Roy, Jyoti; Putt, Karson S; Coppola, Domenico; Leon, Marino E; Khalil, Farah K; Centeno, Barbara A; Clark, Noel; Stark, Valerie E; Morse, David L; Low, Philip S
The expression of cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R, CCKBR or gastrin receptor) has been reported on a diverse range of cancers such as colorectal, liver, lung, pancreatic, ovarian, stomach, thyroid and numerous neuroendocrine/carcinoid tumors. Some cancers of the colorectum, lung, pancreas and thyroid have been shown to overexpress CCK2R in relation to normal matched tissues of the same organ. This reported overexpression has led to the development of a number of CCK2R-ligand targeted imaging and therapeutic agents. However, no comprehensive study comparing the expression of CCK2R in multiple cancers to multiple normal tissues has been performed. Herein, we report the immunohistochemical analysis of cancer samples from gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and thyroid cancer against multiple normal tissue samples from esophagus, liver, lung, pancreas, stomach, spleen and thyroid. These results show that CCK2R expression is present in nearly all cancer and normal samples tested and that none of the cancer samples had expression that was statistically greater than that of all of the normal samples.
Background Two main types of receptors for gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) have been cloned and identified. CCK1 (CCK-A) receptors are expressed in the pancreas, the gallbladder, and parts of the brain, while CCK2 (CCK-B/gastrin) receptors (CCK2R) are expressed in gastric glands and in most of the brain. A splice variant of the CCK2R designated CCKRi4sv (CCK-C), which is constitutively expressed in human pancreatic cancer cells, has also been described. The purpose of the present investigation was to study CCK2R, CCK2i4svR, and gastrin mRNA expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma on the assumption that co-expression of CCK2R and gastrin or constitutive CCK2i4svR mRNA expression plays a pivotal role in the progression of pancreatic cancer. Findings PCR amplification using CCK2R specific primer-pairs, followed by ethidium-bromide stained agarose gel electrophoresis revealed the expression of wild-type CCK2R mRNA in 12 of 17 biopsy specimens. A CCK2R intron 4 specific nested PCR assay revealed that CCK2i4svR mRNA was expressed in only one of the biopsy specimen. The authenticity of PCR amplicons was confirmed by cloning of selected amplicons and DNA sequence analysis. Moreover, we found that hitherto undescribed multiple forms of 3'-end variant CCK2R mRNAs with various deletions in the retained intron 4 and exon 5, tentatively generating truncated proteins, were expressed in the pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Conclusion Cloning and DNA sequencing of selected amplicons revealed that CCK2R and multiple CCK2i4svR-like mRNAs are expressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The originally described CCK2i4svR mRNA was only expressed in one of 17 tumours and appears to be rarely expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We report that CCK2R- and gastrin mRNA co-expression may play a role in a portion, but not in all of these tumours, and that aberrant splicing takes places in these tissues generating multiple forms of 3'-end variant CCK2R mRNAs. PMID:21504585
Berna, Marc J.; Seiz, Oliver; Nast, Jan Friso; Benten, Daniel; Bläker, Michael; Koch, Johannes; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Pace, Andrea
The gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) can induce acute pancreatitis in rodents through its action on acinar cells. Treatment with CCK, in combination with other agents, represents the most commonly used model to induce experimental chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) are responsible for pancreatic fibrosis and therefore play a predominant role in the genesis of chronic pancreatitis. However, it is not known whether PSC express CCK receptors. Using real time PCR techniques, we demonstrate that CCK1 and CCK2 receptors are expressed on rat PSC. Interestingly both CCK and gastrin significantly induced type I collagen synthesis. Moreover, both inhibit proliferation. These effects are comparable with TGF-β-stimulated PSC. Furthermore, the natural agonists CCK and gastrin induce activation of pro-fibrogenic pathways Akt, ERK, and Src. Using specific CCK1 and CCK2 receptor (CCK2R) inhibitors, we found that Akt activation is mainly mediated by CCK2R. Akt activation by CCK and gastrin could be inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Activation of ERK and the downstream target Elk-1 could be inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126. These data suggest that CCK and gastrin have direct activating effects on PSC, are able to induce collagen synthesis in these cells, and therefore appear to be important regulators of pancreatic fibrogenesis. Furthermore, similar to TGF-β, both CCK and gastrin inhibit proliferation in PSC. PMID:20843811
Kovac, Suzana; Xiao, Lin; Shulkes, Arthur; Patel, Oneel; Baldwin, Graham S
The involvement of the gastrointestinal hormone gastrin in the development of gastrointestinal cancer is highly controversial. Here we demonstrate a positive-feedback loop whereby gastrin, acting via the CCK2 receptor, increases its own expression. Such an autocrine loop has not previously been reported for any other gastrointestinal hormone. Gastrin promoter activation was dependent on the MAP kinase pathway and did not involve Sp1 binding sites or epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation. As the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer cells with amidated gastrin led to increased expression of non-amidated gastrins, the positive-feedback loop may contribute to the sustained increase in circulating gastrins observed in colorectal cancer patients.
Håkanson, R; Ding, X Q; Norlén, P; Lindström, E
Gastrin-recognizing CCK2 receptors are expressed in parietal cells and in so-called ECL cells in the acid-producing part of the stomach. ECL cells are endocrine/paracrine cells that produce and store histamine and chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptides, such as pancreastatin. The ECL cells are the principal cellular transducer of the gastrin-acid signal. Activation of the CCK2 receptor results in mobilization of histamine (and pancreastatin) from the ECL cells with consequent activation of the parietal cell histamine H2 receptor. Thus, release of ECL-cell histamine is a key event in the process of gastrin-stimulated acid secretion. The oxyntic mucosal histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity and the serum pancreastatin concentration are useful markers for the activity of the gastrin-ECL cell axis. Powerful and selective CCK2 receptor antagonits have been developed from a series of benzodiazepine compounds. These agents are useful tools to study how gastrin controls the ECL cells. Conversely, the close control of ECL cells by gastrin makes the gastrin-ECL cell axis well suited for evaluating the antagonistic potential of CCK2 receptor antagonists with the ECL-cell HDC activity as a notably sensitive and reliable parameter. The CCK2 receptor antagonists YF476, YM022, RP73870, JB93182 and AG041R were found to cause prompt inhibition of ECL-cell histamine and pancreastatin secretion and synthesis. The circulating pancreastatin concentration is raised, was lowered when the action of gastrin on the ECL cells was blocked by the CCK2 receptor antagonists. These effects were associated with inhibition of gastrin-stimulated acid secretion. In addition, sustained receptor blockade was manifested in permanently decreased oxyntic mucosal HDC activity, histamine concentration and HDC mRNA and CGA mRNA concentrations. CCK2 receptor blockade also induced hypergastrinemia, which probably reflects the impaired gastric acid secretion (no acid feedback inhibition of gastrin release
Lindström, Erik; Björkqvist, Maria; Håkanson, Rolf
Gastrin stimulates rat stomach ECL cells to secrete histamine and pacreastatin, a chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptide. The present report describes the effect of nine cholecystokinin2 (CCK2) receptor antagonists and one CCK1 receptor antagonist on the gastrin-evoked secretion of pancreastatin from isolated ECL cells.The CCK2 receptor antagonists comprised three benzodiazepine derivatives L-740,093, YM022 and YF476, one ureidoacetamide compound RP73870, one benzimidazole compound JB 93182, one ureidoindoline compound AG041R and three tryptophan dipeptoids PD 134308 (CI988), PD135158 and PD 136450. The CCK1 receptor antagonist was devazepide.A preparation of well-functioning ECL cells (∼80% purity) was prepared from rat oxyntic mucosa using counter-flow elutriation. The cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of 0.1 nM gastrin; they were then washed and incubated with antagonist alone or with various concentrations of antagonist plus 10 nM gastrin (a maximally effective concentration) for 30 min. Gastrin dose-response curves were constructed in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of antagonist. The amount of pancreastatin secreted was determined by radioimmunoassay.The gastrin-evoked secretion of pancreastatin was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. YM022, AG041R and YF476 had IC50 values of 0.5, 2.2 and 2.7 nM respectively. L-740,093, JB93182 and RP73870 had IC50 values of 7.8, 9.3 and 9.8 nM, while PD135158, PD136450 and PD134308 had IC50 values of 76, 135 and 145 nM. The CCK1 receptor antagonist devazepide was a poor CCK2 receptor antagonist with an IC50 of about 800 nM.YM022, YF476 and AG041R were chosen for further analysis. YM022 and YF476 shifted the gastrin dose-response curve to the right in a manner suggesting competitive antagonism, while the effects of AG041R could not be explained by simple competitive antagonism. pKB values were 11.3 for YM022, 10.8 for YF476 and the apparent pKB for AG041R was 10.4. PMID
Zheng, Yaguo; Akgün, Eyup; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.; Hopson, Jessika; Powers, Michael D.; Lunzer, Mary M.; Miller, Laurence J.; Portoghese, Philip S.
Both mu opioid (MOP)† and type 2 cholecystokinin (CCK2) receptors are present in areas of the central nervous system that are involved in modulation of pain processing. We conducted bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) studies on COS cells coexpressing MOP and CCK2 receptors to determine whether receptor heterodimerization is involved in such modulation. These studies revealed the absence of constitutive or monovalent ligand-induced heterodimerization. Heterodimerization of MOP and CCK2 receptors therefore is unlikely to be responsible for the opposing effects between morphine and CCK in the CNS. However, association was induced, as indicated by a positive BRET signal, on exposure of the cells to bivalent ligands containing mu-opioid agonist and CCK2 receptor antagonist pharmacophores linked through spacers containing 16 to 22 atoms, but not with a shorter (9-atom) spacer. These studies demonstrate for the first time that an appropriately designed bivalent ligand is capable of inducing association of G protein-coupled receptors. The finding that opioid tolerance studies with these ligands in mice showed no correlation with the BRET data is consistent with the absence of association of MOP and CCK2 receptors in vivo. PMID:19113864
Kidd, M; Siddique, Z-L; Drozdov, I; Gustafsson, B I; Camp, R L; Black, J W; Boyce, M; Modlin, I M
YF476 is a potent and highly selective cholecystokin 2 (CCK(2)) receptor antagonist of the benzodiazepine class. It inhibits gastric neuroendocrine enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell secretion, proliferation and spontaneous formation of gastric neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) in cotton rats. The Mastomys rodent species exhibits a genetic predisposition to gastric ECL neuroendocrine tumor formation which can be accelerated by acid suppression and induction of hypergastrinemia. In this respect, it mimics the human condition of atrophic gastritis, hypergastrinemia and gastric carcinoid development. We investigated whether YF476 could inhibit acid suppression-induced ECL cell hyperplasia and neoplasia in this model. In addition, we examined whether YF476 could reverse established ECL cell hyperplasia and neoplasia. Targeting the CCK(2) receptor during Loxtidine-induced hypergastrinemia resulted in a reduction in ECL cell secretion (plasma and mucosal histamine, and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) transcripts, p<0.05) and proliferation (numbers of HDC-positive cells, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and cyclin D1 transcription). This was associated with a decrease in ECL cell hyperplasia and a 60% reduction in gastric ECL cell microcarcinoid (tumors <0.3mm in size) formation. YF476 inhibited ECL cell neoplasia (gastric carcinoid) in animals with hyperplasia, inhibited the formation of ECL cell tumors when co-administered with Loxtidine and reversed the growth and developement of gastric ECL cell carcinoids in long-term acid suppressed Mastomys. Variable importance analysis using a logistic multinomial regression model indicated the effects of YF476 were specific to the ECL cell and alterations in ECL cell function reflected inhibition of transcripts for HDC, Chromogranin A (CgA), CCK(2) and the autocrine growth factor, CTGF. We conclude that specifically targeting the CCK(2) receptor inhibits gastrin-mediated ECL cell secretion and ECL cell proliferation and tumor
Yuan, Aping; Liu, Jinzhong; Liu, Yiqing; Bjørnsen, Tone; Varro, Andrea; Cui, Guanglin
A promoting effect of gastrin on stimulating Barrett's oesophagus proliferation has been demonstrated, but whether it plays a regulating role for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) to date has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study is to examine the expressions of gastrin, gastrin precursors and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor in ESCC. Tissue specimen sections from 38 patients with ESSC obtained from a high incidence area of north China were assessed using immunohistochemistry for amidated gastrin, gastrin precursors (progastrin and glycine-extended gastrin) and gastrin/CCK-2 receptors. Their clinical histopathological significance was also analyzed. Of 38 ESCC, the immunoreactivities of gastrin, glycine-extended gastrin and progastrin were observed in 13.2% (5/38), 7.9% (3/38) and 23.68% (9/38) cases. The expression of progastrin was obviously higher than other gastrins, though not significantly (P > 0.05). In positive cases for gastrin or glycine-extended gastrin, the scores of positive tumor cell numbers were at a lower density (<10/abundant-distributed field). However, the scores of progastrin positive tumor cell density in five of nine positive cases were over 10/abundant-distributed field. The immunoreactivity of gastrin/CCK-2 receptor was also observed in 15.8% (6/38) ESCC cases. There was not significant correlation regarding immunohistochemical results with known histomorphological parameters i.e. gender, tumor location and TNM stages. Based on our current results, ESCC tumor cells could be a possible cellular source of gastrin precursors, which has been postulated to play a role in regulating the growth in some human tumor cells.
Lattmann, E; Sattayasai, J; Lattmann, P; Billington, D C; Schwalbe, C H; Boonprakob, J; Airarat, W; Singh, H; Offel, M; Staaf, A
Various 1,4-benzodiazepines were synthesized around a Diazepam, Oxazepam and the n-propyl-1,4-benzodiazepine template. SAR studies of CCK(2) binding affinity were performed and selected examples of each series were tested in vivo in mice. In addition to an anxiolytic effect, antidepressant effects were discovered using 8 standard CNS assays in mice. Finally, the cocomittant administration of the 1,4-benzodiazepine based CCK antagonists enhanced the response to pain with a low dose of morphine, significantly.
Boyce, Malcolm; Dowen, Sally; Turnbull, Gillian; van den Berg, Frans; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan; Black, James
Aims To compare gastric acid suppression by netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, with that by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and to determine if netazepide can prevent the trophic effects of PPI-induced hypergastrinaemia. Methods Thirty healthy subjects completed a double-blind, randomized, parallel group trial of oral netazepide and rabeprazole, alone and combined, once daily for 6 weeks. Primary end points were: basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and 24 h circulating gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA) at baseline, start and end of treatment, gastric biopsies at baseline and end of treatment and basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and dyspepsia questionnaire after treatment withdrawal. Results All treatments similarly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. All treatments increased serum gastrin, but the combination and rabeprazole did so more than netazepide alone. The combination also reduced basal acid secretion. Rabeprazole increased plasma CgA, whereas netazepide and the combination reduced it. None of the biopsies showed enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia. Withdrawal of treatments led neither to rebound hyperacidity nor dyspepsia. Conclusions Netazepide suppressed pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion as effectively as did rabeprazole. The reduction in basal acid secretion and greater increase in serum gastrin by the combination is consistent with more effective acid suppression. Despite our failure to show rabeprazole-induced ECL cell hyperplasia and rebound hyperacidity, the increase in plasma CgA after rabeprazole is consistent with a trophic effect on ECL cells, which netazepide prevented. Thus, netazepide is a potential treatment for the trophic effects of hypergastrinaemia and, with or without a PPI, is a potential treatment for acid-related conditions. PMID:25335860
Raud, Sirli; Innos, Jürgen; Abramov, Urho; Reimets, Ain; Kõks, Sulev; Soosaar, Andres; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Vasar, Eero
Evidence suggests that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and cholecystokinin (CCK) have opposite roles in the regulation of anxiety. The aim of our work was to study the behaviour of CCK(2) receptor deficient mice in light-dark exploration and fear conditioning tests. Moreover, the action of diazepam and methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), having the opposite effect on GABA(A) receptors, was evaluated on the exploratory behaviour in these mice. Expression levels of GABA(A) receptor subunit genes were also measured. Light-dark exploration and fear conditioning tests were used to determine changes in anxiety of mice. The action of diazepam (0.5-2 mg/kg i.p.) and DMCM (0.25-1 mg/kg i.p.) was studied in the light-dark box. The effect of DMCM was also evaluated in the motor activity test to demonstrate that its anti-exploratory action was not related to motor suppression. Expression levels of GABA(A) receptor subunit genes were determined by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Female mice lacking CCK(2) receptors displayed increased exploratory activity in the light-dark box compared to their wild-type (+/+) littermates. Locomotor activity in the motility boxes and the intensity of freezing did not differ in wild-type (+/+) and homozygous (-/-) mice. Treatment with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) increased the number of transitions in wild-type (+/+) animals, whereas in homozygous (-/-) mice diazepam (0.5-2 mg/kg) reduced exploratory activity. Administration of DMCM (0.25-1 mg/kg) induced an anxiogenic-like effect in homozygous (-/-) mice, but did not change their locomotor activity. Gene expression analysis established a 1.6-fold increase in the expression of the alpha2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the frontal cortex of homozygous (-/-) mice. Genetic invalidation of CCK(2) receptors induced an anxiolytic-like action in exploratory, but not in conditioned models of anxiety. The observed reduction in anxiety in homozygous (-/-) mice
Boyce, Malcolm; Thomsen, Liv
Gastric carcinoids (neuroendocrine tumors) arise from enterochromaffin-like cells in the gastric mucosa. Most are caused by hypergastrinemia. The objectives were to determine if their prevalence in Europe, USA and Japan meets the criteria for an orphan disease and to justify treatment with a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist. We obtained data from European and USA cancer registries, and searched PubMed. Prevalence per 10,000 population obtained from cancer registries was: median 0.32 (range 0.09-0.92) for Europe; and 0.17 for the USA, equivalent to 4812 for the whole population. A PubMed search for gastric carcinoids yielded prevalence for Japan only, which was 0.05 per 10,000 population, equivalent to 665 for the entire population. A further search for gastric carcinoids in patients with pernicious anemia (PA) or autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), two presentations of about 80% of gastric carcinoids, produced prevalence rates of 5.2-11%. Prevalence of PA itself was 0.12-1.9%. Data on CAG epidemiology were sparse. Prevalence of gastric carcinoids varied widely. All sources probably underestimate prevalence. However, prevalence was below the limits required for recognition by drug regulatory authorities as an orphan disease: 5 per 10,000 population of Europe; 200,000 for the whole population of the USA; and 50,000 for the whole population of Japan. Because gastric carcinoids are an orphan disease, and nonclinical and healthy volunteer studies support treatment with netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 antagonist, netazepide has been designated an orphan medicinal product in Europe and the USA for development as targeted treatment for gastric carcinoids.
Kolenc Peitl, Petra; Tamma, MariaLuisa; Kroselj, Marko; Braun, Friederike; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude; Sollner Dolenc, Marija; Maecke, Helmut R; Mansi, Rosalba
The metabolic instability and high kidney retention of minigastrin (MG) analogues hamper their suitability for use in peptide-receptor radionuclide therapy of CCK2/gastrin receptor-expressing tumors. High kidney retention has been related to N-terminal glutamic acids and can be substantially reduced by coinjection of polyglutamic acids or gelofusine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the stereochemistry of the N-terminal amino acid spacer on the enzymatic stability and pharmacokinetics of (111)In-DOTA-(d-Glu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 ((111)In-PP11-D) and (111)In-DOTA-(l-Glu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 ((111)In-PP11-L). Using circular dichroism measurements, we demonstrate the important role of secondary structure on the pharmacokinetics of the two MG analogues. The higher in vitro serum stability together with the improved tumor-to-kidney ratio of the (d-Glu)6 congener indicates that this MG analogue might be a good candidate for further clinical study.
Sherman, Patrick J; Separovic, Frances; Bowie, John H
It has been proposed that some neuropeptides may be anchored to the cell membranes prior to attaching to the adjacent active sites of transmembrane receptors. The three amphibian skin neuropeptides signiferin 1 [RLCIPYIIPC(OH)] (smooth muscle active and immunomodulator), riparin 1.1 [[RLCIPVIFPC(OH)] (immunomodulator) and rothein 1 [SVSNIPESIGF(OH)] (immunomodulator) act via CCK2 transmembrane receptors. A combination of (31)P and (2)H solid state NMR studies of each of these three peptides in eukaryotic phospholipid models at 25°C shows that rothein 1 does not interact with the membrane at all. In contrast, both of the cyclic disulfides signiferin 1 and riparin 1.1 interact with phospholipid head groups and partially penetrate into the upper leaflet of the model bilayer, but to different extents. These interactions are not sufficiently effective to cause disruption of the lipid bilayer since the peptides are not antimicrobial, anticancer, antifungal nor active against enveloped viruses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sanchez, Claire; Escrieut, Chantal; Clerc, Pascal; Gigoux, Véronique; Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude; Fourmy, Daniel
The cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R), is expressed in cancers where it contributes to tumor progression. The CCK2R is over-expressed in a sub-set of tumors, allowing its use in tumor targeting with a radiolabel ligand. Since discrepancies between mRNA levels and CCK2R binding sites were noticed, we searched for abnormally spliced variants in tumors from various origins having been previously reported to frequently express cholecystokinin receptors, such as medullary thyroid carcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, and gastroenteropancreatic tumors. A variant of the CCK2R coding for a putative five-transmembrane domains receptor has been cloned. This variant represented as much as 6% of CCK2R levels. Ectopic expression in COS-7 cells revealed that this variant lacks biological activity due to its sequestration in endoplasmic reticulum. When co-expressed with the CCK2R, this variant diminished membrane density of the CCK2R and CCK2R-mediated activity (phospholipase-C and ERK activation). In conclusion, a novel splice variant acting as a dominant negative on membrane density of the CCK2R may be of importance for the pathophysiology of certain tumors and for their in vivo CCK2R-targeting.
Magnan, Rémi; Masri, Bernard; Escrieut, Chantal; Foucaud, Magali; Cordelier, Pierre; Fourmy, Daniel
Given the importance of G-protein-coupled receptors as pharmacological targets in medicine, efforts directed at understanding the molecular mechanism by which pharmacological compounds regulate their presence at the cell surface is of paramount importance. In this context, using confocal microscopy and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have investigated internalization and intracellular trafficking of the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) in response to both natural and synthetic ligands with different pharmacological features. We found that CCK and gastrin, which are full agonists on CCK2R-induced inositol phosphate production, rapidly and abundantly stimulate internalization. Internalized CCK2R did not rapidly recycle to plasma membrane but instead was directed to late endosomes/lysosomes. CCK2R endocytosis involves clathrin-coated pits and dynamin and high affinity and prolonged binding of β-arrestin1 or -2. Partial agonists and antagonists on CCK2R-induced inositol phosphate formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation did not stimulate CCK2R internalization or β-arrestin recruitment to the CCK2R but blocked full agonist-induced internalization and β-arrestin recruitment. The extreme C-terminal region of the CCK2R (and more precisely phosphorylatable residues Ser(437)-Xaa(438)-Thr(439)-Thr(440)-Xaa(441)-Ser(442)-Thr(443)) were critical for β-arrestin recruitment. However, this region and β-arrestins were dispensable for CCK2R internalization. In conclusion, this study allowed us to classify the human CCK2R as a member of class B G-protein-coupled receptors with regard to its endocytosis features and identified biased agonists of the CCK2R. These new important insights will allow us to investigate the role of internalized CCK2R·β-arrestin complexes in cancers expressing this receptor and to develop new diagnosis and therapeutic strategies targeting this receptor.
Marco, Esther; Foucaud, Magali; Langer, Ingrid; Escrieut, Chantal; Tikhonova, Irina G; Fourmy, Daniel
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a major focus in functional genomics programs and drug development research, but their important potential as drug targets contrasts with the still limited data available concerning their activation mechanism. Here, we investigated the activation mechanism of the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R). The three-dimensional structure of inactive CCK2R was homology-modeled on the basis of crystal coordinates of inactive rhodopsin. Starting from the inactive CCK2R modeled structure, active CCK2R (namely cholecystokinin-occupied CCK2R) was modeled by means of steered molecular dynamics in a lipid bilayer and by using available data from other GPCRs, including rhodopsin. By comparing the modeled structures of the inactive and active CCK2R, we identified changes in the relative position of helices and networks of interacting residues, which were expected to stabilize either the active or inactive states of CCK2R. Using targeted molecular dynamics simulations capable of converting CCK2R from the inactive to the active state, we delineated structural changes at the atomic level. The activation mechanism involved significant movements of helices VI and V, a slight movement of helices IV and VII, and changes in the position of critical residues within or near the binding site. The mutation of key amino acids yielded inactive or constitutively active CCK2R mutants, supporting this proposed mechanism. Such progress in the refinement of the CCK2R binding site structure and in knowledge of CCK2R activation mechanisms will enable target-based optimization of nonpeptide ligands.
Hayakawa, Yoku; Wang, Hongshan; Au, Andrew S.; Luna, Aesis M.; Chang, Wenju; Jin, Guangchun; Bhagat, Govind; Abrams, Julian A.; Friedman, Richard A.; Varro, Andrea; Wang, Kenneth K.; Boyce, Malcolm; Rustgi, Anil K.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.
Objective The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is increasing, but factors contributing to malignant progression of its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), have not been defined. Hypergastrinemia caused by long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has been suggested as one possible risk factor. The gastrin receptor, CCK2R, is expressed in the cardia and upregulated in BE, suggesting the involvement of the gastrin-CCK2R pathway in progression. In the L2-IL-1β mouse model, Barrett's-like esophagus arises from the gastric cardia. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of hypergastrinemia on CCK2R+ progenitor cells in L2-IL-1β mice. Design L2-IL-1β mice were mated with hypergastrinemic (INS-GAS) mice or treated with PPIs to examine the effect of hypergastrinemia in BE progression. CCK2R-CreERT crossed with L2-IL-1β mice were used to analyze the lineage progenitor potential of CCK2R+ cells. Cardia glands were cultured in vitro, and the effect of gastrin treatment analyzed. L2-IL-1β mice were treated with a CCK2R antagonist YF476 as a potential chemopreventive drug. Results Hypergastrinemia resulted in increased proliferation and expansion of Barrett's-like esophagus. Lineage tracing experiments revealed that CCK2R+ cells are long-lived progenitors that can give rise to such lesions under chronic inflammation. Gastrin stimulated organoid growth in cardia culture, while CCK2R inhibition prevented Barrett's-like esophagus and dysplasia. Conclusions Our data suggest a progression model for BE to EAC in which CCK2R+ progenitor cells, stimulated by hypergastrinemia, proliferate to give rise to metaplasia and dysplasia. Hypergastrinemia can result from PPI use, and the effects of hypergastrinemia in human BE should be studied further. PMID:27448962
Berna, Marc J.; Tapia, Jose A.; Sancho, Veronica; Jensen, Robert T.
Summary Gastrin and CCK are two of the oldest hormones and within the last 15 years there has been an exponential increase in knowledge of their pharmacology, cell biology, receptors (CCK1R, CCK2R) and roles in physiology and pathological conditions. Despite these advances there is no approved disease indication for CCK receptor antagonists and only minor use of agonists. In this review the important factors determining this slow therapeutic development are reviewed. To assess this it is necessary to briefly review what is known about the roles of CCK receptors (CCK1R, CCK2R) in normal human physiology, their role in pathologic conditions, the selectivity of available potent CCKR agonists/antagonists as well as review their use in human conditions to date and the results. Despite extensive studies in animals and some in humans, recent studies suggest that monotherapy with CCK1R agonists will not be effective in obesity, nor CCK2R antagonists in panic disorders or CCK2R antagonists to inhibit growth of pancreatic cancer. Areas that require more study include the use of CCK2R agonists for imaging tumors and radiotherapy, CCK2R antagonists in hypergastrinemic states especially with long term PPI use and for potentiation of analgesia as well as use of CCK1R antagonists for a number of gastrointestinal disorders [motility disorders (irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, constipation) and pancreatitis (acute, chronic)]. PMID:17997137
Grossini, Elena; Caimmi, Philippe; Molinari, Claudio; Uberti, Francesca; Mary, David; Vacca, Giovanni
In anesthetized pigs gastrin-17 increased coronary blood flow through CCK1/CCK2 receptors and β(2)-adrenoceptors-related nitric oxide (NO) release. Since the intracellular pathway has not been investigated the purpose of this study was to examine in coronary endothelial cells the CCK1/CCK2 receptors-related signaling involved in the effects of gastrin-17 on NO release. Gastrin-17 caused a concentration-dependent increase of NO production (17.3-62.6%; p<0.05), which was augmented by CCK1/CCK2 receptors agonists (p<0.05). The effect of gastrin-17 was amplified by the adenylyl-cyclase activator and β(2)-adrenoceptors agonist (p<0.05), abolished by cAMP/PKA and β(2)-adrenoceptors and CCK1/CCK2 receptors blockers, and reduced by PLC/PKC inhibitor. Finally, Western-blot revealed the preferential involvement of PKA vs. PKC as downstream effectors of CCK1/CCK2 receptors activation leading to Akt, ERK, p38 and endothelial NOS (eNOS) phosphorylation. In conclusion, in coronary endothelial cells, gastrin-17 induced eNOS-dependent NO production through CCK1/CCK2 receptors- and β(2)-adrenoceptors-related pathway. The intracellular signaling involved a preferential PKA pathway over PKC.
Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Dierickx, L. O.; Mestre, B.; Nalis, J.; Picard, C.; Favre, G.; Poirot, M.; Silvente-Poirot, S.; Courbon, F.
The cholecystokinin(CCK)/gastrin 2 receptors (R-CCK2) are overexpressed in 90% of medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) and in 60% of small cell lung cancers but not or poorly in corresponding healthy tissues. They represent a relevant target for the diagnosis and internal targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. Although previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of radiolabeled CCK/gastrin to target CCK-2 receptor-expressing tissues in animals and patients, some problems remained unsolved to identify an optimum candidate for in vivo targeting of R-CCK2-expressing tumors. By a rational approach and " in silico" drug design, we synthesized a new CCK-derivative with high affinity for the R-CCK2. The aim of this study was to achieve the radiolabeling of a new radioligand, to assess its efficacy using a published CCK radioligand ( 111In-DTPA-CCK8) as a control for the R-CCK2 targeting. This new CCK-derivative was radiolabeled with 111In. Nude mice, bearing the human MTC TT tumors and NIH-3T3 cell line expressing a tumorigenic mutant of the R-CCK2, were injected with this radiolabeled peptide. In vivo planar scintigraphies were acquired. Thereafter, biodistribution studies (%ID/g tissue) were done. The conditions of radiolabelling were optimized to obtain a radiochemical purity >90%. Scintigraphic images of xenograft mice showed significant tumor uptake with a target to nontarget ratio higher than two. These results were confirmed by the biodistribution studies which showed as expected a significant activity in the spleen, the liver and the kidneys. Therefore, this new radiolabeled compound is a promised new candidate for molecular imaging and internal radiotherapy for R-CCK2 tumor targeting.
Chen, D; Zhao, C M; Norlén, P; Björkqvist, M; Ding, X Q; Kitano, M; Håkanson, R
The ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa of rat stomach produce histamine and chromogranin A-derived peptides such as pancreastatin. The cells respond to gastrin via cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2) receptors. A CCK2 receptor blockade was induced by treatment (for up to 8 weeks) with two receptor antagonists, YM022 and YF476. Changes in ECL-cell morphology were examined by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, while changes in ECL cell-related biochemical parameters were monitored by measuring serum pancreastatin and oxyntic mucosal pancreastatin, and histamine concentrations, and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity. The CCK2 receptor blockade reduced the ECL-cell density only marginally, if at all, but transformed the ECL cells from slender, elongated cells with prominent projections to small, spherical cells without projections. The Golgi complex and the rough endoplasmic reticulum were diminished. Secretory vesicles were greatly reduced in volume density in the trans Golgi area. Circulating pancreastatin concentration and oxyntic mucosal HDC activity were lowered within a few hours. Oxyntic mucosal histamine and pancreastatin concentrations were reduced only gradually. The CCK2 receptor blockade was found to prevent the effects of omeprazole-evoked hypergastrinaemia on the ECL-cell activity and density. In conclusion, gastrin, acting on CCK2 receptors, is needed to maintain the shape, size and activity of the ECL cells, but not for maintaining the ECL-cell population.
Sun, Wei-Hao; Zhu, Feng; Chen, Guo-Sheng; Su, Han; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Zhang, Yuan; Shao, Yun; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Su-Ming; Ding, Guo-Xian; Cheng, Yun-Lin
Gastrin and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) play important roles in the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist plus COX-2 inhibitor exerts synergistic anti-tumor effects on human gastric cancer. Here, we demonstrated that the combination of AG-041R (a CCK-2 receptor antagonist) plus NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) treatment had synergistic effects on proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression in MKN-45 cells. These results indicate that simultaneous targeting of CCK-2 receptor and COX-2 may inhibit gastric cancer development more effectively than targeting either molecule alone.
Brabez, Nabila; Nguyen, Kevin L; Saunders, Kara; Lacy, Ryan; Xu, Liping; Gillies, Robert J; Lynch, Ronald M; Chassaing, Gerard; Lavielle, Solange; Hruby, Victor J
In the quest for novel tools for early detection and treatment of cancer, we propose the use of multimers targeting overexpressed receptors at the cancer cell surface. Indeed, multimers are prone to create multivalent interactions, more potent and specific than their corresponding monovalent versions, thus enabling the potential for early detection. There is a lack of tools for early detection of pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest forms of cancer, but CCK2-R overexpression on pancreatic cancer cells makes CCK based multimers potential markers for these cells. In this Letter, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of CCK trimers targeting overexpressed CCK2-R.
Grisanti, Laurel A; Kurada, Lalitha; Cilz, Nicholas I; Porter, James E; Lei, Saobo
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain where it interacts with two G protein-coupled receptors (CCK1 and CCK2). Both types of CCK receptors are coupled to G(q/11) proteins resulting in increased function of phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. Whereas CCK has been suggested to increase neuronal excitability in the brain via activation of cationic channels, the types of cationic channels have not yet been identified. Here, we co-expressed CCK2 receptors and TRPC5 channels in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and studied the effects of CCK on TRPC5 channels using patch-clamp techniques. Our results demonstrate that activation of CCK2 receptors robustly potentiates the function of TRPC5 channels. CCK-induced activation of TRPC5 channels requires the functions of G-proteins and PLC and depends on extracellular Ca(2+). The activation of TRPC5 channels mediated by CCK2 receptors is independent of IP(3) receptors and protein kinase C. CCK-induced opening of TRPC5 channels is not store-operated because application of thapsigargin to deplete intracellular Ca(2+) stores failed to alter CCK-induced TRPC5 channel currents significantly. Bath application of CCK also significantly increased the open probability of TRPC5 single channel currents in cell-attached patches. Because CCK exerts extensive effects in the brain, our results may provide a novel mechanism to explain its roles in modulating neuronal excitability.
Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.
In this paper, the estabished and possible roles of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in gastrointestinal (GI) and metabolic diseases are reviewed and available results from human agonist/antagonist studies are discussed. While there is evidence for the involvement of CCK1R in numerous diseases including pancreatic disorders, motility disorders, tumor growth, regulation of satiety and a number of CCK-deficient states, the role of CCK1R in these conditions is not clearly defined. There are encouraging data from several clinical studies of CCK1R antagonists in some of these conditions, but their role as therapeutic agents remains unclear. The role of CCK2R in physiological (atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia) and pathological (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) hypergastrinemic states, its effects on the gastric mucosa (ECL cell hyperplasia, carcinoids, parietal cell mass) and its role in acid-peptic disorders are clearly defined. Furthermore, recent studies point to a possible role for CCK2R in a number of GI malignancies. Current data from human studies of CCK2R antagonists are presented and their potential role in the treatment of these conditions reviewed. Furthermore, the role of CCK2 receptors as targets for medical imaging is discussed. Even though cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin were among the first gastrointestinal hormones discovered [1,2], both their physiological roles as well as their roles in clinically relevant gastrointestinal diseases remain unclear and even controversial in many cases [3–6]. The structural characterization of CCK and gastrin [7,8], pharmacological identification [9–13] and cloning [14,15] of CCK and gastrin receptors (CCK1R, CCK2R), characterization of receptor location, peptide and receptor genes, development of receptor antagonists and receptor/agonist knockout animals [16–21] have led to important advancements in our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological role of CCK and gastrin signaling . Most of these topics
Cao, Yang; Cao, Xun; Liu, Xiao-Min
Gastrin is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by G cells. Hypergastrinemia can improve blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. These positive effects are primarily due to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells. In recent years, many receptors that regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) have been identified in enteroendocrine L cell lines. This led us to hypothesize that, in addition to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells, L cells also express cholecystokinin2-receptor (CCK2R), which may regulate GLP-1 secretion and have synergistic effects on glucose homeostasis. Our research provides a preliminary analysis of CCK2R expression and the stimulating effect of gastrin treatment on GLP-1 secretion in a human endocrine L cell line, using RT-PCR, Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA analyses. The expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3, which regulate GLP-1 biosynthesis, were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Double immunofluorescence labeling was utilized to assess the intracellular localization of CCK2R and GLP-1 in L cells harvested from rat colon tissue. Our results showed that CCK2R was expressed in both the human L cell line and the rat L cells. We also showed that treatment with gastrin, a CCK2R agonist, stimulated the secretion of GLP-1, and that this effect was likely due to increased expression of proglucagon and PCSK1 (also known as prohormone convertase 3 (PC3 gene)). These results not only provide a basis for the role gastrin may play in intestinal L cells, and may also provide the basis for the development of a method of gastrin-mediated glycemic regulation.
Liu, Zhihao; Luo, Yongli; Cheng, Yunjiu; Zou, Dezhi; Zeng, Aihong; Yang, Chunhua
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication when the blood supply is reflowed in ischemic organs. Gastrin has critical function in regulating acid secretion, proliferation, and differentiation in the gastric mucosa. We aimed to determine whether gastrin has an effect on intestinal I/R damage. Intestinal I/R injury was induced by 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 60-min reperfusion, and the rats were induced to be hypergastrinemic by pretreated with omeprazole or directly injected with gastrin. Some hypergastrinemic rats were injected with cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist prior to I/R operation. After the animal surgery, the intestine was collected for histological analysis. Isolated intestinal epithelial cells or crypts were harvested for RNA and protein analysis. CCK-2 receptor expression, intestinal mucosal damage, cell apoptosis, and apoptotic protein caspase-3 activity were measured. We found that high gastrin in serum significantly reduced intestinal hemorrhage, alleviated extensive epithelial disruption, decreased disintegration of lamina propria, downregulated myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and caspase-3 activity, and lead to low mortality in response to I/R injury. On the contrary, CCK-2 receptor antagonist L365260 could markedly impair intestinal protection by gastrin on intestinal I/R. Severe edema of mucosal villi with severe intestinal crypt injury and numerous intestinal villi disintegrated were observed again in the hypergastrinemic rats with L365260. The survival in the hypergastrinemic rats after intestinal I/R injury was shortened by L365260. Finally, gastrin could remarkably upregulated intestinal CCK-2 receptor expression. Our data suggest that gastrin by omeprazole remarkably attenuated I/R induced intestinal injury by enhancing CCK-2 receptor expression and gastrin could be a potential mitigator for intestinal I/R damage in the clinical setting. PMID
JNJ-26070109 [(R)4-bromo-N-[1-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(quinoxaline-5-sulfonylamino)-benzamide]: a novel, potent, and selective cholecystokinin 2 receptor antagonist with good oral bioavailability.
Morton, Magda F; Barrett, Terrance D; Freedman, Jamie; Li, Lina; Rizzolio, Michele C; Prendergast, Clodagh E; Wu, Xiaodong; Moreno, Veronica; Pyati, Jayashree; Figueroa, Katherine; Cagnon, Laurence; Lagaud, Guy; Ver Donck, Luc; Ghoos, Etienne; Allison, Brett; Rabinowitz, Michael H; Shankley, Nigel P
JNJ-26070109 [(R)4-bromo-N-[1-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(quinoxaline-5-sulfonylamino)-benzamide] is a representative of a new chemical class of competitive antagonists of cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2) receptors. In this study, the primary in vitro pharmacology of JNJ-26070109 was evaluated along with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of this compound in rat and canine models of gastric acid secretion. JNJ-26070109 expressed high affinity for human (pK(I) = 8.49 ± 0.13), rat (pK(I) = 7.99 ± 0.08), and dog (pK(I) = 7.70 ± 0.14) CCK2 receptors. The selectivity of JNJ-26070109 at the CCK2 receptor versus the CCK1 receptor was species-dependent, with the greatest degree of selectivity (>1200-fold) measured at the human isoforms of the CCK1 receptor (selectivity at CCK2 versus CCK1 receptors: human, ∼1222-fold; rat, ∼324-fold; dog ∼336-fold). JNJ-26070109 behaved as a surmountable, competitive, antagonist of human CCK2 receptors in a calcium mobilization assay (pK(B) = 8.53 ± 0.05) and in pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in the isolated, lumen-perfused, mouse stomach assay (pK(B) = 8.19 ± 0.13). The pharmacokinetic profile of this compound was determined in vivo in rats and dogs. JNJ-26070109 was shown to have high oral bioavailability (%F rat = 73 ± 16; %F dog = 92 ± 12) with half lives of 1.8 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.1 h in rat and dog, respectively. The pharmacodynamic properties of this compound were investigated using two in vivo models. In conscious rat and dog chronic gastric fistula models of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion, JNJ-26070109 had oral EC(50) values of 1.5 and 0.26 μM, respectively. Overall, we have demonstrated that JNJ-26070109 is a high-affinity, selective CCK2 receptor antagonist with good pharmacokinetic properties.
Ballaz, Santiago J.; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and its receptor CCK-2R have been shown to promote emotional responsivity and behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants in the rat. An animal model has been developed based on locomotor response to a novel inescapable environment. Animals exhibiting consistent differences in locomotor response to novelty have been termed as High and Low Responder rats (HR and LR respectively). This paradigm is deemed to model sensation-seeking, a personality trait closely associated with substance abuse. The present study provides genetic and pharmacological evidence that the CCK-ergic system modulates this behavior. Distinctive patterns of CCK-related gene expression in HR and LR animals occurred beyond the mesolimbic pathways. CCK gene expression was higher in hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex, but lower in the ventral tegmental area of HR relative to LR rats. Levels of CCK-2R mRNA were more elevated in LR animals in some areas of the forebrain such as the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. Additionally, CCK-2R blockade with the antagonist LY225.910 (0.5 mg/Kg) removed phenotype differences in sustained exploration of novel stimuli (i.e., a novel-object) in HR and LR rats exposed to an enriched open-field test series. Finally, CCK-2R blockade also altered M2 and 5-HT7 receptor gene expression in the mediodorsal thalamus (a strategic structure for corticothalamic trafficking) in a phenotype-dependent manner. Taken together, the findings reported here suggest that distinct CCK-ergic function may contribute to promoting individual differences in novelty-seeking behavior. PMID:18410964
Roosenburg, S; Laverman, P; Joosten, L; Cooper, M S; Kolenc-Peitl, P K; Foster, J M; Hudson, C; Leyton, J; Burnet, J; Oyen, W J G; Blower, P J; Mather, S J; Boerman, O C; Sosabowski, J K
Cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptors, overexpressed in cancer types such as small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), may serve as targets for peptide receptor radionuclide imaging. A variety of CCK and gastrin analogues has been developed, but a major drawback is metabolic instability or high kidney uptake. The minigastrin analogue PP-F11 has previously been shown to be a promising peptide for imaging of CCK-2 receptor positive tumors and was therefore further evaluated. The peptide was conjugated with one of the macrocyclic chelators DOTA, NOTA, or NODAGA. The peptide conjugates were then radiolabeled with either (68)Ga, (64)Cu, or (111)In. All (radio)labeled compounds were evaluated in vitro (IC50) and in vivo (biodistribution and PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging). IC50 values were in the low nanomolar range for all compounds (0.79-1.51 nM). In the biodistribution studies, (68)Ga- and (111)In-labeled peptides showed higher tumor-to-background ratios than the (64)Cu-labeled compounds. All tested radiolabeled compounds clearly visualized the CCK2 receptor positive tumor in PET or SPECT imaging. The chelator did not seem to affect in vivo behavior of the peptide for (111)In- and (68)Ga-labeled peptides. In contrast, the biodistribution of the (64)Cu-labeled peptides showed high uptake in the liver and in other organs, most likely caused by high blood levels, probably due to dissociation of (64)Cu from the chelator and subsequent transchelation to proteins. Based on the present study, (68)Ga-DOTA-PP-F11 might be a promising radiopharmaceutical for PET/CT imaging of CCK2 receptor expressing tumors such as MTC and SCLC. Clinical studies are warranted to investigate the potential of this tracer.
Brom, Maarten; Joosten, Lieke; Laverman, Peter; Oyen, Wim J G; Béhé, Martin; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C
In comparison to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, gastrin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA-minigastrin (MG0) showed added value in diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether the 68Ga-labeled gastrin analogue DOTA-MG0 is suited for positron emission tomography (PET), which could improve image quality. Targeting of cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2)/gastrin receptor-positive tumor cells with DOTA-MG0 labeled with either 111In or 68Ga in vitro was investigated using the AR42J rat tumor cell line. Biodistribution was examined in BALB/c nude mice with a subcutaneous AR42J tumor. In vivo PET imaging was performed using a preclinical PET-computed tomographic scanner. DOTA-MG0 showed high receptor affinity in vitro. Biodistribution studies revealed high tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0: 4.4 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 1 hour postinjection. Coadministration of an excess unlabeled peptide blocked the tumor uptake (0.7 ± 0.1 %ID/g), indicating CCK2/gastrin receptor-mediated uptake (p = .0005). The biodistribution of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 was similar to that of 111In-DOTA-MG0. Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumors were clearly visualized by small-animal PET imaging with 5 MBq 68Ga-DOTA-MG0. 111In- and 68Ga-labeled DOTA-MG0 specifically accumulate in CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive AR42J tumors with similar biodistribution apart from the kidneys. AR42J tumors were clearly visualized by microPET. Therefore, 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 is a promising tracer for PET imaging of CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive tumors in humans.
Sanchez, Claire; El Hajj Diab, Darine; Connord, Vincent; Clerc, Pascal; Meunier, Etienne; Pipy, Bernard; Payré, Bruno; Tan, Reasmey P; Gougeon, Michel; Carrey, Julian; Gigoux, Véronique; Fourmy, Daniel
Nanotherapy using targeted magnetic nanoparticles grafted with peptidic ligands of receptors overexpressed in cancers is a promising therapeutic strategy. However, nanoconjugation of peptides can dramatically affect their properties with respect to receptor recognition, mechanism of internalization, intracellular trafficking, and fate. Furthermore, investigations are needed to better understand the mechanism whereby application of an alternating magnetic field to cells containing targeted nanoparticles induces cell death. Here, we designed a nanoplatform (termed MG-IONP-DY647) composed of an iron oxide nanocrystal decorated with a ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) that is overexpressed in several malignant cancers. MG-IONP-DY647 did not stimulate inflammasome of Raw 264.7 macrophages. They recognized cells expressing CCK2R with a high specificity, subsequently internalized via a mechanism involving recruitment of β-arrestins, clathrin-coated pits, and dynamin and were directed to lysosomes. Binding and internalization of MG-IONP-DY647 were dependent on the density of the ligand at the nanoparticle surface and were slowed down relative to free ligand. Trafficking of CCK2R internalized with the nanoparticles was slightly modified relative to CCK2R internalized in response to free ligand. Application of an alternating magnetic field to cells containing MG-IONP-DY647 induced apoptosis and cell death through a lysosomal death pathway, demonstrating that cell death is triggered even though nanoparticles of low thermal power are internalized in minute amounts by the cells. Together with pioneer findings using iron oxide nanoparticles targeting tumoral cells expressing epidermal growth factor receptor, these data represent a solid basis for future studies aiming at establishing the proof-of-concept of nanotherapy of cancers using ligand-grafted magnetic nanoparticles specifically internalized via cell surface receptors.
Cawston, Erin E.; Lam, Polo C. H.; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.; Dong, Maoqing; Ball, Alicja M.; Augustine, Mary Lou; Akgün, Eyup; Portoghese, Philip S.; Orry, Andrew; Abagyan, Ruben; Sexton, Patrick M.; Miller, Laurence J.
Allosteric binding pockets in peptide-binding G protein-coupled receptors create opportunities for the development of small molecule drugs with substantial benefits over orthosteric ligands. To gain insights into molecular determinants for this pocket within type 1 and 2 cholecystokinin receptors (CCK1R and CCK2R), we prepared a series of receptor constructs in which six distinct residues in TM2, -3, -6, and -7 were reversed. Two novel iodinated CCK1R- and CCK2R-selective 1,4-benzodiazepine antagonists, differing only in stereochemistry at C3, were used. When all six residues within CCK1R were mutated to corresponding CCK2R residues, benzodiazepine selectivity was reversed, yet peptide binding selectivity was unaffected. Detailed analysis, including observations of gain of function, demonstrated that residues 6.51, 6.52, and 7.39 were most important for binding the CCK1R-selective ligand, whereas residues 2.61 and 7.39 were most important for binding CCK2R-selective ligand, although the effect of substitution of residue 2.61 was likely indirect. Ligand-guided homology modeling was applied to wild type receptors and those reversing benzodiazepine binding selectivity. The models had high predictive power in enriching known receptor-selective ligands from related decoys, indicating a high degree of precision in pocket definition. The benzodiazepines docked in similar poses in both receptors, with C3 urea substituents pointing upward, whereas different stereochemistry at C3 directed the C5 phenyl rings and N1 methyl groups into opposite orientations. The geometry of the binding pockets and specific interactions predicted for ligand docking in these models provide a molecular framework for understanding ligand selectivity at these receptor subtypes. Furthermore, the strong predictive power of these models suggests their usefulness in the discovery of lead compounds and in drug development programs. PMID:22467877
Bihter Gürler, E; Özbeyli, Dilek; Buzcu, Hülya; Bayraktar, Sezin; Carus, İrem; Dağ, Beyza; Geriş, Yasemin; Jeral, Seda; Yeğen, Berrak Ç
Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12.5%, 15% or 50% concentrations were measured and compared with that of saline. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin fragment 9-39 (30 μg kg(-1)), CCK-1 receptor antagonist devazepide (1 mg kg(-1)) or gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022 (1 mg kg(-1)) was injected subcutaneously 1 min before the emptying of glucose, fructose or agave at their 50% concentrations. When compared with saline emptying, gastric emptying of glucose was significantly delayed at its 25% and 50% concentrations, but the emptying of 12.5% glucose was not different from that of saline. Agave emptying, which was delayed with respect to saline emptying, was not altered by CCK-1 receptor blockade; but agave emptied from the stomach as rapidly as saline following the blockade of either CCK-2 or GLP-1 receptors. The findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of agave on gastric emptying is mediated by both CCK-2 and GLP-1 receptors, suggesting that natural sweeteners including agave may have satiating effects through the inhibition of gastric motility via enteroendocrine mechanisms.
Laval, Marie; Marshall, Kathryn M; Sachinidis, John; Scott, Andrew; Eutick, Mal; Baldwin, Graham S
The peptide hormone gastrin (Gamide) binds trivalent metal ions, including indium (In), ruthenium (Ru) and gallium (Ga), with high affinity. Complexes of gastrin with chelated isotopes of In and Ga have previously been used for the location of tumours expressing the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R). The aim of the present study was to purify the complexes of Gamide with radioactive isotopes of In, Ru or Ga and to investigate their ability to bind to the CCK2R. The radioactive Gamide complexes were purified on Sep-Pak C18 cartridges or by anion exchange HPLC. Binding to the CCK2R was assessed with a stably transfected clone of the gastric carcinoma cell line AGS. The (106)Ru-Gamide complex could be eluted from the C18 cartridge; the (111)In-Gamide and (68)Ga-Gamide complexes bound irreversibly. All three complexes were successfully purified by anion exchange HPLC. The failure to detect binding of the (111)In-Gamide, (106)Ru-Gamide and (68)Ga-Gamide complexes to the CCK2R suggests that formation of these complexes will not be useful for the detection of tumours expressing this receptor, but may instead provide alternative ways to block the actions of Gamide as a growth factor or a stimulant of gastric acid secretion. The complexes between the hormone gastrin and radioactive (111)In, (106)Ru or (68)Ga ions were purified by anion exchange HPLC using a NaCl gradient. The failure to detect binding of the complexes to the cholecystokinin 2 receptor suggests that metal ion treatment may provide novel approaches to block the biological actions of gastrin.
Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznickova, Alice; Laznicek, Milan; Novy, Zbynek; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A; Behe, Martin
Radiolabeled cholecystokinin/gastrin (CCK) receptor-targeting peptides are promising compounds for radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy of certain malignancies. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of a CCK-2 receptor-specific peptide, Demogastrin 1, labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1), in rats. To investigate the fate of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 in the rat, biodistribution and elimination studies in vivo were performed, and elimination parameters in perfused rat liver and kidney were determined. Biodistribution studies showed that (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 was rapidly cleared from the blood and most organs. A significant amount of radioactivity was detected in the CCK-2 receptor-rich organs, such as the stomach. Low radioactivity was found in the CCK-1 receptor-rich organs. Radioactivity in bowels and stomach declined relatively slowly. High and long-term retention of radioactivity in the kidneys was observed. Elimination of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 via the bile was negligible. A high and rapid renal excretion was observed in elimination experiments in vivo. In the perfused kidney, glomerular filtration was found to be the main renal excretion mechanism of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1. Demogastrin 1 was distributed preferentially to the organs expressing CCK-2 receptors. The decisive elimination route of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 in rats was urinary excretion. A high and prolonged renal retention may limit potential clinical use of the compound.
Gonzalez-Coto, Ana F; Alonso-Ron, Carlos; Alcalde, Ignacio; Gallar, Juana; Meana, Álvaro; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Belmonte, Carlos
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide that has been identified in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Gastrin (GAST) is a related peptide never explored in the cornea. The presence and role of both gastrointestinal peptides in the cornea and corneal sensory neurons remain to be established. We explored here in mice whether CCK, GAST, and their receptors CCK1R and CCK2R are expressed in the corneal epithelium and trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the cornea. We used RT-PCR analysis to detect mRNAs of CCK, GAST, CCK1R, and CCK2R in mouse cornea epithelium, trigeminal ganglia, and primary cultured corneal epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize these peptides and their receptors in the cornea, cultured corneal epithelial cells, and corneal nerves, as well as in the cell bodies of corneal trigeminal ganglion neurons identified by retrograde labeling with Fast Blue. Mouse corneal epithelial cells in the cornea in situ and in cell cultures expressed CCK and GAST. Only the receptor CCK2R was found in the corneal epithelium. In addition, mouse corneal afferent sensory neurons expressed CCK and GAST, and the CCK1R receptors. The presence of CCK, GAST, and their receptors in the mouse corneal epithelium, and in trigeminal ganglion neurons supplying sensory innervation to the cornea, opens the possibility that these neuropeptides are involved in corneal neurogenic inflammation and in the modulation of repairing/remodeling processes following corneal injury.
Feng, Xiao-Li; Liu, Xi-Lin; Lu, Shi-Ying; Ren, Hong-Lin; Li, Yan-Song; Hu, Pan; Wang, Quan; Tong, Weihua; Yan, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Song; Jin, Wen; Liu, Zeng-Shan
Gastric cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity around world. However the effectiveness of the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer is limited. Recombinant targeted toxins may represent a novel direction of cancer therapy. In this study, we aimed to explore whether recombinant toxins fused with the truncated forms of G17 could target to kill cancer cells by recognizing CCK2R. Four recombinant Pseudomonas toxins PE38 fused with the forward or reverse truncated forms of G17 (G14 and G13) were successfully constructed, expressed, and purified. Their characteristics were further analyzed by SDS-PAGE, western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that only reversely fused recombinant toxins rG14PE38 and rG13PE38 exhibited certain toxicity on several cancer cell lines, and a competition assay indicated that the binding of the reverse gastrin-endotoxin to CCK2R (+) cells may be mediated by interaction between gastrin/gastrin-like and CCK2R.
Shiomi, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Makoto; Kuki, Kazumasa; Hori, Yuko; Tanaka, Takao
The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-tumor mechanism of Z-360, a gastrin/cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) antagonist, in MIA PaCa-2 cells and in a subcutaneous xenograft mice model. The anti-tumor effects of Z-360 and/or gemcitabine were monitored using a MIA PaCa-2 xenograft model. The effect of Z-360 on apoptosis in the model was examined by TUNEL staining and real-time PCR analysis and the effect in MIA PaCa-2 cells stably expressing human CCK2R was also evaluated by caspase-3/7 activity. In this xenograft model, Z-360 significantly reduced the tumor weight, increased TUNEL-positive cells and suppressed the expression of anti-apoptosis factors such as survivin, XIAP and Mcl-1, and these effects of Z-360 combined with gemcitabine were more effective. Furthermore, gastrin-17 and gastrin-34 inhibited apoptosis in vitro and Z-360 dose-dependently abrogated this effect. These results suggest that Z-360 exerts an anti-tumor effect through a reduction in anti-apoptosis factors by blocking CCK2R. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Wen, Di; An, Meiling; Gou, Hongyan; Liu, Xia; Liu, Li; Ma, Chunling; Cong, Bin
As a powerful addictive psychostimulant drug, coupled with its neurotoxicity, methamphetamine (METH) abuse may lead to long-lasting abnormalities in brain structure and function. We found that pretreatment of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) inhibited METH-induced brain cellular dopaminergic (DA) damage in the striatum and substantia nigra, and related behavioural deficits and hyperthermia. However, the mechanism of CCK-8 action on METH-induced toxicity is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore whether the possible protective effect of CCK-8 on METH-induced neurotoxicity involved anti-oxidative stress mechanisms. The subtypes of CCK receptors mediating the regulatory action of CCK-8 were also investigated. The present results revealed that CCK-8 dose-dependently inhibited METH-induced cytotoxic effect by activating the CCK2 receptor subtype in PC12 cells and CCK2 receptor stable transfected-HEK293 cells. Pre-treatment of CCK-8 before METH stimulation significantly attenuated the generation of reactive oxygen species and NADPH oxidase activation in PC12 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a protective effect of CCK-8 on METH-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and suggested that a possible mechanism of this action was dependent on the activation of the CCK2 receptor to reduce the neurotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by METH stimulation.
Noble, Florence; Benturquia, Nadia; Crete, Dominique; Canestrelli, Corinne; Mas Nieto, Magdalena; Wilson, Jodie; Roques, Bernard P
A great number of studies have shown the presence of physiological interactions between brain neurotransmitter systems in behavioural responses. This is the case for opioid, cholecystokinin (CCK) and dopamine systems. However, so far the role that the CCK system may play in vulnerability to consumption of drugs of abuse is not clear. This was investigated in this study using Lewis rats that are more sensitive to the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse than Fischer rats. The extraneuronal CCK(8) levels and brain CCK(2) receptors were found higher in Fischer than in Lewis rats in the nucleus accumbens, one of the most important structures involved in drug consumption. Moreover, pharmacological modulation of the CCK system by administration of a selective CCK(2) agonist blocked, in the conditioned place preference, the reinforcing effects of morphine in Lewis rats, whereas a selective CCK(2) antagonist revealed reinforcing effects of the alkaloid in Fischer rats. These results obtained following systemic administrations of the CCK ligands were confirmed following microinjection into the nucleus accumbens. Thus, a low level of CCK efflux in the nucleus accumbens could be one of the many factors involved in drug reinforcing effects, whereas a high level of CCK efflux could attenuate it.
Zhou, LiChun; Yang, Hong; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, Zhongmao
Excessive absorption of intestinal cholesterol is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. This report examines the effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) on plasma cholesterol level and intestinal cholesterol absorption using the in vivo models of C57BL/6 wild-type and low density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (LDLR(-/-)) mice. These data were supported by in vitro studies involving mouse primary intestinal epithelial cells and human Caco-2 cells; both express CCK receptor 1 and 2 (CCK1R and CCK2R). We found that intravenous injection of [Thr(28),Nle(31)]CCK increased plasma cholesterol levels and intestinal cholesterol absorption in both wild-type and LDLR(-/-) mice. Treatment of mouse primary intestinal epithelial cells with [Thr(28),Nle(31)]CCK increased cholesterol absorption, whereas selective inhibition of CCK1R and CCK2R with antagonists attenuated CCK-induced cholesterol absorption. In Caco-2 cells, CCK enhanced CCK1R/CCK2R heterodimerization. Knockdown of both CCK1R and CCK2 or either one of them diminished CCK-induced cholesterol absorption to the same extent. CCK also increased cell surface-associated NPC1L1 (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1) transporters but did not alter their total protein expression. Inhibition or knockdown of NPC1L1 attenuated CCK-induced cholesterol absorption. CCK enhanced phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt phosphorylation and augmented the interaction between NPC1L1 and Rab11a (Rab-GTPase-11a), whereas knockdown of CCK receptors or inhibition of G protein βγ dimer (Gβγ) diminished CCK-induced PI3K and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3K and Akt or knockdown of PI3K diminished CCK-induced NPC1L1-Rab11a interaction and cholesterol absorption. Knockdown of Rab11a suppressed CCK-induced NPC1L1 translocation and cholesterol absorption. These data imply that CCK enhances cholesterol absorption by activation of a pathway involving CCK1R/CCK2R, Gβγ, PI3K, Akt, Rab11a, and NPC1L.
Zhou, LiChun; Yang, Hong; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Guo, Zhongmao
Excessive absorption of intestinal cholesterol is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. This report examines the effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) on plasma cholesterol level and intestinal cholesterol absorption using the in vivo models of C57BL/6 wild-type and low density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (LDLR−/−) mice. These data were supported by in vitro studies involving mouse primary intestinal epithelial cells and human Caco-2 cells; both express CCK receptor 1 and 2 (CCK1R and CCK2R). We found that intravenous injection of [Thr28,Nle31]CCK increased plasma cholesterol levels and intestinal cholesterol absorption in both wild-type and LDLR−/− mice. Treatment of mouse primary intestinal epithelial cells with [Thr28,Nle31]CCK increased cholesterol absorption, whereas selective inhibition of CCK1R and CCK2R with antagonists attenuated CCK-induced cholesterol absorption. In Caco-2 cells, CCK enhanced CCK1R/CCK2R heterodimerization. Knockdown of both CCK1R and CCK2 or either one of them diminished CCK-induced cholesterol absorption to the same extent. CCK also increased cell surface-associated NPC1L1 (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1) transporters but did not alter their total protein expression. Inhibition or knockdown of NPC1L1 attenuated CCK-induced cholesterol absorption. CCK enhanced phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt phosphorylation and augmented the interaction between NPC1L1 and Rab11a (Rab-GTPase-11a), whereas knockdown of CCK receptors or inhibition of G protein βγ dimer (Gβγ) diminished CCK-induced PI3K and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3K and Akt or knockdown of PI3K diminished CCK-induced NPC1L1-Rab11a interaction and cholesterol absorption. Knockdown of Rab11a suppressed CCK-induced NPC1L1 translocation and cholesterol absorption. These data imply that CCK enhances cholesterol absorption by activation of a pathway involving CCK1R/CCK2R, Gβγ, PI3K, Akt, Rab11a, and NPC1L. PMID:24692543
Role of the amygdaloid cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin-2 receptors and terminal networks in the modulation of anxiety in the rat. Effects of CCK-4 and CCK-8S on anxiety-like behaviour and [3H]GABA release.
Pérez de la Mora, Miguel; Hernández-Gómez, Ana María; Arizmendi-García, Yexel; Jacobsen, Kirsten X; Lara-García, Daniel; Flores-Gracia, Candy; Crespo-Ramírez, Minerva; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Nuche-Bricaire, Avril; Fuxe, Kjell
The amygdala plays a key role in fear and anxiety. The intercalated islands are clusters of glutamate-responsive GABAergic neurons rich in cholecystokinin (CCK)-2 receptors which control the trafficking of nerve impulses from the cerebral cortex to the central nucleus of amygdala. In this study, the nature of the CCK-glutamate-GABA interactions within the rat rostral amygdala, and their relevance for anxiety, were studied. CCK/gastrin-like immunoreactive nerve terminals were found to be mainly restricted to the paracapsular intercalated islands and the rostrolateral part of the main intercalated island. Behaviourally, the bilateral microinjection of CCK-4 (0.043-4.3 pmol/side) or CCK-8S (4.3 pmol/side) into the rostrolateral amygdala reduced the open-arm exploration in the elevated plus-maze without affecting locomotion. In contrast, neither CCK-4 nor CCK-8S (0.043-4.3 pmol/side) had any effects in the shock-probe burying test as compared with their saline-treated controls. Biochemically, CCK-4 (0.3 and 1.5 microm), unlike CCK-8S, enhanced significantly the K(+)-stimulated release of [(3)H]GABA from amygdala slices. These effects were fully prevented by prior superfusion of the slices with either the selective CCK-2 receptor antagonist CR2945 (3 microm), or 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), 10 microm, a glutamatergic (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist. It is suggested that CCK modulates glutamate-GABA mechanisms by acting on CCK-2 receptors via volume transmission occurring at the level of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and/or by synaptic or perisynaptic volume transmission in the region of the rostrolateral main and paracapsular intercalated islands, resulting in subsequent disinhibition of the central amygdaloid nucleus and anxiety or panic-like behaviour.
Desai, Aditya J.; Lam, Polo C.H.; Orry, Andrew; Abagyan, Ruben; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M.; Miller, Laurence J.
The type 1 cholecystokinin receptor (CCK1R) has multiple physiologic roles relating to nutrient homeostasis, including mediation of post-cibal satiety. This effect has been central in efforts to develop agonists of this receptor as part of a program to manage and/or prevent obesity. While a number of small molecule CCK1R agonists have been developed, none has yet been approved for clinical use, based on inadequate efficacy, side effects, or the potential for toxicity. Understanding the molecular details of docking and mechanism of action of these ligands can be helpful in the rational refinement and enhancement of small molecule drug candidates. In the current work, we have defined the mechanism of binding and activity of two triazolobenzodiazepinones, CE-326597 and PF-04756956, which are reported to be full agonist ligands. To achieve this, we utilized receptor binding with a series of allosteric and orthosteric radioligands at structurally-related CCK1R and CCK2R, as well as chimeric CCK1R/CCK2R constructs exchanging residues in the allosteric pocket, and assessment of biological activity. These triazolobenzodiazepinones docked within the intramembranous small molecule allosteric ligand pocket, with higher affinity binding to CCK2R than CCK1R, yet with biological activity exclusive to or greatly enhanced at CCK1R. These ligands exhibited cooperativity with benzodiazepine binding across the CCK1R homodimeric complex, resulting in their ability to inhibit only a fraction of the saturable binding of a benzodiazepine radioligand, unlike other small molecule antagonists and agonists of this receptor. This may contribute to the understanding of the unique short duration and reversible gallbladder contraction observed in vivo upon administration of these drugs. PMID:26654202
Ma, Chunling; Meng, Yanxin; Li, Shujin; Ni, Zhiyu; Cong, Bin
Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), a gut-brain peptide, regulates a variety of physiological behavioral processes. Previously, we reported that exogenous CCK-8 attenuated morphine-induced conditioned place preference, but the possible effects of CCK-8 on aversively motivated drug seeking remained unclear. To investigate the effects of endogenous and exogenous CCK on negative components of morphine withdrawal, we evaluated the effects of CCK receptor antagonists and CCK-8 on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The results showed that CCK2 receptor antagonist (LY-288,513, 10 µg, i.c.v.), but not CCK1 receptor antagonist (L-364,718, 10 µg, i.c.v.), inhibited the acquisition of CPA when given prior to naloxone (0.3 mg/kg) administration in morphine-dependent rats. Similarly, CCK-8 (0.1–1 µg, i.c.v.) significantly attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA, and this inhibitory function was blocked by co-injection with L-364,718. Microinjection of L-364,718, LY-288,513 or CCK-8 to saline pretreated rats produced neither a conditioned preference nor aversion, and the induction of CPA by CCK-8 itself after morphine pretreatments was not significant. Our study identifies a different role of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in negative affective components of morphine abstinence and an inhibitory effect of exogenous CCK-8 on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA via CCK1 receptor. PMID:22848639
Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea
The existence of the hormone gastrin in the distal stomach (antrum) has been known for almost 110 years, and the physiological function of this amidated peptide in regulating gastric acid secretion via the CCK2 receptor is now well established. In this brief review we consider important additional roles of gastrin, including regulation of genes encoding proteins such as plasminogen activator inhibitors and matrix metalloproteinases that have important actions on extracellular matrix remodelling. These actions are, at least in part, effected by paracrine signalling pathways and make important contributions to maintaining functional integrity of the gastric epithelium. Recent studies also provide support for the idea that gastrin, in concert with other hormones, could potentially contribute a post-prandial incretin effect. We also review recent developments in the biology of other gastrin gene products, including the precursor progastrin, which causes proliferation of the colonic epithelium and in certain circumstances may induce cancer formation. Glycine-extended biosynthetic processing intermediates also have proliferative effects in colonic mucosa and in some oesophageal cancer cell lines. Whether these additional gene products exert their effects through the CCK2 receptor or a separate entity is currently a matter of debate.
Moody, Terry W; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Moreno, Paola; Jensen, Robert T
Cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) which are present on lung cancer cells. CCK-8 stimulates the proliferation of lung cancer cells, whereas the CCK2R receptor antagonist CI-988 inhibits proliferation. GPCR for some gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters mediate lung cancer growth by causing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Here, the role of CCK/gastrin and CI-988 on EGFR transactivation and lung cancer proliferation was investigated. Addition of CCK-8 or gastrin-17 (100 nM) to NCI-H727 human lung cancer cells increased EGFR Tyr(1068) phosphorylation after 2 min. The ability of CCK-8 to cause EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by CI-988, gefitinib (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor), PP2 (Src inhibitor), GM6001 (matrix metalloprotease inhibitor), and tiron (superoxide scavenger). CCK-8 nonsulfated and gastrin-17 caused EGFR transactivation and bound with high affinity to NCI-H727 cells, suggesting that the CCK2R is present. CI-988 inhibited the ability of CCK-8 to cause ERK phosphorylation and elevate cytosolic Ca(2+). CI-988 or gefitinib inhibited the basal growth of NCI-H727 cells or that stimulated by CCK-8. The results indicate that CCK/gastrin may increase lung cancer proliferation in an EGFR-dependent manner.
Kitamura, H; Kato, A; Esaki, T
AG-041R (3R-1-(2,2-diethoxyethyl)-3-((4 methylphenyl)aminocarbonylmethyl)-3-((4-methylphenyl) ureido)-indoline-2-one) is a novel small compound synthesized as a cholecystokinin-2 (CCK(2))/gastrin receptor antagonist. In the course of the development of this compound, we discovered unexpectedly that oral administration of a high dose for 4 weeks markedly induced systemic cartilage hyperplasia. This change was histologically observed in the auricles, the trachea, the marginal region of the femoral condyle, the xiphoid process and intervertebral disks in rats. Daily intraarticular injections of AG-041R into rat knee joints for 3 weeks also caused cartilage hyperplasia in the marginal region of the femoral condyle, but no hyperplasia was observed in any other cartilage. We have confirmed that chondrogenic activity of AG-041R is an intrinsic property of the compound, and is not due to its CCK(2)/gastrin receptor antagonistic actions. These results indicate that AG-041R is a novel stimulator of chondrogenesis, and can be expected to be a potent therapeutic agent for cartilage disorders.
Chao, Celia; Hellmich, Mark R.
Purpose of review Chronic infection of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter pylori has long been recognized as a significant risk factor for gastric cancer, and indeed, this model represents the prototypical inflammation-associated cancer. In this review, we present the latest clinical and experimental evidence showing that gastrin peptides and their receptors (the cholecystokinin [CCK2] receptors) potentiate the progression of gastric cancer and other gastrointestinal malignancies in the presence of inflammation. Recent Findings We highlight the feed-forward mechanisms by which gastrin and CCK2 receptor expression are upregulated during inflammation and in GI cancers, summarize gastrin’s pro-inflammatory role by inducing the production cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), and relate evidence suggesting that gastrin and their receptors modulate the function of immune cells and fibroblasts following cellular stress, injury, repair, as well as during cancer progression. Summary We discuss trends for future studies directed toward the elucidation of gastrin peptides’ role in regulating inter-cellular molecular signaling mechanisms between local and circulating immune cells, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and other cell-types in the microenvironments of inflammation-related cancers. Elucidation of the molecular and cellular pathways that relate inflammation with cancer may provide additional opportunities to develop complementary therapies that target the inflammatory microenvironment of the cancer. PMID:19907321
Kunikowska, Jolanta; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Dariusz; Ruchała, Marek; Kolasa, Anna; Janicka-Jedyńska, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Aldona; Mikołajczak, Renata; Królicki, Leszek
a 75-year-old man with a 10-year history of nodular goitre was referred for clinical evaluation. The ultrasound scan revealed enlarged thyroid right lobe almost fully filled with a heterogeneous nodule with numerous calcifications. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy suggested medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Before the surgery the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department and somatostatin receptor imaging (SRS; 68Ga-DOTATATE) with PET/CT was performed. The scan demonstrated an increased uptake within the right thyroid mass. Subsequent PET/CT with 68Ga-gastrin analogue (MG48) revealed the same indications as the SRS: an increased alveolar uptake in the right thyroid mass without the signs of lymph node metastases. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and central lymph nodes dissection. Histopathology examination confirmed the presence of MTC with vascular invasion, but without lymph node metastases (pT3NoMx according to the 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual). Immunohistochemical staining revealed positive reaction to calcitonin and CD56, whereas the reaction to thyroglobulin remained negative. The Ki-67 was 1%. Staining for SSTR2 and CCK2 showed high cytoplasmic expression in both cases. Knowledge of the presence of CCK2 receptor in MTC patients may be an important indication for the choice of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The presence of both the receptor types, cholecystokinin-2/gastrin and somatostatin, is possibly an interesting combination as far as the therapeutic target is concerned.
Morton, M F; Welsh, N J; Tavares, I A; Shankley, N P
Cholecystokinin (CCK) produces contractions of gallbladder and colon in a number of different species. Although the effects of CCK on the human gallbladder are relatively well documented, the CCK receptors in the human colon have not been clearly characterised. Therefore, in this study, the CCK receptors in the human gallbladder and colon were compared using pharmacological techniques. Contraction of specimens of the human tissue was measured using in vitro organ bath bioassay. The effect of selective concentrations of CCK(1) and CCK(2) receptor antagonists (L-364,718 and JB93182, respectively) was determined on agonist concentration-effect (E/[A]) curves obtained by cumulative dosing with sulphated CCK. The CCK(1) antagonist L-364,718 produced a rightward shift of the CCK-8S [E/[A] curve in the human gallbladder (pA(2)=9.15 +/- 0.26) and ascending colon (pA(2)=9.20 +/- .33). In both tissues, the CCK(2) receptor antagonist, JB93182, had no effect on the CCK E/[A] curves. In addition, in the colon, pentagastrin responses were inhibited by L-364,718 but unaffected by JB93182. These data indicate that the CCK-induced contraction of the human colon and gallbladder smooth muscle is mediated solely through the CCK(1) receptor subtype, and the antagonist affinity estimates are consistent with those previously obtained in experiments on animal tissue.
Carrillo, Jaime; Agra, Noelia; Fernández, Noemí; Pestaña, Angel; Alonso, Javier
The Ewing family of tumors is a group of highly malignant tumors that mainly arise in bone and most often affect children and young adults in the first two decades of life. Despite the use of multimodal therapy, the long-term disease-free survival rate of patients with Ewing tumors is still disappointingly low, making the discovery of innovative therapeutic strategies all the more necessary. We have recently shown that cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuroendocrine peptide, involved in many biological functions, including cell growth and proliferation, is a relevant target of the EWS/FLI1 oncoprotein characteristic of Ewing tumors. CCK silencing inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo, suggesting that CCK acts as an autocrine growth factor for Ewing cells. Here, we analyzed the impact of two CCK receptor antagonists, devazepide (a CCK1-R antagonist) and L365 260 (a CCK2-R antagonist), on the growth of Ewing tumor cells. Devazepide (10 micromol/l) inhibited cell growth of four different Ewing tumor cells in vitro (range 85-88%), whereas the effect of the CCK2-R antagonist on cell growth was negligible. In a mouse tumor xenograft model, devazepide reduced tumor growth by 40%. Flow cytometry experiments showed that devazepide, but not L365 260, induced apoptosis of Ewing tumor cells. In summary, devazepide induces cell death of Ewing tumor cells, suggesting that it could represent a new therapeutic approach in the management of Ewing's tumor patients.
Obszynska, Jolanta A; Atherfold, Paul A; Nanji, Manoj; Glancy, Deborah; Santander, Sonia; Graham, Trevor A; Otto, William R; West, Kevin; Harrison, Rebecca F; Jankowski, Janusz A Z
Barrett's oesophagus is a common premalignant lesion caused partly by acid reflux. Although the requisite therapy, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), have been implicated in the progression of Barrett's oesophagus in animal models, harmful effects of prolonged PPI therapy in Barrett's oesophagus is both inconclusive and controversial. We therefore aimed to test the role of PPI-induced hypergastrinaemia in vitro and see whether any biological parameters were useful surrogates of long-term therapy in man. We undertook detailed serological and tissue assessment of gastrin and CCK(2) receptors in 90 patients randomised to different doses of PPI therapy during a detailed 2-year follow-up. We also undertook a comprehensive study of cell models to study the consequential biological effects of gastrin on the mucosa. Gastrin and its cognate receptor CCK(2)R were expressed highest in the stomach, then less in Barrett's oesophagus and least in squamous oesophagus (SqE) (n=20 paired t-test, p<0.01). Analysis of the change in Barrett's oesophagus segment length change in 70 patients who were randomised to high or low PPI dose showed no difference over 2 years (n=70 t-test, p=0.8). Prolonged PPI use did, however, increase the serum gastrin, (36 pg/ml+/-57 pg/ml to 103 pg/ml+/-94 pg/ml (paired t test, p<0.05)). In vitro gastrin also induced changes in OE33(E)(cckr) Barrett's oesophagus cells, but not OE21(E)(cckr) squamous cells, transfected with CCK(2)R; migration was induced by 1 ng/ml of gastrin but proliferation only increased with 100 ng/ml (paired t-test, p<0.01) and both were abolished by antagonists. While the short-term effects of gastrin enhance epithelial restitution in Barrett's oesophagus (but not squamous mucosa) there is no clinical evidence that Barrett's oesophagus length expands over time. This study, which is the largest and longest term randomised controlled trial of gastrin biology in Barrett's oesophagus, is further proof of the clinical safety of PPI therapy.
The American Chemical Society 239th National Meeting, held in San Francisco, included topics covering developments related to the chemical optimization of therapeutics. This conference report highlights selected presentations on second-generation cholesterol absorption inhibitors (CAIs), CCK2 receptor antagonists to prevent acid rebound, HIF-PH inhibitors for anemia, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) as a target for autoimmune disease, and GPR119 agonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of diabetes. Investigational drugs discussed include LPD-608 (Lipideon Biotechnology AG), a second-generation CAI series from Merck & Co Inc, JNJ-26070109 and JNJ-42041935 (both Johnson & Johnson), SYN-1436 (Syntonix Pharmaceuticals Inc), a series of GPR119 agonists from Roche Holding AG and Schering-Plough Research Institute, and a series of GLP-1 receptor agonists from Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
Roberts, Karen; Ursini, Antonella; Barnaby, Robert; Cassarà, Paolo G; Corsi, Mauro; Curotto, Giovanni; Donati, Daniele; Feriani, Aldo; Finizia, Gabriella; Marchioro, Carla; Niccolai, Daniela; Oliosi, Beatrice; Polinelli, Stefano; Ratti, Emiliangelo; Reggiani, Angelo; Tedesco, Giovanna; Tranquillini, Maria E; Trist, David G; van Amsterdam, Franciscus T M
This article deals with the synthesis and the activities of some 1,5-dialkyl-3-arylureido-1,5-benzodiazepin-2,4-diones which were prepared as potential CCK2 antagonists, with the intention to find a possible follow up of our lead compound GV150013, showing an improved pharmacokinetic profile. The phenyl ring at N-5 was replaced with more hydrophilic substituents, like alkyl groups bearing basic functions. In some cases, the resolution of the racemic key intermediates 3-amino-benzodiazepines was also accomplished. Among the compounds synthesized and characterised so far in this class, the 5-morpholinoethyl derivative 54, was selected as potential follow up of GV150013 and submitted for further evaluation.
Feng, Ting; Yang, Shengchang; Wen, Di; Sun, Qiming; Li, Yingmin; Ma, Chunling; Cong, Bin
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a debilitating psychiatric disease characterized by invasive and persistent fear memories-induced stressful experience, is associated with numerous changes in neuroendocrine function. Here, we investigated whether PTSD-like symptoms are associated with changes in the cholecystokinin (CCK) system in the basolateral amygdala. We developed an animal model of PTSD using multiple foot shocks at 1.1 mA. The resulting conditioned fear response was severe (>80% freezing) and maintained for at least 28 days. The stress-associated neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone were elevated at 1 day after foot shock. CCK immunoreactivity and extracellular concentration as well as the expression of CCK receptors (CCK1R, CCK2R) increased progressively for 28 days following foot shock. Taken together, these results suggest that stress-induced activation of the CCK system in the BLA, which may contribute toward the development of PTSD-like symptoms.
Washington, Martha C; Murry, Candace R; Raboin, Shannon J; Roberson, Allison E; Mansour, Mahmoud M; Williams, Carol S; Sayegh, Ayman I
Cholecystokinin (CCK) activates the myenteric neurons of adult rats. The goal of this work is to determine the ontogeny of this activation by CCK-8 in the myenteric plexus of the duodenum (2cm immediately following the pyloric sphincter aborally) and compare it with that of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) - which occurs in 1-day old pups. Despite the existence of both of the CCK receptors, CCK(1) and CCK(2), in 4, 14, 21 and 35 day old rats, CCK-8 (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40μg/kg, i.p.) increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI, a marker for neuronal activation) in the myenteric neurons of 21- and 35-day old rats but in the DVC of all age groups. As such, this belated activation of myenteric neurons by CCK-8 compared to the DVC may reflect a delayed role for these neurons in CCK-related functions.
Morel, Caroline; Ibarz, Géraldine; Oiry, Catherine; Carnazzi, Eric; Bergé, Gilbert; Gagne, Didier; Galleyrand, Jean-Claude; Martinez, Jean
Although SB202190 and SB203580 are described as specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, several reports have indicated that other enzymes are also sensitive to SB203580. Using a pharmacological approach, we report for the first time that compounds SB202190 and SB203580 were able to directly and selectively interact with a G-protein-coupled receptor, namely the cholecystokinin receptor subtype CCK1, but not with the CCK2 receptor. We demonstrated that these compounds were non-competitive antagonists of the CCK1 receptor at concentrations typically used to inhibit protein kinases. By chimeric construction of the CCK2 receptor, we determined the involvement of two CCK1 receptor intracellular loops in the binding of SB202190 and SB203580. We also showed that two CCK antagonists, L364,718 and L365,260, were able to regulate p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. Using a reporter gene strategy and immunoblotting experiments, we demonstrated that both CCK antagonists inhibited selectively the enzymatic activity of p38 MAP kinase. Kinase assays suggested that this inhibition resulted from a direct interaction with both CCK antagonists. Molecular modeling simulations suggested that this interaction occurs in the ATP binding pocket of p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that SB202190 and SB203580 bind to the CCK1 receptor and, as such, these compounds should be used with caution in models that express this receptor. We also found that L364,718 and L365,260, two CCK receptor antagonists, directly interacted with p38 MAP kinase and inhibited its activity. These findings suggest that the CCK1 receptor shares structural analogies with the p38 MAP kinase ATP binding site. They open the way to potential design of either a new family of MAP kinase inhibitors from CCK1 receptor ligand structures or new CCK1 receptor ligands based on p38 MAP kinase inhibitor structures.
Wen, Di; Zang, Guoqing; Sun, DongLei; Yu, Feng; Mei, Dong; Ma, Chunling; Cong, Bin
Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8), which is a typical brain-gut peptide, exerts a wide range of biological activities on the central nervous system. We have previously reported that CCK-8 significantly alleviated morphine-induced amnesia and reversed spine density decreases in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in morphine-treated animals. Here, we investigated the effects of CCK-8 on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the lateral perforant path (LPP)-granule cell synapse of rat dentate gyrus (DG) in acute saline or morphine-treated rats. Population spikes (PS), which were evoked by stimulation of the LPP, were recorded in the DG region. Acute morphine (30mg/kg, s.c.) treatment significantly attenuated hippocampal LTP and CCK-8 (1μg, i.c.v.) restored the amplitude of PS that was attenuated by morphine injection. Furthermore, microinjection of CCK-8 (0.1 and 1μg, i.c.v.) also significantly augmented hippocampal LTP in saline-treated (1ml/kg, s.c.) rats. Pre-treatment of the CCK2 receptor antagonist L-365,260 (10μg, i.c.v) reversed the effects of CCK-8, but the CCK1 receptor antagonist L-364,718 (10μg, i.c.v) did not. The present results demonstrate that CCK-8 attenuates the effect of morphine on hippocampal LTP through CCK2 receptors and suggest an ameliorative function of CCK-8 on morphine-induced memory impairment.
Marshall, Kathryn M; Laval, Marie; Sims, Ioulia; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S
Non-amidated gastrin peptides such as glycine-extended gastrin (Ggly) are biologically active in vitro and in vivo and have been implicated in the development of gastric and colonic cancers. Previous studies have shown that the truncated form of Ggly, the octapeptide LE5AY, was still biologically active in vitro, and that activity was dependent on ferric ion binding but independent of binding to the cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2) receptor. The present work was aimed at creating more stable gastrin-derived 'super agonists' using retro-inverso technology. The truncated LE5AY peptide was synthesized using end protecting groups in three forms with l-amino acids (GL), d-amino acids (GD) or retro-inverso (reverse order with d-amino acids; GRI). All of these peptides bound ferric ions with a 2:1 (Fe: peptide) ratio. As predicted, Ggly, GL and GRI were biologically active in vitro and increased cell proliferation in mouse gastric epithelial (IMGE-5) and human colorectal cancer (DLD-1) cell lines, and increased cell migration in DLD-1 cells. These activities were likely via the same mechanism as Ggly since no CCK1 or CCK2 binding was identified, and GD remained inactive in all assays. Surprisingly, unlike Ggly, GL and GRI were not active in vivo. While Ggly stimulated colonic crypt height and proliferation rates in gastrin knockout mice, GL and GRI did not. The apparent lack of activity may be due to rapid clearance of these smaller peptides. Nevertheless further work designing and testing retro-inverso gastrins is warranted, as it may lead to the generation of super agonists that could potentially be used to treat patients with gastrointestinal disorders with reduced mucosal function.
Weng, Jonathan; Lou, Danwen; Benoit, Stephen C; Coschigano, Natalie; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick; Lo, Chunmin C
Apolipoprotein AIV (ApoAIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are well-known satiating signals that are stimulated by fat consumption. Peripheral ApoAIV and CCK interact to prolong satiating signals. In the present study, we hypothesized that ApoAIV and CCK control energy homeostasis in response to high-fat diet feeding. To test this hypothesis, energy homeostasis in ApoAIV and CCK double knockout (ApoAIV/CCK-KO), ApoAIV knockout (ApoAIV-KO), and CCK knockout (CCK-KO) mice were monitored. When animals were maintained on a low-fat diet, ApoAIV/CCK-KO, ApoAIV-KO, and CCK-KO mice had comparable energy intake and expenditure, body weight, fat mass, fat absorption, and plasma parameters relative to the controls. In contrast, these KO mice exhibited impaired lipid transport to epididymal fat pads in response to intraduodenal infusion of dietary lipids. Furthermore, ApoAIV-KO mice had upregulated levels of CCK receptor 2 (CCK2R) in the small intestine while ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice had upregulated levels of CCK2R in the brown adipose tissue. After 20 weeks of a high-fat diet, ApoAIV-KO and CCK-KO mice had comparable body weight and fat mass, as well as lower energy expenditure at some time points. However, ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice exhibited reduced body weight and adiposity relative to wild-type mice, despite having normal food intake. Furthermore, ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice displayed normal fat absorption and locomotor activity, as well as enhanced energy expenditure. These observations suggest that mice lacking ApoAIV and CCK have reduced body weight and adiposity, possibly due to impaired lipid transport and elevated energy expenditure. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
Positron emission tomography (PET) as well as optical imaging (OI) with peptide receptor targeting probes have proven their value for oncological applications but also show restrictions depending on the clinical field of interest. Therefore, the combination of both methods, particularly in a single molecule, could improve versatility in clinical routine. This proof of principle study aims to show that a chelator, Fusarinine C (FSC), can be utilized as scaffold for novel dimeric dual-modality imaging agents. Two targeting vectors (a minigastrin analogue (MG11) targeting cholecystokinin-2 receptor overexpression (CCK2R) or integrin αVβ3 targeting cyclic pentapeptides (RGD)) and a near-infrared fluorophore (Sulfo-Cyanine7) were conjugated to FSC. The probes were efficiently labeled with gallium-68 and in vitro experiments including determination of logD, stability, protein binding, cell binding, internalization, and biodistribution studies as well as in vivo micro-PET/CT and optical imaging in U-87MG αVβ3- and A431-CCK2R expressing tumor xenografted mice were carried out. Novel bioconjugates showed high receptor affinity and highly specific targeting properties at both receptors. Ex vivo biodistribution and micro-PET/CT imaging studies revealed specific tumor uptake accompanied by slow blood clearance and retention in nontargeted tissues (spleen, liver, and kidneys) leading to visualization of tumors at early (30 to 120 min p.i.). Excellent contrast in corresponding optical imaging studies was achieved especially at delayed time points (24 to 72 h p.i.). Our findings show the proof of principle of chelator scaffolding for hybrid imaging agents and demonstrate FSC being a suitable bifunctional chelator for this approach. Improvements to fine-tune pharmacokinetics are needed to translate this into a clinical setting. PMID:28462989
Tomim, Dabna H; Pontarolla, Felipe M; Bertolini, Jessica F; Arase, Mauricio; Tobaldini, Glaucia; Lima, Marcelo M S; Fischer, Luana
The mechanisms underlying the pronociceptive effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) are not known. In this study, we asked whether PSD increases tonic nociception in the formalin test, decreases the antinociceptive effect of morphine administered into the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), and disrupts endogenous descending pain modulation. PSD for either 24 or 48 h significantly increased formalin-induced nociception and decreased mechanical nociceptive paw withdrawal threshold. The maximal antinociceptive effect induced by morphine (0.9-9 nmol, intra-PAG) was significantly decreased by PSD. The administration of a low dose of the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline (30-300 pmol, intra-PAG), decreased nociception in control rats, but not in paradoxical-sleep-deprived ones. Furthermore, the administration of the cholecystokinin (CCK) 2 receptor antagonist, YM022 (0.5-2 pmol) in the rostral ventral medulla (RVM), decreased nociception in paradoxical-sleep-deprived rats but not in control ones. While a dose of the CCK 2 receptor agonist, CCK-8 (8-24 pmol intra-RVM), increased nociception in control rats, but not in paradoxical-sleep-deprived ones. In addition, the injection of lidocaine (QX-314, 2%, intra-RVM) decreased nociception in sleep-deprived rats, but not in control rats, while the lesion of the dorsolateral funiculus prevented the pronociceptive effect of PSD. Finally, PSD significantly increased c-Fos expression in the RVM. Therefore, PSD increases pain independently of its duration or of the characteristic of the nociceptive stimulus and decreases morphine analgesia at the PAG. PSD appears to increase pain by decreasing descending pain inhibitory activity and by increasing descending pain facilitatory activity.
Wang, Shouping; Zhang, An-Ping; Kurada, Lalitha; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Lei, Saobo
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain, where it interacts with two G protein-coupled receptors (CCK-1 and CCK-2). Activation of both CCK receptors increases the activity of PLC, resulting in increases in intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) release and activation of PKC. Whereas high density of CCK receptors has been detected in the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex (EC), the functions of CCK in this brain region have not been determined. Here, we studied the effects of CCK on neuronal excitability of layer III pyramidal neurons in the EC. Our results showed that CCK remarkably increased the firing frequency of action potentials (APs). The effects of CCK on neuronal excitability were mediated via activation of CCK-2 receptors and required the functions of G proteins and PLC. However, CCK-mediated facilitation of neuronal excitability was independent of inositol trisphosphate receptors and PKC. CCK facilitated neuronal excitability by activating a cationic channel to generate membrane depolarization. The effects of CCK were suppressed by the generic, nonselective cationic channel blockers, 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate and flufenamic acid, but potentiated by gadolinium ion and lanthanum ion at 100 μM. Depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) also counteracted CCK-induced increases in AC firing frequency. Moreover, CCK-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability was inhibited significantly by intracellular application of the antibody to transient receptor potential channel 5 (TRPC5), suggesting the involvement of TRPC5 channels. Our results provide a cellular and molecular mechanism to help explain the functions of CCK in vivo.
Sekiguchi, Toshio; Ogasawara, Michio; Satake, Honoo
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin are vertebrate brain-gut peptides featured by a sulfated tyrosine residue and a C-terminally amidated tetrapeptide consensus sequence. Cionin, identified in the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, the closest species to vertebrates, harbors two sulfated tyrosines and the CCK/gastrin consensus tetrapeptide sequence. While a putative cionin receptor, cior, was cloned, the ligand-receptor relationship between cionin and CioR remains unidentified. Here, we identify two cionin receptors, CioR1 and CioR2, which are the aforementioned putative cionin receptor and its novel paralog respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CioRs are homologous to vertebrate CCK receptors (CCKRs) and diverged from a common ancestor in the Ciona-specific lineage. Cionin activates intracellular calcium mobilization in cultured cells expressing CioR1 or CioR2. Monosulfated and nonsulfated cionin exhibited less potent or no activity, indicating that CioRs possess pharmacological features similar to the vertebrate CCK-specific receptor CCK1R, rather than its subtype CCK2R, given that a sulfated tyrosine in CCK is required for binding to CCK1R, but not to CCK2R. Collectively, the present data reveal that CioRs share a common ancestor with vertebrate CCKRs and indicate that CCK and CCK1R form the ancestral ligand-receptor pair in the vertebrate CCK/gastrin system. Cionin is expressed in the neural complex, digestive organs, oral siphon and atrial siphons, whereas the expression of ciors was detected mainly in these tissues and the ovary. Furthermore, cioninergic neurons innervate both of the siphons. These results suggest that cionin is involved in the regulation of siphonal functions.
Ellis, Melina; Chambers, Jordan D; Gwynne, Rachel M; Bornstein, Joel C
Segmentation is an important process in nutrient mixing and absorption; however, the mechanisms underlying this motility pattern are poorly understood. Segmentation can be induced by luminal perfusion of fatty acid in guinea pig small intestine in vitro and mimicked by the serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (300 nM) and by cholecystokinin (CCK). Serotonergic and CCK-related mechanisms underlying nutrient-induced segmentation were investigated using selective 5-HT and CCK receptor antagonists on isolated segments of small intestine luminally perfused with 1 mM decanoic acid. Motility patterns were analyzed using video imaging and spatiotemporal maps. Segmenting activity mediated by decanoic acid was depressed following luminal application of the 5-HT receptor antagonists granisetron (5-HT(3), 1 μM) and SB-207266 (5-HT(4), 10 nM) and the CCK receptor antagonists devazepide (CCK-1, 300 nM) and L-365260 (CCK-2, 300 nM), but these antagonists did not further depress segmentation when combined. The P2 receptor antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate (10 μM) had no effect on activity. Serosal application of 5-HT antagonists had little effect on segmentation in the duodenum but reduced activity in the jejunum when granisetron and SB-207266 were applied together. These results reveal that 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors, as well as CCK-1 and CCK-2 receptors, are critical in regulating decanoic acid-induced segmentation. Computational simulation indicated that these data are consistent with decanoic acid activating two pathways in the mucosa that converge within the enteric neural circuitry, while contraction-induced release of 5-HT from the mucosa provides feedback into the neural circuit to set the time course of the overall contractile activity.
Preclinical pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and toxicity studies required for regulatory approval of a phase I clinical trial with 111In-CP04 in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients
Maina, Theodosia; Konijnenberg, Mark W.; KolencPeitl, Petra; Garnuszek, Piotr; Nock, Berthold A.; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Kroselj, Marko; Zaletel, Katja; Maecke, Helmut; Mansi, Rosalba; Erba, Paola; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Mikolajczak, Renata; Decristoforo, Clemens
Introduction From a series of radiolabelled cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin analogues, 111In-CP04 (111In-DOTA-(DGlu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) was selected for further translation as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical towards a first-in-man study in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A freeze-dried kit formulation for multicentre application has been developed. We herein report on biosafety, in vivo stability, biodistribution and dosimetry aspects of 111In-CP04 in animal models, essential for the regulatory approval of the clinical trial. Materials and methods Acute and extended single dose toxicity of CP04 was tested in rodents, while the in vivo stability of 111In-CP04 was assessed by HPLC analysis of mouse blood samples. The biodistribution of 111In-CP04 prepared from a freeze-dried kit was studied in SCID mice bearing double A431-CCK2R(±) xenografts at 1, 4 and 24 h pi. Further 4-h animal groups were either additionally treated with the plasma expander gelofusine or injected with 111In-CP04 prepared by wet-labelling. Pharmacokinetics in healthy mice included the 30 min, 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h time points pi. Dosimetric calculations were based on extrapolation of mice data to humans adopting two scaling models. Results CP04 was well-tolerated by both mice and rats, with an LD50 > 178.5 μg/kg body weight for mice and a NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level) of 89 μg/kg body weight for rats. After labelling, 111In-CP04 remained >70% intact in peripheral mouse blood at 5 min pi. The uptake of 111In-CP04 prepared from the freeze-dried kit and by wet-labelling were comparable in the A431-CCK2R(+)-xenografts (9.24 ± 1.35%ID/g and 8.49 ± 0.39%ID/g, respectively; P > 0.05). Gelofusine-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced kidneys values (1.69 ± 0.15%ID/g vs. 5.55 ± 0.94%ID/g in controls, P < 0.001). Dosimetry data revealed very comparable effective tumour doses for the two scaling models applied, of 0.045 and 0.044 m
Grossini, E; Molinari, C; Sigaudo, L; Biella, M; Mary, D A S G; Vacca, G
In porcine coronary artery endothelial cells (PCAEC), gastrin-17 has recently been found to increase nitric oxide (NO) production by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) isoform through cholecystokinin 1/2 (CCK1/2) receptors and the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA), PKC and the β2-adrenoreceptor-related pathway. As eNOS is the Ca(2)(+)-dependent isoform of the enzyme, we aimed to examine the effects of gastrin-17 on Ca(2)(+) movements. Thus, experiments were performed in Fura-2-acetoxymethyl-ester-loaded PCAEC, where changes of cytosolic Ca(2)(+) ([Ca(2)(+)]c) caused by gastrin-17 were analysed and compared with those of CCK receptors and β2-adrenoreceptors agonists/antagonists. In addition, some experiments were performed by stimulating cells with gastrin-17 in the presence or absence of cAMP/PKA activator/inhibitor and of phospholipase C (PLC) and Ca(2)(+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockers. The results have shown that gastrin-17 can promote a transient increase in [Ca(2)(+)]c mainly originating from an intracellular pool sensitive to thapsigargin and from the extracellular space. In addition, the response of cells to gastrin-17 was increased by the adenylyl cyclase activator and the β2-adrenoreceptor agonists and affected mainly by the CCK2 receptor agonists/antagonists. Moreover, the effects of gastrin-17 were prevented by β2-adrenoreceptors and CaMKII blockers and the adenylyl cyclase/PKA and PLC inhibitors. Finally, in PCAEC cultured in Na(+)-free medium or loaded with the plasma membrane Ca(2)(+) pump inhibitor, the gastrin-17-evoked Ca(2)(+) transient was long lasting. In conclusion, this study shows that gastrin-17 affected intracellular Ca(2)(+) homeostasis in PCAEC by both promoting a discharge of an intracellular pool and by interfering with the operation of store-dependent channels through mainly CCK2 receptors and PKA/PLC- and CaMKII-related signalling downstream of β2-adrenoreceptor stimulation.
Dehigaspitiya, Dilani Chathurika
Our focus is on developing non-invasive molecular imaging reagents, which target human cancers that presently are difficult to detect, such as melanoma. We wish to apply the multivalency concept to differentiate between healthy cells and melanoma cells. Melanoma cells are known to over-express alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptors. A successful multivalent construct should show greater avidity towards melanoma cells than healthy cells due to the synergistic effects arising from multivalency. Both oligomeric and shorter linear constructs bearing the minimum active sequence of melanocyte stimulating hormone, His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2(MSH4), which binds with low micromolar affinity to alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptors, were synthesized. Binding affinities of these constructs were evaluated in a competitive binding assay by competing with labeled ligands, Eu-DTPA-PEGO-MSH7 and/or Eu-DTPA-PEGO-NDP-alpha-MSH on the engineered cell line HEK293 CCK2R/hMC4R, which is genetically modified to over-express both the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R) and human melanocortin 4 receptor (hMC4R). The oligomers were rapidly assembled using microwave-assisted copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition between a dialkyne derivative of MSH4 and a diazide derivative of (Pro-Gly)3 as co-monomers. Three oligomer mixtures were further analyzed based on their degree of oligomerization and the route by which the MSH4 monomers were oligomerized, protected vs deprotected. Completive binding assay against Eu-DTPA-PEGO-MSH7 showed only a statistical enhancement of binding when calculated based on the total MSH4 concentration. However, when the calculation of avidity is based on an estimation of the particles numbers, there was a seven times enhancement of binding compared to a monovalent MSH4 control. The shorter linear multivalent MSH4 constructs were synthesized using ethylene glycol, glycerol, and mannitol as core scaffolds with maximum inter-ligand distances ranging from 27
Bomanji, Jamshed B; Papathanasiou, Nikolaos D
This paper is a critical review of the literature on NET radionuclide therapy with (111)In-DTPA(0)-octreotide (Octreoscan) and (131)I-MIBG, focusing on efficacy and toxicity. Some potential future applications and new candidate therapeutic agents are also mentioned. Octreoscan has been a pioneering agent for somatostatin receptor radionuclide therapy. It has achieved symptomatic responses and disease stabilization, but it is now outperformed by the corresponding β-emitter agents (177)Lu-DOTATATE and (90)Y-DOTATOC. (131)I-MIBG is the radionuclide therapy of choice for inoperable or metastatic phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas, which avidly concentrate this tracer via the noradrenaline transporter. Symptomatic, biochemical and tumour morphological response rates of 50-89%, 45-74% and 27-47%, respectively, have been reported. (131)I-MIBG is a second-line radiopharmaceutical for treatment of enterochromaffin carcinoids, mainly offering the benefit of amelioration of hormone-induced symptoms. High specific activity, non-carrier-added (131)I-MIBG and meta-astato((211)At)-benzylguanidine (MABG) are tracers with potential for enhanced therapeutic efficacy, yet their integration into clinical practice awaits further exploration. Amongst other promising agents, radiolabelled exendin analogues show potential for imaging and possibly therapy of insulinomas, while preclinical studies are currently evaluating DOTA peptides targeting the CCK-2/gastrin receptors that are overexpressed by medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
Subhan, F; Pache, D M; Sewell, R D
The ability of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, to modify the effects of morphine, N-((S)-2-benzyl-3[(S) 2-amino-4-methylthio)butyldithio-]-1-oxopropyl)-L-alanine benzylester (RB 120; mixed inhibitor of enkephalin metabolism), and 4-¿[2-[[3-(1H-indol-3-yl))-2-methyl-1-oxo-2-[[(tricyclo[3,3,1,1] dec-2-yloxy) carbonyl] amino¿ propyl] amino]-1-phenylethyl] amino¿-4-oxo-[R-(R*,R*)]-butanoate N-methyl-D-glucamine (CI 988; cholecystokinin receptor subtype [CCK(2)] antagonist), was assessed using conditioned place preference. RB 120 and morphine both induced significant, dose-dependent conditioned place preference, whilst CI 988 failed to elicit conditioned place preference. A subthreshold dose of fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg) potentiated the morphine submaximal response. Notably, the combination of a subthreshold dose of fluoxetine (2.5 mg/kg) with RB 120 (5 mg/kg) or CI 988 (3 mg/kg) was devoid of any significant conditioned place preference properties. Fluoxetine may act via enhanced serotonergic activity to modulate enkephalinergic tone. Agents that increase enkephalinergic tone more directly such as RB 120 and CI 988, at submaximal doses, did not induce conditioned place preference when co-administered with fluoxetine. These data suggest that fluoxetine, in combination with CI 988 or RB 120, might prove to be a beneficial treatment strategy for opioid drug addiction, though further studies are necessary.
Kumar, J Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R; Murugesan, Senthil V; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J
The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling.
Takaishi, Shigeo; Shibata, Wataru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Jin, Guangchun; Yang, Xiangdong; Ericksen, Russell; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Asfaha, Samuel; Quante, Michael; Betz, Kelly S; Shulkes, Arthur; Wang, Timothy C
Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies. Although past studies have suggested that antral gastrin is transcriptionally regulated by inflammation, gastric pH, somatostatin, and neoplastic transformation, the transcriptional regulation of gastrin has not previously been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we describe the creation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter (mGAS-EGFP) mouse using a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the entire mouse gastrin gene. Three founder lines expressed GFP signals in the gastric antrum and the transitional zone to the corpus. In addition, GFP(+) cells could be detected in the fetal pancreatic islets and small intestinal villi, but not in these organs of the adult mice. The administration of acid-suppressive reagents such as proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YF476 significantly increased GFP signal intensity and GFP(+) cell numbers in the antrum, whereas these parameters were decreased by overnight fasting, octreotide (long-lasting somatostatin ortholog) infusion, and Helicobacter felis infection. GFP(+) cells were also detected in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and importantly in the colonic tumor cells induced by administration with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt. This transgenic mouse provides a useful tool to study the regulation of mouse gastrin gene in vivo, thus contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the gastrin gene.
Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Nagra, Saeed Ahmad; Yar, Muhammad; Sherazi, Tauqir A; Shahzad, Sohail Shahzad; Shah, Syed Qaiser; Mahmood, Nasir; Ishfaq, Malik Muhammad; Mather, Stephen John
Radiolabeled neuropeptides are widely investigated to diagnose and therapy of tumors. These peptides get internalization after binding with particular receptors at the surface of cells and finally move to lysosome. Internalization into tumor cells helps in mapping the infected site. Minigastrin peptide analogues (MG-CL1-4) were synthesised and labeled with 111-In radioisotope under different sets of conditions for imaging CCk-2 receptor bearing tumors. Different parameters such as temperature (80-100°C), pH (4-12), incubation time (5-30 minutes) and dilution effect were investigated to get the maximum labeling yield and stability. The results indicated that MG-CL1-4 is successfully labeled with indium-111 at pH 4.5 with heating at 98°C for 15 minute. At these conditions i.e. heating, pH and incubation minimum oxidized and maximum labeling yield, more than 94 %, was obtained. The labeling stability was studied by incubating the radiolabeled complex for predefined time points in PBSA and blood serum. Results show that more than 90% radiolabeled MG-CL1-4 remained intact.
Varga, Gábor; Bálint, András; Burghardt, Beáta; D'Amato, Massimo
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a brain-gut peptide; it functions both as a neuropeptide and as a gut hormone. Although the pancreas and the gallbladder were long thought to be the principal peripheral targets of CCK, CCK receptors are found throughout the gut. It is likely that CCK has a physiological role not only in the stimulation of pancreatic and biliary secretions but also in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. The motor effects of CCK include postprandial inhibition of gastric emptying and inhibition of colonic transit. It is now evident that at least two different receptors, CCK1 and CCK2 (formerly CCK-A and CCK-B, respectively), mediate the actions of CCK. Both localization and functional studies suggest that the motor effects of CCK are mediated by CCK1 receptors in humans. Since CCK is involved in sensory and motor responses to distension in the intestinal tract, it may contribute to the symptoms of constipation, bloating and abdominal pain that are often characteristic of functional gastrointestinal disorders in general and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), in particular. CCK1 receptor antagonists are therefore currently under development for the treatment of constipation-predominant IBS. Clinical studies suggest that CCK1 receptor antagonists are effective facilitators of gastric emptying and inhibitors of gallbladder contraction and can accelerate colonic transit time in healthy volunteers and patients with IBS. These drugs are therefore potentially of great value in the treatment of motility disorders such as constipation and constipation-predominant IBS. PMID:15100163
Deng, Pan-Yue; Xiao, Zhaoyang; Jha, Archana; Ramonet, David; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Leitges, Michael; Shin, Hee-Sup; Porter, James E; Geiger, Jonathan D; Lei, Saobo
Cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuropeptide originally discovered in the gastrointestinal tract, is abundantly distributed in the mammalian brains including the hippocampus. Whereas CCK has been shown to increase glutamate concentration in the perfusate of hippocampal slices and in purified rat hippocampal synaptosomes, the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby CCK modulates glutamatergic function remain unexplored. Here, we examined the effects of CCK on glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus using whole-cell recordings from hippocampal slices. Application of CCK increased AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs at perforant path-dentate gyrus granule cell, CA3-CA3 and Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses without effects at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. CCK-induced increases in AMPA EPSCs were mediated by CCK-2 receptors and were not modulated developmentally and transcriptionally. CCK reduced the coefficient of variation and paired-pulse ratio of AMPA EPSCs suggesting that CCK facilitates presynaptic glutamate release. CCK increased the release probability and the number of readily releasable vesicles with no effects on the rate of recovery from vesicle depletion. CCK-mediated increases in glutamate release required the functions of phospholipase C, intracellular Ca(2+) release and protein kinase Cgamma. CCK released endogenously from hippocampal interneurons facilitated glutamatergic transmission. Our results provide a cellular and molecular mechanism to explain the roles of CCK in the brain.
Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P.; Ossipov, Michael H; Lai, Josephine; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank
Opioids produce analgesic effects and extended use can produce physical dependence in both humans and animals. Dependence to opiates can be demonstrated by either termination of drug administration or through precipitation of the withdrawal syndrome by opiate antagonists. Key features of the opiate withdrawal syndrome include hyperalgesia, anxiety and autonomic signs such as diarrhea. The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) plays an important role in the modulation of pain and for this reason, may influence withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. The mechanisms that drive opiate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia have not been elucidated. Here, rats made dependent upon morphine received naloxone to precipitate withdrawal. RVM microinjection of lidocaine, kynurenic acid (excitatory amino acid antagonist) or YM022 (CCK2 receptor antagonist) blocked withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia. Additionally, these treatments reduced both somatic and autonomic signs of naloxone-induced withdrawal. Spinal application of ondansetron, a 5HT3 receptor antagonist thought to ultimately be engaged by descending pain facilitatory drive, also blocked hyperalgesia and somatic and autonomic features of the withdrawal syndrome. These results indicate that the RVM plays a critical role in mediating components of opioid withdrawal that may contribute to opioid dependence. Perspective Manipulations targeting these descending pathways from the RVM may diminish the consequences of prolonged opioid administration-induced dependence and be useful adjunct strategies in reducing the risk of opioid addiction. PMID:21354865
Takaishi, Shigeo; Shibata, Wataru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Jin, Guangchun; Yang, Xiangdong; Ericksen, Russell; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida; Asfaha, Samuel; Quante, Michael; Betz, Kelly S.; Shulkes, Arthur
Gastrin is secreted from a subset of neuroendocrine cells residing in the gastric antrum known as G cells, but low levels are also expressed in fetal pancreas and intestine and in many solid malignancies. Although past studies have suggested that antral gastrin is transcriptionally regulated by inflammation, gastric pH, somatostatin, and neoplastic transformation, the transcriptional regulation of gastrin has not previously been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we describe the creation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter (mGAS-EGFP) mouse using a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the entire mouse gastrin gene. Three founder lines expressed GFP signals in the gastric antrum and the transitional zone to the corpus. In addition, GFP(+) cells could be detected in the fetal pancreatic islets and small intestinal villi, but not in these organs of the adult mice. The administration of acid-suppressive reagents such as proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YF476 significantly increased GFP signal intensity and GFP(+) cell numbers in the antrum, whereas these parameters were decreased by overnight fasting, octreotide (long-lasting somatostatin ortholog) infusion, and Helicobacter felis infection. GFP(+) cells were also detected in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and importantly in the colonic tumor cells induced by administration with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt. This transgenic mouse provides a useful tool to study the regulation of mouse gastrin gene in vivo, thus contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in transcriptional control of the gastrin gene. PMID:21051525
Vigen, Reidar Alexander; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M; Chen, Duan; Zhao, Chun-Mei
Gastric ECL-cell hyperplasia and carcinoids (ECLoma) develop after 1 year in rats treated with omeprazole or 2 months in Mastomys treated with loxtidine. The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructure of ECL cells in Mastomys after loxtidine treatment with an attempt to evaluate whether an impairment of autophagy was involved in the tumorigenesis. Mastomys were given loxtidine for 8 or 27 weeks. Morphological analysis of ECL cells showed that (1) cell size was not increased after 8 or 27 weeks; (2) secretory vesicles, a hallmark feature of welldifferentiated ECL cells, were unchanged after 8 weeks but reduced after 27 weeks; (3) granules were reduced after 8 or 27 weeks; (4) microvesicles were unchanged after the treatment; and (5) vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies were found occasionally after 8 weeks but not at 27 weeks. In addition, the appearance of ECL-cell ultrastructure differed between loxtidine-treated Mastomys and rats treated with omeprazole or subjected to antrectomy, but was similar between Mastomys treated with loxtidine for 27 weeks and mice deficient in CCK(2) receptor. We suggest that the ultrastructure of ECL cells in Mastomys after long-term treatment with loxtidine displayed an impaired formation of vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies, markers of the autophagic pathway.
Leung, Sarah J.; Romanowski, Marek
We have developed an experimental system with the potential for the delivery and localized release of an encapsulated agent with high spatial and temporal resolution. We previously introduced liposome-supported plasmon resonant gold nanoshells; in this composite structure, the liposome allows for the encapsulation of substances, such as therapeutic agents, neurotransmitters, or growth factors, and the plasmon resonant structure facilitates the rapid release of encapsulated contents upon laser light illumination. More recently, we demonstrated that these gold-coated liposomes are capable of releasing their contents in a spectrally-controlled manner, where plasmon resonant nanoparticles only release content upon illumination with a wavelength of light matching their plasmon resonance band. We now show that this release mechanism can be used in a biological setting to deliver a peptide derivative of cholecystokinin to HEK293 cells overexpressing the CCK2 receptor. Using directed laser light, we may enable localized release from gold-coated liposomes to enable accurate perturbation of cellular functions in response to released compounds; this system may have possible applications in signaling pathways and drug discovery.
Fani, Melpomeni; Kolenc Peitl, Petra; Velikyan, Irina
Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics) of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr), other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) is highly expressed in benign insulinomas, the Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2)/Gastrin receptor is expressed in different NENs, in particular medullary thyroid cancer, and the Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) receptor was found to be expressed in gastrointestinal and bronchial NENs, where interestingly, it is present in most of the sstr-negative and GLP-1R-negative NENs. Also in the field of sstr targeting new discoveries brought into light an alternative approach with the use of radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists, instead of the clinically used agonists. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and the most innovative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment (theranostics) of neuroendocrine neoplasms using a cadre of radiolabeled regulatory peptides targeting their receptors. PMID:28295000
Xiao, Zhaoyang; Jaiswal, Manoj; Deng, Pan-Yue; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Shin, Hee-Sup; Porter, James E.; Lei, Saobo
Whereas cholecystokinin (CCK) has long been known to exert anxiogenic effects in both animal anxiety models and humans, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are ill-defined. CCK interacts with CCK-1 and CCK-2 receptors resulting in up-regulation of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC). However, the roles of PLC and PKC in CCK-mediated anxiogenic effects have not been determined. We have shown previously that CCK facilitates glutamate release in the hippocampus especially at the synapses formed by the perforant path and dentate gyrus granule cells via activations of PLC and PKC. Here we further demonstrated that CCK enhanced NMDA receptor function in dentate gyrus granule cells via activation of PLC and PKC pathway. At the single-channel level, CCK increased NMDA single-channel open probability and mean open time, reduced the mean close time and had no effects on the conductance of NMDA channels. Because elevation of glutamatergic functions results in anxiety, we explored the roles of PLC and PKC in CCK-induced anxiogenic actions using the Vogel Conflict Test (VCT). Our results from both pharmacological approach and knockout mice demonstrated that microinjection of CCK into the dentate gyrus concentration-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior via activation of PLC and PKC. Our results provide a novel unidentified signaling mechanism whereby CCK increases anxiety. PMID:22072552
Zwanzger, P; Domschke, K; Bradwejn, J
Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by panic attacks, anticipatory anxiety and avoidance behavior. Its pathogenesis is complex and includes both neurobiological and psychological factors. With regard to neurobiological underpinnings, anxiety in humans seems to be mediated through a neuronal network, which involves several distinct brain regions, neuronal circuits and projections as well as neurotransmitters. A large body of evidence suggests that the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) might be an important modulator of this neuronal network. Key regions of the fear network, such as amygdala, hypothalamus, peraqueductal grey, or cortical regions seem to be connected by CCKergic pathways. CCK interacts with several anxiety-relevant neurotransmitters such as the serotonergic, GABA-ergic and noradrenergic system as well as with endocannabinoids, NPY and NPS. In humans, administration of CCK-4 reliably provokes panic attacks, which can be blocked by antipanic medication. Also, there is some support for a role of the CCK system in the genetic pathomechanism of PD with particularly strong evidence for the CCK gene itself and the CCK-2R (CCKBR) gene. Thus, it is hypothesized that genetic variants in the CCK system might contribute to the biological basis for the postulated CCK dysfunction in the fear network underlying PD. Taken together, a large body of evidence suggests a possible role for the neuropeptide CCK in PD with regard to neuroanatomical circuits, neurotransmitters and genetic factors. This review article proposes an extended hypothetical model for human PD, which integrates preclinical and clinical findings on CCK in addition to existing theories of the pathogenesis of PD.
Fukamachi, Shoko; Mori, Tomoko; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Shiraishi, Noriko; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kobayashi, Miwa; Bito, Toshinori; Kabashima, Kenji; Nakamura, Motonobu; Tokura, Yoshiki
Cholecystokinin (CCK) serves as a gastrointestinal hormone and also functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system (CNS). CCK may be a downregulator in the CNS, as represented by its anti-opioid properties. The existence of CCK in the peripheral nervous system has also been reported. We investigated the suppressive effects of various CCKs on peripheral pruritus in mice. The clipped backs of ICR mice were painted with CCK synthetic peptides and injected intradermally with substance P (SP). The frequency of SP-induced scratching was reduced significantly by topical application of sulfated CCK8 (CCK8S) and CCK7 (CCK7S), but not by nonsulfated CCK8, CCK7, or CCK6. Dermal injection of CCK8S also suppressed the scratching frequency, suggesting that dermal cells as well as epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) are the targets of CCKs. As determined using real-time PCR, mRNA for CCK2R, one of the two types of CCK receptors, was expressed highly in mouse fetal skin-derived mast cells (FSMCs) and moderately in ICR mouse KCs. CCK8S decreased in vitro compound 48/80-promoted degranulation of FSMCs with a transient elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration. These findings suggest that CCK may exert an antipruritic effect via mast cells and that topical CCK may be clinically useful for pruritic skin disorders.
Crosby, Karen M; Baimoukhametova, Dinara V; Bains, Jaideep S; Pittman, Quentin J
Somatodendritically released peptides alter synaptic function through a variety of mechanisms, including autocrine actions that liberate retrograde transmitters. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide expressed in neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), a region implicated in satiety and stress. There are clear demonstrations that exogenous CCK modulates food intake and neuropeptide expression in the DMH, but there is no information on how endogenous CCK alters synaptic properties. Here, we provide the first report of somatodendritic release of CCK in the brain in male Sprague Dawley rats. CCK is released from DMH neurons in response to repeated postsynaptic depolarizations, and acts in an autocrine fashion on CCK2 receptors to enhance postsynaptic NMDA receptor function and liberate the retrograde transmitter, nitric oxide (NO). NO subsequently acts presynaptically to enhance GABA release through a soluble guanylate cyclase-mediated pathway. These data provide the first demonstration of synaptic actions of somatodendritically released CCK in the hypothalamus and reveal a new form of retrograde plasticity, depolarization-induced potentiation of inhibition. Significance statement: Somatodendritic signaling using endocannabinoids or nitric oxide to alter the efficacy of afferent transmission is well established. Despite early convincing evidence for somatodendritic release of neurohypophysial peptides in the hypothalamus, there is only limited evidence for this mode of release for other peptides. Here, we provide the first evidence for somatodendritic release of the satiety peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) in the brain. We also reveal a new form of synaptic plasticity in which postsynaptic depolarization results in enhancement of inhibition through the somatodendritic release of CCK.
Furutani, Takahiro; Masumoto, Toshiro; Fukada, Haruhisa
In vertebrates, the peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most important neuroregulatory digestive hormones. CCK acts via CCK receptors that are classified into two subtypes, CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R; formally CCK-A) and CCK-2 receptor (formally CCK-B). In particular, the CCK-1R is involved in digestion and is regulated by CCK. However, very little information is known about CCK-1R in fish. Therefore, we performed molecular cloning of CCK-1R cDNA from the digestive tract of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed a high sequence identity between the cloned yellowtail CCK receptor cDNA and CCK-1R, which belongs to the CCK-1R cluster. Furthermore, the expression of yellowtail CCK receptor mRNA was observed in gallbladder, pyloric caeca, and intestines, similarly to CCK-1R mRNA expression in mammals, suggesting that the cloned cDNA is of CCK-1R from yellowtail. In in vivo experiments, the CCK-1R mRNA levels increased in the gallbladder and pyloric caeca after feeding, whereas in vitro, mRNA levels of CCK-1R and digestive enzymes in cultured pyloric caeca increased by the addition of CCK. These results suggest that CCK-1R plays an important role in digestion stimulated by CCK in yellowtail.
Miyamoto, Satoshi; Shikata, Kenichi; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Okada, Shinichi; Sasaki, Motofumi; Kodera, Ryo; Hirota, Daisho; Kajitani, Nobuo; Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Kataoka, Hitomi Usui; Nishishita, Shingo; Sato, Chikage; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Nishimori, Hisakazu; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Ogawa, Daisuke; Makino, Hirofumi
Inflammatory process is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this article, we show that cholecystokinin (CCK) is expressed in the kidney and exerts renoprotective effects through its anti-inflammatory actions. DNA microarray showed that CCK was upregulated in the kidney of diabetic wild-type (WT) mice but not in diabetic intracellular adhesion molecule-1 knockout mice. We induced diabetes in CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) and CCK-2R double-knockout (CCK-1R(-/-),-2R(-/-)) mice, and furthermore, we performed a bone marrow transplantation study using CCK-1R(-/-) mice to determine the role of CCK-1R on macrophages in the diabetic kidney. Diabetic CCK-1R(-/-),-2R(-/-) mice revealed enhanced albuminuria and inflammation in the kidney compared with diabetic WT mice. In addition, diabetic WT mice with CCK-1R(-/-) bone marrow-derived cells developed more albuminuria than diabetic CCK-1R(-/-) mice with WT bone marrow-derived cells. Administration of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S) ameliorated albuminuria, podocyte loss, expression of proinflammatory genes, and infiltration of macrophages in the kidneys of diabetic rats. Furthermore, CCK-8S inhibited both expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and chemotaxis in cultured THP-1 cells. These results suggest that CCK suppresses the activation of macrophage and expression of proinflammatory genes in diabetic kidney. Our findings may provide a novel strategy of therapy for the early stage of diabetic nephropathy.
Tiwari, Anjani K; Mishra, Anil K; Bajpai, Aruna; Mishra, Pushpa; Singh, Sweta; Sinha, Deepa; Singh, V K
Two different benzimidazole analogues act as multimodal agent, first one as novel non-peptidic CCK-B receptor antagonist and similarly as potent anti-fungal agent, designated as [Bz-Im]. These compounds were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, NMR, EI-MS and also evaluated for specific radiopharmaceuticals. Preliminary radiolabeling results with (99m)Tc and biological evaluation studies showed promising results for further evaluation in vivo. The efficiency of labeling was more than 97% and complex was stable for about 12h at 30 degrees C in the presence of serum. Both ligands showed binding to most of the organs, known to express CCK receptors in biodistribution studies. Cholecystokinin (CCK(1) andCCK(2)) receptor binding affinities of these analogues are, IC(50), 0.942+/-0.107 for compound C and 0.665+/-0.211 for compound D in rat pancreatic acini. The anti-fungal activity has shown inhibitory activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. These studies have provided a new template for further development of non-peptidic ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes of diseases related with CCK receptors as well as anti-microbes.
Maurin, Michał; Garnuszek, Piotr; Baran, Piotr; Pawlak, Dariusz; Mikołajczak, Renata
The minigastrin analogue - CP04: DOTA-(DGlu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 has been developed for CCK2R targeting. This analogue can be radiolabelled with 111In or 68Ga for imaging, or with 90Y and 177Lu for therapy. However, affinity of the chelator-peptide conjugates to the cell membrane receptors may vary depending on the metal incorporated into the complex. So far, there are no such studies for the ligands of gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor CCK2R. It is supposed that the reason for the differentiation of receptor affinity to the respective receptors is in the changes of structure of chelating system and their influence on the bioactive conformations of the metal conjugated peptides. Herein, we report on the radiolabeling of CP04 with 90Y, 177Lu and 68Ga and synthesis of cold CP04 complexes with respective stable metals for further structural and physico-chemical and biological studies. From 200 to 600 MBq of 90Y, 177Lu or 68Ga were used for radiolabelling of 20 μg of CP04 dissolved in ascorbic acid solution (50 mg/mL, pH 4.5). Non-radioactive complexes with Lu and Ga were synthesized in milligram amounts starting from 0.5 mg up to 5 mg of CP04 dissolved in ascorbic acid solution (50 mg/mL, pH 4.5) when using 2-molar excess of the metal ions. Complex formation needed 5 min in microwave oven or 12 min in thermo-block at 95°C. RP-HPLC isocratic method (Kinetex 150/4.6 mm; 25% AcN/0.1% TFA, 1 mL/min) with UV/Vis and radiometric detection was developed for investigation of the radiolabelled and "cold" complexes. For LC-MS investigations, HPLC method was modified replacing TFA by formic acid. Yields of CP04 radiolabelling were greater than 90% for all three radionuclides. The HPLC method enabled identification of these radio-complexes based on comparison to their non-radioactive equivalents. In all cases, chromatograms revealed peaks that could be attributed to the metal-CP04 complexes and to impurities (including methionine oxidation). LC-MS analysis of Ga and
Björkqvist, Maria; Dornonville de la Cour, Charlotta; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Gagnemo-Persson, Rebecca; Håkanson, Rolf; Norlén, Per
Histamine-producing ECL cells and ghrelin-producing A-like cells are endocrine/paracrine cell populations in the acid-producing part of the rat stomach. While the A-like cells operate independently of gastrin, the ECL cells respond to gastrin with mobilization of histamine and chromogranin A (CGA)-derived peptides, such as pancreastatin. Gastrin is often assumed to be the driving force behind the postnatal development of the gastric mucosa in general and the ECL cells in particular. We tested this assumption by examining the oxyntic mucosa (with ECL cells and A-like cells) in developing rats under the influence of YF476, a cholecystokinin-2 (CCK(2)) receptor antagonist. The drug was administered by weekly subcutaneous injections starting at birth. The body weight gain was not affected. Weaning occurred at days 15-22 in both YF476-treated and age-matched control rats. Circulating gastrin was low at birth and reached adult levels 2 weeks after birth. During and after weaning (but not before), YF476 greatly raised the serum gastrin concentration (because of abolished acid feedback inhibition of gastrin release). The weight of the stomach was unaffected by YF476 during the first 2-3 weeks after birth. From 4 to 5 weeks of age, the weight and thickness of the gastric mucosa were lower in YF476-treated rats than in controls. Pancreastatin-immunoreactive cells (i.e. all endocrine cells in the stomach) and ghrelin-immunoreactive cells (A-like cells) were few at birth and increased gradually in number until 6-8 weeks of age (control rats). At first, YF476 did not affect the development of the pancreastatin-immunoreactive cells, but a few weeks after weaning, the cells were fewer in the YF476 rats. The ECL-cell parameters (oxyntic mucosal histamine and pancreastatin concentrations, the histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity, the HDC mRNA levels and serum pancreastatin concentration) increased slowly until weaning in both YF476-treated and control rats. From then on, there
Ozaki, Tomoya; Mohammad, Shahid; Morioka, Eri; Takiguchi, Soichi; Ikeda, Masayuki
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hypothetical controller for suckling and infancy body weight, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the present study analysed the mechanisms using mice lacking the CCK-1 receptor (CCK1R-/-). Although CCK1R-/- mice displayed normal weights at birth and adulthood, CCK1R-/- pups had enlarged adipocytes and were overweight from the first to second week after birth, regardless of maternal genotype. The lacZ reporter gene assay and/or calcium imaging analysis demonstrated that CCK-1 receptors were abundant in satiety-controlling regions such as the hypothalamus, brainstem, nodose ganglion and pylorus in adults, whereas these signals were few to lacking at pre-weanling stages. At postnatal day (PD) 6, the increase in cFos expression in the medullary nucleus tractus solitarius was similarly triggered by gastrointestinal milk- or saline filling in both genotypes, further indicating immature CCK-1 receptor function in an ascending satiety-controlling system during infancy. Conversely, third ventricle ependymal tanycyte-like cells expressed CCK-1 receptors with expression peaking at PD6. At PD6, wild-type but not CCK1R-/- mice had increased cFos immunoreactivity in ependymal cells following gastrointestinal milk filling whereas the response became negligible at PD12. In addition, ependymal cFos was not increased by saline filling, indicating that these responses are dependent on CCK-1 receptors, developmental stage and nutrients. Furthermore, body weights of wild-type pups were transiently increased by blocking ependymal CCK receptor function with microinjection of a CCK-1 antagonist, but not a CCK-2 antagonist. Hence, we demonstrate de novo functions of ependymal CCK-1 receptors and reveal a new aspect of infant satiety-controlling mechanisms.
Matsuno, K; Tomita, K; Okabe, S
Alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine are well known to potently stimulate gastric acid secretion, most probably through an increase in circulating gastrin level. The present study examined whether or not wine stimulates gastric acid secretion by a direct effect on parietal cells, enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells or both. Gastric mucosa was isolated from female Japanese white rabbits and gland specimens were prepared by the collagenase digestion method. Acid secretion was assessed by gland accumulation of [14C] aminopyrine. The effects of red wine, ethanol, non-alcoholic wine and drugs were determined by incubating gastric glands with aminopyrine. Radioactivity in solubilized glands was determined by a liquid scintillation counting. Neither wine nor ethanol (diluted 1 : 10(2) to 1 : 10(4)) had any effect on gastric acid secretion, whereas non-alcoholic wine stimulated acid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. All substances, however, significantly stimulated gastric acid secretion in IBMX (phosphodiesterase inhibitor)-pretreated glands. S-0509 (a CCK-2 receptor antagonist) and atropine had no effect on acid secretion stimulated by wine, ethanol or non-alcoholic wine in IBMX-pretreated glands. Famotidine and omeprazole significantly inhibited the acid secretion resulting from all of the above stimulants. BAPTA (an intracellular Ca2+ chelator) inhibited acid secretion stimulated with wine or ethanol in a dose-dependent manner, but did not inhibit secretion stimulated by non-alcoholic wine. Wine was found to stimulate gastric acid secretion in gastric glands via two pathways, by an ethanol-induced increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ in parietal cells, and by histamine release from ECL cells potentially induced by constituents present in wine.
Seillier, Alexandre; Martinez, Alex A; Giuffrida, Andrea
The neuronal mechanisms underlying social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, are not well understood. Recent studies suggest an involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, in particular, of negative symptoms. We used biochemical, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches to investigate the role played by the endocannabinoid system in social withdrawal induced by sub-chronic administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid levels via systemic administration of URB597, an inhibitor of endocannabinoid degradation, reversed social withdrawal in PCP-treated rats via stimulation of CB1 receptors, but reduced social interaction in control animals through activation of a cannabinoid/vanilloid-sensitive receptor. In addition, the potent CB agonist CP55,940 reversed PCP-induced social withdrawal in a CB₁-dependent manner, whereas pharmacological blockade of CB₁ receptors by either AM251 or SR141716 reduced the time spent in social interaction in control animals. PCP-induced social withdrawal was accompanied by a decrease of anandamide (AEA) levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and these deficits were reversed by URB597. As CB₁ receptors are predominantly expressed on GABAergic interneurons containing the anxiogenic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK), we also examined whether the PCP-induced social withdrawal resulted from deficient CB₁-mediated modulation of CCK transmission. The selective CCK2 antagonist LY225910 blocked both PCP- and AM251-induced social withdrawal, but not URB597 effect in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that AEA-mediated activation of CB₁ receptors is crucial for social interaction, and that PCP-induced social withdrawal results from deficient endocannabinoid transmission.
Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Sant'Ana, Ana Beatriz; Vilela-Costa, Heloísa Helena; Zangrossi, Hélio
The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety, particularly in panic disorder (PD). Evidence obtained with animal models indicates that different neurotransmitters/neuromodulators in this midbrain area are involved in the regulation of anxiety- (e.g. inhibitory avoidance) and panic- (e.g. escape) associated defensive behaviors. Earlier findings showed that activation of serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors in the DPAG inhibits escape expression, a panicolytic-like effect. Recently gathered evidence shows that different classes of antipanic drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant fluoxetine or the benzodiazepine alprazolam, enhance the inhibitory action of 5-HT upon these receptors. They also show that opioidergic mechanisms, through the activation of μ-receptors, contribute to this process. As with 5-HT, activation of GABAA or GABAB receptors, or cannabinoid type 1receptors as well as the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptors by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DPAG also inhibits escape expression. There is evidence that chronic antidepressant treatment, besides facilitating 5-HT/opioid neurotransmission, also increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in this area with an impact on its panicolytic effect. On the other hand, facilitation of corticotrophin releasing factor- or cholecystokinin-mediated neurotransmission in the DPAG, via CRF1 and CCK2 receptors, respectively, causes panicogenic-like effects with implications for the pathogenesis of PD. A better understanding of the neurochemical control of defense in the DPAG may foster the development of new strategies for pharmacological treatment of PD.
Desai, Aditya J.; Dong, Maoqing; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.
Dysfunction of the type 1 cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor (CCK1R) as a result of increased gallbladder muscularis membrane cholesterol has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. Administration of ursodeoxycholic acid, which is structurally related to cholesterol, has been shown to have beneficial effects on gallstone formation. Our aims were to explore the possible direct effects and mechanism of action of bile acids on CCK receptor function. We studied the effects of structurally related hydrophobic chenodeoxycholic acid and hydrophilic ursodeoxycholic acid in vitro on CCK receptor function in the setting of normal and elevated membrane cholesterol. We also examined their effects on a cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant (Y140A) disrupting a key site of cholesterol action. The results show that, similar to the impact of cholesterol on CCK receptors, bile acid effects were limited to CCK1R, with no effects on CCK2R. Chenodeoxycholic acid had a negative impact on CCK1R function, while ursodeoxycholic acid had no effect on CCK1R function in normal membranes but was protective against the negative impact of elevated cholesterol on this receptor. The cholesterol-insensitive CCK1R mutant Y140A was resistant to effects of both bile acids. These data suggest that bile acids compete with the action of cholesterol on CCK1R, probably by interacting at the same site, although the conformational impact of each bile acid appears to be different, with ursodeoxycholic acid capable of correcting the abnormal conformation of CCK1R in a high-cholesterol environment. This mechanism may contribute to the beneficial effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in reducing cholesterol gallstone formation. PMID:26138469
O'Hara, Adrian; Howarth, Alice; Varro, Andrea; Dimaline, Rod
The hormone gastrin physiologically regulates gastric acid secretion and also contributes to maintaining gastric epithelial architecture by regulating expression of genes such as plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2) and regenerating protein 1 (Reg1). Here we examine the role of proteasome subunit PSMB1 in the transcriptional regulation of PAI-2 and Reg1 by gastrin, and its subcellular distribution during gastrin stimulation. We used the gastric cancer cell line AGS, permanently transfected with the CCK2 receptor (AGS-GR) to study gastrin stimulated expression of PAI-2 and Reg1 reporter constructs when PSMB1 was knocked down by siRNA. Binding of PSMB1 to the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Subcellular distribution of PSMB1 was determined by immunocytochemistry and Western Blot. Gastrin robustly increased expression of PAI-2 and Reg1 in AGS-GR cells, but when PSMB1 was knocked down the responses were dramatically reduced. In ChIP assays, following immunoprecipitation of chromatin with a PSMB1 antibody there was a substantial enrichment of DNA from the gastrin responsive regions of the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters compared with chromatin precipitated with control IgG. In AGS-GR cells stimulated with gastrin there was a significant increase in the ratio of nuclear:cytoplasmic PSMB1 over the same timescale as recruitment of PSMB1 to the PAI-2 and Reg1 promoters seen in ChIP assays. We conclude that PSMB1 is part of the transcriptional machinery required for gastrin stimulated expression of PAI-2 and Reg1, and that its change in subcellular distribution in response to gastrin is consistent with this role.
Selvik, Linn-Karina M; Rao, Shalini; Steigedal, Tonje S; Haltbakk, Ildri; Misund, Kristine; Bruland, Torunn; Prestvik, Wenche S; Lægreid, Astrid; Thommesen, Liv
Salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1/Snf1lk) belongs to the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family of kinases, all of which play major roles in regulating metabolism and cell growth. Recent studies have shown that reduced levels of SIK1 are associated with poor outcome in cancers, and that this involves an invasive cellular phenotype with increased metastatic potential. However, the molecular mechanism(s) regulated by SIK1 in cancer cells is not well explored. The peptide hormone gastrin regulates cellular processes involved in oncogenesis, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The aim of this study was to examine the role of SIK1 in gastrin responsive adenocarcinoma cell lines AR42J, AGS-GR and MKN45. We show that gastrin, known to signal through the Gq/G11-coupled CCK2 receptor, induces SIK1 expression in adenocarcinoma cells, and that transcriptional activation of SIK1 is negatively regulated by the Inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER). We demonstrate that gastrin-mediated signalling induces phosphorylation of Liver Kinase 1B (LKB1) Ser-428 and SIK1 Thr-182. Ectopic expression of SIK1 increases gastrin-induced phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and enhances gastrin-induced transcription of c-fos and CRE-, SRE-, AP1- and NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter plasmids. We also show that gastrin induces phosphorylation and nuclear export of HDACs. Next we find that siRNA mediated knockdown of SIK1 increases migration of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS-GR. Evidence provided here demonstrates that SIK1 is regulated by gastrin and influences gastrin elicited signalling in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The results from the present study are relevant for the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in gastric adenocarcinomas.
Misund, Kristine; Selvik, Linn-Karina Myrland; Rao, Shalini; Nørsett, Kristin; Bakke, Ingunn; Sandvik, Arne K; Lægreid, Astrid; Bruland, Torunn; Prestvik, Wenche S; Thommesen, Liv
The peptide hormone gastrin is known to play a role in differentiation, growth and apoptosis of cells in the gastric mucosa. In this study we demonstrate that gastrin induces Nuclear Receptor 4A2 (NR4A2) expression in the adenocarcinoma cell lines AR42J and AGS-GR, which both possess the gastrin/CCK2 receptor. In vivo, NR4A2 is strongly expressed in the gastrin responsive neuroendocrine ECL cells in normal mucosa, whereas gastric adenocarcinoma tissue reveals a more diffuse and variable expression in tumor cells. We show that NR4A2 is a primary early transient gastrin induced gene in adenocarcinoma cell lines, and that NR4A2 expression is negatively regulated by inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) and zinc finger protein 36, C3H1 type-like 1 (Zfp36l1), suggesting that these gastrin regulated proteins exert a negative feedback control of NR4A2 activated responses. FRAP analyses indicate that gastrin also modifies the nucleus-cytosol shuttling of NR4A2, with more NR4A2 localized to cytoplasm upon gastrin treatment. Knock-down experiments with siRNA targeting NR4A2 increase migration of gastrin treated adenocarcinoma AGS-GR cells, while ectopically expressed NR4A2 increases apoptosis and hampers gastrin induced invasion, indicating a tumor suppressor function of NR4A2. Collectively, our results uncover a role of NR4A2 in gastric adenocarcinoma cells, and suggest that both the level and the localization of NR4A2 protein are of importance regarding the cellular responses of these cells.
Zhu, Guangjing; Yan, Jianqun; Smith, Wanli W; Moran, Timothy H; Bi, Sheng
A role for dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) cholecystokinin (CCK) signaling in feeding control has been proposed. Administration of CCK into the DMH reduces food intake and OLETF rats lacking CCK1 receptors (CCK1R) become hyperphagic and obese. We hypothesized that site specific replenishment of CCK1R in the DMH of OLETF rats would attenuate aspects of their feeding deficits. Recombinant vectors of adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated expression of CCK1R (AAVCCK1R) were bilaterally delivered into the DMH of OLETF. OLETF rats with AAVCCK1R injections demonstrated a 65% replenishment of Cck1r mRNA expression in the DMH relative to lean LETO control rats. Although this level of replenishment did not significantly affect overall food intake or body weight through 14 weeks following viral injections, meal patterns were partially normalized in OLETF rats receiving AAVCCK1R with a significant decrease in dark cycle meal size and a small but significant decrease in daily food intake in the meal analysis chambers. Importantly, the elevation in blood glucose level of OLETF rats was attenuated by the AAVCCK1R injections (p=0.03), suggesting a role for DMH CCK signaling in glucose homeostasis. In support of this role, administration of CCK into the DMH of intact rats enhanced glucose tolerance, as this occurred through activation of CCK1R but not CCK2R signaling. In conclusion, partial replenishment of CCK1R in the DMH of OLETF rats, although insufficient for altering overall food intake and body weight, normalizes meal pattern changes and reduces blood glucose levels. Our study also shows a novel role of DMH CCK signaling in glucose homeostasis.
Chandranath, S I; Bastaki, S M A; D'Souza, A; Adem, A; Singh, J
Combining restraint with cold temperature (4°C) consistently induces gastric ulceration in rats after 3.5 h. The cold restraint-stress (CRS) method provides a suitable model for acute ulcer investigations. This study compares the antiulcer activities of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor), PD-136450 (CCK(2)/gastrin receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (histamine H(2) receptor antagonist) on CRS-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The results have shown that lansoprazole, which is a potent anti-secretory agent, provides complete protection in this model of ulcer formation. The use of indomethacin pretreatment to inhibit the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and N(G)-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment to inhibit nitric oxide synthase did not alter the lansoprazole-induced inhibition of ulcer index obtained in the untreated Wistar rats indicating that these two systems were not involved in the activation of lansoprazole. PD-136450, an effective anti-secretory agent against gastrin- but not dimaprit-induced stimulation, evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of CRS-induced gastric ulcers. The results show that both PG and nitric oxide pathways can influence the inhibitory effect of PD-136450 against CRS-induced gastric ulcer. The antiulcer activities of both lansoprazole and PD-136450 were compared to that of ranitidine. The results showed that ranitidine was more potent than lansoprazole and PD-136450 in inhibiting CRS-induced gastric ulcers and its effect was shown to be influenced by PG as well as nitric oxide synthase. The results of this study have demonstrated that although lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine were protective against CRS-induced gastric ulcers, the antiulcer activities of PD-136450 and ranitidine involved both PG and nitric oxide pathways, while lansoprazole acted independently of these two systems during CRS.
Lee, Chung-Wei; Rickman, Barry; Rogers, Arlin B.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Takaishi, Shigeo; Yang, Peiying; Wang, Timothy C.; Fox, James G.
Helicobacter pylori infection causes severe dysplasia manifested as gastrointestinal intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) after 28 weeks post H. pylori infection (WPI) in cancer-prone, hypergastrinemic male INS-GAS mice. We examined the efficacy of the NSAID sulindac (400 ppm in drinking water) alone, the CCK2/gastrin receptor antagonist YM022 (45 mg/kg/week) alone, and sulindac or YM022 combined with H. pylori eradication therapy to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric cancer in male INS-GAS mice. Treatments started at 22 WPI, and mice were euthanized at 28 WPI. In uninfected mice, all treatments significantly delayed development of spontaneous GIN (p<0.05). In H. pylori-infected mice, sulindac alone or YM022 alone had no protective effect on H. pylori-associated GIN. Importantly, sulindac exacerbated the severity of H. pylori-associated gastritis despite decreased gastric PEG2 levels. However, sulindac combined with H. pylori antimicrobial eradication reduced the incidence of GIN (p<0.05), whereas YM022 combined with antimicrobial eradication did not reduce GIN. In infected mice, sulindac or YM022 treatment did not alter gastric expression of the proinflammatory cytokines Ifn-γ and Tnf-α and mucosal cell proliferation. Sulindac or YM022 combined with antimicrobial eradication down-regulated mRNA levels of Ifnγ and Tnfα, and mucosal cell proliferation (p<0.05). We conclude that sulindac enhances H. pylori gastritis and may promote inflammation-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. The combination of sulindac and antimicrobial H. pylori eradication was beneficial for reducing proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in the stomach and preventing progression from severe dysplasia to gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected INS-GAS mice. PMID:19826057
Chen, Duan; Zhao, Chun-Mei
Physiology of gastric acid secretion is one of the earliest subjects in medical research and education. Gastric acid secretion has been sometimes inadequately expressed as pH value rather than amount of gastric H(+) secreted per unit time. Gastric acid secretion is regulated by endocrine, paracrine and neurocrine signals via at least three messenger pathways: gastrin-histamine, CCK-somatostatin, and neural network. These pathways have been largely validated and further characterized by phenotyping a series of knockout mouse models. The complexity of gastric acid secretion is illustrated by both expected and unexpected phenotypes of altered acid secretion. For examples, in comparison with wild-type mice, gastrin and CCK double knockout and SSTR(2) knockout mice displayed a shift in the regulation of ECL cells from somatostatin-SSTR(2) pathway to galanin-Gal1 receptor pathway; a shift in the regulation of parietal cells from gastrin-histamine pathway to vagal pathway; and a shift in the CCK(2) receptors on parietal cells from functional silence to activation. The biological function of glycine-extended gastrin in synergizing gastrin-17 has been revealed in gastrin knockout mice. The roles of gastric acid secretion in tumorigenesis and ulceration have not been fully understood. Transgenic hypergastrinemic INS-GAS mice developed a spontaneous gastric cancer, which was associated with an impaired acid secretion. Gastrin knockout mice were still able to produce acid in response to vagal stimulation, especially after H. pylori infection. Taken together, phenotyping of a series of genetically engineered mouse models reveals a high degree of complexity of gastric acid secretion in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
Misund, Kristine; Selvik, Linn-Karina Myrland; Rao, Shalini; Nørsett, Kristin; Bakke, Ingunn; Sandvik, Arne K.; Lægreid, Astrid; Bruland, Torunn; Prestvik, Wenche S.; Thommesen, Liv
The peptide hormone gastrin is known to play a role in differentiation, growth and apoptosis of cells in the gastric mucosa. In this study we demonstrate that gastrin induces Nuclear Receptor 4A2 (NR4A2) expression in the adenocarcinoma cell lines AR42J and AGS-GR, which both possess the gastrin/CCK2 receptor. In vivo, NR4A2 is strongly expressed in the gastrin responsive neuroendocrine ECL cells in normal mucosa, whereas gastric adenocarcinoma tissue reveals a more diffuse and variable expression in tumor cells. We show that NR4A2 is a primary early transient gastrin induced gene in adenocarcinoma cell lines, and that NR4A2 expression is negatively regulated by inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) and zinc finger protein 36, C3H1 type-like 1 (Zfp36l1), suggesting that these gastrin regulated proteins exert a negative feedback control of NR4A2 activated responses. FRAP analyses indicate that gastrin also modifies the nucleus-cytosol shuttling of NR4A2, with more NR4A2 localized to cytoplasm upon gastrin treatment. Knock-down experiments with siRNA targeting NR4A2 increase migration of gastrin treated adenocarcinoma AGS-GR cells, while ectopically expressed NR4A2 increases apoptosis and hampers gastrin induced invasion, indicating a tumor suppressor function of NR4A2. Collectively, our results uncover a role of NR4A2 in gastric adenocarcinoma cells, and suggest that both the level and the localization of NR4A2 protein are of importance regarding the cellular responses of these cells. PMID:24086717
Desai, Aditya J; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Miller, Laurence J
Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the type 1 CCK receptor (CCK1R) to elicit satiety after a meal. Agonists with this activity, although potentially useful for treatment of obesity, can also have side effects and toxicities of concern, making the development of an intrinsically inactive positive allosteric modulator quite attractive. Positive allosteric modulators also have the potential to correct the defective receptor-G protein coupling observed in the high membrane cholesterol environment described in metabolic syndrome. Current model systems to study CCK1R in such an environment are unstable and expensive to maintain. We now report that the Y140A mutation within a cholesterol-binding motif and the conserved, class A G protein-coupled receptor-specific (E/D)RY signature sequence results in ligand binding and activity characteristics similar to wild type CCK1R in a high cholesterol environment. This is true for natural CCK, as well as ligands with distinct chemistries and activity profiles. Additionally, the Y140A construct also behaved like CCK1R in high cholesterol in regard to its internalization, sensitivity to a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, and anisotropy of a bound fluorescent CCK analog. Chimeric CCK1R/CCK2R constructs that systematically changed the residues in the allosteric ligand-binding pocket were studied in the presence of Y140A. This established increased importance of unique residues within TM3 and reduced the importance of TM2 for binding in the presence of this mutation, with the agonist trigger likely pulled away from its Leu(356) target on TM7. The distinct conformation of this intramembranous pocket within Y140A CCK1R provides an opportunity to normalize this by using a small molecule allosteric ligand, thereby providing safe and effective correction of the coupling defect in metabolic syndrome.
Kumar, J. Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R.; Murugesan, Senthil V.; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D. Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea
The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling. PMID:25977510
Lambrecht, Nils W G; Yakubov, Iskandar; Zer, Cindy; Sachs, George
The gastric entero-chromaffin-like (ECL) cell plays a key regulatory role in peripheral regulation of acid secretion due to the release of histamine that stimulates acid secretion by the parietal cell. Studies in intact animals, gastric glands, and isolated cells after short-term culture have shown expression of stimulatory CCK2 and PAC1 and inhibitory SST2 and Gal1 receptors as well as histidine decarboxylase. However, the pattern of its gene expression as a neuroendocrine cell has not been explored. Comparison of gene expression by 95% pure ECL cells obtained by density gradient, elutriation, and fluorescence-assisted cell sorting with isolates of the intact fundic gastric epithelium (i.e., "subtractive hybridization") identified a variety of additional expressed gene families characteristic of this neuroendocrine cell. These include genes 1) involved in neuropeptide synthesis and secretory vesicle exocytosis, 2) involved in control of inflammation, 3) implicated in healing of the epithelium, 4) encoding inhibitory Gi protein-coupled receptors, 5) playing a role in neuroendocrine regulation of food intake, and 6) encoding proteins likely involved in maintenance of circadian rhythm, in addition to the ECL cell-specific genes histidine decarboxylase and monoamine transporter. Particularly, the inhibitory apelin receptor gene, APJ, was highly expressed in the ECL cell preparation. Because parietal cells express apelin, immunohistochemical and functional studies showed that there is an inhibitory feed back loop between the parietal and ECL cell during gastrin stimulation, providing evidence for a novel pathway of downregulation of acid secretion due to interaction between these two cell types.
Fuxe, Kjell; Tarakanov, Alexander; Romero Fernandez, Wilber; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Filip, Malgorzata; Agnati, Luigi F.; Garriga, Pere; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.
Allosteric receptor–receptor interactions in GPCR heteromers appeared to introduce an intermolecular allosteric mechanism contributing to the diversity and bias in the protomers. Examples of dopamine D2R heteromerization are given to show how such allosteric mechanisms significantly change the receptor protomer repertoire leading to diversity and biased recognition and signaling. In 1980s and 1990s, it was shown that neurotensin (NT) through selective antagonistic NTR–D2 like receptor interactions increased the diversity of DA signaling by reducing D2R-mediated dopamine signaling over D1R-mediated dopamine signaling. Furthermore, D2R protomer appeared to bias the specificity of the NTR orthosteric binding site toward neuromedin N vs. NT in the heteroreceptor complex. Complex CCK2R–D1R–D2R interactions in possible heteroreceptor complexes were also demonstrated further increasing receptor diversity. In D2R–5-HT2AR heteroreceptor complexes, the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI were recently found to exert a biased agonist action on the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer leading to the development of an active conformational state different from the one produced by 5-HT. Furthermore, as recently demonstrated allosteric A2A–D2R receptor–receptor interaction brought about not only a reduced affinity of the D2R agonist binding site but also a biased modulation of the D2R protomer signaling in A2A–D2R heteroreceptor complexes. A conformational state of the D2R was induced, which moved away from Gi/o signaling and instead favored β-arrestin2-mediated signaling. These examples on allosteric receptor–receptor interactions obtained over several decades serve to illustrate the significant increase in diversity and biased recognition and signaling that develop through such mechanisms. PMID:24860548
Fuxe, Kjell; Tarakanov, Alexander; Romero Fernandez, Wilber; Ferraro, Luca; Tanganelli, Sergio; Filip, Malgorzata; Agnati, Luigi F; Garriga, Pere; Diaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O
Allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in GPCR heteromers appeared to introduce an intermolecular allosteric mechanism contributing to the diversity and bias in the protomers. Examples of dopamine D2R heteromerization are given to show how such allosteric mechanisms significantly change the receptor protomer repertoire leading to diversity and biased recognition and signaling. In 1980s and 1990s, it was shown that neurotensin (NT) through selective antagonistic NTR-D2 like receptor interactions increased the diversity of DA signaling by reducing D2R-mediated dopamine signaling over D1R-mediated dopamine signaling. Furthermore, D2R protomer appeared to bias the specificity of the NTR orthosteric binding site toward neuromedin N vs. NT in the heteroreceptor complex. Complex CCK2R-D1R-D2R interactions in possible heteroreceptor complexes were also demonstrated further increasing receptor diversity. In D2R-5-HT2AR heteroreceptor complexes, the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI were recently found to exert a biased agonist action on the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer leading to the development of an active conformational state different from the one produced by 5-HT. Furthermore, as recently demonstrated allosteric A2A-D2R receptor-receptor interaction brought about not only a reduced affinity of the D2R agonist binding site but also a biased modulation of the D2R protomer signaling in A2A-D2R heteroreceptor complexes. A conformational state of the D2R was induced, which moved away from Gi/o signaling and instead favored β-arrestin2-mediated signaling. These examples on allosteric receptor-receptor interactions obtained over several decades serve to illustrate the significant increase in diversity and biased recognition and signaling that develop through such mechanisms.
Wagner, K M; Roeder, Z; Desrochers, K; Buhler, A V; Heinricher, M M; Cleary, D R
While intense or highly arousing stressors have long been known to suppress pain, relatively mild or chronic stress can enhance pain. The mechanisms underlying stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH) are only now being defined. The physiological and neuroendocrine effects of mild stress are mediated by the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), which has documented connections with the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a brainstem region capable of facilitating nociception. We hypothesized that stress engages both the DMH and the RVM to produce hyperalgesia. Direct pharmacological activation of the DMH increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in awake animals, confirming that the DMH can mediate behavioral hyperalgesia. A behavioral model of mild stress also produced mechanical hyperalgesia, which was blocked by inactivation of either the DMH or the RVM. The neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) acts in the RVM to enhance nociception and is abundant in the DMH. Using a retrograde tracer and immunohistochemical labeling, we determined that CCK-expressing neurons in the DMH are the only significant supraspinal source of CCK in the RVM. However, not all neurons projecting from the DMH to the RVM contained CCK, and microinjection of the CCK2 receptor antagonist YM022 in the RVM did not interfere with SIH, suggesting that transmitters in addition to CCK play a significant role in this connection during acute stress. While the RVM has a well-established role in facilitation of nociception, the DMH, with its well-documented role in stress, may also be engaged in a number of chronic or abnormal pain states. Taken as a whole, these findings establish an anatomical and functional connection between the DMH and RVM by which stress can facilitate pain.
Balaskó, M; Rostás, I; Füredi, N; Mikó, A; Tenk, J; Cséplő, P; Koncsecskó-Gáspár, M; Soós, S; Székely, M; Pétervári, E
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is anorexic, irrespective whether it is applied intraperitoneally (IP) or intracerebroventricularly (ICV) in male Wistar rats. The metabolic effects depend on the route of administration: by the IP route it elicits hypothermia (presumably by type-1 receptors, CCK1R-s), while ICV administration is followed by fever-like hypermetabolism and hyperthermia via activation of CCK2R-s, which latter response seems to be most important in the postprandial (compensatory) hypermetabolism. The efficacy of the IP injected CCK varies with age: it causes strong anorexia in young adult 4 and 6-months old and again in old rats (aged 18-24 months), but the middle-aged (12-month old) ones seem to be resistant to this effect. Such pattern of effects may contribute to the explanation of age-related obesity observed in middle-aged animals as well as to the aging anorexia and loss of body weight in old ones. Diet-induced obesity accelerates the appearance of CCK-resistance as well as the return of high sensitivity to CCK in further aging, while chronic calorie-restriction prevents the development of resistance, as if the speed of the age-related regulatory changes was altered by the nutritional state. The effects of ICV applied CCK also change with age: the characteristic anorexic and hypermetabolic/hyperthermic effects can be observed in young adult rats, but the effects gradually and monotonically decline with age and disappear by the old age of 24 months. These disparate age-related patterns of CCK efficacy upon peripheral or central administration routes may indicate that although both peripheral and central CCKR-s exert anorexic effects, they may have dissimilar roles in the regulation of overall energy balance.
Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Pan, Xiao; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J.
Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1) deoxynivalenol (DON), (2) 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), (3) 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), (4) fusarenon X (FX), and (5) nivalenol (NIV). While anorexia induction in mice exposed intraperitoneally to DON has been linked to plasma elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36), the effects of oral gavage of DON or of other 8-keotrichothecenes on release of these gut peptides have not been established. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the anorectic responses to the aforementioned 8-ketotrichothecenes following oral gavage at a common dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) and (2) relate these effects to changes plasma CCK and PYY3–36 concentrations. Elevation of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by DON and all other 8-ketotrichothecenes tested. Furthermore, the CCK1 receptor antagonist SR 27897 and the CCK2 receptor antagonist L-365,260 dose-dependently attenuated both CCK- and DON-induced anorexia, which was consistent with this gut satiety hormone being an important mediator of 8-ketotrichothecene-induced food refusal. In contrast to CCK, PYY3–36 was moderately elevated by oral gavage with DON and NIV but not by 3-ADON, 15-ADON, or FX. Taken together, the results suggest that CCK plays a major role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to 8-ketotrichothecenes, whereas PYY3–36 might play a lesser, congener-dependent role in this response. PMID:24385417
Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Pan, Xiao; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J
Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1) deoxynivalenol (DON), (2) 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), (3) 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), (4) fusarenon X (FX), and (5) nivalenol (NIV). While anorexia induction in mice exposed intraperitoneally to DON has been linked to plasma elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY₃₋₃₆ (PYY₃₋₃₆), the effects of oral gavage of DON or of other 8-keotrichothecenes on release of these gut peptides have not been established. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the anorectic responses to the aforementioned 8-ketotrichothecenes following oral gavage at a common dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) and (2) relate these effects to changes plasma CCK and PYY₃₋₃₆ concentrations. Elevation of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by DON and all other 8-ketotrichothecenes tested. Furthermore, the CCK1 receptor antagonist SR 27897 and the CCK2 receptor antagonist L-365,260 dose-dependently attenuated both CCK- and DON-induced anorexia, which was consistent with this gut satiety hormone being an important mediator of 8-ketotrichothecene-induced food refusal. In contrast to CCK, PYY₃₋₃₆ was moderately elevated by oral gavage with DON and NIV but not by 3-ADON, 15-ADON, or FX. Taken together, the results suggest that CCK plays a major role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to 8-ketotrichothecenes, whereas PYY₃₋₃₆ might play a lesser, congener-dependent role in this response.
Sjöblom, Markus; Lindqvist, Ramin; Bengtsson, Magnus W; Jedstedt, Gunilla; Flemström, Gunnar
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important regulator of food digestion but its influence on small intestinal secretion has received little attention. We characterized effects of CCK-8, ghrelin and some related peptides on duodenal HCO3(-) secretion in vivo and demonstrated CCK-induced calcium signaling in acutely isolated enterocytes. A segment of proximal duodenum with intact blood supply was cannulated in situ in anaesthetized rats. Mucosal HCO3(-) secretion was continuously recorded (pH-stat). Peptides were administrated to the duodenum by close intra-arterial infusion. Clusters of duodenal enterocytes were attached to the bottom of a perfusion chamber. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was examined by dual-wavelength imaging. CCK-8 (3.0, 15 and 60 pmol/kg,h) caused dose-dependent increases (p<0.01) in duodenal alkaline secretion in both overnight fasted and continuously fed animals. The CCK1R-antagonist devazepide but neither the CCK2R-antagonist YMM022 nor the melatonin MT2-selective antagonist luzindole inhibited the rise in secretion. Atropine decreased sensitivity to CCK-8. The appetite-related peptide ghrelin was without effect on the duodenal secretion in fasted as well as fed animals. Superfusion with CCK-8 (1.0-50 nM) induced [Ca(2+)]i signaling in acutely isolated duodenal enterocytes. After an initial peak response, [Ca(2+)]i returned to near basal values within 3-5min. Devazepide but not YMM022 inhibited this [Ca(2+)]i response. Low doses of CCK-8 stimulate duodenal alkaline secretion and induce enterocyte [Ca(2+)]i signaling by an action at CCK1 receptors. The results point to importance of CCK in the rapid postprandial rise in mucosa-protective duodenal secretion.
Pawlak, Dariusz; Rangger, Christine; Peitl, Petra Kolenc; Garnuszek, Piotr; Maurin, Michał; Ihli, Laura; Kroselj, Marko; Maina, Theodosia; Maecke, Helmut; Erba, Paola; Kremser, Leopold; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Mikołajczak, Renata; Decristoforo, Clemens
Introduction A variety of radiolabelled minigastrin analogues targeting the cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2) receptor were developed and compared in a concerted preclinical testing to select the most promising radiotracer for diagnosis and treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). DOTA–DGlu–DGlu–DGlu–DGlu–DGlu–DGlu– Ala–Tyr–Gly–Trp–Met–Asp–Phe–NH2 (CP04) after labelling with 111In displayed excellent characteristics, such as high stability, receptor affinity, specific and persistent tumour uptake and low kidney retention in animal models. Therefore, it was selected for further clinical evaluation within the ERA-NET project GRAN-T-MTC. Here we report on the development of a pharmaceutical freeze-dried formulation of the precursor CP04 for a first multi-centre clinical trial with 111In-CP04 in MTC patients. Materials and methods The kit formulation was optimised by adjustment of buffer, additives and radiolabelling conditions. Three clinical grade batches of a final kit formulation with two different amounts of peptide (10 or 50 μg) were prepared and radiolabelled with 111In. Quality control and stability assays of both the kits and the resulting radiolabelled compound were performed by HPLC analysis. Results Use of ascorbic acid buffer (pH 4.5) allowed freeze-drying of the kit formulation with satisfactory pellet-formation. Addition of methionine and gentisic acid as well as careful selection of radiolabelling temperature was required to avoid extensive oxidation of the Met11-residue. Trace metal contamination, in particular Zn, was found to be a major challenge during the pharmaceutical filling process in particular for the 10 μg formulation. The final formulations contained 10 or 50 μg CP04, 25 mg ascorbic acid, 0.5 mg gentisic acid and 5 mg l-methionine. The radiolabelling performed by incubation of 200–250 MBq 111InCl3 at 90 °C for 15 min resulted in reproducible radiochemical purity (RCP) >94%. Kit-stability was proven for >6
Müller, Cristina; Fischer, Eliane; Behe, Martin; Köster, Ulli; Dorrer, Holger; Reber, Josefine; Haller, Stephanie; Cohrs, Susan; Blanc, Alain; Grünberg, Jürgen; Bunka, Maruta; Zhernosekov, Konstantin; van der Meulen, Nicholas; Johnston, Karl; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger
We assessed the suitability of the radiolanthanide (155)Tb (t1/2=5.32 days, Eγ=87 keV (32%), 105keV (25%)) in combination with variable tumor targeted biomolecules using preclinical SPECT imaging. (155)Tb was produced at ISOLDE (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) by high-energy (~1.4 GeV) proton irradiation of a tantalum target followed by ionization and on-line mass separation. (155)Tb was separated from isobar and pseudo-isobar impurities by cation exchange chromatography. Four tumor targeting molecules - a somatostatin analog (DOTATATE), a minigastrin analog (MD), a folate derivative (cm09) and an anti-L1-CAM antibody (chCE7) - were radiolabeled with (155)Tb. Imaging studies were performed in nude mice bearing AR42J, cholecystokinin-2 receptor expressing A431, KB, IGROV-1 and SKOV-3ip tumor xenografts using a dedicated small-animal SPECT/CT scanner. The total yield of the two-step separation process of (155)Tb was 86%. (155)Tb was obtained in a physiological l-lactate solution suitable for direct labeling processes. The (155)Tb-labeled tumor targeted biomolecules were obtained at a reasonable specific activity and high purity (>95%). (155)Tb gave high quality, high resolution tomographic images. SPECT/CT experiments allowed excellent visualization of AR42J and CCK-2 receptor-expressing A431 tumors xenografts in mice after injection of (155)Tb-DOTATATE and (155)Tb-MD, respectively. The relatively long physical half-life of (155)Tb matched in particular the biological half-lives of (155)Tb-cm09 and (155)Tb-DTPA-chCE7 allowing SPECT imaging of KB tumors, IGROV-1 and SKOV-3ip tumors even several days after administration. The radiolanthanide (155)Tb may be of particular interest for low-dose SPECT prior to therapy with a therapeutic match such as the β(-)-emitting radiolanthanides (177)Lu, (161)Tb, (166)Ho, and the pseudo-radiolanthanide (90)Y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Vanessa A; Jeong, Hyo-Jin; Drew, Geoffrey M; Vaughan, Christopher W
Cholecystokinin modulates pain and anxiety via its functions within brain regions such as the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). The aim of this study was to examine the cellular actions of cholecystokinin on PAG neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from rat midbrain PAG slices in vitro to examine the postsynaptic effects of cholecystokinin and its effects on synaptic transmission. Sulfated cholecystokinin-(26-33) (CCK-S, 100-300 nM), but not non-sulfated cholecystokinin-(26-33) (CCK-NS, 100-300 nM) produced an inward current in a sub-population of opioid sensitive and insensitive PAG neurons, which did not reverse over a range of membrane potentials. The CCK-S-induced current was abolished by the CCK1 selective antagonist devazepide (100 nM), but not by the CCK2 selective antagonists CI988 (100 nM, 1 μM) and LY225910 (1 μM). CCK-S, but not CCK-NS produced a reduction in the amplitude of evoked GABA(A)-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and an increase in the evoked IPSC paired-pulse ratio. By contrast, CCK-S had little effect on the rate and amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature IPSCs under basal conditions and when external K(+) was elevated. The CCK-S-induced inhibition of evoked IPSCs was abolished by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (3 μM), the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP (10 μM) and the 1, 2-diacylglycerol lipase (DAGLα) inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (10 μM). In addition, CCK-S produced an increase in the rate of spontaneous non-NMDA-mediated, TTX-dependent excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). These results suggest that cholecystokinin produces direct neuronal depolarisation via CCK1 receptors and inhibits GABAergic synaptic transmission via action potential-dependent release of glutamate and mGluR5-induced endocannabinoid signaling. Thus, cholecystokinin has cellular actions within the PAG that can both oppose and reinforce opioid and cannabinoid modulation of pain and anxiety within this