; Musk, Bob

    2009-11-23

    We demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge intra-cavity frequency doubling (ICFD) of an edge-emitter diode laser using a 10 mm-long 5.0 microm periodically poled LiNbO(3) (PPLN) crystal. An optical output power of 33 mW second harmonic blue light at 490.5 nm is generated at 1.0 A injection current, equivalent to an overall wall-plug efficiency of 1.8%. The measured M(2) values of blue beam are 1.7 and 2.4 along the fast and slow axis.

  17. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, Salvatore

    1985-01-01

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  18. Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1984-02-09

    A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.

  19. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  20. Hydrogen masers with cavity frequency switching servos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Harry E.; Owings, H. B.; Koppang, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    The stability of the free-running hydrogen maser is limited by pulling of the unperturbed hydrogen transition frequency due to instability of the cavity resonance frequency. While automatic spin-exchange tuning is in principle the more basic and accurate method, the required beam intensity switching and the long servo time constant result in reduced stability for measuring intervals up to 10(exp 6) seconds. More importantly, the spin-exchange tuning method requires a second stable frequency source as a reference, ideally a second hydrogen maser, to get the best results. The cavity frequency switching servo, on the other hand, has very little effect on the maser short term stability, and is fast enough to correct for cavity drift while maintaining the cavity at the spin-exchange tuned offset required to minimize instability due to beam intensity fluctuations. Not only does the cavity frequency switching servo not require a second stable frequency source, but the frequency reference is the atomic hydrogen radiated beam signal, so that no extra RF connections need be made to the cavity, and externally generated signals that would perturb the hydrogen atom need not be transmitted through the cavity. The operation of the cavity frequency switching stabilization method is discussed and the transient response of the servo and certain other aspects of the technique that have potential for achieving improved basic accuracy are illustrated.

  1. Nb3Sn for Radio Frequency Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.

    2006-12-18

    In this article, the suitability of Nb3Sn to improve theperformance of superconducting Radio-Frequency (RF)cavities is discussed.The use of Nb3Sn in RF cavitiesis recognized as an enabling technology toretain a veryhigh cavity quality factor (Q0) at 4.2 K and tosignificantly improve the cavity accelerating efficiency per unitlength(Eacc). This potential arises through the fundamental properties ofNb3Sn. The properties that are extensively characterized in theliterature are, however, mainly related to improvements in currentcarrying capacity (Jc) in the vortex state. Much less is available forthe Meissner state, which is of key importance to cavities. Relevantdata, available for the Meissner state is summarized, and it is shown howthis already validates the use of Nb3Sn. In addition, missing knowledgeis highlighted and suggestions are given for further Meissner statespecific research.

  2. Frequency doubling crystals

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Francis; Velsko, Stephan P.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  3. Plasma processing of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan

    The development of plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities not only provides a chemical free and less expensive processing method, but also opens up the possibility for controlled modification of the inner surfaces of the cavity for better superconducting properties. The research was focused on the transition of plasma etching from two dimensional flat surfaces to inner surfaces of three dimensional (3D) structures. The results could be applicable to a variety of inner surfaces of 3D structures other than SRF cavities. Understanding the Ar/Cl2 plasma etching mechanism is crucial for achieving the desired modification of Nb SRF cavities. In the process of developing plasma etching technology, an apparatus was built and a method was developed to plasma etch a single cell Pill Box cavity. The plasma characterization was done with the help of optical emission spectroscopy. The Nb etch rate at various points of this cavity was measured before processing the SRF cavity. Cylindrical ring-type samples of Nb placed on the inner surface of the outer wall were used to measure the dependence of the process parameters on plasma etching. The measured etch rate dependence on the pressure, rf power, dc bias, temperature, Cl2 concentration and diameter of the inner electrode was determined. The etch rate mechanism was studied by varying the temperature of the outer wall, the dc bias on the inner electrode and gas conditions. In a coaxial plasma reactor, uniform plasma etching along the cylindrical structure is a challenging task due to depletion of the active radicals along the gas flow direction. The dependence of etch rate uniformity along the cylindrical axis was determined as a function of process parameters. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the

  4. Fabrication and Measurements of 500 MHz Double Spoke Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Park, HyeKyoung; Hopper, Christopher S.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2014-12-01

    A 500 MHz β0=1 double spoke cavity has been designed and optimized for a high velocity application such as a compact electron accelerator at the Center for Accelerator Science at Old Dominion University [1] and the fabrication was recently completed at Jefferson Lab. The geometry specific to the double spoke cavity required a variety of tooling and fixtures. Also a number of asymmetric weld joints were expected to make it difficult to maintain minimal geometric deviation from the design. This paper will report the fabrication procedure, resulting tolerance from the design, initial test results and the lessons learned from the first β0=1 double spoke cavity fabrication.

  5. Striped-double cavity fabry-perot interferometers using both glass and air cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, S; Steinmetz, L

    1998-07-08

    We have used piezo-driven Fabry-Perot interferometers in the past far many continuous velocity-time measurements of fast moving surfaces. In order to avoid the annoying drift of some of these devices, we have developed and used inexpensive, solid glass, striped etalons with lengths up to 64 mm. Usable apertures are 35 mm by 80 mm with a finess of 25. A roundabout technique was devised for double cavity operation. We built a passive thermal housing for temperature stability, with tilt and height adjustments. We have also developed and used our first fixed etalon air-spaced cavity with a rotatable glass double- cavity insert. The rotation allows the referee cavity fractional order to be adjusted separately from that of the main cavity. It needs very little thermal protection, and eliminates the need for a roundabout scheme for double cavity operation, but is more costly than the solid glass version I

  6. Investigation on 447.3 nm blue-violet laser by extra-cavity frequency doubling of a diode-pumped cesium vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dongdong; Chen, Fei; Guo, Jin; Shao, Mingzhen; Xie, Jijiang

    2016-09-01

    447.3 nm blue-violet lasers are investigated by extra-cavity single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) of diode-pumped cesium vapor lasers (Cs-DPALs) using a LBO crystal. Two types of 894.6 nm Cs-DPAL are constructed, and the beam quality factors are Mx2=1.02, My2=1.13 and Mx2=2.13, Mx2=2.66, respectively. The maximum output powers for the two types of Cs-DPAL operating in pulsed mode are 0.692 W and 2.6 W, and the corresponding maximum second harmonics (SH) powers are 9.5 μW and 11.2 μW at optimal focusing parameter of 1.68, respectively. The relative insensitivity of SH power to the LBO crystal temperature and the influence of Cs laser beam quality on the SHG efficiency are analyzed qualitatively.

  7. XUV Frequency Combs via Femtosecond Enhancement Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Arthur

    2012-10-01

    We report on recent developments in tabletop extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources based on high harmonic generation (HHG) in femtosecond enhancement cavities (fsEC). The XUV frequency comb is produced via HHG at the full repetition rate of the mode-locked oscillator (typically >50 MHz), inside a passive enhancement cavity with an enhancement of a few hundred. Several technical challenges have recently been resolved, which have led to an increase in the generated photon flux in the XUV (10^14 photons/sec), and a substantial improvement in the operating time of these sources. XUV sources based on fsECs are now able to perform direct frequency comb spectroscopy with MHz precision in atomic systems at wavelengths down to 60 nm. Ongoing research is aimed at determining the ultimate frequency stability of these new XUV frequency comb sources. XUV fsEC sources are also promising for some applications that are typically performed with XUV light at advanced light sources. These applications include electronic structure of quantum material systems, such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), size metrology of nano-aerosol particles, and potentially velocity map imaging for studies of chemical physical problems. In this talk, we present a brief introduction to XUV frequency comb sources and the technical challenges that have been overcome to achieve the current performance levels. We will also discuss our progress on ARPES experiments with a fsEC XUV source and our efforts toward increasing the energy resolution of the produced harmonics. Finally, we describe ongoing efforts to further increase the maximum photon energy and photon flux generated, and subsequently delivered to an experiment by fsEC XUV sources.

  8. Compact microwave cavity for high performance rubidium frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanucci, Camillo; Bandi, Thejesh; Merli, Francesco; Pellaton, Matthieu; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano; Skrivervik, Anja K.

    2012-10-01

    The design, realization, and characterization of a compact magnetron-type microwave cavity operating with a TE011-like mode are presented. The resonator works at the rubidium hyperfine ground-state frequency (i.e., 6.835 GHz) by accommodating a glass cell of 25 mm diameter containing rubidium vapor. Its design analysis demonstrates the limitation of the loop-gap resonator lumped model when targeting such a large cell, thus numerical optimization was done to obtain the required performances. Microwave characterization of the realized prototype confirmed the expected working behavior. Double-resonance and Zeeman spectroscopy performed with this cavity indicated an excellent microwave magnetic field homogeneity: the performance validation of the cavity was done by achieving an excellent short-term clock stability as low as 2.4 × 10-13 τ-1/2. The achieved experimental results and the compact design make this resonator suitable for applications in portable atomic high-performance frequency standards for both terrestrial and space applications.

  9. Compact microwave cavity for high performance rubidium frequency standards.

    PubMed

    Stefanucci, Camillo; Bandi, Thejesh; Merli, Francesco; Pellaton, Matthieu; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano; Skrivervik, Anja K

    2012-10-01

    The design, realization, and characterization of a compact magnetron-type microwave cavity operating with a TE(011)-like mode are presented. The resonator works at the rubidium hyperfine ground-state frequency (i.e., 6.835 GHz) by accommodating a glass cell of 25 mm diameter containing rubidium vapor. Its design analysis demonstrates the limitation of the loop-gap resonator lumped model when targeting such a large cell, thus numerical optimization was done to obtain the required performances. Microwave characterization of the realized prototype confirmed the expected working behavior. Double-resonance and Zeeman spectroscopy performed with this cavity indicated an excellent microwave magnetic field homogeneity: the performance validation of the cavity was done by achieving an excellent short-term clock stability as low as 2.4 × 10(-13) τ(-1/2). The achieved experimental results and the compact design make this resonator suitable for applications in portable atomic high-performance frequency standards for both terrestrial and space applications.

  10. Transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry Perot filters driven by Lorentzian sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Javier; Capmany, Jose

    1996-12-01

    We derive expressions for the transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry Perot filters driven by laser sources with Lorentzian spectrum. These are of interest because of their applications in sensing and channel filtering in optical frequency-division multiplexing networks.

  11. Updating the CSNS injector linac to 250 MeV with superconducting double-spoke cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Hui; Fu, Shi-Nian

    2015-03-01

    In order to update the beam power from 100 kW to 500 kW in the China Spallation neutron source (CSNS) Phase II, one of the important measures is to replace the 80 m long beam transport line between the present 80 MeV linac injector and the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) to another kind of acceleration structure. In this paper, we proposed a scheme based on 324 MHz double-spoke superconducting cavities. Unlike the superconducting elliptical cavity and normal conducting coupled cavity linac (CCL) structure, the double-spoke cavity belongs to the TE mode structure and has a smaller transverse dimension compared with that of the TH mode one. It can work at base frequency as the drift tube Linac (DTL) section, so that the cost and complexity of the RF system will be much decreased, and the behaviors of the beam dynamics are also improved significantly because of the low charge density and larger longitudinal acceptance. Furthermore, because of the relatively longer interactive length between the charged particle and the electromagnetic field per cell, it needs relatively less cell numbers and it has larger velocity acceptance compared with the double frequency TH structures. The superconducting section consists of 14 periods, each of which includes 3 superconducting cavities encapsulated in one cryomodule and a doublet in room temperate. The general considerations on cavity and beam dynamics design are discussed and the main results are presented. Supported by National Nature Sciences Foundation of China (11375122, 91126003) and China ADS Project

  12. Laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a laser frequency modulator for modulating a laser cavity. It is known in the prior art to utilize a PZT (piezoelectric transducer) element in combination with a mirror to change the cavity length of a laser cavity (which changes the laser frequency). Using a PZT element to drive the mirror directly is adequate at frequencies below 10 kHz. However, in high frequency applications (100 kHz and higher) PZT elements alone do not provide a sufficient change in the cavity length. The present invention utilizes an ultrasonic concentrator with a PZT element and mirror to provide modulation of the laser cavity. With an ultrasonic concentrator, the mirror element at the end of a laser cavity can move at larger amplitudes and higher frequencies.

  13. Dynamic entanglement transfer in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Tiantian; Zhou, Rigui; Ian, Hou

    2015-08-01

    We give a theoretical study of a double-cavity system in which a mechanical resonator beam is coupled to two cavity modes on both sides through radiation pressures. The indirect coupling between the cavities via the resonator sets up a correlation in the optomechanical entanglements between the two cavities with the common resonator. This correlation initiates an entanglement transfer from the intracavity photon-phonon entanglements to an intercavity photon-photon entanglement. Using numerical solutions, we show two distinct regimes of the optomechanical system, in which the indirect entanglement either builds up and eventually saturates or undergoes a death-and-revival cycle, after a time lapse for initiating the cooperative motion of the left and right cavity modes.

  14. Frequency combs for cavity cascades: OPO combs and graphene-coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin F.; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, C.-C.; Mohr, C.; Jiang, Jie; Schunemann, Peter G.; Schibli, T. R.; Maslowski, Piotr; Fermann, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Frequency combs can be used directly, for example as a highly precise spectroscopic light source. They can also be used indirectly, as a bridge between devices whose high precision requirements would normally make them incompatible. Here, we demonstrate two ways that a frequency comb enables new technologies by matching optical cavities. One cavity is the laser oscillator. A second cavity is a low-threshold doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Extending optical referencing to the doubly-resonant OPO turns the otherwise unstable device into an extremely precise midinfrared frequency comb. Another cavity is an optical enhancement cavity for amplifying spectral absorption in a gas. With the high speed of a graphene-modulated frequency comb, we can couple a frequency comb directly into a high-finesse cavity for trace gas detection.

  15. Stable two-wavelength lasers by use of a double alpha-type fiber cavity with fiber grating mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Young; Oh, Myoung-Suk; Nam, Eun-Soo; Cho, Kyoung-Ik

    2005-12-01

    For high-frequency (20-200 GHz) modulated light sources, we developed and investigated two-wavelength lasers using the double alpha-type fiber cavities with fiber grating mirrors. For variations of polarization states and pump powers, parallel alpha-type coupled cavity lasers were found to be more stable than serial lasers.

  16. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  17. Acoustic localization of breakdown in radio frequency accelerating cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Peter

    Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.

  18. Accoustic Localization of Breakdown in Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Peter Gwin

    2016-07-01

    Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.

  19. Test of local position invariance using a double-cavity laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Agachev, A. R.; Belov, I. Yu.; Bochkarev, V. V.; Daishev, R. A.; Mavrin, S. V.; Murzakhanov, Z. G.; Skochilov, A. F. Chugunov, Yu. P.; Shindyaev, O. P.

    2010-01-15

    The results of testing local position invariance, which is a constituent of the Einstein equivalence principle, in a 'null' gravitational redshift experiment are reported. The processing of the experimental data collected during the five-month operation of a double-c avity laser system, where one cavity operates in the free generation mode and the frequency of the second cavity is stabilized with the nonlinear ultranarrow absorption resonance of the methane molecule, has confirmed the universality of the gravitational redshift law at a level of 0.9%. This result almost doubly improves the best existing accuracy (1.7%) of testing local position invariance for clocks of different physical natures.

  20. Frequency doubling of Raman fiber lasers with random distributed feedback.

    PubMed

    Dontsova, E I; Kablukov, S I; Vatnik, I D; Babin, S A

    2016-04-01

    This Letter presents what we believe is the first experimental study of frequency doubling of a Raman fiber laser (RFL) with random distributed feedback (RDFB) in an MgO:PPLN crystal. We compared two laser configurations, each with a half-open cavity. The cavity contained either a broadband Sagnac mirror or a narrowband fiber Bragg grating (FBG). We found that spectral broadening in the studied configurations of the RDFB RFLs differed from that found in a conventional RFL with a linear cavity, as well as from each other. We also compared the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency for these three types of lasers. The highest SHG efficiency was obtained for the RDFB RFL with the FBG delivering >100  mW power at 654 nm.

  1. Precise Frequency Measurements Using a Superconducting Cavity Stabilized Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D. M.; Yeh, N.-C.; Jiang, W.; Anderson, V. L.; Asplund, N.

    1999-01-01

    Many physics experiments call on improved resolution to better define the experimental results, thus improving tests of theories. Modern microwave technology combined with high-Q resonators can achieve frequency readout and control with resolutions up to a part in 10(exp 18). When the physical quantity in question in the experiment can be converted to a frequency or a change in frequency, a high-stability microwave oscillator can be applied to obtain state-of-the-art precision. In this work we describe the overall physical concepts and the required experimental procedures for optimizing a high-resolution frequency measurement system that employs a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity and a low-noise frequency synthesizer. The basic approach is to resolve the resonant frequencies of a high-Q (Q > 10(exp 10)) cavity to extremely high precision (one part in 10(exp 17)- 10(exp 18)). Techniques for locking the synthesizer frequency to a resonant frequency of the superconducting cavity to form an ultra-stable oscillator are described. We have recently set up an ultra-high-vacuum high-temperature annealing system to process superconducting niobium cavities, and have been able to consistently achieve Q > 10(exp 9). We have integrated high-Q superconducting cavities with a low-noise microwave synthesizer in a phase-locked-loop to verify the frequency stability of the system. Effects that disturb the cavity resonant frequency (such as the temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations) and methods to mitigate those effects are also considered. Applicability of these techniques to experiments will be discussed, and our latest experimental progress in achieving high-resolution frequency measurements using the superconducting-cavity-stabilized-oscillator will be presented.

  2. Cavity design for high-frequency axion dark matter detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Stern, I.; Chisholm, A. A.; Hoskins, J.; ...

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, in an effort to extend the usefulness of microwave cavity detectors to higher axion masses, above ~8 μeV (~2 GHz), a numerical trade study of cavities was conducted to investigate the merit of using variable periodic post arrays and regulating vane designs for higher-frequency searches. The results show that both designs could be used to develop resonant cavities for high-mass axion searches. Finally, multiple configurations of both methods obtained the scanning sensitivity equivalent to approximately 4 coherently coupled cavities with a single tuning rod.

  3. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  4. Dielectric supported radio-frequency cavities

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U. L.; Lee, Terry G.

    2000-01-01

    A device which improves the electrical and thermomechanical performance of an RF cavity, for example, in a disk-loaded accelerating structure. A washer made of polycrystalline diamond is brazed in the middle to a copper disk washer and at the outer edge to the plane wave transformer tank wall, thus dissipating heat from the copper disk to the outer tank wall while at the same time providing strong mechanical support to the metal disk. The washer structure eliminates the longitudinal connecting rods and cooling channels used in the currently available cavities, and as a result minimizes problems such as shunt impedance degradation and field distortion in the plane wave transformer, and mechanical deflection and uneven cooling of the disk assembly.

  5. Comparison of various decentralised structural and cavity feedback control strategies for transmitted noise reduction through a double panel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jen-Hsuan; Berkhoff, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    This paper compares various decentralised control strategies, including structural and acoustic actuator-sensor configuration designs, to reduce noise transmission through a double panel structure. The comparison is based on identical control stability indexes. The double panel structure consists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low sound transmission at high frequencies, low heat transmission, and low weight. The double panel structure is widely used, such as in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nevertheless, the resonance of the cavity and the poor sound transmission loss at low frequencies limit the double panel's noise control performance. Applying active structural acoustic control to the panels or active noise control to the cavity has been discussed in many papers. In this paper, the resonances of the panels and the cavity are considered simultaneously to further reduce the transmitted noise through an existing double panel structure. A structural-acoustic coupled model is developed to investigate and compare various structural control and cavity control methods. Numerical analysis and real-time control results show that structural control should be applied to both panels. Three types of cavity control sources are presented and compared. The results indicate that the largest noise reduction is obtained with cavity control by loudspeakers modified to operate as incident pressure sources.

  6. Frequency Doubling Broadband Light in Multiple Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    ALFORD,WILLIAM J.; SMITH,ARLEE V.

    2000-07-26

    The authors compare frequency doubling of broadband light in a single nonlinear crystal with doubling in five crystals with intercrystal temporal walk off compensation, and with doubling in five crystals adjusted for offset phase matching frequencies. Using a plane-wave, dispersive numerical model of frequency doubling they study the bandwidth of the second harmonic and the conversion efficiency as functions of crystal length and fundamental irradiance. For low irradiance the offset phase matching arrangement has lower efficiency than a single crystal of the same total length but gives a broader second harmonic bandwidth. The walk off compensated arrangement gives both higher conversion efficiency and broader bandwidth than a single crystal. At high irradiance, both multicrystal arrangements improve on the single crystal efficiency while maintaining broad bandwidth.

  7. Mechanical properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; ...

    2015-07-02

    Radio-frequency cavities made of bulk niobium are one of the components used in modern particle accelerators. The mechanical stability is an important aspect of cavity design, which typically relies on finite-element analysis simulations using material properties from tensile tests on sample. This contribution presents the results of strain and resonant frequency measurements as a function of a uniform pressure up to 722 kPa, applied to single-cell niobium cavities with different crystallographic structure, purity and treatments. In addition, burst tests of high-purity multi-cell cavities with different crystallographic structure have been conducted up to the tensile strength of the material. Finite-element analysismore » of the single-cell cavity geometry is in good agreement with the observed behavior in the elastic regime assuming a Young's modulus value of 88.5 GPa and a Poisson's ratio of 0.4, regardless of crystallographic structure, purity or treatment. However, the measured yield strength and tensile strength depend on crystallographic structure, material purity and treatment. In particular, the results from this study show that the mechanical properties of niobium cavities with large crystals are comparable to those of cavities made of fine-grain niobium.« less

  8. Mechanical properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Schmidt, A.; Iversen, J.; Matheisen, A.; Singer, W.

    2015-07-02

    Radio-frequency cavities made of bulk niobium are one of the components used in modern particle accelerators. The mechanical stability is an important aspect of cavity design, which typically relies on finite-element analysis simulations using material properties from tensile tests on sample. This contribution presents the results of strain and resonant frequency measurements as a function of a uniform pressure up to 722 kPa, applied to single-cell niobium cavities with different crystallographic structure, purity and treatments. In addition, burst tests of high-purity multi-cell cavities with different crystallographic structure have been conducted up to the tensile strength of the material. Finite-element analysis of the single-cell cavity geometry is in good agreement with the observed behavior in the elastic regime assuming a Young's modulus value of 88.5 GPa and a Poisson's ratio of 0.4, regardless of crystallographic structure, purity or treatment. However, the measured yield strength and tensile strength depend on crystallographic structure, material purity and treatment. In particular, the results from this study show that the mechanical properties of niobium cavities with large crystals are comparable to those of cavities made of fine-grain niobium.

  9. Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun L; Kim, Hyunwoo; de Leon, Nathalie; Frank, Ian W; Robinson, Jacob T; McCutcheon, Murray; Liu, Mingzhao; Lukin, Mikhail D; Loncar, Marko; Park, Hongkun

    2013-01-09

    We report a new approach for realizing a flexible photonic crystal (PC) cavity that enables wide-range tuning of its resonance frequency. Our PC cavity consists of a regular array of silicon nanowires embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix and exhibits a cavity resonance in the telecommunication band that can be reversibly tuned over 60 nm via mechanical stretching-a record for two-dimensional (2D) PC structures. These mechanically reconfigurable devices could find potential applications in integrated photonics, sensing in biological systems, and smart materials.

  10. Photoemission and Masing in a Cavity-Coupled Semiconductor Double Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petta, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Semiconductor circuit QED devices are exciting platforms for studying the coupled dynamics of single charges, photons, and phonons. I will describe a newly discovered maser, which is driven by single electron tunneling events that result in gigahertz frequency photon emission. Semiconductor double quantum dots, sometimes referred to as electrically tunable ``artificial molecules,'' serve as the gain medium and are placed inside of a high quality factor microwave cavity. Maser action is verified by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. Furthermore, by driving the cavity with a seed tone, it is possible to injection lock the maser, greatly reducing the emission linewidth. The frequency range over which the maser can be injection locked closely follows predictions from Adler's equation. Research was performed in collaboration with Yinyu Liu, Jiri Stehlik, Christopher Eichler, Michael Gullans, and Jacob Taylor. We acknowledge support from the Sloan and Packard Foundations, ARO, DARPA, and the NSF.

  11. Noise-Immune Cavity-Enhanced Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Lucile; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    We present noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS), a recently developed technique for sensitive, broadband, and high resolution spectroscopy. In NICE-OFCS an optical frequency comb (OFC) is locked to a high finesse cavity and phase-modulated at a frequency precisely equal to (a multiple of) the cavity free spectral range. Since each comb line and sideband is transmitted through a separate cavity mode in exactly the same way, any residual frequency noise on the OFC relative to the cavity affects each component in an identical manner. The transmitted intensity contains a beat signal at the modulation frequency that is immune to frequency-to-amplitude noise conversion by the cavity, in a way similar to continuous wave noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS). The light transmitted through the cavity is detected with a fast-scanning Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) and the NICE-OFCS signal is obtained by fast Fourier transform of the synchronously demodulated interferogram. Our NICE-OFCS system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a cavity with a finesse of ˜9000 and a fast-scanning FTS equipped with a high-bandwidth commercial detector. We measured NICE-OFCS signals from the 3νb{1}+νb{3} overtone band of CO_2 around 1.57 μm and achieved absorption sensitivity 6.4×10-11cm-1 Hz-1/2 per spectral element, corresponding to a minimum detectable CO_2 concentration of 25 ppb after 330 s integration time. We will describe the principles of the technique and its technical implementation, and discuss the spectral lineshapes of the NICE-OFCS signals. A. Khodabakhsh, C. Abd Alrahman, and A. Foltynowicz, Opt. Lett. 39, 5034-5037 (2014). J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6-15 (1998). A. Khodabakhsh, A. C. Johansson, and A. Foltynowicz, Appl. Phys. B (2015) doi:10.1007/s00340-015-6010-7.

  12. Surface processing for bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. P.; Reid, T.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of niobium cavities for superconducting particle accelerators continue to be fabricated from thin-walled (2–4 mm) polycrystalline niobium sheet and, as a final step, require material removal from the radio frequency (RF) surface in order to achieve performance needed for use as practical accelerator devices. More recently bulk niobium in the form of, single- or large-grain slices cut from an ingot has become a viable alternative for some cavity types. In both cases the so-called damaged layer must be chemically etched or electrochemically polished away. The methods for doing this date back at least four decades, however, vigorous empirical studies on real cavities and more fundamental studies on niobium samples at laboratories worldwide have led to seemingly modest improvements that, when taken together, constitute a substantial advance in the reproducibility for surface processing techniques and overall cavity performance. This article reviews the development of niobium cavity surface processing, and summarizes results of recent studies. We place some emphasis on practical details for real cavity processing systems which are difficult to find in the literature but are, nonetheless, crucial for achieving the good and reproducible cavity performance. New approaches for bulk niobium surface treatment which aim to reduce cost or increase performance, including alternate chemical recipes, barrel polishing and ‘nitrogen doping’ of the RF surface, continue to be pursued and are closely linked to the requirements for surface processing.

  13. Frequency comb generation beyond the Lugiato-Lefever equation: multi-stability and super cavity solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Tobias; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The generation of optical frequency combs in microresonators is considered without resorting to the mean-field approximation. New dynamical regimes are found to appear for high intracavity power that cannot be modeled using the Lugiato-Lefever equation. Using the Ikeda map we show the existence of multi-valued stationary states and analyse their stability. Period doubled patterns are considered and a novel type of super cavity soliton associated with the multi-stable states is predicted.

  14. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, A.; Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B.; Miao, S. D.; Jorgensen, M. R.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2016-04-01

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  15. External cavity diode laser with very-low frequency drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ikegami, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    An external cavity diode laser with significant mechanical robustness was installed in a housing that was sealed from outside for eliminating variations in the refractive index of air. Using the feedback signal for a frequency lock, it was found that the variation in the laser frequency under free running was suppressed to 275 MHz over one month and depended on the room temperature. Moreover, the upper limit of the linear frequency drift rate was evaluated as intrinsically 40 Hz/s. The frequency lock is expected to be sustainable for more than 110 days with temperature-controlled housing.

  16. Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Popović, S.; Upadhyay, J.; Nikolić, M.; Vušković, L.; Mammosser, J.

    2014-11-07

    We are reporting experimental results on a microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency cryo-module. This discharge offers a mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the issues related to resonant detuning due to sustained multi-cell cavity plasma. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal.

  17. Dual-etalon, cavity-ring-down, frequency comb spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2010-10-01

    The 'dual etalon frequency comb spectrometer' is a novel low cost spectometer with limited moving parts. A broad band light source (pulsed laser, LED, lamp ...) is split into two beam paths. One travels through an etalon and a sample gas, while the second arm is just an etalon cavity, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges (FSR) of the two cavities are not identical, the intensity pattern at the detector with consist of a series of heterodyne frequencies. Each mode out of the sample arm etalon with have a unique frequency in RF (radio-frequency) range, where modern electronics can easily record the signals. By monitoring these RF beat frequencies we can then determine when an optical frequencies is absorbed. The resolution is set by the FSR of the cavity, typically 10 MHz, with a bandwidth up to 100s of cm{sup -1}. In this report, the new spectrometer is described in detail and demonstration experiments on Iodine absorption are carried out. Further we discuss powerful potential next generation steps to developing this into a point sensor for monitoring combustion by-products, environmental pollutants, and warfare agents.

  18. Frequency-Agile Differential Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Zachary; Hodges, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    The ultimate precision of highly sensitive cavity-enhanced spectroscopic measurements is often limited by interferences (etalons) caused by weak coupled-cavity effects. Differential measurements of ring-down decay constants have previously been demonstrated to largely cancel these effects, but the measurement acquisition rates were relatively low [1,2]. We have previously demonstrated the use of frequency agile rapid scanning cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FARS-CRDS) for acquisition of absorption spectra [3]. Here, the method of rapidly scanned, frequency-agile differential cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FADS-CRDS) is presented for reducing the effect of these interferences and other shot-to-shot statistical variations in measured decay times. To this end, an electro-optic phase modulator (EOM) with a bandwidth of 20 GHz is driven by a microwave source, generating pairs of sidebands on the probe laser. The optical resonator acts as a highly selective optical filter to all laser frequencies except for one tunable sideband. This sideband may be stepped arbitrarily from mode-to-mode of the ring-down cavity, at a rate limited only by the cavity buildup/decay time. The ability to probe any cavity mode across the EOM bandwidth enables a variety of methods for generating differential spectra. The differential mode spacing may be changed, and the effect of this method on suppressing the various coupled-cavity interactions present in the system is discussed. Alternatively, each mode may also be differentially referenced to a single point, providing immunity to temporal variations in the base losses of the cavity while allowing for conventional spectral fitting approaches. Differential measurements of absorption are acquired at 3.3 kHz and a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 5 x10-12 cm-1 in 1 s averaging time is achieved. 1. J. Courtois, K. Bielska, and J.T Hodges J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 30, 1486-1495, 2013 2. H.F. Huang and K.K. Lehmann App. Optics 49, 1378

  19. Femtogram scale nanomechanical resonators embedded in a double-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Zeng, Cheng; Chen, Daigao; Li, Miaofeng; Wang, Yi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xiao, Xi; Xia, Jinsong

    2016-02-01

    An optomechanical device that contains a nanomechanical resonator with an ultralow effective mass of 6.42 fg is designed and demonstrated. The femtogram scale nanomechanical resonator is embedded in a double-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavity. Optical resonance provides efficient readout of the nanomechanical resonator movements. The fabricated device is optically and mechanically characterized in atmosphere. In the measured radio-frequency power spectral density, a peak at 3.928 GHz is identified to be the mechanical mode with an effective mass of 6.42 fg. The measured room-temperature mechanical Q-factor is 1255, and a displacement sensitivity of 0.13 fm/ √{ Hz } , which is 22 times beyond the standard quantum limit, is obtained. These demonstrated on-chip integrated optomechanical devices combining high Q-factor optical cavities and nanomechanical resonators with ultralow effective masses are promising in ultrasensitive measurements.

  20. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert J.; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the development of a high power 780 nm laser suitable for space applications of laser cooling. A possible solution is to use frequency doubling of high power 1560 nm telecom lasers. The presentation shows a diagram of the frequency conversion, and a graph of the second harmonic generation in one crystal, and the use of the cascading crystals. Graphs show the second harmonic power as a function of distance between crystals, second harmonic power vs. pump power, tunability of laser systems.

  1. Improving the efficiency of microwave devices with a double output cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, K.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lee, T.G.

    1986-05-01

    Double output cavities have been used experimentally to increase the efficiency of high-power klystrons. We have used particle-in-cell simulations with the 2 + 1/2 dimensional code MASK to optimize the design of double output cavities for the lasertron and the 50 MW klystron under development at SLAC. We discuss design considerations for double output cavities (e.g., optimum choice of voltages and phases, efficiency, wall interception, breakdown). We describe how one calculates the cavity impedance matrix from the gap voltages and phases. Simulation results are compared to experience with the 150 MW klystron.

  2. Theoretical Analysis About Quantum Noise Squeezing of Optical Fields From an Intracavity Frequency-Doubled Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Kuanshou; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    1996-01-01

    The dependence of the quantum fluctuation of the output fundamental and second-harmonic waves upon cavity configuration has been numerically calculated for the intracavity frequency-doubled laser. The results might provide a direct reference for the design of squeezing system through the second-harmonic-generation.

  3. Transmission loss of orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures with cavity absorption.

    PubMed

    Xin, F X; Lu, T J

    2011-04-01

    The transmission loss of sound through infinite orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structures having cavity-filling fibrous sound absorptive materials is theoretically investigated. The propagation of sound across the fibrous material is characterized using an equivalent fluid model, and the motions of the rib-stiffeners are described by including all possible vibrations, i.e., flexural displacements, bending, and torsional rotations. The effects of fluid-structure coupling are account for by enforcing velocity continuity conditions at fluid-panel interfaces. By taking full advantage of the periodic nature of the double-panel, the space-harmonic approach and virtual work principle are applied to solve the sets of resultant governing equations, which are eventually truncated as a finite system of simultaneous algebraic equations and numerically solved insofar as the solution converges. To validate the proposed model, a comparison between the present model predictions and existing numerical and experimental results for a simplified version of the double-panel structure is carried out, with overall agreement achieved. The model is subsequently employed to explore the influence of the fluid-structure coupling between fluid in the cavity and the two panels on sound transmission across the orthogonally rib-stiffened double-panel structure. Obtained results demonstrate that this fluid-structure coupling affects significantly sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies and cannot be ignored when the rib-stiffeners are sparsely distributed. As a highlight of this research, an integrated optimal algorithm toward lightweight, high-stiffness and superior sound insulation capability is proposed, based on which a preliminary optimal design of the double-panel structure is performed.

  4. Applications of Cavity-Enhanced Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossel, Kevin C.; Adler, Florian; Maslowski, Piotr; Ye, Jun

    2010-06-01

    Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) is a unique technique that provides broad bandwidth, high resolution, and ultra-high detection sensitivities. This is accomplished by combining a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb with an enhancement cavity and a broadband, multichannel imaging system. These systems are capable of simultaneously recording many terahertz of spectral bandwidth with sub-gigahertz resolution and absorption sensitivities of 1×10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2. In addition, the ultrashort pulses enable efficient nonlinear processes, which makes it possible to reach spectral regions that are difficult to access with conventional laser sources. We will present an application of CE-DFCS for trace impurity detection in the semiconductor processing gas arsine near 1.8 μm and the development of a high-power, mid-infrared frequency comb for breath analysis in the 2.8-4.8 μm region. M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye. Science 311, 1595-1599 (2006) F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye. Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175-205 (2010) F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye. Opt. Lett. 34, 1330-1332 (2009)

  5. Resonant-frequency discharge in a multi-cell radio frequency cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, S; Upadhyay, J; Mammosser, J; Nikolic, M; Vuskovic, L

    2014-11-07

    We are reporting experimental results on microwave discharge operating at resonant frequency in a multi-cell radio frequency (RF) accelerator cavity. Although the discharge operated at room temperature, the setup was constructed so that it could be used for plasma generation and processing in fully assembled active superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cryomodule (in situ operation). This discharge offers an efficient mechanism for removal of a variety of contaminants, organic or oxide layers, and residual particulates from the interior surface of RF cavities through the interaction of plasma-generated radicals with the cavity walls. We describe resonant RF breakdown conditions and address the problems related to generation and sustaining the multi-cell cavity plasma, which are breakdown and resonant detuning. We have determined breakdown conditions in the cavity, which was acting as a plasma vessel with distorted cylindrical geometry. We discuss the spectroscopic data taken during plasma removal of contaminants and use them to evaluate plasma parameters, characterize the process, and estimate the volatile contaminant product removal.

  6. Design and prototyping of HL-LHC double quarter wave crab cavities for SPS test

    SciTech Connect

    Verdu-Andres, S.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Alberty, L.; Artoos, K.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Carra, F.; Leuxe, R.; Kuder, N.; Zanoni, C.; Li, Z.; Ratti, A.

    2015-05-03

    The LHC high luminosity project envisages the use of the crabbing technique for increasing and levelling the LHC luminosity. Double Quarter Wave (DQW) resonators are compact cavities especially designed to meet the technical and performance requirements for LHC beam crabbing. Two DQW crab cavities are under fabrication and will be tested with beam in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN by 2017. This paper describes the design and prototyping of the DQW crab cavities for the SPS test.

  7. Electron density and collision frequency of microwave resonant cavity produced discharges. [Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    McColl, W.; Brooks, C.; Brake, M.L.

    1992-12-31

    This progress report consists of an article, the abstract of which follows, and apparently the references and vita from a proposal. A review of perturbation diagnostics applied to microwave resonant cavity discharges is presented. The classical microwave perturbation technique examines the shift in the resonant frequency and cavity quality factor of the resonant cavity caused by low electron density discharges. However, modifications presented here allow the analysis to be applied to discharges with electron densities beyond the limit predicted by perturbation theory. An {open_quote}exact{close_quote} perturbation analysis is presented which models the discharge as a separate dielectric, thereby removing the restrictions on electron density imposed by the classical technique. The {open_quote}exact{close_quote} method also uses measurements of the shifts in the resonant conditions of the cavity. Thirdly, an electromagnetic analysis is presented which uses a characteristic equation, based upon Maxwell`s laws, and predicts the discharge conductivity based upon measurements of a complex axial wave number. By allowing the axial wave number of the electromagnetic fields to be complex, the fields are experimentally and theoretically shown to be spatially attenuated. The diagnostics are applied to continuous-wave microwave (2.45 GHz) discharges produced in an Asmussen resonant cavity. Double Langmuir probes, placed directly in the discharge at the point where the radial electric field is zero, act as a comparison with the analytic diagnostics. Microwave powers ranging from 30 to 100 watts produce helium and nitrogen discharges with pressures ranging from 0.5 to 6 torr. Analysis of the data predicts electron temperatures from 5 to 20 eV, electron densities from 10{sup 11} to 3 {times} 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}, and collision frequencies from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 11} sec{sup {minus}1}.

  8. Striped double-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometers using both glass and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosman, David R.; Steinmetz, Lloyd L.; Perry, Stephen J.

    1999-06-01

    We have used piezo-driven Fabry-Perot interferometers in the past for many continuous velocity-time measurements of fast moving surfaces. In order to avoid the annoying drift of some of these devices, we have developed and used inexpensive, solid glass, striped etalons with lengths up to 64 mm. Useable apertures are 35 mm by 80 mm with a finess of 25. A roundabout technique was devised for double cavity operation. We built a passive thermal housing for temperature stability, with tilt and height adjustments. We have also developed and used our first fixed etalon air-spaced cavity with a rotatable glass double-cavity insert. The rotation allows the referee cavity fractional order to be adjusted separately from that of the main cavity. It needs very little thermal protection, and eliminates the need for a roundabout scheme for double cavity operation, but is more costly than the solid glass version. For a cavity with an air length H, glass length T, index n and wavelength (lambda) , the fringe angles are (root)j(lambda) /(H+T/n) where j is the fractional order plus an integer. This means double cavity fringe patterns plotted vs. velocity will cross if both air and glass are part of the system. This crossing, which is an advantage, will not occur for pure glass or pure air systems. The velocity per fringe is given by c(lambda) /4[H+T(n- (lambda) dn/d(lambda) )] where dn/d(lambda) is the derivative of index with respect to wavelengths. This expression therefore includes the effects of dispersion in the glass. Because the angle depends upon T/n and the velocity upon Tn, there is no equivalent air cavity for a given glass cavity. Very high quality glass is preferable to air, since for a given velocity per fringe, the fringe separation is larger for glass cavities, resulting in less finess degradation due to streak camera spatial resolution.

  9. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt

    2014-10-01

    This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank

  10. A kind of magnetron cavity used in rubidium atomic frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyu, Yang; Jingzhong, Cui; Jianhui, Tu; Yaoting, Liang

    2011-12-01

    Research on the magnetron cavity used in the rubidium atomic frequency standards is developed, through which the main characteristic parameters of the magnetron cavity are studied, mainly including the resonant frequency, quality factor and oscillation mode. The resonant frequency and quality factor of the magnetron cavity were calculated, and the test results of the resonant frequency agreed well with the calculation theory. The test results also show that the resonant frequency of the magnetron cavity can be attenuated to 6.835 GHz, which is the resonant frequency of the rubidium atoms, and the Q-factor can be attenuated to 500-1000. The oscillation mode is a typical TE011 mode and is the correct mode needed for the rubidium atomic frequency standard. Therefore these derivative magnetron cavities meet the requirements of the rubidium atomic frequency standards well.

  11. Steady-state mechanical squeezing in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Yang; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We study the physical properties of double-cavity optomechanical system in which the mechanical resonator interacts with one of the coupled cavities and another cavity is used as an auxiliary cavity. The model can be expected to achieve the strong optomechanical coupling strength and overcome the optomechanical cavity decay, simultaneously. Through the coherent auxiliary cavity interferences, the steady-state squeezing of mechanical resonator can be generated in highly unresolved sideband regime. The validity of the scheme is assessed by numerical simulation and theoretical analysis of the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature. The scheme provides a platform for the mechanical squeezing beyond the resolved sideband limit and solves the restricted experimental bounds at present. PMID:27917939

  12. Double Brillouin frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 50 nm tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. F.; Liao, T. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, R. X.; Miao, C. Y.; Tong, Z. R.

    2012-09-01

    A 50 nm tuning range multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) with double Brillouin frequency spacing is presented. Two separated gain blocks with symmetrical architecture, consisted by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Brillouin gain media, are used to generate double Brillouin frequency spacing. The wider tuning range is realized by eliminating the self-lasing cavity modes existing in conventional MWBEFLs because of the absence of the physical mirrors at the ends of the linear cavity. The Brillouin pump (BP) is preamplified by the EDFA before entering the single-mode fiber (SMF), which leads to the reduction of threshold power and the generation enhancement of Brillouin Stokes (BS) signals. Four channels with 0.176 nm spacing are achieved at 2 mW BP power and 280 mW 980 nm pump power which can be tuned from 1525 to 1575 nm.

  13. Frequency stabilization of a diode-laser-pumped CW neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate intracavity-doubled solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carty, Timothy; Honda, Tokuyuki; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    1993-07-01

    A Brewster plate and a KTiOPO4 crystal are placed inside a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 solid-state laser cavity to cause single-frequency oscillation of the 1.06 micron CW transition. The second-harmonic frequency generated by the KTP crystal is locked to an iodine absorption line at room temperature. Difficulties with intracavity frequency doubling and the observation of intensity and frequency hysteresis during cavity length modulation are discussed.

  14. Near-infrared lasers and self-frequency-doubling in Nd:YCOB cladding waveguides.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yingying; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R

    2013-05-06

    A design of cladding waveguides in Nd:YCOB nonlinear crystals is demonstrated in this work. Compact Fabry-Perot oscillation cavities are employed for waveguide laser generation at 1062 nm and self-frequency-doubling at 531 nm, under optical pump at 810 nm. The waveguide laser shows slope efficiency as high as 55% at 1062 nm. The SFD green waveguide laser emits at 531 nm with a maximum power of 100 μW.

  15. Multiphysics Analysis of Frequency Detuning in Superconducting RF Cavities for Proton Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, M. H.; Gonin, I.; Passarelli, D.; Sukanov, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Yakovlev, V.

    2016-01-22

    Multiphysics analyses for superconducting cavities are essential in the course of cavity design to meet stringent requirements on cavity frequency detuning. Superconducting RF cavities are the core accelerating elements in modern particle accelerators whether it is proton or electron machine, as they offer extremely high quality factors thus reducing the RF losses per cavity. However, the superior quality factor comes with the challenge of controlling the resonance frequency of the cavity within few tens of hertz bandwidth. In this paper, we investigate how the multiphysics analysis plays a major role in proactively minimizing sources of frequency detuning, specifically; microphonics and Lorentz Force Detuning (LFD) in the stage of RF design of the cavity and mechanical design of the niobium shell and the helium vessel.

  16. Cryogenic test of double quarter wave crab cavity for the LHC High luminosity upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, B.; Alberty, L.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Cullen, C.; Capatina, O.; Hammons, L.; Li, Z.; Marques, C.; Skaritka, J.; Verdu-Andres, S.; Wu, Q.

    2015-05-03

    A Proof-of-Principle (PoP) Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed and fabricated for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A vertical cryogenic test has been done at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). The cavity achieved 4.5 MV deflecting voltage with a quality factor above 3×109. We report the test results of this design.

  17. Self-determining high-frequency oscillation from an external-cavity laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Émeric; Uy, Chi-Hak; Weicker, Lionel; Virte, Martin; Wolfersberger, Delphine; Sciamanna, Marc

    2016-12-01

    We report on a bifurcation mechanism following which an external-cavity laser diode emits regular oscillating output power at a high frequency. This frequency does not vary with the external-cavity length and it can be adjusted by varying the feedback strength. We observe this phenomenon numerically by investigating the external-cavity modes generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a phase-conjugate optical feedback. Particularly, we explore the effects of both the feedback rate and the time delay induced by the feedback on the frequency of the external-cavity modes. Counterintuitively, we evidence that having a short cavity does not necessarily yield oscillations at higher frequencies. We show that the key parameter in order to generate high-frequency solutions is the feedback rate. This parameter fixes the frequency of the solutions obtained independently of the time delay. We finally relate our observations to Hopf bifurcation phenomena.

  18. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf Gudmundsson, Vidar; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  19. Adiabatic transfer of light in a double cavity and the optical Landau-Zener problem

    SciTech Connect

    Miladinovic, N.; Hasan, F.; Linnington, I. E.; O'Dell, D. H. J.; Chisholm, N.; Hinds, E. A.

    2011-10-15

    We analyze the evolution of an electromagnetic field inside a double cavity when the difference in length between the two cavities is changed, e.g., by translating the common mirror. We find that this allows photons to be moved deterministically from one cavity to the other. We are able to obtain the conditions for adiabatic transfer by first mapping the Maxwell wave equation for the electric field onto a Schroedinger-like wave equation and then using the Landau-Zener result for the transition probability at an avoided crossing. Our analysis reveals that this mapping only rigorously holds when the two cavities are weakly coupled (i.e., in the regime of a highly reflective common mirror) and that, generally speaking, care is required when attempting a Hamiltonian description of cavity electrodynamics with time-dependent boundary conditions.

  20. Frequency stability of maser oscillators operated with cavity Q. [hydrogen and rubidium masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tetu, M.; Tremblay, P.; Lesage, P.; Petit, P.; Audoin, C.

    1982-01-01

    The short term frequency stability of masers equipped with an external feedback loop to increase the cavity quality factor was studied. The frequency stability of a hydrogen and a rubidium maser were measured and compared with theoretical evaluation. It is shown that the frequency stability passes through an optimum when the cavity Q is varied. Long term fluctuations are discussed and the optimum mid term frequency stability achievably by small size active and passive H-masers is considered.

  1. Dynamics of a driven two-level atom coupled to a frequency-tunable cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peng; Swain, S.

    1998-08-01

    A cavity-modified master equation is derived for a coherently driven two-level atom coupled to a single-mode cavity in the bad cavity limit, in which the cavity frequency is tuned to either the center or one of the sidebands of the Mollow triplet. The atomic populations in both the bare- and dressed-state representations are analyzed in terms of the cavity-modified transition rates. In the bare-state basis, the role of the cavity may be interpreted as enhancing the stimulated absorption of the atom while suppressing the stimulated emission. The bare-state population may thus be inverted under appropriate conditions. The dressed-state inversion, however, originates from the enhancement of the atom-cavity interaction when the cavity is resonant with the atomic dressed-state transition. We show that two-phase quadratures of the atomic polarization decay at different rates. The decay of the in-phase (or out-of-phase) quadrature may be greatly inhibited as the driving intensity increases, depending on the cavity resonant frequency. The spectrum of the atomic fluorescence emitted out the side of the cavity is also studied. The spectral profiles are sensitive to the cavity frequency. When the cavity frequency is tuned to the center of the Mollow resonances, the fluorescence spectrum is symmetrical with three peaks whose linewidths and heights are intensity dependent. When the cavity frequency is tuned to one of the Mollow sidebands, however, it is asymmetric, and the central peak and the sideband on resonance with the cavity can be significantly suppressed for strong driving fields. All three spectral lines can be narrowed by increasing the Rabi frequency. The physics of these striking spectral features is explored in the dressed-state basis. We also investigate the probe absorption spectrum. When the cavity frequency is tuned to the center of the Mollow fluorescence triplet, the central component exhibits a Lorentzian line shape, while the side bands show the Rayleigh

  2. A water-filled radio frequency accelerating cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Pogue, E.W.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to study water-filled resonant cavities as a high-energy density source to drive high-current accelerator configurations. Basic considerations lead to the expectation that a dielectric-filled cavity should be able to store up to e/e{sub o} as much energy as a vacuum one with the same dimensions and thus be capable of accelerating a proportionately larger amount of charge before cavity depletion occurs. During this project, we confirmed that water-filled cavities with e/e{sub o} = 60-80 did indeed behave with the expected characteristics, in terms of resonant TM modes and cavity Q. We accomplished this result with numerical cavity eigenvalue codes; fully electromagnetic, two-dimensional, particle-in-cell codes; and, most significantly, with scaled experiments performed in water-filled aluminum cavities. The low-power experiments showed excellent agreement with the numerical results. Simulations of the high-field, high-current mode of operation indicated that charged-particle loss on the dielectric windows, which separate the cavity from the beamline, must be carefully controlled to avoid significant distortion of the axial fields.

  3. Compact, low power radio frequency cavity for femtosecond electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lassise, A; Mutsaers, P H A; Luiten, O J

    2012-04-01

    Reported here is the design, construction, and characterization of a small, power efficient, tunable dielectric filled cavity for the creation of femtosecond electron bunches in an existing electron microscope without the mandatory use of femtosecond lasers. A 3 GHz pillbox cavity operating in the TM(110) mode was specially designed for chopping the beam of a 30 keV scanning electron microscope. The dielectric material used is ZrTiO(4), chosen for the high relative permittivity (ε(r) = 37 at 10 GHz) and low loss tangent (tan δ = 2 × 10(-4)). This allows the cavity radius to be reduced by a factor of six, while the power consumption is reduced by an order of magnitude compared to a vacuum pillbox cavity. These features make this cavity ideal as a module for existing electron microscopes, and an alternative to femtosecond laser systems integrated with electron microscopes.

  4. Compact, low power radio frequency cavity for femtosecond electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lassise, A.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.; Luiten, O. J.

    2012-04-15

    Reported here is the design, construction, and characterization of a small, power efficient, tunable dielectric filled cavity for the creation of femtosecond electron bunches in an existing electron microscope without the mandatory use of femtosecond lasers. A 3 GHz pillbox cavity operating in the TM{sub 110} mode was specially designed for chopping the beam of a 30 keV scanning electron microscope. The dielectric material used is ZrTiO{sub 4}, chosen for the high relative permittivity ({epsilon}{sub r}= 37 at 10 GHz) and low loss tangent (tan {delta}= 2 x 10{sup -4}). This allows the cavity radius to be reduced by a factor of six, while the power consumption is reduced by an order of magnitude compared to a vacuum pillbox cavity. These features make this cavity ideal as a module for existing electron microscopes, and an alternative to femtosecond laser systems integrated with electron microscopes.

  5. Nonlinear frequency mixing in a resonant cavity: numerical simulations in a bubbly liquid.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé; Sinha, Dipen N

    2014-12-01

    The study of nonlinear frequency mixing for acoustic standing waves in a resonator cavity is presented. Two high frequencies are mixed in a highly nonlinear bubbly liquid filled cavity that is resonant at the difference frequency. The analysis is carried out through numerical experiments, and both linear and nonlinear regimes are compared. The results show highly efficient generation of the difference frequency at high excitation amplitude. The large acoustic nonlinearity of the bubbly liquid that is responsible for the strong difference-frequency resonance also induces significant enhancement of the parametric frequency mixing effect to generate second harmonic of the difference frequency.

  6. Response of a store with tunable natural frequencies in compressible cavity flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya M.; Beresh, Steven J.; Hunter, Patrick S.; Spillers, Russell W.; Henfling, John F.

    2016-05-20

    Fluid–structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage were experimentally explored at Mach 0.58–1.47 using a generic, aerodynamic store installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of seven. The store vibrated in response to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionally dependent response to cavity resonance frequencies. Cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas the spanwise response to cavity tones was much more limited. Increased surface area associated with tail fins raised vibration levels. The store had interchangeable components to vary its natural frequencies by about 10–300 Hz. By tuning natural frequencies, mode-matched cases were explored where a prominent cavity tone frequency matched a structural natural frequency of the store. Mode matching in the streamwise and wall-normal directions produced substantial increases in peak store vibrations, though the response of the store remained linear with dynamic pressure. Near mode-matched frequencies, changes in cavity tone frequencies of only 1% altered store peak vibrations by as much as a factor of two. In conclusion, mode matching in the spanwise direction did little to increase vibrations.

  7. Response of a store with tunable natural frequencies in compressible cavity flow

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya M.; Beresh, Steven J.; ...

    2016-05-20

    Fluid–structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage were experimentally explored at Mach 0.58–1.47 using a generic, aerodynamic store installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of seven. The store vibrated in response to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionally dependent response to cavity resonance frequencies. Cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas the spanwise response to cavity tones was much more limited. Increased surface area associated with tail fins raised vibration levels. The store had interchangeable components to vary its natural frequencies bymore » about 10–300 Hz. By tuning natural frequencies, mode-matched cases were explored where a prominent cavity tone frequency matched a structural natural frequency of the store. Mode matching in the streamwise and wall-normal directions produced substantial increases in peak store vibrations, though the response of the store remained linear with dynamic pressure. Near mode-matched frequencies, changes in cavity tone frequencies of only 1% altered store peak vibrations by as much as a factor of two. In conclusion, mode matching in the spanwise direction did little to increase vibrations.« less

  8. Higher order mode filter design for double quarter wave crab cavity for the LHC high luminosity upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, B.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burt, G.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Hall, B.; Jones, T.; Skaritka, J.; Verdu-Andres, S.; Wu, Q.

    2015-05-03

    A Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity (DQWCC) was designed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. A compact Higher Order Mode (HOM) filter with wide stop band at the deflecting mode is developed for this cavity. Multiphysics finite element simulation results are presented. The integration of this design to the cavity cryomodule is described.

  9. Frequency selection mechanisms in the flow of a laminar boundary layer over a shallow cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, Ubaid Ali; Schmid, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the flow over shallow cavities as a representative configuration for modeling small surface irregularities in wall-bounded shear flows. Due to the globally stable nature of the flow, we perform a frequency response analysis, which shows a significant potential for the amplification of disturbance kinetic energy by harmonic forcing within a certain frequency band. Shorter and more shallow cavities exhibit less amplified responses, while energy from the base flow can be extracted predominantly from forcing that impacts the cavity head on. A structural sensitivity analysis, combined with a componentwise decomposition of the sensitivity tensor, reveals the regions of the flow that act most effectively as amplifiers. We find that the flow inside the cavity plays a negligible role, whereas boundary layer modifications immediately upstream and downstream of the cavity edges contribute significantly to the frequency response. The same regions constitute preferred locations for implementing active or passive control strategies to manipulate the frequency response of the flow.

  10. Self-Frequency-Doubling Glass-Fiber Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selker, Mark D.; Dallas, Joseph L.

    1993-01-01

    Specially prepared germanium and phosphorous-doped glass optical fiber doped with neodymium shown to act as self-frequency-doubling laser. Self-frequency-doubling fiber laser with further refinements, eliminates need for expensive, easily damaged, nonlinear crystals currently used. Enables one to avoid loss and damage mechanisms associated with interfaces of nonlinear crystals as well as to eliminate angle/temperature phase-matching tuning.

  11. Spatial frequency doubling - Retinal or central. [visual illusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W.; Felton, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    When a wide field is sinusoidally modulated both in space and in time, the spatial frequency of the pattern will appear doubled at high rates of modulation. Kelly (1966) proposed that this illusion is due to temporal integration of the nonlinear brightness response of the visual system. The anatomical locus of this temporal integrator is uncertain, and could be subcortical. Results indicate that spatial frequency doubling follows binocular disparity detection and is thus a cortical phenomenon.

  12. Compact two wavelength Brillouin fiber laser sensor with double Brillouin frequency spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Mingjiang; Zhang, Jianzhong; Han, Hong; Yi, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-12-01

    A compact two wavelength Brillouin fiber laser (BFL) sensor with double Brillouin frequency spacing is proposed and demonstrated. In the experiment, 20 m polarization maintaining fiber is used as the sensing element and Brillouin gain medium. This short cavity configuration not only guarantees single longitudinal mode operation of two Stokes wavelengths, but also can effectively reduce external perturbations, complexity and noise of BFL in the absence of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in intra-cavity. In experiment, about 2 MHz/°C sensitivity of beat frequency between the pump and the 2nd-order Stokes wavelength keep in good agreement with the theoretical value. Meanwhile, 0.2 °C temperature stability and  ±0.1 dB power fluctuation are better than the traditional structure. The system is simple and stable, making it convenient for more applications.

  13. Three-dimensional self-consistent simulations of multipacting in superconducting radio frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Chet Nieter

    2010-12-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities are a popular choice among researchers designing new accelerators because of the reduced power losses due to surface resistance. However, SRF cavities still have unresolved problems, including the loss of power to stray electrons. Sources of these electrons are field emission from the walls and ionization of background gas, but the predominant source is secondary emission yield (SEY) from electron impact. When the electron motion is in resonance with the cavity fields the electrons strike the cavity surface repeatedly creating a resonant build up of electrons referred to as multipacting. Cavity shaping has successfully reduced multipacting for cavities used in very high energy accelerators. However, multipacting is still a concern for the cavity power couplers, where shaping is not possible, and for cavities used to accelerate particles at moderate velocities. This Phase II project built upon existing models in the VORPAL simulation framework to allow for simulations of multipacting behavior in SRF cavities and their associated structures. The technical work involved allowed existing models of secondary electron generation to work with the complex boundary conditions needed to model the cavity structures. The types of data produced by VORPAL were also expanded to include data common used by cavity designers to evaluate cavity performance. Post-processing tools were also modified to provide information directly related to the conditions that produce multipacting. These new methods were demonstrated by running simulations of a cavity design being developed by researchers at Jefferson National Laboratory to attempt to identify the multipacting that would be an issue for the cavity design being considered. These simulations demonstrate that VORPAL now has the capabilities to assist researchers working with SRF cavities to understand and identify possible multipacting issues with their cavity designs.

  14. Qualification of niobium materials for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications: View of a condensed matter physicist

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.

    2015-12-04

    We address the issue of qualifications of the niobium materials to be used for superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity fabrications, from the point of view of a condensed matter physicist/materials scientist. We focus on the particular materials properties of niobium required for the functioning a SCRF cavity, and how to optimize the same properties for the best SCRF cavity performance in a reproducible manner. In this way the niobium materials will not necessarily be characterized by their purity alone, but in terms of those materials properties, which will define the limit of the SCRF cavity performance and also other related material properties, which will help to sustain this best SCRF cavity performance. Furthermore we point out the need of standardization of the post fabrication processing of the niobium-SCRF cavities, which does not impair the optimized superconducting and thermal properties of the starting niobium-materials required for the reproducible performance of the SCRF cavities according to the design values.

  15. Thermal Noise Limit in Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with t.he direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency- reference cavity of order 1 Hz/square root Hz(0.01 Hz/square root Hz) at 10 mHz (100 Hz) at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results.

  16. Thermal Noise Limit in Frequency Stabilization of Lasers with Rigid Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Kemery, Amy; Camp, Jordan

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated thermal noise (Brownian motion) in a rigid reference cavity Used for frequency stabilization of lasers, based on the mechanical loss of cavity materials and the numerical analysis of the mirror-spacer mechanics with the direct application of the fluctuation dissipation theorem. This noise sets a fundamental limit for the frequency stability achieved with a rigid frequency-reference cavity of order 1 Hz/rtHz at 10mHz at room temperature. This level coincides with the world-highest level stabilization results.

  17. Nonlinear Cavity and Frequency Comb Radiations Induced by Negative Frequency Field Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourés, Cristian Redondo; Faccio, Daniele; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Optical Kerr frequency combs (KFCs) are an increasingly important optical metrology tool with applications ranging from ultraprecise spectroscopy to time keeping. KFCs may be generated in compact resonators with extremely high quality factors. Here, we show that the same features that lead to high quality frequency combs in these resonators also lead to an enhancement of nonlinear emissions that may be identified as originating from the presence of a negative frequency (NF) component in the optical spectrum. While the negative frequency component of the spectrum is naturally always present in the real-valued optical field, it is not included in the principal theoretical model used to model nonlinear cavities, i.e., the Lugiato-Lefever equation. We therefore extend these equations in order to include the contribution of NF components and show that the predicted emissions may be studied analytically, in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations. These results are of importance for a variety of fields, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, mode-locked lasers, nonlinear plasmonics, and polaritonics.

  18. Nonlinear Cavity and Frequency Comb Radiations Induced by Negative Frequency Field Effects.

    PubMed

    Lourés, Cristian Redondo; Faccio, Daniele; Biancalana, Fabio

    2015-11-06

    Optical Kerr frequency combs (KFCs) are an increasingly important optical metrology tool with applications ranging from ultraprecise spectroscopy to time keeping. KFCs may be generated in compact resonators with extremely high quality factors. Here, we show that the same features that lead to high quality frequency combs in these resonators also lead to an enhancement of nonlinear emissions that may be identified as originating from the presence of a negative frequency (NF) component in the optical spectrum. While the negative frequency component of the spectrum is naturally always present in the real-valued optical field, it is not included in the principal theoretical model used to model nonlinear cavities, i.e., the Lugiato-Lefever equation. We therefore extend these equations in order to include the contribution of NF components and show that the predicted emissions may be studied analytically, in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations. These results are of importance for a variety of fields, such as Bose-Einstein condensates, mode-locked lasers, nonlinear plasmonics, and polaritonics.

  19. Quantum dots lasers dynamics under the influence of double cavity external feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, S. S.; Oloinic, T.; Tronciu, V. Z.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports results on investigations of the dynamical behavior of a semiconductor laser with quantum dots active medium under the influence of a feedback from double external cavity. This configuration is treated in the framework of Lang-Kobayashi equations. The locus of external cavity modes is found to be elliptic, as in case of conventional optical feedback, but also represents different shapes, even with possible satellite bubbles. A bifurcation analysis is carried out revealing the points of saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations. Finally, the nature of bifurcations and the stability of steady state solutions are analyzed in dependence on different parameters.

  20. Tunable two-photon correlation in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi

    2015-12-15

    Correlated photons are essential sources for quantum information processing. We propose a practical scheme to generate pairs of correlated photons in a controllable fashion from a double-cavity optomechanical system, where the variable optomechanical coupling strength makes it possible to tune the photon correlation at our will. The key operation is based on the repulsive or attractive interaction between the two photons intermediated by the mechanical resonator. The present protocol could provide a potential approach to coherent control of the photon correlation using the optomechanical cavity.

  1. QED in a time-dependent double cavity and creation of entanglement between noninteracting atoms via quantum eraser technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cirone, Markus A.; Rzazewski, Kazimierz

    1999-03-11

    We discuss two striking features of quantum mechanics: The concepts of vacuum and of entanglement. We first study the radiation field inside a double cavity (a cavity which contains a reflecting mirror). If the mirror is rapidly removed, peculiar quantum phenomena, such as photon creation from vacuum and squeezing, occur. We discuss then a gedanken experiment which employs the double cavity to create entanglement between two atoms. The atoms cross the double cavity and interact with its two independent radiation fields. After the atoms leave the cavity, the mirror is suddenly removed. Measurement of the radiation field inside the cavity can give rise to entanglement between the atoms. The method can be extended to an arbitrary number of atoms, providing thus an N-particle GHZ state.

  2. Design and test of the microwave cavity in an optically-pumped Rubidium beam frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Yan-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a compact rubidium atomic beam frequency standard with optical pumping and detection. The cavity for microwave interrogation is an important part of the clock. The cavity in our design is a Ramsey-type, E-bend one, which is the same as the conventional method in most cesium beam clocks. Requirements for the design are proposed based on the frequency shift associated with the cavity. The basic structure of the cavity is given by theoretical analysis and detailed dimensions are determined by means of electromagnetic field simulation with the help of commercial software. The cavity is manufactured and fabricated successfully. The preliminary test result of the cavity is given, which is in good agreement with the simulation. The resonant frequency is 6.835 GHz, equal to the clock transition frequency of 87Rb, and the loaded quality factor is 500. These values are adjustable with posts outside the cavity. Estimations on the Ramsey line width and several frequency shifts are made. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174015).

  3. Response of a store with tunable natural frequencies in compressible cavity flow

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Justin L.; Casper, Katya Marie; Beresh, Steven J.; ...

    2015-01-07

    Fluid-structure interactions that occur during aircraft internal store carriage were experimentally explored at Mach 0.94 and 1.47 using a generic, aerodynamic store installed in a rectangular cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of 7. Similar to previous studies using a cylindrical store, the aerodynamic store responded to the cavity flow at its natural structural frequencies, and it exhibited a directionally dependent response to cavity resonance. Moreover, cavity tones excited the store in the streamwise and wall-normal directions consistently, whereas the spanwise response was much more limited.

  4. A high power, continuous-wave, single-frequency fiber amplifier at 1091 nm and frequency doubling to 545.5 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stappel, M.; Steinborn, R.; Kolbe, D.; Walz, J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a high power single-frequency ytterbium fiber amplifier system with an output power of 30 W at 1091 nm. The amplifier system consists of two stages, a preamplifier stage in which amplified spontaneous emission is efficiently suppressed (>40 dB) and a high power amplifier with an efficiency of 52%. Two different approaches to frequency doubling are compared. We achieve 8.6 W at 545.5 nm by single-pass frequency doubling in a MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystal and up to 19.3 W at 545.5 nm by frequency doubling with a lithium-triborate crystal in an external enhancement cavity.

  5. Coherent Phonon Rabi Oscillations with a High-Frequency Carbon Nanotube Phonon Cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Kong, Wei-Cheng; Deng, Guang-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guang-Can; Nori, Franco; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-02-08

    Phonon-cavity electromechanics allows the manipulation of mechanical oscillations similar to photon-cavity systems. Many advances on this subject have been achieved in various materials. In addition, the coherent phonon transfer (phonon Rabi oscillations) between the phonon cavity mode and another oscillation mode has attracted many interest in nanoscience. Here, we demonstrate coherent phonon transfer in a carbon nanotube phonon-cavity system with two mechanical modes exhibiting strong dynamical coupling. The gate-tunable phonon oscillation modes are manipulated and detected by extending the red-detuned pump idea of photonic cavity electromechanics. The first- and second-order coherent phonon transfers are observed with Rabi frequencies 591 and 125 kHz, respectively. The frequency quality factor product fQm ∼ 2 × 10(12) Hz achieved here is larger than kBTbase/h, which may enable the future realization of Rabi oscillations in the quantum regime.

  6. Frequency doubling of copper lasers using temperature-tuned ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Molander, W.A.

    1994-03-01

    The ability to generate high average power uv at 255 nm by frequency doubling the green line (510.6 nm) of copper lasers would greatly extend the utility of copper lasers. Material processing and microlithography are two areas of interest. The frequency-doubled copper laser could replace the KrF excimer laser, which has a similar wavelength (248 nm), in some applications. The frequency-doubled copper laser has a narrow linewidth and excellent beam quality at a competitive cost. Other attractive features are high reliability, low operating costs, and the absence of toxic gases. This paper will report recent progress in high-efficiency, high-average-power harmonic generation of the copper laser green line using noncritical phase matching in ADP. Frequency doubling of the yellow line (578.2 nm) and sum-frequency mixing of the two lines are also of interest. These processes, however, cannot be phase-matched in ADP and, therefore, will not be discussed here. The results reported and the issues identified here would be important in these other processes and also in many other frequency conversion schemes in the uv such as 4{omega} conversion of Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers.

  7. Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity Field Profile Analysis and Higher Order Mode Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Carlos; Xiao, B. P.; Belomestnykh, S.

    2014-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is underway for a major upgrade to increase its luminosity by an order of magnitude beyond its original design specifications. This novel machine configuration known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will rely on various innovative technologies including very compact and ultra-precise superconducting crab cavities for beam rotation. A double quarter wave crab cavity (DQWCC) has been designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the HL-LHC. This cavity as well as the structural support components were fabricated and assembled at Niowave. The field profile of the crabbing mode for the DQWCC was investigated using a phase shift bead pulling technique and compared with simulated results to ensure proper operation or discover discrepancies from modeled results and/or variation in fabrication tolerances. Higher-Order Mode (HOM) characterization was also performed and correlated with simulations.

  8. Hyperparallel optical quantum computation assisted by atomic ensembles embedded in double-sided optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-08-01

    We propose an effective, scalable, hyperparallel photonic quantum computation scheme in which photonic qubits are hyperencoded both in the spatial degrees of freedom (DOF) and the polarization DOF of each photon. The deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-cnot) gate on a two-photon system is attainable with our interesting interface between the polarized photon and the collective spin wave (magnon) of an atomic ensemble embedded in a double-sided optical cavity, and it doubles the operations in the conventional quantum cnot gate. Moreover, we present a compact hyper-cnotN gate on N +1 hyperencoded photons with only two auxiliary cavity-magnon systems, not more, and it can be faithfully constituted with current experimental techniques. Our proposal enables various applications with the hyperencoded photons in quantum computing and quantum networks.

  9. Double-diffusive natural convection in a fluid saturated porous cavity with a freely convecting wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nithiarasu, P.; Sundararajan, T.; Seetharamu, K.N.

    1997-12-01

    Double-diffusive natural convection in fluid saturated porous medium has been investigated using a generalized porous medium model. One of the vertical walls of the porous cavity considered is subjected to convective heat and mass transfer conditions. The results show that the flow, heat and mass transfer become sensitive to applied mass transfer coefficient in both the Darcy and non-Darcy flow regimes. It is also observed that the Sherwood number approaches a constant value as the solutal Biot number increases. Double-diffusive natural convection in fluid saturated porous medium is encountered in applications such as food processing, contaminant transport in ground water, and others.

  10. Laser cooling of beryllium ions using a frequency-doubled 626 nm diode laser.

    PubMed

    Cozijn, F M J; Biesheuvel, J; Flores, A S; Ubachs, W; Blume, G; Wicht, A; Paschke, K; Erbert, G; Koelemeij, J C J

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate laser cooling of trapped beryllium ions at 313 nm using a frequency-doubled extended cavity diode laser operated at 626 nm, obtained by cooling a ridge waveguide diode laser chip to -31°C. Up to 32 mW of narrowband 626 nm laser radiation is obtained. After passage through an optical isolator and beam shaping optics, 14 mW of 626 nm power remains of which 70% is coupled into an external enhancement cavity containing a nonlinear crystal for second-harmonic generation. We produce up to 35 μW of 313 nm radiation, which is subsequently used to laser cool and detect 6×10(2) beryllium ions, stored in a linear Paul trap, to a temperature of about 10 mK, as evidenced by the formation of Coulomb crystals. Our setup offers a simple and affordable alternative for Doppler cooling, optical pumping, and detection to presently used laser systems.

  11. Steady flows in rotating spherical cavity excited by multi-frequency oscillations of free inner core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Victor G.; Kozlov, Nikolai V.; Subbotin, Stanislav V.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid motion in a rotating spherical cavity in the conditions of resonant oscillations of free inner core is experimentally investigated. The centrifugal force retains a solid core with density less than the fluid density near the center of the cavity. In the absence of external force field the system "solid core - liquid" performs solid body rotation. The oscillations of the core are excited by an external oscillating force field and this results in differential rotation of the core with respect to the cavity. The direction of rotation is determined by the ratio of the oscillation frequency to the cavity angular velocity. The core oscillations with the radian frequency, which exceeds the cavity angular velocity, are investigated. It is found that a steady flow in the form of a system of nested fluid columns of circular cross section, which rotate at different angular velocities, is generated in the cavity as a result of oscillations of the core and the fluid. It is shown that at simultaneous influence of several oscillating fields the resulting steady flow is determined by a linear superposition of the flows, which are excited by the oscillations of the inner core with different frequencies. At a certain ratio of the vibration frequency to the rotation one the transformation of the circular shape of the column into the elliptical one is observed.

  12. Observation of frequency doubling in tantalum doped silica fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, T. J.; Lawandy, N. M.; Killian, A.; Rienhart, L.; Morse, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Second harmonic conversion efficients of 3 x 0,0001 in tantalum-doped silica fibers prepared by the seeding technique are reported. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the frequency doubling in this fiber and to compare the results to the behavior observed in germanosilicate and rare earth-doped aluminosilicate fibers.

  13. Experimental observation of coherent cavity soliton frequency combs in silica microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Karen E.; Erkintalo, Miro; Coen, Stéphane; Murdoch, Stuart G.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the experimental observation of coherent cavity soliton frequency combs in silica microspheres. Specifically, we demonstrate that careful alignment of the microsphere relative to the coupling fiber taper allows for the suppression of higher-order spatial modes, reducing mode interactions and enabling soliton formation. Our measurements show that the temporal cavity solitons have sub-100-fs durations, exhibit considerable Raman self-frequency shift, and generally come in groups of three or four, occasionally with equidistant spacing in the time domain. RF amplitude noise measurements and spectral interferometry confirm the high coherence of the observed soliton frequency combs, and numerical simulations show good agreement with experiments.

  14. Frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from a spherical cavity transducer with open ends

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Faqi; Zeng, Deping; He, Min; Wang, Zhibiao E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Song, Dan; Lei, Guangrong; Lin, Zhou; Zhang, Dong E-mail: wangzhibiao@haifu.com.cn; Wu, Junru

    2015-12-15

    Resolution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focusing is limited by the wave diffraction. We have developed a spherical cavity transducer with two open ends to improve the focusing precision without sacrificing the acoustic intensity (App Phys Lett 2013; 102: 204102). This work aims to theoretically and experimentally investigate the frequency dependence of the acoustic field generated from the spherical cavity transducer with two open ends. The device emits high intensity ultrasound at the frequency ranging from 420 to 470 kHz, and the acoustic field is measured by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The measured results shows that the spherical cavity transducer provides high acoustic intensity for HIFU treatment only in its resonant modes, and a series of resonant frequencies can be choosen. Furthermore, a finite element model is developed to discuss the frequency dependence of the acoustic field. The numerical simulations coincide well with the measured results.

  15. Broadband electron spin resonance at low frequency without resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Z.; Suh, B.; Corti, M.; Cattaneo, L.; Hajny, D.; Borsa, F.; Luban, M.

    2008-04-09

    We have developed a nonconventional broadband electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer operating continuously in the frequency range from 0.5 to 9 GHz. Dual antenna structure and the microwave absorbing environment differentiate the setup from the conventional one and enable broadband operation with any combination of frequency or magnetic field modulation and frequency or magnetic field sweeping. Its performance has been tested with the measurements on a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) sample and with the measurements on the single molecular magnet, V6, in solid state at low temperature.

  16. Laser nitriding for niobium superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilraja Singaravelu, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Michael Kelley

    2010-10-01

    Particle accelerators are a key tool for scientific research ranging from fundamental studies of matter to analytical studies at light sources. Cost-forperformance is critical, both in terms of initial capital outlay and ongoing operating expense, especially for electricity. It depends on the niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities at the heart of most of these machines. Presently Nb SRF cavities operate near 1.9 K, well (and expensively) below the 4.2 K atmospheric boiling point of liquid He. Transforming the 40 nm thick active interior surface layer from Nb to delta NbN (Tc = 17 K instead of 9.2 K) appears to be a promising approach. Traditional furnace nitriding appears to have not been successful for this. Further, exposing a complete SRF cavity to the time-temperature history required for nitriding risks mechanical distortion. Gas laser nitriding instead has been applied successfully to other metals [P.Schaaf, Prog. Mat. Sci. 47 (2002) 1]. The beam dimensions and thermal diffusion length permit modeling in one dimension to predict the time course of the surface temperature for a range of per-pulse energy densities. As with the earlier work, we chose conditions just sufficient for boiling as a reference point. We used a Spectra Physics HIPPO nanosecond laser (l = 1064 nm, Emax= 0.392 mJ, beam spot@ 34 microns, PRF =15 – 30 kHz) to obtain an incident fluence of 1.73 - 2.15 J/cm2 for each laser pulse at the target. The target was a 50 mm diameter SRF-grade Nb disk maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 550 – 625 torr and rotated at a constant speed of 9 rpm. The materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images show a sharp transition with fluence from a smooth, undulating topography to significant roughening, interpreted here as the onset of ablation. EPMA measurements of N/Nb atom ratio as a function of depth found a constant

  17. Adaptive frequency comb illumination for interferometry in the case of nested two-beam cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, Irina; Leuchs, Gerd; Mantel, Klaus; Schwider, Johannes

    2011-09-01

    The homogeneity test of glass plates in a Fizeau interferometer is hampered by the superposition of multiple interference signals coming from the surfaces of the glass plate as well as the empty Fizeau cavity. To evaluate interferograms resulting from such nested cavities, various approaches such as the use of broadband light sources have been applied. In this paper, we propose an adaptive frequency comb interferometer to accomplish the cavity selection. An adjustable Fabry-Perot resonator is used to generate a variable frequency comb that can be matched to the length of the desired cavity. Owing to its flexibility, the number of measurements needed for the homogeneity test can be reduced to four. Furthermore, compared to approaches using a two-beam interferometer as a filter for the broadband light source, the visibility of the fringe system is considerably higher if a Fabry-Perot filter is applied.

  18. Two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy in off-axis cavity.

    PubMed

    Malara, P; Witinski, M F; Gagliardi, G; De Natale, P

    2013-11-15

    As opposed to a conventional optical resonator, an off-axis-aligned cavity is able to transmit without distortion radiation modulated at a frequency even far above the cavity bandpass. This allows us to implement a simple spectroscopic technique that combines the cavity path-length enhancement of integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) and the noise reduction associated with radio-frequency modulation (FM). An FM-ICOS spectrometer is demonstrated for the first time using a two-tone modulation technique. The performance is compared to the traditional ICOS by examining the acetylene absorption at 1543.77 nm. A signal-to-noise ratio improvement by a factor 3.5 is found with our proof-of-concept setup. Larger improvements are expected in a more optimized setup.

  19. Frequency response enhancement in integrated coupled-cavity DBR lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Alford, Charles Fred; Skogen, Erik J.; Chow, Weng Wah; Cajas, Florante G.; Overberg, Mark E.; Torres, David L.; Yang, Zhenshan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2010-11-01

    We present a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) composed of two strongly coupled lasers. This PIC utilizes the dynamics of mutual injection locking to increase the relaxation resonance frequency from 3 GHz to beyond 30 GHz.

  20. Diode-Pumped, Q-Switched, Frequency-Doubling Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental Q-switched, diode-pumped, intracavity-frequency-doubling laser generates pulses of radiation at wavelength of 532 nm from excitation at 810 nm. Principal innovative feature distinguishing laser from others of its type: pulsed operation of laser at pulse-repetition frequencies higher than reported previously. Folded resonator keeps most of second-harmonic radiation away from Q-switcher, laser crystal, and laser diodes. Folding mirror highly reflective at fundamental laser wavelength and highly transmissive at second-harmonic laser wavelength. By virtue of difference of about 0.6 percent between reflectivities in two polarizations at fundamental wavelength, folding mirror favors polarized oscillation at fundamental wavelength. This characteristic desirable for doubling of frequency in some intracavity crystals.

  1. Frequency-selection mechanism in incompressible open-cavity flows via reflected instability waves.

    PubMed

    Tuerke, F; Sciamarella, D; Pastur, L R; Lusseyran, F; Artana, G

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative perspective on nonharmonic mode coexistence, commonly found in the shear layer spectrum of open-cavity flows. Modes obtained by a local linear stability analysis of perturbations to a two-dimensional, incompressible, and inviscid sheared flow over a cavity of finite length and depth were conditioned by a so-called coincidence condition first proposed by Kulikowskii [J. Appl. Math. Mech. 30, 180 (1966)] which takes into account instability wave reflection within the cavity. The analysis yields a set of discrete, nonharmonic frequencies, which compare well with experimental results [Phys. Fluids 20, 114101 (2008); Exp. Fluids 50, 905 (2010)].

  2. Frequency characterization of a swept- and fixed-wavelength external-cavity quantum cascade laser by use of a frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Kevin; Williams, Paul A; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Armacost, Chris M; Crivello, Sam; Radunsky, Michael B; Newbury, Nathan R

    2012-05-21

    The instantaneous optical frequency of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser (QCL) is characterized by comparison to a near-infrared frequency comb. Fluctuations in the instantaneous optical frequency are analyzed to determine the frequency-noise power spectral density for the external-cavity QCL both during fixed-wavelength and swept-wavelength operation. The noise performance of a near-infrared external-cavity diode laser is measured for comparison. In addition to providing basic frequency metrology of external-cavity QCLs, this comb-calibrated swept QCL system can be applied to rapid, precise broadband spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectral region.

  3. Role of thermal resistance on the performance of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2017-03-01

    Thermal stability is an important parameter for the operation of the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in particle accelerators. The rf power dissipated on the inner surface of the cavities is conducted to the helium bath cooling the outer cavity surface and the equilibrium temperature of the inner surface depends on the thermal resistance. In this manuscript, we present the results of direct measurements of thermal resistance on 1.3 GHz single cell SRF cavities made from high purity large-grain and fine-grain niobium as well as their rf performance for different treatments applied to outer cavity surface in order to investigate the role of the Kapitza resistance to the overall thermal resistance and to the SRF cavity performance. The results show no significant impact of the thermal resistance to the SRF cavity performance after chemical polishing, mechanical polishing or anodization of the outer cavity surface. Temperature maps taken during the rf test show nonuniform heating of the surface at medium rf fields. Calculations of Q0(Bp) curves using the thermal feedback model show good agreement with experimental data at 2 and 1.8 K when a pair-braking term is included in the calculation of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer surface resistance. These results indicate local intrinsic nonlinearities of the surface resistance, rather than purely thermal effects, to be the main cause for the observed field dependence of Q0(Bp) .

  4. Development of Ultra High Gradient and High Q{sub 0} Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Rongli; Clemens, William A.; Follkie, James E.; Harris, Teena M.; Kushnick, Peter W.; Machie, Danny; Martin, Robert E.; Palczewski, Ari D.; Perry, Era A.; Slack, Gary L.; Williams, R. S.; Adolphsen, C.; Li, Z.; Hao, J. K.; Li, Y. M.; Liu, K. X.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the recent progress at Jefferson Lab in developing ultra high gradient and high Q{sub 0} superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for future SRF based machines. A new 1300 MHz 9-cell prototype cavity is being fabricated. This cavity has an optimized shape in terms of the ratio of the peak surface field (both magnetic and electric) to the acceleration gradient, hence the name low surface field (LSF) shape. The goal of the effort is to demonstrate an acceleration gradient of 50 MV/m with Q{sub 0} of 10{sup 10} at 2 K in a 9-cell SRF cavity. Fine-grain niobium material is used. Conventional forming, machining and electron beam welding method are used for cavity fabrication. New techniques are adopted to ensure repeatable, accurate and inexpensive fabrication of components and the full assembly. The completed cavity is to be first mechanically polished to a mirror-finish, a newly acquired in-house capability at JLab, followed by the proven ILC-style processing recipe established already at JLab. In parallel, new single-cell cavities made from large-grain niobium material are made to further advance the cavity treatment and processing procedures, aiming for the demonstration of an acceleration gradient of 50 MV/m with Q{sub 0} of 2-10{sup 10} at 2K.

  5. Out-of-plane nanomechanical tuning of double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Akkipeddi, Ramam

    2013-06-15

    We demonstrate tuning of double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities by their out-of-plane nanomechanical deformations. The coupled cavities are pulled by the vertical electrostatic force generated by the potential difference between the device layer and the handle layer in a silicon-on-insulator chip, and the induced deformations are analyzed by the finite element method. Applied with a voltage of 12 V, the cavities obtain a redshift of 0.0405 nm (twice the linewidth) for their second-order odd resonance mode and a blueshift of 0.0635 nm (three times the linewidth) for their second-order even resonance mode, which are mainly attributed to out-of-plane relative displacement. Out-of-plane tuning of coupled cavities does not need actuators and corresponding circuits; thus the device is succinct and compact. This working principle can be potentially applied in chip-level optoelectronic devices, such as sensors, switches, routers, and tunable filters.

  6. High Quality Plasmonic Sensors Based on Fano Resonances Created through Cascading Double Asymmetric Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangao; Shao, Mingzhen; Zeng, Xiaoqi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a type of compact nanosensor based on a metal-insulator-metal structure is proposed and investigated through cascading double asymmetric cavities, in which their metal cores shift along different axis directions. The cascaded asymmetric structure exhibits high transmission and sharp Fano resonance peaks via strengthening the mutual coupling of the cavities. The research results show that with the increase of the symmetry breaking in the structure, the number of Fano resonances increase accordingly. Furthermore, by modulating the geometrical parameters appropriately, Fano resonances with high sensitivities to the changes in refractive index can be realized. A maximum figure of merit (FoM) value of 74.3 is obtained. Considerable applications for this work can be found in bio/chemical sensors with excellent performance and other nanophotonic integrated circuit devices such as optical filters, switches and modulators. PMID:27763539

  7. Radio frequency accelerating cavity having slotted irises for damping certain electromagnetic modes

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    An accelerating cavity having one or more iris structures mounted therein for strongly damping unwanted frequencies that are generated in the cavity by bunches of particles in a particle beam that is accelerated through the cavity during its operation. Each of the iris structures is characterized by containing a plurality of radial slots therein that extend from the central aperture through the iris member to the perimeter thereof. The outer end of each of the radial slots includes an enlarged portion that is effective to prevent undesired frequencies from being reflected back into the center aperture of the iris member. Waveguide means connect the outer ends of the radial slots to frequency damping means or to a dump or dumps.

  8. Cryogenic monocrystalline silicon Fabry-Perot cavity for the stabilization of laser frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, J.-P.; Hamilton, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    A 1.6 kg silicon monocrystal was used to make a Fabry-Perot optical cavity operated at cryogenic temperatures. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements were made as the silicon cooled to 4.2 K, in order to characterize the cavity as a length reference standard. A helium-neon laser was then locked to a transmission resonance at liquid-helium temperatures, and the laser frequency tracked the cavity resonance with error fluctuations at the level of 10 Hz/sq rt Hz in the bandwidth dc to 1 Hz. Implications of the combined set of data, thermal expansion plus frequency-tracking fluctuations, for using such a system as a frequency standard are discussed.

  9. Radio frequency accelerating cavity having slotted irises for damping certain electromagnetic modes

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, R.B.

    1991-05-21

    An accelerating cavity is disclosed having one or more iris structures mounted therein for strongly damping unwanted frequencies that are generated in the cavity by bunches of particles in a particle beam that is accelerated through the cavity during its operation. Each of the iris structures is characterized by containing a plurality of radial slots therein that extend from the central aperture through the iris member to the perimeter thereof. The outer end of each of the radial slots includes an enlarged portion that is effective to prevent undesired frequencies from being reflected back into the center aperture of the iris member. Waveguide means connect the outer ends of the radial slots to frequency damping means or to a dump or dumps. 17 figures.

  10. a New Broadband Cavity Enhanced Frequency Comb Spectroscopy Technique Using GHz Vernier Filtering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morville, Jérôme; Rutkowski, Lucile; Dobrev, Georgi; Crozet, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    We present a new approach to Cavity Enhanced - Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy where the full emission bandwidth of a Titanium:Sapphire laser is exploited at GHz resolution. The technique is based on a low-resolution Vernier filtering obtained with an appreciable -actively stabilized- mismatch between the cavity Free Spectral Range and the laser repetition rate, using a diffraction grating and a split-photodiode. This particular approach provides an immunity to frequency-amplitude noise conversion, reaching an absorption baseline noise in the 10-9 cm-1 range with a cavity finesse of only 3000. Spectra covering 1800 cm-1 (˜ 55 THz) are acquired in recording times of about 1 second, providing an absorption figure of merit of a few 10-11 cm-1/√{Hz}. Initially tested with ambient air, we report progress in using the Vernier frequency comb method with a discharge source of small radicals. Rutkowski et al, Opt. Lett., 39(23)2014

  11. Frequency control in the process of a multicell superconducting cavity production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemelin, Valery; Carriere, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Modifications in the geometry of a superconducting RF cavity due to various processing procedures are presented in a convenient matrix formulation. Specifically, the effect of chemical etching, cooling down, and preloading are characterized, while the corresponding frequency shifts are calculated with a reliable software. This matrix method was used in the fabrication of the first cornell energy recovery linac (ERL) 7-cell cavity. Cavity fabrication can be broken down into three main stages: deep-drawing cups, welding the cups in pairs to obtain "dumbbells" and end groups, and, finally, welding the obtained components into a completed cavity. Frequency measurements and precise machining were implemented after the second stage. A custom RF fixture and data acquisition system were designed and validated for this purpose. The system comprised of a mechanical press with RF contacts, a network analyzer, a load cell and custom LABVIEW and MATLAB scripts. To extract the individual frequencies of the cups from these measurements, the established algorithm of calculations was analysed and corrected. Corrections for the ambient environment were also incorporated into the measurement protocol. Using the procedure presented, the frequency deviation of the completed 1.3 GHz 7-cell cavity was 360 kHz, corresponding to an average error about 75 μm in length for every cell.

  12. Frequency control in the process of a multicell superconducting cavity production.

    PubMed

    Shemelin, Valery; Carriere, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Modifications in the geometry of a superconducting RF cavity due to various processing procedures are presented in a convenient matrix formulation. Specifically, the effect of chemical etching, cooling down, and preloading are characterized, while the corresponding frequency shifts are calculated with a reliable software. This matrix method was used in the fabrication of the first cornell energy recovery linac (ERL) 7-cell cavity. Cavity fabrication can be broken down into three main stages: deep-drawing cups, welding the cups in pairs to obtain "dumbbells" and end groups, and, finally, welding the obtained components into a completed cavity. Frequency measurements and precise machining were implemented after the second stage. A custom RF fixture and data acquisition system were designed and validated for this purpose. The system comprised of a mechanical press with RF contacts, a network analyzer, a load cell and custom LABVIEW and MATLAB scripts. To extract the individual frequencies of the cups from these measurements, the established algorithm of calculations was analysed and corrected. Corrections for the ambient environment were also incorporated into the measurement protocol. Using the procedure presented, the frequency deviation of the completed 1.3 GHz 7-cell cavity was 360 kHz, corresponding to an average error about 75 μm in length for every cell.

  13. Transportable cavity-stabilized laser system for optical carrier frequency transmission experiments.

    PubMed

    Parker, B; Marra, G; Johnson, L A M; Margolis, H S; Webster, S A; Wright, L; Lea, S N; Gill, P; Bayvel, P

    2014-12-10

    We report the design and performance of a transportable laser system at 1543 nm, together with its application as the source for a demonstration of optical carrier frequency transmission over 118 km of an installed dark fiber network. The laser system is based around an optical reference cavity featuring an elastic mounting that bonds the cavity to its support, enabling the cavity to be transported without additional clamping. The cavity exhibits passive fractional frequency insensitivity to vibration along the optical axis of 2.0×10(-11)  m(-1) s(2). With active fiber noise cancellation, the optical carrier frequency transmission achieves a fractional frequency instability, measured at the user end, of 2.6×10(-16) at 1 s, averaging down to below 3×10(-18) after 20,000 s. The fractional frequency accuracy of the transfer is better than 3×10(-18). This level of performance is sufficient for comparison of state-of-the-art optical frequency standards and is achieved in an urban fiber environment.

  14. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Conditions for two-frequency lasing in coupled-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logginov, Aleksandr S.; Rzhanov, A. G.; Skorov, D. V.

    2007-06-01

    A self-consistent model of a semiconductor coup-led-cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is presented. The electromagnetic field distribution in the laser is found by the effective-frequency method. The dynamic model is constructed on coupled rate equations for two active cavities. Dynamic, threshold and spectral parameters of the laser are studied. The applicability of the model is confirmed by the good agreement with the experimental data available in the literature.

  15. Tunable ultraviolet laser source from a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuhang; Liu, Jingjiao; Wang, Lijun

    2007-11-01

    A tunable ultraviolet laser source in the spectrum range of 0.36-0.388 μm was obtained as second harmonics from a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser whose output covers the wave range over 0.72-0.78 μm. A LBO crystal was used as frequency doubling crystal. The phase mateching angle in the wide spectrum range of the crystal was calculated, and the crystal was cut in the way that the normal incidence at the center wavelength of the fundamental wave at the crystal. The output spectrum line was measured and the highest second harmonics conversion efficiency reached 1.2% from long pulse fundamental wave at the center wavelength.

  16. Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Fromenteze, Thomas; Decroze, Cyril; Carsenat, David; Yurduseven, Okan; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah; Smith, David R.

    2015-05-11

    We present a 3D computational imaging system based on a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies. The core component of this system is an electrically large rectangular cavity with one corner re-shaped to catalyze mode mixing, often called a Sinai Billiard. The front side of the cavity is perforated with a grid of periodic apertures that sample the cavity modes and project them into the imaging scene. The radiated fields are scattered by the scene and are measured by low gain probe antennas. The complex radiation patterns generated by the cavity thus encode the scene information onto a set of frequency modes. Assuming the first Born approximation for scattering dynamics, the received signal is processed using computational methods to reconstruct a 3D image of the scene with resolution determined by the diffraction limit. The proposed mode-mixing cavity is simple to fabricate, exhibits low losses, and can generate highly diverse measurement modes. The imaging system demonstrated in this letter can find application in security screening and medical diagnostic imaging.

  17. Multiple harmonic frequencies resonant cavity design and half-scale prototype measurements for a fast kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-12-01

    Quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities with the capability of supporting multiple odd-harmonic modes have been developed for an ultrafast periodic kicker system in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, formerly MEIC). Previous work on the kicking pulse synthesis and the transverse beam dynamics tracking simulations show that a flat-top kicking pulse can be generated with minimal emittance growth during injection and circulation of the cooling electron bunches. This flat-top kicking pulse can be obtained when a DC component and 10 harmonic modes with appropriate amplitude and phase are combined together. To support 10 such harmonic modes, four QWR cavities are used with 5, 3, 1, and 1 modes, respectively. In the multiple-mode cavities, several slightly tapered segments of the inner conductor are introduced to tune the higher order deflecting modes to be harmonic, and stub tuners are used to fine tune each frequency to compensate for potential errors. In this paper, we summarize the electromagnetic design of the five-mode cavity, including the geometry optimization to get high transverse shunt impedance, the frequency tuning and sensitivity analysis, and the single loop coupler design for coupling to all of the harmonic modes. In particular we report on the design and fabrication of a half-scale copper prototype of this proof-of-principle five-odd-mode cavity, as well as the rf bench measurements. Finally, we demonstrate mode superposition in this cavity experimentally, which illustrates the kicking pulse generation concept.

  18. Label-Free, Single Molecule Resonant Cavity Detection: A Double-Blind Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakova, Maria V.; Shi, Ce; Armani, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Optical resonant cavity sensors are gaining increasing interest as a potential diagnostic method for a range of applications, including medical prognostics and environmental monitoring. However, the majority of detection demonstrations to date have involved identifying a “known” analyte, and the more rigorous double-blind experiment, in which the experimenter must identify unknown solutions, has yet to be performed. This scenario is more representative of a real-world situation. Therefore, before these devices can truly transition, it is necessary to demonstrate this level of robustness. By combining a recently developed surface chemistry with integrated silica optical sensors, we have performed a double-blind experiment to identify four unknown solutions. The four unknown solutions represented a subset or complete set of four known solutions; as such, there were 256 possible combinations. Based on the single molecule detection signal, we correctly identified all solutions. In addition, as part of this work, we developed noise reduction algorithms. PMID:25785307

  19. Flux pinning characteristics in cylindrical ingot niobium used in superconducting radio frequency cavity fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Dhavale Ashavai, Pashupati Dhakal, Anatolii A Polyanskii, Gianluigi Ciovati

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of from DC magnetization and penetration depth measurements of cylindrical bulk large-grain (LG) and fine-grain (FG) niobium samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The surface treatment consisted of electropolishing and low temperature baking as they are typically applied to SRF cavities. The magnetization data were fitted using a modified critical state model. The critical current density Jc and pinning force Fp are calculated from the magnetization data and their temperature dependence and field dependence are presented. The LG samples have lower critical current density and pinning force density compared to FG samples which implies a lower flux trapping efficiency. This effect may explain the lower values of residual resistance often observed in LG cavities than FG cavities.

  20. Ignition and monitoring technique for plasma processing of multicell superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Doleans, Marc

    2016-12-27

    In this study, an in-situ plasma processing technique has been developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in operation. The technique uses a low-density reactive neon-oxygen plasma at room-temperature to improve the surface work function, to help remove adsorbed gases on the RF surface and to reduce its secondary emission yield. SNS SRF cavities are six-cell elliptical cavities and the plasma typically ignites in the cell where the electric field is the highest. This article will detail a technique that was developed to ignite and monitor the plasma in each cell of the SNS cavities.

  1. Superconducting magnesium diboride coatings for radio frequency cavities fabricated by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolak, M. A.; Tan, T.; Krick, A.; Johnson, E.; Hambe, M.; Chen, Ke; Xi, X. X.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the coating of an inner surface of superconducting radio frequency cavities with a magnesium diboride thin film by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD). To simulate a 6 GHz rf cavity, a straight stainless steel tube of 1.5-inch inner diameter and a dummy stainless steel cavity were employed, on which small sapphire and metal substrates were mounted at different locations. The MgB2 films on these substrates showed uniformly good superconducting properties including Tc of 37-40 K, residual resistivity ratio of up to 14, and root-mean-square roughness Rq of 20-30 nm. This work demonstrates the feasibility of coating the interior of cylindrical and curved objects with MgB2 by the HPCVD technique, an important step towards superconducting rf cavities with MgB2 coating.

  2. Ignition and monitoring technique for plasma processing of multicell superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Doleans, Marc

    2016-12-27

    In this study, an in-situ plasma processing technique has been developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in operation. The technique uses a low-density reactive neon-oxygen plasma at room-temperature to improve the surface work function, to help remove adsorbed gases on the RF surface and to reduce its secondary emission yield. SNS SRF cavities are six-cell elliptical cavities and the plasma typically ignites in the cell where the electric field is the highest. This article will detail a technique that was developed to ignite and monitor the plasma in eachmore » cell of the SNS cavities.« less

  3. Strong Coupling Cavity QED with Gate-Defined Double Quantum Dots Enabled by a High Impedance Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockklauser, A.; Scarlino, P.; Koski, J. V.; Gasparinetti, S.; Andersen, C. K.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Wallraff, A.

    2017-01-01

    The strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) implies the capability of a matterlike quantum system to coherently transform an individual excitation into a single photon within a resonant structure. This not only enables essential processes required for quantum information processing but also allows for fundamental studies of matter-light interaction. In this work, we demonstrate strong coupling between the charge degree of freedom in a gate-defined GaAs double quantum dot (DQD) and a frequency-tunable high impedance resonator realized using an array of superconducting quantum interference devices. In the resonant regime, we resolve the vacuum Rabi mode splitting of size 2 g /2 π =238 MHz at a resonator linewidth κ /2 π =12 MHz and a DQD charge qubit decoherence rate of γ2/2 π =40 MHz extracted independently from microwave spectroscopy in the dispersive regime. Our measurements indicate a viable path towards using circuit-based cavity QED for quantum information processing in semiconductor nanostructures.

  4. T-shaped cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser with electro-optical modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Junhong; Jiao, Mingxing; Liu, Yun

    2016-05-01

    A T-shaped cavity dual-frequency Nd:YAG laser with electro-optical modulation is proposed, which consists of both p- and s-cavities sharing the same gain medium of Nd:YAG. Each cavity was not only able to select longitudinal mode but also tune frequency using an electro-optic birefringent filter polarization beam splitter + lithium niobate. The frequency difference of dual frequency was tuned through the whole gain bandwidth of Nd:YAG, which is far above the usually accepted free spectral range value in the case of a single-axis laser. As a result, the simultaneous operation of orthogonally and linearly polarized dual-frequency laser was obtained, which coincides with the theoretical analysis based on Jones matrices. The obtained frequency difference ranges from 0 to 132 GHz. This offers a simple and widely tunable source with potential for portable frequency reference applications in terahertz-wave generation and absolute-distance interferometry measurement areas.

  5. Summary of performance of superconducting radio-frequency cavities built from CBMM niobium ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2015-12-01

    Several Nb ingots have been provided by CBMM to Jefferson Lab since 2004 as part of an R&D collaboration aimed at evaluating the performance of superconducting radio-frequency cavities built from ingots with different purity, as a results of different ingot production processes. Approximately 32 multi- and single-cell cavities with resonant frequency between ˜1.3-2.3 GHz were built, treated and tested at 2 K at Jefferson Lab between 2004 and 2014. The average peak surface field achieved in cavities made of RRR˜260 and RRR˜100-150 ingots was (119 ± 4) mT and (100 ± 8) mT, respectively. Higher quality factor values at 2.0 K have been measured in medium-purity, compared to higher purity material.

  6. Summary of performance of superconducting radio-frequency cavities built from CBMM niobium ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi Dhakal, Pashupati Kneisel, Peter Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2015-12-04

    Several Nb ingots have been provided by CBMM to Jefferson Lab since 2004 as part of an R&D collaboration aimed at evaluating the performance of superconducting radio-frequency cavities built from ingots with different purity, as a results of different ingot production processes. Approximately 32 multi- and single-cell cavities with resonant frequency between ∼1.3-2.3 GHz were built, treated and tested at 2 K at Jefferson Lab between 2004 and 2014. The average peak surface field achieved in cavities made of RRR∼260 and RRR∼100-150 ingots was (119 ± 4) mT and (100 ± 8) mT, respectively. Higher quality factor values at 2.0 K have been measured in medium-purity, compared to higher purity material.

  7. Efficient blue light generation using periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate via resonant frequency doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Jadhav, Shilpa; Shiner, David

    2014-05-01

    Convenient high power blue diode lasers with single frequency operation are still under developments and are not as well developed and cost effective as IR laser sources. Harmonic generation of IR lasers provide a viable alternative source of blue and UV light. Magnesium oxide doped periodically poled Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPMgO:SLT) has been reported to have the lowest blue, IR and blue induced IR absorption (BLIIRA) among ferroelectric crystals such as Lithium Niobate (PPLN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (PPKTP). All these properties, along with higher thermal conductivity, make this crystal an excellent candidate for efficient blue light generation using second harmonic generation (SHG) in a resonant buildup cavity. Efficient resonant doubling is very sensitive to various cavity and crystal loss mechanisms. Recently we obtained 400 mW of blue light at 486 nm with net conversion efficiency of 77% using a 515 mW fiber grating stabilized IR source. Sources of conversion loss have been identified and evaluated with various methods in our investigation. These include reflection, scattering, absorption, and polarization rotation of IR light in the crystal, as well as mode mismatching and spherical aberration due to focusing lenses. The locking and electronic control functions of the cavity are automated using an internally mounted single chip microcontroller with embedded DSP (digital signal processor). Work is supported by NSF grant.

  8. Cavity-backed metasurface antennas and their application to frequency diversity imaging.

    PubMed

    Marks, Daniel L; Yurduseven, Okan; Smith, David R

    2017-04-01

    Frequency diversity antennas with spatially structured radiation patterns reduce the reliance on actively switched elements for beamforming which become increasingly expensive and impractical as frequency increases. As the quality factor Q of a frequency diverse antenna increases, the antenna samples more spatial structure as the number of unique radiated coded spatial patterns correspondingly increases. Antennas that combine hollow cavities and metamaterial apertures achieve both large fractional bandwidth, in excess of 40%, and a high Q of 1600, so that each antenna radiates over 640 unique coded patterns. As compared to switched active antennas, such a passive antenna replaces the 50 antennas and switches that would produce at most (50/2)2=625 unique patterns. Furthermore, the engineered metamaterial apertures enable a radiation efficiency exceeding 60% to be achieved in a single desired polarization. The theory of cavity-backed metasurface antennas is explained, and frequency diverse imaging is demonstrated with a pair of these antennas.

  9. Dual-etalon cavity ring-down frequency-comb spectroscopy with broad band light source

    DOEpatents

    Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E

    2014-04-01

    In an embodiment, a dual-etalon cavity-ring-down frequency-comb spectrometer system is described. A broad band light source is split into two beams. One beam travels through a first etalon and a sample under test, while the other beam travels through a second etalon, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges ("FSR") of the two etalons are not identical, the interference pattern at the detector will consist of a series of beat frequencies. By monitoring these beat frequencies, optical frequencies where light is absorbed may be determined.

  10. Gas-lens effect and cavity design of some frequency-stabilized He-Ne lasers.

    PubMed

    Cérez, P; Felder, R

    1983-04-15

    It is shown that there exists an optimal cavity length which should minimize the frequency shifts induced by lenslike effects in intracavity saturated absorption lasers. Ideas are developed which provide a satisfactory explanation for the dispersion in modulation shifts observed in some recent laser intercomparisons.

  11. Flight-Like Optical Reference Cavity for GRACE Follow-On Laser Frequency Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; deVine, G.; Klipstein, W. M.; McKenzie, K.; Spero, R.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.; Stephens, M.; Leitch, J.; Pierce, R.; Shaddock, D.; Lam, T.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a prototype optical cavity and associated optics that has been developed to provide a stable frequency reference for a future space-based laser ranging system. This instrument is being considered for inclusion as a technology demonstration on the recently announced GRACE follow-on mission, which will monitor variations in the Earth's gravity field.

  12. A microwave exciter for Cs frequency standards based on a sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator.

    PubMed

    Koga, Y; McNeilage, C; Searls, J H; Ohshima, S

    2001-01-01

    A low noise and highly stable microwave exciter system has been built for Cs atomic frequency standards using a tunable sapphire-loaded cavity oscillator (SLCO), which works at room temperature. This paper discusses the successful implementation of a control system for locking the SLCO to a long-term reference signal and reports an upper limit of the achieved frequency tracking error 6 x 10(-15) at tau = 1 s.

  13. Surface analyses of electropolished niobium samples for superconducting radio frequency cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, P. V.; Nishiwaki, M.; Saeki, T.; Sawabe, M.; Hayano, H.; Noguchi, T.; Kato, S.

    2010-07-15

    The performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities is sometimes limited by contaminations present on the cavity surface. In the recent years extensive research has been done to enhance the cavity performance by applying improved surface treatments such as mechanical grinding, electropolishing (EP), chemical polishing, tumbling, etc., followed by various rinsing methods such as ultrasonic pure water rinse, alcoholic rinse, high pressure water rinse, hydrogen per oxide rinse, etc. Although good cavity performance has been obtained lately by various post-EP cleaning methods, the detailed nature about the surface contaminants is still not fully characterized. Further efforts in this area are desired. Prior x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of EPed niobium samples treated with fresh EP acid, demonstrated that the surfaces were covered mainly with the niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) along with carbon, in addition a small quantity of sulfur and fluorine were also found in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. In this article, the authors present the analyses of surface contaminations for a series of EPed niobium samples located at various positions of a single cell niobium cavity followed by ultrapure water rinsing as well as our endeavor to understand the aging effect of EP acid solution in terms of contaminations presence at the inner surface of the cavity with the help of surface analytical tools such as XPS, SIMS, and scanning electron microscope at KEK.

  14. Microwave induced plasma discharge in multi-cell superconducting radio-frequency cavity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Mammosser, John D

    2015-07-01

    A R&D effort for in situ cleaning of 1.5 GHz Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities at room temperature using the plasma processing technique has been initiated at Jefferson Lab. This is a step toward the cleaning of cryomodules installed in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). For this purpose, we have developed an understanding of plasma discharge in a 5-cell CEBAF-type SRF cavity having configurations similar to those in the main accelerator. The focus of this study involves the detailed investigations of developing a plasma discharge inside the cavity volume and avoids the breakdown condition in the vicinity of the ceramic RF window. A plasma discharge of the gas mixture Ar-O2 (90%:10%) can be established inside the cavity volume by the excitation of a resonant 4π/5 TM010-mode driven by a klystron. The absence of any external magnetic field for generating the plasma is suitable for cleaning cavities installed in a complex cryomodule assembly. The procedures developed in these experimental investigations can be applied to any complex cavity structure. Details of these experimental measurements and the observations are discussed in the paper.

  15. Microwave induced plasma discharge in multi-cell superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Shahid; Mammosser, John D.

    2015-07-15

    A R&D effort for in situ cleaning of 1.5 GHz Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities at room temperature using the plasma processing technique has been initiated at Jefferson Lab. This is a step toward the cleaning of cryomodules installed in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). For this purpose, we have developed an understanding of plasma discharge in a 5-cell CEBAF-type SRF cavity having configurations similar to those in the main accelerator. The focus of this study involves the detailed investigations of developing a plasma discharge inside the cavity volume and avoids the breakdown condition in the vicinity of the ceramic RF window. A plasma discharge of the gas mixture Ar–O{sub 2} (90%:10%) can be established inside the cavity volume by the excitation of a resonant 4π/5 TM{sub 010}-mode driven by a klystron. The absence of any external magnetic field for generating the plasma is suitable for cleaning cavities installed in a complex cryomodule assembly. The procedures developed in these experimental investigations can be applied to any complex cavity structure. Details of these experimental measurements and the observations are discussed in the paper.

  16. Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made from medium and low-purity niobium ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2016-04-07

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of ingot niobium with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250 have proven to have similar or better performance than fine-grain Nb cavities of the same purity, after standard processing. The high purity requirement contributes to the high cost of the material. As superconducting accelerators operating in continuous-wave typically require cavities to operate at moderate accelerating gradients, using lower purity material could be advantageous not only to reduce cost but also to achieve higher Q0-values. In this contribution we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of 1.3–1.5 GHz single-cell cavities made of ingot Nb of medium (RRR = 100–150) and low (RRR = 60) purity from different suppliers. Cavities made of medium-purity ingots routinely achieved peak surface magnetic field values greater than 70 mT with an average Q0-value of 2 × 1010 at 2 K after standard processing treatments. As a result, the performances of cavities made of low-purity ingots were affected by significant pitting of the surface after chemical etching.

  17. Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made from medium and low-purity niobium ingots

    DOE PAGES

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2016-04-07

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of ingot niobium with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250 have proven to have similar or better performance than fine-grain Nb cavities of the same purity, after standard processing. The high purity requirement contributes to the high cost of the material. As superconducting accelerators operating in continuous-wave typically require cavities to operate at moderate accelerating gradients, using lower purity material could be advantageous not only to reduce cost but also to achieve higher Q0-values. In this contribution we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of 1.3–1.5 GHz single-cell cavities made of ingot Nb ofmore » medium (RRR = 100–150) and low (RRR = 60) purity from different suppliers. Cavities made of medium-purity ingots routinely achieved peak surface magnetic field values greater than 70 mT with an average Q0-value of 2 × 1010 at 2 K after standard processing treatments. As a result, the performances of cavities made of low-purity ingots were affected by significant pitting of the surface after chemical etching.« less

  18. Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made from medium and low-purity niobium ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities made of ingot niobium with residual resistivity ratio (RRR) greater than 250 have proven to have similar or better performance than fine-grain Nb cavities of the same purity, after standard processing. The high purity requirement contributes to the high cost of the material. As superconducting accelerators operating in continuous-wave typically require cavities to operate at moderate accelerating gradients, using lower purity material could be advantageous not only to reduce cost but also to achieve higher Q 0-values. In this contribution we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of 1.3-1.5 GHz single-cell cavities made of ingot Nb of medium (RRR = 100-150) and low (RRR = 60) purity from different suppliers. Cavities made of medium-purity ingots routinely achieved peak surface magnetic field values greater than 70 mT with an average Q 0-value of 2 × 1010 at 2 K after standard processing treatments. The performances of cavities made of low-purity ingots were affected by significant pitting of the surface after chemical etching.

  19. Measurement of Frequency, Temperature, RF Field Dependence of Surface Resistance of Superconductors Using a Half Wave Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyekyoung; Delayen, Jean

    2017-01-01

    A theory of surface resistance of superconductor was rigorously formulated by Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer more than 50 years ago. Since then the accelerator community has been used the theory as a guideline to improve the surface resistance of the superconducting cavity. It has been observed that the surface resistance is dependent on frequency, temperature and rf field strength, and surface preparation. To verify these dependences, a well-controlled study is required. Although many different types of cavities have been tested, the typical superconducting cavities are built for specific frequencies of their application. They do not provide data other than at its own frequency. A superconducting half wave cavity is a cavity that enables us to collect the surface resistance data across frequencies of interest for particle accelerators and evaluate preparation techniques. This paper will present the design of the half wave cavity, its electromagnetic mode characteristics and experimental results. Research supported by NSF Award PHY-1416051.

  20. Self-organization in Kerr-cavity-soliton formation in parametric frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Y. Henry; Lamont, Michael R. E.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Gaeta, Alexander L.

    2016-12-01

    We show that self-organization and synchronization underlie Kerr-cavity-soliton formation in parametric frequency combs. By reducing the Lugiato-Lefever equation to a set of phase equations, we find that self-organization arises from a two-stage process via pump-degenerate and pump-nondegenerate four-wave mixing. The reduced phase equations are akin to the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators and intuitively explain the origin of the pump phase offset, predict antisymmetrization of the intracavity field before phase synchronization, and clarify the role of chaos in Kerr-cavity-soliton formation in parametric combs.

  1. High-frequency electromagnetic scarring in three-dimensional axisymmetric convex cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.

    2016-04-13

    Here, this article examines the localization of high-frequency electromagnetic fields in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. When these orbits lead to unstable localized modes, they are known as scars. This article treats the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex. Particular attention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the field along the scarred orbit as well as field point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are made with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation.

  2. High power single-frequency continuously-tunable compact extended-cavity semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Laurain, A; Myara, M; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Garnache, A

    2009-06-08

    We demonstrate high power high efficiency (0:3 W) low noise single frequency operation of a compact extended-cavity surface-emitting-semiconductor-laser exhibiting a continuous tunability over 0:84 THz with high beam quality. We took advantage of thermal lens-based stability to develop a short (< 3 mm) plano-plano external cavity without any intracavity filter. The structure is optically pumped by a 1 W commercial 830 nm multimode diode laser. No heat management was required. We measured a low divergence circular TEM(00) beam at the diffraction limit (M(2) < 1:05) with a linear light polarization (> 37 dB). The side mode suppression ratio is 60 dB. The free running laser linewidth is 850 kHz limited by pump induced thermal fluctuations. Thanks to this high-Q external cavity approach, the frequency noise is low and the dynamics is in the relaxation-oscillation-free regime, exhibiting a low intensity noise, with a cutoff frequency approximately 250 MHz above which the shot noise level is reached. We show that pump properties define the cavity design and laser coherence.

  3. High power narrowband 589 nm frequency doubled fibre laser source.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Luke; Feng, Yan; Calia, Domenico Bonaccini

    2009-08-17

    We demonstrate high-power high-efficiency cavity-enhanced second harmonic generation of an in-house built ultra-high spectral density (SBS-suppressed) 1178 nm narrowband Raman fibre amplifier. Up to 14.5 W 589 nm CW emission is achieved with linewidth Delta nu(589) < 7 MHz in a diffraction-limited beam, with peak external conversion efficiency of 86%. The inherently high spectral and spatial qualities of the 589 nm source are particularly suited to both spectroscopic and Laser Guide Star applications, given the seed laser can be easily frequency-locked to the Na D(2a) emission line. Further, we expect the technology to be extendable, at similar or higher powers, to wavelengths limited only by the seed-pump-pair availability.

  4. Dual-pump Kerr Micro-cavity Optical Frequency Comb with varying FSR spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqiang; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Pasquazi, Alessia; Wang, Yishan; Wang, Leiran; Zhang, Wenfu; Wang, Lei; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Guoxi; Hu, Hui; Su, Yulong; Li, Feitao; Liu, Yuanshan; Zhao, Wei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel dual-pump approach to generate robust optical frequency comb with varying free spectral range (FSR) spacing in a CMOS-compatible high-Q micro-ring resonator (MRR). The frequency spacing of the comb can be tuned by an integer number FSR of the MRR freely in our dual-pump scheme. The dual pumps are self-oscillated in the laser cavity loop and their wavelengths can be tuned flexibly by programming the tunable filter embedded in the cavity. By tuning the pump wavelength, broadband OFC with the bandwidth of >180 nm and the frequency-spacing varying from 6 to 46-fold FSRs is realized at a low pump power. This approach could find potential and practical applications in many areas, such as optical metrology, optical communication, and signal processing systems, for its excellent flexibility and robustness.

  5. Dual-pump Kerr Micro-cavity Optical Frequency Comb with varying FSR spacing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiqiang; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Pasquazi, Alessia; Wang, Yishan; Wang, Leiran; Zhang, Wenfu; Wang, Lei; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Guoxi; Hu, Hui; Su, Yulong; Li, Feitao; Liu, Yuanshan; Zhao, Wei

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel dual-pump approach to generate robust optical frequency comb with varying free spectral range (FSR) spacing in a CMOS-compatible high-Q micro-ring resonator (MRR). The frequency spacing of the comb can be tuned by an integer number FSR of the MRR freely in our dual-pump scheme. The dual pumps are self-oscillated in the laser cavity loop and their wavelengths can be tuned flexibly by programming the tunable filter embedded in the cavity. By tuning the pump wavelength, broadband OFC with the bandwidth of >180 nm and the frequency-spacing varying from 6 to 46-fold FSRs is realized at a low pump power. This approach could find potential and practical applications in many areas, such as optical metrology, optical communication, and signal processing systems, for its excellent flexibility and robustness.

  6. Dual-pump Kerr Micro-cavity Optical Frequency Comb with varying FSR spacing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiqiang; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Pasquazi, Alessia; Wang, Yishan; Wang, Leiran; Zhang, Wenfu; Wang, Lei; Hu, Xiaohong; Wang, Guoxi; Hu, Hui; Su, Yulong; Li, Feitao; Liu, Yuanshan; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel dual-pump approach to generate robust optical frequency comb with varying free spectral range (FSR) spacing in a CMOS-compatible high-Q micro-ring resonator (MRR). The frequency spacing of the comb can be tuned by an integer number FSR of the MRR freely in our dual-pump scheme. The dual pumps are self-oscillated in the laser cavity loop and their wavelengths can be tuned flexibly by programming the tunable filter embedded in the cavity. By tuning the pump wavelength, broadband OFC with the bandwidth of >180 nm and the frequency-spacing varying from 6 to 46-fold FSRs is realized at a low pump power. This approach could find potential and practical applications in many areas, such as optical metrology, optical communication, and signal processing systems, for its excellent flexibility and robustness. PMID:27338250

  7. Trimming algorithm of frequency modulation for CIAE-230 MeV proton superconducting synchrocyclotron model cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengzhan; Zhang, Tianjue; Ji, Bin; Hou, Shigang; Guo, Juanjuan; Yin, Meng; Xing, Jiansheng; Lv, Yinlong; Guan, Fengping; Lin, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A new project, the 230 MeV proton superconducting synchrocyclotron for cancer therapy, was proposed at CIAE in 2013. A model cavity is designed to verify the frequency modulation trimming algorithm featuring a half-wave structure and eight sets of rotating blades for 1 kHz frequency modulation. Based on the electromagnetic (EM) field distribution analysis of the model cavity, the variable capacitor works as a function of time and the frequency can be written in Maclaurin series. Curve fitting is applied for theoretical frequency and original simulation frequency. The second-order fitting excels at the approximation given its minimum variance. Constant equivalent inductance is considered as an important condition in the calculation. The equivalent parameters of theoretical frequency can be achieved through this conversion. Then the trimming formula for rotor blade outer radius is found by discretization in time domain. Simulation verification has been performed and the results show that the calculation radius with minus 0.012 m yields an acceptable result. The trimming amendment in the time range of 0.328-0.4 ms helps to reduce the frequency error to 0.69% in Simulation C with an increment of 0.075 mm/0.001 ms, which is half of the error in Simulation A (constant radius in 0.328-0.4 ms). The verification confirms the feasibility of the trimming algorithm for synchrocyclotron frequency modulation.

  8. Self-consistent modeling of terahertz waveguide and cavity with frequency-dependent conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R.; Thumm, M.

    2015-01-01

    The surface resistance of metals, and hence the Ohmic dissipation per unit area, scales with the square root of the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave. As is well recognized, this can lead to excessive wall losses at terahertz (THz) frequencies. On the other hand, high-frequency oscillatory motion of conduction electrons tends to mitigate the collisional damping. As a result, the classical theory predicts that metals behave more like a transparent medium at frequencies above the ultraviolet. Such a behavior difference is inherent in the AC conductivity, a frequency-dependent complex quantity commonly used to treat electromagnetics of metals at optical frequencies. The THz region falls in the gap between microwave and optical frequencies. However, metals are still commonly modeled by the DC conductivity in currently active vacuum electronics research aimed at the development of high-power THz sources (notably the gyrotron), although a small reduction of the DC conductivity due to surface roughness is sometimes included. In this study, we present a self-consistent modeling of the gyrotron interaction structures (a metallic waveguide or cavity) with the AC conductivity. The resulting waveguide attenuation constants and cavity quality factors are compared with those of the DC-conductivity model. The reduction in Ohmic losses under the AC-conductivity model is shown to be increasingly significant as the frequency reaches deeper into the THz region. Such effects are of considerable importance to THz gyrotrons for which the minimization of Ohmic losses constitutes a major design consideration.

  9. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets - Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    Current driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur in extragalactic jets for estimated values of the carried currents. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities. The relativistic double-layer-emitted electron and ion beams drive plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  10. Double layers and plasma-wave resistivity in extragalactic jets: Cavity formation and radio-wave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    For estimated values of the currents carried by extragalactic jets, current-driven electrostatic-wave- and electromagnetic-wave-produced resistivities do not occur. Strong plasma double layers, however, may exist within self-maintained density cavities, the relativistic double-layer-emitted electron, and ion beams driving plasma-wave resistivities in the low- and high-potential plasma adjacent to the double layers. The double-layer-emitted electron beams may also emit polarized radio waves via a collective bremsstrahlung process mediated by electrostatic two-stream instabilities.

  11. Strong Meissner screening change in superconducting radio frequency cavities due to mild baking

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Barkov, F.; Suter, A.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.

    2014-02-17

    We investigate “hot” regions with anomalous high field dissipation in bulk niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators by using low energy muon spin rotation (LE-μSR) on corresponding cavity cutouts. We demonstrate that superconducting properties at the hot region are well described by the non-local Pippard/BCS model for niobium in the clean limit with a London penetration depth λ{sub L}=23±2 nm. In contrast, a cutout sample from the 120 ∘C baked cavity shows a much larger λ>100 nm and a depth dependent mean free path, likely due to gradient in vacancy concentration. We suggest that these vacancies can efficiently trap hydrogen and hence prevent the formation of hydrides responsible for rf losses in hot regions.

  12. Broadband cavity-enhanced molecular spectra from Vernier filtering of a complete frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Lucile; Morville, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    We present a new approach to cavity enhanced-direct frequency comb spectroscopy where the full emission bandwidth of a titanium:sapphire laser is exploited, currently at gigahertz resolution. The technique is based on low-resolution Vernier filtering obtained with an appreciable actively stabilized mismatch between the cavity-free spectral range and the laser repetition rate, using a diffraction grating and a split-photodiode. Spectra covering 1300  cm⁻¹ (40 THz) are acquired in less than 100 ms, and a baseline noise of 1.7×10⁻⁸ cm⁻¹ is reached with a cavity finesse of only 300, providing an absorption figure of merit M=6×10⁻¹¹ cm⁻¹·Hz(-1/2).

  13. Frequency-selection mechanism in incompressible open-cavity flows via reflected instability waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuerke, F.; Sciamarella, D.; Pastur, L. R.; Lusseyran, F.; Artana, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative perspective on nonharmonic mode coexistence, commonly found in the shear layer spectrum of open-cavity flows. Modes obtained by a local linear stability analysis of perturbations to a two-dimensional, incompressible, and inviscid sheared flow over a cavity of finite length and depth were conditioned by a so-called coincidence condition first proposed by Kulikowskii [J. Appl. Math. Mech. 30, 180 (1966), 10.1016/0021-8928(66)90066-9] which takes into account instability wave reflection within the cavity. The analysis yields a set of discrete, nonharmonic frequencies, which compare well with experimental results [Phys. Fluids 20, 114101 (2008), 10.1063/1.3005435; Exp. Fluids 50, 905 (2010), 10.1007/s00348-010-0942-9].

  14. Detecting topological superconductivity using low-frequency doubled Shapiro steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sau, Jay D.; Setiawan, F.

    2017-02-01

    The fractional Josephson effect has been observed in many instances as a signature of a topological superconducting state containing zero-energy Majorana modes. We present a nontopological scenario which can produce a fractional Josephson effect generically in semiconductor-based Josephson junctions, namely, a resonant impurity bound state weakly coupled to a highly transparent channel. We show that the fractional ac Josephson effect can be generated by the Landau-Zener processes which flip the electron occupancy of the impurity bound state. The Josephson effect signature for Majorana modes become distinct from this nontopological scenario only at low frequency. We prove that a variant of the fractional ac Josephson effect, namely, the low-frequency doubled Shapiro steps, can provide a more reliable signature of the topological superconducting state.

  15. High-frequency asymptotic methods for analyzing the EM scattering by open-ended waveguide cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, R. J.; Pathak, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    Four high-frequency methods are described for analyzing the electromagnetic (EM) scattering by electrically large open-ended cavities. They are: (1) a hybrid combination of waveguide modal analysis and high-frequency asymptotics, (2) geometrical optics (GO) ray shooting, (3) Gaussian beam (GB) shooting, and (4) the generalized ray expansion (GRE) method. The hybrid modal method gives very accurate results but is limited to cavities which are made up of sections of uniform waveguides for which the modal fields are known. The GO ray shooting method can be applied to much more arbitrary cavity geometries and can handle absorber treated interior walls, but it generally only predicts the major trends of the RCS pattern and not the details. Also, a very large number of rays need to be tracked for each new incidence angle. Like the GO ray shooting method, the GB shooting method can handle more arbitrary cavities, but it is much more efficient and generally more accurate than the GO method because it includes the fields diffracted by the rim at the open end which enter the cavity. However, due to beam divergence effects the GB method is limited to cavities which are not very long compared to their width. The GRE method overcomes the length-to-width limitation of the GB method by replacing the GB's with GO ray tubes which are launched in the same manner as the GB's to include the interior rim diffracted field. This method gives good accuracy and is generally more efficient than the GO method, but a large number of ray tubes needs to be tracked.

  16. High-sensitivity double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Amrita Kumar; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated a two-dimensional double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator based neighboring hole radius modulation. By theoretical and experimental analyses, we confirmed that the quality factor (Q-factor) increases at a certain neighboring hole radius. Experimentally, we showed Q-factors of (1.93–2.02) × 105. Moreover, by using sucrose solution, we measured a sensitivity of 1571 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), which is the highest sensitivity ever reported for such a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based resonator type device. We reported the detection limit (DL) of the refractive index change of (4.15–4.34) × 10‑6 RIU, which is one of the best in previous reports.

  17. Studies of radiation fields of LCLS-II super conducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana Leitner, M.; Ge, L.; Li, Z.; Xu, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Ross, M.; Carrasco, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will be a hard X-ray Free Electron Laser whose linac can deliver a 1.2 MW CW electron beam with bunch rates up to 1 MHz. To efficiently generate such a high power beam, Super-Conducting Radio-Frequency (SCRF) cavities will be installed in the upstream portion of the existing 3 km Linac at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The 9-cell niobium cavities will be cooled at 2K inside 35 cryomodules, each containing a string of eight of those cavities followed by a quadrupole. The strong electromagnetic fields in the SCRF cavities will extract electrons from the cavity walls that may be accelerated. Most such dark current will be deposited locally, although some electrons may reach several neighboring cryomodules, gaining substantial energy before they hit a collimator or other aperture. The power deposited by the field emitted electrons and the associated showers may pose radiation and machine protection issues at the cryomodules and also in other areas of the accelerator. Simulation of these effects is therefore crucial for the design of the machine. The in-house code Track3P was used to simulate field emitted electrons from the LCLS-II cavities, and a sophisticated 3D model of the cryomodules including all cavities was written to transport radiation with the Fluka Monte Carlo code, which was linked to Track3P through custom-made routines. This setup was used to compute power deposition in components, prompt and residual radiation fields, and radioisotope inventories.

  18. Investigation of niobium surface structure and composition for improvement of superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenikhina, Yulia

    Nano-scale investigation of intrinsic properties of niobium near-surface is a key to control performance of niobium superconducting radio-frequency cavities. Mechanisms responsible for the performance limitations and their empirical remedies needs to be justified in order to reproducibly control fabrication of SRF cavities with desired characteristics. The high field Q-slope and mechanism behind its cure (120°C mild bake) were investigated by comparison of the samples cut out of the cavities with high and low dissipation regions. Material evolution during mild field Q-slope nitrogen treatment was characterized using the coupon samples as well as samples cut out of nitrogen treated cavity. Evaluation of niobium near-surface state after some typical and novel cavity treatments was accomplished. Various TEM techniques, SEM, XPS, AES, XRD were used for the structural and chemical characterization of niobium near-surface. Combination of thermometry and structural temperature-dependent comparison of the cavity cutouts with different dissipation characteristics revealed precipitation of niobium hydrides to be the reason for medium and high field Q-slopes. Step-by-step effect of the nitrogen treatment processing on niobium surface was studied by analytical and structural characterization of the cavity cutout and niobium samples, which were subject to the treatment. Low concentration nitrogen doping is proposed to explain the benefit of nitrogen treatment. Chemical characterization of niobium samples before and after various surface processing (Electropolishing (EP), 800°C bake, hydrofluoric acid (HF) rinsing) showed the differences that can help to reveal the microscopic effects behind these treatments as well as possible sources of surface contamination.

  19. Green pulsed lidar-radar emitter based on a multipass frequency-shifting external cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Brunel, Marc; Romanelli, Marco; Vallet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the radio frequency (RF) up-conversion properties of a frequency-shifting external cavity on a laser beam. We consider an infrared passively Q-switched pulsed laser whose intensity modulation results from the multiple round-trips in the external cavity, which contains a frequency shifter. The output beam undergoes optical second-harmonic generation necessary to reach the green wavelength. We model the pulse train using a rate-equation model to simulate the laser pulses, together with a time-delayed interference calculation taking both the diffraction efficiency and the Gaussian beam propagation into account. The predictions are verified experimentally using a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser passively Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG whose pulse train makes multiple round-trips in a mode-matched external cavity containing an acousto-optic frequency shifter driven at 85 MHz. Second-harmonic generation is realized in a KTP crystal, yielding RF-modulated pulses at 532 nm with a modulation contrast of almost 100%. RF harmonics up to the 6th order (1.020 GHz) are observed in the green output pulses. Such a RF-modulated green laser may find applications in underwater detection and ranging.

  20. Plasma Etching of superconducting radio frequency cavity by Ar/Cl2 capacitively coupled Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Popovic, Svetozar; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Larry; Vuskovic, Lepsha

    2016-09-01

    We are developing plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the asymmetry was studied by changing the contour of the inner electrode. The optimized contour of the electrode based on these measurements was chosen for SRF cavity processing. To test the effect of the plasma etching on the cavity rf performance, a 1497 MHz single cell SRF cavity is used, which previously mechanically polished, buffer chemically etched afterwards and rf tested at cryogenic temperatures for a baseline test. Plasma processing was accomplished by moving axially the inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise manner to establish segmented plasma processing. The cavity is rf tested afterwards at cryogenic temperatures. The rf test and surface condition results are presented.

  1. High-mechanical-frequency characteristics of optomechanical crystal cavity with coupling waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhilei; Cui, Kaiyu; Bai, Guoren; Feng, Xue; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical crystals have attracted great attention recently for their ability to realize strong photon-phonon interaction in cavity optomechanical systems. By far, the operation of cavity optomechanical systems with high mechanical frequency has to employ tapered fibres or one-sided waveguides with circulators to couple the light into and out of the cavities, which hinders their on-chip applications. Here, we demonstrate larger-centre-hole nanobeam structures with on-chip transmission-coupling waveguide. The measured mechanical frequency is up to 4.47 GHz, with a high mechanical Q-factor of 1.4 × 103 in the ambient environment. The corresponding optomechanical coupling rate is calculated and measured to be 836 kHz and 1.2 MHz, respectively, while the effective mass is estimated to be 136 fg. With the transmission waveguide coupled structure and a small footprint of 3.4 μm2, this simple cavity can be directly used as functional components or integrated with other on-chip devices in future practical applications. PMID:27686419

  2. The importance of the electron mean free path for superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniscalco, J. T.; Gonnella, D.; Liepe, M.

    2017-01-01

    Impurity-doping of niobium is an exciting new technology in the field of superconducting radio-frequency accelerators, producing cavities with record-high quality factor Q0 and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer surface resistance that decreases with increasing radio-frequency field. Recent theoretical work has offered a promising explanation for this so-called "anti-Q-slope," but the link between the decreasing surface resistance and the shortened electron mean free path of doped cavities has remained elusive. In this work, we investigate this link, finding that the magnitude of this decrease varies directly with the mean free path: shorter mean free paths correspond to stronger anti-Q-slopes. We draw a theoretical connection between the mean free path and the overheating of the quasiparticles, which leads to the reduction of the anti-Q-slope towards the normal Q-slope of long-mean-free-path cavities. We also investigate the sensitivity of the residual resistance to trapped magnetic flux, a property that is greatly enhanced for doped cavities, and calculate an optimal doping regime for a given amount of trapped flux.

  3. Laser Frequency Stabilization and Control through Offset Sideband Locking to Optical Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.; Livas, J.; Numata, K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a class of techniques whereby a laser frequency can be stabilized to a fixed optical cavity resonance with an adjustable offset, providing a wide tuning range for the central frequency. These techniques require only minor modifications to the standard Pound-Drever-Hall locking techniques and have the advantage of not altering the intrinsic stability of the frequency reference. In a laboratory investigation the sideband techniques were found to perform equally well as the standard, non-tunable Pound-Drever-Hall technique, each providing more than four decades of frequency noise suppression over the free-running noise. An application of a tunable system as a pre-stabilization stage in a phase-lock loop is also presented with the combined system achieving a frequency noise suppression of nearly twelve orders of magnitude.

  4. Double-loop frequency selective surfaces for multi frequency division multiplexing in a dual reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A multireflector antenna utilizes a frequency-selective surface (FSS) in a subreflector to allow signals in two different RF bands to be selectively reflected back into a main reflector and to allow signals in other RF bands to be transmitted through it to the main reflector for primary focus transmission. A first approach requires only one FSS at the subreflector which may be an array of double-square-loop conductive elements. A second approach uses two FSS's at the subreflector which may be an array of either double-square-loop (DSL) or double-ring (DR). In the case of DR elements, they may be advantageously arranged in a triangular array instead of the rectangular array for the DSL elements.

  5. Parametric generation of radiation in a dynamic cavity with frequency dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Rosanov, N N; Fedorov, E G; Matskovsky, A A

    2016-01-31

    A numerical simulation of the parametric generation of electromagnetic radiation in a cavity with periodically oscillating mirrors and Lorentz-type frequency dispersion has been performed. It is shown that initially weak seed radiation can be transformed into intense short pulses, the shape of which under steady-state conditions changes periodically when reflecting from mirrors and, depending on the dispersion characteristics, corresponds to uni- or bipolar pulses. (letters)

  6. Low temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    DOE PAGES

    Ciovati, G.; Anlage, Steven M.; Baldwin, C.; ...

    2012-03-16

    An apparatus was created to obtain, for the first time, 2D maps of the surface resistance of the inner surface of an operating superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity by a low-temperature laser scanning microscopy technique. This allows identifying non-uniformities of the surface resistance with a spatial resolution of about one order of magnitude better than with earlier methods. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 10 dB was obtained with 240 mW laser power and 1 Hz modulation frequency. The various components of the apparatus, the experimental procedure and results are discussed in details in this contribution.

  7. Mode-locked frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brookman, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication, test, and delivery of two mode-locked, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser systems are described. Each system was comprised of two units, the laser head and optics on an Invar plate and the electronics control unit in a relay rack chassis panel. Laser number one operated at a repetition rate of 400 MHz and was designed for use in an optical communication system. Laser number two operated at 200 MHz repetition rate and was designed for optical ranging and target signature experiments. Both lasers had a pulse width of 200 ps at the 10% amplitude points at 1.064 micrometer wavelength (150 ps at 0.532 micrometers) with an amplitude stability of + or - 4%. Output power exceeded the design goals.

  8. Low Frequency NQR using Double Contact Cross-relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, David; Smith, John A. S.

    2000-02-01

    A cross-relaxation technique is described which involves two spin contacts per double reso-nance cycle. The result is an improvement in signal to noise ratio particularly at low frequencies. Experimental spectra and analyses are presented: 14N in ammonium sulphate showing that the tech-nique gives essentially the same information as previous studies; 14N in ammonium dichromate determining e2Qq/h as (76±3) kHz and η = 0.84±.04; 7Li in lithium acetylacetonate for which the spectrum (corrected for Zeeman distortion) yields e2Qq/h = (152 ±5) kHz and η=.5 ±.2. Calculated spectra are presented to demonstrate the η dependence of the line shapes for 7Li.

  9. Ringing and double frequency response of a tri-pod

    SciTech Connect

    Nedergaard, H.; Lyngesen, S.; Tychsen, J.

    1996-12-31

    The dynamic behavior of a tri-pod steel jacket installed in 65 m water depth in the North Sea has been investigated. The analysis method is a time-domain simulation of the platform exposed to irregular sea. Similar to monotower platforms the so-called ringing phenomenon caused by higher order harmonics in the wave loading is detected. Further, the analysis discovered another dynamic feature, double frequency response, caused by the interaction between the spatial distribution of the waveload and the shape of first vibrational mode. The dynamic response showed that the top of the platform vibrates notably more in first mode than found by a quasi static analysis with incorporation of standard dynamic amplification factors, however, the resulting extreme stress level and accumulated fatigue damage is found quite similar and the consequences to human comfort small. The basis for this finding is the fact that first mode only contributes very little to the stress level in critical points.

  10. High frequency computation in wave equations and optimal design for a cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jun

    Two types of problems are studied in this thesis. One part of the thesis is devoted to high frequency computation. Motivated by fast multiscale Gaussian wavepacket transforms and multiscale Gaussian beam methods which were originally designed for initial value problems of wave equations in the high frequency regime, we develop fast multiscale Gaussian beam methods for wave equations in bounded convex domains in the high frequency regime. To compute the wave propagation in bounded convex domains, we have to take into account reflecting multiscale Gaussian beams, which are accomplished by enforcing reflecting boundary conditions during beam propagation and carrying out suitable reflecting beam summation. To propagate multiscale beams efficiently, we prove that the ratio of the squared magnitude of beam amplitude and the beam width is roughly conserved, and accordingly we propose an effective indicator to identify significant beams. We also prove that the resulting multiscale Gaussian beam methods converge asymptotically. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method. The second part of the thesis studies the reduction of backscatter radar cross section (RCS) for a cavity embedded in the ground plane. One approach for RCS reduction is through the coating material. Assume the bottom of the cavity is coated by a thin, multilayered radar absorbing material (RAM) with possibly different permittivities. The objective is to minimize the backscatter RCS by the incidence of a plane wave over a single or a set of incident angles and frequencies. By formulating the scattering problem as a Helmholtz equation with artificial boundary condition, the gradient with respect to the material permittivities is determined efficiently by the adjoint state method, which is integrated into a nonlinear optimization scheme. Numerical example shows the RCS may be significantly reduced. Another approach is through shape optimization. By introducing a transparent

  11. Frequency and Intensity Stabilization of Planar Waveguide-External Cavity Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Gregorio; Shoen, Steven; Quetschke, Volker

    2012-02-01

    Planar Waveguide External Cavity Lasers (PW-ECL) show an immense potential for use in precision measurement tasks and space missions because of its compactness and simple design. We show the techniques used to frequency and intensity stabilize a PW-ECL 1550nm laser system with the goal of achieving a frequency stability of 30 Hz/sqrt(Hz) and a RIN of less than 10-6. These PW-ECL systems are a potential replacement for Non-Planar Ring Oscillator (NPRO) laser systems, which have become a standard for low-noise interferometric applications, if the PW-ECL can meet the required stability. We present the initial experimental results of the intensity and frequency stabilization setup and we show a comparison between PW-ECL lasers and NPRO lasers with respect to measurements and applications requiring a high frequency and intensity stability.

  12. Advances in development of Nb3Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posen, Sam; Liepe, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    A 1.3 GHz Nb3Sn superconducting radio-frequency cavity prepared with a modified annealing step reached Bp k>50 mT , well above Bc 1=25 ±7 mT , without the strong Q -slope observed in previous Nb3Sn cavities. At 4.2 K, it has a Q0 of approximately 1 ×1 010 at >10 MV /m , far outperforming Nb at useable gradients. At 2 K, quench occurred at ˜55 mT , apparently due to a defect, so additional treatment may increase the maximum gradient. Material parameters of the coating were extracted from Q vs T data, including a Tc of 18.0 ±0.1 K , close to the maximum literature value. High power pulses were used to reach fields far higher than in CW measurements, and near Tc, quench fields close to the superheating field were observed. Based on a review of previous experience with Nb3Sn cavities, a speculative mechanism involving weak link grain boundaries is presented to explain how the modified annealing step could be the cause of the absence of strong Q -slope. Finally, an analysis of the progress to date provides hints that the path forward for Nb3Sn cavities should focus on minimizing defects.

  13. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  14. Operation of the CAPRICE electron cyclotron resonance ion source applying frequency tuning and double frequency heating.

    PubMed

    Maimone, F; Tinschert, K; Celona, L; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P

    2012-02-01

    The properties of the electromagnetic waves heating the electrons of the ECR ion sources (ECRIS) plasma affect the features of the extracted ion beams such as the emittance, the shape, and the current, in particular for higher charge states. The electron heating methods such as the frequency tuning effect and the double frequency heating are widely used for enhancing the performances of ECRIS or even for the routine operation during the beam production. In order to better investigate these effects the CAPRICE ECRIS has been operated using these techniques. The ion beam properties for highly charged ions have been measured with beam diagnostic tools. The reason of the observed variations of this performance can be related to the different electromagnetic field patterns, which are changing inside the plasma chamber when the frequency is varying.

  15. Sisyphus Thermalization of Photons in a Cavity-Coupled Double Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullans, M. J.; Stehlik, J.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Eichler, C.; Petta, J. R.; Taylor, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the nonclassical states of light that emerge in a microwave resonator coupled to a periodically driven electron in a nanowire double quantum dot (DQD). Under certain drive configurations, we find that the resonator approaches a thermal state at the temperature of the surrounding substrate with a chemical potential given by a harmonic of the drive frequency. Away from these thermal regions we find regions of gain and loss, where the system can lase, or regions where the DQD acts as a single-photon source. These effects are observable in current devices and have broad utility for quantum optics with microwave photons.

  16. Sisyphus Thermalization of Photons in a Cavity-Coupled Double Quantum Dot

    PubMed Central

    Gullans, M. J.; Stehlik, J.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Eichler, C.; Petta, J. R.; Taylor, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the non-classical states of light that emerge in a microwave resonator coupled to a periodically-driven electron in a nanowire double quantum dot (DQD). Under certain drive configurations, we find that the resonator approaches a thermal state at the temperature of the surrounding substrate with a chemical potential given by a harmonic of the drive frequency. Away from these thermal regions we find regions of gain and loss, where the system can lase, or regions where the DQD acts as a single-photon source. These effects are observable in current devices and have broad utility for quantum optics with microwave photons. PMID:27517784

  17. Application of superconducting magnesium diboride (MGB2) in superconducting radio frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Teng

    The superconductivity in magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered in 2001. As a BCS superconductor, MgB2 has a record-high Tc of 39 K, high Jc of > 107 A/cm2 and no weak link behavior across the grain boundary. All these superior properties endorsed that MgB2 would have great potential in both power applications and electronic devices. In the past 15 years, MgB2 based power cables, microwave devices, and commercial MRI machines emerged and the next frontier are superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. SRF cavities are one of the leading accelerator technologies. In SRF cavities, applied microwave power generates electrical fields that accelerate particle beams. Compared with other accelerator techniques, SRF cavity accelerators feature low loss, high acceleration gradients and the ability to accelerate continuous particle beams. However, current SRF cavities are made from high-purity bulk niobium and work at 2 K in superfluid helium. The construction and operational cost of SRF cavity accelerators are very expensive. The demand for SRF cavity accelerators has been growing rapidly in the past decade. Therefore, a lot of effort has been devoted to the enhancement of the performance and the reduction of cost of SRF cavities. In 2010, an acceleration gradient of over 50 MV/m has been reported for a Nb-based SRF cavity. The magnetic field at the inner surface of such a cavity is ~ 1700 Oe, which is close to the thermodynamic critical field of Nb. Therefore, new materials and technologies are required to raise the acceleration gradient of future SRF cavity accelerators. Among all the proposed approaches, using MgB2 thin films to coat the inner surface of SRF cavities is one of the promising tactics with the potential to raise both the acceleration gradient and the operation temperature of SRF cavity accelerators. In this work, I present my study on MgB2 thin films for their application in SRF cavities. C-epitaxial MgB2 thin films grown on SiC(0001) substrates

  18. Multi-cavity coupling acoustic metamaterials with low-frequency broad band gaps based on negative mass density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuanhui; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Songhua; Jing, Li

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies a novel kind of low-frequency broadband acoustic metamaterials with small size based on the mechanisms of negative mass density and multi-cavity coupling. The structure consists of a closed resonant cavity and an open resonant cavity, which can be equivalent to a homogeneous medium with effective negative mass density in a certain frequency range by using the parameter inversion method. The negative mass density makes the anti-resonance area increased, which results in broadened band gaps greatly. Owing to the multi-cavity coupling mechanism, the local resonances of the lower frequency mainly occur in the closed cavity, while the local resonances of the higher frequency mainly in the open cavity. Upon the interaction between the negative mass density and the multi-cavity coupling, there exists two broad band gaps in the range of 0-1800 Hz, i.e. the first-order band gap from 195 Hz to 660 Hz with the bandwidth of 465 Hz and the second-order band gap from 1157 Hz to 1663 Hz with the bandwidth of 506 Hz. The acoustic metamaterials with small size presented in this paper could provide a new approach to reduce the low-frequency broadband noises.

  19. Numerical evaluation of aperture coupling in resonant cavities and frequency perturbation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R.; Nayak, B.; Sharma, A.; Mittal, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a general formulation for numerical evaluation of the coupling between two identical resonant cavities by a small elliptical aperture in a plane common wall of arbitrary thickness. It is organized into two parts. In the first one we discuss the aperture coupling that is expressed in terms of electric and magnetic dipole moments and polarizabilities using Carlson symmetric elliptical integrals. Carlson integrals have been numerically evaluated and under zero thickness approximation, the results match with the complete elliptical integrals of first and second kind. It is found that with zero wall thickness, the results obtained are the same as those of Bethe and Collin for an elliptical and circular aperture of zero thickness. In the second part, Slater's perturbation method is applied to find the frequency changes due to apertures of finite thickness on the cavity wall.

  20. Effective index model predicts modal frequencies of vertical-cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    SERKLAND,DARWIN K.; HADLEY,G. RONALD; CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; GEIB,KENT M.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-04-18

    Previously, an effective index optical model was introduced for the analysis of lateral waveguiding effects in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. The authors show that the resultant transverse equation is almost identical to the one typically obtained in the analysis of dielectric waveguide problems, such as a step-index optical fiber. The solution to the transverse equation yields the lateral dependence of the optical field and, as is recognized in this paper, the discrete frequencies of the microcavity modes. As an example, they apply this technique to the analysis of vertical-cavity lasers that contain thin-oxide apertures. The model intuitively explains the experimental data and makes quantitative predictions in good agreement with a highly accurate numerical model.

  1. Experimental Demonstration of Frequency Autolocking an Optical Cavity Using a Time-Varying Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, Dirk; Hassen, S. Z. Sayed; Karvinen, Kai S.; Boyson, Toby K.; Kallapur, Abhijit G.; Song, Hongbin; Petersen, Ian R.; Huntington, Elanor H.; Heurs, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new autolocking scheme using a three-mirror ring cavity consisting of a linear quadratic regulator and a time-varying Kalman filter. Our technique does not require a frequency scan to acquire resonance. We utilize the singular perturbation method to simplify our system dynamics and to permit the application of linear control techniques. The error signal combined with the transmitted power is used to estimate the cavity detuning. This estimate is used by a linear time-varying Kalman filter which enables the implementation of an optimal controller. The experimental results validate the controller design, and we demonstrate improved robustness to disturbances and a faster locking time than a traditional proportional-integral controller. More important, the time-varying Kalman filtering approach automatically reacquires lock for large detunings, where the error signal leaves its linear capture range, a feat which linear time-invariant controllers cannot achieve.

  2. Investigation of the superconducting properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    Radio-frequency (rf) superconducting cavities are widely used to increase the energy of a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The maximum gradients of cavities made of bulk niobium have constantly improved over the last ten years and they are approaching the theoretical limit of the material. Nevertheless, rf tests of niobium cavities are still showing some "anomalous" losses (so-called "Q-drop"), characterized by a marked increase of the surface resistance at high rf fields, in absence of field emission. A low temperature "in-situ" baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied by several laboratories to reduce those losses and improve the cavity's quality factor. Several models have been proposed to explain the cause of the Q-drop and the baking effect. We investigated the effect of baking on niobium material parameters by measuring the temperature dependence of a cavity's surface impedance and comparing it with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer's theory of superconductivity. It was found that baking allows interstitial oxygen to diffuse from the surface deeper into the bulk. This produces a significant reduction of the normal electrons' mean free path, which causes an increase of the quality factor. The optimum baking parameters are 120°C for 24-48 h. We were also able to identify the origin of the Q-drop as due to a high magnetic field, rather then electric field, by measuring the quality factor of a cavity as function of the rf field in a resonant mode with only magnetic field present on the surface. With the aid of a thermometry system, we were able to localize the losses in the high magnetic field region. We measured the Q-drop in cavities which had undergone different treatments, such as anodization, electropolishing and post-purification, and with different metallurgical properties and we study the effectiveness of baking in each case. As a result, none of the models proposed so far can explain all the experimental observations. We

  3. Development of double spiral MEMS hotplate using front-side etching cavity for gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Magandeep; Prasad, Mahanth

    2016-04-01

    A microhotplate has increased attention in the field of metal oxide based gas sensors in order to provide an adequate temperature required for gas sensing phenomena. In this work a double spiral platinum based heater has been design and fabricated. The design and simulation of the microhotplate was carried out using MEMS-CAD TOOL COVENTORWARE. The electro-thermal simulation of heater was used in the simulation. The hotplate structure was consists of a 1.0 µm-thick SiO2 membrane of size 500 ×500 µm2 over which a platinum resistor of 0.2 µm thickness was laid out. The fabrication of microhotplate was done using bulk micromachining process. In this process, the SiO2 membrane was suspended by making a 180 µm deep cavity using tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution. For an applied voltage (5V), the temperature of 927°C was obtained across center area of the membrane. The test results indicate that the microhotplate consumes only 5 V when heated up to 600°C. However, at 11V, a maximum temperature of around 1230°C in center area of the membrane was achieved.

  4. Widely tunable terahertz source based on intra-cavity frequency mixing in quantum cascade laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Aiting; Jung, Seungyong; Jiang, Yifan; Kim, Jae Hyun; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Vijayraghavan, Karun

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate a compact monolithic terahertz source continuously tunable from 1.9 THz to 3.9 THz with the maximum peak power output of 106 μW at 3.46 THz at room temperature. The source consists of an array of 10 electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers with intra-cavity terahertz difference-frequency generation. To increase fabrication yield and achieve high THz peak power output in our devices, a dual-section current pumping scheme is implemented using two electrically isolated grating sections to independently control gain for the two mid-IR pumps.

  5. Phase and frequency dynamics of a short cavity swept-source OCT laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T.; Goulding, D.; Slepneva, S.; O'Shaughnessy, B.; Kelleher, B.; Lyu, H.-C.; Hegarty, S. P.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Karnowski, K.; Wojtkowski, M.; Huyet, G.

    2015-03-01

    We analyse the dynamical behaviour of a short cavity OCT swept-source laser experimentally and theoretically. Mode-hopping, sliding frequency mode-locking and chaos are all observed during the laser sweep period. Hetero- dyne measurements of laser dynamics allows some insight into the behaviour of the laser, while interferometric techniques allow the full phase reconstruction of the laser electric field. A delay differential equation enables modelling of the laser output, and laser parameters can be altered to provide optimisation conditions for future laser designs.

  6. A novel approach to characterizing the surface topography of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Tian, Guilhem Ribeill, Chen Xu, Charles E. Reece, Michael J. Kelley

    2011-03-01

    As superconducting niobium radio-frequency (SRF) cavities approach fundamental material limits, there is increased interest in understanding the details of topographical influences on realized performance limitations. Micro- and nano-roughness are implicated in both direct geometrical field enhancements as well as complications of the composition of the 50 nm surface layer in which the super-currents typically flow. Interior surface chemical treatments such as buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electropolishing (EP) used to remove mechanical damage leave surface topography, including pits and protrusions of varying sharpness. These may promote RF magnetic field entry, locally quenching superconductivity, so as to degrade cavity performance. A more incisive analysis of surface topography than the widely used average roughness is needed. In this study, a power spectral density (PSD) approach based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data acquired by both stylus profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is introduced to distinguish the scale-dependent smoothing effects, resulting in a novel qualitative and quantitative description of Nb surface topography. The topographical evolution of the Nb surface as a function of different steps of well-controlled EP is discussed. This study will greatly help to identify optimum EP parameter sets for controlled and reproducible surface levelling of Nb for cavity production.

  7. Continuous Vernier filtering of an optical frequency comb for broadband cavity-enhanced molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Lucile; Morville, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    We have recently introduced the Vernier-based Direct Frequency Comb Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy technique which allows us to record broadband spectra at high sensitivity and GHz resolution (Rutkowski and Morville, 2014) [1]. We discuss here the effect of Vernier filtering on the observed lineshapes in the 3 ν + δ band of water vapor and the entire A-band of oxygen around 800 nm in ambient air. We derive expressions for the absorption profiles resulting from the continuous Vernier filtering method, testing them on spectra covering more than 2000 cm-1 around 12,500 cm-1. With 31,300 independent spectral elements acquired at the second time scale, an absorption baseline noise of 2 ×10-8cm-1 is obtained, providing a figure of merit of 1.1×10-10 cm-1/√{ Hz } per spectral element with a cavity finesse of 3000 and a cavity round-trip length around 3.3 m.

  8. Highly efficient Er-Yb codoped double-clad fiber amplifier with an Yb-band resonant cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qun; Yao, Yunzhi; Tang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Yaofei; Yan, Wenchuan; Liu, Tiegen; Song, Huiling

    2017-02-01

    A high-power Er-Yb codoped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) with an Yb-band resonant cavity is investigated. By introducing a linear resonant cavity formed by a pair of high-reflection double-clad fiber Bragg gratings, the Yb-ASE problem of high-power pumped EYDFAs can be resolved and the efficiency of the amplifier can be notably improved. At a pump power of ~17 W, an output power of 7.25 W was experimentally achieved. The pump conversion efficiency and slope efficiency relative to the applied pump power are ~42.6% and ~45.6%, respectively. Moreover, due to the gain-clamping effect of the Yb cavity, the gain flatness of the amplifier is also evidently improved.

  9. Surface Characterization of Impurities in Superconducting Niobium for Radio Frequency (RF) Cavities used in Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Prateek

    Niobium (Nb) is the material of choice for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavities used in particle accelerators owing to its high critical temperature (Tc = 9.2 K) and critical magnetic field (≈ 200mT). However, niobium tends to harbor interstitial impurities such as H, C, O and N, which are detrimental to cavity performance. Since the magnetic field penetration depth (lambda) of niobium is 40nm, it is important to characterize these impurities using surface characterization techniques. Also, it is known that certain heat treatments improve cavity efficiency via interstitial impurity removal from the surface of niobium. Thus, a systematic study on the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurity levels is needed. In this work, surface analysis of both heat treated and non heat treated (120°C-1400°C) large grain (single crystal) bulk niobium samples was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Impurity levels were compared on the surface using SIMS after various types of heat treatments expected to improve cavity performance, and the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurities were examined. SIMS characterization of ion implanted standards of C, N, O, D showed that quantification of C, N and O impurities in Nb is achievable and indicated that H is very mobile in Nb. It was hence determined that quantification of H in Nb is not possible using SIMS due to its high diffusivity in Nb. However, a comparative study of the high temperature heat treated (600°C-1400°C) and non heat treated (control) samples revealed that hydrogen levels decreased by upto a factor of 100. This is attributed to the dissociation of the niobium surface oxide layer, which acts as a passivating film on the surface, and subsequent desorption of hydrogen. Reformation of this oxide layer on cool down disallows any re-absorption of hydrogen, indicating that the oxide acts as a surface barrier for

  10. An innovative MRE absorber with double natural frequencies for wide frequency bandwidth vibration absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuaishuai; Yang, Jian; Li, Weihua; Deng, Huaxia; Du, Haiping; Alici, Gursel; Yan, Tianhong

    2016-05-01

    A new design of adaptive tuned vibration absorber was proposed in this study for vibration reduction. The innovation of the new absorber is the adoption of the eccentric mass on the top of the multilayered magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) structure so that this proposed absorber has two vibration modes: one in the torsional direction and the other in translational direction. This property enables the absorber to expand its effective bandwidth and to be more capable of reducing the vibrations especially dealing with those vibrations with multi-frequencies. The innovative MRE absorber was designed and tested on a horizontal vibration table. The test results illustrate that the MRE absorber realized double natural frequencies, both of which are controllable. Inertia’s influence on the dynamic behavior of the absorber is also investigated in order to guide the design of the innovative MRE absorber. Additionally, the experimentally obtained natural frequencies coincide with the theoretical data, which sufficiently verifies the feasibility of this new design. The last part in terms of the vibration absorption ability also proves that both of these two natural frequencies play a great role in absorbing vibration energy.

  11. Tunable photonic cavity coupled to a voltage-biased double quantum dot system: Diagrammatic nonequilibrium Green's function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Kulkarni, Manas; Mukamel, Shaul; Segal, Dvira

    2016-07-01

    We investigate gain in microwave photonic cavities coupled to voltage-biased double quantum dot systems with an arbitrarily strong dot-lead coupling and with a Holstein-like light-matter interaction, by employing the diagrammatic Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function approach. We compute out-of-equilibrium properties of the cavity: its transmission, phase response, mean photon number, power spectrum, and spectral function. We show that by the careful engineering of these hybrid light-matter systems, one can achieve a significant amplification of the optical signal with the voltage-biased electronic system serving as a gain medium. We also study the steady-state current across the device, identifying elastic and inelastic tunneling processes which involve the cavity mode. Our results show how recent advances in quantum electronics can be exploited to build hybrid light-matter systems that behave as microwave amplifiers and photon source devices. The diagrammatic Keldysh approach is primarily discussed for a cavity-coupled double quantum dot architecture, but it is generalizable to other hybrid light-matter systems.

  12. Characterizing the dynamics of cavity solitons and frequency combs in the Lugiato-Lefever equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rivas, P.; Gomila, D.; Gelens, L.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a detailed analysis of bifurcation structures of cavity solitons (CSs) and determine the different dynamical regimes in the Lugiato-Lefever (LL) equation in the presence of anomalous and normal chromatic dispersion regimes. Such an analysis has been shown to also increase our understanding of frequency combs (FCs). A FC consists in a set of equidistant spectral lines that can be used to measure light frequencies and time intervals more easily and precisely than ever before. Due to the duality between CSs in microcavities and FCs, we can gain information about the behavior of FCs by analyzing the dynamics of CSs. In the anomalous dispersion case bright CSs are organized in what is known as a homoclinic snaking bifurcation structure. In contrast, in the normal dispersion regime dark CSs are organized differently, in a structure known as collapsing snaking. Despite the differences in bifurcation scenarios, both types of CSs present similar temporal instabilities.

  13. Characterization of Nb Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities Based On In-Situ STEM And EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Runzhe

    Niobium, a 4d transition metal, has the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc=9.2K) of any elemental superconductor as type II superconductor with coherent length, sigma approximately that of the penetration length, lambda. Pure niobium is grey in color and very soft, which makes this metal easily fabricable into different shapes for superconducting radio- frequency (SRF) cavities. Such cavities are used in some modern accelerators (SNS, CEBAF, XFEL), and are intended for usage in the next generation of particle accelerators, such as ILC. Since the crucial part of the cavities is top 100 nm of Nb near the inner cavity surface, considering the penetration depth is around 40 nm, it has attracted more and more attention in improving the surface process for optimizing the performance of the cavities. Nowadays, the main treatment of the Nb surface includes electro polishing (EP), buffered chemical polishing (BCP), high temperature baking (800 °C, 1000 °C and 1200 °C) and mild baking (120 °C). Firstly, the two half cells are welded together and the weld line is quite rough; there exists a lot of visible pits and defects on the inner shell of cavities. In this Ph.D. thesis, novel techniques in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that can be used to analyze the atomic scale structure-property relationship, both at room tem- perature and high/LN 2 temperature, are explored. Specifically, by using correlated Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS), the structure, composition and bonding can be characterized directly on the atomic scale, also, light atoms, like H, O and C, are visible in ABF images. For the examining the defect behavior on the cavity surface, heating and cold stages are involved to simulate the baking treatment and low-temperature environments. These studies will serve as an important reference for qualifying different surface treatments to further improve SRF cavities' performance. The experimental results

  14. Periodontal treatment with the frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas; Reichart, Peter

    2000-03-01

    While earlier periodontal investigations have proved the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser to eliminate efficiently and selectively dental calculus as well as bacteria the aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety of this laser for removal of dental calculus with respect to the dental pulp. Four adult Labrador dogs were treated with a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (laboratory prototype, q-switched, fiber guided, wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 1 microsecond, pulse repetition rate 70 Hz, water cooling) to remove dental calculus. After performing a modified Widman flap procedure the buccal surface of nine teeth in the lower and upper right jaw were irradiated for four minutes per tooth. Three different laser fluences up to four times higher than the fluence required for calculus removal were used (1.5, 3 and 6 J/cm2). At three other sites of the right jaw deep cavities were prepared with a dental drill and filled with compomere material (DyractR, Dentsply, Germany) to serve as a positive control with regard to possible pulpal reactions. The corresponding teeth of the lower and upper left jaw served as controls. Animals were sacrificed one day, one week, four weeks and six weeks after treatment. Teeth were separated, fixed in formalin and decalcified. After embedding and sectioning the histological sections were stained and investigated by a totally blinded investigator (P.A.R). Histological investigations revealed that irradiation with the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for periodontal treatment with fluences of 1.5 J/cm2 -- those fluences necessary for the selective removal of dental calculus and microbial plaque -- had no adverse side effects to the pulpal tissues. Moreover this pulpal safety study demonstrated that even applying fluences two or four times higher than those suggested for calculus removal do not lead to observable changes or alterations in the odontoblast cell layer or the pulpal tissues. No inflammatory reactions and no

  15. Double resonant absorption measurement of acetylene symmetric vibrational states probed with cavity ring down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karhu, J.; Nauta, J.; Vainio, M.; Metsälä, M.; Hoekstra, S.; Halonen, L.

    2016-06-01

    A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν 1 + ν 2 + ν 3 + ν4 1 + ν5 - 1 in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm-1, the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm-1, and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10-6 cm-1, where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits.

  16. Sub-kilohertz linewidth narrowing of a mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator idler frequency by direct cavity stabilization.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, I; Mosca, S; Parisi, M; Maddaloni, P; Santamaria, L; De Natale, P; De Rosa, M

    2015-10-15

    We stabilize the idler frequency of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator directly to the resonance of a mid-infrared Fabry-Perot reference cavity. This is accomplished by the Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme, controlling either the pump laser or the resonant signal frequency. A residual relative frequency noise power spectral density below 10(3)  Hz(2)/Hz is reached on average, with a Gaussian linewidth of 920 Hz over 100 ms, which reveals the potential for reaching spectral purity down to the hertz level by locking the optical parametric oscillator against a mid-infrared cavity with state-of-the-art superior performance.

  17. Temporal characterization of FEL micropulses as function of cavity length detuning using frequency-resolved optical gating

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, B.A.; DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R.

    1995-12-31

    Results of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements on the Stanford mid-IR FEL system show the effect of FEL cavity length detuning on the micropulse temporal structure. The FROG technique enables the acquisition of complete and uniquely invertible amplitude and phase temporal dependence of optical pulses. Unambiguous phase and amplitude profiles are recovered from the data. The optical pulses are nearly transform limited, and the pulse length increases with cavity length detuning.

  18. Cavity-assisted atomic frequency comb memory in an isotopically pure 143Nd3+ :YLiF4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedzhanov, R. A.; Gushchin, L. A.; Kalachev, A. A.; Nizov, N. A.; Nizov, V. A.; Sobgayda, D. A.; Zelensky, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we present an implementation of cavity-assisted atomic frequency comb (AFC) memory protocol in an isotopically pure 143Nd3+ :YLiF4 crystal. We use a tunable confocal Fabry-Perot cavity that is placed inside the cryostat. For a 1 mm thick sample with optical depth of 0.2 we obtain total storage efficiency of 3%, which is a 15-fold enhancement compared to the no cavity case. The memory bandwidth is limited by the inhomogeneous broadening of the optical transition and allows us to store short 30 ns pulses.

  19. A Wide Spaced Femtosecond Ti:Sapphire Frequency Comb at 15 GHz by a Fabry—Pérot Filter Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Han, Hai-Nian; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Li, De-Hua; Wei, Zhi-Yi

    2013-10-01

    We realize a wide spaced frequency comb by using an external low-fineness Fabry—Pérot (F-P) cavity to filter few-cycle laser pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser at the fundamental repetition rate of 350MHz. Mode spacing as wide as 15 GHz with spectrum covered from 690 nm to 710 nm is demonstrated, corresponding to a filter multiple of about 43. The scanning transmission peaks after the F-P cavity with cavity lengths are also simulated numerically, and the results are in agreement with the experiment.

  20. Spectrum of the cavity-QED microlaser: strong coupling effects in the frequency pulling at off resonance.

    PubMed

    Hong, H-G; Seo, W; Song, Y; Lee, M; Jeong, H; Shin, Y; Choi, W; Dasari, R R; An, K

    2012-12-14

    We report the first experimental observation of the cavity-QED microlaser spectrum, specifically the unconventional frequency pulling brought by a strong atom-cavity coupling at off resonance. The pulling is enhanced quadratically by the atom-cavity coupling to result in a sensitive response to the number of pumping atoms (2.1 kHz per atom maximally). Periodic variation of the pulling due to the coherent Rabi oscillation is also observed as the number of pumping atoms is increased across multiple thresholds.

  1. Superconducting NbTiN thin films for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavity applications

    DOE PAGES

    Burton, Matthew C.; Beebe, Melissa R.; Yang, Kaida; ...

    2016-02-12

    Current superconducting radio frequency technology, used in various particle accelerator facilities across the world, is reliant upon bulk niobium superconducting cavities. Due to technological advancements in the processing of bulk Nb cavities, the facilities have reached accelerating fields very close to a material-dependent limit, which is close to 50 MV/m for bulk Nb. One possible solution to improve upon this fundamental limitation was proposed a few years ago by Gurevich [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012511 (2006)], consisting of the deposition of alternating thin layers of superconducting and insulating materials on the interior surface of the cavities. The use of type-IImore » superconductors with Tc > TcNb and Hc > HcNb, (e.g., Nb3Sn, NbN, or NbTiN) could potentially greatly reduce the surface resistance (Rs) and enhance the accelerating field, if the onset of vortex penetration is increased above HcNb, thus enabling higher field gradients. Although Nb3Sn may prove superior, it is not clear that it can be grown as a suitable thin film for the proposed multilayer approach, since very high temperature is typically required for its growth, hindering achieving smooth interfaces and/or surfaces. On the other hand, since NbTiN has a smaller lower critical field (Hc1) and higher critical temperature (Tc) than Nb and increased conductivity compared to NbN, it is a promising candidate material for this new scheme. Here, the authors present experimental results correlating filmmicrostructure with superconducting properties on NbTiN thin film coupon samples while also comparing filmsgrown with targets of different stoichiometry. In conclusion, it is worth mentioning that the authors have achieved thin films with bulk-like lattice parameter and transition temperature while also achieving Hc1 values larger than bulk for films thinner than their London penetration depths.« less

  2. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers.

    PubMed

    Mullavey, Adam J; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2012-01-02

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities' lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully transfer longitudinal control of the system from the auxiliary laser to the measurement laser.

  3. Efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser by a double-stage light-guide/V-groove cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Joana; Liang, Dawei

    2011-05-01

    Since the first reported Nd:YAG solar laser, researchers have been exploiting parabolic mirrors and heliostats for enhancing laser output performance. We are now investigating the production of an efficient solar-pumped laser for the reduction of magnesium from magnesium oxide, which could be an alternative solution to fossil fuel. Therefore both high conversion efficiency and excellent beam quality are imperative. By using a single fused silica light guide of rectangular cross section, highly concentrated solar radiation at the focal spot of a stationary parabolic mirror is efficiently transferred to a water-flooded V-groove pump cavity. It allows for the double-pass absorption of pump light along a 4mm diameter, 30mm length, 1.1at% Nd:YAG rod. Optimum pumping parameters and solar laser output power are found through ZEMAXTM non-sequential ray-tracing and LASCADTM laser cavity analysis. 11.0 W of multimode laser output power with excellent beam profile is numerically calculated, corresponding to 6.1W/m2 collection efficiency. To validate the proposed pumping scheme, an experimental setup of the double-stage light-guide/V-groove cavity was built. 78% of highly concentrated solar radiation was efficiently transmitted by the fused silica light guide. The proposed pumping scheme can be an effective solution for enhancing solar laser performances when compared to other side-pump configurations.

  4. Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in two-dimensional free charge carrier gases detected at terahertz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Knight, S; Schöche, S; Darakchieva, V; Kühne, P; Carlin, J-F; Grandjean, N; Herzinger, C M; Schubert, M; Hofmann, T

    2015-06-15

    The effect of a tunable, externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity to resonantly enhance the optical Hall effect signatures at terahertz frequencies produced by a traditional Drude-like two-dimensional electron gas is shown and discussed in this Letter. As a result, the detection of optical Hall effect signatures at conveniently obtainable magnetic fields, for example, by neodymium permanent magnets, is demonstrated. An AlInN/GaN-based high-electron mobility transistor structure grown on a sapphire substrate is used for the experiment. The optical Hall effect signatures and their dispersions, which are governed by the frequency and the reflectance minima and maxima of the externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity, are presented and discussed. Tuning the externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity strongly modifies the optical Hall effect signatures, which provides a new degree of freedom for optical Hall effect experiments in addition to frequency, angle of incidence, and magnetic field direction and strength.

  5. Characterization of spatiotemporal chaos in a Kerr optical frequency comb and in all fiber cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Ouali, M.; Coulibaly, S.; Clerc, M. G.; Taki, M.; Tlidi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Complex spatiotemporal dynamics have been a subject of recent experimental investigations in optical frequency comb microresonators and in driven fiber cavities with a Kerr-type media. We show that this complex behavior has a spatiotemporal chaotic nature. We determine numerically the Lyapunov spectra, allowing to characterize different dynamical behavior occurring in these simple devices. The Yorke-Kaplan dimension is used as an order parameter to characterize the bifurcation diagram. We identify a wide regime of parameters where the system exhibits a coexistence between the spatiotemporal chaos, the oscillatory localized structure, and the homogeneous steady state. The destabilization of an oscillatory localized state through radiation of counter propagative fronts between the homogeneous and the spatiotemporal chaotic states is analyzed. To characterize better the spatiotemporal chaos, we estimate the front speed as a function of the pump intensity.

  6. Reclamation of niobium compounds from ionic liquid electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wixtrom, Alex I.; Buhler, Jessica E.; Reece, Charles E.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that choline chloride (vitamin B4)-based solutions can be used as a greener alternative to acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. This study demonstrated a successful method for electrochemical deposition of niobium compounds onto the surface of copper substrates using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. Niobium ions present in the ionic liquid solution were dissolved into the solution prior to deposition via electrochemical polishing of solid niobium. A black coating was clearly visible on the surface of the Cu following deposition. This coating was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). This ionic liquid-based electrochemical deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities.

  7. Insights to Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavity Processing from First Principles Calculations and Spectroscopic Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Denise Christine

    2013-03-01

    Insights to the fundamental processes that occur during the manufacturing of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are provided via analyses of density functional theory calculations and Raman, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. I show that during electropolishing fluorine is bound and released by the reaction of the acid components in the solution: HF + H2SO4 <-> HFSO3 + H2O. This result implies that new recipes can possibly be developed on the principle of controlled release of fluorine by a chemical reaction. I also show that NMR or Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor the free fluorine when polishing with the standard electropolishing recipe. Density functional theory was applied to calculate the properties of common processing impurities – hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon – in the niobium. These impurities lower the superconducting transition temperature of niobium, and hydride precipitates are at best weakly superconducting. I modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities, and explain the phase changes in the niobium hydrogen system based on the charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen and the strain field inside of the niobium. I also present evidence for a niobium lattice vacancy serving as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. In considering the other chemical impurities in niobium, I show that the absorption of oxygen into a niobium lattice vacancy is preferred over the absorption of hydrogen, which indicates that oxygen can block these phase nucleation centers. I also show that dissolved oxygen atoms can trap dissolved hydrogen atoms to prevent niobium hydride phase formation. Nitrogen and carbon were studied in less depth, but behaved similarly to oxygen. Based on these results and a literature survey, I propose a mechanism for the success of the low-temperature anneal applied to niobium SRF cavities. Finally, I

  8. Surface polishing of niobium for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang

    2014-08-01

    Niobium cavities are important components in modern particle accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology. The interior of SRF cavities are cleaned and polished in order to produce high accelerating field and low power dissipation on the cavity wall. Current polishing methods, buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electro-polishing (EP), have their advantages and limitations. We seek to improve current methods and explore laser polishing (LP) as a greener alternative of chemical methods. The topography and removal rate of BCP at different conditions (duration, temperature, sample orientation, flow rate) was studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Differential etching on different crystal orientations is the main contributor to fine grain niobium BCP topography, with gas evolution playing a secondary role. The surface of single crystal and bi-crystal niobium is smooth even after heavy BCP. The topography of fine grain niobium depends on total removal. The removal rate increases with temperature and surface acid flow rate within the rage of 0~20 °C, with chemical reaction being the possible dominate rate control mechanism. Surface flow helps to regulate temperature and avoid gas accumulation on the surface. The effect of surface flow rate on niobium EP was studied with optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Within the range of 0~3.7 cm/s, no significant difference was found on the removal rate and the macro roughness. Possible improvement on the micro roughness with increased surface flow rate was observed. The effect of fluence and pulse accumulation on niobium topography during LP was studied with optical microscopy, SEM, AFM, and PSD analysis. Polishing on micro scale was achieved within fluence range of 0.57~0.90 J/cm2, with pulse accumulation adjusted accordingly. Larger area treatment was proved possible by

  9. Insights to Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavity Processing from First Principles Calculations and Spectroscopic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Denise Christine

    Insights to the fundamental processes that occur during the manufacturing of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are provided via analyses of density functional theory calculations and Raman, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. I show that during electropolishing fluorine is bound and released by the reaction of the acid components in the solution: HF + H2SO4 <-> HFSO3 + H2O. This result implies that new recipes can possibly be developed on the principle of controlled release of fluorine by a chemical reaction. I also show that NMR or Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor the free fluorine when polishing with the standard electropolishing recipe. Density functional theory was applied to calculate the properties of common processing impurities---hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon---in the niobium. These impurities lower the superconducting transition temperature of niobium, and hydride precipitates are at best weakly superconducting. I modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities, and explain the phase changes in the niobium hydrogen system based on the charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen and the strain field inside of the niobium. I also present evidence for a niobium lattice vacancy serving as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. In considering the other chemical impurities in niobium, I show that the absorption of oxygen into a niobium lattice vacancy is preferred over the absorption of hydrogen, which indicates that oxygen can block these phase nucleation centers. I also show that dissolved oxygen atoms can trap dissolved hydrogen atoms to prevent niobium hydride phase formation. Nitrogen and carbon were studied in less depth, but behaved similarly to oxygen. Based on these results and a literature survey, I propose a mechanism for the success of the low-temperature anneal applied to niobium SRF cavities. Finally, I present the beginning of a model to describe magnetic

  10. Evaluation of thermal expansion coefficient of Fabry-Perot cavity using an optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulehla, Jindřich; Šmíd, Radek; Buchta, Zdeněk; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Jedlička, Petr; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2011-05-01

    In construction of highly mechanically stable measuring devices like AFM microscopes or nano-comparators the use of low expansion materials is very necessary. We can find Zerodur ceramics or ULE glasses used as a frame or basement of these devices. The expansion coefficient of such low-expansion materials is lower than 0.01 x 10-6 m•K-1. For example in case of a frame or basement 20 cm long it leads to a dilatation approximately 4 nm per 1 K. For calculation of the total uncertainty of the mentioned measuring devices the knowledge of the thermal expansion coefficient of the frame or basement is necessary. In this work we present a method, where small distance changes are transformed into rf-frequency signal. The frequency of this signal is detected by a counter which measures the value of the frequency with respect to an ultra-stable time-base. This method uses a Fabry-Perot cavity as a distance measuring tool. The spacer of the optical resonator is made from the investigated low-expansion material. It is placed into a vacuum chamber where the inside temperature is controlled. A selected mode of the femtosecond frequency of the femtosecond comb which represent the distance changes of the optical resonator. The frequency is measured by the rf-counter which is synchronized by a time-base signal from an atomic clock. The first results show the resolution of the method in the 0.1 nm order. Therefore the method has a potential in characterisation of materials in the nanoworld.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Hydroformed Tubular Materials for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Sung

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities represent a well established technology benefiting from some 40 years of research and development. An increasing demand for electron and positron accelerators leads to a continuing interest in improved cavity performance and fabrication techniques. Therefore, several seamless cavity fabrication techniques have been proposed for eliminating the multitude of electron-beam welded seams that contribute to the introduction of performance-reducing defects. Among them, hydroforming using hydraulic pressure is a promising fabrication technique for producing the desired seamless cavities while at the same time reducing manufacturing cost. This study focused on experimental and numerical analysis of hydroformed niobium (Nb) tubes for the successful application of hydroforming technique to the seamless fabrication of multi-cell SRF cavities for particle acceleration. The heat treatment, tensile testing, and bulge testing of Cu and Nb tubes has been carried out to both provide starting data for models of hydroforming of Nb tube into seamless SRF cavities. Based on the results of these experiments, numerical analyses using finite element modeling were conducted for a bulge deformation of Cu and Nb. In the experimental part of the study samples removed from representative tubes were prepared for heat treatment, tensile testing, residual resistance ratio (RRR) measurement, and orientation imaging electron microscopy (OIM). After being optimally heat treated Cu and Nb tubes were subjected to hydraulic bulge testing and the results analyzed. For numerical analysis of hydroforming process, two different simulation approaches were used. The first model was the macro-scale continuum model using the constitutive equations (stress-strain relationship) as an input of the simulation. The constitutive equations were obtained from the experimental procedure including tensile and tube bulge tests in order to investigate the influence of loading

  12. Dual-comb spectroscopy using frequency-doubled combs around 775 nm.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Simon; Genest, Jérôme

    2013-12-16

    Two frequency-doubled combs are generated by nonlinear frequency conversion to realize spectroscopic measurements around 775 nm. Frequency-doubled interferograms are corrected in real-time by monitoring the relative instabilities between the combs at their fundamental frequency. Rubidium absorption lines are used to demonstrate the technique's accuracy and serve as absolute references to calibrate the frequency grid of computed spectra. The method allows frequency-doubled interferograms to be averaged without distortion during long periods of time. The calibrated frequency grid is validated by the measurement of the oxygen A-band. Moreover, the measurement analysis of the acetylene ν(1) + 3ν(3) overtone band has revealed some discrepancies with previous publications.

  13. Effective sealing of a disk cavity using a double-toothed rim seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavnani, S. H.; Khilnani, V. I.; Tsai, L.-C.; Khodadadi, J. M.; Goodling, J. S.; Waggott, J.

    1992-06-01

    The sealing characteristics of an advanced air-cooled turbo-expander disk cavity are examined employing laser sheet flow visualization and static pressure measurements. Tests are conducted on a simplified half-scale model of an actual low pressure turbo-expander first-stage disk cavity. The superior performance of the seal studied is confirmed by comparison with a single-toothed rim seal and a simple axial rim seal.

  14. Fast electron beam measurements from relativistically intense, frequency-doubled laser-solid interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R. H. H.; Pérez, F.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Clark, E. L.; Davies, J. R.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Santos, J. J.; Hulin, S.; Lancaster, K. L.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Vauzour, B.; Soloviev, A. A.; Baton, S. D.; Rose, S. J.; Norreys, P. A.

    2013-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the fast electron beam created by the interaction of relativistically intense, frequency-doubled laser light with planar solid targets and its subsequent transport within the target are presented and compared with those of a similar experiment using the laser fundamental frequency. Using frequency-doubled laser light, the fast electron source size is significantly reduced, while evidence suggests the divergence angle may be reduced. Pyrometric measurements of the target rear surface temperature and the Cu Kα imager data indicate the laser to fast electron absorption fraction is reduced using frequency doubled laser light. Bremsstrahlung measurements indicate the fast electron temperature is 125 keV, while the laser energy absorbed into forward-going fast electrons was found to be 16 ± 4% for frequency doubled light at a mean laser intensity of 5 ± 3 × 1018 W cm-2.

  15. Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10(-19) frequency stability.

    PubMed

    Clivati, Cecilia; Mura, Alberto; Calonico, Davide; Levi, Filippo; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Calosso, Claudio E; Godone, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    We stabilized the frequency of a compact planar-waveguide external cavity laser (ECL) on a Fabry-Perot cavity (FPC) through a Pound-Drever-Hall scheme. The residual frequency stability of the ECL is 10(-14), comparable to the stability achievable with a fiber laser (FL) locked to an FPC through the same scheme. We set up an optical link of 100 km, based on fiber spools, that reaches 10(-19) relative stability, and we show that its performances using the ECL or FL are comparable. Thus ECLs could serve as an excellent replacement for FLs in optical links where cost-effectiveness and robustness are important considerations.

  16. Investigation of double-mode operation and fast fine tuning properties of a grating-coupled external cavity diode laser configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakli, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Double-mode operation and fast piezo fine tuning properties of a gain chip on a thermoelectric cooler in an external cavity are investigated. A widely course double-mode tuning range of 120 nm for the spectral range between 1470 and 1590 nm is achieved by rotating the diffraction gratings forming a double Littrow-type configuration. A fast piezo fine tuning range over 7cm-1 (1.5 nm, 210 GHz) in a single-mode operation is obtained by scanning the external cavity length with scan rates up to 0.5 kHz.

  17. Dual-frequency comb generation with differing GHz repetition rates by parallel Fabry-Perot cavity filtering of a single broadband frequency comb source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildner, Jutta; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Pollinger, Florian

    2016-07-01

    We present a dual-comb-generator based on a coupled Fabry-Perot filtering cavity doublet and a single seed laser source. By filtering a commercial erbium-doped fiber-based optical frequency comb with CEO-stabilisation and 250 MHz repetition rate, two broadband coherent combs of different repetition rates in the GHz range are generated. The filtering doublet consists of two Fabry-Perot cavities with a tunable spacing and Pound-Drever-Hall stabilisation scheme. As a prerequisite for the development of such a filtering unit, we present a method to determine the actual free spectral range and transmission bandwidth of a Fabry-Perot cavity in situ. The transmitted beat signal of two diode lasers is measured as a function of their tunable frequency difference. Finally, the filtering performance and resulting beat signals of the heterodyned combs are discussed as well as the optimisation measures of the whole system.

  18. Peritumoral interstitial double-nuclide double-compound lymphoscintigraphy (PIDDL) in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Munz, D.L.; Jung, H.

    1985-05-01

    PIDDL is a new two-phase lymphoscintigraphic approach developed by MUNZ et al. for identification of lymph node drainage groups of primary tumors followed by direct visualization of metastases in the nodes. The present study was done to test the diagnostic usefulness of PIDDL in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. 58 patients of either sex, aged 31-86 years, were examined prior to surgery. In the first phase of PIDDL, lymph node groups draining the primary lesions were identified after peritumoral interstitial injection of 1.52.0 mCi Tc-99m antimony trisulfide colloid or Tc-99m human serum albumin microcolloid. In the second phase, metastases located in the draining lymph nodes were visualized following peritumoral interstitial injection of 200-300 ..mu..Ci Ga-67 citrate. Ga-67 accumulated in 71% of lymph node drainage groups identified. No GA-67 uptake was observed in lymph nodes other than those identified by the radiocolloid. Based on the radiocolloid lymphoscintigraphic data, selective lymph node dissection was performed in 41 of the patients examined. The study concludes that PIDDL offers a promising approach for the noninvasive assessment of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

  19. Superconducting NbTiN thin films for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavity applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, Matthew C.; Beebe, Melissa R.; Yang, Kaida; Lukaszew, Rosa A.; Valente-Feliciano, Anne -Marie; Reece, Charles

    2016-02-12

    Current superconducting radio frequency technology, used in various particle accelerator facilities across the world, is reliant upon bulk niobium superconducting cavities. Due to technological advancements in the processing of bulk Nb cavities, the facilities have reached accelerating fields very close to a material-dependent limit, which is close to 50 MV/m for bulk Nb. One possible solution to improve upon this fundamental limitation was proposed a few years ago by Gurevich [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012511 (2006)], consisting of the deposition of alternating thin layers of superconducting and insulating materials on the interior surface of the cavities. The use of type-II superconductors with Tc > TcNb and Hc > HcNb, (e.g., Nb3Sn, NbN, or NbTiN) could potentially greatly reduce the surface resistance (Rs) and enhance the accelerating field, if the onset of vortex penetration is increased above HcNb, thus enabling higher field gradients. Although Nb3Sn may prove superior, it is not clear that it can be grown as a suitable thin film for the proposed multilayer approach, since very high temperature is typically required for its growth, hindering achieving smooth interfaces and/or surfaces. On the other hand, since NbTiN has a smaller lower critical field (Hc1) and higher critical temperature (Tc) than Nb and increased conductivity compared to NbN, it is a promising candidate material for this new scheme. Here, the authors present experimental results correlating filmmicrostructure with superconducting properties on NbTiN thin film coupon samples while also comparing filmsgrown with targets of different stoichiometry. In conclusion, it is worth mentioning that the authors have achieved thin films with bulk-like lattice parameter and transition temperature while also achieving Hc1 values larger than bulk for films thinner than their London penetration depths.

  20. Influence of radiation on double conjugate diffusion in a porous cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeem, Khan, T. M. Yunus; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Nik-Ghazali, N.; Idris, Mohd Yamani Idna

    2016-05-01

    The current work highlights the effect of radiation on the conjugate heat and mass transfer in a square porous cavity having a solid wall. The solid wall is placed at the center of cavity. The left surface of cavity is maintained at higher temperature Tw and concentration Cw whereas the right surface is maintained at Tc and Cc such that Tw>Tc and Cw>Cc. The top and bottom surfaces are adiabatic. The governing equations are solved with the help of finite element method by making use of triangular elements. The results are discussed with respect to two different heights of solid wall inside the porous medium along with the radiation parameter.

  1. Double-cavity radiometer for high-flux density solar radiation measurements.

    PubMed

    Parretta, A; Antonini, A; Armani, M; Nenna, G; Flaminio, G; Pellegrino, M

    2007-04-20

    A radiometric method has been developed, suitable for both total power and flux density profile measurement of concentrated solar radiation. The high-flux density radiation is collected by a first optical cavity, integrated, and driven to a second optical cavity, where, attenuated, it is measured by a conventional radiometer operating under a stationary irradiation regime. The attenuation factor is regulated by properly selecting the aperture areas in the two cavities. The radiometer has been calibrated by a pulsed solar simulator at concentration levels of hundreds of suns. An optical model and a ray-tracing study have also been developed and validated, by which the potentialities of the radiometer have been largely explored.

  2. Double sideband suppressed carrier modulation for stable fiber delivery of radio frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikas, Thomas; Bogris, Adonis; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the properties of a double sideband suppressed carrier modulation transmission scheme for long distance microwave frequency standard dissemination. The proposed method effectively doubles the transmitted frequency obtaining enhanced phase noise and stability performance. Suppressing the optical carrier also eliminates the dispersion induced signal fading. Important transmission parameters like optical modulation depth and linearity are also improved. Allan deviation and phase noise measurements prove the superior performance of the proposed modulation format.

  3. Perturbation theory for electric-field amplitude and phase ripple transfer in frequency doubling and tripling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Jerome M.; L, L.; Eimerl, David; Milam, David; Milonni, Peter W.

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for the transfer of a perturbation of the electric field from the input to the output of a frequency converter. The transfer relationship for the field ripple is shown to depend on the plane-wave operating parameters of the converter. Predictions of the theory are shown to be in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations of doubling and tripling and experiments measuring ripple transfer in frequency doubling.

  4. Intracavity frequency doubling of {mu}s alexandrite laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkmann, R.; Schoof, K.

    1994-12-31

    Intracavity second harmonic generation (SHG) with a three mirror folded cavity configuration was investigated with a flashlamp pumped, Q-switched Alexandrite laser. The authors therefore used different nonlinear optical crystals to convert the fundamental 750 nm radiation into the near UV spectral ,range (3 75 nm). The laser pulses were stretched into the {mu}s time domain by an electronic feedback system regulating the losses of the resonator. They investigated the conversion efficiency for different pulse lengths as well as the effect of pulse-lengthening due to the nonlinearity of the intracavity losses introduced by the optical crystal used. Working with BBO-crystals, they were able to achieve a second harmonic output of 25 mJ per pulse at 375 mn with a temporal rectangular pulse of 1 {mu}s in length and a stable nearly gaussian shaped beam profile.

  5. A novel micro- and nano-scale positioning sensor based on radio frequency resonant cavities.

    PubMed

    Asua, Estibaliz; Etxebarria, Victor; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Feutchwanger, Jorge; Portilla, Joaquín; Lucas, Julio

    2014-05-30

    In many micro- and nano-scale technological applications high sensitivity displacement sensors are needed, especially in ultraprecision metrology and manufacturing. In this work a new way of sensing displacement based on radio frequency resonant cavities is presented and experimentally demonstrated using a first laboratory prototype. The principle of operation of the new transducer is summarized and tested. Furthermore, an electronic interface that can be used together with the displacement transducer is designed and proved. It has been experimentally demonstrated that very high and linear sensitivity characteristic curves, in the range of some kHz/nm; are easily obtainable using this kind of transducer when it is combined with a laboratory network analyzer. In order to replace a network analyzer and provide a more affordable, self-contained, compact solution, an electronic interface has been designed, preserving as much as possible the excellent performance of the transducer, and turning it into a true standalone positioning sensor. The results obtained using the transducer together with a first prototype of the electronic interface built with cheap discrete elements show that positioning accuracies in the micrometer range are obtainable using this cost-effective solution. Better accuracies would also be attainable but using more involved and costly electronics interfaces.

  6. A Novel Micro- and Nano-Scale Positioning Sensor Based on Radio Frequency Resonant Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Asua, Estibaliz; Etxebarria, Victor; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Feutchwanger, Jorge; Portilla, Joaquín; Lucas, Julio

    2014-01-01

    In many micro- and nano-scale technological applications high sensitivity displacement sensors are needed, especially in ultraprecision metrology and manufacturing. In this work a new way of sensing displacement based on radio frequency resonant cavities is presented and experimentally demonstrated using a first laboratory prototype. The principle of operation of the new transducer is summarized and tested. Furthermore, an electronic interface that can be used together with the displacement transducer is designed and proved. It has been experimentally demonstrated that very high and linear sensitivity characteristic curves, in the range of some kHz/nm; are easily obtainable using this kind of transducer when it is combined with a laboratory network analyzer. In order to replace a network analyzer and provide a more affordable, self-contained, compact solution, an electronic interface has been designed, preserving as much as possible the excellent performance of the transducer, and turning it into a true standalone positioning sensor. The results obtained using the transducer together with a first prototype of the electronic interface built with cheap discrete elements show that positioning accuracies in the micrometer range are obtainable using this cost-effective solution. Better accuracies would also be attainable but using more involved and costly electronics interfaces. PMID:24887041

  7. Quad-Chip Double-Balanced Frequency Tripler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Robert H.; Ward, John S.; Bruneau, Peter J.; Mehdi, Imran; Thomas, Bertrand C.; Maestrini, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state frequency multipliers are used to produce tunable broadband sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The maximum power produced by a single chip is limited by the electrical breakdown of the semiconductor and by the thermal management properties of the chip. The solution is to split the drive power to a frequency tripler using waveguides to divide the power among four chips, then recombine the output power from the four chips back into a single waveguide. To achieve this, a waveguide branchline quadrature hybrid coupler splits a 100-GHz input signal into two paths with a 90 relative phase shift. These two paths are split again by a pair of waveguide Y-junctions. The signals from the four outputs of the Y-junctions are tripled in frequency using balanced Schottky diode frequency triplers before being recombined with another pair of Y-junctions. A final waveguide branchline quadrature hybrid coupler completes the combination. Using four chips instead of one enables using four-times higher power input, and produces a nearly four-fold power output as compared to using a single chip. The phase shifts introduced by the quadrature hybrid couplers provide isolation for the input and output waveguides, effectively eliminating standing waves between it and surrounding components. This is accomplished without introducing the high losses and expense of ferrite isolators. A practical use of this technology is to drive local oscillators as was demonstrated around 300 GHz for a heterodyne spectrometer operating in the 2-3-THz band. Heterodyne spectroscopy in this frequency band is especially valuable for astrophysics due to the presence of a very large number of molecular spectral lines. Besides high-resolution radar and spectrographic screening applications, this technology could also be useful for laboratory spectroscopy.

  8. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G.

    2015-04-24

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  9. 0.5W CW single frequency blue at 486 nm via SHG with net conversion of 81.5% from the NIR using a 30mm PPMgO:SLT crystal in a resonant cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Jadhav, Shilpa; Shiner, David

    2015-02-01

    A single frequency fiber Bragg grating (FBG) stabilized laser at 972 nm is coupled into a doubling ring cavity with an optical length of 138 mm, a 91% input coupler, a 30 mm long Brewster cut magnesium doped periodically poled lithium tantalate (PPMgO:SLT) crystal and a high reflector. The cavity buildup is 37 and loss is 0.63%. The cavity is monitored, controlled and locked with a single chip processor. With IR power of 572 mW in the input fiber, 466 mW blue output is obtained, giving 81.5% net efficiency. The blue and IR beams are separated by refraction at the crystal's Brewster surface with negligible loss and without the need for dichroic optics.

  10. Autonomous frequency stabilization of two extended-cavity diode lasers at the potassium wavelength on a sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkelaker, Aline N.; Schiemangk, Max; Schkolnik, Vladimir; Kenyon, Andrew; Lampmann, Kai; Wenzlawski, André; Windpassinger, Patrick; Hellmig, Ortwin; Wendrich, Thijs; Rasel, Ernst M.; Giunta, Michele; Deutsch, Christian; Kürbis, Christian; Smol, Robert; Wicht, Andreas; Krutzik, Markus; Peters, Achim

    2017-02-01

    We have developed, assembled, and flight-proven a stable, compact, and autonomous extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) system designed for atomic physics experiments in space. To that end, two micro-integrated ECDLs at 766.7 nm were frequency stabilized during a sounding rocket flight by means of frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) of 39^K and offset locking techniques based on the beat note of the two ECDLs. The frequency stabilization as well as additional hard- and software to test hot redundancy mechanisms were implemented as part of a state-machine, which controlled the experiment completely autonomously throughout the entire flight mission.

  11. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of Doppler-broadened absorption line with sub-MHz absolute frequency accuracy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C-F; Sun, Y R; Pan, H; Lu, Y; Li, X-F; Wang, J; Liu, A-W; Hu, S-M

    2012-04-23

    A continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectrometer has been built for precise determination of absolute frequencies of Doppler-broadened absorption lines. Using a thermo-stabilized Fabry-Pérot interferometer and Rb frequency references at the 780 nm and 795 nm, 0.1 - 0.6 MHz absolute frequency accuracy has been achieved in the 775-800 nm region. A water absorption line at 12579 cm(-1) is studied to test the performance of the spectrometer. The line position at zero-pressure limit is determined with an uncertainty of 0.3 MHz (relative accuracy of 0.8 × 10(-9)).

  12. Long-range alignments of single fullerenes by site-selective inclusion into a double-cavity 2D open network.

    PubMed

    Piot, Luc; Silly, Fabien; Tortech, Ludovic; Nicolas, Yohann; Blanchard, Philippe; Roncali, Jean; Fichou, Denis

    2009-09-16

    We show by means of STM that C(60) molecules can be trapped into specific sites of a 2D double-cavity open network, thus forming long-range alignments of single molecules. Since only one of the two cavities has the right size to host C(60), the smallest cavity remains empty and is thus available to trap additional species of smaller size. This novel 2D supramolecular network opens new perspectives in the design of multicomponent guest-host architectures with electronic functionalities.

  13. Operation of a high-gradient superconducting radio-frequency cavity with a non-evaporable getter pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, G.; Geng, R.; Lushtak, Y.; Manini, P.; Maccallini, E.; Stutzman, M.

    2016-10-28

    The use of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps in particle accelerators has increased significantly over the past few years because of their large pumping speed, particularly for hydrogen, compared to the size of the pump. A concern about using such pumps in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerators is the possibility of shedding particulates which could then migrate into the SRF cavities and produce field emission, therefore degrading the cavity performance. One option to mitigate such issue is to use sintered getter materials which intrinsically offer superior mechanical and particle retention properties. In this article we present the results from cryogenic RF tests of a high-gradient SRF cavity after being evacuated several times with an NEG pump equipped with sintered getter disks and placed in close proximity to the cavity. Here, the results showed that the cavity performance was not affected by the pump up to the quench gradient of 34 MV/m. As a result of this study, two such NEG pumps have been installed next to a cryomodule in the CEBAF accelerator to maintain ultra-high vacuum in the SRF cryomodule and two adjacent warm girder sections.

  14. Operation of a high-gradient superconducting radio-frequency cavity with a non-evaporable getter pump

    DOE PAGES

    Ciovati, G.; Geng, R.; Lushtak, Y.; ...

    2016-10-28

    The use of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps in particle accelerators has increased significantly over the past few years because of their large pumping speed, particularly for hydrogen, compared to the size of the pump. A concern about using such pumps in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerators is the possibility of shedding particulates which could then migrate into the SRF cavities and produce field emission, therefore degrading the cavity performance. One option to mitigate such issue is to use sintered getter materials which intrinsically offer superior mechanical and particle retention properties. In this article we present the results from cryogenic RF testsmore » of a high-gradient SRF cavity after being evacuated several times with an NEG pump equipped with sintered getter disks and placed in close proximity to the cavity. Here, the results showed that the cavity performance was not affected by the pump up to the quench gradient of 34 MV/m. As a result of this study, two such NEG pumps have been installed next to a cryomodule in the CEBAF accelerator to maintain ultra-high vacuum in the SRF cryomodule and two adjacent warm girder sections.« less

  15. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Jain, P. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE041-like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code "CST Particle Studio" has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ˜108 kW with ˜15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE041-like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.

  16. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ashutosh; Jain, P. K.

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE{sub 041}–like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code “CST Particle Studio” has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ∼108 kW with ∼15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE{sub 041}–like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.

  17. A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.

    2017-03-01

    A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic distribution parameters is proposed. The vibration response of the beam with spatial periodic parameters under harmonic excitations is studied. The frequency response of the periodic beam is the function of parametric period and then can be expressed by the series with the product of periodic and non-periodic functions. The procedure of the double expansion method includes the following two main steps: first, the frequency response function and periodic parameters are expanded by using identical periodic functions based on the extension of the Floquet-Bloch theorem, and the period-parametric differential equation for the frequency response is converted into a series of linear differential equations with constant coefficients; second, the solutions to the linear differential equations are expanded by using modal functions which satisfy the boundary conditions, and the linear differential equations are converted into algebraic equations according to the Galerkin method. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving the algebraic equations and then the frequency response function is finally determined. The proposed double expansion method can uncouple the effects of the periodic expansion and modal expansion so that the expansion terms are determined respectively. The modal number considered in the second expansion can be reduced remarkably in comparison with the direct expansion method. The proposed double expansion method can be extended and applied to the other structures with periodic distribution parameters for dynamics analysis. Numerical results on the frequency response of the finite-length periodic beam with various parametric wave numbers and wave amplitude ratios are given to illustrate the effective application of the proposed method and the new frequency response characteristics, including the parameter-excited modal resonance, doubling-peak frequency response

  18. Effectiveness of T-shaped acoustic resonators in low-frequency sound transmission control of a finite double-panel partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deyu; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Cheng, Li; Yu, Ganghua

    2010-10-01

    Double-panel partitions are widely used for sound insulation purposes. Their insulation efficiency is, however, deteriorated at low frequencies due to the structural and acoustic resonances. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes the use of long T-shaped acoustic resonators in a double-panel partition embedded along the edges. In order to facilitate the design and assess the performance of the structure, a general vibro-acoustic model, characterizing the interaction between the panels, air cavity, and integrated acoustic resonators, is developed. The effectiveness of the technique as well as the optimal locations of the acoustic resonators is examined at various frequencies where the system exhibits different coupling characteristics. The measured optimal locations are also compared with the predicted ones to verify the developed theory. Finally, the performance of the acoustic resonators in broadband sound transmission control is demonstrated.

  19. Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltynowicz, A.; Masłowski, P.; Fleisher, A. J.; Bjork, B. J.; Ye, J.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate the first cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region and report the sensitive real-time trace detection of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a large amount of water. The experimental apparatus is based on a mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by a high-power Yb:fiber laser, a high-finesse broadband cavity, and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer with autobalancing detection. The comb spectrum with a bandwidth of 200 nm centered around 3.76 μm is simultaneously coupled to the cavity and both degrees of freedom of the comb, i.e. the repetition rate and carrier envelope offset frequency, are locked to the cavity to ensure stable transmission. The autobalancing detection scheme reduces the intensity noise by a factor of 300, and a sensitivity of 5.4×10-9 cm-1 Hz-1/2 with a resolution of 800 MHz is achieved (corresponding to 6.9×10-11 cm-1 Hz-1/2 per spectral element for 6000 resolved elements). This yields a noise equivalent detection limit for hydrogen peroxide of 8 parts-per-billion (ppb); in the presence of 2.8 % of water the detection limit is 130 ppb. Spectra of acetylene, methane, and nitrous oxide at atmospheric pressure are also presented, and a line-shape model is developed to simulate the experimental data.

  20. Fano Resonance Based on Metal-Insulator-Metal Waveguide-Coupled Double Rectangular Cavities for Plasmonic Nanosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhidong; Luo, Liang; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong; Yan, Shubin

    2016-01-01

    A refractive index sensor based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides coupled double rectangular cavities is proposed and investigated numerically using the finite element method (FEM). The transmission properties and refractive index sensitivity of various configurations of the sensor are systematically investigated. An asymmetric Fano resonance lineshape is observed in the transmission spectra of the sensor, which is induced by the interference between a broad resonance mode in one rectangular and a narrow one in the other. The effect of various structural parameters on the Fano resonance and the refractive index sensitivity of the system based on Fano resonance is investigated. The proposed plasmonic refractive index sensor shows a maximum sensitivity of 596 nm/RIU. PMID:27164101

  1. Analysis of entropy generation for double diffusive MHD convection in a square cavity with isothermal hollow cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sourav; Saha, Sumon

    2016-07-01

    Entropy optimization is a major concern for designing modern thermal management system. In the present work, entropy analysis in a square cavity with an isothermal hollow cylinder at the center is carried out for magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) double diffusive convection. Galerkin weighted residuals method of finite element formulation is adopted for the numerical solution. Entropies due to fluid flow, heat, and mass transfer are computed for wide range of Hartmann (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 50) and Lewis numbers (1 ≤ Le ≤ 15), and buoyancy ratios (-5 ≤ N ≤ 5) at constant Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. It is found that the influence of buoyancy ratio is prominent on entropy generation, which also depends on both Lewis and Hartmann numbers. The ratio N = -1 shows minimum entropy generation for any combination of Lewis and Hartman numbers. Visualization of isentropic contours and the variation of total entropy with the governing parameters provide remarkable evidences of entropy optimization.

  2. Acousto-optical modulation of light at a doubled sound frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, V M; Averin, S V; Shkerdin, G N

    2016-02-28

    A method of acousto-optical (AO) Bragg diffraction is proposed that provides the amplitude modulation of optical radiation at a doubled acoustic frequency. The method is based on the double transmission of the light through the AO modulator made of a gyrotropic crystal and is experimentally tested by the example of the modulation of light with a wavelength of 0.63 μm, controlled by the paratellurite AO cell. (acoustooptics)

  3. Analysis of frequency noise properties of 729nm extended cavity diode laser with unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan M.; Čížek, Martin; Hucl, Václav; Lazar, Josef; Hrabina, Jan; Řeřucha, Šimon; Lešundák, Adam; Obšil, Petr; Filip, Radim; Slodička, Lukáš; Číp, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    We report on the frequency noise investigation of a linewidth-suppressed Extended Cavity Diode Laser (ECDL), working at 729 nm. Since the ECDL is intended as an excitation laser for the forbidden transition in a trapped and laser cooled 40Ca+ ion, an Hz-level linewidth is required. We present the experimental design that comprises a two-stage linewidth narrowing and a facility for frequency and noise analysis. The linewidth is first narrowed with a phase lock loop of the ECDL onto a selected component of an optical frequency comb where the frequency noise was suppressed with a fast electronic servo-loop controller that drives the laser injection current with a high bandwidth. The second stage comprises locking the laser onto a selected mode of a high-finesse passive optical cavity. The frequency analysis used an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a fiber spool inserted in the reference arm in order to give a general insight into the signal properties by mixing two separated beams, one of them delayed by the spool, and processing it with a spectral analyzer. Such a frequency noise analysis reveals what are the most significant noises contributions to the laser linewidth, which is a crucial information in field of ion trapping and cooling. The presented experimental results show the effect of the linewidth narrowing with the first stage, where the linewidth of ECDL was narrowed down to a kHz level.

  4. Hybrid Brillouin/thulium multiwavelength fiber laser with switchable single- and double-Brillouin-frequency spacing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Kabakova, Irina V; Lefrancois, Simon; Hudson, Darren D; He, Sailing; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrate a multiwavelength laser at 2 µm based on a hybrid gain scheme consisting of a Brillouin gain medium and a thulium-doped fiber. The laser has switchable frequency spacing, corresponding to the single and double Brillouin frequency shifts. In the 20 dB bandwidth, seven lasing channels with a frequency spacing of 0.1 nm (7.62 GHz) and eleven channels with a double-spacing of 0.2 nm (15.24 GHz) are obtained. A wavelength tunability of 1.3 nm is realized for both laser configurations by shifting the pump wavelength. Strong four wave mixing is observed in the double-spacing laser resulting in an improved performance: larger number of channels and better temporal stability.

  5. Optimal feedback in efficient ring double-cavity optical parametric oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Petnikova, V M; Shuvalov, Vladimir V

    2010-09-10

    It is shown that the use of two feedback circuits with matched transfer constants and optimal phase incursions in a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) makes it possible to localise the extremes of intensity distributions of interacting waves on the output face of a nonlinear crystal, which provides maximum possible conversion efficiency of pump energy. The optimisation procedure in this case is rather flexible because it is reduced to ambiguous matching of the period and shift of the extremes of exact analytic solutions of the corresponding problem in the form of cnoidal waves with respect to the nonlinear crystal position. Unlike the single-cavity OPO scheme, both these parameters can substantially exceed the nonlinear crystal length and even tend to infinity, which corresponds to solitary soliton-like solutions. (optical parametric oscillators)

  6. Effect of frequency-doubling pulse Nd:YAG laser on microbial mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yansheng; Wang, Luyan; Zheng, Heng; Yin, Hongping; Chen, Xiangdong; Tan, Zheng; Wu, Wutong

    1999-09-01

    We are going to report the mutagenic effect of frequency-doubling pulse Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) on microbe. After irradiation with pulse laser, mutants of abscisic acid producing strains and erythromycin producing strains were obtained, one of which could produce 62.1% and 57% more products than control, respectively. In the study of mutagenization of Spirulina platensis caused by pulse laser, we selected a high photosynthetic strains, with improved productivity of protein and exocellular ploysaccharides of 12% and 246%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that frequency-doubling pulse laser (532 nm) is a potential new type of physical mutagenic factor.

  7. Frequency scanning interferometry with nanometer precision using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode under scanning speed control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuma, Seiichi

    2015-12-01

    Frequency scanning interferometry technique with a nanometer precision using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode (VCSEL) is presented. Since the frequency scanning of the VCSEL is linearized by the phase-locked-loop technique, the gradient of the interference fringe order can be precisely determined using linear least squares fitting. This enables a length measurement with a precision better than a quarter wavelength, and the absolute fringe number including the integer part at the atomic transition spectrum (rubidium-D2 line) is accurately determined. The validity of the method is demonstrated by excellent results of block gauge measurement with a root mean square error better than 5 nm.

  8. LASERS: Low-frequency power and pointing noises of a spectrally-selective external-cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruevich, V. V.; Elizarov, S. G.; Parashchuk, D. Yu

    2006-05-01

    The spectral density of low-frequency power noise and pointing noises of an external cavity AlGaAs/GaAs laser in Littman—Metcalf configuration is studied in the frequency region up to 1 kHz. The relative level of the power and pointing noises in the laser operating on a single longitudinal mode of the external resonator was ~10-6 Hz-1/2 and did not change substantially when the feedback was switched off. Long-term intensity fluctuations caused by intermode switchings did not exceed 2%.

  9. High frequency electron nuclear double resonance at 239 GHz using a far-infrared laser source

    SciTech Connect

    Paschedag, L.; van Tol, J.; Wyder, P.

    1995-10-01

    We report on the application of {sup 14}N electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) at 8.5 T and 239 GHz ({lambda}=1.2 mm) in a {gamma}-irradiated betaine arsenate single crystal. A laser was used as a far-infrared radiation source in a transmission-type electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup without a cavity. The four expected nitrogen ENDOR lines were observed, but due to insufficient saturation of the EPR transitions the signal/noise ratio was not larger than 10 and the signals vanished at temperatures above 20 K. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Coherent-state storage and retrieval between superconducting cavities using parametric frequency conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, A. J.; Castellanos-Beltran, M. A.; DeFeo, M. P.; Ranzani, L.; Lecocq, F.; Simmonds, R. W.; Teufel, J. D.; Aumentado, J.

    2015-04-27

    In superconducting quantum information, machined aluminum superconducting cavities have proven to be a well-controlled, low-dissipation electromagnetic environment for quantum circuits such as qubits. They can possess large internal quality factors, Q{sub int} > 10{sup 8}, and present the possibility of storing quantum information for times far exceeding those of microfabricated circuits. However, in order to be useful as a storage element, these cavities require a fast “read/write” mechanism—in other words, they require tunable coupling between other systems of interest such as other cavity modes and qubits, as well as any associated readout hardware. In this work, we demonstrate these qualities in a simple dual cavity architecture in which a low-Q “readout” mode is parametrically coupled to a high-Q “storage” mode, allowing us to store and retrieve classical information. Specifically, we employ a flux-driven Josephson junction-based coupling scheme to controllably swap coherent states between two cavities, demonstrating full, sequenced control over the coupling rates between modes.

  11. Microresonator-stabilized extended-cavity diode laser for supercavity frequency stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jinkang; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Huang, Shu-Wei; Maleki, Lute; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate a simple, compact, and cost-effective laser noise reduction method for stabilizing an extended cavity diode laser to a 3x105 finesse mirror Fabry-P\\'erot (F-P) cavity corresponding to resonance linewidth of 10 kHz using a crystalline MgF2 whispering gallery mode microresonator (WGMR). The laser linewidth is reduced to sub-kHz such that a stable Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) error signal is built up. The wavelength of the pre-stabilized laser is tunable within a large bandwidth covering the high reflection mirror coating of a F-P supercavity.

  12. Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubled neodymium yttrium aluminum borate (NYAB) laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    Over 50 mW of the fundamental-mode 531-nm laser output was obtained with approximately 4 percent optical-to-optical conversion efficiency from a self-frequency-doubling NYAB crystal when pumped with two 1-W diode lasers. The prospect of higher conversion efficiency is discussed.

  13. Adults with Dyslexia Show Deficits on Spatial Frequency Doubling and Visual Attention Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Judy; McKone, Elinor

    2004-01-01

    We examine the visual processing of high-functioning adults with developmental dyslexia (mean Performance IQ=126.5) and current phonological problems. In comparison to an age- and IQ-matched control group, the group with dyslexia showed deficits in two tasks associated with magnocellular/dorsal pathway function. For the "frequency doubling"…

  14. Diagrammatic analysis of the unitary group for double-barrier ballistic cavities: Equivalence with circuit theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, A. L. R.; Macêdo, A. M. S.

    2005-06-01

    We derive a set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations for the asymptotics of the Poisson kernel distribution describing the statistical properties of a two-terminal double-barrier chaotic billiard (or ballistic quantum dot). The equations are calculated from a diagrammatic technique for performing averages over the unitary group, proposed by Brouwer and Beenakker [J. Math. Phys. 37, 4904 (1996)]. We give strong analytical evidences that these equations are equivalent to a much simpler polynomial equation calculated from a recent extension of Nazarov’s circuit theory [A. M. S. Macêdo, Phys. Rev. B 66, 033306 (2002)]. These results offer interesting perspectives for further developments in the field via the direct conversion of one approach into the other.

  15. Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Sabry; Simbula, Angelica; Carlin, Jean-François; Minkov, Momchil; Gerace, Dario; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas; Galli, Matteo; Houdré, Romuald

    2017-03-01

    We report on nonlinear frequency conversion from the telecom range via second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in suspended gallium nitride slab photonic crystal (PhC) cavities on silicon, under continuous-wave resonant excitation. Optimized two-dimensional PhC cavities with augmented far-field coupling have been characterized with quality factors as high as 4.4 × 104, approaching the computed theoretical values. The strong enhancement in light confinement has enabled efficient SHG, achieving a normalized conversion efficiency of 2.4 × 10-3 W-1, as well as simultaneous THG. SHG emission power of up to 0.74 nW has been detected without saturation. The results herein validate the suitability of gallium nitride for integrated nonlinear optical processing.

  16. Translocation frequency of double-stranded DNA through a solid-state nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Nicholas A. W.; Muthukumar, Murugappan; Keyser, Ulrich F.

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state nanopores are single-molecule sensors that measure changes in ionic current as charged polymers such as DNA pass through. Here, we present comprehensive experiments on the length, voltage, and salt dependence of the frequency of double-stranded DNA translocations through conical quartz nanopores with mean opening diameter 15 nm. We observe an entropic barrier-limited, length-dependent translocation frequency at 4M LiCl salt concentration and a drift-dominated, length-independent translocation frequency at 1M KCl salt concentration. These observations are described by a unifying convection-diffusion equation, which includes the contribution of an entropic barrier for polymer entry.

  17. Phase-Coherent Frequency Combs in the Vacuum Ultraviolet via High-Harmonic Generation inside a Femtosecond Enhancement Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Jason; Moll, Kevin D.; Thorpe, Michael J.; Ye, Jun

    2005-05-01

    We demonstrate the generation of phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum utraviolet spectral region. The output from a mode-locked laser is stabilized to a femtosecond enhancement cavity with a gas jet at the intracavity focus. The resulting high-peak power of the intracavity pulse enables efficient high-harmonic generation by utilizing the full repetition rate of the laser. Optical-heterodyne-based measurements reveal that the coherent frequency comb structure of the original laser is fully preserved in the high-harmonic generation process. These results open the door for precision frequency metrology at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths and permit the efficient generation of phase-coherent high-order harmonics using only a standard laser oscillator without active amplification of single pulses.

  18. Interferometric determination of the silicon sphere diameter using a laser frequency tuning system calibrated by a Fabry-Perot cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Jitao; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2012-11-01

    In order to obtain an accurate Avogadro constant with a relative uncertainty of 1×10-8 to redefine the kilogram, the diameter of a perfect single crystal silicon sphere is required with the measurement uncertainty of 0.3 nm using the X-ray crystal density method. To achieve this, phase-shifting interferometers have been developed. A laser frequency tuning system calibrated by a Fabry-Perot cavity is proposed to improve the laser wavelength and the phase-shift accuracy. The laser frequency standard deviation of the beat frequency is 85 kHz with a gate time of 0.1 s. The gap distances in the diameter determination interferometer are measured based on the laser tuning system, which are 275.3 nm and 110.5 nm, respectively.

  19. Multifunctional quantum node based on double quantum dot in laser and cavity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukanov, Alexander V.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of multifunctional device (a quantum node) composed of a semiconductor single-electron four-level doublequantum dot coupled to an optical microcavity resonator is developed. The terahertz laser field and voltage biases provide an external control. The structure enables flexible driving via appropriate variations of field amplitudes and switching between resonant and off-resonant modes. As shown this hybrid electron-photon system can be used as the charge qubit with flying-to-stationary qubit conversion or the single-photon transistor and several others. Each of listed devices works in the specific regime of system evolution. For example, the qubit is robust when the optical resonator and laser Rabi frequencies dominate the dissipation rates - the so-called strong coupling or coherent regime. From another hand, in order to attain the steady-state one has to work in the so-called weak coupling or incoherent regime when the dissipation rates are comparable to or greater than the Rabi frequencies. Further, the single-photon driving is required for spectroscopic applications of this system. We numerically investigate the population dynamics to reveal the parameter choice corresponding to each device. The model is based on Lindblad formalism where all incoherent processes are considered as the markovian ones. The time dependencies of populations and spectrograms for different pairs of parameters are obtained. The specific features concerned with working characteristics of the quantum node in different modes are discussed.

  20. Analysis of double-probe characteristics in low-frequency gas discharges and its improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, DongLin Li, XiaoPing; Xie, Kai; Liu, ZhiWei; Shao, MingXu

    2015-01-15

    The double-probe has been used successfully in radio-frequency discharges. However, in low-frequency discharges, the double-probe I-V curve is so much seriously distorted by the strong plasma potential fluctuations that the I-V curve may lead to a large estimate error of plasma parameters. To suppress the distortion, we investigate the double-probe characteristics in low-frequency gas discharge based on an equivalent circuit model, taking both the plasma sheath and probe circuit into account. We discovered that there are two primary interferences to the I-V curve distortion: the voltage fluctuation between two probe tips caused by the filter difference voltage and the current peak at the negative edge of the plasma potential. Consequently, we propose a modified passive filter to reduce the two types of interference simultaneously. Experiments are conducted in a glow-discharge plasma (f = 30 kHz) to test the performance of the improved double probe. The results show that the electron density error is reduced from more than 100% to less than 10%. The proposed improved method is also suitable in cases where intensive potential fluctuations exist.

  1. Generation of 3.5W high efficiency blue-violet laser by intracavity frequency-doubling of an all-solid-state tunable Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Ding, X; Wang, R; Zhang, H; Wen, W Q; Huang, L; Wang, P; Yao, J Q; Yu, X Y; Li, Z

    2008-03-31

    In this paper, we report a high power, high efficiency blue-violet laser obtained by intracavity frequency-doubling of an all-solid-state Q-switched tunable Ti:sapphire laser, which was pumped by a 532 nm intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. A beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal was used for frequency-doubling of the Ti:sapphire laser and a V-shape folded three-mirror cavity was optimized to obtain high power high efficiency second harmonic generation (SHG). At an incident pump power of 22 W, the tunable output from 355 nm to 475 nm was achieved, involving the maximum average output of 3.5 W at 400 nm with an optical conversion efficiency of 16% from the 532 nm pump laser to the blue-violet output. The beam quality factor M(2) was measured to be Mx(2)=2.15, My(2)=2.38 for characterizing the tunable blue laser.

  2. Characteristics of polarization switching from the low to the high frequency mode in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ackemann, T.; Sondermann, M.

    2001-06-04

    Polarization selection in small-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is studied experimentally in dependence of injection current and substrate temperature in the vicinity of the minimum threshold condition. Polarization switching from the low to the high frequency fundamental spatial mode is demonstrated. The effective birefringence displays a minimum in the transition region. The observation of dynamical transition states hints to the relevance of nonlinear effects. A comparison to the predictions of the San Miguel{endash}Feng{endash}Moloney model based on phase-amplitude coupling is given. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Efficient frequency generation in phoXonic cavities based on hollow whispering gallery mode resonators

    PubMed Central

    Farnesi, Daniele; Righini, Giancarlo; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    We report on nonlinear optical effects on phoxonic cavities based on hollow whispering gallery mode resonators pumped with a continuous wave laser. We observed stimulated scattering effects such as Brillouin and Raman, Kerr effects such as degenerated and non-degenerated four wave mixing, and dispersive wave generation. These effects happened concomitantly. Hollow resonators give rise to a very rich nonlinear scenario due to the coexistence of several family modes. PMID:28266641

  4. Analysis of Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layers for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Chaoyue; Posen, Sam; Hall, Daniel Leslie; Groll, Nickolas; Proslier, Thomas; Cook, Russell; Schlepütz, Christian M.; Liepe, Matthias; Pellin, Michael; Zasadzinski, John

    2015-02-23

    We present an analysis of Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layers grown on a bulk Niobium (Nb) coupon prepared at the same time and by the same vapor diffusion process used to make Nb{sub 3}Sn coatings on 1.3 GHz Nb cavities. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a well-developed, homogeneous superconducting density of states at the surface with a gap value distribution centered around 2.7 ± 0.4 meV and superconducting critical temperatures (T{sub c}) up to 16.3 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy performed on cross sections of the sample's surface region shows an ∼2 μm thick Nb{sub 3}Sn surface layer. The elemental composition map exhibits a Nb:Sn ratio of 3:1 and reveals the presence of buried sub-stoichiometric regions that have a ratio of 5:1. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments indicate a polycrystalline Nb{sub 3}Sn film and confirm the presence of Nb rich regions that occupy about a third of the coating volume. These low T{sub c} regions could play an important role in the dissipation mechanisms occurring during RF tests of Nb{sub 3}Sn-coated Nb cavities and open the way for further improving a very promising alternative to pure Nb cavities for particle accelerators.

  5. Characterization of etch pits found on a large-grain bulk niobium superconducting radio-frequency resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Ciovati, G.; Bieler, T. R.

    2010-12-15

    The performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) resonant cavities made of bulk niobium is limited by nonlinear localized effects. Surface analysis of regions of higher power dissipation is thus of intense interest. Such areas (referred to as “hotspots”) were identified in a large-grain single-cell cavity that had been buffered-chemical polished and dissected for examination by high resolution electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction microscopy (EBSD), and optical microscopy. Pits with clearly discernible crystal facets were observed in both “hotspot” and “coldspot” specimens. The pits were found in-grain, at bicrystal boundaries, and on tricrystal junctions. They are interpreted as etch pits induced by crystal defects (e.g. dislocations). All coldspots examined had a qualitatively lower density of etch pits or relatively smooth tricrystal boundary junctions. EBSD mapping revealed the crystal orientation surrounding the pits. Locations with high pit density are correlated with higher mean values of the local average misorientation angle distributions, indicating a higher geometrically necessary dislocation content. In addition, a survey of the samples by energy dispersive x-ray analysis did not show any significant contamination of the samples’ surface. In conclusion, the local magnetic field enhancement produced by the sharp-edge features observed on the samples is not sufficient to explain the observed degradation of the cavity quality factor, which starts at peak surface magnetic field as low as 20 mT.

  6. Characterization of etch pits found on a large-grain bulk niobium superconducting radio-frequency resonant cavity

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Xin; Ciovati, G.; Bieler, T. R.

    2010-12-15

    The performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) resonant cavities made of bulk niobium is limited by nonlinear localized effects. Surface analysis of regions of higher power dissipation is thus of intense interest. Such areas (referred to as “hotspots”) were identified in a large-grain single-cell cavity that had been buffered-chemical polished and dissected for examination by high resolution electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction microscopy (EBSD), and optical microscopy. Pits with clearly discernible crystal facets were observed in both “hotspot” and “coldspot” specimens. The pits were found in-grain, at bicrystal boundaries, and on tricrystal junctions. They are interpreted as etch pits induced bymore » crystal defects (e.g. dislocations). All coldspots examined had a qualitatively lower density of etch pits or relatively smooth tricrystal boundary junctions. EBSD mapping revealed the crystal orientation surrounding the pits. Locations with high pit density are correlated with higher mean values of the local average misorientation angle distributions, indicating a higher geometrically necessary dislocation content. In addition, a survey of the samples by energy dispersive x-ray analysis did not show any significant contamination of the samples’ surface. In conclusion, the local magnetic field enhancement produced by the sharp-edge features observed on the samples is not sufficient to explain the observed degradation of the cavity quality factor, which starts at peak surface magnetic field as low as 20 mT.« less

  7. Cryogenic Testing of High-Velocity Spoke Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Christopher S.; Delayen, Jean R.; Park, HyeKyoung

    2014-12-01

    Spoke-loaded cavities are being investigated for the high-velocity regime. The relative compactness at low-frequency makes them attractive for applications requiring, or benefiting from, 4 K operation. Additionally, the large velocity acceptance makes them good candidates for the acceleration of high-velocity protons and ions. Here we present the results of cryogenic testing of a 325 MHz, β0= 0.82 single-spoke cavity and a 500 MHz, β0 = 1 double-spoke cavity.

  8. Model for initiation of quality factor degradation at high accelerating fields in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyuba, A.; Romanenko, A.; Cooley, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    A model for the onset of the reduction in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity quality factor, the so-called Q-drop, at high accelerating electric fields is presented. Since magnetic fields at the cavity equator are tied to accelerating electric fields by a simple geometric factor, the onset of magnetic flux penetration determines the onset of Q-drop. We consider breakdown of the surface barrier at triangular grooves to predict the magnetic field of first flux penetration Hpen. Such defects were argued to be the worst case by Buzdin and Daumens (1998 Physica C 294 257), whose approach, moreover, incorporates both the geometry of the groove and local contamination via the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. Since previous Q-drop models focused on either topography or contamination alone, the proposed model allows new comparisons of one effect in relation to the other. The model predicts equivalent reduction of Hpen when either roughness or contamination were varied alone, so smooth but dirty surfaces limit cavity performance about as much as rough but clean surfaces do. Still lower Hpen was predicted when both effects were combined, i.e. contamination should exacerbate the negative effects of roughness and vice versa. To test the model with actual data, coupons were prepared by buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing, and stylus profilometry was used to obtain distributions of angles. From these data, curves for surface resistance generated by simple flux flow as a function of magnetic field were generated by integrating over the distribution of angles for reasonable values of κ. This showed that combined effects of roughness and contamination indeed reduce the Q-drop onset field by ~ 20%, and that contamination contributes to Q-drop as much as roughness. The latter point may be overlooked by SRF cavity research, since access to the cavity interior by spectroscopy tools is very difficult, whereas optical images have become commonplace. The model was

  9. Frequency Response Calculations of Input Characteristics of Cavity-Backed Aperture Antennas Using AWE with Hybrid FEM/MoM Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Application of Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) is presented in conjunction with a hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM)/Method of Moments (MoM) technique to calculate the input characteristics of cavity-backed aperture antennas over a frequency range. The hybrid FEM/MoM technique is used to form an integro-partial-differential equation to compute the electric field distribution of the cavity-backed aperture antenna. The electric field, thus obtained, is expanded in a Taylor series around the frequency of interest. The coefficients of 'Taylor series (called 'moments') are obtained using the frequency derivatives of the integro-partial-differential Equation formed by the hybrid FEM/MoM technique. Using the moments, the electric field in the cavity is obtained over a frequency range. Using the electric field at different frequencies, the input characteristics of the antenna are obtained over a wide frequency band. Numerical results for an open coaxial line, probe fed cavity, and cavity-backed microstrip patch antennas are presented. Good agreement between AWE and the exact solution over the frequency range is observed.

  10. Efficient generation of 1.9  W yellow light by cascaded frequency doubling of a distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A K; Christensen, M; Noordegraaf, D; Heist, P; Papastathopoulos, E; Loyo-Maldonado, V; Jensen, O B; Skovgaard, P M W

    2016-11-10

    Watt-level yellow emitting lasers are interesting for medical applications, due to their high hemoglobin absorption, and for efficient detection of certain fluorophores. In this paper, we demonstrate a compact and robust diode-based laser system in the yellow spectral range. The system generates 1.9 W of single-frequency light at 562.4 nm by cascaded single-pass frequency doubling of the 1124.8 nm emission from a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) tapered laser diode. The absence of a free-space cavity makes the system stable over a base-plate temperature range of 30 K. At the same time, the use of a laser diode enables the modulation of the pump wavelength by controlling the drive current. This is utilized to achieve a power modulation depth above 90% for the second harmonic light, with a rise time below 40  μs.

  11. Frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser for use in periodontology: a scanning electron microscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas

    1996-12-01

    During prior studies it could be demonstrated that engaging a frequency double Alexandrite-laser allows a fast and strictly selective ablation of supra- and subgingival calculus. Furthermore, the removal of unstained microbial plaque was observed. First conclusions were drawn following light microscopic investigations on undecalcified sections of irradiated teeth. In the present study the cementum surface after irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser was observed by means of a scanning electron microscope. After irradiation sections of teeth were dried in alcohol and sputtered with gold. In comparison irradiated cementum surfaces of unerupted operatively removed wisdom teeth and tooth surfaces after the selective removal of calculus were investigated. A complete removal of calculus was observed as well as a remaining smooth surface of irradiated cementum.

  12. Development of multi-frequency ESR/EDMR system using a rectangular cavity equipped with waveguide window.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kunito; Asakawa, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    A straightforward method for a variable frequency electron spin resonance/electrically detected magnetic resonance (ESR/EDMR) spectroscopy using a C-band microwave cavity equipped with waveguide windows is presented. The method enables us to perform quasi-continuous multiple resonance frequency (MF-ESR/EDMR) experiments for electronic devices. The C-band microwave circuitry was selected because of larger available sample volume than that for conventional X-band one. All the measurements were performed using a combined sample of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl/ pn-junction Si diode. The present simple MF-ESR/EDMR method will be useful for the characterization of electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Development of multi-frequency ESR/EDMR system using a rectangular cavity equipped with waveguide window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Kunito; Asakawa, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    A straightforward method for a variable frequency electron spin resonance/electrically detected magnetic resonance (ESR/EDMR) spectroscopy using a C-band microwave cavity equipped with waveguide windows is presented. The method enables us to perform quasi-continuous multiple resonance frequency (MF-ESR/EDMR) experiments for electronic devices. The C-band microwave circuitry was selected because of larger available sample volume than that for conventional X-band one. All the measurements were performed using a combined sample of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl/ pn-junction Si diode. The present simple MF-ESR/EDMR method will be useful for the characterization of electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Topographic power spectral density study of the effect of surface treatment processes on niobium for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Reece, Hui Tian, Michael Kelley, Chen Xu

    2012-04-01

    Microroughness is viewed as a critical issue for attaining optimum performance of superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions derived from topography of BCP and EP with different controlled starting conditions and durations have been fitted with a combination of power law, K correlation, and shifted Gaussian models to extract characteristic parameters at different spatial harmonic scales. While the simplest characterizations of these data are not new, the systematic tracking of scale-specific roughness as a function of processing is new and offers feedback for tighter process prescriptions more knowledgably targeted at beneficial niobium topography for superconducting radio frequency applications.

  15. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  16. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2(0), respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  17. Absolute distance measurement by multi-heterodyne interferometry using a frequency comb and a cavity-stabilized tunable laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Balling, Petr; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-05-20

    In this paper, we develop a multi-heterodyne system capable of absolute distance measurement using a frequency comb and a tunable diode laser locked to a Fabry-Perot cavity. In a series of subsequent measurements, numerous beat components can be obtained by downconverting the optical frequency into the RF region with multi-heterodyne interferometry. The distances can be measured via the mode phases with a series of synthetic wavelengths. The comparison with the reference interferometer shows an agreement within 1.5 μm for the averages of five measurements and 2.5 μm for the single measurement, which is at the 10-8 relative precision level.

  18. Study of fuzzy adaptive PID controller on thermal frequency stabilizing laser with double longitudinal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Qingkai; Zhang, Tao; Yan, Yining

    2016-10-01

    There are contradictions among speediness, anti-disturbance performance, and steady-state accuracy caused by traditional PID controller in the existing light source systems of thermal frequency stabilizing laser with double longitudinal modes. In this paper, a new kind of fuzzy adaptive PID controller was designed by combining fuzzy PID control technology and expert system to make frequency stabilizing system obtain the optimal performance. The experiments show that the frequency stability of the designed PID controller is similar to the existing PID controller (the magnitude of frequency stability is less than 10-9 in constant temperature and 10-7 in open air). But the preheating time is shortened obviously (from 10 minutes to 5 minutes) and the anti-disturbance capability is improved significantly (the recovery time needed after strong interference is reduced from 1 minute to 10 seconds).

  19. Frequency doubled high-power disk lasers in pulsed and continuous-wave operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Sascha; Hangst, Alexander; Stolzenburg, Christian; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk; Killi, Alexander; Kalfhues, Steffen; Kriegshaeuser, Uwe; Holzer, Marco; Havrilla, David

    2012-03-01

    The disk laser with multi-kW output power in infrared cw operation is widely used in today's manufacturing, primarily in the automotive industry. The disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Additionally, the disk laser is ideally suited for frequency conversion due to its polarized output with negligible depolarization losses. Laser light in the green spectral range (~515 nm) can be created with a nonlinear crystal. Pulsed disk lasers with green output of well above 50 W (extracavity doubling) in the ps regime and several hundreds of Watts in the ns regime with intracavity doubling are already commercially available whereas intracavity doubled disk lasers in continuous wave operation with greater than 250 W output are in test phase. In both operating modes (pulsed and cw) the frequency doubled disk laser offers advantages in existing and new applications. Copper welding for example is said to show much higher process reliability with green laser light due to its higher absorption in comparison to the infrared. This improvement has the potential to be very beneficial for the automotive industry's move to electrical vehicles which requires reliable high-volume welding of copper as a major task for electro motors, batteries, etc.

  20. Topological charge transfer in frequency doubling of fractional orbital angular momentum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, R.; Niu, Y. F.; Du, L.; Hu, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion is promising for manipulating photons with orbital angular momentum (OAM). In this letter, we investigate the second harmonic generation (SHG) of light beams carrying fractional OAM. By measuring the OAM components of the generated second harmonic (SH) waves, we find that the integer components of the fundamental beam will interact with each other during the nonlinear optical process; thus, we figure out the law for topological charge transfer in frequency doubling of the fractional OAM state. Theoretical predictions by solving the nonlinear coupled wave equations are consistent with the experimental results.

  1. Double Langmuir frequency radiation due to transformation processes in turbulent plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, V. N.; Panchenko, V. G.; Beloshenko, N. A.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the transformation process of longitudinal Langmuir wave into the transverse electromagnetic wave in turbulent plasma subjected to an upper hybrid pump. The case, when upper hybrid pump wave decays into daughter and ion - sound waves is considered. The transformation of the Langmuir wave into electromagnetic one is considered as the possible mechanism of energy radiation from the plasma. It is shown that the frequency of such radiation is chosen to be near double electron Langmuir frequency 2ωpe . These results give us the possibility to explain the nature of radiation from the laboratory and cosmic plasmas (particularly, from the solar crown).

  2. Ultrahigh contrast from a frequency-doubled chirped-pulse-amplification beamline.

    PubMed

    Hillier, David; Danson, Colin; Duffield, Stuart; Egan, David; Elsmere, Stephen; Girling, Mark; Harvey, Ewan; Hopps, Nicholas; Norman, Michael; Parker, Stefan; Treadwell, Paul; Winter, David; Bett, Thomas

    2013-06-20

    This paper describes frequency-doubled operation of a high-energy chirped-pulse-amplification beamline. Efficient type-I second-harmonic generation was achieved using a 3 mm thick 320 mm aperture KDP crystal. Shots were fired at a range of energies achieving more than 100 J in a subpicosecond, 527 nm laser pulse with a power contrast of 10(14).

  3. 1 W at 785 nm from a frequency-doubled wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser.

    PubMed

    Rantamäki, Antti; Rautiainen, Jussi; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Sirbu, Alexei; Mereuta, Alexandru; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate an optically pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1580 nm with 4.6 W of output power, which represents the highest output power reported from this type of laser. 1 W of output power at 785 nm with nearly diffraction-limited beam has been achieved from this laser through intracavity frequency doubling, which offers an attractive alternative to Ti:sapphire lasers and laser diodes in a number of applications, e.g., in spectroscopy, atomic cooling and biophotonics.

  4. Compact and efficient CW 473nm blue laser with LBO intracavity frequency doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yan; Wang, Yu; Wang, Yanwei; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Boxia

    2016-10-01

    With diode end pumped Nd:YAG directly and LBO intracavity frequency doubling, a compact, high efficient continuous wave blue laser at 473nm is realized. When the incident pump power reach 6.2W, 630mW maximum output power of blue laser at 473nm is achieved with 15mm long LBO, the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is as high as 10.2%.

  5. Frequency-doubled CO2 lidar measurement and diode laser spectroscopy of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bufton, J. L.; Itabe, T.; Strow, L. L.; Korb, C. L.; Gentry, B. M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A lidar instrument based on pulsed frequency-doubled carbon-dioxide lasers has been used at 4.88 microns for remote sensing of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A tunable-diode laser spectrometer provided the high-resolution spectroscopic data on carbon-dioxide line strength and line broadening needed for an accurate differential absorption measurement. Initial field measurements are presented, and instrument improvements necessary for accurate carbon dioxide measurement are discussed.

  6. Multi-band reflector antenna with double-ring element frequency selective subreflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Lee, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Frequency selective subreflectors (FSS) are often employed in the reflector antenna system of a communication satellite or a deep space exploration vehicle for multi-frequency operations. In the past, FSS's have been designed for diplexing two frequency bands. For example, the Voyager FSS was designed to diplex S and X bands and the TDRSS FSS was designed to diplex S and Ku bands. Recently, NASA's CASSINI project requires an FSS to multiplex four frequency (S/X/Ku/Ka) bands. Theoretical analysis and experimental verifications are presented for a multi-band flat pannel FSS with double-ring elements. Both the exact formulation and the thin-ring approximation are described for analyzing and designing this multi-ring patch element FSS. It is found that the thin-ring approximation fails to predict the electrically wide ring element FSS's performance. A single screen double-ring element FSS is demonstrated for the tri-band system that reflects the X-band signal while transmitting through the S- and Ku-band signals. In addition, a double screen FSS with non-similar double-ring elements is presented for the Cassini's four-band system which reflects the X- and Ka-band signals while passing the S- and Ku-band signals. To accurately predict the FSS effects on a dual reflector antenna's radiation pattern, the FSS subreflector's transmitted/reflected field variation as functions of the polarization and incident angles with respect to the local coordinates was taken into account. An FSS transmission/reflection coefficient table is computed for TE and TM polarizations at various incident angles based on the planar FSS model. Next, the hybrid Geometric Optics (GO) and Physical Optics (PO) technique is implemented with linearly interpolating the FSS table to efficiently determine the FSS effects in a dual reflector antenna.

  7. The study of stability on a laser-diode-pumped high-power high-repetition-rate intracavity frequency-doubled 532-nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-yong; Yao, Jian-Quan; Xu, De-gang; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Bai-gang; Zhou, Jia-ning; Wang, Peng

    2005-01-01

    High power laser-diode-pumped 532nm laser sources (including continuous wave and high repetition rate operation) are directly used for precise processing of metals and plastics. Furthermore, high power green laser will be used in some fields such as ocean exploration, laser probe and underwater communication. Recently, we reported a 110W diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG intracavity frequency doubled high stability 532nm laser. In the experiment, we found that the average output power of second harmonic fluctuated acutely with the variety of pumping current. Moreover, the length of arms between the mirrors were very sensitive to this cavity. We consider that one of the reason is the focus length of thermal lens of Nd:YAG rod alter with the variational pumping current, which makes the cavity be unstable. We consider the KTP crystal as a thin lens for its short length. As thermal lensing effect of the Nd:YAG rod is quite severe, so we consider it as thermal lensing medium. By ray matrix methods, we have obtained the stable regions and beam waist radii distribution in the flat-concave cavity. In our experiment, we used a pump head consisting of 80 diode bars with pentagon pump model and employed flat-concave cavity structure in order to achieve high stability output and increase output power. The total cavity length is 505mm. By using an acousto-optic Q-switching with high diffraction loss and the KTP crystal which is type II phase matching, 110 W high stability 532nm laser is achieved. The experimental result is in good agreement with the calculation.

  8. Effect of variation of length-to-depth ratio and Mach number on the performance of a typical double cavity scramjet combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahto, Navin Kumar; Choubey, Gautam; Suneetha, Lakka; Pandey, K. M.

    2016-11-01

    The two equation standard k-ɛ turbulence model and the two-dimensional compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations have been used to computationally simulate the double cavity scramjet combustor. Here all the simulations are performed by using ANSYS 14-FLUENT code. At the same time, the validation of the present numerical simulation for double cavity has been performed by comparing its result with the available experimental data which is in accordance with the literature. The results are in good agreement with the schlieren image and the pressure distribution curve obtained experimentally. However, the pressure distribution curve obtained numerically is under-predicted in 5 locations by numerical calculation. Further, investigations on the variations of the effects of the length-to-depth ratio of cavity and Mach number on the combustion characteristics has been carried out. The present results show that there is an optimal length-to-depth ratio for the cavity for which the performance of combustor significantly improves and also efficient combustion takes place within the combustor region. Also, the shifting of the location of incident oblique shock took place in the downstream of the H2 inlet when the Mach number value increases. But after achieving a critical Mach number range of 2-2.5, the further increase in Mach number results in lower combustion efficiency which may deteriorate the performance of combustor.

  9. 58W LD side-pump Nd:YAG picosecond laser system at 1KHz with double length of regenerative cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Ming Liang; Li, G.; Chen, Meng

    2016-11-01

    An average power of 58 W, pulse width of 40 ps at 1 KHz repetition rate of Nd:YAG picosecond laser is reported. It used an etalon to directly get pulse width of 135 ps from Nd:YVO4 mode locked laser in 1064 nm, which repetition rate was 88 MHz. When the seed pulses were injected into the double length of regenerative LD side-pump Nd:YAG cavity at 1 KHz repetition rate, the single pulse energy was amplified to 3 mJ, the pulse width was compressed to 99 ps, beam quality of M^2 factor was 1.3. The single pulse energy was amplified up to 58 mJ, the pulse width was self compressed to 40 ps, beam quality of M^2 factor was approximately 3.5 after single passing three stages of double high gain LD side-pump Nd:YAG module. Beam pointing was about 40 urad. The stability for pulse to pulse RMS was less than 3%. A thin-film polarizer and a quarter-wave plate was inserted into the regenerative amplification cavity to let pulses double travel the same geometric path basis on pulse polarization. Serrated aperture were used in the amplification. That's beneficial to decrease the nonlinear effect for the high power in the crystal. High gain LD side-pump Nd:YAG module could lead the pulse energy amplify more and self compress the pulse width. Double length of regenerative cavity was used to enhance the optical cavity length, it greatly decreased the laser's volume and improved stability of picosecond laser. It's a nice way for high power picosecond laser and the laser system would be more simple and smaller.

  10. Dual-Frequency Operation in a Short-Cavity Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, W.; Maricante, J.R.

    2007-02-15

    A dual-frequency 2-cm silica fiber laser with a wavelength spacing of 0.3 nm has been demonstrated using a polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) reflector. The birefringence of the PM FBG was used to generate the two single-mode (SM) lasing frequencies of orthogonal polarizations. The SM operation in each wavelength has been verified.

  11. High-efficiency intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2005-02-01

    We have built and tested a highly efficient source of pulsed 320 nm light based on intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-injection-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. The four-mirror nonplanar ring optical cavity uses the RISTRA geometry, denoting rotated-image singly-resonant twisted rectangle. The cavity contains a type-II xz-cut KTP crystal pumped by the 532 nm second harmonic of Nd:YAG to generate an 803{approx}nm signal and 1576 nm idler, and a type-II BBO crystal to sum-frequency mix the 532 nm pump and cavity-resonant 803 nm signal to generate 320 nm light. The cavity is configured so pump light passes first through the BBO crystal and then through the KTP crystal with the 320 nm light exiting through the output coupler following the BBO sum-frequency crystal. The cavity output coupler is designed to be a high reflector at 532 nm, have high transmission at 320 nm, and reflect approximately 85% at 803 nm. With this configuration we've obtained 1064 nm to 320 nm optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24% and generated single-frequency {lambda} = 320 nm pulses with energies up to 140 mJ.

  12. High efficiency intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Darrell J.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2005-03-01

    We have built and tested a highly efficient source of pulsed 320 nm light based on intra-cavity sum-frequency-generation in a self-injection-seeded image-rotating nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. The four-mirror nonplanar ring optical cavity uses the RISTRA geometry, denoting rotated-image singly-resonant twisted rectangle. The cavity contains a type-II xz-cut KTP crystal pumped by the 532 nm second harmonic of Nd:YAG to generate an 803~nm signal and 1576 nm idler, and a type-II BBO crystal to sum-frequency mix the 532 nm pump and cavity-resonant 803 nm signal to generate 320 nm light. The cavity is configured so pump light passes first through the BBO crystal and then through the KTP crystal with the 320 nm light exiting through the output coupler following the BBO sum-frequency crystal. The cavity output coupler is designed to be a high reflector at 532 nm, have high transmission at 320 nm, and reflect approximately 85% at 803 nm. With this configuration we've obtained 1064 nm to 320 nm optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 24% and generated single-frequency λ = 320 nm pulses with energies up to 140 mJ.

  13. Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

    2005-05-01

    Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

  14. Theoretical estimates of maximum fields in superconducting resonant radio frequency cavities: stability theory, disorder, and laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Posen, Sam; Transtrum, Mark K.; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias; Sethna, James P.

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical limits to the performance of superconductors in high magnetic fields parallel to their surfaces are of key relevance to current and future accelerating cavities, especially those made of new higher-T c materials such as Nb3Sn, NbN, and MgB2. Indeed, beyond the so-called superheating field {H}{sh}, flux will spontaneously penetrate even a perfect superconducting surface and ruin the performance. We present intuitive arguments and simple estimates for {H}{sh}, and combine them with our previous rigorous calculations, which we summarize. We briefly discuss experimental measurements of the superheating field, comparing to our estimates. We explore the effects of materials anisotropy and the danger of disorder in nucleating vortex entry. Will we need to control surface orientation in the layered compound MgB2? Can we estimate theoretically whether dirt and defects make these new materials fundamentally more challenging to optimize than niobium? Finally, we discuss and analyze recent proposals to use thin superconducting layers or laminates to enhance the performance of superconducting cavities. Flux entering a laminate can lead to so-called pancake vortices; we consider the physics of the dislocation motion and potential re-annihilation or stabilization of these vortices after their entry.

  15. Production of Seamless Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities from Ultra-fine Grained Niobium, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Crooks, Ph.D., P.E.

    2009-10-31

    The positron and electron linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) will require over 14,000, nine-cell, one meter length, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities [ILC Reference Design Report, 2007]. Manufacturing on this scale will benefit from more efficient fabrication methods. The current methods of fabricating SRF cavities involve deep drawing of the halves of each of the elliptical cells and joining them by high-vacuum, electron beam welding, with at least 19 circumferential welds per cavity. The welding is costly and has undesirable effects on the cavity surfaces, including grain-scale surface roughening at the weld seams. Hydroforming of seamless tubes avoids welding, but hydroforming of coarse-grained seamless tubes results in strain-induced surface roughening. Surface roughness limits accelerating fields, because asperities prematurely exceed the critical magnetic field and become normal conducting. This project explored the technical and economic feasibility of an improved processing method for seamless tubes for hydroforming. Severe deformation of bulk material was first used to produce a fine structure, followed by extrusion and flow-forming methods of tube making. Extrusion of the randomly oriented, fine-grained bulk material proceeded under largely steady-state conditions, and resulted in a uniform structure, which was found to be finer and more crystallographically random than standard (high purity) RRR niobium sheet metal. A 165 mm diameter billet of RRR grade niobium was processed into five, 150 mm I.D. tubes, each over 1.8 m in length, to meet the dimensions used by the DESY ILC hydroforming machine. Mechanical properties met specifications. Costs of prototype tube production were approximately twice the price of RRR niobium sheet, and are expected to be comparable with economies of scale. Hydroforming and superconducting testing will be pursued in subsequent collaborations with DESY and Fermilab. SRF Cavities are used to construct

  16. Increased frequency of double and triple heterozygous gene variants in children with intrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Monique L.; Mourya, Reena; Connor, Jessica; Dexheimer, Phillip; Karns, Rebekah; Miethke, Alexander; Sheridan, Rachel; Zhang, Kejian; Bezerra, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Single-gene mutations cause syndromes of intrahepatic cholestasis, but previous multi-gene mutation screening in children with idiopathic cholestasis failed to fulfill diagnostic criteria in about two-thirds of children. In adults with fibrosing cholestatic disease, heterozygous ABCB4 mutations were present in 34% of patients. Here, we hypothesized that children with idiopathic cholestasis have a higher frequency of heterozygous non-synonymous gene sequence variants. Methods We analyzed the frequency and types of variants in 717 children in whom high-throughput sequencing of the genes SERPINA1, JAG1, ATP8B1, ABCB11, and ABCB4 was performed as part of an evaluation for intrahepatic idiopathic cholestasis. The frequency of non-synonymous variants (NSVs) was compared to those of 1092 control subjects enrolled in the 1000-Genome-Project. Results The frequency of NSVs in single genes was similar between disease (25%) and controls (26%, P=0.518). In contrast, double or triple NSVs in 2 or more genes were more frequent in disease (N= 7%) than controls (N=4.7%, P=0.028). Detailed review of clinical and laboratory information in a subgroup of double or triple heterozygous patients revealed variable GGT levels and severity of pruritus, with liver biopsies showing stage 2–3 fibrosis. Conclusion Children with intrahepatic idiopathic cholestasis have a higher frequency of double or triple NSVs in SERPINA1, JAG1, ATPB1, ABCB11, or ABCB4. These findings raise the potential role for gene-gene relationships in determining the phenotype of cholestatic liver disease in children. PMID:26126923

  17. High-efficiency frequency upconversion of 1.5 μm laser based on a doubly resonant external ring cavity with a low finesse for signal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wei; Qiu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Gang; Jia, Mengyuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yan, Xiaojuan; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Zhaomin; Yin, Wangbao; Feng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Liantuan; Axner, Ove; Jia, Suotang

    2017-02-01

    A doubly resonant external ring cavity with a low finesse for the signal field is used to improve the frequency upconversion efficiency of a weak 1583 nm signal laser to 636 nm by mixing with a resonance power enhanced 1064 nm pump laser in a 25 mm periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. The process of frequency upconversion is described and optimized by the doubly resonant cavity-enhanced sum frequency generation theory under the condition of undepleted pump approximation. By selecting the suitable reflectivity of the signal input mirror and the incident pump power, a cavity-enhanced frequency conversion efficiency of 94.6% was obtained for signal powers up to 25 mW with an input pump power of 780 mW.

  18. Nanostructural features degrading the performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Trenikhina, Y.; Romanenko, A.; Kwon, J.; Zuo, J.-M.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2015-04-21

    Nanoscale defect structure within the magnetic penetration depth of ∼100 nm is key to the performance limitations of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities. Using a unique combination of advanced thermometry during cavity RF measurements, and TEM structural and compositional characterization of the samples extracted from cavity walls, we discover the existence of nanoscale hydrides in electropolished cavities limited by the high field Q slope, and show the decreased hydride formation in the electropolished cavity after 120 °C baking. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adding 800 °C hydrogen degassing followed by light buffered chemical polishing restores the hydride formation to the pre-120 °C bake level. We also show absence of niobium oxides along the grain boundaries and the modifications of the surface oxide upon 120 °C bake.

  19. Nanostructural features degrading the performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenikhina, Y.; Romanenko, A.; Kwon, J.; Zuo, J.-M.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    Nanoscale defect structure within the magnetic penetration depth of ˜100 nm is key to the performance limitations of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities. Using a unique combination of advanced thermometry during cavity RF measurements, and TEM structural and compositional characterization of the samples extracted from cavity walls, we discover the existence of nanoscale hydrides in electropolished cavities limited by the high field Q slope, and show the decreased hydride formation in the electropolished cavity after 120 °C baking. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adding 800 °C hydrogen degassing followed by light buffered chemical polishing restores the hydride formation to the pre-120 °C bake level. We also show absence of niobium oxides along the grain boundaries and the modifications of the surface oxide upon 120 °C bake.

  20. Comparison and characterization of efficient frequency doubling at 397.5 nm with PPKTP, LBO and BiBO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin; Han, Yashuai; Wang, Junmin

    2016-04-01

    A continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser at 795 nm is frequency doubled in a bow-tie type enhancement four-mirror ring cavity with LiB3O5 (LBO), BiB3O6 (BiBO), and periodically polled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystals, respectively. The properties of 397.5 nm ultra-violet (UV) output power, beam quality, stability for these different nonlinear crystals are investigated and compared. For PPKTP crystal, the highest doubling efficiency of 58.1% is achieved from 191 mW of 795 nm mode-matched fundamental power to 111 mW of 397.5 nm UV output. For LBO crystal, with 1.34 W of mode-matched 795 nm power, 770 mW of 397.5 nm UV output is achieved, implying a doubling efficiency of 57.4%. For BiBO crystal, with 323 mW of mode-matched 795 nm power, 116 mW of 397.5 nm UV output is achieved, leading to a doubling efficiency of 35.9%. The generated UV radiation has potential applications in the fields of quantum physics.

  1. Efficient frequency doubler of 1560 nm laser based on a semi-monolithic resonant cavity with a PPKTP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Kong; Ge, Yulong; Guo, Shanlong

    2016-06-01

    We have demonstrated 1.61 W of 780 nm single-frequency continuous-wave laser output with a semi-monolithic periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal doubler pumped by a 2-W erbium-doped fiber amplifier boosted 1560 nm diode laser. The measured maximum doubling efficiency is 77%, and the practical value should be 80% when taking into account the fundamental-wave mode matching efficiency. The measured beam quality factor of 780 nm output, M2, is better than 1.04. Typical root-mean-square fluctuation of 780 nm output is less than 0.5% in 30 minutes. This compact frequency doubler has good mechanical stability, and can be employed for many applications, such as laser cooling and trapping, atomic coherent control, atomic interferometer, and quantum frequency standard with rubidium atoms.

  2. LD-pumped double-clad fiber single-frequency power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Feng; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming

    2005-12-01

    Single frequency, single mode laser output from a monolithic resonator was amplified by a double-clad D-shape fiber of 4.4 meters long. When the signal laser is 200mw, up to 6.65 W single frequency laser output was obtained, slope efficiency is 30.6%. The amplifier is Yb 3+ doped glass fiber pumped by a laser diode array at 976nm with signal at 1064nm. Single frequency amplification has been proved by a Fabri-Parrot interferometer. It is shown from the experiments that the signal input has not been saturated. By increasing the input signal, amplification can be increased further under the same pumping power. Experimental results meet well with theoretical calculation.

  3. Light storage and cavity supermodes in two coupled optomechanical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate a hybrid optomechanical system including two coupled optomechanical cavities in the presence of two strong pump fields and a weak probe field. The photon-hopping coupling of the cavities gives rise to two cavity supermodes whose resonant frequencies can be obtained in the probe transmission spectrum. In a strong photon-hopping coupling regime, there is a large coupling rate between the probe field and one of the two cavity supermodes that is called a bright mode. The optomechanical couplings between the bright mode and two mechanical resonators can cause double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT), which can be employed to both separately and simultaneously store two weak probe pulses with different central frequencies. We obtain the group delay (light storage time) of the probe field in the hybrid optomechanical system. The results suggest that compared with that of a single cavity optomechanical system, the maximum value of the storage time roughly quadrupled in a particular case. The physical origin of the results is discussed. The hybrid optomechanical system opens an avenue of light storage in cavity optomechanics.

  4. Roughness analysis applied to niobium thin films grown on MgO(001) surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beringer, D. B.; Roach, W. M.; Clavero, C.; Reece, C. E.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2013-02-05

    This paper describes surface studies to address roughness issues inherent to thin film coatings deposited onto superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. This is particularly relevant for multilayered thin film coatings that are being considered as a possible scheme to overcome technical issues and to surpass the fundamental limit of ~500 MV/m accelerating gradient achievable with bulk niobium. In 2006, a model by Gurevich [ Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 012511 (2006)] was proposed to overcome this limit that involves coating superconducting layers separated by insulating ones onto the inner walls of the cavities. Thus, we have undertaken a systematic effort to understand the dynamic evolution of the Nb surface under specific deposition thin film conditions onto an insulating surface in order to explore the feasibility of the proposed model. We examine and compare the morphology from two distinct Nb/MgO series, each with its own epitaxial registry, at very low growth rates and closely examine the dynamical scaling of the surface features during growth. Further, we apply analysis techniques such as power spectral density to the specific problem of thin film growth and roughness evolution to qualify the set of deposition conditions that lead to successful SRF coatings.

  5. A study on the effect of tantalum-impurity content on the superconducting properties of niobium materials used for making superconducting radio frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect

    S B Roy, L S Sharath Chandra, M K Chattopadhyay, M K Tiwari, G S Lodha, G R Myneni

    2012-10-01

    Niobium materials in highly pure form are used in the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavities. We present here a study of the superconducting properties of such niobium materials that have been used in the fabrication of high accelerating gradient superconducting radio frequency cavities after determining their tantalum-impurity contents using a synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technique. Our results show that there is a small change in superconducting parameters such as T{sub C},H{sub C1} and H{sub C2} when the tantalum-impurity content varies from ≈150 to ≈1300 ppm. In contrast, a buffered chemical polishing of the same niobium samples changes all these superconducting parameters more significantly. The implications of these results on the performance of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities are discussed.

  6. Ultrafast direct modulation of transverse-mode coupled-cavity VCSELs far beyond the relaxation oscillation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach for bandwidth augmentation for direct modulation of VCSELs using transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) scheme is raised, which enables us to tailor the modulation-transfer function. The base structure is similar to that of 3QW VCSELs with 980 nm wavelength operation. While the bandwidth of conventional VCSELs was limited by 9-10 GHz, the 3-dB bandwidth of TCC VCSEL with aperture diameters of 8.5×8.5μm2 and 3×3μm2 are increased by a factor of 3 far beyond the relaxation-oscillation frequency. Our current bandwidth achievement on the larger aperture size is 29 GHz which is limited by the used photo-detector. To the best of our knowledge this is the fastest 980 nm VCSEL.

  7. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zvi, I; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 10(4) to 10(9) provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°.

  8. Application of Model Based Parameter Estimation for Fast Frequency Response Calculations of Input Characteristics of Cavity-Backed Aperture Antennas Using Hybrid FEM/MoM Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Model Based Parameter Estimation (MBPE) is presented in conjunction with the hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM)/Method of Moments (MoM) technique for fast computation of the input characteristics of cavity-backed aperture antennas over a frequency range. The hybrid FENI/MoM technique is used to form an integro-partial- differential equation to compute the electric field distribution of a cavity-backed aperture antenna. In MBPE, the electric field is expanded in a rational function of two polynomials. The coefficients of the rational function are obtained using the frequency derivatives of the integro-partial-differential equation formed by the hybrid FEM/ MoM technique. Using the rational function approximation, the electric field is obtained over a frequency range. Using the electric field at different frequencies, the input characteristics of the antenna are obtained over a wide frequency range. Numerical results for an open coaxial line, probe-fed coaxial cavity and cavity-backed microstrip patch antennas are presented. Good agreement between MBPE and the solutions over individual frequencies is observed.

  9. A double stranded metal-organic assembly accommodating a pair of water trimers in the host cavity and catalysing Glaser coupling.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Subhashis; Moon, Dohyun; John, Rohith P

    2016-02-01

    A supramolecular compound, catena-poly{[Cu2(1,3-μ2-(1a))2(μ2-ter)2(H2O)2]n·(6H2O)n} (1) has been synthesized using (1a) [(1a = N(1),N(3),N(5)-trimethyl-N(1),N(3),N(5)-tris((pyridin-4-yl)methyl)-1,3,5-benzene tricarboxamide] and terephthalate (ter) as the pillaring unit by self-assembly. The terephthalate units are connected by copper(II) ions forming a single strand, while a pair of such strands are then linked by (1a) via two pyridyl terminal arms bound to copper(II) nodes on either side forming a one-dimensional double stranded assembly propagating along the c axis. The compound crystallizes in the Fdd2 space group. The cavity created in the interior of this double strand assembly trap six water molecules and are stabilized by hydrogen bonding with the host. The arrangement of the pair of acyclic water trimers in isolated cavities of (1) is such that it resembles a closed-bracket-like formation. The Hirshfeld surface analysis of (1) reveals the presence of strong intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions between one-dimensional ladder-like units and with the water trimer in the host cavity. The copper(II)-containing coordination polymer also acts as an efficient catalyst for the Glaser-Hay homo-coupling reaction.

  10. Green frequency-doubled laser-beam propagation in high-temperature hohlraum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Niemann, C; Berger, R L; Divol, L; Froula, D H; Jones, O; Kirkwood, R K; Meezan, N; Moody, J D; Ross, J; Sorce, C; Suter, L J; Glenzer, S H

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate propagation and small backscatter losses of a frequency-doubled (2omega) laser beam interacting with inertial confinement fusion hohlraum plasmas. The electron temperature of 3.3 keV, approximately a factor of 2 higher than achieved in previous experiments with open geometry targets, approaches plasma conditions of high-fusion yield hohlraums. In this new temperature regime, we measure 2omega laser-beam transmission approaching 80% with simultaneous backscattering losses of less than 10%. These findings suggest that good laser coupling into fusion hohlraums using 2omega light is possible.

  11. Treatment of overhanging blebs with frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Sony, Parul; Kumar, Harsh; Pushker, Neelam

    2004-01-01

    Large overhanging blebs can be associated with various complications (eg, overfiltration, endophthalmitis, and dellen formation). Argon laser treatment of such blebs has already been described. The authors used frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in 3 eyes of 3 patients with large filtering blebs. Gentian violet was used to stain the bleb surface and enhance the laser absorption. Laser spots were applied over the bleb surface. Bleb shrinkage and remodeling was observed in all 3 eyes. Intraocular pressure remained normal, suggesting that the filtering capability of the blebs was maintained.

  12. Multi-wavelength generation based on cascaded Raman scattering and self-frequency-doubling in KTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, K.; Li, J. S.; Xu, D. G.; Ding, X.; Zhou, R.; Wen, W. Q.; Li, Z. Y.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, P.; Yao, J. Q.

    2010-04-01

    A multi-wavelength laser is developed based on cascaded stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-frequency-doubling in an x-cut KTA crystal pumped by an A-O Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The generation of 1178 nm from cascaded SRS of 234 and 671 cm-1 Raman modes is observed. The six wavelengths, including the fundamental 1064 nm, four Stokes waves at 1091, 1120, 1146, 1178 nm, and the second harmonic generation (SHG) of 1146 nm, are tens to hundreds of millwatts for each at 10 kHz, corresponding to a total conversion efficiency of 8.72%.

  13. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  14. Proposed Cavity for Reduced Slip-Stacking Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, J.; Zwaska, R.

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs a novel dynamical mechanism to improve the performance of slip-stacking. Slip-stacking in an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly double the proton intensity. During slip-stacking, the Recycler or the Main Injector stores two particles beams that spatially overlap but have different momenta. The two particle beams are longitudinally focused by two 53 MHz 100 kV RF cavities with a small frequency difference between them. We propose an additional 106 MHz 20 kV RF cavity, with a frequency at the double the average of the upper and lower main RF frequencies. In simulation, we find the proposed RF cavity significantly enhances the stable bucket area and reduces slip-stacking losses under reasonable injection scenarios. We quantify and map the stability of the parameter space for any accelerator implementing slip-stacking with the addition of a harmonic RF cavity.

  15. Photonic generation of versatile frequency-doubled microwave waveforms via a dual-polarization modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zihang; Zhao, Shanghong; Li, Xuan; Qu, Kun; Lin, Tao

    2017-02-01

    We report a photonic approach to generate frequency-doubled microwave waveforms using an integrated electro-optic dual-polarization modulator driven by a sinusoidal radio frequency (RF) signal. With active bias control, two MZMs of the dual-polarization modulator operate at minimum transmission points, a triangular waveform can be generated by a parameter setting of modulation index. After introducing a broadband 90° microwave phase shifter, a square waveform can be obtained by readjusting the power relationship of harmonics. The proposal is first theoretically analyzed and then validated by simulation. Simulation results show that a 10 GHz triangular and square waveform sequences are successfully generated from a 5 GHz sinusoidal RF drive signal, and the performance of the microwave waveforms are not influenced by the finite extinction ratio of modulator.

  16. 1W frequency-doubled VCSEL-pumped blue laser with high pulse energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Leeuwen, Robert; Chen, Tong; Watkins, Laurence; Xu, Guoyang; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Wang, Qing; Zhou, Delai; Ghosh, Chuni

    2015-02-01

    We report on a Q-switched VCSEL side-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser that produces high average power blue light with high pulse energy after frequency doubling in BBO. The gain medium was water cooled and symmetrically pumped by three 1 kW 808 nm VCSEL pump modules. More than 1 W blue output was achieved at 210 Hz with 4.9 mJ pulse energy and at 340 Hz with 3.2 mJ pulse energy, with 42% and 36% second harmonic conversion efficiency respectively. Higher pulse energy was obtained at lower repetition frequencies, up to 9.3 mJ at 70 Hz with 52% conversion efficiency.

  17. Operation of a frequency-narrowed high-beam quality broad-area laser by a passively stabilized external cavity technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, S. B.; Coons, R. W.

    2007-11-01

    The average spectral bandwidth of a 2W broad-area diode laser was narrowed to 5GHz with wavelength tunability of up to 12nm at a center wavelength of 790nm with the use of a Littman-Metcalf external cavity in a displaced configuration. The use of lens and combined lens-laser transformation systems allowed precise alignment of the beam shaping optics, which led to significant improvements of the beam quality and an enhanced suppression of the free-running laser modes. We characterize the spatial beam quality of our external cavity diode laser by measuring the M2 quality factor and relate this to our measured bandwidths. Our external cavity can be configured over a range of cavity lengths and is modular in design, enabling access to a broad frequency spectrum for a wide range of applications that require high-power, narrow bandwidth operation.

  18. A parametric study of double-shell tank response to internal high-frequency pressure loading

    SciTech Connect

    Baliga, R.; Choi, K.; Shulman, J.S.; Strehlow, J.P.; Abatt, G.

    1995-02-01

    The double-shell waste tank 241SY101 (SY101) is a 3,785,400-liter tank used to store radioactive waste at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The tank waste has formed two layers of sludge in the tank; a convective and a nonconvective layer. Ongoing reactions in the waste cause a buildup of hydrogen molecules that become trapped within the nonconvective layer of the waste. Various means of preventing the buildup of hydrogen molecules in the nonconvective layer have been investigated, including the use of a sonic probe that would transmit high-frequency acoustic pressure waves into the nonconvective layer of the waste. During the operation of the sonic probe, the pressure waves transmitted from the probe induce pressure time history loading on the inside surface of the primary tank. For low-frequency fluid-structure interaction loads, such as those associated with seismic events, the convective and impulsive effects of the waste-filled tank are well documented. However, for high-frequency loading, such as that associated with acoustic pressure waves, interactions between the waste and the primary tank are not understood. The pressure time history is represented by a harmonic function with a frequency range between 30 and 100 Hz. Structural analyses of the double-shell tank have been performed that address the tank`s response to the sonic probe acoustic pressure loads. This paper addresses the variations in the tank response as a function of percent waste mass considered to be effective in the dynamic excitation of the tank. It also compares results predicted by analyses that discretely model the liquid waste and presents recommendations for the simplified effective mass approach. Also considered in the parametric study is the effect of damping on the tank response for the same pressure loading.

  19. Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Christopher S.; Delayen, Jean R.

    2013-10-01

    To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.

  20. Design of a standing-wave multicell radio frequency cavity beam monitor for simultaneous position and emittance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Miller, Roger; Nantista, Christopher

    2005-07-15

    High precision, nondisruptive emittance measurement through second moment monitoring requires precise beam position at the measurement location. We present the design and analysis of a multicavity standing wave structure for a pulse-to-pulse beam position-emittance measurement system in which the quadrupole and the dipole standing wave modes resonate at harmonics of a presumed beam bunch train frequency. As an application for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) beams, an optimized nine-cavity standing-wave structure is designed for simultaneous high precision beam position and emittance measurement. It operates with the {pi}-phase advance quadrupole mode resonating at the 16th harmonic (11.424 GHz) of the NLC bunch frequency and the 3{pi}/4-phase advance dipole mode at the 12th harmonic (8.568 GHz). The output powers from these modes are estimated for the NLC beams. Measurement resolution is estimated to be on the micron scale for rms beam size and on the nanometer scale for beam position.

  1. An efficient frequency-doubled Nd:KLu(WO4)2 laser at 535 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Xingyu; Liu, Zhaojun; Cong, Zhenhua; Zhang, Huaijin; Li, Jing; Yu, Haohai; Wang, Weitao

    2016-03-01

    An efficient laser diode pumped frequency-doubled Nd:KLu(WO4)2 laser at 535 nm was demonstrated for the first time. For continuous wave (CW) operation, the obtained maximum output power was 2.4 W and the overall optical-to-optical conversion efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power was 20.5%. For active Q-switching operation, the obtained maximum average output power was 2.6 W and the conversion efficiency with regard to the absorbed pump power was 26.8%. The corresponding pulse repetition rate (PRR), pulse width, single pulse energy and peak power were 30 kHz, 36.6 ns, 86.7 μJ, and 2.4 kW, respectively. On the basis of rate equations, the characteristics of the actively Q-switched frequency-doubled Nd:KLu(WO4)2 laser were simulated. The theoretical results of the average output power and pulse width were obtained. They were in agreement with the measured data on the whole.

  2. The ESS spoke cavity cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Bousson, Sebastien; Duthil, Patxi; Reynet, Denis; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of elliptical cavity cryomodules. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design and expected operation of the ESS spoke cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain two double spoke bulk Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 352.21 MHz. The superconducting section of the Spoke Linac accelerates the beam from 90 MeV to 220 MeV. A Spoke Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.

  3. THE DOUBLE PULSAR ECLIPSES. I. PHENOMENOLOGY AND MULTI-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, R. P.; Kaspi, V. M.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lyutikov, M.; Kramer, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Ransom, S. M.; Ferdman, R. D.; Camilo, F.; Possenti, A.

    2012-03-10

    The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B displays short, 30 s eclipses that arise around conjunction when the radio waves emitted by pulsar A are absorbed as they propagate through the magnetosphere of its companion pulsar B. These eclipses offer a unique opportunity to directly probe the magnetospheric structure and the plasma properties of pulsar B. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the eclipse phenomenology using multi-frequency radio observations obtained with the Green Bank Telescope. We have characterized the periodic flux modulations previously discovered at 820 MHz by McLaughlin et al. and investigated the radio frequency dependence of the duration and depth of the eclipses. Based on their weak radio frequency evolution, we conclude that the plasma in pulsar B's magnetosphere requires a large multiplicity factor ({approx}10{sup 5}). We also found that, as expected, flux modulations are present at all radio frequencies in which eclipses can be detected. Their complex behavior is consistent with the confinement of the absorbing plasma in the dipolar magnetic field of pulsar B as suggested by Lyutikov and Thompson and such a geometric connection explains that the observed periodicity is harmonically related to pulsar B's spin frequency. We observe that the eclipses require a sharp transition region beyond which the plasma density drops off abruptly. Such a region defines a plasmasphere that would be well inside the magnetospheric boundary of an undisturbed pulsar. It is also two times smaller than the expected standoff radius calculated using the balance of the wind pressure from pulsar A and the nominally estimated magnetic pressure of pulsar B.

  4. Temperature increase effects on a double-pass cavity type II second-harmonic generation: a model for depleted Gaussian continuous waves.

    PubMed

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Jalil-Abadi, Fatemeh Sedaghat; Rezaee, Mostafa Mohammad; Motazedian, Alireza; Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the effect of temperature increase on the efficiency of a double-pass cavity type II second-harmonic generation (SHG) is investigated. To this end, a depleted wave model describing the continuous-wave SHG process with fundamental Gaussian waves was developed. First, six coupled equations were proposed to model a double-pass cavity to generate the second harmonic of a Gaussian fundamental wave in type II configuration. Then, the effect of temperature increase in the nonlinear crystal due to the optical absorption was modeled. To do this, a mismatched phase arising from changes in refractive indices was added to the coupled equations. Although the nondepleted assumption is usually used in such problems, a simultaneous solving of coupled equations with assumption of fundamental beam depletion was performed. The results were obtained by a homemade code written in Intel Fortran, and show how the efficiency of the SHG process decreases when the crystal is warmed up by 5, 10, and 15 K. Dramatic reductions in SHG efficiency were observed due to small changes in temperature. The results show excellent agreement with the experimental data [Opt. Commun.173, 311-314 (2000)].

  5. Evaluation of the Propensity of Niobium to Absorb Hydrogen During Fabrication of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities for Particle Accelerators.

    PubMed

    Ricker, R E; Myneni, G R

    2010-01-01

    During the fabrication of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle accelerator cavities procedures are used that chemically or mechanically remove the passivating surface film of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5). Removal of this film will expose the underlying niobium metal and allow it to react with the processing environment. If these reactions produce hydrogen at sufficient concentrations and rates, then hydrogen will be absorbed and diffuse into the metal. High hydrogen activities could result in supersaturation and the nucleation of hydride phases. If the metal repassivates at the conclusion of the processing step and the passive film blocks hydrogen egress, then the absorbed hydrogen or hydrides could be retained and alter the performance of the metal during subsequent processing steps or in-service. This report examines the feasibility of this hypothesis by first identifying the postulated events, conditions, and reactions and then determining if each is consistent with accepted scientific principles, literature, and data. Established precedent for similar events in other systems was found in the scientific literature and thermodynamic analysis found that the postulated reactions were not only energetically favorable, but produced large driving forces. The hydrogen activity or fugacity required for the reactions to be at equilibrium was determined to indicate the propensity for hydrogen evolution, absorption, and hydride nucleation. The influence of processing conditions and kinetics on the proximity of hydrogen surface coverage to these theoretical values is discussed. This examination found that the hypothesis of hydrogen absorption during SRF processing is consistent with published scientific literature and thermodynamic principles.

  6. Modeling of High-Frequency Noise in III-V Double-Gate HFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasallo, B. G.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present a review of recent results on Monte Carlo modeling of high-frequency noise in III-V four-terminal devices. In particular, a study of the noise behavior of InAlAs/InGaAs Double-Gate High Electron Mobility Transistors (DG-HEMTs), operating in common mode, and Velocity Modulation Transistors (VMT), operating in differential mode, has been performed taking as a reference a similar standard HEMT. In the DG-HEMT, the intrinsic P, R and C parameters show a modest improvement, but the extrinsic minimum noise figure NFmin reveals a significantly better extrinsic noise performance due to the lower resistances of the gate contact and the source and drain accesses. In the VMT, very high values of P are obtained since the transconductance is very small, while the differential-mode operation leads to extremely low values of R.

  7. Generation of Crystal-Structure Transverse Patterns via a Self-Frequency-Doubling Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Petrov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) visible crystal-structure patterns analogous to the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) have been experimentally observed in the near- and far-fields of a self-frequency-doubling (SFD) microchip laser. Different with the fundamental modes, the localization of the SFD light is changed with the propagation. Calculation based on Hermite-Gaussian (HG) functions and second harmonic generation theory reproduces well the patterns both in the near- and far-field which correspond to the intensity distribution in coordinate and momentum spaces, respectively. Considering the analogy of wave functions of the transverse HG mode and 2D harmonic oscillator, we propose that the simple monolithic SFD lasers can be used for developing of new materials and devices and testing 2D quantum mechanical theories.

  8. Comparison of frequency distributions of doubled haploid and single seed descent lines in barley.

    PubMed

    Choo, T M; Reinbergs, E; Park, S J

    1982-09-01

    Both doubled haploid (DH) and single seed descent (SSD) methods were used to derive homozygous lines from two crosses of barley. The frequency distributions of grain yield, heading date, and plant height of the DH and SSD lines were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample test and Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. It was found that the DH lines distributed in the same manner as the SSD lines with respect to the three characters. The results indicated that although the SSD method had more opportunity for recombination than the DH method, it did not produce a sample of recombinants which differed significantly from the DH sample; thus both methods were equally efficient for use in deriving homozygous lines from F1 hybrids in a relatively short time.

  9. Generation of crystal-structure transverse patterns via a self-frequency-doubling laser.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Petrov, V

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) visible crystal-structure patterns analogous to the quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) have been experimentally observed in the near- and far-fields of a self-frequency-doubling (SFD) microchip laser. Different with the fundamental modes, the localization of the SFD light is changed with the propagation. Calculation based on Hermite-Gaussian (HG) functions and second harmonic generation theory reproduces well the patterns both in the near- and far-field which correspond to the intensity distribution in coordinate and momentum spaces, respectively. Considering the analogy of wave functions of the transverse HG mode and 2D harmonic oscillator, we propose that the simple monolithic SFD lasers can be used for developing of new materials and devices and testing 2D quantum mechanical theories.

  10. Characteristics of bistable localized emission states in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with frequency-selective feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguy, Y.; Ackemann, T.; Jaeger, R.

    2006-11-15

    Small-area bistable lasing spots (about 10 {mu}m full width at half maximum) can be created at different positions within the aperture of a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (aperture diameter 80 {mu}m) with frequency-selective feedback from a grating in Littrow configuration, and an additional pinhole localizing feedback to a part of the laser. Their characteristics are analyzed depending on the grating tuning, injection current, and feedback strength. These spots are considered to be good candidates for self-localized cavity solitons, if the perturbation by boundaries can be reduced using devices with larger diameter.

  11. Frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser radar using dual vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for real-time measurements of distance and radial velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuma, Seiichi

    2017-02-01

    A frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser radar capable of real-time displaying the distance to a target object and its radial velocity as their corresponding frequency spectra is developed. The system employs a pair of oppositely frequency-swept vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs). This makes possible simultaneous detection of beat signals induced by the increment (up-ramp) and decrement (down-ramp) in laser frequencies. By mixing these two beat signals, their sum and difference frequencies are directly obtained without arithmetic processing such as averaging and subtraction. Results of the test experiments adopting axially moving block gauges as target objects show that both the distance and given velocities are accurately determined from the spectrum of the frequency mixer.

  12. Fast Computation of Frequency Response of Cavity-Backed Apertures Using MBPE in Conjunction with Hybrid FEM/MoM Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    2004-01-01

    The hybrid Finite Element Method(FEM)/Method of Moments(MoM) technique has become popular over the last few years due to its flexibility to handle arbitrarily shaped objects with complex materials. One of the disadvantages of this technique, however, is the computational cost involved in obtaining solutions over a frequency range as computations are repeated for each frequency. In this paper, the application of Model Based Parameter Estimation (MBPE) method[1] with the hybrid FEM/MoM technique is presented for fast computation of frequency response of cavity-backed apertures[2,3]. In MBPE, the electric field is expanded in a rational function of two polynomials. The coefficients of the rational function are obtained using the frequency-derivatives of the integro-differential equation formed by the hybrid FEM/MoM technique. Using the rational function approximation, the electric field is calculated at different frequencies from which the frequency response is obtained.

  13. Double frequency piezoelectric transducer design for harmonic imaging purposes in NDT.

    PubMed

    Montero de Espinosa, Francisco; Martínez, Oscar; Elvira Segura, Luis; Gómez-Ullate, Luis

    2005-06-01

    Harmonic imaging (HI) has emerged as a very promising tool for medical imaging, although there has been little published work using this technique in ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT). The core of the technique, which uses nonlinear propagation effects arising in the medium due to the microstructure or the existence of defects, is the ability to design transducers capable of emitting at one frequency and receiving at twice this frequency. The transducers that have been used so far are usually double crystal configurations with coaxial geometry, and commonly using a disc surrounded by a ring. Such a geometry permits the design of broadband transducers if each transducer element is adapted to the medium with its corresponding matching layers. Nevertheless, the different geometry of the emission and reception apertures creates difficulties when resolving the images. In this work, a new transducer design with different emission and reception apertures is resented. It makes use of the traditional construction procedures used to make piezocomposite transducers and the well-known theory of the mode coupling in piezoelectric resonators when the lateral dimensions are comparable with the thickness of the piezoceramic. In this work the design, construction, and characterization of a prototype to be used in NDT of metallic materials is presented. The acoustic field is calculated using water as a propagation medium, and these theoretical predictions then are compared with the experimental measurements. The predicted acoustic performances for the case of propagation in stainless steel are shown.

  14. Evaluation of the Propensity of Niobium to Absorb Hydrogen During Fabrication of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities for Particle Accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Ricker, R. E.; Myneni, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    During the fabrication of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle accelerator cavities procedures are used that chemically or mechanically remove the passivating surface film of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5). Removal of this film will expose the underlying niobium metal and allow it to react with the processing environment. If these reactions produce hydrogen at sufficient concentrations and rates, then hydrogen will be absorbed and diffuse into the metal. High hydrogen activities could result in supersaturation and the nucleation of hydride phases. If the metal repassivates at the conclusion of the processing step and the passive film blocks hydrogen egress, then the absorbed hydrogen or hydrides could be retained and alter the performance of the metal during subsequent processing steps or in-service. This report examines the feasibility of this hypothesis by first identifying the postulated events, conditions, and reactions and then determining if each is consistent with accepted scientific principles, literature, and data. Established precedent for similar events in other systems was found in the scientific literature and thermodynamic analysis found that the postulated reactions were not only energetically favorable, but produced large driving forces. The hydrogen activity or fugacity required for the reactions to be at equilibrium was determined to indicate the propensity for hydrogen evolution, absorption, and hydride nucleation. The influence of processing conditions and kinetics on the proximity of hydrogen surface coverage to these theoretical values is discussed. This examination found that the hypothesis of hydrogen absorption during SRF processing is consistent with published scientific literature and thermodynamic principles. PMID:27134791

  15. Specific features of low-frequency vibrational dynamics and low-temperature heat capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramenko, M. V.; Roshal, S. B.

    2016-05-01

    A continuous model has been constructed for low-frequency dynamics of a double-walled carbon nanotube. The formation of the low-frequency part of the phonon spectrum of a double-walled nanotube from phonon spectra of its constituent single-walled nanotubes has been considered in the framework of the proposed approach. The influence of the environment on the phonon spectrum of a single double-walled carbon nanotube has been analyzed. A combined method has been proposed for estimating the coefficients of the van der Waals interaction between the walls of the nanotube from the spectroscopic data and the known values of the elastic moduli of graphite. The low-temperature specific heat has been calculated for doublewalled carbon nanotubes, which in the field of applicability of the model ( T < 35 K) is substantially less than the sum of specific heats of two individual single-walled nanotubes forming it.

  16. Miniature fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy system using frequency-doubled femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Mills, Arthur K.; Zhao, Yuan; Jones, David J.; Tang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We report on a miniature fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system based on a frequency-doubled femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser. The femtosecond pulses from the laser source are delivered to the miniature fiber-optic probe at 1.58 µm wavelength, where a standard single mode fiber is used for delivery without the need of free-space dispersion compensation components. The beam is frequency-doubled inside the probe by a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. Frequency-doubled pulses at 786 nm with a maximum power of 80 mW and a pulsewidth of 150 fs are obtained and applied to excite intrinsic signals from tissues. A MEMS scanner, a miniature objective, and a multimode collection fiber are further used to make the probe compact. The miniature fiber-optic MPM system is highly portable and robust. Ex vivo multiphoton imaging of mammalian skins demonstrates the capability of the system in imaging biological tissues. The results show that the miniature fiber-optic MPM system using frequency-doubled femtosecond fiber laser can potentially bring the MPM imaging for clinical applications. PMID:27231633

  17. Analysis of bistability conditions between lasing and nonlasing states for a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with frequency-selective optical feedback using an envelope approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Naumenko, A. V.; Loiko, N. A.; Ackemann, T.

    2007-08-15

    The emission characteristics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an external cavity with a diffraction grating as a frequency-selective element are theoretically analyzed. We introduce envelope functions for the set of external-cavity modes based on the loci of modes with extremal gain or frequency in the proper parameter space. Replacing the set of discrete stationary solutions by these envelope functions, simple analytical expressions are derived for the existence of bistability between a lasing state strongly affected by the feedback and a state close to the solitary laser emission (in particular the nonlasing state) and for the frequency of the VCSEL in the grating-controlled regime. It is shown how the initial jump of the laser intensity during abrupt turn-on can be maximized. By a control of the feedback change, the width of the hysteresis loop can be increased significantly. The scheme under consideration can be useful in all-optical photonic switching applications.

  18. Chromosomal double-strand breaks induce gene conversion at high frequency in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Taghian, D G; Nickoloff, J A

    1997-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs) stimulate chromosomal and extrachromosomal recombination and gene targeting. Transcription also stimulates spontaneous recombination by an unknown mechanism. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae I-SceI to stimulate recombination between neo direct repeats in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosomal DNA. One neo allele was controlled by the dexamethasone-inducible mouse mammary tumor virus promoter and inactivated by an insertion containing an I-SceI site at which DSBs were introduced in vivo. The other neo allele lacked a promoter but carried 12 phenotypically silent single-base mutations that create restriction sites (restriction fragment length polymorphisms). This system allowed us to generate detailed conversion tract spectra for recipient alleles transcribed at high or low levels. Transient in vivo expression of I-SceI increased homologous recombination 2,000- to 10,000-fold, yielding recombinants at frequencies as high as 1%. Strikingly, 97% of these products arose by gene conversion. Most products had short, bidirectional conversion tracts, and in all cases, donor neo alleles (i.e., those not suffering a DSB) remained unchanged, indicating that conversion was fully nonreciprocal. DSBs in exogenous DNA are usually repaired by end joining requiring little or no homology or by nonconservative homologous recombination (single-strand annealing). In contrast, we show that chromosomal DSBs are efficiently repaired via conservative homologous recombination, principally gene conversion without associated crossing over. For DSB-induced events, similar recombination frequencies and conversion tract spectra were found under conditions of low and high transcription. Thus, transcription does not further stimulate DSB-induced recombination, nor does it appear to affect the mechanism(s) by which DSBs induce gene conversion. PMID:9343400

  19. Watt-level self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCOB lasers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Yu, Haohai; Zong, Nan; Ma, Changqin; Xu, Zuyan; Jiang, Minhua

    2010-05-24

    Laser-diode (LD) pumped self-frequency doubling (SFD) Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) miniature laser was demonstrated. The output power as high as 1.35 W was achieved which is over than five times than previous values for Nd:LnCa4O(BO3)3 (Ln=Y or Gd) SFD lasers and becomes the highest continuous-wave output power in this field to our knowledge. The maximum optical conversion efficiency is 17%. By comparison, we found that the cutting direction along its optimal phase-matching direction out of the principal planes is the determining factor resulting in this watt-level efficient output power. Different with previous studies, the emission wavelength is centered at about 545 nm. We believed that this efficient laser will become the most competitive one in the existing commercial green lasers, especially in the laser display, medical treatment and spectroscopic analysis etc.

  20. Adults with dyslexia show deficits on spatial frequency doubling and visual attention tasks.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Judy; McKone, Elinor

    2004-02-01

    We examine the visual processing of high-functioning adults with developmental dyslexia (mean Performance IQ = 126.5) and current phonological problems. In comparison to an age- and IQ-matched control group, the group with dyslexia showed deficits in two tasks associated with magnocellular/dorsal pathway function. For the 'frequency doubling' stimulus (grating of 0.25 cpd modulated at 25 Hz counterphase flicker), contrast thresholds for detection were raised in the dyslexic group. In conjunction visual search, a display time sufficient for controls to achieve ceiling accuracy at all set sizes (30 ms per item) was inadequate to allow shifts of attention around the display for the group with dyslexia. In contrast, normal performance was found on 'popout' visual search and on a ventral stream acuity task. Correlational analysis revealed a significant relationship between degree of deficit in conjunction search and phonological difficulty. The deficits revealed were specific to functions that rely on magnocellular input. They cannot be attributed to concentration lapses, eye movement problems or slow reaction times in the dyslexic group.

  1. Changes in Frequency-Doubling Perimetry in Patients with Type I Diabetes prior to Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, Isabel; Ferreras, Antonio; Idoipe, Miriam; Sanchez-Cano, Ana I.; Perez-Garcia, Diana; Herrera, Laura X.; Pinilla, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the ability of frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in detecting visual field defects in young adults with type I diabetes prior to retinopathy or with minor retinovascular changes. Methods. This comparative cross-sectional study included 30 healthy subjects and 73 age-matched patients with type I diabetes mellitus. All subjects underwent a full ocular examination including an FDT with the threshold C-20-5 strategy. Only one eye per subject was randomly included in the statistical analysis. FDT results and time to perform the test were compared between the groups. Results. The mean age was 27.1 years in the control group and 26.6 years in the diabetic group (P = 0.875). The mean period from the onset of diabetes was 12.6 ± 6.7 years, while minimal retinovascular changes were observed in 18 eyes. Mean deviation of FDT did not differ between the groups. Although global indices of FDT were within normal limits, pattern standard deviation of FDT was higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.035). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.647 for pattern standard deviation of FDT (standard error = 0.052; P = 0.017). Conclusion. FDT can detect retinal dysfunctions in diabetic patients prior to the onset of significant vascular complications. PMID:24319681

  2. Screening for Patients with Mild Alzheimer Disease Using Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry

    PubMed Central

    Aykan, Umit; Akdemir, M. Orcun; Yildirim, Ozlem; Varlibas, Figen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We compared the visual field performances of patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) with normal subjects and detected visual field impairment attributable to the magnocellular pathway using frequency doubling technology—Matrix (FDT-Matrix). We recruited 43 patients with mild AD (mean age: 68.0 ± 7.2 years) and 33 controls who are visually and cognitively normal (mean age: 64.1 ± 6.4 years). All participants had at least two reliable FDT-Matrix 30-2 tests. Reliability indices, global indices (mean deviation and pattern standard deviation), and glaucoma hemifield test results were measured with FDT-Matrix. The mean test duration was significantly longer in patient group compared with controls (p = 0.002). Among the reliability indices, false negatives were higher in patient group than controls (p = 0.003). There were statistically significant differences in mean deviation and pattern standard deviation values (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and glaucoma hemifield test results (p < 0.001) between the patient and the control group. Our results imply that the pathogenesis of cognitive deterioration may not only be confined to the cortical area but also to the magnocellular pathway. We underline that FDT testing can be useful for the identification of early impairment and the follow-up of patients with AD. PMID:28167993

  3. Histological study of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser trabeculoplasty on monkey eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zi-kui; Wang, Kang-sun; Shi, Hai-yun

    1998-11-01

    Two eyes of a rhesus monkey subject to frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser LTP were examined by light and electron microscopy twenty-four hours and four weeks postoperatively. Light microscopy demonstrated trabecular meshwork edema, acute inflammatory changes such as the presence of polymorphonuclears and amorphous eosinphilous substance of the Schlemm's canal in the specimen 24 hours after surgery, otherwise, membrane-like extension over the surface of uveal meshwork was found in the tissue four weeks after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the specimens excited at earlier stage after irradiation revealed evidences of disruption, coalescence of the trabecular beams and the exudation of deformed erythrocytes among intertrabecular spaces; the specimens excited at later stage showed partial or total occlusion of intertrabecular spaces at laser burn site by a membrane like layer which probably originate from so called trabecular stem cell near the Schwalbe's line. Transmission electron microscopy of the tissue excited at 24 hours post laser showed necrosis of the trabecular cells, collagen fibrils edema, as well a macrophages and pigment cells among intertrabecular spaces; the tissues excited at 4 weeks post laser showed degenerated collagen fibrils and denuded collagen core without superficial trabecular cells.

  4. Simultaneous Stabilization of Gyrotron Frequency and Power by PID Double Feedback Control on the Acceleration and Anode Voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present the results of simultaneous stabilization of both the frequency and the output power by a double PID feedback control on the acceleration and anode voltages in the 460-GHz gyrotron FU CW GVI, also known as "Gyrotron FU CW GO-1" (according to the nomenclature adopted at Osaka University). The approach used in the experiments is based on the modulation of the cyclotron frequency and the pitch factor (velocity ratio) of the electron beam by varying the acceleration and the anode voltages, respectively. In a long-term experiment, the frequency and power stabilities were made to be better than ±10-6 and ±1%, respectively.

  5. Frequency-dependent study of solid 4He contained in a rigid double-torus torsional oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaewon; Shin, Jaeho; Kim, Eunseong

    2015-10-01

    The rigid double-torus torsional oscillator (TO) is constructed to reduce any elastic effects inherent to complicated TO structures, allowing explicit probing for a genuine supersolid signature. We investigated the frequency- and temperature-dependent response of the rigid double-torus TO containing solid 4He with 0.6-ppb 3He and 300-ppb 3He . We did not find evidence to support the frequency-independent contribution proposed to be a property of supersolid helium. The frequency-dependent contribution which comes from the simple elastic effect of solid helium coupled to the TO is essentially responsible for the entire response. The magnitude of the period drop is linearly proportional to f2, indicating that the responses observed in this TO are mostly caused by the overshoot of "soft" solid helium against the wall of the torus. Dissipation of the rigid TO is vastly suppressed compared to that of nonrigid TOs.

  6. Phase-dependent interference between frequency doubled comb lines in a χ(2) phase-matched aluminum nitride microring.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hojoong; Guo, Xiang; Zhu, Na; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A; Tang, Hong X

    2016-08-15

    Nonlinear optical conversion with frequency combs is important for self-referencing and for generating shorter wavelength combs. Here we demonstrate efficient frequency comb doubling through the combination of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) of an input comb with a high Q, phase-matched χ(2) microring resonator. Phase coherence of the SHG and SFG nonlinear conversion processes is confirmed by sinusoidal phase-dependent interference between frequency doubled comb lines.

  7. Locking the frequency of lasers to an optical cavity at the 1.6×10-17 relative instability level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.-F.; Nevsky, A.; Schiller, S.

    2012-06-01

    We stabilized the frequencies of two independent Nd:YAG lasers to two adjacent longitudinal modes of a high-finesse Fabry-Pérot resonator and obtained a beat frequency instability of 6.3 mHz at an integration time of 40 s. Referred to a single laser, this is 1.6×10-17 relative to the laser frequency, and 1.3×10-6 relative to the full width at half maximum of the cavity resonance. The amplitude spectrum of the beat signal had a FWHM of 7.8 mHz. This stable frequency locking is of importance for next-generation optical clock interrogation lasers and fundamental physics tests.

  8. Power enhancement of burst-mode ultraviolet pulses using a doubly resonant optical cavity.

    PubMed

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Notcutt, Mark; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    We report a doubly resonant enhancement cavity (DREC) that can realize a simultaneous enhancement of two incoming laser beams at different wavelengths and different temporal structures. The double-resonance condition is theoretically analyzed, and different DREC locking methods are experimentally investigated. Simultaneous locking of a Fabry-Perot cavity to both an infrared (1064 nm) and its frequency-tripled ultraviolet (355 nm) pulses has been demonstrated by controlling the frequency difference between the two beams with a fiber-optic frequency shifter. The DREC technique enables novel applications of optical cavities to power enhancement of burst-mode lasers with arbitrary macropulse width and repetition rate.

  9. Power enhancement of burst-mode UV pulses using a doubly-resonant optical cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rahkman, Abdurahim; Notcutt, Mark; Liu, Yun

    2015-11-24

    We report a doubly-resonant enhancement cavity (DREC) that can realize a simultaneous enhancement of two incoming laser beams at different wavelengths and different temporal structures. The double-resonance condition is theoretically analyzed and different DREC locking methods are experimentally investigated. Simultaneous locking of a Fabry-Perot cavity to both an infrared (IR, 1064 nm) and its frequency tripled ultraviolet (UV, 355 nm) pulses has been demonstrated by controlling the frequency difference between the two beams with a fiber optic frequency shifter. The DREC technique opens a new paradigm in the applications of optical cavities to power enhancement of burst-mode lasers with arbitrary macropulse width and repetition rate.

  10. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  11. Effect of high temperature heat treatments on the quality factor of a large-grain superconducting radio-frequency niobium cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, P.; Ciovati, G.; Myneni, G. R.; Gray, K. E.; Groll, N.; Maheshwari, P.; McRae, D. M.; Pike, R.; Proslier, T.; Stevie, F.; Walsh, R. P.; Yang, Q.; Zasadzinzki, J.

    2013-04-01

    Large-grain Nb has become a viable alternative to fine-grain Nb for the fabrication of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. In this contribution we report the results from a heat treatment study of a large-grain 1.5 GHz single-cell cavity made of “medium purity” Nb. The baseline surface preparation prior to heat treatment consisted of standard buffered chemical polishing. The heat treatment in the range 800–1400°C was done in a newly designed vacuum induction furnace. Q{sub 0} values of the order of 2×10{sup 10} at 2.0 K and peak surface magnetic field (B{sub p}) of 90 mT were achieved reproducibly. A Q{sub 0} value of (5±1)×10{sup 10} at 2.0 K and B{sub p}=90mT was obtained after heat treatment at 1400°C. This is the highest value ever reported at this temperature, frequency, and field. Samples heat treated with the cavity at 1400°C were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x ray, point-contact tunneling, and x-ray diffraction, and revealed a complex surface composition which includes titanium oxide, increased carbon, and nitrogen content but reduced hydrogen concentration compared to a non-heat-treated sample.

  12. Universal quantum gates for hybrid system assisted by atomic ensembles embedded in double-sided optical cavities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, A.-Peng; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Shou; Zhao, Ming-Xia

    2017-01-01

    We propose deterministic schemes for controlled-NOT (CNOT), Toffoli, and Fredkin gates between flying photon qubits and the collective spin wave (magnon) of an atomic ensemble inside double-sided optical microcavities. All the gates can be accomplished with 100% success probability in principle and no additional qubit is required. Atomic ensemble is employed so that light-matter coupling is remarkably improved by collective enhancement. We qualified the performance of the gates and the results show that they can be faithfully constituted with current experimental techniques. PMID:28272548

  13. Universal quantum gates for hybrid system assisted by atomic ensembles embedded in double-sided optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, A.-Peng; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Shou; Zhao, Ming-Xia

    2017-03-01

    We propose deterministic schemes for controlled-NOT (CNOT), Toffoli, and Fredkin gates between flying photon qubits and the collective spin wave (magnon) of an atomic ensemble inside double-sided optical microcavities. All the gates can be accomplished with 100% success probability in principle and no additional qubit is required. Atomic ensemble is employed so that light-matter coupling is remarkably improved by collective enhancement. We qualified the performance of the gates and the results show that they can be faithfully constituted with current experimental techniques.

  14. Dependence of the residual surface resistance of superconducting radio frequency cavities on the cooling dynamics around T{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A. Melnychuk, O.; Sergatskov, D. A.

    2014-05-14

    We report a strong effect of the cooling dynamics through T{sub c} on the amount of trapped external magnetic flux in superconducting niobium cavities. The effect is similar for fine grain and single crystal niobium and all surface treatments including electropolishing with and without 120 °C baking and nitrogen doping. Direct magnetic field measurements on the cavity walls show that the effect stems from changes in the flux trapping efficiency: slow cooling leads to almost complete flux trapping and higher residual resistance, while fast cooling leads to the much more efficient flux expulsion and lower residual resistance.

  15. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram and frequency doubling technology in anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Schiavi, Costantino; Tassi, Filippo; Finzi, Alessandro; Strobbe, Ernesto; Cellini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Background Steady-state pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry can be used to selectively investigate the activity of the M-Y ganglion cells in adult anisometropic amblyopes. Methods Fifteen normal subjects (mean 27.8±4.1 years) and 15 adults with anisometropic amblyopia (mean 28.7±5.9 years) were analyzed using steady-state PERG and FDT. Results The amplitude of steady-state PERG was significantly different not only among the control group and both the amblyopic eye (P=0.0001) and the sound eye group (P=0.0001), but also between the latter two groups (P=0.006). The difference in FDT mean deviation was statistically significant not only between the control group and amblyopic eye group (P=0.0002), but also between the control group and the sound eye group (P=0.0009). The FDT pattern standard deviation was significantly higher in the control group rather than in the amblyopic eye (P=0.0001) or the sound eye group (P=0.0001). A correlation was found between the reduction in PERG amplitude and the increase in FDT-pattern standard deviation index not only in amblyopic (P=0.0025) and sound (P=0.0023) eyes, but also in the healthy control group (P=0.0001). Conclusion These data demonstrate that in anisometropic amblyopia, there is an abnormal functionality of a subgroup of the magnocellular ganglion cells (M-Y), and the involvement of these cells, together with the parvocellular pathway, may play a key role in the clinical expression of the disease. PMID:27799733

  16. Frequency-doubled dual-pulse freddy lithrotripsy laser in the treatment of urinary tract calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuyuan; Bo, Juanjie; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yi-Xin

    2005-07-01

    Background and Purpose: The Frequency-Doubled Dual-Pulse Nd:YAG FREDDY laser is a short-pulsed, solid-state laser with wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm that was developed for intracorporeal lithothripsy. This clinical study is designed to test its fragmentation efficiency in the treatment of urinary tract calculi. Patients and Methods: 500 urinary tract calculi treated in 194 female and 306 male patients with a mean age of 46 years. All patients were assessed one week post-op with a plain film of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Stone-free rate and final outcome have been evaluated. Final outcome is defined as stone-free or residual fragments. Analysis has been made according to stone size, location and number of stones. The analgesia requirements during each treatment and complications have also been analyzed. Results: The overall stone-free rate for patients was 92.4%. The success rate for upper ureteral was 85.1% (126/148), while the rate for mid/lower was 95.3% (307/322). Bladder stone success rate 96.6% (29/30). Of all 38 incomplete fragmentations, 20 cases (4%) were treated with ESWL and 18 cases (3.6%) had open surgery. Neither fever nor pyonephrosis was reported. The average laser treatment time was 3.3 minutes and the average post-op hospitalization was 2.5 days. Conclusions: The FREDDY laser is an extremely efficient and safe minimally invasive lithotripsy treatment for urinary stones. It should be considered as an alternative treatment for urolithiasis.

  17. Possible influence of surface oxides on the optical response of high-purity niobium material used in the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nageshwar; Deo, M. N.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the possible influence of surface oxides on the optical properties of a high-purity niobium (Nb) material for fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities. Various peaks in the infrared region were identified using Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Optical response functions such as complex refractive index, dielectric and conductivity of niobium were compared with the existing results on oxides free Nb and Cu. It was observed that the presence of a mixture of niobium-oxides, and probably near other surface impurities, appreciably influence the conducting properties of the material causing deviation from the typical metallic characteristics. In this way, the key result of this work is the observation, identification of vibrational modes of some of surface complexes and study of its influences on the optical responses of materials. This method of spectroscopic investigation will help in understanding the origin of degradation of performance of SCRF cavities.

  18. Multilayer coating for higher accelerating fields in superconducting radio-frequency cavities: a review of theoretical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2017-02-01

    The theory of the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) multilayer structure for application in superconducting accelerating cavities is reviewed. The theoretical field limit, optimum layer thicknesses and material combination, and surface resistance are discussed for the SIS structure and are also reviewed for the superconductor-superconductor bilayer structure.

  19. Systematical study on superconducting radio frequency elliptic cavity shapes applicable to future high energy accelerators and energy recovery linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemelin, Valery; Zadeh, Shahnam Gorgi; Heller, Johann; van Rienen, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Elliptic cavities at medium- and high-β range are receiving broader use in the particle accelerator applications. Optimizing the shape of these cavities is a complex and demanding process. In this paper we propose an optimization approach to minimize the ratio of peak magnetic field to the acceleration field Hpk/Eacc while keeping the ratio of peak surface electric field to the accelerating field Epk/Eacc, aperture radius and wall slope angle α at some permitted values. We show that it is possible to substantially vary the cavity geometry without violating the constraints or deteriorating the objective of the optimization. This gives us freedom in designing the geometry to overcome problems such as multipactor while maintaining the minimal Hpk/Eacc . The optimization is then performed to find a set of optimized geometries with minimum Hpk/Eacc for different β 's ranging from 0.4 to 1, different peak surface electric fields, wall slope angles and aperture radii. These data could be generally used as a suitable starting point in designing elliptic cavities.

  20. Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor, alternative method of measuring cavity microphonics

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Plawski; G. Davis; Hai Dong; J. Hovater; John Musson; Thomas Powers

    2005-09-20

    As is well known, mechanical vibration or microphonics in a cryomodule causes the cavity resonance frequency to change at the vibration frequency. One way to measure the cavity microphonics is to drive the cavity with a Phase Locked Loop. Measurement of the instantaneous frequency or PLL error signal provides information about the cavity microphonic frequencies. Although the PLL error signal is available directly, precision frequency measurements require additional instrumentation, a Cavity Resonance Monitor (CRM). The analog version of such a device has been successfully used for several cavity tests [1]. In this paper we present a prototype of a Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor designed and built in the last year. The hardware of this instrument consists of an RF downconverter, digital quadrature demodulator and digital processor motherboard (Altera FPGA). The motherboard processes received data and computes frequency changes with a resolution of 0.2 Hz, with a 3 kHz output bandwidth.

  1. Frequency-agile, rapid scanning cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FARS-CRDS) measurements of the (30012)←(00001) near-infrared carbon dioxide band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, D. A.; Wójtewicz, S.; Miller, C. E.; Hodges, J. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present new high accuracy measurements of the (30012)←(00001) CO2 band near 1575 nm recorded with a frequency-agile, rapid scanning cavity ring-down spectrometer. The resulting spectra were fit with the partially correlated, quadratic-speed-dependent Nelkin-Ghatak profile with line mixing. Significant differences were observed between the fitted line shape parameters and those found in existing databases, which are based upon more simplistic line profiles. Absolute transition frequencies, which were referenced to an optical frequency comb, are given, as well as the other line shape parameters needed to model this line profile. These high accuracy measurements should allow for improved atmospheric retrievals of greenhouse gas concentrations by current and future remote sensing missions.

  2. MHD mixed convection and entropy generation of water-alumina nanofluid flow in a double lid driven cavity with discrete heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S.; Mehmood, K.; Sagheer, M.

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, entropy generation due to mixed convection in a partially heated square double lid driven cavity filled with Al2O3 -water nanofluid under the influence of inclined magnetic field is numerically investigated. At the lower wall of the cavity two heat sources are fixed, with the condition that the remaining part of the bottom wall is kept insulated. Top wall and vertically moving walls are maintained at constant cold temperature. Buoyant force is responsible for the flow along with the two moving vertical walls. Governing equations are discretized in space using LBB-stable finite element pair Q2 / P1disc which lead to 3rd and 2nd order accuracy in the L2-norm for the velocity/temperature and pressure, respectively and the fully implicit Crank-Nicolson scheme of 2nd order accuracy is utilized for the temporal discretization. The discretized systems of nonlinear equations are treated by using the Newton method and the associated linear subproblems are solved by means of Guassian elimination method. Numerical results are presented and analyzed by means of streamlines, isotherms, tables and some useful plots. Impacts of emerging parameters on the flow, in specific ranges such as Reynolds number (1 ≤ Re ≤ 100) , Richardson number (1 ≤ Ri ≤ 50) , Hartman number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 100) , solid volume fraction (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2) as well as the angles of inclined magnetic field (0 ° ≤ γ ≤ 90 °) are investigated and the findings are exactly of the same order as that of the previously performed analysis. Calculation of average Nusselt number, entropy generation due to heat transfer, fluid friction and magnetic field, total entropy generation, Bejan number and kinetic energy are the main focus of our study.

  3. MgO:PPLN frequency doubling optical chips for green light generation: from lab research to mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chang-Qing; Gan, Yi; Sun, Jian

    2012-03-01

    Laser displays require red, green and blue (RGB) laser sources each with a low-cost, a high wall-plug efficiency, and a small size. However, semiconductor chips that directly emit green light with sufficient power and efficiency are not currently available on the market. A practical solution to the "green" bottleneck is to employ diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology, in which a frequency doubling crystal is used. In this paper, recent progress of MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) frequency doubling optical chips will be presented. It is shown that MgO:PPLN can satisfy all of the requirements for laser displays and is ready for mass production.

  4. CAVITY EXCITATION CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Franck, J.V.

    1959-10-20

    An electronic oscillator is described for energizing a resonant cavity and to a system for stabilizing the operatin g frequency of the oscillator at the particular frequency necessary to establish a particular preferred field configuration or mode in the cavity, in this instance a linear accelerator. A freely rnnning oscillator has an output coupled to a resonant cavity wherein a field may be built up at any one of several adjacent frequencies. A pickup loop in the cavity is suitably shielded and positioned in the cavity so that only energy at the panticular desired frequency is fed back to stabilize the oscillator. A phase and gain control is in cluded in the feedback line.

  5. Application of AWE Along with a Combined FEM/MoM Technique to Compute RCS of a Cavity-Backed Aperture in an Infinite Ground Plane Over a Frequency Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C.J.; Deshpande, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    A hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM)/Method of Moments (MoM) technique in conjunction with the Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation (AWE) technique is applied to obtain radar cross section (RCS) of a cavity-backed aperture in an infinite ground plane over a frequency range. The hybrid FEM/MoM technique when applied to the cavity-backed aperture results in an integro-differential equation with electric field as the unknown variable, the electric field obtained from the solution of the integro-differential equation is expanded in Taylor series. The coefficients of the Taylor series are obtained using the frequency derivatives of the integro-differential equation formed by the hybrid FEM/MoM technique. The series is then matched via the Pade approximation to a rational polynomial, which can be used to extrapolate the electric field over a frequency range. The RCS of the cavity-backed aperture is calculated using the electric field at different frequencies. Numerical results for a rectangular cavity, a circular cavity, and a material filled cavity are presented over a frequency range. Good agreement between AWE and the exact solution over the frequency range is obtained.

  6. Novel 980-nm and 490-nm light sources using vertical cavity lasers with extended coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, John G.; Mooradian, Aram; Lewis, Alan; Shchegrov, Andrei V.; Strzelecka, Eva M.; Lee, Dicky; Watson, Jason P.; Liebman, Michael K.; Carey, Glen P.; Umbrasas, Arvydas; Amsden, Charles A.; Cantos, Brad D.; Hitchens, William R.; Heald, David L.; Doan, Vincent V.; Cannon, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    We have developed novel electrically pumped, surface-emitting lasers emitting at 980 nm with an extended coupled cavity. The concept is scalable from monolithic low power devices all the way to high power extended cavity lasers. The latter have demonstrated 1W cw multi-mode and 0.5 W cw in a TEM00 mode and a single frequency, with 90% coupling efficiency into a single-mode fiber. By inserting a nonlinear optical medium in the external cavity, efficient and compact frequency doubling has been achieved with CW output powers 5-40 mW demonstrated at 490 nm. The latter devices are especially noteworthy due to their very low noise, sub 10 μrad beam pointing stability combined with small size, low power consumption and high efficiency.

  7. Demonstration of optical frequency quadrupling combined with direct/external signal double-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jhe-Min; Ho, Wen-Jeng; Chang, Yu-Peng; Peng, Peng-Chun; Lu, Hai-Han

    2014-04-01

    This study experimentally demonstrates the performance of optical frequency quadrupling generation and base-band signal up-conversion techniques based on the cascaded single-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (SEMZM) using different signal modulation schemes. The optical signals in microwave band with double-sideband suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC) modulated format exhibit that the receiver sensitivity and the spectral efficiency are maximized and the power penalty over long-distance delivery is minimized. A simple configuration and low-frequency bandwidth requirement for both electrical and optical components in the proposed schemes also are demonstrated.

  8. Ultrashort-pulse Ti:sapphire laser system pumped by frequency-doubled Nd:glass lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonlie, James D.; Price, Dwight F.; Sullivan, Alan; White, William E.

    1996-05-01

    We report on the development of a Chirped Pulse Amplification system in which the final amplifier is a large Ti:Sapphire disk pumped by a frequency doubled Nd:Glass laser. Using this amplifier we have produced near diffraction limited 120 fs pulses with energies in excess of 1 J. Focusing of these pulses results in peak irradiances exceeding 5 X 1019 W/cm2. The scalability of this amplifier to the 10 - 20 J level is also discussed.

  9. 50W CW visible laser source at 589nm obtained via frequency doubling of three coherently combined narrow-band Raman fibre amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Luke R; Feng, Yan; Calia, Domenico Bonaccini

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate the cascaded coherent collinear combination of a seed-split triplet of 1178nm high-power narrow-band (sub-1.5MHz) SBS-suppressed CW Raman fibre amplifiers via nested free-space constructive quasi-Mach-Zehnder interferometry, after analysing the combination of the first two amplifiers in detail. Near-unity combination and cascaded-combination efficiencies are obtained at all power levels up to a maximum P(1178) > 60W. Frequency doubling of this cascaded-combined output in an external resonant cavity yields P(589) > 50W with peak conversion efficiency eta(589) ~85%. We observe no significant differences between the SHG of a single, combined pair or triplet of amplifiers. Although the system represents a successful power scalability demonstrator for fibre-based Na-D(2a)-tuned mesospheric laser-guide-star systems, we emphasise its inherent wavelength versatility and consider its spectroscopic and near-diffraction-limited qualities equally well suited to other applications.

  10. Walk-Off-Induced Modulation Instability, Temporal Pattern Formation, and Frequency Comb Generation in Cavity-Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Leo, F; Hansson, T; Ricciardi, I; De Rosa, M; Coen, S; Wabnitz, S; Erkintalo, M

    2016-01-22

    We derive a time-domain mean-field equation to model the full temporal and spectral dynamics of light in singly resonant cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We show that the temporal walk-off between the fundamental and the second-harmonic fields plays a decisive role under realistic conditions, giving rise to rich, previously unidentified nonlinear behavior. Through linear stability analysis and numerical simulations, we discover a new kind of quadratic modulation instability which leads to the formation of optical frequency combs and associated time-domain dissipative structures. Our numerical simulations show excellent agreement with recent experimental observations of frequency combs in quadratic nonlinear media [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063839 (2015)]. Thus, in addition to unveiling a new, experimentally accessible regime of nonlinear dynamics, our work enables predictive modeling of frequency comb generation in cavity-enhanced second-harmonic generation systems. We expect our findings to have wide impact on the study of temporal and spectral dynamics in a diverse range of dispersive, quadratically nonlinear resonators.

  11. On the difference between single- and double-sided bandpass filtering of spatial frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Jia, Wei; Wu, Di; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2017-02-01

    It is well-known that bandpass filtering will lead to edge extraction in image processing. However, the difference between single- and double-sided bandpass filtering has never been compared and investigated in the literature. We investigate the difference between single- and double-sided bandpass spatial filtering in a 4-f coherent optical image processing system. We find that single-sided filtering can approximate the operation of a first-order derivative, while double-sided filtering gives a second-order derivative. Simulations and optical experiments confirm our findings.

  12. Going far beyond the near-field diffraction limit via plasmonic cavity lens with high spatial frequency spectrum off-axis illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Yunfei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Changtao; Gao, Ping; Wang, Yanqin; Pu, Mingbo; Yao, Na; Zhao, Chengwei; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-10-01

    For near-field imaging optics, minimum resolvable feature size is highly constrained by the near-field diffraction limit associated with the illumination light wavelength and the air distance between the imaging devices and objects. In this study, a plasmonic cavity lens composed of Ag-photoresist-Ag form incorporating high spatial frequency spectrum off-axis illumination (OAI) is proposed to realize deep subwavelength imaging far beyond the near-field diffraction limit. This approach benefits from the resonance effect of the plasmonic cavity lens and the wavevector shifting behavior via OAI, which remarkably enhances the object’s subwavelength information and damps negative imaging contribution from the longitudinal electric field component in imaging region. Experimental images of well resolved 60-nm half-pitch patterns under 365-nm ultra-violet light are demonstrated at air distance of 80 nm between the mask patterns and plasmonic cavity lens, approximately four-fold longer than that in the conventional near-field lithography and superlens scheme. The ultimate air distance for the 60-nm half-pitch object could be theoretically extended to 120 nm. Moreover, two-dimensional L-shape patterns and deep subwavelength patterns are illustrated via simulations and experiments. This study promises the significant potential to make plasmonic lithography as a practical, cost-effective, simple and parallel nano-fabrication approach.

  13. Wavelets, period-doubling, and time-frequency localization with application to organization of convection over the tropical western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weng, Hengyi; Lau, K.-M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary results in using orthogonal and continuous wavelet transform (WT) to identify period doubling and time-frequency localization in both synthetic and real data are presented. First, the Haar WT is applied to synthetic time series derived from a simple nonlinear dynamical system- a first-order quadratic difference equation. Second, the complex Morlet WT is used to study the time-frequency localization of tropical convection based on a high-resolution Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite infrared (IR) radiance dataset. The Haar WT of the synthetic time series indicates the presence and distinct separation of multiple frequencies in a period-doubling sequence. The period-doubling process generates a multiplicity of intermediate frequencies, which are manifested in the nonuniformity in time with respect to the phase of oscillations in the lower frequencies. Wavelet transform also enables the detection of extremely weak signals in high-order subharmonics resulting from the period-doubling bifurcations. These signals are either undetected or considered statistically insignificant by traditional Fourier analysis. The Morlet WT of the IR radiance dataset indicates the presence of multiple timescales, which are localized in both frequency and time. There are two regimes in the variation of IR radiance, corresponding to the wet and dry periods. Multiple timescales, ranging from semidiurnal, diurnal, synoptic, to intraseasonal with embedding structures, are active in the wet regime. In particular, synoptic variability is more prominent during the wet phase of an intensive intraseasonal cycle. These are not only consistent with, but also show more details than, previous findings by using other techniques. The phase-locking relationships among the oscillations with different time-scales suggest that both synoptic and intraseasonal variations may be mixed oscillations due to the interaction of self-excited oscillations in the tropical

  14. Finite element analysis and frequency shift studies for the bridge coupler of the coupled cavity linear accelerator of the spallation neutron source.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron scattering research facility. The linear accelerator (linac) is the principal accelerating structure and divided into a room-temperature linac and a superconducting linac. The normal conducting linac system that consists of a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) is to be built by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The CCL structure is 55.36-meters long. It accelerates H- beam from 86.8 Mev to 185.6 Mev at operating frequency of 805 MHz. This side coupled cavity structure has 8 cells per segment, 12 segments and 11 bridge couplers per module, and 4 modules total. A 5-MW klystron powers each module. The number 3 and number 9 bridge coupler of each module are connected to the 5-MW RF power supply. The bridge coupler with length of 2.5 {beta}{gamma} is a three-cell structure and located between the segments and allows power flow through the module. The center cell of each bridge coupler is excited during normal operation. To obtain a uniform electromagnetic filed and meet the resonant frequency shift, the RF induced heat must be removed. Thus, the thermal deformation and frequency shift studies are performed via numerical simulations in order to have an appropriate cooling design and predict the frequency shift under operation. The center cell of the bridge coupler also contains a large 4-inch slug tuner and a tuning post that used to provide bulk frequency adjustment and field intensity adjustment, so that produce the proper total field distribution in the module assembly.

  15. Absence of nonlinear responses in cells and tissues exposed to RF energy at mobile phone frequencies using a doubly resonant cavity.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuk, Christine; Yarwood, Gemma; Blackwell, Roger; Priestner, Marisa; Sienkiewicz, Zenon; Bouffler, Simon; Ahmed, Iftekhar; Abd-Alhameed, Raed; Excell, Peter; Hodzic, Vildana; Davis, Christopher; Gammon, Robert; Balzano, Quirino

    2010-10-01

    A doubly resonant cavity was used to search for nonlinear radiofrequency (RF) energy conversion in a range of biological preparations, thereby testing the hypothesis that living tissue can demodulate RF carriers and generate baseband signals. The samples comprised high-density cell suspensions (human lymphocytes and mouse bone marrow cells); adherent cells (IMR-32 human neuroblastoma, G361 human melanoma, HF-19 human fibroblasts, N2a murine neuroblastoma (differentiated and non-differentiated) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells) and thin sections or slices of mouse tissues (brain, kidney, muscle, liver, spleen, testis, heart and diaphragm). Viable and non-viable (heat killed or metabolically impaired) samples were tested. Over 500 cell and tissue samples were placed within the cavity, exposed to continuous wave (CW) fields at the resonant frequency (f) of the loaded cavity (near 883 MHz) using input powers of 0.1 or 1 mW, and monitored for second harmonic generation by inspection of the output at 2f. Unwanted signals were minimised using low pass filters (≤ 1 GHz) at the input to, and high pass filters (≥ 1 GHz) at the output from, the cavity. A tuned low noise amplifier allowed detection of second harmonic signals above a noise floor as low as -169 dBm. No consistent second harmonic of the incident CW signals was detected. Therefore, these results do not support the hypothesis that living cells can demodulate RF energy, since second harmonic generation is the necessary and sufficient condition for demodulation.

  16. Sub-MHz accuracy measurement of the S(2) 2-0 transition frequency of D2 by Comb-Assisted Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Sala, T.; Romanini, D.; Gatti, D.; Campargue, A.

    2016-08-01

    The line position of the very weak S(2) transition of deuterium in the 2-0 band has been measured with a Comb-Assisted Cavity Ring Down spectrometer. The high sensitivity spectra were recorded at 5 and 10 mbar with a Noise Equivalent Absorption, αmin, of 8 × 10-11 cm-1. The line positions at 5 and 10 mbar were measured with sub-MHz accuracy (460 and 260 kHz, respectively). After correction of the line pressure-shift, the frequency at zero pressure of the S(2) transition of the first overtone band was determined to be 187 104 299.51 ± 0.50 MHz. This value agrees within 1.7 MHz with the frequency obtained from the best available ab initio calculations and corresponds to only 15% of the claimed theoretical uncertainty.

  17. A generalization of the double-corner-frequency source spectral model and its use in the SCEC BBP validation exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.; Di Alessandro, Carola; Abrahamson, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    The stochastic method of simulating ground motions requires the specification of the shape and scaling with magnitude of the source spectrum. The spectral models commonly used are either single-corner-frequency or double-corner-frequency models, but the latter have no flexibility to vary the high-frequency spectral levels for a specified seismic moment. Two generalized double-corner-frequency ω2 source spectral models are introduced, one in which two spectra are multiplied together, and another where they are added. Both models have a low-frequency dependence controlled by the seismic moment, and a high-frequency spectral level controlled by the seismic moment and a stress parameter. A wide range of spectral shapes can be obtained from these generalized spectral models, which makes them suitable for inversions of data to obtain spectral models that can be used in ground-motion simulations in situations where adequate data are not available for purely empirical determinations of ground motions, as in stable continental regions. As an example of the use of the generalized source spectral models, data from up to 40 stations from seven events, plus response spectra at two distances and two magnitudes from recent ground-motion prediction equations, were inverted to obtain the parameters controlling the spectral shapes, as well as a finite-fault factor that is used in point-source, stochastic-method simulations of ground motion. The fits to the data are comparable to or even better than those from finite-fault simulations, even for sites close to large earthquakes.

  18. Revisiting CoRoT RR Lyrae stars: detection of period doubling and temporal variation of additional frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, R.; Benkő, J. M.; Paparó, M.; Chapellier, E.; Poretti, E.; Baglin, A.; Weiss, W. W.; Kolenberg, K.; Guggenberger, E.; Le Borgne, J.-F.

    2014-10-01

    Context. High-precision, space-based photometric missions like CoRoT and Kepler have revealed new and surprising phenomena in classical variable stars. Such discoveries were the period doubling in RR Lyrae stars and the frequent occurrence of additional periodicities some of which can be explained by radial overtone modes, but others are discordant with the radial eigenfrequency spectrum. Aims: We search for signs of period doubling in CoRoT RR Lyrae stars. The occurrence of this dynamical effect in modulated RR Lyrae stars might help us to gain more information about the mysterious Blazhko effect. The temporal variability of the additional frequencies in representatives of all subtypes of RR Lyrae stars is also investigated. Methods: We preprocess CoRoT light curves by applying trend and jump correction and outlier removal. Standard Fourier technique is used to analyze the frequency content of our targets and follow the time-dependent phenomena. Results: The most comprehensive collection of CoRoT RR Lyrae stars, including new discoveries is presented and analyzed. We found alternating maxima and in some cases half-integer frequencies in four CoRoT Blazhko RR Lyrae stars, as clear signs of the presence of period doubling. This reinforces that period doubling is an important ingredient for understanding the Blazhko effect - a premise we derived previously from the Kepler RR Lyrae sample. As expected, period doubling is detectable only for short time intervals in most modulated RRab stars. Our results show that the temporal variability of the additional frequencies in all RR Lyrae subtypes is ubiquitous. The ephemeral nature and the highly variable amplitude of these variations suggest a complex underlying dynamics of and an intricate interplay between radial and possibly nonradial modes in RR Lyrae stars. The omnipresence of additional modes in all types of RR Lyrae - except in non-modulated RRab stars - implies that asteroseismology of these objects should be

  19. Odd-paired controls frequency doubling in Drosophila segmentation by altering the pair-rule gene regulatory network

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Erik; Akam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila embryo transiently exhibits a double-segment periodicity, defined by the expression of seven 'pair-rule' genes, each in a pattern of seven stripes. At gastrulation, interactions between the pair-rule genes lead to frequency doubling and the patterning of 14 parasegment boundaries. In contrast to earlier stages of Drosophila anteroposterior patterning, this transition is not well understood. By carefully analysing the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule gene expression, we demonstrate that frequency-doubling is precipitated by multiple coordinated changes to the network of regulatory interactions between the pair-rule genes. We identify the broadly expressed but temporally patterned transcription factor, Odd-paired (Opa/Zic), as the cause of these changes, and show that the patterning of the even-numbered parasegment boundaries relies on Opa-dependent regulatory interactions. Our findings indicate that the pair-rule gene regulatory network has a temporally modulated topology, permitting the pair-rule genes to play stage-specific patterning roles. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18215.001 PMID:27525481

  20. 130-W picosecond green laser based on a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG amplifier.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kyung-Han; Lai, Chien-Jen; Siddiqui, Aleem; Kärtner, Franz X

    2009-09-14

    130-W average-power picosecond green laser pulses at 514.5 nm are generated from a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG laser. A second-harmonic conversion efficiency of 54% is achieved with a 15-mm-long noncritically phase-matched lithium triborate (LBO) crystal from a 240-W 8-ps 78-MHz pulse train at 1029 nm. The high-average-power hybrid laser system consists of a picosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification seed source and a cryogenically-cooled double-pass Yb:YAG amplifier. The M(2) value of 2.7, measured at 77 W of second-harmonic power, demonstrates a good focusing quality. A thermal analysis shows that the longitudinal temperature gradient can be the main limiting factor in the second-harmonic efficiency. To our best knowledge, this is the highest-average-power green laser source generating picosecond pulses.

  1. 750 nm 1.5 W frequency-doubled semiconductor disk laser with a 44 nm tuning range.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Esa J; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Ranta, Sanna; Rantamäki, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate 1.5 W of output power at the wavelength of 750 nm by intracavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser diode-pumped at 980 nm. An optical-to-optical efficiency of 8.3% was achieved using a bismuth borate crystal. The wavelength of the doubled emission could be tuned from 720 to 764 nm with an intracavity birefringent plate. The beam quality parameter M2 of the laser output was measured to be below 1.5 at all pump powers. The laser is a promising tool for biomedical applications that can take advantage of the large penetration depth of light in tissue in the 700-800 nm spectral range.

  2. Ultra-flat and broad optical frequency combs generation based on novel dispersion-flattened double-slot microring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanwu; Zhang, Minming; Lu, Luluzi; Li, Meifeng; Wang, Jinghao; Zhou, Feiya; Dai, Jing; Deng, Lei; Liu, Deming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel double-slot microring resonator is proposed to produce flat dispersion of 0-3.8 ps/(nm km) over 1150 nm wavelength range. Moreover, the dispersion tailoring with different structural parameters of the proposed microring resonator is analyzed and simulated. The simulation results show that the dispersion fluctuation can be tailored by the height of the central and bottom As2S3 layer, and the slope can be adjusted by the waveguide width and lower SiO2 slot thickness. Furthermore, by means of the Lugiato-Lefever equation, an ultra-flat and broad optical frequency comb with 7-dB bandwidth of 1155 nm (1855-3010 nm) is obtained based on such dispersion-optimized resonator. The proposed double-slot microring resonator shows potential application in both telecommunication and mid-infrared research domain.

  3. Self-seeding of a pulsed double-grating Ti:sapphire laser oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Koji

    2008-04-01

    A self-seeded pulsed double-grating Ti:sapphire laser oscillator consisting of a grazing incidence cavity geometry with a pair of gratings and a standing-wave cavity pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was developed and characterized. With self-seeding, narrow-linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) operation and SLM scanning were possible with a reduced lasing threshold, which was desirable for the intended applications.

  4. Low-frequency bandgaps of two-dimensional phononic crystal plate composed of asymmetric double-sided cylinder stubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ailing; Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Tianning; Jiang, Ping; Bao, Kai

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the propagation characteristics of Lamb wave in a two-dimensional (2D) asymmetric phononic crystal (PC) plate composed of cylinder stubs of different radius deposited on both sides of a thin homogeneous plate. The dispersion relations, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are calculated by using the finite element method (FEM). Two complete bandgaps (BGs) can be found in low-frequency range and the transmission spectra coincide with the band structures. We investigate the evolution of dispersion relations with the decrease of the upper stub radius. The physical mechanism of the upper stub radius effect is also studied with the displacement fields of the unit cell. Numerical results show that the symmetry of the stub radius can remarkably influence the band structures and the asymmetric double-sided plate exhibits a new bandgap (BG) in lower frequency range due to the coupling between the lower stub’s resonant mode and the plate’s Lamb mode becomes weak and the adjacent bands separate. Moreover, we further investigate the effect of the stub height on the dispersion relations and find that the BGs shift to lower frequency regions with the increase of the stub height. In addition, the BGs’ sensitivity to the upper stub radius and the stub height is discussed. The low-frequency BGs in the proposed PC plate can potentially be used to control and insulate vibration in low frequency range.

  5. An intracavity, frequency-doubled BaWO(4) Raman laser generating multi-watt continuous-wave, yellow emission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew J; Pask, Helen M; Piper, James A; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2010-03-15

    We report the generation of multi-watt continuous-wave (CW) yellow laser emission from an intracavity diode-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) /BaWO(4) Raman laser utilising a high-Q resonator (for fundamental and first-Stokes wavelengths) and intracavity frequency-doubling in LBO. CW output power of 2.9 W is achieved with a high overall diode-to-yellow conversion efficiency of 11% and with good beam quality (M(2) approximately 2.5).

  6. A 160 W single-frequency laser based on an active tapered double-clad fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trikshev, A. I.; Kurkov, A. S.; Tsvetkov, V. B.; Filatova, S. A.; Kertulla, J.; Filippov, V.; Chamorovskiy, Yu K.; Okhotnikov, O. G.

    2013-06-01

    We present a CW single-frequency laser at 1062 nm (linewidth <3 MHz) with 160 W of total output power based on a two stage fiber amplifier. A GTWave fiber is used for the first stage of the amplifier. A tapered double-clad fiber (T-DCF) is used for the second stage of the amplifier. The high output power is achieved due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) filtering and increased stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold inherent to the axially non-uniform geometry.

  7. Theoretical studies of Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering (RESRS) of frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser wavelength in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, Nabil M.

    1987-01-01

    The solutions for the imaginary susceptibility of the Raman field transition with arbitrary relaxation rates and field strengths are examined for three different sets of relaxation rates. These rates correspond to: (1) Far Infrared (FIR) Raman lasers in the diabatic collision regime without consideration of coupled population decay in a closed system, (2) Raman FIR lasers in the diabatic collision regime with coupled population conserving decay, and (3) IR Raman gain in cesium vapor. The model is further expanded to include Doppler broadening and used to predict the peak gain as a function of detuning for a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser-pumped cesium vapor gain cell.

  8. Design of plasmonic photonic crystal resonant cavities for polarization sensitive infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Jessie; Shenoi, Rajeev V.; Krishna, Sanjay; Painter, Oskar

    2010-02-01

    We design a polarization-sensitive resonator for use in midinfrared photodetectors, utilizing a photonic crystal cavity and a single or double-metal plasmonic waveguide to achieve enhanced detector efficiency due to superior optical confinement within the active region. As the cavity is highly frequency and polarization-sensitive, this resonator structure could be used in chip-based infrared spectrometers and cameras that can distinguish among different materials and temperatures to a high degree of precision.

  9. Double-channel, frequency-steered acoustic transducer with 2-D imaging capabilities.

    PubMed

    Baravelli, Emanuele; Senesi, Matteo; Ruzzene, Massimo; De Marchi, Luca; Speciale, Nicolò

    2011-07-01

    A frequency-steerable acoustic transducer (FSAT) is employed for imaging of damage in plates through guided wave inspection. The FSAT is a shaped array with a spatial distribution that defines a spiral in wavenumber space. Its resulting frequency-dependent directional properties allow beam steering to be performed by a single two-channel device, which can be used for the imaging of a two-dimensional half-plane. Ad hoc signal processing algorithms are developed and applied to the localization of acoustic sources and scatterers when FSAT arrays are used as part of pitch-catch and pulse-echo configurations. Localization schemes rely on the spectrogram analysis of received signals upon dispersion compensation through frequency warping and the application of the frequency-angle map characteristic of FSAT. The effectiveness of FSAT designs and associated imaging schemes are demonstrated through numerical simulations and experiments. Preliminary experimental validation is performed by forming a discrete array through the points of the measurement grid of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. The presented results demonstrate the frequency-dependent directionality of the spiral FSAT and suggest its application for frequency-selective acoustic sensors, for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the directional generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health.

  10. Electromagnetic SCRF Cavity Tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.; Borissov, E.; Foster, G.W.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Khabiboulline, T.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    A novel prototype of SCRF cavity tuner is being designed and tested at Fermilab. This is a superconducting C-type iron dominated magnet having a 10 mm gap, axial symmetry, and a 1 Tesla field. Inside the gap is mounted a superconducting coil capable of moving {+-} 1 mm and producing a longitudinal force up to {+-} 1.5 kN. The static force applied to the RF cavity flanges provides a long-term cavity geometry tuning to a nominal frequency. The same coil powered by fast AC current pulse delivers mechanical perturbation for fast cavity tuning. This fast mechanical perturbation could be used to compensate a dynamic RF cavity detuning caused by cavity Lorentz forces and microphonics. A special configuration of magnet system was designed and tested.

  11. A simple, compact, and efficient diode-side-pumped linear intracavity frequency doubled Nd:YAG rod laser with 50 ns pulse width and 124 W green output power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sunil K.; Mukhopadhyay, Pranab K.; Singh, Amarjeet; Kandasamy, Ranganathan; Oak, Shrikant M.

    2010-07-01

    We have developed an efficient and high power repetitively Q-switched diode-pumped intracavity frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LiB3O5 based green laser capable of generating 124 W of average green power with 50 ns pulse duration in a highly compact and robust linear cavity configuration. The pump to green beam conversion efficiency is 16.8% and the overall wall-plug efficiency is 8.3%. The long term power stability is excellent with ±0.4 W variation at the maximum output power and ±2% amplitude fluctuation with ±2.9 ns timing jitter. The M2 parameter of the green beam was measured to be ˜27. This, combined with the short pulse duration and the high average power, makes this laser ideal for pumping ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser amplifier systems and for micromachining applications.

  12. Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Kobtsev, Sergey M; Kukarin, Sergey V

    2014-01-13

    For the first time we report the results of both numerical simulation and experimental observation of second-harmonic generation as an example of non-linear frequency conversion of pulses generated by passively mode-locked fiber master oscillator in different regimes including conventional (stable) and double-scale (partially coherent and noise-like) ones. We show that non-linear frequency conversion efficiency of double-scale pulses is slightly higher than that of conventional picosecond laser pulses with the same energy and duration despite strong phase fluctuations of double-scale pulses.

  13. Relay Selection Based Double-Differential Transmission for Cooperative Networks with Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets: Model, Analysis, and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Bangning; Pan, Kegang; Liu, Aijun; Guo, Daoxing

    2014-07-01

    Due to the distributed nature, cooperative networks are generally subject to multiple carrier frequency offsets (MCFOs), which make the channels time-varying and drastically degrade the system performance. In this paper, to address the MCFOs problem in detect-andforward (DetF) multi-relay cooperative networks, a robust relay selection (RS) based double-differential (DD) transmission scheme, termed RSDDT, is proposed, where the best relay is selected to forward the source's double-differentially modulated signals to the destination with the DetF protocol. The proposed RSDDT scheme can achieve excellent performance over fading channels in the presence of unknown MCFOs. Considering double-differential multiple phase-shift keying (DDMPSK) is applied, we first derive exact expressions for the outage probability and average bit error rate (BER) of the RSDDT scheme. Then, we look into the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime and present simple and informative asymptotic outage probability and average BER expressions, which reveal that the proposed scheme can achieve full diversity. Moreover, to further improve the BER performance of the RSDDT scheme, we investigate the optimum power allocation strategy among the source and the relay nodes, and simple analytical solutions are obtained. Numerical results are provided to corroborate the derived analytical expressions and it is demonstrated that the proposed optimum power allocation strategy offers substantial BER performance improvement over the equal power allocation strategy.

  14. Double-Staining Epifluorescence Technique to Assess Frequency of Dividing Cells and Bacteriovory in Natural Populations of Heterotrophic Microprotozoa †

    PubMed Central

    Sherr, Evelyn B.; Sherr, Barry F.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a double-staining procedure for use with epifluorescence microscopy which allows the detection both of dividing cells and of ingested bacteria in food vacuoles of heterotrophic microprotozoa. Microprotozoan cells are stained sequentially with the DNA-specific fluorochrome DAPI (4′,6-diami-dino-2-phenylindole) and the nonspecific protein stain fluorescein isothiocyanate. During microscopic examination, heterotrophic microprotozoan cells are first located with fluorescein isothiocyanate fluorescence and then epifluorescence filter sets are switched to permit inspection under DAPI fluorescence of the cell nuclei and of the contents of food vacuoles. Among in situ populations of estuarine microprotozoa sampled over a tidal cycle, we found from 2.2 to 5.2% of the heterotrophic cells in a recognizable stage of division (nuclei elongated or double). Batch culture growth experiments were also carried out both with natural populations and with two isolated species of estuarine microprotozoa. In these experiments, the frequency of dividing cells ranged from 1.2 to 3.8% and appeared to be negatively correlated with growth rate. Microprotozoan populations sampled in continental shelf waters off Savannah, Ga., had mean frequencies of dividing cells ranging from 2.0 to 5.0%. A large fraction of cells in heterotrophic microprotozoan populations (an average of 27.4 ± 1.0% in estuarine water and of 30.1 ± 4.8% in shelf water) had DAPI-stained inclusions, presumably recently ingested bacteria, in their food vacuoles. Images PMID:16346446

  15. Structural and Functional Assessment in Patients Treated with Systemic Isotretinoin Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Frequency-Doubling Technology Perimetry

    PubMed Central

    Bakbak, Berker; Gedik, Sansal; Koktekir, Bengu Ekinci; Guzel, Huseyin; Altınyazar, Hilmi Cevdet

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A causal association between central nervous system neuropathy and oral isotretinoin has been reported. In this study we aimed to assess retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field changes in patients treated with systemic isotretinoin. Thirty-nine patients treated with 1 mg/kg daily oral isotretinoin were enrolled in this prospective clinical trial. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic assessment before treatment, on day 60, and 3 months after completion of treatment. RNFL thickness measurements were performed with Stratus optical coherence tomography. Functional testing included frequency-doubling technology perimetry and Humphrey field analyser. Main outcome measures were average RNFL thicknesses and visual field indices (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation). Measurements of RNFL thickness showed no statistically significant change between the three measurements (p = 0.180). No statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency-doubling technology indices (mean deviation and pattern standard deviation, p = 0.066 and p = 0.103, respectively) and in the Humphrey field analyser indices (mean deviation and pattern standard deviation, p = 0.091 and p = 0.087, respectively) at day 60 of treatment or 3 months after the cessation of treatment. In this study of 39 patients, systemic use of isotretinoin (1 mg/kg daily) does not cause a statistically significant change in peripapillary RNFL thickness or visual field findings within the usage period, and within 3 months after cessation. PMID:28163763

  16. Line-shape study of self-broadened O{sub 2} transitions measured by Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtewicz, S.; Lisak, D.; Cygan, A.; Domyslawska, J.; Trawinski, R. S.; Ciurylo, R.

    2011-09-15

    We present high-sensitivity and high-spectral-resolution line-shape and line-intensity measurements of self-broadened O{sub 2} b {sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(v=1)(leftarrow)X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup -}(v=0) band transitions measured using the Pound-Drever-Hall-locked frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique. We give collisional broadening parameters and take into account the line-narrowing effects described by Dicke narrowing or the speed dependence of collisional broadening. We compare line intensities measured with relative uncertainties below 0.4% to data available in the HITRAN spectroscopic database.

  17. Design and analysis of a new high frequency double-servo direct drive rotary valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Muzhi; Zhao, Shengdun; Li, Jingxiang

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have investigated direct drive valve for many years to solve problems, such as fluid force imbalance and switching frequency. The structure of the rotary valve has received considerable research interest because of its favorable dynamic properties and simple structure. This paper studied the high frequency doubleservo direct drive rotary valve (DDRV), and proposed a novel structure and drive method satisfying high reversing frequency and adequate quantity of flow. Servo motors are integrated into the valve by the innovative structure, which is designed to equilibrate the unbalanced radial fluid force with the symmetric distributed oil ports. Aside from the fast reversing function of the valve, the DDRV presented high performance in linearity of the flow quantity and valve opening as a result of the fan-shaped flow ports. In addition, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method based on Fluent was conducted to verify the flux regulation effect of the height change of the adjustable boss.

  18. Specificity, Size, and Frequency of Spaces That Characterize the Mechanism of Bulk Transepithelial Transport of Prions in the Nasal Cavities of Hamsters and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, J. I.; Bartz, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inhalation of infected brain homogenate results in transepithelial transport of prions across the nasal mucosa of hamsters, some of which occurs rapidly in relatively large amounts between cells (A. E. Kincaid, K. F. Hudson, M. W. Richey, and J. C. Bartz, J. Virol 86:12731–12740, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01930-12). Bulk transepithelial transport in the nasal cavity has not been studied to date. In the present study, we characterized the frequency, size, and specificity of the intercellular spaces that mediate the bulk transport of inhaled prions between cells of mice or hamsters following extranasal inoculation with mock-infected brain homogenate, different strains of prion-infected brain homogenate, or brain homogenate mixed with India ink. Infected or mock-infected inoculum was identified within lymphatic vessels of the lamina propria and in spaces of >5 μm between a small number of cells of the nasal mucosa in >90% of animals from 5 to 60 min after inhalation. The width of the spaces between cells, the amount of the inoculum within the lumen of lymphatic vessels, and the timing of the transport indicate that this type of transport was taking place through preexisting spaces in the nasal cavity that were orders of magnitude wider than what is normally reported for paracellular transport. The indiscriminate rapid bulk transport of brain homogenate in the nasal cavity results in immediate entry into nasal cavity lymphatics following inhalation. This novel mechanism may underlie the recent report of the early detection of prions in blood following inhalation and has implications for horizontal prion transmission. IMPORTANCE The results of these studies demonstrate that the nasal mucosa of mice and hamsters is not an absolute anatomical barrier to inhaled prion-infected or uninfected brain homogenate. Relatively large amounts of infected and uninfected brain homogenate rapidly cross the nasal mucosa and enter the lumen of lymphatic vessels

  19. Factors That Affect the Location and Frequency of Meiosis-Induced Double-Strand Breaks in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, T. C.; Lichten, M.

    1995-01-01

    Double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) initiate meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DSBs occur at sites that are hypersensitive in nuclease digests of chromatin, suggesting a role for chromatin structure in determining DSB location. We show here that the frequency of DSBs at a site is not determined simply by DNA sequence or by features of chromatin structure. An arg4-containing plasmid was inserted at several different locations in the yeast genome. Meiosis-induced DSBs occurred at similar sites in pBR322-derived portions of the construct at all insert loci, and the frequency of these breaks varied in a manner that mirrored the frequency of meiotic recombination in the arg4 portion of the insert. However, DSBs did not occur in the insert-borne arg4 gene at a site that is frequently broken at the normal ARG4 locus, even though the insert-borne arg4 gene and the normal ARG4 locus displayed similar DNase I hypersensitivity patterns. Deletions that removed active DSB sites from an insert at HIS4 restored breaks to the insert-borne arg4 gene and to a DSB site in flanking chromosomal sequences. We conclude that the frequency of DSB at a site can be affected by sequences several thousands nucleotides away and suggest that this is because of competition between DSB sites for locally limited factors. PMID:7635308

  20. Broadband cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Xiaogang; Wang Yanhua; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2011-10-15

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is created in a three-level atomic system confined in a cavity and coupled to a free-space control laser and is manifested as a narrow transmission peak of a probe laser coupled into the cavity mode and tuned to the two-photon Raman resonance with the control laser. Cavity EIT can be observed with a control laser detuned from the atomic transition frequency in a range limited by the vacuum Rabi splitting of two cavity-atom normal modes. This leads to the broadband cavity EIT obtained in the coupled-cavity-atom system with a free-space, broadband control laser. We report an experimental observation of broadband cavity EIT in cold Rb atoms with a frequency-modulated control laser and discuss its application in multichannel and multifrequency light memory.

  1. Spectroscopy of {sup 127}I{sub 2} hyperfine structure near 532 mm using frequency - doubled diode - laser - pumped Nd:YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Guellati, S.; Elandaloussi, H.; Fretel, E.

    1994-12-31

    Frequency - doubled diode - laser - pumped Nd : Yag laser can constitute an interesting optical standard around 532 nm. More than ten of {sup 127}I{sub 2} lines can be observed inside the laser spectral range. Two independent systems, stabilized on one {sup 127}I{sub 2} hyperfine component, are used to check the frequency long term stability for metrological purpose.

  2. Frequency analysis of tick quotes on foreign currency markets and the double-threshold agent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2006-09-01

    Power spectrum densities for the number of tick quotes per minute (market activity) on three currency markets (USD/JPY, EUR/USD, and JPY/EUR) are analyzed for periods from January 2000 to December 2000. We find some peaks on the power spectrum densities at a few minutes. We develop the double-threshold agent model and confirm that the corresponding periodicity can be observed for the activity of this model even though market participants perceive common weaker periodic information than threshold for decision-making of them. This model is numerically performed and theoretically investigated by utilizing the mean-field approximation. We propose a hypothesis that the periodicities found on the power spectrum densities can be observed due to nonlinearity and diversity of market participants.

  3. Investigation of the cutoff frequency of double linear halo lightly doped drain and source CNTFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazifar, Mohammad Javad; Sedigh Ziabari, Seyed Ali

    2014-08-01

    In this work we investigate the n-type single halo implantation in channel of lightly doped drain and source CNTFET (SH-LDDS-CNTFET) and propose the n-type double linear halo implantation in the channel of LDDS-CNTFET. These transistors are simulated with a non-equilibrium Green's function method. We demonstrate that in the proposed structure the f T at the V GS ranges of 0-0.25 V and more than 0.42 V is much higher compared to the LDDS-CNTFET and SH-LDDS-CNTFET and the SH-LDDS-CNTFET, respectively. Finally, simulations demonstrate that the f T of the proposed transistor is more than the LDDS-CNTFET at a wide range of V GS, whereas the f T of SH-LDDS-CNTFET is more than the LDDS-CNTFET for narrow ranges of V GS.

  4. The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry-Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musha, Mitsuru; Kanaya, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2000-09-01

    We have developed a wideband frequency-stabilized injection-locked Nd:YAG laser as a light source for the laser interferometric gravitational wave detector, in which short-term frequency stability of the laser improves the sensitivity of the interferometer and the long-term frequency stability aims for the stable long-time operation of the interferometer. The frequency of a 2-W injection-locked laser is locked to both a rigid Fabry-Perot cavity with ULE spacer and saturated absorption line of 127I2 simultaneously with two nested servo loops, and the long-term as well as short-term frequency stability are obtained. The drift of the resonant frequency of the rigid Fabry-Perot cavity is measured and the stability of the Fabry-Perot cavity is estimated to be 20× f-1 [Hz/√Hz]. The predicted frequency stabilities of the present dual-reference-locked laser are numerically simulated. Our wideband frequency-stabilized laser is also available for the high-resolution spectroscopy.

  5. Quantum state measurement in double quantum dots with a radio-frequency quantum point contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Wang, Hai-Xia; Yin, Wen; Wang, Fang-Wei

    2014-02-01

    We study the dynamics of two electron spins in coupled quantum dots (CQDs) monitored by a quantum point contact (QPC) detector. Their quantum state can be measured by embedding the QPC in an LC circuit. We derive the Bloch-type rate equations of the reduced density matrix for CQDs. Special attention is paid to the numerical results for the weak measurement condintion under a strong Coulomb interaction. It is shown that the evolution of QPC current always follows that of electron occupation in the right dot. In addition, we find that the output voltage of the circuit can reflect the evolution of QPC current when the circuit and QPC are approximately equal in frequency. In particular, the wave shape of the output voltage can be improved by adjusting the circuit resonance frequency and bandwidth.

  6. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  7. Sound pressure level gain in an acoustic metamaterial cavity.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Kiwon; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Park, Jihyun; Yoon, Jong Rak; Kim, Jedo

    2014-12-11

    The inherent attenuation of a homogeneous viscous medium limits radiation propagation, thereby restricting the use of many high-frequency acoustic devices to only short-range applications. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic metamaterial localization cavity which is used for sound pressure level (SPL) gain using double coiled up space like structures thereby increasing the range of detection. This unique behavior occurs within a subwavelength cavity that is 1/10(th) of the wavelength of the incident acoustic wave, which provides up to a 13 dB SPL gain. We show that the amplification results from the Fabry-Perot resonance of the cavity, which has a simultaneously high effective refractive index and effective impedance. We also experimentally verify the SPL amplification in an underwater environment at higher frequencies using a sample with an identical unit cell size. The versatile scalability of the design shows promising applications in many areas, especially in acoustic imaging and underwater communication.

  8. Sound Pressure Level Gain in an Acoustic Metamaterial Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kyungjun; Kim, Kiwon; Hur, Shin; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Park, Jihyun; Yoon, Jong Rak; Kim, Jedo

    2014-12-01

    The inherent attenuation of a homogeneous viscous medium limits radiation propagation, thereby restricting the use of many high-frequency acoustic devices to only short-range applications. Here, we design and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic metamaterial localization cavity which is used for sound pressure level (SPL) gain using double coiled up space like structures thereby increasing the range of detection. This unique behavior occurs within a subwavelength cavity that is 1/10th of the wavelength of the incident acoustic wave, which provides up to a 13 dB SPL gain. We show that the amplification results from the Fabry-Perot resonance of the cavity, which has a simultaneously high effective refractive index and effective impedance. We also experimentally verify the SPL amplification in an underwater environment at higher frequencies using a sample with an identical unit cell size. The versatile scalability of the design shows promising applications in many areas, especially in acoustic imaging and underwater communication.

  9. Novel 980-nm and 490-nm light sources using vertical-cavity lasers with extended coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, John G.; Mooradian, Aram; Lewis, Alan; Shchegrov, Andrei V.; Strzelecka, Eva M.; Lee, Dicky; Watson, Jason P.; Liebman, Michael K.; Carey, Glen P.; Umbrasas, Arvydas; Amsden, Charles A.; Cantos, Brad D.; Hitchens, William R.; Heald, David L.; Doan, Vincent

    2003-06-01

    We have developed novel electrically pumped, surface-emitting lasers emitting at 980 nm with an extended coupled cavity. The concept is scalable from monolithic low power (~10 mW) devices all the way to high power extended cavity lasers. The latter have demonstrated ~1 W cw multi-mode and 0.5 W cw in a TEM00 mode and a single frequency, with 90% coupling efficiency into a single-mode fiber. By inserting a nonlinear optical medium in the external cavity, efficient and compact frequency doubling has been achieved with CW output powers 5-40 mW demonstrated at 490 nm. The latter devices are especially noteworthy due to their very low noise (0.05% rms from dc-2 MHz), sub 10 mrad beam pointing stability combined with small size, low power consumption (<10 W) and high efficiency.

  10. Double frequency absorption induced by Al-Si Schottky barrier potential and mechanism of two-photon response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Gao, Yanjun; Chen, Zhanguo; Jia, Gang; Liu, Yunlong; Liu, Xiuhuan; Zh, Yuhong

    2006-01-01

    By observing two-photon response and anisotropy of the light-induced voltage in Si-Al Schottky barrier potential of the Si MSM (Metal-Semiconductor-Metal) planar structure two-photon response optical detector. It is certified from the experimental and theoretical analysis that the built-in electric field generated by the Schottky barrier potential will induce the phenomena of optical rectification in Si photodiode. Thus, it is deduced that there must be double-frequency absorption (DFA) caused by phase-mismatch in the mechanism of two-photon response of Si photodiode. If the intensity of the built-in electric field is strong enough, the DFA will be the main feature of the two-photon response.

  11. Theoretical and experimental study on passively Q-switched intracavity frequency-doubled solid-state yellow Raman lasers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuanghong; Zhang, Wenhui; Wang, Shiwu; Wang, Xichang; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Meiqin

    2013-05-20

    Normalized space-dependent rate equations of passively Q-switched intracavity frequency-doubled Raman lasers are deduced for the first time. The normalized rate equations are solved numerically to investigate the influences of the normalized variables on the yellow laser performance. The LD end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/SrWO(4)/KTP/Cr:YAG yellow Raman laser is realized, and the maximum yellow laser output power is 350 mW with the incident pump power of 5.9 W with Cr:YAG of 85% initial transmission. The theoretical analysis and optimization are taken out for the experiment, and the theoretical results are in accordance with the experimental ones.

  12. A frequency-resolved cavity model (FRCM) for treating equilibrium and non-equilibrium solvation energies. 2: Evaluation of solvent reorganization energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, M. D.; Basilevsky, M. V.; Rostov, I. V.

    1998-06-01

    The frequency-resolved cavity model (FRCM), a generalized continuum reaction field model, which allows for distinct effective solute cavities pertaining to optical (op) and inertial (in) solvent response, has been implemented and applied to the evaluation of solvent reorganization energy ( Es) for a number of intramolecular electron transfer (ET) processes in polar media. Specifically, effective radii are defined for the solute atoms: r∞= κ· rvdW (where κ is taken as a universal scale factor) and rin= r∞+ δ (where δ is specific to a particular solvent). Optimal values of κ and δ are determined through the use of solvation free energy data for small atomic and molecular ions, together with the experimental estimates of solvation reorganization energy ( Es) for intramolecular ET in the steroid-based radical ions studied by Closs, Miller and co-workers [G.L. Closs, L.T. Calcaterra, N.J. Green, K.W. Penfield, J.R. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. 90 (1986) 3673; M.D. Johnson, J.R. Miller, N.S. Green, G.L. Closs, J. Phys. Chem. 93 (1989) 1173; J.R. Miller, B.P. Paulson, R. Bal, G.L. Closs, J. Phys. Chem. 99 (1995) 6923]. With these optimal parameters, Es is then evaluated for a number of other intramolecular ET processes, yielding results which are in generally good agreement with experimentally based estimates, and which give support for some of the assumptions employed in the analysis of the experimental data. Calculations with conventional solute atom radii ( r∞= rin, with κ=1.2 and δ=0) fitted to equilibrium solvation data yield Es values exceeding the FRCM results by factors of ≥2.

  13. High intensity tone generation by axisymmetric ring cavities on training projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the production of high intensity tones by axisymmetric ring cavities. Maximum sound production occurs during a double resonance at Strouhal numbers which depend only on the local flow velocity independent of cavity location. Values of sound pressure of about 115 dB at 1 meter distance can be generated by axisymmetric ring cavities on projectiles moving at a relatively low flight speed equal to 65 m/s. Frequencies in the audible range up to several Kilo Hertz can be generated aeroacoustically.

  14. Association Between Alzheimer's Disease and Glaucoma: A Study Based on Heidelberg Retinal Tomography and Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry

    PubMed Central

    Cesareo, Massimo; Martucci, Alessio; Ciuffoletti, Elena; Mancino, Raffaele; Cerulli, Angelica; Sorge, Roberto P.; Martorana, Alessandro; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Nucci, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the frequency of glaucoma-like alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph III (HRT-3) and Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry. Methods: The study included 51 eyes of 51 AD subjects and 67 eyes of 67 age- and sex-matched controls. Subjects underwent an ophthalmological examination including measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), Matrix FDT visual field testing, optic nerve head morphology and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLt) assessment by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and HRT-3. Results: The frequency of alterations was significantly higher in the AD group (27.5 vs. 7.5%; p = 0.003; OR = 4.69). AD patients showed lower IOP (p = 0.000) despite not significantly different values of central corneal thickness (CCT) between the groups (p = 0.336). Of all the stereometric parameters measured by HRT-3, RNFLt was significantly lower in AD patients (p = 0.013). This group also had significantly worse results in terms of Moorfields Regression Analysis (p = 0.027). Matrix showed significantly worse Mean Deviation (MD) (p = 0.000) and Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD) (p = 0.000) values and more altered Glaucoma Hemifield Test (p = 0.006) in AD patients. Pearson's R correlation test showed that Mini Mental State Examination is directly correlated with MD (R = 0.349; p = 0.034) and inversely correlated with PSD (R = −0.357; p = 0.030). Conclusion: Patients with AD have a higher frequency of glaucoma-like alterations, as detected by the use of HRT-3. These alterations were not associated with elevated IOP or abnormal CCT values. PMID:26733792

  15. Double negative refraction in barium substituted magnesium ferrite in the microwave frequency region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra lekha, P.; Kumar, S. Dinesh; Yogesh, N.; Subramanian, V.

    2013-02-01

    The characterization of spinel ferrite metamaterial towards microwave device applications is reported in this work. The spinel MgFe2O4 and Ba0.1Mg0.9Fe2O4 are prepared by molten salt method. The scattering parameters of the metamaterial are measured in the frequency range of 9 to 10 GHz by Nicolson-Ross method with Vector Network Analyzer. A negative permittivity between 9.219 to 9.345 GHz and a negative permeability between 9.703 to 9.901 GHz is observed. For the microwave device design, the 4πMs, Hres, and ΔH are measured from VSM and ferromagnetic resonance at 9.12 GHz respectively.

  16. Generation of femtosecond UV pulses by intracavity frequency doubling in a modelocked dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laermer, F.; Dobler, J.; Elsaesser, T.

    1988-06-01

    A colliding pulse modelocked (CPM) dye laser is presented, which contains a nonlinear KDP crystal for frequency conversion inside the ring resonator. The laser system emits femtosecond light pulses simultaneously at wavelenghts of 628 nm and 314 nm with a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The output power at 628 nm and 314 nm amounts to 4 mW and 1 mW, respectively. The duration of the red and the uv pulses has a value of approximately 120 fs. The light source is used in femtosecond pump-and-probe investigations. The kinetics of excited state adsorption and ground state bleaching of laser dyes is measured. The temporal resolution of the experiments is better than 40 fs.

  17. Theoretical studies of Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering (RESRS) of frequency doubled Alexandrite laser wavelengths in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    This work focused on understanding the effects of arbitrary transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates on the susceptibilities of coherently driven three-level systems. The approximation of a single relaxation rate often made in previous work is strongly invalidated by the variation in the spontaneous emission lifetime between various atomic level pairs in systems such as cesium. It is of great importance to the problem of nonlinear infrared generation to determine the dependence of both real and imaginary susceptibility on relaxation rates. The imaginary susceptibility on the pump transition determines the absorption of pump photons and the imaginary susceptibility on the laser transition determines the spectral dependence of the gain. This is of particular importance for pure Raman emission (i.e., absorption at linecenter of the gain transition) as it determines the tunability characteristics we are aiming to predict. The real susceptibility is important when cavities are used at the signal field as this will determine the loaded resonance of the Raman oscillator. Researchers show that in some cases which result from having different relaxation rates mode splitting may result, allowing more than one frequency to have the same Raman wavelength, possibly resulting in a temporal instability.

  18. Theoretical studies of resonance enhanced stimulated raman scattering (RESRS) of frequency doubled Alexandrite laser wavelengths in cesium vapor. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawandy, N.M.

    1986-10-01

    This work focused on understanding the effects of arbitrary transverse and longitudinal relaxation rates on the susceptibilities of coherently driven three-level systems. The approximation of a single relaxation rate often made in previous work is strongly invalidated by the variation in the spontaneous emission lifetime between various atomic level pairs in systems such as cesium. It is of great importance to the problem of nonlinear infrared generation to determine the dependence of both real and imaginary susceptibility on relaxation rates. The imaginary susceptibility on the pump transition determines the absorption of pump photons and the imaginary susceptibility on the laser transition determines the spectral dependence of the gain. This is of particular importance for pure Raman emission (i.e., absorption at linecenter of the gain transition) as it determines the tunability characteristics we are aiming to predict. The real susceptibility is important when cavities are used at the signal field as this will determine the loaded resonance of the Raman oscillator. Researchers show that in some cases which result from having different relaxation rates mode splitting may result, allowing more than one frequency to have the same Raman wavelength, possibly resulting in a temporal instability.

  19. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  20. All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubling Nd:LuVO4/LBO laser with 2.17 W output power at 543 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, Y. B.; Zheng, Q.; Zhao, Y.; Yao, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Efficient and compact green-yellow laser output at 543 nm is generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a CW diode-pumped Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1086 nm under the condition of suppressing the higher gain transition near 1064 nm. With 16 W of diode pump power and the frequency-doubling crystal LBO, as high as 2.17 W of CW output power at 543 nm is achieved, corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 13.6% and the output power stability over 8 hours is better than 2.86%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest watt-level laser at 543 nm generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a diode pumped Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1086 nm.

  1. Frequency doubling of a tunable ytterbium-doped fibre laser in KTP crystals phase-matched in the XY and YZ planes

    SciTech Connect

    Akulov, V A; Kablukov, S I; Babin, Sergei A

    2012-02-28

    This paper presents an experimental study of frequency doubling of a tunable ytterbium-doped fibre laser in KTP crystals phase-matched in the XY and YZ planes. In the XY plane, we obtained continuous tuning in the range 528 - 540 nm through intracavity frequency doubling. The second-harmonic power reached 450 mW for 18 W of multimode diode pump power, which was five times higher in comparison with single-pass frequency doubling. In a single-pass configuration in the YZ plane, we obtained a wide tuning range (527 - 551 nm) in the green spectral region and a second-harmonic power of {approx}10 mW. The tuning range was only limited by the mechanical performance of the fibre Bragg grating and can potentially be extended to the entire lasing range of the ytterbium-doped fibre laser.

  2. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  3. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, F.; Khondkaryan, H.; Arakelyan, A.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Pud, S.; Vitusevich, S.

    2016-08-01

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p+-p-p+ field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2-4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculating the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 105. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.

  4. Self-frequency summing in quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2013-12-09

    We demonstrate self-frequency summing in photonic crystal nanocavity lasers with quantum dot gain. Two dipole modes and a hexapole mode, supported in the cavity, simultaneously showed lasing oscillation in the near infrared wavelength region under optical carrier injection. Meanwhile, within the same laser cavity, the internally generated three laser fields are up-converted to exhibit sharp visible emission lines via intra-cavity nonlinear frequency summing (and doubling) processes. This self-frequency summing process in active nanocavities will pave the way for developing nanoscale nonlinear optical light sources.

  5. Simultaneous frequency stabilization and high-power dense wavelength division multiplexing (HP-DWDM) using an external cavity based on volume Bragg gratings (VBGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengesbach, Stefan; Klein, Sarah; Holly, Carlo; Witte, Ulrich; Traub, Martin; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Multiplexing technologies enable the development of high-brightness diode lasers for direct industrial applications. We present a High-Power Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer (HP-DWDM) with an average channel spacing of 1.7 (1.5) nm and a subsequent external cavity mirror to provide feedback for frequency stabilization and multiplexing in one step. The "self-optimizing" multiplexing unit consists of four reflective Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) with 99% diffraction efficiency and seven dielectric mirrors to overlay the radiation of five input channels with an adjustable channel spacing of 1-2 nm. In detail, we focus on the analysis of the overall optical efficiency, the change of the beam parameter product and the spectral width. The performance is demonstrated using five 90 μm multimode 9xx single emitters with M2<=17. Because of the feedback the lateral (multimodal) spatial and angular intensity distribution changes strongly and the beam parameter product decreases by a factor of 1.2 to 1.9. Thereby the angular intensity distribution is more affected than the width of the beam waist. The spectral width per emitter decreases to 3-200 pm (FWHM) depending on the injection current and the reflectance of the feedback mirror (0.75%, 1.5%, 4%, 6% or 8%). The overall optical multiplexing efficiency ranges between 77% and 86%. With some modifications (e.g. enhanced AR-coatings) we expect 90-95%.

  6. First Continuous High Frequency in Situ Measurements of CO2 and CH4 in Rwanda Using Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasore, J.; DeWitt, L. H.; Prinn, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Recent IPCC reports emphasize the lack of ground measurements of greenhouse gases on the African continent, despite Africa's significant emissions from agriculture and biomass burning as well as ongoing land use changes. We have established a greenhouse gas monitoring station in northern Rwanda that will be part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), a global network of high frequency long-term remote atmospheric measurement stations. Using a Picarro G2401 cavity ring-down analyzer, continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO at a frequency of five seconds are being captured at this equatorial East African site. The measurement site is located near the Virunga mountains, a volcanic range in North-West Rwanda, on the summit of Mt. Mugogo (2507 m above sea level). Mt. Mugogo is located in a rural area 70km away from Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, and about 13km from the nearest town. From HYSPLIT 7-day back-trajectory calculations, we have determined that the station measures air masses originating from East and Central Africa, the Indian Ocean and occasionally from Southern Asia. Depending on the wind direction and local boundary layer height, measurements taken at Mt Mugogo are occasionally influenced by local sources, including emissions from the nearby city and wood fires from small rural settlements around the station. Here we present the first greenhouse gas measurement data from this unique and understudied location in Africa. Using the lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART, we derive the relationship between the observed mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 and our current knowledge of their sources and sinks, across this large African footprint.

  7. Reconstructing rice phenology curves with frequency-based analysis and multi-temporal NDVI in double-cropping area in Jiangsu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongshuo; Lin, Hui; Munroe, Darla K.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Pengfei

    2016-06-01

    Crop phenology retrieval in the double-cropping area of China is of great significance in crop yield estimation and water management under the influences of global change. In this study, rice phenology in Jiangsu Province, China was extracted from multi-temporal MODIS NDVI using frequency-based analysis. Pure MODIS pixels of rice were selected with the help of TM images. Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT), Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT), and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) were performed to decompose time series into components of different frequencies. Rice phenology in the double-cropping area is mainly located on the last 2 IMFs of EMD and the first 2‒3 frequencies of DFT and DWT. Compared with DFT and DWT, EMD is limited to fewer frequencies. Multi-temporal MODIS NDVI data combined with frequency-based analysis can retrieve rice phenology dates with on average 79% valid estimates. The sorting result for effective estimations from different methods is DWT (85%)>EMD (80%)>DFT (74%). Planting date (88%) is easier to estimate than harvesting date (70%). Rice planting date is easily affected by the former cropping mode within the same year in a double-cropping region. This study sheds light on understanding crop phenology dynamics in the frequency domain of multi-temporal MODIS data.

  8. A broad and tunable 250- to 430-nm source for microscopy and lifetime measurements by frequency doubling of a 78-MHz-picosecond white-light laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradler, Maximilian; Nielsen, Frederik D.; Eckert, Carl Elias; Riedle, Eberhard

    2014-09-01

    Broadly tunable picosecond pulses in the UV for nonlinear microscopy and lifetime measurements are not yet readily available. Complex synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators with subsequent frequency doubling are typically used. We show that direct second harmonic generation of a visible picosecond supercontinuum source at 78 MHz renders pulses easily tunable from 250 to 430 nm. We find that an unexpectedly large numerical aperture and the use of thick crystals increase the efficiency of the frequency doubling process dramatically. The observed spectral width and efficiency are nearly two orders of magnitude larger than predicted by conventional theory. With broadband achromatic doubling, a 130 nm wide spectrum is achieved. Pulse durations of 17-35 ps are found in the UV and an average power between 1 and 70 μW. This qualifies the setup for most UV-based microscopic investigations. As first application, the fluorescence lifetime of two differing conformations of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole is measured.

  9. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Control of the radiation parameters of an intracavity frequency-doubled solid-state laser by means of optoelectronic feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandokhin, Pavel A.; Zhislina, Viktoriya G.

    2007-06-01

    A method for chaotic oscillation suppression in intracavity frequency-doubled lasers based on the rate-equation model of a bipolarised solid-state laser is proposed. It is shown that the use of optoelectronic feedback either stabilises the system in the stationary state or leads to quasi-sinusoidal oscillations with a constant amplitude.

  10. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, P.

    2015-02-01

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV /m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV /m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30 - 35 MV /m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV /m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc=30 - 35 MV /m . One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have been

  11. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; ...

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with resultsmore » of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double-cell cavities of the TESLA shape have

  12. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Jelezov, I.; Kneisel, Peter

    2015-02-27

    Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless) cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients Eacc up to 35 MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and up to 42 MV/m after electropolishing (EP). More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients Eacc of 30–35 MV/m were measured after BCP and Eacc up to 40 MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of Eacc = 30–35 MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and double

  13. Low and high-frequency TENS in post-episiotomy pain relief: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Pitangui, Ana C. R.; Araújo, Rodrigo C.; Bezerra, Michelle J. S.; Ribeiro, Camila O.; Nakano, Ana M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of low-frequency TENS (LFT) and high-frequency TENS (HFT) in post-episiotomy pain relief. Method A randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial with placebo composed of 33 puerperae with post-episiotomy pain. TENS was applied for 30 minutes to groups: HFT(100 Hz; 100 µs), LFT (5 Hz; 100 µs), and placebo (PT). Four electrodes were placed in parallel near the episiotomy and four pain evaluations were performed with the numeric rating scale. The first and the second evaluation took place before TENS application and immediately after its removal and were done in the resting position and in the activities of sitting and ambulating. The third and fourth evaluation took place 30 and 60 minutes after TENS removal, only in the resting position. Intragroup differences were verified using the Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, and the intergroup analysis employed the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results In the intragroup analysis, there was no significant difference in the PT during rest, sitting, and ambulation (P>0.05). In the HFT and LFT, a significant difference was observed in all activities (P<0.001). In the intergroup analysis, there was a significant difference in the resting position in the HFT and LFT (P<0.001). In the sitting activity, a significant difference was verified in the second evaluation in the HFT and LFT (P<0.008). No significant difference was verified among the groups in ambulation (P<0.20). Conclusions LFT and HFT are an effective resource that may be included in the routine of maternity wards. PMID:24675915

  14. Hybrid Circuit QED with Double Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petta, Jason

    2014-03-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics explores quantum optics at the most basic level of a single photon interacting with a single atom. We have been able to explore cavity QED in a condensed matter system by placing a double quantum dot (DQD) inside of a high quality factor microwave cavity. Our results show that measurements of the cavity field are sensitive to charge and spin dynamics in the DQD.[2,3] We can explore non-equilibrium physics by applying a finite source-drain bias across the DQD, which results in sequential tunneling. Remarkably, we observe a gain as large as 15 in the cavity transmission when the DQD energy level detuning is matched to the cavity frequency. These results will be discussed in the context of single atom lasing.[4] I will also describe recent progress towards reaching the strong-coupling limit in cavity-coupled Si DQDs. In collaboration with Manas Kulkarni, Yinyu Liu, Karl Petersson, George Stehlik, Jacob Taylor, and Hakan Tureci. We acknowledge support from the Sloan and Packard Foundations, ARO, DARPA, and NSF.

  15. CIRCULAR CAVITY SLOT ANTENNA

    DOEpatents

    Kerley, P.L.

    1959-01-01

    A small-size antenna having a doughnut-shaped field pattern and which can act both as an antenna and a resonant circuit is described. The antenna is of the slotted type and comprises a resonant cavity with a center hole. A circular slot is provided in one wall of the cavity concentric with the hole and a radio frequency source is connected across the slot. The pattern and loading of the antenna are adjusted by varying the position and shape of a center element slidably disposed within the hole and projecting from the slotted side of the resonant cavity. The disclosed structure may also be used to propagate the oscillator signal down a transniission line by replacing the center element with one leg of the transmission line in a spaced relation from the walls of the cavity.

  16. RF Cavity Characterization with VORPAL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nieter, C. Roark, P. Stoltz, C.D. Zhou, F. Marhauser

    2011-03-01

    When designing a radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity structure various figures of merit are considered before coming to a final cavity design. These figures of merit include specific field and geometry based quantities such as the ratio of the shunt impedance to the quality factor (R/Q) or the normalized peak fields in the cavity. Other important measures of cavity performance include the peak surface fields as well as possible multipacting resonances in the cavity. High fidelity simulations of these structures can provide a good estimate of these important quantities before any cavity prototypes are built. We will present VORPAL simulations of a simple pillbox structure where these quantities can be calculated analytically and compare them to the results from the VORPAL simulations. We will then use VORPAL to calculate these figures of merit and potential multipacting resonances for two cavity designs under development at Jefferson National Lab for Project X.

  17. Ultra-Wideband Indoor Double-Directional Channel Estimation Using Transformation between Frequency and Time Domain Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakiri, Naohiko; Kobayashi, Takehiko

    This paper proposes an ultra-wideband double-directional spatio-temporal channel sounding technique using transformation between frequency- and time-domain (FD and TD) signals. Virtual antenna arrays, composed of omnidirectional antennas and scanners, are used for transmission and reception in the FD. After Fourier transforming the received FD signals to TD ones, time of arrival (TOA) is estimated using a peak search over the TD signals, and then angle of arrivals (AOA) and angle of departure (AOD) are estimated using a weighted angle histogram with a multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm applied to the FD signals, inverse-Fourier transformed from the TD signals divided into subregions. Indoor channel sounding results validated that an appropriate weighting reduced a spurious level in the angle histogram by a factor of 0.1 to 0.2 in comparison with that of non-weighting. The proposed technique successfully resolved dominant multipath components, including a direct path, a single reflection, and a single diffraction, in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS environments. Joint TOA and AOA/AOD spectra were also derived from the sounding signals. The spectra illustrated the dominant multipath components (agreed with the prediction by ray tracing) as clusters.

  18. Frequency-dependent Study of Ultrapure Solid 4He by Using Rigid Double-pendulum Torsional Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaewon; Shin, Jaeho; Kim, Eunseong

    2015-03-01

    The physical origin of the period drop found in the torsional oscillator (TO) containing solid 4He was previously interpreted as the appearance of supersolidity. The current consensus is that the increase in the shear modulus leads to the period anomaly. Further studies show that the stiffening effect in TO can be amplified if a TO is not properly designed to be ``rigid.'' In this study, we designed a rigid double-pendulum TO. High purity solid 4He sample (0.6ppb) was grown by the block capillary method. The resonant period of TO starts to decrease from the empty cell data at 80mK. The ratio of the resonant period changes to the total mass loading are 3 . 8 ×10-5 and 2 . 6 ×10-4 for 1st and 2nd mode, respectively. Unlike recent experiment, we could not found a frequency-independent period drop. The upper bound for the putative supersolid fraction is less than 4 ×10-6 . The dissipation peak accompanied with the period drop was also analyzed with Cole-Cole plot and ωτ plot. We conclude that major contribution for the anomalous TO responses comes from the elastic effect.

  19. Superconducting Storage Cavity for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi,I.

    2009-01-02

    This document provides a top-level description of a superconducting cavity designed to store hadron beams in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It refers to more detailed documents covering the various issues in designing, constructing and operating this cavity. The superconducting storage cavity is designed to operate at a harmonic of the bunch frequency of RHIC at a relatively low frequency of 56 MHz. The current storage cavities of RHIC operate at 197 MHz and are normal-conducting. The use of a superconducting cavity allows for a high gap voltage, over 2 MV. The combination of a high voltage and low frequency provides various advantages stemming from the resulting large longitudinal acceptance bucket.

  20. Self-induced laser line sweeping and self-pulsing in double-clad fiber lasers in Fabry-Perot and unidirectional ring cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterka, Pavel; Navrátil, Petr; Dussardier, Bernard; Slavík, Radan; Honzátko, Pavel; Kubecek, Václav

    2012-06-01

    Rare-earth doped fiber lasers are subject to instabilities and various self-pulsed regimes that can lead to catastrophic damage of their components. An interesting self-pulsing regime accompanied with laser wavelength drift with time is the so called self-induced laser line sweeping (SLLS). Despite the early observations of the SLLS in solid-state ruby lasers, in fiber lasers it was first time mentioned in literature only in 2009 where such a laser wavelength drift with time was observed in a relatively broad range of about 1076 -1084 nm in ring ytterbium-doped fiber laser (YDFL). The main characteristic of the SLLS is the scanning of the laser wavelength from shorter to longer wavelength, spanning over large interval of several nanometers, and instantaneous bounce backward. The period of this sweeping is usually quite long, of the order of seconds. This spectacular effect was attributed to spatial-hole burning caused by standing-wave in the laser cavity. In this paper we present experimental investigation of the SLLS in YDFLs in Fabry-Perot cavity and ring cavities. The SLLS was observed also in erbium-doped fiber laser around 1560 nm. We present for the first time observation of the laser wavelength sweep in reverse direction, i.e., from longer towards shorter wavelengths. It was observed in YDFL around 1080 nm.

  1. [Development of the method of high frequency insufflation of medical aerosol for treatment and prophylaxis of the adhesion process in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Filenko, B P; Lazarev, S M; Borsak, I I

    2009-01-01

    A method of treatment of the abdominal cavity in peritonitis patients has been developed which promotes early regeneration of the peritoneum mesothelium, fibrinolysis, recovery of functions of the abdominal cavity and thus preventing formation of the adhesion process in the abdominal cavity. Effectiveness of the method was experimentally confirmed in rabbits and used in 126 patients with different forms of peritonitis. A comparison of methods of traditional treatment of peritonitis in 120 patients and that with using the developed method has shown advantages of the latter one.

  2. Focus: Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and molecular motions: The challenge of higher frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Franck, John M.; Dzikovski, Boris; Freed, Jack H.

    2015-01-01

    The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane

  3. Focus: Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and molecular motions: The challenge of higher frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H.

    2015-06-01

    The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane

  4. Focus: Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and molecular motions: The challenge of higher frequencies.

    PubMed

    Franck, John M; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R; Freed, Jack H

    2015-06-07

    The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane

  5. Focus: Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and molecular motions: The challenge of higher frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H.

    2015-06-07

    The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane

  6. High-frequency isotopic analysis of liquid water samples in the field - initial results from continuous water sampling and cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Freyberg, Jana; Studer, Bjørn; Kirchner, James

    2016-04-01

    Studying rapidly changing hydrochemical signals in catchments can help to improve our mechanistic understanding of their water flow pathways and travel times. For these purposes, stable water isotopes (18O and 2H) are commonly used as natural tracers. However, high-frequency isotopic analyses of liquid water samples are challenging. One must capture highly dynamic behavior with high precision and accuracy, but the lab workload (and sample storage artifacts) involved in collecting and analyzing thousands of bottled samples should also be avoided. Therefore, we have tested Picarro, Inc.'s newly developed Continuous Water Sampler Module (CoWS), which is coupled to their L2130-i Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer to enable real-time on-line measurements of 18O and 2H in liquid water samples. We coupled this isotope analysis system to a dual-channel ion chomatograph (Metrohm AG, Herisau, Switzerland) for analysis of major cations and anions, as well as a UV-Vis spectroscopy system (s::can Messtechnik GmbH, Vienna, Austria) and electrochemical probes for characterization of basic water quality parameters. The system was run unattended for up to a week at a time in the laboratory and at a small catchment. At the field site, stream-water and precipitation samples were analyzed, alternating at sub-hourly intervals. We observed that measured isotope ratios were highly sensitive to the liquid water flow rate in the CoWS, and thus to the hydraulic head difference between the CoWS and the samples from which water was drawn. We used a programmable high-precision dosing pump to control the injection flow rate and eliminate this flow-rate artifact. Our experiments showed that the precision of the CoWS-L2130-i-system for 2-minute average values was typically better than 0.06‰ for δ18O and 0.16‰ for δ2H. Carryover effects were 1% or less between isotopically contrasting water samples for 30-minute sampling intervals. Instrument drift could be minimized through periodic analysis of

  7. Power enhancement of burst-mode UV pulses using a doubly-resonant optical cavity

    DOE PAGES

    Rahkman, Abdurahim; Notcutt, Mark; Liu, Yun

    2015-11-24

    We report a doubly-resonant enhancement cavity (DREC) that can realize a simultaneous enhancement of two incoming laser beams at different wavelengths and different temporal structures. The double-resonance condition is theoretically analyzed and different DREC locking methods are experimentally investigated. Simultaneous locking of a Fabry-Perot cavity to both an infrared (IR, 1064 nm) and its frequency tripled ultraviolet (UV, 355 nm) pulses has been demonstrated by controlling the frequency difference between the two beams with a fiber optic frequency shifter. The DREC technique opens a new paradigm in the applications of optical cavities to power enhancement of burst-mode lasers with arbitrarymore » macropulse width and repetition rate.« less

  8. Kiwifruit-derived supplements increase stool frequency in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Juliet; Butts, Christine A; Paturi, Gunaranjan; Eady, Sarah L; Wallace, Alison J; Hedderley, Duncan; Gearry, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The worldwide growth in the incidence of gastrointestinal disorders has created an immediate need to identify safe and effective interventions. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effects of Actazin and Gold, kiwifruit-derived nutritional ingredients, on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal comfort in healthy and functionally constipated (Rome III criteria for C3 functional constipation) individuals. Using a crossover design, all participants consumed all 4 dietary interventions (Placebo, Actazin low dose [Actazin-L] [600 mg/day], Actazin high dose [Actazin-H] [2400 mg/day], and Gold [2400 mg/day]). Each intervention was taken for 28 days followed by a 14-day washout period between interventions. Participants recorded their daily bowel movements and well-being parameters in daily questionnaires. In the healthy cohort (n = 19), the Actazin-H (P = .014) and Gold (P = .009) interventions significantly increased the mean daily bowel movements compared with the washout. No significant differences were observed in stool form as determined by use of the Bristol stool scale. In a subgroup analysis of responders in the healthy cohort, Actazin-L (P = .005), Actazin-H (P < .001), and Gold (P = .001) consumption significantly increased the number of daily bowel movements by greater than 1 bowel movement per week. In the functionally constipated cohort (n = 9), there were no significant differences between interventions for bowel movements and the Bristol stool scale values or in the subsequent subgroup analysis of responders. This study demonstrated that Actazin and Gold produced clinically meaningful increases in bowel movements in healthy individuals.

  9. New methods for isolation of keratolytic bacteria inducing intractable hoof wall cavity (Gidoh) in a horse; double screening procedures of the horn powder agar-translucency test and horn zymography

    PubMed Central

    KUWANO, Atsutoshi; NIWA, Hidekazu; ARAI, Katsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To establish a new system to isolate keratolytic bacteria from the hoof wall cavity (Gidoh) of a racehorse, we invented the horn powder agar-translucency (HoPAT) test and horn zymography (HZ). Using routine bacteriological techniques and these methods, we isolated five strains of keratolytic soil bacteria, which were then identified by means of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing analysis. The findings from the study on the horse suggested that Brevibacterium luteolum played the main role in the local fragility of the hoof, eventually forming a Gidoh in coordination with four other strains of keratolytic bacteria. The double screening procedures of the HoPAT test and HZ were useful and easy techniques for isolating the keratolytic bacteria from the horn lesions.

  10. JLEIC SRF cavity RF Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    The initial design of a low higher order modes (HOM) impedance superconducting RF (SRF) cavity is presented in this paper. The design of this SRF cavity is for the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC). The electron ring of JLEIC will operate with electrons of 3 to 10 GeV energy. The ion ring of JLEIC will operate with protons of up to 100 GeV energy. The bunch lengths in both rings are ~12 mm (RMS). In order to maintain the short bunch length in the ion ring, SRF cavities are adopted to provide large enough gradient. In the first phase of JLEIC, the PEP II RF cavities will be reused in the electron ring to lower the initial cost. The frequency of the SRF cavities is chosen to be the second harmonic of PEP II cavities, 952.6 MHz. In the second phase of JLEIC, the same frequency SRF cavities may replace the normal conducting PEP II cavities to achieve higher luminosity at high energy. At low energies, the synchro-tron radiation damping effect is quite weak, to avoid the coupled bunch instability caused by the intense closely-spaced electron bunches, low HOM impedance of the SRF cavities combined with longitudinal feedback sys-tem will be necessary.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4–8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months–<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  12. Cavity magnomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  13. Frequency doubling of interference structures in electron emission interferences from H{sub 2} by 68-MeV/u Kr{sup 33+} impact

    SciTech Connect

    Stolterfoht, N.; Skogvall, B.; Sulik, B.; Chesnel, J.Y.; Fremont, F.; Hennecart, D.; Cassimi, A.; Adoui, L.; Hossain, S.; Tanis, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Interference structures associated with the emission of electrons from H{sub 2} by fast Kr{sup 33+} ions (v/c= 0.3) are found to exhibit oscillations of second order superimposed on the main oscillatory structure. The secondary oscillations occur with about twice the frequency of the main oscillations. While the primary structure is produced by the coherent emission of electrons from the two atomic centers, similar to Young's two-slit experiment, our theoretical analysis indicates that the frequency doubling is a second-order effect, where the electron wave emitted at one center interferes with the wave backscattered at the other center.

  14. Laser radiation frequency doubling in a single-crystal fibre based on a stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kashin, V V; Nikolaev, D A; Rusanov, S Ya; Tsvetkov, V B

    2015-01-31

    We demonstrate the employment of single-crystal optical fibres based on lithium niobate for doubling the laser radiation frequency. The measured characteristics of the fibre confirm its high quality and spatial homogeneity. Parameters of the frequency doublers for neodymium laser radiation (λ = 1 mm) based on fibre and bulk single crystals are compared. Single crystals are grown by the method of laser-heated pedestal growing with heating by radiation of a CO{sub 2} laser (LHPG-method). (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Room-temperature, continuous-wave, 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by laser-diode arrays and intracavity frequency doubling to 473 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Risk, W.P.; Lenth, W.

    1987-12-01

    We report the use of GaAlAs laser-diode arrays to pump a cw Nd:YAG laser operating on the 946-nm /sup 4/F/sub 3/2/..-->../sup 4/I/sub 9/2/ transition. At room temperature, the lasing threshold was reached with 58 mW of absorbed pump power, and, with 175 mW of absorbed pump power, 42 mW of output power at 946 nm was obtained in a TEM/sub 00/ mode by using 0.7% output coupling. In addition, pumping with an infrared dye laser operating in a pure TEM/sub 00/ mode was used to investigate the effects of reabsorption loss that are characteristic of the 946-nm laser transition. LiIO/sub 3/ was used as an intracavity doubling crystal, and 100 ..mu..W of blue light was generated by using diode-laser pumping in a nonoptimized cavity.

  16. Low-Frequency Fatigue Assessed as Double to Single Twitch Ratio after Two Bouts of Eccentric Exercise of the Elbow Flexors

    PubMed Central

    Janecki, Damian; Jaskólska, Anna; Marusiak, Jarosław; Jaskólski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess low-frequency fatigue as a double to single twitch ratio after repeated eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 16 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual’s maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0.05). In measurements performed at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout both maximal voluntary isometric torque and electrically evoked contractions were significantly higher than in measurements performed after the first bout (p < 0.05). Although low-frequency fatigue significantly increased up to 48 hours after each bout of eccentric exercise, its values at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout were significantly lower than at respective time points after the first bout (p < 0.05). Double to single twitch ratio could be used as a sensitive tool in the evaluation of muscle recovery and adaptation to repeated eccentric exercise. Key points First bout of eccentric (ECC) exercise of the elbow flexors muscles induced repeated bout effect that lead to faster recovery of the low-frequency fatigue, the maximal torque of voluntary and electrically evoked contractions, and smaller soreness sensation, when the exercise are repeated 2-3 weeks later. Double (DT) to single twitch (ST) ratio could be used as a sensitive tool in the evaluation of muscle recovery and adaptation to repeated eccentric exercise. The single twitch and DT to ST ratios seem to be more susceptible for minimal force deficits that could occur even after repeated ECC where repeated bout effect should confer the protection after subsequent muscle damage. PMID

  17. Low-Frequency Fatigue Assessed as Double to Single Twitch Ratio after Two Bouts of Eccentric Exercise of the Elbow Flexors.

    PubMed

    Janecki, Damian; Jaskólska, Anna; Marusiak, Jarosław; Jaskólski, Artur

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess low-frequency fatigue as a double to single twitch ratio after repeated eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 16 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0.05). In measurements performed at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout both maximal voluntary isometric torque and electrically evoked contractions were significantly higher than in measurements performed after the first bout (p < 0.05). Although low-frequency fatigue significantly increased up to 48 hours after each bout of eccentric exercise, its values at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout were significantly lower than at respective time points after the first bout (p < 0.05). Double to single twitch ratio could be used as a sensitive tool in the evaluation of muscle recovery and adaptation to repeated eccentric exercise.

  18. Frequency and zero-point vibrational energy scale factors for double-hybrid density functionals (and other selected methods): can anharmonic force fields be avoided?

    PubMed

    Kesharwani, Manoj K; Brauer, Brina; Martin, Jan M L

    2015-03-05

    We have obtained uniform frequency scaling factors λ(harm) (for harmonic frequencies), λ(fund) (for fundamentals), and λ(ZPVE) (for zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs)) for the Weigend-Ahlrichs and other selected basis sets for MP2, SCS-MP2, and a variety of DFT functionals including double hybrids. For selected levels of theory, we have also obtained scaling factors for true anharmonic fundamentals and ZPVEs obtained from quartic force fields. For harmonic frequencies, the double hybrids B2PLYP, B2GP-PLYP, and DSD-PBEP86 clearly yield the best performance at RMSD = 10-12 cm(-1) for def2-TZVP and larger basis sets, compared to 5 cm(-1) at the CCSD(T) basis set limit. For ZPVEs, again, the double hybrids are the best performers, reaching root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) as low as 0.05 kcal/mol, but even mainstream functionals like B3LYP can get down to 0.10 kcal/mol. Explicitly anharmonic ZPVEs only are marginally more accurate. For fundamentals, however, simple uniform scaling is clearly inadequate.

  19. Enhanced electron-phonon coupling for a semiconductor charge qubit in a surface phonon cavity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. C. H.; Sato, Y.; Kosaka, R.; Hashisaka, M.; Muraki, K.; Fujisawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Electron-phonon coupling is a major decoherence mechanism, which often causes scattering and energy dissipation in semiconductor electronic systems. However, this electron-phonon coupling may be used in a positive way for reaching the strong or ultra-strong coupling regime in an acoustic version of the cavity quantum electrodynamic system. Here we propose and demonstrate a phonon cavity for surface acoustic waves, which is made of periodic metal fingers that constitute Bragg reflectors on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Phonon band gap and cavity phonon modes are identified by frequency, time and spatially resolved measurements of the piezoelectric potential. Tunneling spectroscopy on a double quantum dot indicates the enhancement of phonon assisted transitions in a charge qubit. This encourages studying of acoustic cavity quantum electrodynamics with surface phonons. PMID:26469629

  20. CW dual-frequency MOPA laser with frequency separation of 45 GHz.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zheng, Yaoyuan; Cai, Ju; Zhang, Guiju; Li, Qiliang; Zhou, Xuefang; Wei, Yizhen; Lu, Yang

    2015-04-20

    A CW dual-frequency master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser system with dozens of gigahertz (GHz) frequency separation is presented. The MOPA system consists of a monolithic microchip seed laser and a double-end pumped traveling wave power amplifier. The short length of seed laser cavity guarantees the seed signal with a large frequency separation (above 53 GHz) but low output power (below 247.8 mW). By adding a long and low-doped active medium laser amplifier stage, a significant increase in laser power and an improvement in beam quality are obtained. After fine temperature tuning of seed laser cavity for "spectra matching", a 2.40 W dual-frequency laser signal with 45 GHz frequency separation is achieved.

  1. Variable-wavelength second harmonic generation of CW Yb-fibre laser in partially coupled enhancement cavity.

    PubMed

    Khripunov, Sergey; Radnatarov, Daba; Kobtsev, Sergey; Skorkin, Aleksey

    2014-03-24

    This work for the first time proposes and studies a method of frequency doubling of CW non-single-frequency fibre lasers with a high-Q resonator partially coupled to the fibre laser cavity. The proposed new approach resulted in the following parameters: laser's maximal output power 880 mW at 536 nm when pumped with 6.2 W at 976 nm, wavelength tuneability range 521-545 nm with the output power at the extreme ends of this range 420 and 220 mW correspondingly. The proposed configuration allows efficient non-linear transformation of both CW and pulsed radiation in a partially coupled enhancement cavity.

  2. Shear-layer-driven transition in a rectangular cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, M. D.; Stephanoff, K. D.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental study of the flow over a shallow rectangular cavity indicates that, between the states of periodic and fully developed turbulent flow, three different regimes of fluid motion occur as the Reynolds number increases. In the first regime, regime I, the time trace from a pressure transducer, located at the downstream corner of the cavity, varies weakly in amplitude. The frequency spectrum of the trace shows that a single frequency, its' first harmonic, and a second frequency are selectively amplified. In the second regime, regime II, there is intermittency in the pressure time trace and the two incommensurate frequencies are further apart from each other than in regime I. The primary frequency is the result of a shear-layer instability but the secondary frequency is believed to depend on a transverse wave on the primary cavity vortex. The exchange of fluid between this vortex and the free stream is enhanced when the two waves are constructively interfering and the exchange is attenuated when the two waves are destructively interfering. If the amplitude of the transverse wave is sufficiently large and the two waves are in phase, fluid from the primary vortex is observed to burst through the shear layer giving rise to a period of apparently random motion. In the third regime, regime III, the pressure oscillations vary strongly with time, and include frequent periods of intense irregular behavior. At times, the pressure cycles have double peaks when the vortices that form in the shear layer are partially clipped by the downstream edge of the cavity. This clipping does not, however, coincide with a decay in the shear-layer oscillations, as it does in regime II.

  3. Optimization of A 2-Micron Laser Frequency Stabilization System for a Double-Pulse CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Songsheng; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingsin; Koch, Grady; Petros, Mulugeta; Trieu, Bo; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO2) Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for accurate CO2 concentration measurement requires a frequency locking system to achieve high frequency locking precision and stability. We describe the frequency locking system utilizing Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD), and Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) feedback servo loop, and report the optimization of the sensitivity of the system for the feed back loop based on the characteristics of a variable path-length CO2 gas cell. The CO2 gas cell is characterized with HITRAN database (2004). The method can be applied for any other frequency locking systems referring to gas absorption line.

  4. Quasi-continuous-wave 589-nm radiation based on intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:GGG/BaWO4 Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Zhaojun; Cong, Zhenhua; Men, Shaojie; Rao, Han; Xia, Jinbao; Zhang, Sasa; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-07-01

    Quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) 589-nm radiation was realized based on a frequency-doubled crystalline Raman laser. The fundamental wave with macro-micro-pulse trains was generated from an acousto-optically Q-switched QCW diode side-pumped Nd:GGG laser. Intracavity Raman conversion was accomplished by a BaWO4 crystal and the second harmonic generation was finished by a KTP crystal. Under a pumping power of 126.0 W with a macro-pulse frequency of 300 Hz and duration of 300 μs, the maximum 589 nm output power of 4.2 W was obtained at a micro-pulse frequency of 33.3 kHz. The micro-pulse width was 13.6 ns.

  5. Continuously tunable, split-cavity gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, G. F.; Gross, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a gyrotron cavity configuration which is split in halves longitudinally, to allow any frequency lying between the fixed cavity resonance to be assessed by mechanically changing the separation of the two halves. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the rate-of-change in resonant frequency with separation is greatest if the minor axis of the cavity cross section is the one undergoing change. Excellent agreement with theory is noted for these results.

  6. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, Jr., Francis W.; Chiu, Shiu-Chu; Parks, Paul; Rawls, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a resonant coil cavity wave launcher for energizing a plasma immersed in a magnetic field. Energization includes launching fast Alfven waves to excite ion cyclotron frequency resonances in the plasma. The cavity includes inductive and capacitive reactive members spaced no further than one-quarter wavelength from a first wall confinement chamber of the plasma. The cavity wave launcher is energized by connection to a waveguide or transmission line carrying forward power from a remote radio frequency energy source.

  7. A dual-mode microwave resonator for double electron-electron spin resonance spectroscopy at W-band microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina

    2011-04-01

    We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  9. Dependence of trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain Nb superconducting radio-frequency cavity on spatial temperature gradient during cooldown through Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shichun; Kubo, Takayuki; Geng, R. L.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies by Romanenko et al. revealed that cooling down a superconducting cavity under a large spatial temperature gradient decreases the amount of trapped flux and leads to reduction of the residual surface resistance. In the present paper, the flux expulsion ratio and the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance of a large-grain cavity cooled down under a spatial temperature gradient up to 80 K /m are studied under various applied magnetic fields from 5 to 20 μ T . We show the flux expulsion ratio improves as the spatial temperature gradient increases, independent of the applied magnetic field: our results support and enforce the previous studies. We then analyze all rf measurement results obtained under different applied magnetic fields together by plotting the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance normalized by the applied magnetic field as a function of the spatial temperature gradient. All the data can be fitted by a single curve, which defines an empirical formula for the trapped-flux-induced surface resistance as a function of the spatial temperature gradient and applied magnetic field. The formula can fit not only the present results but also those obtained by Romanenko et al. previously. The sensitivity rfl of surface resistance from trapped magnetic flux of fine-grain and large-grain niobium cavities and the origin of d T /d s dependence of Rfl/Ba are also discussed.

  10. Effects of an intense, high-frequency laser field on bound states in Ga1 - xInxNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well.

    PubMed

    Ungan, Fatih; Yesilgul, Unal; Sakiroğlu, Serpil; Kasapoglu, Esin; Erol, Ayse; Arikan, Mehmet Cetin; Sarı, Huseyin; Sökmen, Ismail

    2012-10-31

    Within the envelope function approach and the effective-mass approximation, we have investigated theoretically the effect of an intense, high-frequency laser field on the bound states in a GaxIn1 - xNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well for different nitrogen and indium mole concentrations. The laser-dressed potential, bound states, and squared wave functions related to these bound states in Ga1 - xInxNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well are investigated as a function of the position and laser-dressing parameter. Our numerical results show that both intense laser field and nitrogen (indium) incorporation into the GaInNAs have strong influences on carrier localization.

  11. Atomic hydrogen maser active oscillator cavity and bulb design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Washburn, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance characteristics and reliability of the active oscillator atomic hydrogen maser depend upon oscillation parameters which characterize the interaction region of the maser, the resonant cavity and atom storage bulb assembly. With particular attention to use of the cavity frequency switching servo (1) to reduce cavity pulling, it is important to maintain high oscillation level, high atomic beam flux utilization efficiency, small spin exchange parameter and high cavity quality factor. It is also desirable to have a small and rigid cavity and bulb structure and to minimize the cavity temperature sensitivity. Curves for a novel hydrogen maser cavity configuration which is partially loaded with a quartz dielectric cylinder and show the relationships between cavity length, cavity diameter, bulb size, dielectric thickness, cavity quality factor, filling factor and cavity frequency temperature coefficient are presented. The results are discussed in terms of improvement in maser performance resulting from particular design choices.

  12. Ferrite-filled cavities for compact planar resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keatley, P. S.; Durrant, C. J.; Berry, S. J.; Sirotkin, E.; Hibbins, A. P.; Hicken, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-wavelength metallic planar cavities, closed at one end, have been constructed by wrapping aluminium foil around teflon or ferrite slabs. Finite cavity width perturbs the fundamental cavity mode frequency of ferrite-filled cavities due to different permeability inside and outside of the cavity, in contrast to teflon-filled cavities, while the cavity length required to achieve a specific resonance frequency is significantly reduced for a ferrite-filled cavity. Ferrite-filled cavities may be excited by an in-plane alternating magnetic field and may be advantageous for high-frequency (HF) and ultra HF tagging and radio frequency identification of metallic objects within security, manufacturing, and shipping environments.

  13. 2.1-watts intracavity-frequency-doubled all-solid-state light source at 671 nm for laser cooling of lithium.

    PubMed

    Eismann, U; Bergschneider, A; Sievers, F; Kretzschmar, N; Salomon, C; Chevy, F

    2013-04-08

    We present an all-solid-state laser source emitting up to 2.1 W of single-frequency light at 671 nm developed for laser cooling of lithium atoms. It is based on a diode-pumped, neodymium-doped orthovanadate (Nd:YVO(4)) ring laser operating at 1342 nm. Optimization of the thermal management in the gain medium results in a maximum multi-frequency output power of 2.5 W at the fundamental wavelength. We develop a simple theory for the efficient implementation of intracavity second harmonic generation, and its application to our system allows us to obtain nonlinear conversion efficiencies of up to 88%. Single-mode operation and tuning is established by adding an etalon to the resonator. The second-harmonic wavelength can be tuned over 0.5 nm, and mode-hop-free scanning over more than 6 GHz is demonstrated, corresponding to around ten times the laser cavity free spectral range. The output frequency can be locked with respect to the lithium D-line transitions for atomic physics applications. Furthermore, we observe parametric Kerr-lens mode-locking when detuning the phase-matching temperature sufficiently far from the optimum value.

  14. Picosecond blue light pulse generation by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode with saturable absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ohya, J.; Tohmon, G.; Yamamoto, K.; Taniuchi, T. ); Kume, M. )

    1990-06-04

    Picosecond blue light pulse generation by frequency doubling of a gain-switched GaAlAs laser diode in a proton-exchanged MgO:LiNbO{sub 3} waveguide is reported. High-peak fundamental pulse power of 1.23 W is obtained by employing a laser diode with saturable absorbers. Blue light pulse of 7.88 mW maximum peak power and 28.7 ps pulse width is generated in the form of Cherenkov radiation.

  15. 1-MW peak power, 574-kHz repetition rate picosecond pulses at 515 nm from a frequency-doubled fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Feng; Wang, Ziwei; Wang, Zhaokun; Bai, Yang; Li, Qiurui; Zhou, Jun

    2016-11-01

    1-MW peak power picosecond, 574-kHz repetition rate green laser at 515-nm is generated from a frequency-doubled fiber amplifier. 12-ps pulses with 13.9-μJ energy at 515 nm are achieved with a noncritically phase-matched lithium triborate (LBO) crystal through second harmonic generation of a 1030 nm infrared source. The infrared source employs ultra-large-mode-area rod-type photonic crystal fiber (Rod-PCF) for direct picosecond amplification and delivers 20-W 11.6-ps 2.97-MW pulse train with near-diffraction-limited beam quality (M2 = 1.01).

  16. On the cooperativeness of nanosecond-laser induced damage during frequency doubling of 1064 nm light in KTiOPO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Frank; Duchateau, Guillaume; Hildenbrand, Anne; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille

    2011-12-01

    Due to its high nonlinear coefficients, KTP (KTiOPO4) is one of the most important nonlinear optical materials for frequency doubling of Nd:YAG lasers. Former studies suggest a certain cooperativeness of the laser induced damage mechanism between the 1064 nm and the 532 nm wavelengths present during second harmonic generation. We report on experiments that allow confirming and quantifying the cooperativeness of the laser damage mechanism in this material and compare it to known data from KDP. A damage scenario based on the formation of color centers, which are also responsible for the gray tracking effect, will be presented.

  17. Continuous-wave violet generation at 373.5 nm by frequency-doubled power-scaled near-infrared emitting Pr:YAlO3 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibrich, Martin; Jelínková, Helena

    2013-10-01

    We report on a continuous-wave Pr:YAlO3 laser operating at a wavelength of 373.5 nm in a power-scaled resonator arrangement. Violet light generation has been achieved by intracavity frequency doubling of the near-infrared emitting Pr:YAP laser at a fundamental wavelength of 747 nm. For active medium pumping, two GaN laser diodes providing up to 1 W of output power each at 448 nm were used. By employing BBO crystal as a nonlinear medium, more than 46 mW of violet radiation has been obtained.

  18. Theoretical studies of Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering (RESRS) of frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser wavelength in cesium vapor. Progress report, January-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lawandy, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The solutions for the imaginary susceptibility of the Raman field transition with arbitrary relaxation rates and field strengths are examined for three different sets of relaxation rates. These rates correspond to: (1) Far Infrared (FIR) Raman lasers in the diabatic collision regime without consideration of coupled population decay in a closed system, (2) Raman FIR lasers in the diabatic collision regime with coupled population conserving decay, and (3) IR Raman gain in cesium vapor. The model is further expanded to include Doppler broadening and used to predict the peak gain as a function of detuning for a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser-pumped cesium vapor gain cell.

  19. Status of the ILC Crab Cavity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.; Dexter, A.; Beard, C.; Goudket, P.; McIntosh, P.; Bellantoni, L.; Grimm, T.; Li, Z.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-10-20

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will require two dipole cavities to 'crab' the electron and positron bunches prior to their collision. It is proposed to use two 9 cell SCRF dipole cavities operating at a frequency of 3.9 GHz, with a transverse gradient of 3.8MV/m in order to provide the required transverse kick. Extensive numerical modelling of this cavity and its couplers has been performed. Aluminium prototypes have been manufactured and tested to measure the RF properties of the cavity and couplers. In addition single cell niobium prototypes have been manufactured and tested in a vertical cryostat. The International Collider (ILC) [1] collides bunches of electrons and positrons at a crossing angle of 14 mrad. The angle between these bunches causes a loss in luminosity due to geometric effects [2]. The luminosity lost from this geometric effect can be recovered by rotating the bunches into alignment prior to collision. One possible method of rotating the bunches is to use a crab cavity [3]. A crab cavity is a transverse defecting cavity, where the phase of the cavity is such that the head and tail of the bunch receive equal and opposite kicks. As the bunches are only 500 nm wide in the horizontal plane, the cavity phase must be strictly controlled to avoid the bunch centre being deflected too much. In order to keep the phase stability within the required limits it is required that the cavity be superconducting to avoid thermal effects in both the cavity and its RF source. At the location of the crab cavity in the ILC there is only 23 cm separation between the centre of the cavity and the extraction line, hence the cavity must be small enough to fit in this space. This, along with the difficulty of making high frequency SRF components, set the frequency of the cavity to 3.9 GHz.

  20. High Efficiency Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Based Double-Junction Solar Cells made with Very-High-Frequency Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Arindam

    2004-10-20

    We have achieved a total-area initial efficiency of 11.47% (active-area efficiency of 12.33%) on a-Si:H/μc-Si:H double-junction structure, where the intrinsic layer bottom cell was made in 50 minutes. On another device in which the bottom cell was made in 30 min, we achieved initial total-area efficiency of 10.58% (active-efficiency of 11.35%). We have shown that the phenomenon of ambient degradation of both μc-Si:H single-junction and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H double-junction cells can be attributed to impurity diffusion after deposition. Optimization of the plasma parameters led to alleviation of the ambient degradation. Appropriate current matching between the top and bottom component cells has resulted in a stable total-area efficiency of 9.7% (active-area efficiency of 10.42%) on an a-Si:H/μc-Si:H double-junction solar cell in which the deposition time for the μc-Si:H intrinsic layer deposition was of 30 min.