Sample records for cd error budget

  1. Model Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2008-01-01

    An error budget is a commonly used tool in design of complex aerospace systems. It represents system performance requirements in terms of allowable errors and flows these down through a hierarchical structure to lower assemblies and components. The requirements may simply be 'allocated' based upon heuristics or experience, or they may be designed through use of physics-based models. This paper presents a basis for developing an error budget for models of the system, as opposed to the system itself. The need for model error budgets arises when system models are a principle design agent as is increasingly more common for poorly testable high performance space systems.

  2. Meteorological Error Budget Using Open Source Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TR-7831 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Meteorological Error Budget Using Open- Source Data by J Cogan, J Smith, P...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7831 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Meteorological Error Budget Using...Error Budget Using Open-Source Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) J Cogan, J Smith, P Haines

  3. Geometric error characterization and error budgets. [thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, E.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures used in characterizing geometric error sources for a spaceborne imaging system are described using the LANDSAT D thematic mapper ground segment processing as the prototype. Software was tested through simulation and is undergoing tests with the operational hardware as part of the prelaunch system evaluation. Geometric accuracy specifications, geometric correction, and control point processing are discussed. Cross track and along track errors are tabulated for the thematic mapper, the spacecraft, and ground processing to show the temporal registration error budget in pixel (42.5 microrad) 90%.

  4. First-order error budgeting for LUVOIR mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee D.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2017-09-01

    Future large astronomical telescopes in space will have architectures that will have complex and demanding requirements to meet the science goals. The Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR) mission concept being assessed by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center is expected to be 9 to 15 meters in diameter, have a segmented primary mirror and be diffraction limited at a wavelength of 500 nanometers. The optical stability is expected to be in the picometer range for minutes to hours. Architecture studies to support the NASA Science and Technology Definition teams (STDTs) are underway to evaluate systems performance improvements to meet the science goals. To help define the technology needs and assess performance, a first order error budget has been developed. Like the JWST error budget, the error budget includes the active, adaptive and passive elements in spatial and temporal domains. JWST performance is scaled using first order approximations where appropriate and includes technical advances in telescope control.

  5. Enhanced orbit determination filter sensitivity analysis: Error budget development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.; Burkhart, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    An error budget analysis is presented which quantifies the effects of different error sources in the orbit determination process when the enhanced orbit determination filter, recently developed, is used to reduce radio metric data. The enhanced filter strategy differs from more traditional filtering methods in that nearly all of the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data are represented as filter parameters. Error budget computations were performed for a Mars Observer interplanetary cruise scenario for cases in which only X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were used to determine the spacecraft's orbit, X-band ranging data were used exclusively, and a combined set in which the ranging data were used in addition to the Doppler data. In all three cases, the filter model was assumed to be a correct representation of the physical world. Random nongravitational accelerations were found to be the largest source of error contributing to the individual error budgets. Other significant contributors, depending on the data strategy used, were solar-radiation pressure coefficient uncertainty, random earth-orientation calibration errors, and Deep Space Network (DSN) station location uncertainty.

  6. Using sediment 'fingerprints' to assess sediment-budget errors, north Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; DeCarlo, E.H.; Fuller, C.C.; Wong, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable estimates of sediment-budget errors are important for interpreting sediment-budget results. Sediment-budget errors are commonly considered equal to sediment-budget imbalances, which may underestimate actual sediment-budget errors if they include compensating positive and negative errors. We modified the sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to qualitatively evaluate compensating errors in an annual (1991) fine (<63 ??m) sediment budget for the North Halawa Valley, a mountainous, forested drainage basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during construction of a major highway. We measured concentrations of aeolian quartz and 137Cs in sediment sources and fluvial sediments, and combined concentrations of these aerosols with the sediment budget to construct aerosol budgets. Aerosol concentrations were independent of the sediment budget, hence aerosol budgets were less likely than sediment budgets to include compensating errors. Differences between sediment-budget and aerosol-budget imbalances therefore provide a measure of compensating errors in the sediment budget. The sediment-budget imbalance equalled 25% of the fluvial fine-sediment load. Aerosol-budget imbalances were equal to 19% of the fluvial 137Cs load and 34% of the fluval quartz load. The reasonably close agreement between sediment- and aerosol-budget imbalances indicates that compensating errors in the sediment budget were not large and that the sediment-budget imbalance as a reliable measure of sediment-budget error. We attribute at least one-third of the 1991 fluvial fine-sediment load to highway construction. Continued monitoring indicated that highway construction produced 90% of the fluvial fine-sediment load during 1992. Erosion of channel margins and attrition of coarse particles provided most of the fine sediment produced by natural processes. Hillslope processes contributed relatively minor amounts of sediment.

  7. Wavefront error budget and optical manufacturing tolerance analysis for 1.8m telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kai; Zhang, Xuejun; Xian, Hao; Rao, Changhui; Zhang, Yudong

    2010-05-01

    We present the wavefront error budget and optical manufacturing tolerance analysis for 1.8m telescope. The error budget accounts for aberrations induced by optical design residual, manufacturing error, mounting effects, and misalignments. The initial error budget has been generated from the top-down. There will also be an ongoing effort to track the errors from the bottom-up. This will aid in identifying critical areas of concern. The resolution of conflicts will involve a continual process of review and comparison of the top-down and bottom-up approaches, modifying both as needed to meet the top level requirements in the end. As we all know, the adaptive optical system will correct for some of the telescope system imperfections but it cannot be assumed that all errors will be corrected. Therefore, two kinds of error budgets will be presented, one is non-AO top-down error budget and the other is with-AO system error budget. The main advantage of the method is that at the same time it describes the final performance of the telescope, and gives to the optical manufacturer the maximum freedom to define and possibly modify its own manufacturing error budget.

  8. A Comprehensive Radial Velocity Error Budget for Next Generation Doppler Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Samuel; Ryan, Terrien; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Roy, Arpita; Bender, Chad; Stefansson, Guomundur Kari; Monson, Andrew; Levi, Eric; Hearty, Fred; Blake, Cullen; hide

    2016-01-01

    We describe a detailed radial velocity error budget for the NASA-NSF Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrometer instrument concept NEID (NN-explore Exoplanet Investigations with Doppler spectroscopy). Such an instrument performance budget is a necessity for both identifying the variety of noise sources currently limiting Doppler measurements, and estimating the achievable performance of next generation exoplanet hunting Doppler spectrometers. For these instruments, no single source of instrumental error is expected to set the overall measurement floor. Rather, the overall instrumental measurement precision is set by the contribution of many individual error sources. We use a combination of numerical simulations, educated estimates based on published materials, extrapolations of physical models, results from laboratory measurements of spectroscopic subsystems, and informed upper limits for a variety of error sources to identify likely sources of systematic error and construct our global instrument performance error budget. While natively focused on the performance of the NEID instrument, this modular performance budget is immediately adaptable to a number of current and future instruments. Such an approach is an important step in charting a path towards improving Doppler measurement precisions to the levels necessary for discovering Earth-like planets.

  9. Calibration/Validation Error Budgets, Uncertainties, Traceability and Their Importance to Imaging Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, K.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of uncertainties and errors are essential for comparisons of remote sensing data across time, space, and spectral domains. Vicarious radiometric calibration is used to demonstrate the need for uncertainty knowledge and to provide an example error budget. The sample error budget serves as an example of the questions and issues that need to be addressed by the calibrationvalidation community as accuracy requirements for imaging spectroscopy data will continue to become more stringent in the future. Error budgets will also be critical to ensure consistency between the range of imaging spectrometers expected to be launched in the next five years.

  10. TOWARD ERROR ANALYSIS OF LARGE-SCALE FOREST CARBON BUDGETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of forest carbon sources and sinks is an important part of national inventories of net greenhouse gas emissions. Several such forest carbon budgets have been constructed, but little effort has been made to analyse the sources of error and how these errors propagate...

  11. General Tool for Evaluating High-Contrast Coronagraphic Telescope Performance Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchen, Luis F.

    2011-01-01

    The Coronagraph Performance Error Budget (CPEB) tool automates many of the key steps required to evaluate the scattered starlight contrast in the dark hole of a space-based coronagraph. The tool uses a Code V prescription of the optical train, and uses MATLAB programs to call ray-trace code that generates linear beam-walk and aberration sensitivity matrices for motions of the optical elements and line-of-sight pointing, with and without controlled fine-steering mirrors (FSMs). The sensitivity matrices are imported by macros into Excel 2007, where the error budget is evaluated. The user specifies the particular optics of interest, and chooses the quality of each optic from a predefined set of PSDs. The spreadsheet creates a nominal set of thermal and jitter motions, and combines that with the sensitivity matrices to generate an error budget for the system. CPEB also contains a combination of form and ActiveX controls with Visual Basic for Applications code to allow for user interaction in which the user can perform trade studies such as changing engineering requirements, and identifying and isolating stringent requirements. It contains summary tables and graphics that can be instantly used for reporting results in view graphs. The entire process to obtain a coronagraphic telescope performance error budget has been automated into three stages: conversion of optical prescription from Zemax or Code V to MACOS (in-house optical modeling and analysis tool), a linear models process, and an error budget tool process. The first process was improved by developing a MATLAB package based on the Class Constructor Method with a number of user-defined functions that allow the user to modify the MACOS optical prescription. The second process was modified by creating a MATLAB package that contains user-defined functions that automate the process. The user interfaces with the process by utilizing an initialization file where the user defines the parameters of the linear model

  12. The Terrestrial Planet Finder coronagraph dynamics error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Green, Joseph J.; Lay, Oliver P.

    2005-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C) demands extreme wave front control and stability to achieve its goal of detecting earth-like planets around nearby stars. We describe the performance models and error budget used to evaluate image plane contrast and derive engineering requirements for this challenging optical system.

  13. Advanced CD-SEM solution for edge placement error characterization of BEOL pitch 32nm metal layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, A.; Leray, P.; Lorusso, G.; Sutani, T.; Takemasa, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Metrology plays an important role in edge placement error (EPE) budgeting. Control for multi-patterning applications as new critical distances needs to be measured (edge to edge) and requirements become tighter and tighter in terms of accuracy and precision. In this paper we focus on imec iN7 BEOL platform and particularly on M2 patterning scheme using SAQP + block EUV for a 7.5 track logic design. Being able to characterize block to SAQP edge misplacement is important in a budgeting exercise (1) but is also extremely difficult due to challenging edge detection with CD-SEM (similar materials, thin layers, short distances, 3D features). In this study we develop an advanced solution to measure block to SAQP placement, we characterize it in terms of sensitivity, precision and accuracy through the comparison to reference metrology. In a second phase, the methodology is applied to budget local effects and the results are compared to the characterization of the SAQP and block independently.

  14. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme for Infrared Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larry, L.

    2013-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted towards validating geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite remote sensors. An error consistency analysis scheme (ECAS), utilizing fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of mean difference and standard deviation of error in both spectral radiance and retrieval domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without relying on other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS establishes a link between the accuracies of radiances and retrieved geophysical parameters. ECAS can be applied to measurements from any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with its associated RTM. In this manuscript, ECAS is described and demonstrated with measurements from the MetOp-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). This scheme can be used together with other validation methodologies to give a more definitive characterization of the error and/or uncertainty of geophysical parameters retrieved from ultraspectral radiances observed from current and future satellite remote sensors such as IASI, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS).

  15. A General Tool for Evaluating High-Contrast Coronagraphic Telescope Performance Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchen, Luis F.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a general purpose Coronagraph Performance Error Budget (CPEB) tool that we have developed under the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program. The CPEB automates many of the key steps required to evaluate the scattered starlight contrast in the dark hole of a space-based coronagraph. It operates in 3 steps: first, a CodeV or Zemax prescription is converted into a MACOS optical prescription. Second, a Matlab program calls ray-trace code that generates linear beam-walk and aberration sensitivity matrices for motions of the optical elements and line-of-sight pointing, with and without controlled coarse and fine-steering mirrors. Third, the sensitivity matrices are imported by macros into Excel 2007 where the error budget is created. Once created, the user specifies the quality of each optic from a predefined set of PSDs. The spreadsheet creates a nominal set of thermal and jitter motions and combines them with the sensitivity matrices to generate an error budget for the system. The user can easily modify the motion allocations to perform trade studies.

  16. Ultraspectral sounding retrieval error budget and estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, Larrabee L.; Yang, Ping

    2011-11-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI).

  17. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  18. A Starshade Petal Error Budget for Exo-Earth Detection and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Lisman, P. Douglas; Cady, Eric; Martin, Stefan; Thomson, Mark; Dumont, Philip; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    We present a starshade error budget with engineering requirements that are well within the current manufacturing and metrology capabilities. The error budget is based on an observational scenario in which the starshade spins about its axis on timescales short relative to the zodi-limited integration time, typically several hours. The scatter from localized petal errors is smoothed into annuli around the center of the image plane, resulting in a large reduction in the background flux variation while reducing thermal gradients caused by structural shadowing. Having identified the performance sensitivity to petal shape errors with spatial periods of 3-4 cycles/petal as the most challenging aspect of the design, we have adopted and modeled a manufacturing approach that mitigates these perturbations with 1-meter-long precision edge segments positioned using commercial metrology that readily meets assembly requirements. We have performed detailed thermal modeling and show that the expected thermal deformations are well within the requirements as well. We compare the requirements for four cases: a 32 meter diameter starshade with a 1.5 meter telescope, analyzed at 75 and 90 milliarcseconds, and a 40 meter diameter starshade with a 4 meter telescope, analyzed at 60 and 75 milliarcseconds.

  19. Characterizing the SWOT discharge error budget on the Sacramento River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Y.; Durand, M. T.; Minear, J. T.; Smith, L.; Merry, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is an upcoming satellite mission (2020 year) that will provide surface-water elevation and surface-water extent globally. One goal of SWOT is the estimation of river discharge directly from SWOT measurements. SWOT discharge uncertainty is due to two sources. First, SWOT cannot measure channel bathymetry and determine roughness coefficient data necessary for discharge calculations directly; these parameters must be estimated from the measurements or from a priori information. Second, SWOT measurement errors directly impact the discharge estimate accuracy. This study focuses on characterizing parameter and measurement uncertainties for SWOT river discharge estimation. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme is used to calculate parameter estimates, given the measurements of river height, slope and width, and mass and momentum constraints. The algorithm is evaluated using simulated both SWOT and AirSWOT (the airborne version of SWOT) observations over seven reaches (about 40 km) of the Sacramento River. The SWOT and AirSWOT observations are simulated by corrupting the ';true' HEC-RAS hydraulic modeling results with the instrument error. This experiment answers how unknown bathymetry and roughness coefficients affect the accuracy of the river discharge algorithm. From the experiment, the discharge error budget is almost completely dominated by unknown bathymetry and roughness; 81% of the variance error is explained by uncertainties in bathymetry and roughness. Second, we show how the errors in water surface, slope, and width observations influence the accuracy of discharge estimates. Indeed, there is a significant sensitivity to water surface, slope, and width errors due to the sensitivity of bathymetry and roughness to measurement errors. Increasing water-surface error above 10 cm leads to a corresponding sharper increase of errors in bathymetry and roughness. Increasing slope error above 1.5 cm/km leads to a

  20. Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the modeling effort undertaken to derive the wavefront error (WFE) budget for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility, laser guide star (LGS), dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The budget describes the expected performance of NFIRAOS at zenith, and has been decomposed into (i) first-order turbulence compensation terms (120 nm on-axis), (ii) opto-mechanical implementation errors (84 nm), (iii) AO component errors and higher-order effects (74 nm) and (iv) tip/tilt (TT) wavefront errors at 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole (61 nm) with natural guide star (NGS) tip/tilt/focus/astigmatism (TTFA) sensing in J band. A contingency of about 66 nm now exists to meet the observatory requirement document (ORD) total on-axis wavefront error of 187 nm, mainly on account of reduced TT errors due to updated windshake modeling and a low read-noise NGS wavefront sensor (WFS) detector. A detailed breakdown of each of these top-level terms is presented, together with a discussion on its evaluation using a mix of high-order zonal and low-order modal Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  2. The DiskMass Survey. II. Error Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.; Martinsson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    We present a performance analysis of the DiskMass Survey. The survey uses collisionless tracers in the form of disk stars to measure the surface density of spiral disks, to provide an absolute calibration of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ_{*}), and to yield robust estimates of the dark-matter halo density profile in the inner regions of galaxies. We find that a disk inclination range of 25°-35° is optimal for our measurements, consistent with our survey design to select nearly face-on galaxies. Uncertainties in disk scale heights are significant, but can be estimated from radial scale lengths to 25% now, and more precisely in the future. We detail the spectroscopic analysis used to derive line-of-sight velocity dispersions, precise at low surface-brightness, and accurate in the presence of composite stellar populations. Our methods take full advantage of large-grasp integral-field spectroscopy and an extensive library of observed stars. We show that the baryon-to-total mass fraction ({F}_bar) is not a well-defined observational quantity because it is coupled to the halo mass model. This remains true even when the disk mass is known and spatially extended rotation curves are available. In contrast, the fraction of the rotation speed supplied by the disk at 2.2 scale lengths (disk maximality) is a robust observational indicator of the baryonic disk contribution to the potential. We construct the error budget for the key quantities: dynamical disk mass surface density (Σdyn), disk stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ^disk_{*}), and disk maximality ({F}_{*,max}^disk≡ V^disk_{*,max}/ V_c). Random and systematic errors in these quantities for individual galaxies will be ~25%, while survey precision for sample quartiles are reduced to 10%, largely devoid of systematic errors outside of distance uncertainties.

  3. Error budgets for the Exoplanet Starshade (Exo-S) probe-class mission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Cady, Eric; Ames, William; Lisman, P. Douglas; Martin, Stefan R.; Thomson, Mark; Regehr, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Exo-S is a probe-class mission study that includes the Dedicated mission, a 30 m starshade co-launched with a 1.1 m commercial telescope in an Earth-leading deep-space orbit, and the Rendezvous mission, a 34 m starshade intended to work with a 2.4 m telescope in an Earth-Sun L2 orbit. A third design, referred to as the Rendezvous Earth Finder mission, is based on a 40 m starshade and is currently under study. This paper presents error budgets for the detection of Earth-like planets with each of these missions. The budgets include manufacture and deployment tolerances, the allowed thermal fluctuations and dynamic motions, formation flying alignment requirements, surface and edge reflectivity requirements, and the allowed transmission due to micrometeoroid damage.

  4. Error Budgets for the Exoplanet Starshade (exo-s) Probe-Class Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Cady, Eric; Ames, William; Lisman, P. Douglas; Martin, Stefan R.; Thomson, Mark; Regehr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Exo-S is a probe-class mission study that includes the Dedicated mission, a 30 millimeters starshade co-launched with a 1.1 millimeter commercial telescope in an Earth-leading deep-space orbit, and the Rendezvous mission, a 34 millimeter starshade intended to work with a 2.4 millimeters telescope in an Earth-Sun L2 orbit. A third design, referred to as the Rendezvous Earth Finder mission, is based on a 40 millimeter starshade and is currently under study. This paper presents error budgets for the detection of Earth-like planets with each of these missions. The budgets include manufacture and deployment tolerances, the allowed thermal fluctuations and dynamic motions, formation flying alignment requirements, surface and edge reflectivity requirements, and the allowed transmission due to micrometeoroid damage.

  5. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. C.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-10-01

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of C in the atmosphere, ocean, and land; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate error and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2 σ error of the atmospheric growth rate has decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s, leading to a ~20% reduction in the over-all uncertainty of net global C uptake by the biosphere. While fossil fuel emissions have increased by a factor of 4 over the last 5 decades, 2 σ errors in fossil fuel emissions due to national reporting errors and differences in energy reporting practices have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s. At the same time land use emissions have declined slightly over the last 5 decades, but their relative errors remain high. Notably, errors associated with fossil fuel emissions have come to dominate uncertainty in the global C budget and are now comparable to the total emissions from land use, thus efforts to reduce errors in fossil fuel emissions are necessary. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that C uptake has increased and 97% confident that C uptake by the terrestrial biosphere has increased over the last 5 decades. Although the persistence of future C sinks remains unknown and some ecosystem services may be compromised by this continued C uptake (e.g. ocean acidification), it is clear that arguably the greatest ecosystem service currently provided by the biosphere is the

  6. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Wanninkhof, R.; Anderegg, W.; Cooper, L. A.; DeGrandpre, M.; Tans, P. P.; Miller, J. B.; Alden, C.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we conclude that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr-1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO2 emissions from the atmosphere

  7. Audit of the global carbon budget: estimate errors and their impact on uptake uncertainty

    DOE PAGES

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Andres, R.; Houghton, R.; ...

    2015-04-30

    Over the last 5 decades monitoring systems have been developed to detect changes in the accumulation of carbon (C) in the atmosphere and ocean; however, our ability to detect changes in the behavior of the global C cycle is still hindered by measurement and estimate errors. Here we present a rigorous and flexible framework for assessing the temporal and spatial components of estimate errors and their impact on uncertainty in net C uptake by the biosphere. We present a novel approach for incorporating temporally correlated random error into the error structure of emission estimates. Based on this approach, we concludemore » that the 2σ uncertainties of the atmospheric growth rate have decreased from 1.2 Pg C yr ₋1 in the 1960s to 0.3 Pg C yr ₋1 in the 2000s due to an expansion of the atmospheric observation network. The 2σ uncertainties in fossil fuel emissions have increased from 0.3 Pg C yr ₋1 in the 1960s to almost 1.0 Pg C yr ₋1 during the 2000s due to differences in national reporting errors and differences in energy inventories. Lastly, while land use emissions have remained fairly constant, their errors still remain high and thus their global C uptake uncertainty is not trivial. Currently, the absolute errors in fossil fuel emissions rival the total emissions from land use, highlighting the extent to which fossil fuels dominate the global C budget. Because errors in the atmospheric growth rate have decreased faster than errors in total emissions have increased, a ~20% reduction in the overall uncertainty of net C global uptake has occurred. Given all the major sources of error in the global C budget that we could identify, we are 93% confident that terrestrial C uptake has increased and 97% confident that ocean C uptake has increased over the last 5 decades. Thus, it is clear that arguably one of the most vital ecosystem services currently provided by the biosphere is the continued removal of approximately half of atmospheric CO 2 emissions from

  8. Propagation of resist heating mask error to wafer level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, S. V.; Karklin, Linard

    2006-10-01

    mask error budget - the resist heating CD error. In simulation of exposure using a stepper, variable MEEF was considered.

  9. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  10. Scanner qualification with IntenCD based reticle error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elblinger, Yair; Finders, Jo; Demarteau, Marcel; Wismans, Onno; Minnaert Janssen, Ingrid; Duray, Frank; Ben Yishai, Michael; Mangan, Shmoolik; Cohen, Yaron; Parizat, Ziv; Attal, Shay; Polonsky, Netanel; Englard, Ilan

    2010-03-01

    Scanner introduction into the fab production environment is a challenging task. An efficient evaluation of scanner performance matrices during factory acceptance test (FAT) and later on during site acceptance test (SAT) is crucial for minimizing the cycle time for pre and post production-start activities. If done effectively, the matrices of base line performance established during the SAT are used as a reference for scanner performance and fleet matching monitoring and maintenance in the fab environment. Key elements which can influence the cycle time of the SAT, FAT and maintenance cycles are the imaging, process and mask characterizations involved with those cycles. Discrete mask measurement techniques are currently in use to create across-mask CDU maps. By subtracting these maps from their final wafer measurement CDU map counterparts, it is possible to assess the real scanner induced printed errors within certain limitations. The current discrete measurement methods are time consuming and some techniques also overlook mask based effects other than line width variations, such as transmission and phase variations, all of which influence the final printed CD variability. Applied Materials Aera2TM mask inspection tool with IntenCDTM technology can scan the mask at high speed, offer full mask coverage and accurate assessment of all masks induced source of errors simultaneously, making it beneficial for scanner qualifications and performance monitoring. In this paper we report on a study that was done to improve a scanner introduction and qualification process using the IntenCD application to map the mask induced CD non uniformity. We will present the results of six scanners in production and discuss the benefits of the new method.

  11. CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, H.-Y.; Klein, S. A.; Xie, S.; Zhang, C.; Tang, S.; Tang, Q.; Morcrette, C. J.; Van Weverberg, K.; Petch, J.; Ahlgrimm, M.; Berg, L. K.; Cheruy, F.; Cole, J.; Forbes, R.; Gustafson, W. I.; Huang, M.; Liu, Y.; Merryfield, W.; Qian, Y.; Roehrig, R.; Wang, Y.-C.

    2018-03-01

    Many weather forecast and climate models simulate warm surface air temperature (T2m) biases over midlatitude continents during the summertime, especially over the Great Plains. We present here one of a series of papers from a multimodel intercomparison project (CAUSES: Cloud Above the United States and Errors at the Surface), which aims to evaluate the role of cloud, radiation, and precipitation biases in contributing to the T2m bias using a short-term hindcast approach during the spring and summer of 2011. Observations are mainly from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains sites. The present study examines the contributions of surface energy budget errors. All participating models simulate too much net shortwave and longwave fluxes at the surface but with no consistent mean bias sign in turbulent fluxes over the Central United States and Southern Great Plains. Nevertheless, biases in the net shortwave and downward longwave fluxes as well as surface evaporative fraction (EF) are contributors to T2m bias. Radiation biases are largely affected by cloud simulations, while EF bias is largely affected by soil moisture modulated by seasonal accumulated precipitation and evaporation. An approximate equation based upon the surface energy budget is derived to further quantify the magnitudes of radiation and EF contributions to T2m bias. Our analysis ascribes that a large EF underestimate is the dominant source of error in all models with a large positive temperature bias, whereas an EF overestimate compensates for an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation in nearly all the models with the smallest temperature bias.

  12. Holistic approach for overlay and edge placement error to meet the 5nm technology node requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkens, Jan; Slachter, Bram; Kubis, Michael; Tel, Wim; Hinnen, Paul; Maslow, Mark; Dillen, Harm; Ma, Eric; Chou, Kevin; Liu, Xuedong; Ren, Weiming; Hu, Xuerang; Wang, Fei; Liu, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the metrology methods and error budget that describe the edge placement error (EPE). EPE quantifies the pattern fidelity of a device structure made in a multi-patterning scheme. Here the pattern is the result of a sequence of lithography and etching steps, and consequently the contour of the final pattern contains error sources of the different process steps. EPE is computed by combining optical and ebeam metrology data. We show that high NA optical scatterometer can be used to densely measure in device CD and overlay errors. Large field e-beam system enables massive CD metrology which is used to characterize the local CD error. Local CD distribution needs to be characterized beyond 6 sigma, and requires high throughput e-beam system. We present in this paper the first images of a multi-beam e-beam inspection system. We discuss our holistic patterning optimization approach to understand and minimize the EPE of the final pattern. As a use case, we evaluated a 5-nm logic patterning process based on Self-Aligned-QuadruplePatterning (SAQP) using ArF lithography, combined with line cut exposures using EUV lithography.

  13. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  14. CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, H. -Y.; Klein, S. A.; Xie, S.; ...

    2018-02-27

    Many weather forecast and climate models simulate warm surface air temperature (T 2m) biases over midlatitude continents during the summertime, especially over the Great Plains. We present here one of a series of papers from a multimodel intercomparison project (CAUSES: Cloud Above the United States and Errors at the Surface), which aims to evaluate the role of cloud, radiation, and precipitation biases in contributing to the T 2m bias using a short-term hindcast approach during the spring and summer of 2011. Observations are mainly from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains sites. The present study examines the contributions ofmore » surface energy budget errors. All participating models simulate too much net shortwave and longwave fluxes at the surface but with no consistent mean bias sign in turbulent fluxes over the Central United States and Southern Great Plains. Nevertheless, biases in the net shortwave and downward longwave fluxes as well as surface evaporative fraction (EF) are contributors to T 2m bias. Radiation biases are largely affected by cloud simulations, while EF bias is largely affected by soil moisture modulated by seasonal accumulated precipitation and evaporation. An approximate equation based upon the surface energy budget is derived to further quantify the magnitudes of radiation and EF contributions to T 2m bias. Our analysis ascribes that a large EF underestimate is the dominant source of error in all models with a large positive temperature bias, whereas an EF overestimate compensates for an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation in nearly all the models with the smallest temperature bias.« less

  15. CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ma, H. -Y.; Klein, S. A.; Xie, S.

    Many weather forecast and climate models simulate warm surface air temperature (T 2m) biases over midlatitude continents during the summertime, especially over the Great Plains. We present here one of a series of papers from a multimodel intercomparison project (CAUSES: Cloud Above the United States and Errors at the Surface), which aims to evaluate the role of cloud, radiation, and precipitation biases in contributing to the T 2m bias using a short-term hindcast approach during the spring and summer of 2011. Observations are mainly from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains sites. The present study examines the contributions ofmore » surface energy budget errors. All participating models simulate too much net shortwave and longwave fluxes at the surface but with no consistent mean bias sign in turbulent fluxes over the Central United States and Southern Great Plains. Nevertheless, biases in the net shortwave and downward longwave fluxes as well as surface evaporative fraction (EF) are contributors to T 2m bias. Radiation biases are largely affected by cloud simulations, while EF bias is largely affected by soil moisture modulated by seasonal accumulated precipitation and evaporation. An approximate equation based upon the surface energy budget is derived to further quantify the magnitudes of radiation and EF contributions to T 2m bias. Our analysis ascribes that a large EF underestimate is the dominant source of error in all models with a large positive temperature bias, whereas an EF overestimate compensates for an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation in nearly all the models with the smallest temperature bias.« less

  16. Clean focus, dose and CD metrology for CD uniformity improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Hong, Minhyung; Kim, Seungyoung; Lee, Jieun; Lee, DongYoung; Oh, Eungryong; Choi, Ahlin; Kim, Nakyoon; Robinson, John C.; Mengel, Markus; Pablo, Rovira; Yoo, Sungchul; Getin, Raphael; Choi, Dongsub; Jeon, Sanghuck

    2018-03-01

    Lithography process control solutions require more exacting capabilities as the semiconductor industry goes forward to the 1x nm node DRAM device manufacturing. In order to continue scaling down the device feature sizes, critical dimension (CD) uniformity requires continuous improvement to meet the required CD error budget. In this study we investigate using optical measurement technology to improve over CD-SEM methods in focus, dose, and CD. One of the key challenges is measuring scanner focus of device patterns. There are focus measurement methods based on specially designed marks on scribe-line, however, one issue of this approach is that it will report focus of scribe line which is potentially different from that of the real device pattern. In addition, scribe-line marks require additional design and troubleshooting steps that add complexity. In this study, we investigated focus measurement directly on the device pattern. Dose control is typically based on using the linear correlation behavior between dose and CD. The noise of CD measurement, based on CD-SEM for example, will not only impact the accuracy, but also will make it difficult to monitor dose signature on product wafers. In this study we will report the direct dose metrology result using an optical metrology system which especially enhances the DUV spectral coverage to improve the signal to noise ratio. CD-SEM is often used to measure CD after the lithography step. This measurement approach has the advantage of easy recipe setup as well as the flexibility to measure critical feature dimensions, however, we observe that CD-SEM metrology has limitations. In this study, we demonstrate within-field CD uniformity improvement through the extraction of clean scanner slit and scan CD behavior by using optical metrology.

  17. The CD control improvement by using CDSEM 2D measurement of complex OPC patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, William; Cheng, Jeffrey; Lee, Adder; Cheng, James; Tzeng, Alex C.; Lu, Colbert; Yang, Ray; Lee, Hong Jen; Bandoh, Hideaki; Santo, Izumi; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Chien Kang

    2016-10-01

    As the process node becomes more advanced, the accuracy and precision in OPC pattern CD are required in mask manufacturing. CD SEM is an essential tool to confirm the mask quality such as CD control, CD uniformity and CD mean to target (MTT). Unfortunately, in some cases of arbitrary enclosed patterns or aggressive OPC patterns, for instance, line with tiny jogs and curvilinear SRAF, CD variation depending on region of interest (ROI) is a very serious problem in mask CD control, even it decreases the wafer yield. For overcoming this situation, the 2-dimensional (2D) method by Holon is adopted. In this paper, we summarize the comparisons of error budget between conventional (1D) and 2D data using CD SEM and the CD performance between mask and wafer by complex OPC patterns including ILT features.

  18. Error Budgeting and Tolerancing of Starshades for Exoplanet Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Noecker, M. Charley; Glassman, Tiffany; Lo, Amy S.; Dumont, Philip J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Cady, Eric J.; Vanderbei, Robert; Lawson, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    A flower-like starshade positioned between a star and a space telescope is an attractive option for blocking the starlight to reveal the faint reflected light of an orbiting Earth-like planet. Planet light passes around the petals and directly enters the telescope where it is seen along with a background of scattered light due to starshade imperfections. We list the major perturbations that are expected to impact the performance of a starshade system and show that independent models at NGAS and JPL yield nearly identical optical sensitivities. We give the major sensitivities in the image plane for a design consisting of a 34-m diameter starshade, and a 2-m diameter telescope separated by 39,000 km, operating between 0.25 and 0.55 um. These sensitivities include individual petal and global shape terms evaluated at the inner working angle. Following a discussion of the combination of individual perturbation terms, we then present an error budget that is consistent with detection of an Earth-like planet 26 magnitudes fainter than its host star.

  19. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    EPA Science Inventory

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  20. Error Budgeting

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna; Perry, Theodore Sonne; Usov, Igor Olegovich

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk =more » $$\\partial k$$\\ $$\\partial T$$ ΔT + $$\\partial k$$\\ $$\\partial (pL)$$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B 0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB 0/B 0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$$_0$$/B$$_0$$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2« less

  1. CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ma, H. -Y.; Klein, S. A.; Xie, S.

    Many weather forecasting and climate models simulate a warm surface air temperature (T2m) bias over mid-latitude continents during the summertime, especially over the Great Plains. We present here one of a series of papers from a multi-model intercomparison project (CAUSES: Cloud Above the United States and Errors at the Surface), which aims to evaluate the role of cloud, radiation, and precipitation biases in contributing to T2m bias using a short-term hindcast approach with observations mainly from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the period of April to August 2011. The present study examines the contributionmore » of surface energy budget errors to the bias. All participating models simulate higher net shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the surface but there is no consistency on signs of biases in latent and sensible heat fluxes over the Central U.S. and ARM SGP. Nevertheless, biases in net shortwave and downward longwave fluxes, as well as surface evaporative fraction (EF) are the main contributors to T2m bias. Radiation biases are largely affected by cloud simulations, while EF is affected by soil moisture modulated by seasonal accumulated precipitation and evaporation. An approximate equation is derived to further quantify the magnitudes of radiation and EF contributions to T2m bias. Our analysis suggests that radiation errors are always an important source of T2m error for long-term climate runs with EF errors either of equal or lesser importance. However, for the short-term hindcasts, EF errors are more important provided a model has a substantial EF bias.« less

  2. Stability Error Budget for an Aggressive Coronagraph on a 3.8 m Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Marchen, Luis; Krist, John; Rud, Mayer

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate in detail the stability requirements for a band-limited coronagraph with an inner working angle as small as 2 lambda/D coupled to an off-axis, 3.8-m diameter telescope. We have updated our methodologies since presenting a stability error budget for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph mission that worked at 4 lambda/D and employed an 8th-order mask to reduce aberration sensitives. In the previous work, we determined the tolerances relative to the total light leaking through the coronagraph. Now, we separate the light into a radial component, which is readily separable from a planet signal, and an azimuthal component, which is easily confused with a planet signal. In the current study, throughput considerations require a 4th-order coronagraph. This, combined with the more aggressive working angle, places extraordinarily tight requirements on wavefront stability and opto-mechanical stability. We find that the requirements are driven mainly by coma that leaks around the coronagraph mask and mimics the localized signal of a planet, and pointing errors that scatter light into the background, decreasing SNR. We also show how the requirements would be relaxed if a low-order aberration detection system could be employed.

  3. Compact disk error measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  4. ArF scanner performance improvement by using track integrated CD optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jacky; Yu, Shinn-Sheng; Ke, Chih-Ming; Wu, Timothy; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Gau, Tsai-Sheng; Wang, Dennis; Li, Allen; Yang, Wenge; Kaoru, Araki

    2006-03-01

    In advanced semiconductor processing, shrinking CD is one of the main objectives when moving to the next generation technology. Improving CD uniformity (CDU) with shrinking CD is one of the biggest challenges. From ArF lithography CD error budget analysis, PEB (post exposure bake) contributes more than 40% CD variations. It turns out that hot plate performance such as CD matching and within-plate temperature control play key roles in litho cell wafer per hour (WPH). Traditionally wired or wireless thermal sensor wafers were used to match and optimize hot plates. However, sensor-to-sensor matching and sensor data quality vs. sensor lifetime or sensor thermal history are still unknown. These concerns make sensor wafers more suitable for coarse mean-temperature adjustment. For precise temperature adjustment, especially within-hot-plate temperature uniformity, using CD instead of sensor wafer temperature is a better and more straightforward metrology to calibrate hot plates. In this study, we evaluated TEL clean track integrated optical CD metrology (IM) combined with TEL CD Optimizer (CDO) software to improve 193-nm resist within-wafer and wafer-to-wafer CD uniformity. Within-wafer CD uniformity is mainly affected by the temperature non-uniformity on the PEB hot plate. Based on CD and PEB sensitivity of photo resists, a physical model has been established to control the CD uniformity through fine-tuning PEB temperature settings. CD data collected by track integrated CD metrology was fed into this model, and the adjustment of PEB setting was calculated and executed through track internal APC system. This auto measurement, auto feed forward, auto calibration and auto adjustment system can reduce the engineer key-in error and improve the hot plate calibration cycle time. And this PEB auto calibration system can easily bring hot-plate-to-hot-plate CD matching to within 0.5nm and within-wafer CDU (3σ) to less than 1.5nm.

  5. Patterning control strategies for minimum edge placement error in logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkens, Jan; Hanna, Michael; Slachter, Bram; Tel, Wim; Kubis, Michael; Maslow, Mark; Spence, Chris; Timoshkov, Vadim

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the edge placement error (EPE) for multi-patterning semiconductor manufacturing. In a multi-patterning scheme the creation of the final pattern is the result of a sequence of lithography and etching steps, and consequently the contour of the final pattern contains error sources of the different process steps. We describe the fidelity of the final pattern in terms of EPE, which is defined as the relative displacement of the edges of two features from their intended target position. We discuss our holistic patterning optimization approach to understand and minimize the EPE of the final pattern. As an experimental test vehicle we use the 7-nm logic device patterning process flow as developed by IMEC. This patterning process is based on Self-Aligned-Quadruple-Patterning (SAQP) using ArF lithography, combined with line cut exposures using EUV lithography. The computational metrology method to determine EPE is explained. It will be shown that ArF to EUV overlay, CDU from the individual process steps, and local CD and placement of the individual pattern features, are the important contributors. Based on the error budget, we developed an optimization strategy for each individual step and for the final pattern. Solutions include overlay and CD metrology based on angle resolved scatterometry, scanner actuator control to enable high order overlay corrections and computational lithography optimization to minimize imaging induced pattern placement errors of devices and metrology targets.

  6. Human errors and measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Evaluating the residual risk of human errors in a measurement and testing laboratory, remaining after the error reduction by the laboratory quality system, and quantifying the consequences of this risk for the quality of the measurement/test results are discussed based on expert judgments and Monte Carlo simulations. A procedure for evaluation of the contribution of the residual risk to the measurement uncertainty budget is proposed. Examples are provided using earlier published sets of expert judgments on human errors in pH measurement of groundwater, elemental analysis of geological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and multi-residue analysis of pesticides in fruits and vegetables. The human error contribution to the measurement uncertainty budget in the examples was not negligible, yet also not dominant. This was assessed as a good risk management result.

  7. A collaborative vendor-buyer production-inventory systems with imperfect quality items, inspection errors, and stochastic demand under budget capacity constraint: a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdhi, N. A.; Nurhayati, R. A.; Wiyono, S. B.; Handajani, S. S.; Martini, T. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an integrated inventory model considering the imperfect quality items, inspection error, controllable lead time, and budget capacity constraint. The imperfect items were uniformly distributed and detected on the screening process. However there are two types of possibilities. The first is type I of inspection error (when a non-defective item classified as defective) and the second is type II of inspection error (when a defective item classified as non-defective). The demand during the lead time is unknown, and it follows the normal distribution. The lead time can be controlled by adding the crashing cost. Furthermore, the existence of the budget capacity constraint is caused by the limited purchasing cost. The purposes of this research are: to modify the integrated vendor and buyer inventory model, to establish the optimal solution using Kuhn-Tucker’s conditions, and to apply the models. Based on the result of application and the sensitivity analysis, it can be obtained minimum integrated inventory total cost rather than separated inventory.

  8. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Kinetic energy budgets in areas of intense convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Berecek, E. M.; Ebel, D. M.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A kinetic energy budget analysis of the AVE-SESAME 1 period which coincided with the deadly Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented. Horizontal flux convergence was found to be the major kinetic energy source to the region, while cross contour destruction was the major sink. Kinetic energy transformations were dominated by processes related to strong jet intrusion into the severe storm area. A kinetic energy budget of the AVE 6 period also is presented. The effects of inherent rawinsonde data errors on widely used basic kinematic parameters, including velocity divergence, vorticity advection, and kinematic vertical motion are described. In addition, an error analysis was performed in terms of the kinetic energy budget equation. Results obtained from downward integration of the continuity equation to obtain kinematic values of vertical motion are described. This alternate procedure shows promising results in severe storm situations.

  10. Evaluating the design of an earth radiation budget instrument with system simulations. Part 2: Minimization of instantaneous sampling errors for CERES-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Hucek, Richard; Ardanuy, Philip; Joyce, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Much of the new record of broadband earth radiation budget satellite measurements to be obtained during the late 1990s and early twenty-first century will come from the dual-radiometer Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-I) flown aboard sun-synchronous polar orbiters. Simulation studies conducted in this work for an early afternoon satellite orbit indicate that spatial root-mean-square (rms) sampling errors of instantaneous CERES-I shortwave flux estimates will range from about 8.5 to 14.0 W/m on a 2.5 deg latitude and longitude grid resolution. Rms errors in longwave flux estimates are only about 20% as large and range from 1.5 to 3.5 W/sq m. These results are based on an optimal cross-track scanner design that includes 50% footprint overlap to eliminate gaps in the top-of-the-atmosphere coverage, and a 'smallest' footprint size to increase the ratio in the number of observations lying within to the number of observations lying on grid area boundaries. Total instantaneous measurement error also depends on the variability of anisotropic reflectance and emission patterns and on retrieval methods used to generate target area fluxes. Three retrieval procedures from both CERES-I scanners (cross-track and rotating azimuth plane) are used. (1) The baseline Earth Radiaton Budget Experiment (ERBE) procedure, which assumes that errors due to the use of mean angular dependence models (ADMs) in the radiance-to-flux inversion process nearly cancel when averaged over grid areas. (2) To estimate N, instantaneous ADMs are estimated from the multiangular, collocated observations of the two scanners. These observed models replace the mean models in computation of satellite flux estimates. (3) The scene flux approach, conducts separate target-area retrievals for each ERBE scene category and combines their results using area weighting by scene type. The ERBE retrieval performs best when the simulated radiance field departs from the ERBE mean models by less than

  11. A budget impact model for biosimilar infliximab in Crohn's disease in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Brodszky, Valentin; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Baji, Petra; Lakatos, Péter L; Gulácsi, László

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A 3-year, prevalence-based budget impact analysis for biosimilar infliximab to treat CD was developed from third-party payers' perspective. The model included various scenarios depending on whether interchanging originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab was allowed or not. Total cost savings achieved in biosimilar scenario 1 (interchanging not allowed) and BSc2 (interchanging allowed in 80% of the patients) were estimated to €8.0 million and €16.9 million in the six countries. Budget savings may cover the biosimilar infliximab therapy for 722-1530 additional CD patients. Introduction of biosimilar infliximab to treat CD may offset the inequity in access to biological therapy for CD between Central and Eastern European countries.

  12. Estimates of fetch-induced errors in Bowen-ratio energy-budget measurements of evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, David L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Winter, Thomas C.; Parkhurst, Renee S.

    2004-01-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) often are affected to some degree by errors arising from limited fetch. A recently developed model was used to estimate fetch-induced errors in Bowen-ratio energy-budget measurements of ET made at a small wetland with fetch-to-height ratios ranging from 34 to 49. Estimated errors were small, averaging −1.90%±0.59%. The small errors are attributed primarily to the near-zero lower sensor height, and the negative bias reflects the greater Bowen ratios of the drier surrounding upland. Some of the variables and parameters affecting the error were not measured, but instead are estimated. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty arising from these estimates is small. In general, fetch-induced error in measured wetland ET increases with decreasing fetch-to-height ratio, with increasing aridity and with increasing atmospheric stability over the wetland. Occurrence of standing water at a site is likely to increase the appropriate time step of data integration, for a given level of accuracy. Occurrence of extensive open water can increase accuracy or decrease the required fetch by allowing the lower sensor to be placed at the water surface. If fetch is highly variable and fetch-induced errors are significant, the variables affecting fetch (e.g., wind direction, water level) need to be measured. Fetch-induced error during the non-growing season may be greater or smaller than during the growing season, depending on how seasonal changes affect both the wetland and upland at a site.

  13. Balancing the books - a statistical theory of prospective budgets in Earth System science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kane, J. Philip

    An honest declaration of the error in a mass, momentum or energy balance, ɛ, simply raises the question of its acceptability: "At what value of ɛ is the attempted balance to be rejected?" Answering this question requires a reference quantity against which to compare ɛ. This quantity must be a mathematical function of all the data used in making the balance. To deliver this function, a theory grounded in a workable definition of acceptability is essential. A distinction must be drawn between a retrospective balance and a prospective budget in relation to any natural space-filling body. Balances look to the past; budgets look to the future. The theory is built on the application of classical sampling theory to the measurement and closure of a prospective budget. It satisfies R.A. Fisher's "vital requirement that the actual and physical conduct of experiments should govern the statistical procedure of their interpretation". It provides a test, which rejects, or fails to reject, the hypothesis that the closing error on the budget, when realised, was due to sampling error only. By increasing the number of measurements, the discrimination of the test can be improved, controlling both the precision and accuracy of the budget and its components. The cost-effective design of such measurement campaigns is discussed briefly. This analysis may also show when campaigns to close a budget on a particular space-filling body are not worth the effort for either scientific or economic reasons. Other approaches, such as those based on stochastic processes, lack this finality, because they fail to distinguish between different types of error in the mismatch between a set of realisations of the process and the measured data.

  14. Detecting Signatures of GRACE Sensor Errors in Range-Rate Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, S.; Flury, J.

    2016-12-01

    In order to reach the accuracy of the GRACE baseline, predicted earlier from the design simulations, efforts are ongoing since a decade. GRACE error budget is highly dominated by noise from sensors, dealiasing models and modeling errors. GRACE range-rate residuals contain these errors. Thus, their analysis provides an insight to understand the individual contribution to the error budget. Hence, we analyze the range-rate residuals with focus on contribution of sensor errors due to mis-pointing and bad ranging performance in GRACE solutions. For the analysis of pointing errors, we consider two different reprocessed attitude datasets with differences in pointing performance. Then range-rate residuals are computed from these two datasetsrespectively and analysed. We further compare the system noise of four K-and Ka- band frequencies of the two spacecrafts, with range-rate residuals. Strong signatures of mis-pointing errors can be seen in the range-rate residuals. Also, correlation between range frequency noise and range-rate residuals are seen.

  15. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Earth radiation budget measurement from a spinning satellite: Conceptual design of detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Suomi, V. E.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design, sensor characteristics, sensor performance and accuracy, and spacecraft and orbital requirements for a spinning wide-field-of-view earth energy budget detector were investigated. The scientific requirements for measurement of the earth's radiative energy budget are presented. Other topics discussed include the observing system concept, solar constant radiometer design, plane flux wide FOV sensor design, fast active cavity theory, fast active cavity design and error analysis, thermopile detectors as an alternative, pre-flight and in-flight calibration plane, system error summary, and interface requirements.

  17. Irradiation resistance of intravolume shading elements embedded in photomasks used for CD uniformity control by local intra-field transmission attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zait, Eitan; Ben-Zvi, Guy; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Oshemkov, Sergey; Pforr, Rainer; Hennig, Mario

    2006-05-01

    Intra-field CD variation is, besides OPC errors, a main contributor to the total CD variation budget in IC manufacturing. It is caused mainly by mask CD errors. In advanced memory device manufacturing the minimum features are close to the resolution limit resulting in large mask error enhancement factors hence large intra-field CD variations. Consequently tight CD Control (CDC) of the mask features is required, which results in increasing significantly the cost of mask and hence the litho process costs. Alternatively there is a search for such techniques (1) which will allow improving the intrafield CD control for a given moderate mask and scanner imaging performance. Currently a new technique (2) has been proposed which is based on correcting the printed CD by applying shading elements generated in the substrate bulk of the mask by ultrashort pulsed laser exposure. The blank transmittance across a feature is controlled by changing the density of light scattering pixels. The technique has been demonstrated to be very successful in correcting intra-field CD variations caused by the mask and the projection system (2). A key application criterion of this technique in device manufacturing is the stability of the absorbing pixels against DUV light irradiation being applied during mask projection in scanners. This paper describes the procedures and results of such an investigation. To do it with acceptable effort a special experimental setup has been chosen allowing an evaluation within reasonable time. A 193nm excimer laser with pulse duration of 25 ns has been used for blank irradiation. Accumulated dose equivalent to 100,000 300 mm wafer exposures has been applied to Half Tone PSM mask areas with and without CDC shadowing elements. This allows the discrimination of effects appearing in treated and untreated glass regions. Several intensities have been investigated to define an acceptable threshold intensity to avoid glass compaction or generation of color centers in

  18. Quantifying uncertainty in forest nutrient budgets

    Treesearch

    Ruth D. Yanai; Carrie R. Levine; Mark B. Green; John L. Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient budgets for forested ecosystems have rarely included error analysis, in spite of the importance of uncertainty to interpretation and extrapolation of the results. Uncertainty derives from natural spatial and temporal variation and also from knowledge uncertainty in measurement and models. For example, when estimating forest biomass, researchers commonly report...

  19. CDO budgeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Sass, Björn; Mauermann, Sebastian

    2008-04-01

    The Critical dimension off-target (CDO) is a key parameter for mask house customer, affecting directly the performance of the mask. The CDO is the difference between the feature size target and the measured feature size. The change of CD during the process is either compensated within the process or by data correction. These compensation methods are commonly called process bias and data bias, respectively. The difference between data bias and process bias in manufacturing results in systematic CDO error, however, this systematic error does not take into account the instability of the process bias. This instability is a result of minor variations - instabilities of manufacturing processes and changes in materials and/or logistics. Using several masks the CDO of the manufacturing line can be estimated. For systematic investigation of the unit process contribution to CDO and analysis of the factors influencing the CDO contributors, a solid understanding of each unit process and huge number of masks is necessary. Rough identification of contributing processes and splitting of the final CDO variation between processes can be done with approx. 50 masks with identical design, material and process. Such amount of data allows us to identify the main contributors and estimate the effect of them by means of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with multivariate analysis. The analysis does not provide information about the root cause of the variation within the particular unit process, however, it provides a good estimate of the impact of the process on the stability of the manufacturing line. Additionally this analysis can be used to identify possible interaction between processes, which cannot be investigated if only single processes are considered. Goal of this work is to evaluate limits for CDO budgeting models given by the precision and the number of measurements as well as partitioning the variation within the manufacturing process. The CDO variation splits according to

  20. Evaluation of a new photomask CD metrology tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubuque, Leonard F.; Doe, Nicholas G.; St. Cin, Patrick

    1996-12-01

    In the integrated circuit (IC) photomask industry today, dense IC patterns, sub-micron critical dimensions (CD), and narrow tolerances for 64 M technologies and beyond are driving increased demands to minimize and characterize all components of photomask CD variation. This places strict requirements on photomask CD metrology in order to accurately characterize the mask CD error distribution. According to the gauge-maker's rule, measurement error must not exceed 30% of the tolerance on the product dimension measured or the gauge is not considered capable. The traditional single point repeatability tests are a poor measure of overall measurement system error in a dynamic, leading-edge technology environment. In such an environment, measurements may be taken at different points in the field- of-view due to stage in-accuracy, pattern recognition requirements, and throughput considerations. With this in mind, a set of experiments were designed to characterize thoroughly the metrology tool's repeatability and systematic error. Original experiments provided inconclusive results and had to be extended to obtain a full characterization of the system. Tests demonstrated a performance of better than 15 nm total CD error. Using this test as a tool for further development, the authors were able to determine the effects of various system components and measure the improvement with changes in optics, electronics, and software. Optimization of the optical path, electronics, and system software has yielded a new instrument with a total system error of better than 8 nm. Good collaboration between the photomask manufacturer and the equipment supplier has led to a realistic test of system performance and an improved CD measurement instrument.

  1. 40 CFR 97.256 - Account error.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System § 97.256... any error in any CAIR SO2 Allowance Tracking System account. Within 10 business days of making such...

  2. Determination of Barometric Altimeter Errors for the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Denise L.; Munoz, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The EFT-1 mission is the unmanned flight test for the upcoming Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). During entry, the EFT-1 vehicle will trigger several Landing and Recovery System (LRS) events, such as parachute deployment, based on onboard altitude information. The primary altitude source is the filtered navigation solution updated with GPS measurement data. The vehicle also has three barometric altimeters that will be used to measure atmospheric pressure during entry. In the event that GPS data is not available during entry, the altitude derived from the barometric altimeter pressure will be used to trigger chute deployment for the drogues and main parachutes. Therefore it is important to understand the impact of error sources on the pressure measured by the barometric altimeters and on the altitude derived from that pressure. There are four primary error sources impacting the sensed pressure: sensor errors, Analog to Digital conversion errors, aerodynamic errors, and atmosphere modeling errors. This last error source is induced by the conversion from pressure to altitude in the vehicle flight software, which requires an atmosphere model such as the US Standard 1976 Atmosphere model. There are several secondary error sources as well, such as waves, tides, and latencies in data transmission. Typically, for error budget calculations it is assumed that all error sources are independent, normally distributed variables. Thus, the initial approach to developing the EFT-1 barometric altimeter altitude error budget was to create an itemized error budget under these assumptions. This budget was to be verified by simulation using high fidelity models of the vehicle hardware and software. The simulation barometric altimeter model includes hardware error sources and a data-driven model of the aerodynamic errors expected to impact the pressure in the midbay compartment in which the sensors are located. The aerodynamic model includes the pressure difference between the midbay

  3. Propagation of angular errors in two-axis rotation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrington, Geoffrey K.

    2003-10-01

    Two-Axis Rotation Systems, or "goniometers," are used in diverse applications including telescope pointing, automotive headlamp testing, and display testing. There are three basic configurations in which a goniometer can be built depending on the orientation and order of the stages. Each configuration has a governing set of equations which convert motion between the system "native" coordinates to other base systems, such as direction cosines, optical field angles, or spherical-polar coordinates. In their simplest form, these equations neglect errors present in real systems. In this paper, a statistical treatment of error source propagation is developed which uses only tolerance data, such as can be obtained from the system mechanical drawings prior to fabrication. It is shown that certain error sources are fully correctable, partially correctable, or uncorrectable, depending upon the goniometer configuration and zeroing technique. The system error budget can be described by a root-sum-of-squares technique with weighting factors describing the sensitivity of each error source. This paper tabulates weighting factors at 67% (k=1) and 95% (k=2) confidence for various levels of maximum travel for each goniometer configuration. As a practical example, this paper works through an error budget used for the procurement of a system at Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. Budgets of divergent and rotational kinetic energy during two periods of intense convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, D. E.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    The derivations of the energy budget equations for divergent and rotational components of kinetic energy are provided. The intense convection periods studied are: (1) synoptic scale data of 3 or 6 hour intervals and (2) mesoalphascale data every 3 hours. Composite energies and averaged budgets for the periods are presented; the effects of random data errors on derived energy parameters is investigated. The divergent kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy budgets are compared; good correlation of the data is observed. The kinetic energies and budget terms increase with convective development; however, the conversion of the divergent and rotational energies are opposite.

  5. Sensitivity of planetary cruise navigation to earth orientation calibration errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.; Folkner, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed analysis was conducted to determine the sensitivity of spacecraft navigation errors to the accuracy and timeliness of Earth orientation calibrations. Analyses based on simulated X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler and ranging measurements acquired during the interplanetary cruise segment of the Mars Pathfinder heliocentric trajectory were completed for the nominal trajectory design and for an alternative trajectory with a longer transit time. Several error models were developed to characterize the effect of Earth orientation on navigational accuracy based on current and anticipated Deep Space Network calibration strategies. The navigational sensitivity of Mars Pathfinder to calibration errors in Earth orientation was computed for each candidate calibration strategy with the Earth orientation parameters included as estimated parameters in the navigation solution. In these cases, the calibration errors contributed 23 to 58% of the total navigation error budget, depending on the calibration strategy being assessed. Navigation sensitivity calculations were also performed for cases in which Earth orientation calibration errors were not adjusted in the navigation solution. In these cases, Earth orientation calibration errors contributed from 26 to as much as 227% of the total navigation error budget. The final analysis suggests that, not only is the method used to calibrate Earth orientation vitally important for precision navigation of Mars Pathfinder, but perhaps equally important is the method for inclusion of the calibration errors in the navigation solutions.

  6. Kinetic energy budget during strong jet stream activity over the eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic energy budgets are computed during a cold air outbreak in association with strong jet stream activity over the eastern United States. The period is characterized by large generation of kinetic energy due to cross-contour flow. Horizontal export and dissipation of energy to subgrid scales of motion constitute the important energy sinks. Rawinsonde data at 3 and 6 h intervals during a 36 h period are used in the analysis and reveal that energy fluctuations on a time scale of less than 12 h are generally small even though the overall energy balance does change considerably during the period in conjunction with an upper level trough which moves through the region. An error analysis of the energy budget terms suggests that this major change in the budget is not due to random errors in the input data but is caused by the changing synoptic situation. The study illustrates the need to consider the time and space scales of associated weather phenomena in interpreting energy budgets obtained through use of higher frequency data.

  7. Implementation and benefits of advanced process control for lithography CD and overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Lena; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Seligman, Gary S.; Tapp, Perry A.; Pol, Victor

    2003-05-01

    Due to the rapidly reduced imaging process windows and increasingly stingent device overlay requirements, sub-130 nm lithography processes are more severely impacted than ever by systamic fault. Limits on critical dimensions (CD) and overlay capability further challenge the operational effectiveness of a mix-and-match environment using multiple lithography tools, as such mode additionally consumes the available error budgets. Therefore, a focus on advanced process control (APC) methodologies is key to gaining control in the lithographic modules for critical device levels, which in turn translates to accelerated yield learning, achieving time-to-market lead, and ultimately a higher return on investment. This paper describes the implementation and unique challenges of a closed-loop CD and overlay control solution in high voume manufacturing of leading edge devices. A particular emphasis has been placed on developing a flexible APC application capable of managing a wide range of control aspects such as process and tool drifts, single and multiple lot excursions, referential overlay control, 'special lot' handling, advanced model hierarchy, and automatic model seeding. Specific integration cases, including the multiple-reticle complementary phase shift lithography process, are discussed. A continuous improvement in the overlay and CD Cpk performance as well as the rework rate has been observed through the implementation of this system, and the results are studied.

  8. Error budgeting single and two qubit gates in a superconducting qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Foxen, B.; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, John. M.; Google Quantum Hardware Team Team

    Superconducting qubits have shown promise as a platform for both error corrected quantum information processing and demonstrations of quantum supremacy. High fidelity quantum gates are crucial to achieving both of these goals, and superconducting qubits have demonstrated two qubit gates exceeding 99% fidelity. In order to improve gate fidelity further, we must understand the remaining sources of error. In this talk, I will demonstrate techniques for quantifying the contributions of control, decoherence, and leakage to gate error, for both single and two qubit gates. I will also discuss the near term outlook for achieving quantum supremacy using a gate-based approach in superconducting qubits. This work is supported Google Inc., and by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1605114.

  9. Mask characterization for critical dimension uniformity budget breakdown in advanced extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    As the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors critical dimension uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. We will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for advanced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with 1D (dense lines) and 2D (dense contacts) feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CDs and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples. Mask stack reflectivity variations should also be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We also observed mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) through field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may play a role towards the total intrafield CDU and may need to be taken into account for EUV lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, with results herein, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to quantifying the mask part of

  10. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative...

  11. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France.

    PubMed

    Gandois, L; Nicolas, M; VanderHeijden, G; Probst, A

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (>95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  13. Comparisons of the error budgets associated with ground-based FTIR measurements of atmospheric CH4 profiles at Île de la Réunion and Jungfraujoch.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhaelewyn, Gauthier; Duchatelet, Pierre; Vigouroux, Corinne; Dils, Bart; Kumps, Nicolas; Hermans, Christian; Demoulin, Philippe; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Sussmann, Ralf; de Mazière, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) remote measurements of atmospheric constituents at the observatories at Saint-Denis (20.90°S, 55.48°E, 50 m a.s.l., Île de la Réunion) and Jungfraujoch (46.55°N, 7.98°E, 3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland) are affiliated to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The European NDACC FTIR data for CH4 were improved and homogenized among the stations in the EU project HYMN. One important application of these data is their use for the validation of satellite products, like the validation of SCIAMACHY or IASI CH4 columns. Therefore, it is very important that errors and uncertainties associated to the ground-based FTIR CH4 data are well characterized. In this poster we present a comparison of errors on retrieved vertical concentration profiles of CH4 between Saint-Denis and Jungfraujoch. At both stations, we have used the same retrieval algorithm, namely SFIT2 v3.92 developed jointly at the NASA Langley Research Center, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research (NIWA) at Lauder, New Zealand, and error evaluation tools developed at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB). The error components investigated in this study are: smoothing, noise, temperature, instrumental line shape (ILS) (in particular the modulation amplitude and phase), spectroscopy (in particular the pressure broadening and intensity), interfering species and solar zenith angle (SZA) error. We will determine if the characteristics of the sites in terms of altitude, geographic locations and atmospheric conditions produce significant differences in the error budgets for the retrieved CH4 vertical profiles

  14. Investigation of Primary Mirror Segment's Residual Errors for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seo, Byoung-Joon; Nissly, Carl; Angeli, George; MacMynowski, Doug; Sigrist, Norbert; Troy, Mitchell; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The primary mirror segment aberrations after shape corrections with warping harness have been identified as the single largest error term in the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) image quality error budget. In order to better understand the likely errors and how they will impact the telescope performance we have performed detailed simulations. We first generated unwarped primary mirror segment surface shapes that met TMT specifications. Then we used the predicted warping harness influence functions and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor model to determine estimates for the 492 corrected segment surfaces that make up the TMT primary mirror. Surface and control parameters, as well as the number of subapertures were varied to explore the parameter space. The corrected segment shapes were then passed to an optical TMT model built using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems (MACOS) ray-trace simulator. The generated exit pupil wavefront error maps provided RMS wavefront error and image-plane characteristics like the Normalized Point Source Sensitivity (PSSN). The results have been used to optimize the segment shape correction and wavefront sensor designs as well as provide input to the TMT systems engineering error budgets.

  15. The Michelson Stellar Interferometer Error Budget for Triple Triple-Satellite Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marathay, Arvind S.; Shiefman, Joe

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the instrumentation tolerances for a conventional style Michelson stellar interferometer (MSI). The method used to determine the tolerances was to determine the change, due to the instrument errors, in the measured fringe visibility and phase relative to the ideal values. The ideal values are those values of fringe visibility and phase that would be measured by a perfect MSI and are attributable solely to the object being detected. Once the functional relationship for changes in visibility and phase as a function of various instrument errors is understood it is then possible to set limits on the instrument errors in order to ensure that the measured visibility and phase are different from the ideal values by no more than some specified amount. This was done as part of this study. The limits we obtained are based on a visibility error of no more than 1% and a phase error of no more than 0.063 radians (this comes from 1% of 2(pi) radians). The choice of these 1% limits is supported in the literture. The approach employed in the study involved the use of ASAP (Advanced System Analysis Program) software provided by Breault Research Organization, Inc., in conjunction with parallel analytical calculations. The interferometer accepts object radiation into two separate arms each consisting of an outer mirror, an inner mirror, a delay line (made up of two moveable mirrors and two static mirrors), and a 10:1 afocal reduction telescope. The radiation coming out of both arms is incident on a slit plane which is opaque with two openings (slits). One of the two slits is centered directly under one of the two arms of the interferometer and the other slit is centered directly under the other arm. The slit plane is followed immediately by an ideal combining lens which images the radiation in the fringe plane (also referred to subsequently as the detector plane).

  16. Error-Resilient Unequal Error Protection of Fine Granularity Scalable Video Bitstreams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hua; Zeng, Bing; Shen, Guobin; Xiong, Zixiang; Li, Shipeng

    2006-12-01

    This paper deals with the optimal packet loss protection issue for streaming the fine granularity scalable (FGS) video bitstreams over IP networks. Unlike many other existing protection schemes, we develop an error-resilient unequal error protection (ER-UEP) method that adds redundant information optimally for loss protection and, at the same time, cancels completely the dependency among bitstream after loss recovery. In our ER-UEP method, the FGS enhancement-layer bitstream is first packetized into a group of independent and scalable data packets. Parity packets, which are also scalable, are then generated. Unequal protection is finally achieved by properly shaping the data packets and the parity packets. We present an algorithm that can optimally allocate the rate budget between data packets and parity packets, together with several simplified versions that have lower complexity. Compared with conventional UEP schemes that suffer from bit contamination (caused by the bit dependency within a bitstream), our method guarantees successful decoding of all received bits, thus leading to strong error-resilience (at any fixed channel bandwidth) and high robustness (under varying and/or unclean channel conditions).

  17. Within-wafer CD variation induced by wafer shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chi-hao; Yang, Mars; Yang, Elvis; Yang, T. H.; Chen, K. C.

    2016-03-01

    In order to meet the increasing storage capacity demand and reduce bit cost of NAND flash memories, 3D stacked vertical flash cell array has been proposed. In constructing 3D NAND flash memories, the bit number per unit area is increased as increasing the number of stacked layers. However, the increased number of stacked layers has made the film stress control extremely important for maintaining good process quality. The residual film stress alters the wafer shape accordingly several process impacts have been readily observed across wafer, such as film deposition non-uniformity, etch rate non-uniformity, wafer chucking error on scanner, materials coating/baking defects, overlay degradation and critical dimension (CD) non-uniformity. The residual tensile and compressive stresses on wafers will result in concave and convex wafer shapes, respectively. This study investigates within-wafer CD uniformity (CDU) associated with wafer shape change induced by the 3D NAND flash memory processes. Within-wafer CDU was correlated with several critical parameters including different wafer bow heights of concave and convex wafer shapes, photo resists with different post exposure baking (PEB) temperature sensitivities, and DoseMapper compensation. The results indicated the trend of within-wafer CDU maintains flat for convex wafer shapes with bow height up to +230um and concave wafer shapes with bow height ranging from 0 ~ -70um, while the within-wafer CDU trends up from -70um to -246um wafer bow heights. To minimize the within-wafer CD distribution induced by wafer warpage, carefully tailoring the film stack and thermal budget in the process flow for maintaining the wafer shape at CDU friendly range is indispensable and using photo-resist materials with lower PEB temperature sensitivity is also suggested. In addition, DoseMapper compensation is also an alternative to greatly suppress the within-wafer CD non-uniformity but the photo-resist profile variation induced by across

  18. Analysis of error-correction constraints in an optical disk.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J D; Ryley, A; Jones, D M; Burke, D

    1996-07-10

    The compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) is a mature storage medium with complex error control. It comprises four levels of Reed Solomon codes allied to a sequence of sophisticated interleaving strategies and 8:14 modulation coding. New storage media are being developed and introduced that place still further demands on signal processing for error correction. It is therefore appropriate to explore thoroughly the limit of existing strategies to assess future requirements. We describe a simulation of all stages of the CD-ROM coding, modulation, and decoding. The results of decoding the burst error of a prescribed number of modulation bits are discussed in detail. Measures of residual uncorrected error within a sector are displayed by C1, C2, P, and Q error counts and by the status of the final cyclic redundancy check (CRC). Where each data sector is encoded separately, it is shown that error-correction performance against burst errors depends critically on the position of the burst within a sector. The C1 error measures the burst length, whereas C2 errors reflect the burst position. The performance of Reed Solomon product codes is shown by the P and Q statistics. It is shown that synchronization loss is critical near the limits of error correction. An example is given of miscorrection that is identified by the CRC check.

  19. Analysis of error-correction constraints in an optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jonathan D.; Ryley, Alan; Jones, David M.; Burke, David

    1996-07-01

    The compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) is a mature storage medium with complex error control. It comprises four levels of Reed Solomon codes allied to a sequence of sophisticated interleaving strategies and 8:14 modulation coding. New storage media are being developed and introduced that place still further demands on signal processing for error correction. It is therefore appropriate to explore thoroughly the limit of existing strategies to assess future requirements. We describe a simulation of all stages of the CD-ROM coding, modulation, and decoding. The results of decoding the burst error of a prescribed number of modulation bits are discussed in detail. Measures of residual uncorrected error within a sector are displayed by C1, C2, P, and Q error counts and by the status of the final cyclic redundancy check (CRC). Where each data sector is encoded separately, it is shown that error-correction performance against burst errors depends critically on the position of the burst within a sector. The C1 error measures the burst length, whereas C2 errors reflect the burst position. The performance of Reed Solomon product codes is shown by the P and Q statistics. It is shown that synchronization loss is critical near the limits of error correction. An example is given of miscorrection that is identified by the CRC check.

  20. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section... OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.3 Budgets and budget revision procedures. The preparation, content, submittal, and revision requirements for the State Food Stamp Program Budget shall be as specified in § 272.2...

  1. 22 CFR 96.33 - Budget, audit, insurance, and risk assessment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... its governing body, if applicable, for management of its funds. The budget discloses all remuneration (including perquisites) paid to the agency's or person's board of directors, managers, employees, and... determining the type and amount of professional, general, directors' and officers', errors and omissions, and...

  2. Use of Earth's magnetic field for mitigating gyroscope errors regardless of magnetic perturbation.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Haris; Renaudin, Valérie; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Most portable systems like smart-phones are equipped with low cost consumer grade sensors, making them useful as Pedestrian Navigation Systems (PNS). Measurements of these sensors are severely contaminated by errors caused due to instrumentation and environmental issues rendering the unaided navigation solution with these sensors of limited use. The overall navigation error budget associated with pedestrian navigation can be categorized into position/displacement errors and attitude/orientation errors. Most of the research is conducted for tackling and reducing the displacement errors, which either utilize Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) or special constraints like Zero velocity UPdaTes (ZUPT) and Zero Angular Rate Updates (ZARU). This article targets the orientation/attitude errors encountered in pedestrian navigation and develops a novel sensor fusion technique to utilize the Earth's magnetic field, even perturbed, for attitude and rate gyroscope error estimation in pedestrian navigation environments where it is assumed that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) navigation is denied. As the Earth's magnetic field undergoes severe degradations in pedestrian navigation environments, a novel Quasi-Static magnetic Field (QSF) based attitude and angular rate error estimation technique is developed to effectively use magnetic measurements in highly perturbed environments. The QSF scheme is then used for generating the desired measurements for the proposed Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based attitude estimator. Results indicate that the QSF measurements are capable of effectively estimating attitude and gyroscope errors, reducing the overall navigation error budget by over 80% in urban canyon environment.

  3. A New Approach in Public Budgeting: Citizens' Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilge, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Change and transformation in the understanding and definition of citizenship has led to the emergence of citizen-oriented public service approach. This approach also raised a new term and concept in the field of public budgeting because of the transformation in the processes of public budgeting: citizens' budget. The citizens' budget which seeks…

  4. Determination of Barometric Altimeter Errors for the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Denise L.; Bunoz, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) mission is the unmanned flight test for the upcoming Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). During entry, the EFT-1 vehicle will trigger several Landing and Recovery System (LRS) events, such as parachute deployment, based on on-board altitude information. The primary altitude source is the filtered navigation solution updated with GPS measurement data. The vehicle also has three barometric altimeters that will be used to measure atmospheric pressure during entry. In the event that GPS data is not available during entry, the altitude derived from the barometric altimeter pressure will be used to trigger chute deployment for the drogues and main parachutes. Therefore it is important to understand the impact of error sources on the pressure measured by the barometric altimeters and on the altitude derived from that pressure. The error sources for the barometric altimeters are not independent, and many error sources result in bias in a specific direction. Therefore conventional error budget methods could not be applied. Instead, high fidelity Monte-Carlo simulation was performed and error bounds were determined based on the results of this analysis. Aerodynamic errors were the largest single contributor to the error budget for the barometric altimeters. The large errors drove a change to the altitude trigger setpoint for FBC jettison deploy.

  5. Demonstrating the Error Budget for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Through Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as a method to determine the accuracy of climate change. A CLARREO objective is to improve the accuracy of SI-traceable, absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths to reach on-orbit accuracies required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps and observe climate change at the limit of natural variability. Such an effort will also demonstrate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approaches for use in future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the results of laboratory and field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. SOLARIS allows testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. Results of laboratory calibration measurements are provided to demonstrate key assumptions about instrument behavior that are needed to achieve CLARREO's climate measurement requirements. Absolute radiometric response is determined using laser-based calibration sources and applied to direct solar views for comparison with accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  6. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  7. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.3 Budgets and budget revision procedures. The preparation, content, submittal...

  8. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.3 Budgets and budget revision procedures. The preparation, content, submittal...

  9. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.3 Budgets and budget revision procedures. The preparation, content, submittal...

  10. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budgets and budget revision procedures. 277.3 Section 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.3 Budgets and budget revision procedures. The preparation, content, submittal...

  11. Use of Earth’s Magnetic Field for Mitigating Gyroscope Errors Regardless of Magnetic Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad Haris; Renaudin, Valérie; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Most portable systems like smart-phones are equipped with low cost consumer grade sensors, making them useful as Pedestrian Navigation Systems (PNS). Measurements of these sensors are severely contaminated by errors caused due to instrumentation and environmental issues rendering the unaided navigation solution with these sensors of limited use. The overall navigation error budget associated with pedestrian navigation can be categorized into position/displacement errors and attitude/orientation errors. Most of the research is conducted for tackling and reducing the displacement errors, which either utilize Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) or special constraints like Zero velocity UPdaTes (ZUPT) and Zero Angular Rate Updates (ZARU). This article targets the orientation/attitude errors encountered in pedestrian navigation and develops a novel sensor fusion technique to utilize the Earth’s magnetic field, even perturbed, for attitude and rate gyroscope error estimation in pedestrian navigation environments where it is assumed that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) navigation is denied. As the Earth’s magnetic field undergoes severe degradations in pedestrian navigation environments, a novel Quasi-Static magnetic Field (QSF) based attitude and angular rate error estimation technique is developed to effectively use magnetic measurements in highly perturbed environments. The QSF scheme is then used for generating the desired measurements for the proposed Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based attitude estimator. Results indicate that the QSF measurements are capable of effectively estimating attitude and gyroscope errors, reducing the overall navigation error budget by over 80% in urban canyon environment. PMID:22247672

  12. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget Materials > Budget1998

    Science.gov Websites

    (Comptroller) Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) Home About OUSD(C) OUSD(C) Top Leaders OUSD(C) Org Chart functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Closure Program (C-1) PDF icon Excel icon Links to Budget Materials Budget Execution Flexibilities

  13. Groundwater discharge to lakes (GDL) - the disregarded component of lake nutrient budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Meinikmann, K.; Pöschke, F.; Nützmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Eutrophication is a major threat to lakes in temperate climatic zones. It is necessary to determine the relevance of different nutrient sources to conduct effective management measures, to understand in-lake processes and to model future scenarios. A prerequisite for such nutrient budgets are water budgets. While most components of the water budget can be determined quite accurate the quantification of groundwater discharge to lakes (GDL) and surface water infiltration into the aquifer are much more difficult. For example, it is quite common to determine the groundwater component as residual in the water and nutrient budget which is extremely problematic since in that case all errors of the budget terms are summed up in the groundwater term. In total, we identified 10 different reasons for disregarding the groundwater path in nutrient budgets. We investigated the fate of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus on their pathway from the catchment through the reactive aquifer-lake interface into the lake. We reviewed the international literature and summarized numbers reported for GDL of nutrients. Since literature is quite sparse we also had a look at numbers reported for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) of nutrients for which much more literature exists and which is despite some fundamental differences in principal comparable to GDL.

  14. Water-budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone.Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  15. Covariance Analysis Tool (G-CAT) for Computing Ascent, Descent, and Landing Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Bayard, David S.

    2013-01-01

    G-CAT is a covariance analysis tool that enables fast and accurate computation of error ellipses for descent, landing, ascent, and rendezvous scenarios, and quantifies knowledge error contributions needed for error budgeting purposes. Because GCAT supports hardware/system trade studies in spacecraft and mission design, it is useful in both early and late mission/ proposal phases where Monte Carlo simulation capability is not mature, Monte Carlo simulation takes too long to run, and/or there is a need to perform multiple parametric system design trades that would require an unwieldy number of Monte Carlo runs. G-CAT is formulated as a variable-order square-root linearized Kalman filter (LKF), typically using over 120 filter states. An important property of G-CAT is that it is based on a 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) formulation that completely captures the combined effects of both attitude and translation errors on the propagated trajectories. This ensures its accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) analysis. G-CAT provides the desired fast turnaround analysis needed for error budgeting in support of mission concept formulations, design trade studies, and proposal development efforts. The main usefulness of a covariance analysis tool such as G-CAT is its ability to calculate the performance envelope directly from a single run. This is in sharp contrast to running thousands of simulations to obtain similar information using Monte Carlo methods. It does this by propagating the "statistics" of the overall design, rather than simulating individual trajectories. G-CAT supports applications to lunar, planetary, and small body missions. It characterizes onboard knowledge propagation errors associated with inertial measurement unit (IMU) errors (gyro and accelerometer), gravity errors/dispersions (spherical harmonics, masscons), and radar errors (multiple altimeter beams, multiple Doppler velocimeter beams). G-CAT is a standalone MATLAB- based tool intended to

  16. Retrieval of carbon dioxide vertical profiles from solar occultation observations and associated error budgets for ACE-FTS and CASS-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, C. E.; Boone, C. D.; Nassar, R.; Sutton, K. J.; Gordon, I. E.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-02-01

    An algorithm is developed to retrieve the vertical profile of carbon dioxide in the 5 to 25 km altitude range using mid-infrared solar occultation spectra from the main instrument of the ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission, namely the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The main challenge is to find an atmospheric phenomenon which can be used for accurate tangent height determination in the lower atmosphere, where the tangent heights (THs) calculated from geometric and timing information is not of sufficient accuracy. Error budgets for the retrieval of CO2 from ACE-FTS and the FTS on a potential follow-on mission named CASS (Chemical and Aerosol Sounding Satellite) are calculated and contrasted. Retrieved THs are typically within 60 m of those retrieved using the ACE version 3.x software after revisiting the temperature dependence of the N2 CIA (Collision-Induced Absorption) laboratory measurements and accounting for sulfate aerosol extinction. After correcting for the known residual high bias of ACE version 3.x THs expected from CO2 spectroscopic/isotopic inconsistencies, the remaining bias for tangent heights determined with the N2 CIA is -20m. CO2 in the 5-13 km range in the 2009-2011 time frame is validated against aircraft measurements from CARIBIC, CONTRAIL and HIPPO, yielding typical biases of -1.7 ppm in the 5-13 km range. The standard error of these biases in this vertical range is 0.4 ppm. The multi-year ACE-FTS dataset is valuable in determining the seasonal variation of the latitudinal gradient which arises from the strong seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere. The annual growth of CO2 in this time frame is determined to be 2.5 ± 0.7 ppm yr-1, in agreement with the currently accepted global growth rate based on ground-based measurements.

  17. Improvement of CD-SEM mark position measurement accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Kazuya

    2014-04-01

    CD-SEM is now attracting attention as a tool that can accurately measure positional error of device patterns. However, the measurement accuracy can get worse due to pattern asymmetry as in the case of image based overlay (IBO) and diffraction based overlay (DBO). For IBO and DBO, a way of correcting the inaccuracy arising from measurement patterns was suggested. For CD-SEM, although a way of correcting CD bias was proposed, it has not been argued how to correct the inaccuracy arising from pattern asymmetry using CD-SEM. In this study we will propose how to quantify and correct the measurement inaccuracy affected by pattern asymmetry.

  18. Budget Thoughts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialostosky, Don

    2001-01-01

    Addresses budget issues in terms of "getting" and "spending." Notes that educators should not lay waste their powers in exchange for getting and spending. Notes that careful budget management is a necessary virtue, but it is not a sufficient virtue to win additional support. Suggests what to take to an annual budget hearing. (SG)

  19. Science support for the Earth radiation budget experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, James A., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The work undertaken as part of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) included the following major components: The development and application of a new cloud retrieval scheme to assess errors in the radiative fluxes arising from errors in the ERBE identification of cloud conditions. The comparison of the anisotropy of reflected sunlight and emitted thermal radiation with the anisotropy predicted by the Angular Dependence Models (ADM's) used to obtain the radiative fluxes. Additional studies included the comparison of calculated longwave cloud-free radiances with those observed by the ERBE scanner and the use of ERBE scanner data to track the calibration of the shortwave channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Major findings included: the misidentification of cloud conditions by the ERBE scene identification algorithm could cause 15 percent errors in the shortwave flux reflected by certain scene types. For regions containing mixtures of scene types, the errors were typically less than 5 percent, and the anisotropies of the shortwave and longwave radiances exhibited a spatial scale dependence which, because of the growth of the scanner field of view from nadir to limb, gave rise to a view zenith angle dependent bias in the radiative fluxes.

  20. Understanding error generation in fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochmann, Lennart; Bayley, Cindy; Helu, Moneer; Transchel, Robert; Wegener, Konrad; Dornfeld, David

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing offers completely new possibilities for the manufacturing of parts. The advantages of flexibility and convenience of additive manufacturing have had a significant impact on many industries, and optimizing part quality is crucial for expanding its utilization. This research aims to determine the sources of imprecision in fused deposition modeling (FDM). Process errors in terms of surface quality, accuracy and precision are identified and quantified, and an error-budget approach is used to characterize errors of the machine tool. It was determined that accuracy and precision in the y direction (0.08-0.30 mm) are generally greater than in the x direction (0.12-0.62 mm) and the z direction (0.21-0.57 mm). Furthermore, accuracy and precision tend to decrease at increasing axis positions. The results of this work can be used to identify possible process improvements in the design and control of FDM technology.

  1. Swing arm profilometer: analytical solutions of misalignment errors for testing axisymmetric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ling; Luo, Xiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Xiaokun; Hu, Haixiang; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Ligong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-07-01

    The swing arm profilometer (SAP) has been playing a very important role in testing large aspheric optics. As one of most significant error sources that affects the test accuracy, misalignment error leads to low-order errors such as aspherical aberrations and coma apart from power. In order to analyze the effect of misalignment errors, the relation between alignment parameters and test results of axisymmetric optics is presented. Analytical solutions of SAP system errors from tested mirror misalignment, arm length L deviation, tilt-angle θ deviation, air-table spin error, and air-table misalignment are derived, respectively; and misalignment tolerance is given to guide surface measurement. In addition, experiments on a 2-m diameter parabolic mirror are demonstrated to verify the model; according to the error budget, we achieve the SAP test for low-order errors except power with accuracy of 0.1 μm root-mean-square.

  2. California Budget Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  3. CD44s and CD44v6 Expression in Head and Neck Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Brigitte; Gires, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Background CD44 splice variants are long-known as being associated with cell transformation. Recently, the standard form of CD44 (CD44s) was shown to be part of the signature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in colon, breast, and in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). This is somewhat in contradiction to previous reports on the expression of CD44s in HNSCC. The aim of the present study was to clarify the actual pattern of CD44 expression in head and neck epithelia. Methods Expression of CD44s and CD44v6 was analysed by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies in primary head and neck tissues. Scoring of all specimens followed a two-parameters system, which implemented percentages of positive cells and staining intensities from − to +++ (score = %×intensity; resulting max. score 300). In addition, cell surface expression of CD44s and CD44v6 was assessed in lymphocytes and HNSCC. Results In normal epithelia CD44s and CD44v6 were expressed in 60–95% and 50–80% of cells and yielded mean scores with a standard error of a mean (SEM) of 249.5±14.5 and 198±11.13, respectively. In oral leukoplakia and in moderately differentiated carcinomas CD44s and CD44v6 levels were slightly increased (278.9±7.16 and 242±11.7; 291.8±5.88 and 287.3±6.88). Carcinomas in situ displayed unchanged levels of both proteins whereas poorly differentiated carcinomas consistently expressed diminished CD44s and CD44v6 levels. Lymphocytes and HNSCC lines strongly expressed CD44s but not CD44v6. Conclusion CD44s and CD44v6 expression does not distinguish normal from benign or malignant epithelia of the head and neck. CD44s and CD44v6 were abundantly present in the great majority of cells in head and neck tissues, including carcinomas. Hence, the value of CD44s as a marker for the definition of a small subset of cells (i.e. less than 10%) representing head and neck cancer stem cells may need revision. PMID:18852874

  4. Soil Carbon Budget During Establishment of Short Rotation Woody Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Carbon budgets were monitored following forest harvest and during re-establishment of short rotation woody crops. Soil CO2 efflux was monitored using infared gas analyzer methods, fine root production was estimated with minirhizotrons, above ground litter inputs were trapped, coarse root inputs were estimated with developed allometric relationships, and soil carbon pools were measured in loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations. Our carbon budget allows evaluation of errors, as well as quantifying pools and fluxes in developing stands during non-steady-state conditions. Soil CO2 efflux was larger than the combined inputs from aboveground litter fall and root production. Fine-root production increased during stand development; however, mortality was not yet equivalent to production, showing the belowground carbon budget was not yet in equilibrium and root carbon standing crop was accruing. Belowground production was greater in cottonwood than pine, but the level of pine soil CO2 efflux was equal to or greater than that of cottonwood, indicating heterotrophic respiration was higher for pine. Comparison of unaccounted efflux with soil organic carbon changes provides verification of loss or accrual.

  5. Designing Measurement Studies under Budget Constraints: Controlling Error of Measurement and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoulides, George A.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology is presented for minimizing the mean error variance-covariance component in studies with resource constraints. The method is illustrated using a one-facet multivariate design. Extensions to other designs are discussed. (SLD)

  6. Determination of the carbon budget of a pasture: effect of system boundaries and flux uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Bretscher, D.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in the soil is considered as a potential important mechanism to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the agricultural sector. It can be quantified by the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) describing the change of soil C as the sum of all relevant import and export fluxes. NECB was investigated here in detail for an intensively grazed dairy pasture in Switzerland. Two budget approaches with different system boundaries were applied: NECBtot for system boundaries including the grazing cows and NECBpast for system boundaries excluding the cows. CO2 and CH4 exchange induced by soil/vegetation processes as well as direct emissions by the animals were derived from eddy covariance measurements. Other C fluxes were either measured (milk yield, concentrate feeding) or derived based on animal performance data (intake, excreta). For the investigated year, both approaches resulted in a small non-significant C loss: NECBtot - 13 ± 61 g C m-2 yr-1 and NECBpast - 17 ± 81 g C m-2 yr-1. The considerable uncertainties, depending on the approach, were mainly due to errors in the CO2 exchange or in the animal related fluxes. The associated GHG budget revealed CH4 emissions from the cows to be the major contributor, but with much lower uncertainty compared to NECB. Although only one year of data limit the representativeness of the carbon budget results, they demonstrated the important contribution of the non-CO2 fluxes depending on the chosen system boundaries and the effect of their propagated uncertainty in an exemplary way. The simultaneous application and comparison of both NECB approaches provides a useful consistency check for the carbon budget determination and can help to identify and eliminate systematic errors.

  7. Determination of the carbon budget of a pasture: effect of system boundaries and flux uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, Raphael; Bretscher, Daniel; Münger, Andreas; Neftel, Albrecht; Ammann, Christof

    2016-05-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in the soil is considered as a potential important mechanism to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the agricultural sector. It can be quantified by the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) describing the change of soil C as the sum of all relevant import and export fluxes. NECB was investigated here in detail for an intensively grazed dairy pasture in Switzerland. Two budget approaches with different system boundaries were applied: NECBtot for system boundaries including the grazing cows and NECBpast for system boundaries excluding the cows. CO2 and CH4 exchange induced by soil/vegetation processes as well as direct emissions by the animals were derived from eddy covariance measurements. Other C fluxes were either measured (milk yield, concentrate feeding) or derived based on animal performance data (intake, excreta). For the investigated year, both approaches resulted in a small near-neutral C budget: NECBtot -27 ± 62 and NECBpast 23 ± 76 g C m-2 yr-1. The considerable uncertainties, depending on the approach, were mainly due to errors in the CO2 exchange or in the animal-related fluxes. The comparison of the NECB results with the annual exchange of other GHG revealed CH4 emissions from the cows to be the major contributor in terms of CO2 equivalents, but with much lower uncertainty compared to NECB. Although only 1 year of data limit the representativeness of the carbon budget results, they demonstrate the important contribution of the non-CO2 fluxes depending on the chosen system boundaries and the effect of their propagated uncertainty in an exemplary way. The simultaneous application and comparison of both NECB approaches provides a useful consistency check for the carbon budget determination and can help to identify and eliminate systematic errors.

  8. Budget brief, 1981

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The FY DOE budge totals $12.6 billion in budget authority and $11.1 billion in budget outlays. The budget authority being requested consists of $10.3 billion in new authority and a $2.3 billion reappropriation of expiring funds for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Areas covered in the Energy budget are: energy conservation; research, development, and applications; regulation and information; direct energy production; strategic energy production; and energy security reserve. Other areas include: general science, defense activities; departmental administration; and legislative proposal - spent fuel. Budget totals are compared for 1980 and 1981. A detailed discussion of the FY 1981 activities to bemore » undertaken to carry out these activities is provided. (MCW)« less

  9. Computerized Budget Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Julian U.; Rowe, Joe N.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of budget monitoring in fiscal management; describes ways in which computerized budget monitoring increases accuracy, efficiency, and flexibility; outlines steps in the budget process; and presents sample reports, generated using the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet and graphics program. (IAH)

  10. Altimeter error sources at the 10-cm performance level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Error sources affecting the calibration and operational use of a 10 cm altimeter are examined to determine the magnitudes of current errors and the investigations necessary to reduce them to acceptable bounds. Errors considered include those affecting operational data pre-processing, and those affecting altitude bias determination, with error budgets developed for both. The most significant error sources affecting pre-processing are bias calibration, propagation corrections for the ionosphere, and measurement noise. No ionospheric models are currently validated at the required 10-25% accuracy level. The optimum smoothing to reduce the effects of measurement noise is investigated and found to be on the order of one second, based on the TASC model of geoid undulations. The 10 cm calibrations are found to be feasible only through the use of altimeter passes that are very high elevation for a tracking station which tracks very close to the time of altimeter track, such as a high elevation pass across the island of Bermuda. By far the largest error source, based on the current state-of-the-art, is the location of the island tracking station relative to mean sea level in the surrounding ocean areas.

  11. 77 FR 52035 - Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Identifier: CMS-10003] Public Information Collection Requirements Submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB); Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Correction of notice. SUMMARY: This document corrects a technical error in the notice [Document Identifier: CMS...

  12. Error decomposition and estimation of inherent optical properties.

    PubMed

    Salama, Mhd Suhyb; Stein, Alfred

    2009-09-10

    We describe a methodology to quantify and separate the errors of inherent optical properties (IOPs) derived from ocean-color model inversion. Their total error is decomposed into three different sources, namely, model approximations and inversion, sensor noise, and atmospheric correction. Prior information on plausible ranges of observation, sensor noise, and inversion goodness-of-fit are employed to derive the posterior probability distribution of the IOPs. The relative contribution of each error component to the total error budget of the IOPs, all being of stochastic nature, is then quantified. The method is validated with the International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG) data set and the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Data set (NOMAD). The derived errors are close to the known values with correlation coefficients of 60-90% and 67-90% for IOCCG and NOMAD data sets, respectively. Model-induced errors inherent to the derived IOPs are between 10% and 57% of the total error, whereas atmospheric-induced errors are in general above 43% and up to 90% for both data sets. The proposed method is applied to synthesized and in situ measured populations of IOPs. The mean relative errors of the derived values are between 2% and 20%. A specific error table to the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor is constructed. It serves as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the atmospheric correction method and to compute atmospheric-induced errors. Our method has a better performance and is more appropriate to estimate actual errors of ocean-color derived products than the previously suggested methods. Moreover, it is generic and can be applied to quantify the error of any derived biogeophysical parameter regardless of the used derivation.

  13. Retrieval of carbon dioxide vertical profiles from solar occultation observations and associated error budgets for ACE-FTS and CASS-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, C. E.; Boone, C. D.; Nassar, R.; Sutton, K. J.; Gordon, I. E.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm is developed to retrieve the vertical profile of carbon dioxide in the 5 to 25 km altitude range using mid-infrared solar occultation spectra from the main instrument of the ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission, namely the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The main challenge is to find an atmospheric phenomenon which can be used for accurate tangent height determination in the lower atmosphere, where the tangent heights (THs) calculated from geometric and timing information are not of sufficient accuracy. Error budgets for the retrieval of CO2 from ACE-FTS and the FTS on a potential follow-on mission named CASS (Chemical and Aerosol Sounding Satellite) are calculated and contrasted. Retrieved THs have typical biases of 60 m relative to those retrieved using the ACE version 3.x software after revisiting the temperature dependence of the N2 CIA (collision-induced absorption) laboratory measurements and accounting for sulfate aerosol extinction. After correcting for the known residual high bias of ACE version 3.x THs expected from CO2 spectroscopic/isotopic inconsistencies, the remaining bias for tangent heights determined with the N2 CIA is -20 m. CO2 in the 5-13 km range in the 2009-2011 time frame is validated against aircraft measurements from CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container), CONTRAIL (Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airline), and HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations), yielding typical biases of -1.7 ppm in the 5-13 km range. The standard error of these biases in this vertical range is 0.4 ppm. The multi-year ACE-FTS data set is valuable in determining the seasonal variation of the latitudinal gradient which arises from the strong seasonal cycle in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere. The annual growth of CO2 in this time frame is determined to be 2.6 ± 0.4 ppm year-1, in agreement with the currently accepted global growth rate based on

  14. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM...

  15. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM...

  16. Dual view Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget from the Meteosat Second Generation satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Steven; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Moreels, Johan

    2017-04-01

    The diurnal cycle of the radiation budget is a key component of the tropical climate. The geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites carrying both the broadband Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument with nadir resolution of 50 km and the multispectral Spinning Enhanced VIsible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) with nadir resolution of 3 km offer a unique opportunity to observe this diurnal cycle. The geostationary orbit has the advantage of good temporal sampling but the disadvantage of fixed viewing angles, which makes the measurements of the broadband Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes more sensitive to angular dependent errors. The Meteosat-10 (MSG-3) satellite observes the earth from the standard position at 0° longitude. From October 2016 onwards the Meteosat-8 (MSG-1) satellite makes observations from a new position at 41.5° East over the Indian Ocean. The dual view from Meteosat-8 and Meteosat-10 allows the assessment and correction of angular dependent systematic errors of the flux estimates. We demonstrate this capability with the validation of a new method for the estimation of the clear-sky TOA albedo from the SEVIRI instruments.

  17. Towards the 1 mm/y stability of the radial orbit error at regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couhert, Alexandre; Cerri, Luca; Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michael; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Haines, Bruce J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Bertiger, William I.; Desai, Shailen D.; Otten, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    An estimated orbit error budget for the Jason-1 and Jason-2 GDR-D solutions is constructed, using several measures of orbit error. The focus is on the long-term stability of the orbit time series for mean sea level applications on a regional scale. We discuss various issues related to the assessment of radial orbit error trends; in particular this study reviews orbit errors dependent on the tracking technique, with an aim to monitoring the long-term stability of all available tracking systems operating on Jason-1 and Jason-2 (GPS, DORIS, SLR). The reference frame accuracy and its effect on Jason orbit is assessed. We also examine the impact of analysis method on the inference of Geographically Correlated Errors as well as the significance of estimated radial orbit error trends versus the time span of the analysis. Thus a long-term error budget of the 10-year Jason-1 and Envisat GDR-D orbit time series is provided for two time scales: interannual and decadal. As the temporal variations of the geopotential remain one of the primary limitations in the Precision Orbit Determination modeling, the overall accuracy of the Jason-1 and Jason-2 GDR-D solutions is evaluated through comparison with external orbits based on different time-variable gravity models. This contribution is limited to an East-West “order-1” pattern at the 2 mm/y level (secular) and 4 mm level (seasonal), over the Jason-2 lifetime. The possibility of achieving sub-mm/y radial orbit stability over interannual and decadal periods at regional scales and the challenge of evaluating such an improvement using in situ independent data is discussed.

  18. Towards the 1 mm/y Stability of the Radial Orbit Error at Regional Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couhert, Alexandre; Cerri, Luca; Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Haines, Bruce J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Bertiger, William I.; Desai, Shailen D.; Otten, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    An estimated orbit error budget for the Jason-1 and Jason-2 GDR-D solutions is constructed, using several measures of orbit error. The focus is on the long-term stability of the orbit time series for mean sea level applications on a regional scale. We discuss various issues related to the assessment of radial orbit error trends; in particular this study reviews orbit errors dependent on the tracking technique, with an aim to monitoring the long-term stability of all available tracking systems operating on Jason-1 and Jason-2 (GPS, DORIS, SLR). The reference frame accuracy and its effect on Jason orbit is assessed. We also examine the impact of analysis method on the inference of Geographically Correlated Errors as well as the significance of estimated radial orbit error trends versus the time span of the analysis. Thus a long-term error budget of the 10-year Jason-1 and Envisat GDR-D orbit time series is provided for two time scales: interannual and decadal. As the temporal variations of the geopotential remain one of the primary limitations in the Precision Orbit Determination modeling, the overall accuracy of the Jason-1 and Jason-2 GDR-D solutions is evaluated through comparison with external orbits based on different time-variable gravity models. This contribution is limited to an East-West "order-1" pattern at the 2 mm/y level (secular) and 4 mm level (seasonal), over the Jason-2 lifetime. The possibility of achieving sub-mm/y radial orbit stability over interannual and decadal periods at regional scales and the challenge of evaluating such an improvement using in situ independent data is discussed.

  19. Towards the 1 mm/y Stability of the Radial Orbit Error at Regional Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couhert, Alexandre; Cerri, Luca; Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Haines, Bruce J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Bertiger, William I.; Desai, Shailen D.; Otten, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    An estimated orbit error budget for the Jason-1 and Jason-2 GDR-D solutions is constructed, using several measures of orbit error. The focus is on the long-term stability of the orbit time series for mean sea level applications on a regional scale. We discuss various issues related to the assessment of radial orbit error trends; in particular this study reviews orbit errors dependent on the tracking technique, with an aim to monitoring the long-term stability of all available tracking systems operating on Jason-1 and Jason-2 (GPS, DORIS,SLR). The reference frame accuracy and its effect on Jason orbit is assessed. We also examine the impact of analysis method on the inference of Geographically Correlated Errors as well as the significance of estimated radial orbit error trends versus the time span of the analysis. Thus a long-term error budget of the 10-year Jason-1 and Envisat GDR-D orbit time series is provided for two time scales: interannual and decadal. As the temporal variations of the geopotential remain one of the primary limitations in the Precision Orbit Determination modeling, the overall accuracy of the Jason-1 and Jason-2 GDR-D solutions is evaluated through comparison with external orbits based on different time-variable gravity models. This contribution is limited to an East-West "order-1" pattern at the 2 mm/y level (secular) and 4 mm level (seasonal), over the Jason-2 lifetime. The possibility of achieving sub-mm/y radial orbit stability over interannual and decadal periods at regional scales and the challenge of evaluating such an improvement using in situ independent data is discussed.

  20. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  1. Plan Your Advertising Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Steuart-Henderson

    1979-01-01

    Methods for establishing an advertising budget are reviewed. They include methods based on percentage of sales or profits, unit of sales, and objective and task. Also discussed are ways to allocate a promotional budget. The most common breakdowns are: departmental budgets, total budget, calendar periods, media, and sales area. (JMD)

  2. Pattern uniformity control in integrated structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Okada, Soichiro; Shimura, Satoru; Nafus, Kathleen; Fonseca, Carlos; Biesemans, Serge; Enomoto, Masashi

    2017-03-01

    In our previous paper dealing with multi-patterning, we proposed a new indicator to quantify the quality of final wafer pattern transfer, called interactive pattern fidelity error (IPFE). It detects patterning failures resulting from any source of variation in creating integrated patterns. IPFE is a function of overlay and edge placement error (EPE) of all layers comprising the final pattern (i.e. lower and upper layers). In this paper, we extend the use cases with Via in additional to the bridge case (Block on Spacer). We propose an IPFE budget and CD budget using simple geometric and statistical models with analysis of a variance (ANOVA). In addition, we validate the model with experimental data. From the experimental results, improvements in overlay, local-CDU (LCDU) of contact hole (CH) or pillar patterns (especially, stochastic pattern noise (SPN)) and pitch walking are all critical to meet budget requirements. We also provide a special note about the importance of the line length used in analyzing LWR. We find that IPFE and CD budget requirements are consistent to the table of the ITRS's technical requirement. Therefore the IPFE concept can be adopted for a variety of integrated structures comprising digital logic circuits. Finally, we suggest how to use IPFE for yield management and optimization requirements for each process.

  3. Who needs budgets?

    PubMed

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  4. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  5. Extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation of the earth radiation budget satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1989-01-01

    The design and testing of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for ground attitude determination, misalignment estimation and sensor calibration of the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) are described. Attitude is represented by the quaternion of rotation and the attitude estimation error is defined as an additive error. Quaternion normalization is used for increasing the convergence rate and for minimizing the need for filter tuning. The development of the filter dynamic model, the gyro error model and the measurement models of the Sun sensors, the IR horizon scanner and the magnetometers which are used to generate vector measurements are also presented. The filter is applied to real data transmitted by ERBS sensors. Results are presented and analyzed and the EKF advantages as well as sensitivities are discussed. On the whole the filter meets the expected synergism, accuracy and robustness.

  6. Automatic performance budget: towards a risk reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Philippe; Blake, Simon; Schmoll, Jürgen; Rulten, Cameron; Savoie, Denis

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the performance matrix of the SST-GATE telescope developed to allow us to partition and allocate the important characteristics to the various subsystems as well as to describe the process in order to verify that the current design will deliver the required performance. Due to the integrated nature of the telescope, a large number of parameters have to be controlled and effective calculation tools must be developed such as an automatic performance budget. Its main advantages consist in alleviating the work of the system engineer when changes occur in the design, in avoiding errors during any re-allocation process and recalculate automatically the scientific performance of the instrument. We explain in this paper the method to convert the ensquared energy (EE) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) required by the science cases into the "as designed" instrument. To ensure successful design, integration and verification of the next generation instruments, it is of the utmost importance to have methods to control and manage the instrument's critical performance characteristics at its very early design steps to limit technical and cost risks in the project development. Such a performance budget is a tool towards this goal.

  7. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article,…

  8. Strategic Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dennis P.

    1993-01-01

    An approach to college budgeting that encompasses strategic as well as operational decisions is proposed. Strategic decisions focus on creation and maintenance of institutional capacity, whereas operational decisions focus on use of that capacity to accomplish specific purposes. Strategic budgeting must emphasize institutional assets and their…

  9. Preliminary error budget analysis of the coronagraphic instrument metis for the solar orbiter ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Poletto, Luca; Crescenzio, Giuseppe; Fineschi, Silvano; Antonucci, Ester; Naletto, Giampiero

    2017-11-01

    METIS, the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy, is the solar coronagraph foreseen for the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. METIS is conceived to image the solar corona from a near-Sun orbit in three different spectral bands: in the HeII EUV narrow band at 30.4 nm, in the HI UV narrow band at 121.6 nm, and in the polarized visible light band (590 - 650 nm). It also incorporates the capability of multi-slit spectroscopy of the corona in the UV/EUV range at different heliocentric heights. METIS is an externally occulted coronagraph which adopts an "inverted occulted" configuration. The Inverted external occulter (IEO) is a small circular aperture at the METIS entrance; the Sun-disk light is rejected by a spherical mirror M0 through the same aperture, while the coronal light is collected by two annular mirrors M1-M2 realizing a Gregorian telescope. To allocate the spectroscopic part, one portion of the M2 is covered by a grating (i.e. approximately 1/8 of the solar corona will not be imaged). This paper presents the error budget analysis for this new concept coronagraph configuration, which incorporates 3 different sub-channels: UV and EUV imaging sub-channel, in which the UV and EUV light paths have in common the detector and all of the optical elements but a filter, the polarimetric visible light sub-channel which, after the telescope optics, has a dedicated relay optics and a polarizing unit, and the spectroscopic sub-channel, which shares the filters and the detector with the UV-EUV imaging one, but includes a grating instead of the secondary mirror. The tolerance analysis of such an instrument is quite complex: in fact not only the optical performance for the 3 sub-channels has to be maintained simultaneously, but also the positions of M0 and of the occulters (IEO, internal occulter and Lyot stop), which guarantee the optimal disk light suppression, have to be taken into account as tolerancing parameters. In the aim of assuring the scientific

  10. Lineage determination of CD7+ CD5- CD2- and CD7+ CD5+ CD2- lymphoblasts: studies on phenotype, genotype, and gene expression of myeloperoxidase, CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, N; Tatsumi, E; Teshigawara, K; Nagata, S; Nagano, T; Kishimoto, Y; Kimura, T; Yasunaga, K; Yamaguchi, N

    1994-04-01

    The gene expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta molecules, the gene rearrangement of T-cell receptor (TCR) delta, gamma, and beta and immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain, and the expression of cell-surface antigens were investigated in seven cases of CD7+ CD5- CD2- and four cases of CD7+ CD5+ CD2- acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma (ALL/LBL) blasts, which were negative for cytochemical myeloperoxidase (cyMPO). More mature T-lineage blasts were also investigated in a comparative manner. In conclusion, the CD7+ CD5- CD2- blasts included four categories: undifferentiated blasts without lineage commitment, T-lineage blasts, T-/myeloid lineage blasts, and cyMPO-negative myeloblasts. The CD7+ CD5+ CD2- blasts included two categories; T-lineage and T-/myeloid lineage blasts. The 11 cases were of the germ-line gene (G) for TCR beta and IgH. Four cases were G for TCR delta and TCR gamma. The others were of the monoclonally rearranged gene (R) for TCR delta and G for TCR gamma or R for both TCR delta and TCR gamma. The expression or in vitro induction of CD13 and/or CD33 antigens correlated with the immaturity of these neoplastic T cells, since it was observed in all 11 CD7+ CD5- CD2- and CD7+ CD5+ CD2-, and some CD7+ CD5+ CD2+ (CD3- CD4- CD8-) cases, but not in CD3 +/- CD4+ CD8+ or CD3+ CD4+ CD8- cases. CD3 epsilon mRNA, but not CD3 delta mRNA, was detected in two CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases, while mRNA of neither of the two CD3 molecules was detected in the other tested CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases. In contrast, mRNA of both CD3 epsilon and CD3 delta were detected in all CD7+ CD5+ CD2- cases, indicating that CD7+ CD5- CD2- blasts at least belong to T-lineage. The blasts of two CD7+ CD5- CD2- cases with entire germ-line genes and without mRNA of the three molecules (MPO, CD3 epsilon, and CD3 delta) were regarded as being at an undifferentiated stage prior to their commitment to either T- or myeloid-lineage. The co-expression of the genes of MPO

  11. Home - House Budget Committee

    Science.gov Websites

    Initiatives Hearings Full Menu About Toggle Links Members History Staff Rules & Budget Law News Toggle Staff Rules & Budget Law News Press Releases Budget Digests HBC Publications Op-Eds Speeches &

  12. Department of the Navy Supporting Data for FY1991 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    deployments of the F/A-18 aircraft. f. (U) Engineering and technical support for AAS-38 tracker and F/A-18 C/D WSSA. g. (U) Provided support to ATARS program...for preliminary testing of RECCE/ ATARS common nose and associated air data computer (ADC) algorithms. h. (U) Initiated integration of full HARPOON and...to ATARS program for testing of flight control computer software. 28 UNCLASSIFIED 0]PgLa .e 2 4136N Budget Activity: 4 Program Elemhk* Title: F/A-18

  13. Sub-basin-scale sea level budgets from satellite altimetry, Argo floats and satellite gravimetry: a case study in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinherenbrink, Marcel; Riva, Riccardo; Sun, Yu

    2016-11-01

    In this study, for the first time, an attempt is made to close the sea level budget on a sub-basin scale in terms of trend and amplitude of the annual cycle. We also compare the residual time series after removing the trend, the semiannual and the annual signals. To obtain errors for altimetry and Argo, full variance-covariance matrices are computed using correlation functions and their errors are fully propagated. For altimetry, we apply a geographically dependent intermission bias [Ablain et al.(2015)], which leads to differences in trends up to 0.8 mm yr-1. Since Argo float measurements are non-homogeneously spaced, steric sea levels are first objectively interpolated onto a grid before averaging. For the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), gravity fields full variance-covariance matrices are used to propagate errors and statistically filter the gravity fields. We use four different filtered gravity field solutions and determine which post-processing strategy is best for budget closure. As a reference, the standard 96 degree Dense Decorrelation Kernel-5 (DDK5)-filtered Center for Space Research (CSR) solution is used to compute the mass component (MC). A comparison is made with two anisotropic Wiener-filtered CSR solutions up to degree and order 60 and 96 and a Wiener-filtered 90 degree ITSG solution. Budgets are computed for 10 polygons in the North Atlantic Ocean, defined in a way that the error on the trend of the MC plus steric sea level remains within 1 mm yr-1. Using the anisotropic Wiener filter on CSR gravity fields expanded up to spherical harmonic degree 96, it is possible to close the sea level budget in 9 of 10 sub-basins in terms of trend. Wiener-filtered Institute of Theoretical geodesy and Satellite Geodesy (ITSG) and the standard DDK5-filtered CSR solutions also close the trend budget if a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) correction error of 10-20 % is applied; however, the performance of the DDK5-filtered solution strongly depends

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of edge placement error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Okada, Soichiro; Shimura, Satoru; Nafus, Kathleen; Fonseca, Carlos; Estrella, Joel; Enomoto, Masashi

    2018-03-01

    In the discussion of edge placement error (EPE), we proposed interactive pattern fidelity error (IPFE) as an indicator to judge pass/fail of integrated patterns. IPFE consists of lower and upper layer EPEs (CD and center of gravity: COG) and overlay, which is decided from the combination of each maximum variation. We succeeded in obtaining the IPFE density function by Monte Carlo simulation. In the results, we also found that the standard deviation (σ) of each indicator should be controlled by 4.0σ, at the semiconductor grade, such as 100 billion patterns per die. Moreover, CD, COG and overlay were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA); we can discuss all variations from wafer to wafer (WTW), pattern to pattern (PTP), line edge roughness (LWR) and stochastic pattern noise (SPN) on an equal footing. From the analysis results, we can determine that these variations belong to which process and tools. Furthermore, measurement length of LWR is also discussed in ANOVA. We propose that the measurement length for IPFE analysis should not be decided to the micro meter order, such as >2 μm length, but for which device is actually desired.

  15. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  16. Understanding the Budget Battle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hritz, Townley

    1996-01-01

    Describes Head Start's financial uncertainty for the future due to the government's budget battle. Presents information on the key points in the budget process, how that process got off track in fiscal year 1996, the resulting government shutdowns, and how Head Start can prepare for the 1997 budget debates. (MOK)

  17. Budget cuts.

    PubMed

    1996-05-31

    The House of Representatives approved a Federal budget for fiscal 1997. The budget calls for cutting $1.5 billion from the current $23 billion budget for the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Only half of the DHHS money goes to the National Institutes of Health, whose research programs were expected to remain intact. DHHS programs, such as the Ryan White CARE Act and prevention programs run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are likely to bear the brunt of the cuts. The House Veterans Affairs/Housing and Urban Development appropriations bill will be reviewed during the week of June 3, 1996. The Senate envisions a $1.5 billion reduction in DHHS programs, although the action is not final.

  18. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget. 457.140 Section 457.140 Public Health... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan amendment that has a significant impact on the approved budget, must include a budget that describes the...

  19. Advance Appropriations: A Needless and Confusing Education Budget Technique. Federal Education Budget Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This report argues that advance appropriations serve no functional purpose for schools, but they create a loss of transparency, comparability, and simplicity in federal education budgeting. It allocates spending before future budgets have been established. The approach was originally used to skirt spending limits and budget procedures in place…

  20. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  1. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-30

    Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= REFORM OF BUDGETING FOR ACQUISITION: LESSONS FROM PRIVATE SECTOR CAPITAL BUDGETING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense 5a. CONTRACT...Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense Presenter: Jerry McCaffery, PhD, serves

  2. Investigation of scene identification algorithms for radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diekmann, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The computation of Earth radiation budget from satellite measurements requires the identification of the scene in order to select spectral factors and bidirectional models. A scene identification procedure is developed for AVHRR SW and LW data by using two radiative transfer models. These AVHRR GAC pixels are then attached to corresponding ERBE pixels and the results are sorted into scene identification probability matrices. These scene intercomparisons show that there generally is a higher tendency for underestimation of cloudiness over ocean at high cloud amounts, e.g., mostly cloudy instead of overcast, partly cloudy instead of mostly cloudy, for the ERBE relative to the AVHRR results. Reasons for this are explained. Preliminary estimates of the errors of exitances due to scene misidentification demonstrates the high dependency on the probability matrices. While the longwave error can generally be neglected the shortwave deviations have reached maximum values of more than 12% of the respective exitances.

  3. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  4. Satellite Sampling and Retrieval Errors in Regional Monthly Rain Estimates from TMI AMSR-E, SSM/I, AMSU-B and the TRMM PR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brad; Wolff, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Passive and active microwave rain sensors onboard earth-orbiting satellites estimate monthly rainfall from the instantaneous rain statistics collected during satellite overpasses. It is well known that climate-scale rain estimates from meteorological satellites incur sampling errors resulting from the process of discrete temporal sampling and statistical averaging. Sampling and retrieval errors ultimately become entangled in the estimation of the mean monthly rain rate. The sampling component of the error budget effectively introduces statistical noise into climate-scale rain estimates that obscure the error component associated with the instantaneous rain retrieval. Estimating the accuracy of the retrievals on monthly scales therefore necessitates a decomposition of the total error budget into sampling and retrieval error quantities. This paper presents results from a statistical evaluation of the sampling and retrieval errors for five different space-borne rain sensors on board nine orbiting satellites. Using an error decomposition methodology developed by one of the authors, sampling and retrieval errors were estimated at 0.25 resolution within 150 km of ground-based weather radars located at Kwajalein, Marshall Islands and Melbourne, Florida. Error and bias statistics were calculated according to the land, ocean and coast classifications of the surface terrain mask developed for the Goddard Profiling (GPROF) rain algorithm. Variations in the comparative error statistics are attributed to various factors related to differences in the swath geometry of each rain sensor, the orbital and instrument characteristics of the satellite and the regional climatology. The most significant result from this study found that each of the satellites incurred negative longterm oceanic retrieval biases of 10 to 30%.

  5. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460... CENTERS § 130.460 Budget justification. The SBDC Director, as a part of the renewal application, or the... submit to the SBA Project Officer the budget justification for the upcoming budget period. The budget...

  6. Simultaneous overlay and CD measurement for double patterning: scatterometry and RCWA approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Zhuan; Rabello, Silvio; Dasari, Prasad; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine; Park, Jungchul; Singh, Lovejeet

    2009-03-01

    As optical lithography advances to 32 nm technology node and beyond, double patterning technology (DPT) has emerged as an attractive solution to circumvent the fundamental optical limitations. DPT poses unique demands on critical dimension (CD) uniformity and overlay control, making the tolerance decrease much faster than the rate at which critical dimension shrinks. This, in turn, makes metrology even more challenging. In the past, multi-pad diffractionbased overlay (DBO) using empirical approach has been shown to be an effective approach to measure overlay error associated with double patterning [1]. In this method, registration errors for double patterning were extracted from specially designed diffraction targets (three or four pads for each direction); CD variation is assumed negligible within each group of adjacent pads and not addressed in the measurement. In another paper, encouraging results were reported with a first attempt at simultaneously extracting overlay and CD parameters using scatterometry [2]. In this work, we apply scatterometry with a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) approach to characterize two double-patterning processes: litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) and litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE). The advantage of performing rigorous modeling is to reduce the number of pads within each measurement target, thus reducing space requirement and improving throughput, and simultaneously extract CD and overlay information. This method measures overlay errors and CDs by fitting the optical signals with spectra calculated from a model of the targets. Good correlation is obtained between the results from this method and that of several reference techniques, including empirical multi-pad DBO, CD-SEM, and IBO. We also perform total measurement uncertainty (TMU) analysis to evaluate the overall performance. We demonstrate that scatterometry provides a promising solution to meet the challenging overlay metrology requirement in DPT.

  7. Alternating phase-shift mask and binary mask for 45-nm node and beyond: the impact on the mask error control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yosuke; Shirasaki, Masanori; Chiba, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Inazuki, Yukio; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Okazaki, Satoshi; Iwase, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Kiichi; Ozawa, Ken

    2007-05-01

    For 45 nm node and beyond, the alternating phase-shift mask (alt. PSM), one of the most expected resolution enhancement technologies (RET) because of its high image contrast and small mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), and the binary mask (BIM) attract attention. Reducing CD and registration errors and defect are their critical issues. As the solution, the new blank for alt. PSM and BIM is developed. The top film of new blank is thin Cr, and the antireflection film and shielding film composed of MoSi are deposited under the Cr film. The mask CD performance is evaluated for through pitch, CD linearity, CD uniformity, global loading, resolution and pattern fidelity, and the blank performance is evaluated for optical density, reflectivity, sheet resistance, flatness and defect level. It is found that the performance of new blank is equal to or better than that of conventional blank in all items. The mask CD performance shows significant improvement. The lithography performance of new blank is confirmed by wafer printing and AIMS measurement. The full dry type alt. PSM has been used as test plate, and the test results show that new blank can almost meet the specifications of pi-0 CD difference, CD uniformity and process margin for 45 nm node. Additionally, the new blank shows the better pattern fidelity than that of conventional blank on wafer. AIMS results are almost same as wafer results except for the narrowest pattern. Considering the result above, this new blank can reduce the mask error factors of alt. PSM and BIM for 45 nm node and beyond.

  8. Public Budgeting: The Compromises Among the Sound Budgeting Principles in Contingency Funding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    sound decisions (including the full financial costs and benefits of the budget decisions, and the impacts thereof) and be made accessible to all...is also seen when all relevant data and costs projections result, in a timely manner, in a budget document that is accessible by the public . A medium...include all relevant data and costs projections, and makes information accessible to the public for review in a timely manner. The budget

  9. Embedded Model Error Representation and Propagation in Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, K.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Safta, C.; Thornton, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, parametric uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods have reached a level of maturity, while the same can not be said about representation and quantification of structural or model errors. Lack of characterization of model errors, induced by physical assumptions, phenomenological parameterizations or constitutive laws, is a major handicap in predictive science. In particular, e.g. in climate models, significant computational resources are dedicated to model calibration without gaining improvement in predictive skill. Neglecting model errors during calibration/tuning will lead to overconfident and biased model parameters. At the same time, the most advanced methods accounting for model error merely correct output biases, augmenting model outputs with statistical error terms that can potentially violate physical laws, or make the calibrated model ineffective for extrapolative scenarios. This work will overview a principled path for representing and quantifying model errors, as well as propagating them together with the rest of the predictive uncertainty budget, including data noise, parametric uncertainties and surrogate-related errors. Namely, the model error terms will be embedded in select model components rather than as external corrections. Such embedding ensures consistency with physical constraints on model predictions, and renders calibrated model predictions meaningful and robust with respect to model errors. Besides, in the presence of observational data, the approach can effectively differentiate model structural deficiencies from those of data acquisition. The methodology is implemented in UQ Toolkit (www.sandia.gov/uqtoolkit), relying on a host of available forward and inverse UQ tools. We will demonstrate the application of the technique on few application of interest, including ACME Land Model calibration via a wide range of measurements obtained at select sites.

  10. Improved predictive ability of climate-human-behaviour interactions with modifications to the COMFA outdoor energy budget model.

    PubMed

    Vanos, J K; Warland, J S; Gillespie, T J; Kenny, N A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to implement current and novel research techniques in human energy budget estimations to give more accurate and efficient application of models by a variety of users. Using the COMFA model, the conditioning level of an individual is incorporated into overall energy budget predictions, giving more realistic estimations of the metabolism experienced at various fitness levels. Through the use of VO(2) reserve estimates, errors are found when an elite athlete is modelled as an unconditioned or a conditioned individual, giving budgets underpredicted significantly by -173 and -123 W m(-2), respectively. Such underprediction can result in critical errors regarding heat stress, particularly in highly motivated individuals; thus this revision is critical for athletic individuals. A further improvement in the COMFA model involves improved adaptation of clothing insulation (I (cl)), as well clothing non-uniformity, with changing air temperature (T (a)) and metabolic activity (M (act)). Equivalent T (a) values (for I (cl) estimation) are calculated in order to lower the I (cl) value with increasing M (act) at equal T (a). Furthermore, threshold T (a) values are calculated to predict the point at which an individual will change from a uniform I (cl) to a segmented I (cl) (full ensemble to shorts and a T-shirt). Lastly, improved relative velocity (v (r)) estimates were found with a refined equation accounting for the degree angle of wind to body movement. Differences between the original and improved v (r) equations increased with higher wind and activity speeds, and as the wind to body angle moved away from 90°. Under moderate microclimate conditions, and wind from behind a person, the convective heat loss and skin temperature estimates were 47 W m(-2) and 1.7°C higher when using the improved v (r) equation. These model revisions improve the applicability and usability of the COMFA energy budget model for subjects performing physical

  11. Improved predictive ability of climate-human-behaviour interactions with modifications to the COMFA outdoor energy budget model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanos, J. K.; Warland, J. S.; Gillespie, T. J.; Kenny, N. A.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to implement current and novel research techniques in human energy budget estimations to give more accurate and efficient application of models by a variety of users. Using the COMFA model, the conditioning level of an individual is incorporated into overall energy budget predictions, giving more realistic estimations of the metabolism experienced at various fitness levels. Through the use of VO2 reserve estimates, errors are found when an elite athlete is modelled as an unconditioned or a conditioned individual, giving budgets underpredicted significantly by -173 and -123 W m-2, respectively. Such underprediction can result in critical errors regarding heat stress, particularly in highly motivated individuals; thus this revision is critical for athletic individuals. A further improvement in the COMFA model involves improved adaptation of clothing insulation ( I cl), as well clothing non-uniformity, with changing air temperature ( T a) and metabolic activity ( M act). Equivalent T a values (for I cl estimation) are calculated in order to lower the I cl value with increasing M act at equal T a. Furthermore, threshold T a values are calculated to predict the point at which an individual will change from a uniform I cl to a segmented I cl (full ensemble to shorts and a T-shirt). Lastly, improved relative velocity ( v r) estimates were found with a refined equation accounting for the degree angle of wind to body movement. Differences between the original and improved v r equations increased with higher wind and activity speeds, and as the wind to body angle moved away from 90°. Under moderate microclimate conditions, and wind from behind a person, the convective heat loss and skin temperature estimates were 47 W m-2 and 1.7°C higher when using the improved v r equation. These model revisions improve the applicability and usability of the COMFA energy budget model for subjects performing physical activity in outdoor environments

  12. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    PubMed

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interim Budget Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report provides the interim budget plan of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Student Financial Assistance (OSFA) for fiscal year 2000. It reviews factors influencing OSFA's budget request, including legislative requirements, recent accomplishments, the need to maintain both the Direct Loan and Federal Family Education Loan…

  14. Beyond carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Glen P.

    2018-06-01

    The remaining carbon budget consistent with limiting warming to 1.5 °C allows 20 more years of current emissions according to one study, but is already exhausted according to another. Both are defensible. We need to move on from a unique carbon budget, and face the nuances.

  15. Improved error estimates of a discharge algorithm for remotely sensed river measurements: Test cases on Sacramento and Garonne Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeosang; Garambois, Pierre-André; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Durand, Michael; Roux, Hélène; Beighley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We present an improvement to a previously presented algorithm that used a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for estimating river discharge from remotely sensed observations of river height, width, and slope. We also present an error budget for discharge calculations from the algorithm. The algorithm may be utilized by the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. We present a detailed evaluation of the method using synthetic SWOT-like observations (i.e., SWOT and AirSWOT, an airborne version of SWOT). The algorithm is evaluated using simulated AirSWOT observations over the Sacramento and Garonne Rivers that have differing hydraulic characteristics. The algorithm is also explored using SWOT observations over the Sacramento River. SWOT and AirSWOT height, width, and slope observations are simulated by corrupting the "true" hydraulic modeling results with instrument error. Algorithm discharge root mean square error (RMSE) was 9% for the Sacramento River and 15% for the Garonne River for the AirSWOT case using expected observation error. The discharge uncertainty calculated from Manning's equation was 16.2% and 17.1%, respectively. For the SWOT scenario, the RMSE and uncertainty of the discharge estimate for the Sacramento River were 15% and 16.2%, respectively. A method based on the Kalman filter to correct errors of discharge estimates was shown to improve algorithm performance. From the error budget, the primary source of uncertainty was the a priori uncertainty of bathymetry and roughness parameters. Sensitivity to measurement errors was found to be a function of river characteristics. For example, Steeper Garonne River is less sensitive to slope errors than the flatter Sacramento River.

  16. Design Your Own Budget: A Case Study Based on the 1988 Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students work in groups to develop a national budget. Requires students to consider economic factors such as inflation, unemployment, and taxation. Includes charts and a national budget work sheet. (CFR)

  17. An audit of the global carbon budget: identifying and reducing sources of uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Tans, P. P.; Marland, G.; Stocker, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties in our carbon accounting practices may limit our ability to objectively verify emission reductions on regional scales. Furthermore uncertainties in the global C budget must be reduced to benchmark Earth System Models that incorporate carbon-climate interactions. Here we present an audit of the global C budget where we try to identify sources of uncertainty for major terms in the global C budget. The atmospheric growth rate of CO2 has increased significantly over the last 50 years, while the uncertainty in calculating the global atmospheric growth rate has been reduced from 0.4 ppm/yr to 0.2 ppm/yr (95% confidence). Although we have greatly reduced global CO2 growth rate uncertainties, there remain regions, such as the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics and Arctic, where changes in regional sources/sinks will remain difficult to detect without additional observations. Increases in fossil fuel (FF) emissions are the primary factor driving the increase in global CO2 growth rate; however, our confidence in FF emission estimates has actually gone down. Based on a comparison of multiple estimates, FF emissions have increased from 2.45 ± 0.12 PgC/yr in 1959 to 9.40 ± 0.66 PgC/yr in 2010. Major sources of increasing FF emission uncertainty are increased emissions from emerging economies, such as China and India, as well as subtle differences in accounting practices. Lastly, we evaluate emission estimates from Land Use Change (LUC). Although relative errors in emission estimates from LUC are quite high (2 sigma ~ 50%), LUC emissions have remained fairly constant in recent decades. We evaluate the three commonly used approaches to estimating LUC emissions- Bookkeeping, Satellite Imagery, and Model Simulations- to identify their main sources of error and their ability to detect net emissions from LUC.; Uncertainties in Fossil Fuel Emissions over the last 50 years.

  18. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cycle-Based Budgeting Toolkit: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    At the core, budgeting is about distributing and redistributing limited financial resources for continuous improvement. Incremental budgeting is limited in achieving the goal due to lack of connection between outcomes and budget decisions. Zero-based budgeting fills the gap, but is cumbersome to implement, especially for large urban school…

  20. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for budget...

  1. Responsibility-Centred Budgeting: An Emerging Trend in Higher Education Budget Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierdt, Ginger LuAnne

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the United States are entering a new era in budgeting. Therefore, institutions are actively engaging in dialogues about the budgeting tools that will most effectively assist them in achieving institutional goals and objectives within their strategic plans and being accountable for the use of scarce resources, as…

  2. 7 CFR 906.33 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 906.33 Section 906.33 Agriculture Regulations... GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 906.33 Budget. At the... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee shall...

  3. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from another...

  4. The Faculty Role in Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1984-01-01

    Specific roles faculty members can play in their institution's budget processes are discussed, and the general ends served by budgets are identified. Each of the dimensions of institutional character (e.g., size, mission) determines the ways in which participants in budgeting will interact. For example, broader faculty participation in budgeting…

  5. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations... OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Expenses and Assessments § 956.41 Budget. Prior to each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  6. 7 CFR 958.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 958.41 Section 958.41 Agriculture Regulations... Budget. Prior to each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter the committee shall prepare a budget of estimated income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee...

  7. 7 CFR 948.76 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 948.76 Section 948.76 Agriculture Regulations... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 948.76 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of... budget of income and expenditures necessary for its administration of this part. Each area committee may...

  8. 7 CFR 959.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 959.41 Section 959.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 959.41 Budget. As soon as practicable after the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of...

  9. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations... Handling Expenses and Assessments § 966.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period and as may be necessary thereafter, the committee shall prepare an estimated budget of income and expenditures necessary...

  10. 7 CFR 945.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 945.41 Section 945.41 Agriculture Regulations... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Budget, Expenses and Assessments § 945.41 Budget. At the beginning of each fiscal period, and as may be necessary thereafter, the...

  11. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  12. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  13. Use of hydrologic budgets and hydrochemistry to determine ground-water and surface-water interactions for Rapid Creek, Western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Mark T.

    1995-01-01

    The study of ground-water and surface-water interactions often employs streamflow-gaging records and hydrologic budgets to determine ground-water seepage. Because ground-water seepage usually is computed as a residual in the hydrologic budget approach, all uncertainty of measurement and estimation of budget components is associated with the ground-water seepage. This uncertainty can exceed the estimate, especially when streamflow and its associated error of measurement, is large relative to other budget components. In a study of Rapid Creek in western South Dakota, the hydrologic budget approach with hydrochemistry was combined to determine ground-water seepage. The City of Rapid City obtains most of its municipal water from three infiltration galleries (Jackson Springs, Meadowbrook, and Girl Scout) constructed in the near-stream alluvium along Rapid Creek. The reach of Rapid Creek between Pactola Reservoir and Rapid City and, in particular the two subreaches containing the galleries, were studied intensively to identify the sources of water to each gallery. Jackson Springs Gallery was found to pump predominantly ground water with a minor component of surface water. Meadowbrook and Girl Scout Galleries induce infiltration of surface water from Rapid Creek but also have a significant component of ground water.

  14. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations... Assessments § 955.41 Budget. At least 60 days prior to each fiscal period, or such other date as may be... budget of income and expenditures necessary for the administration of this part. The committee may...

  15. 25 CFR 122.7 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget. 122.7 Section 122.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 122.7 Budget. (a) By August 1 of each year, the Osage Tribal Education Committee will submit a proposed budget to the Assistant Secretary or to his/her designated representative for formal approval...

  16. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  17. The impact of 14-nm photomask uncertainties on computational lithography solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John; Tejnil, Edita; Lin, Tim; Schultze, Steffen; Buck, Peter; Kalk, Franklin; Nakagawa, Kent; Ning, Guoxiang; Ackmann, Paul; Gans, Fritz; Buergel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Computational lithography solutions rely upon accurate process models to faithfully represent the imaging system output for a defined set of process and design inputs. These models, which must balance accuracy demands with simulation runtime boundary conditions, rely upon the accurate representation of multiple parameters associated with the scanner and the photomask. While certain system input variables, such as scanner numerical aperture, can be empirically tuned to wafer CD data over a small range around the presumed set point, it can be dangerous to do so since CD errors can alias across multiple input variables. Therefore, many input variables for simulation are based upon designed or recipe-requested values or independent measurements. It is known, however, that certain measurement methodologies, while precise, can have significant inaccuracies. Additionally, there are known errors associated with the representation of certain system parameters. With shrinking total CD control budgets, appropriate accounting for all sources of error becomes more important, and the cumulative consequence of input errors to the computational lithography model can become significant. In this work, we examine with a simulation sensitivity study, the impact of errors in the representation of photomask properties including CD bias, corner rounding, refractive index, thickness, and sidewall angle. The factors that are most critical to be accurately represented in the model are cataloged. CD Bias values are based on state of the art mask manufacturing data and other variables changes are speculated, highlighting the need for improved metrology and awareness.

  18. Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

  19. On the Utilization of Ice Flow Models and Uncertainty Quantification to Interpret the Impact of Surface Radiation Budget Errors on Estimates of Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance and Regional Estimates of Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, N.; Larour, E. Y.; Gardner, A. S.; Lang, C.; Miller, C. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    budget separately, in order to determine how and where errors in these fields may independently impact ice flow. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere and Interdisciplinary Research in Earth Science Programs.

  20. Two-layer critical dimensions and overlay process window characterization and improvement in full-chip computational lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Liubich, Vlad; Gupta, Rachit

    2016-04-01

    Edge placement error (EPE) was a term initially introduced to describe the difference between predicted pattern contour edge and the design target for a single design layer. Strictly speaking, this quantity is not directly measurable in the fab. What is of vital importance is the relative edge placement errors between different design layers, and in the era of multipatterning, the different constituent mask sublayers for a single design layer. The critical dimensions (CD) and overlay between two layers can be measured in the fab, and there has always been a strong emphasis on control of overlay between design layers. The progress in this realm has been remarkable, accelerated in part at least by the proliferation of multipatterning, which reduces the available overlay budget by introducing a coupling of overlay and CD errors for the target layer. Computational lithography makes possible the full-chip assessment of two-layer edge to edge distances and two-layer contact overlap area. We will investigate examples of via-metal model-based analysis of CD and overlay errors. We will investigate both single patterning and double patterning. For single patterning, we show the advantage of contour-to-contour simulation over contour to target simulation, and how the addition of aberrations in the optical models can provide a more realistic CD-overlay process window (PW) for edge placement errors. For double patterning, the interaction of 4-layer CD and overlay errors is very complex, but we illustrate that not only can full-chip verification identify potential two-layer hotspots, the optical proximity correction engine can act to mitigate such hotspots and enlarge the joint CD-overlay PW.

  1. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  2. Permanent Shift?: Library Budgets 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2010-01-01

    It's no surprise that libraries in "LJ"'s annual budget survey reported an overall downward trend, with the expected decline in total budgets some 2.6% and the change in materials budgets 3.5%. Per capita funding is nudging down after years of steady if sometimes modest increases, with a projected decline of 1.6% in FY10. After all, the country…

  3. Ready-to-use pre-filled syringes of atropine for anaesthesia care in French hospitals - a budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, Dan; Piriou, Vincent; De Vaumas, Cyrille; Albaladejo, Pierre; Malinovsky, Jean-Marc; Doz, Marianne; Lafuma, Antoine; Bouaziz, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Patient safety is improved by the use of labelled, ready-to-use, pre-filled syringes (PFS) when compared to conventional methods of syringe preparation (CMP) of the same product from an ampoule. However, the PFS presentation costs more than the CMP presentation. To estimate the budget impact for French hospitals of switching from atropine in ampoules to atropine PFS for anaesthesia care. A model was constructed to simulate the financial consequences of the use of atropine PFS in operating theatres, taking into account wastage and medication errors. The model tested different scenarios and a sensitivity analysis was performed. In a reference scenario, the systematic use of atropine PFS rather than atropine CMP yielded a net one-year budget saving of €5,255,304. Medication errors outweighed other cost factors relating to the use of atropine CMP (€9,425,448). Avoidance of wastage in the case of atropine CMP (prepared and unused) was a major source of savings (€1,167,323). Significant savings were made by means of other scenarios examined. The sensitivity analysis suggests that the results obtained are robust and stable for a range of parameter estimates and assumptions. The financial model was based on data obtained from the literature and expert opinions. The budget impact analysis shows that even though atropine PFS is more expensive than atropine CMP, its use would lead to significant cost savings. Savings would mainly be due to fewer medication errors and their associated consequences and the absence of wastage when atropine syringes are prepared in advance. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of CD4+ T-cell-derived CD161+ CD39+ and CD39+CD73+ microparticles as new biomarkers for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenqiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Wu, Jie; Ma, Ling; Guo, Jinyan

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to identify CD4 + T-cell-derived microparticles (MPs) and investigate their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovial fluids from 34 RA, 33 osteoarthritis patients and 42 healthy individuals were analyzed by flow cytometry. Human fibroblast-like synoviocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with or without isolated MPs, chemokines and cytokines were measured by ELISA. CD4 + CD161 + CD39 + and CD4 + CD39 + CD73 + MPs were abundantly present in RA patients, which were positively or negatively correlated with RA features, respectively. Chemokines CCL20, CCL17 and CCL22, and cytokines IL-17 and IL-10 were influenced by these MPs in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLS) or PMBCs. CD4 + T-cell-derived CD161 + CD39 + and CD39 + CD73 + MPs could serve as new reciprocal biomarkers for RA evaluation.

  5. Developing an Earth system Inverse model for the Earth's energy and water budgets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, K.; Thomas, C.; Liu, C.; Allan, R. P.; Carneiro, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    The CONCEPT-Heat project aims at developing a consistent energy budget for the Earth system in order to better understand and quantify global change. We advocate a variational "Earth system inverse" solution as the best methodology to bring the necessary expertise from different disciplines together. L'Ecuyer et al (2015) and Rodell et al (2015) first used a variational approach to adjust multiple satellite data products for air-sea-land vertical fluxes of heat and freshwater, achieving closed budgets on a regional and global scale. However their treatment of horizontal energy and water redistribution and its uncertainties was limited. Following the recent work of Liu et al (2015, 2017) which used atmospheric reanalysis convergences to derive a new total surface heat flux product from top of atmosphere fluxes, we have revisited the variational budget approach introducing a more extensive analysis of the role of horizontal transports of heat and freshwater, using multiple atmospheric and ocean reanalysis products. We find considerable improvements in fluxes in regions such as the North Atlantic and Arctic, for example requiring higher atmospheric heat and water convergences over the Arctic than given by ERA-Interim, thereby allowing lower and more realistic oceanic transports. We explore using the variational uncertainty analysis to produce lower resolution corrections to higher resolution flux products and test these against in situ flux data. We also explore the covariance errors implied between component fluxes that are imposed by the regional budget constraints. Finally we propose this as a valuable methodology for developing consistent observational constraints on the energy and water budgets in climate models. We take a first look at the same regional budget quantities in CMIP5 models and consider the implications of the differences for the processes and biases active in the models. Many further avenues of investigation are possible focused on better valuing

  6. Optimize of shrink process with X-Y CD bias on hole pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kyohei; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shohei; Yamato, Masatoshi; Oyama, Kenichi; Yaegashi, Hidetami

    2017-03-01

    Gridded design rules[1] is major process in configuring logic circuit used 193-immersion lithography. In the scaling of grid patterning, we can make 10nm order line and space pattern by using multiple patterning techniques such as self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch- litho-etch (LELE)[2][3][4] . On the other hand, Line cut process has some error parameters such as pattern defect, placement error, roughness and X-Y CD bias with the decreasing scale. We tried to cure hole pattern roughness to use additional process such as Line smoothing[5] . Each smoothing process showed different effect. As the result, CDx shrink amount is smaller than CDy without one additional process. In this paper, we will report the pattern controllability comparison of EUV and 193-immersion. And we will discuss optimum method about CD bias on hole pattern.

  7. CD27/CD70, CD134/CD134 ligand, and CD30/CD153 pathways are independently essential for generation of regulatory cells after intratracheal delivery of alloantigen.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, Osamu; Shirasugi, Nozomu; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Shibutani, Shintaro; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Shimazu, Motohide; Kitajima, Masaki; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okumura, Ko; Yagita, Hideo; Niimi, Masanori

    2003-09-15

    We investigated whether blockade of tumor necrosis factor receptor-ligand pathways could generate regulatory cells induced by intratracheal delivery of alloantigen. CBA (H-2k) mice were pretreated with intratracheal delivery of splenocytes (1x10(7)) from C57BL/10 (H-2b) mice and intraperitoneal administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for CD70, CD134 ligand (CD134L), CD153, or CD137L. Seven days later, C57BL/10 hearts were transplanted into pretreated CBA mice. Some naive CBA mice underwent adoptive transfer of splenocytes (5x10(7)) from pretreated CBA mice and transplantation of a C57BL/10 heart on the same day. Untreated CBA mice rejected C57BL/10 cardiac grafts acutely (median survival time [MST] 12 days). Pretreatment with intratracheal delivery of C57BL/10 donor splenocytes prolonged graft survival significantly (MST 84 days). Mice given intratracheal delivery of alloantigen plus anti-CD70, anti-CD134L, or anti-CD153 mAb, but not those given intratracheal delivery of alloantigen plus anti-CD137L mAb, rejected their graft acutely (MST 16, 14, 10, and 65 days, respectively). Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice pretreated with intratracheal delivery of alloantigen plus anti-CD70, CD134L, or CD153 mAb did not prolong survival of C57BL/10 cardiac grafts in naive secondary CBA recipients (MST 14, 11, and 11 days, respectively), whereas adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice given intratracheal delivery of alloantigen plus anti-CD137L mAb did (MST 75 days). The CD27/CD70, CD134/CD134L, and CD30/CD153 pathways are independently required for generation of regulatory cells in our model.

  8. CD2 and CD3 associate independently with CD5 and differentially regulate signaling through CD5 in Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A M; Castro, M A; Arosa, F A

    1999-10-15

    In T lymphocytes, the CD2 and CD5 glycoproteins are believed to be involved in the regulation of signals elicited by the TCR/CD3 complex. Here we show that CD2 and CD3 independently associate with CD5 in human PBMC and Jurkat cells. CD5 coprecipitates with CD2 in CD3-deficient cells and, conversely, coprecipitates with CD3 in cells devoid of CD2. In unstimulated CD2+ CD3+ Jurkat cells, CD5 associates equivalently with CD2 and CD3 and is as efficiently phosphorylated in CD2 as in CD3 immune complexes. However, upon activation the involvement of CD5 is the opposite in the CD2 and CD3 pathways. CD5 becomes rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated after CD3 stimulation, but is dephosphorylated upon CD2 cross-linking. These opposing effects correlate with the decrease in the activity of the SH2 domain-containing protein phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) following CD3 activation vs an enhanced activity of the phosphatase after CD2 triggering. The failure of CD5 to become phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in the CD2 pathway has no parallel with the lack of use of zeta-chains in CD2 signaling; contrasting with comparable levels of association of CD2 or CD3 with CD5, zeta associates with CD2 only residually and is nevertheless slightly phosphorylated after CD2 stimulation. The modulation of CD5 phosphorylation may thus represent a level of regulation controlled by CD2 in signal transduction mechanisms in human T lymphocytes.

  9. Seasonal variability of stratospheric methane: implications for constraining tropospheric methane budgets using total column observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Katherine M.; Wunch, Debra; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Griffith, David W. T.; Hase, Frank; De Mazière, Martine; Notholt, Justus; Pollard, David F.; Roehl, Coleen M.; Schneider, Matthias; Sussmann, Ralf; Warneke, Thorsten; Wennberg, Paul O.

    2016-11-01

    Global and regional methane budgets are markedly uncertain. Conventionally, estimates of methane sources are derived by bridging emissions inventories with atmospheric observations employing chemical transport models. The accuracy of this approach requires correctly simulating advection and chemical loss such that modeled methane concentrations scale with surface fluxes. When total column measurements are assimilated into this framework, modeled stratospheric methane introduces additional potential for error. To evaluate the impact of such errors, we compare Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and GEOS-Chem total and tropospheric column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of methane. We find that the model's stratospheric contribution to the total column is insensitive to perturbations to the seasonality or distribution of tropospheric emissions or loss. In the Northern Hemisphere, we identify disagreement between the measured and modeled stratospheric contribution, which increases as the tropopause altitude decreases, and a temporal phase lag in the model's tropospheric seasonality driven by transport errors. Within the context of GEOS-Chem, we find that the errors in tropospheric advection partially compensate for the stratospheric methane errors, masking inconsistencies between the modeled and measured tropospheric methane. These seasonally varying errors alias into source attributions resulting from model inversions. In particular, we suggest that the tropospheric phase lag error leads to large misdiagnoses of wetland emissions in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Fiscal Year 2007 Budget Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-02-06

    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, seated center, outlines the President's budget for fiscal year 2007 during a news conference, Monday, Feb. 6, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The administrator was joined by the heads of NASA's four mission directorates to explain how the proposed $16.8 billion dollar budget supports the Vision for Space Exploration. The budget represents a 3.2% increase above the Fiscal Year 2006 appropriated budget. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Fiscal 1983 Science Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Support for science generally is strong in President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1983 budget proposal, released last week; agency budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), however, did not beat inflation.Total federal funding for research and development and related facilities rose 9.6% to $44.3 billion, beating the 7.3% inflation rate estimated for 1982 by the Office of Management and Budget. Obligations for basic research by various departments and agencies also topped inflation. The President proposes federal funding of $5.82 billion in fiscal 1983, compared with $5.35 billion in 1982.

  12. High-frequency variations in Earth rotation and the planetary momentum budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    The major focus of the subject contract was on helping to resolve one of the more notable discrepancies still existing in the axial momentum budget of the solid Earth-atmosphere system, namely the disappearance of coherence between length-of-day (l.o.d.) and atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) at periods shorter than about a fortnight. Recognizing the importance of identifying the source of the high-frequency momentum budget anomaly, the scientific community organized two special measurement campaigns (SEARCH '92 and CONT '94) to obtain the best possible determinations of l.o.d. and AAM. An additional goal was to analyze newly developed estimates of the torques that transfer momentum between the atmosphere and its underlying surface to determine whether the ocean might be a reservoir of momentum on short time scales. Discrepancies between AAM and l.o.d. at sub-fortnightly periods have been attributed to either measurement errors in these quantities or the need to incorporate oceanic angular momentum into the planetary budget. Results from the SEARCH '92 and CONT '94 campaigns suggest that when special attention is paid to the quality of the measurements, better agreement between l.o.d. and AAM at high frequencies can be obtained. The mechanism most responsible for the high-frequency changes observed in AAM during these campaigns involves a direct coupling to the solid Earth, i.e, the mountain torque, thereby obviating a significant oceanic role.

  13. Observing the earth radiation budget from satellites - Past, present, and a look to the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the radiative exchange between the planet earth and space have been the objective of many experiments since the beginning of the space age in the late 1950's. The on-going mission of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiments has been and will be to consider flight hardware, data handling and scientific analysis methods in a single design strategy. Research and development on observational data has produced an analysis model of errors associated with ERB measurement systems on polar satellites. Results show that the variability of reflected solar radiation from changing meteorology dominates measurement uncertainties. As an application, model calculations demonstrate that measurement requirements for the verification of climate models may be satisfied with observations from one polar satellite, provided there is information on diurnal variations of the radiation budget from the ERBE mission.

  14. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  15. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    PubMed

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  16. Water budgets for selected watersheds in the Delaware River basin, eastern Pennsylvania and western New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Buxton, Debra E.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Delaware River Basin Commission, developed annual water budgets using available data for five watersheds in the Delaware River Basin with different degrees of urbanization and different geological settings. A basin water budget and a water-use budget were developed for each watershed. The basin water budget describes inputs to the watershed (precipitation and imported water), outputs of water from the watershed (streamflow, exported water, leakage, consumed water, and evapotranspiration), and changes in ground-water and surface-water storage. The water-use budget describes water withdrawals in the watershed (ground-water and surface-water withdrawals), discharges of water in the watershed (discharge to surface water and ground water), and movement of water of water into and out of the watershed (imports, exports, and consumed water). The water-budget equations developed for this study can be applied to any watershed in the Delaware River Basin. Data used to develop the water budgets were obtained from available long-term meteorological and hydrological data-collection stations and from water-use data collected by regulatory agencies. In the Coastal Plain watersheds, net ground-water loss from unconfined to confined aquifers was determined by using ground-water-flow-model simulations. Error in the water-budget terms is caused by missing data, poor or incomplete measurements, overestimated or underestimated quantities, measurement or reporting errors, and the use of point measurements, such as precipitation and water levels, to estimate an areal quantity, particularly if the watershed is hydrologically or geologically complex or the data-collection station is outside the watershed. The complexity of the water budgets increases with increasing watershed urbanization and interbasin transfer of water. In the Wissahickon Creek watershed, for example, some ground water is discharged to streams in

  17. Defense.gov Special Report: 2014 Budget Proposal

    Science.gov Websites

    Department of Defense Submit Search 2014 Fiscal Budget News Stories Bill Provides Military Pay, Bonuses Describe Effects of Budget Uncertainty With assessments ranging from "sobering" to "painful Predicts Bleak Budget Picture Budget pressures mean defense acquisition workers' lives "are going to

  18. Laboratory administration--capital budgeting.

    PubMed

    Butros, F

    1997-01-01

    The process of capital budgeting varies among different health-care institutions. Understanding the concept of present value of money, incremental cash flow statements, and the basic budgeting techniques will enable the laboratory manager to make the rational and logical decisions that are needed in today's competitive health-care environment.

  19. Balance of CD8+ CD28+ / CD8+ CD28- T lymphocytes is vital for patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shi-Xue; Wu, Gang; Zou, Ying; Feng, Yan-Ling; Liu, Hong-Bo; Feng, Jin-Shan; Chi, Hong-Gang; Lv, Ru-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2013-01-01

    Immune balances are important for many diseases including ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to explore the role of the balance between CD8+ CD28+ and CD8+ CD28- T lymphocytes for the immunological pathogenesis of UC. Sixteen patients with UC, 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The frequencies of CD8+ CD28+ and CD8+CD28- T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and colon tissue were tested using flow cytometry and immunofluorescent, respectively. The cytokines of the two lymphocytes were detected by protein chips and ELISA. The expression of the signal transducers, the JAK3 and STAT6, as well the transcription factors, the NFATc2 and GATA3, was all detected by both western blot and immunohistochemistry. For UC patients, the frequencies of CD8+ CD28+ T lymphocytes, together with the ratios of CD8+ CD28+ / CD8+ CD28- T lymphocytes in blood and colon tissue, were significantly lower than those in both IBS patients and healthy volunteers. But the frequencies of CD8+ CD28- T lymphocytes in blood and colon tissue of the UC patients were significantly higher than the other two groups. The concentration of IL-7 and -13, and the expression of JAK3 and STAT6 in UC patients, were significantly lower when compared with the other two groups. Conversely, the concentration of IL-12p40 and -15, and the expression of GATA3 and NFATc2 in UC patients, were significantly higher than both IBS and control group. The balance of CD8+ CD28+ / CD8+ CD28- T lymphocytes plays a vital role in UC, while the balance tilt towards CD8+ CD28+ T lymphocytes is beneficial for patients with UC.

  20. Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978. 1: Introduction. [to obtain radiation budget measurements by satellite observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An earth radiation budget satellite system (ERBSS) is planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales. The system consists of three satellites and is designed to obtain radiation budget data from the earth's surface. Among the topics discussed are the climate modeling and climate diagnostics, the applications of radiation modeling to ERBSS, and the influence of albedo clouds on radiation budget and atmospheric circulation.

  1. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  2. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  3. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  4. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  5. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  6. Lean Mean Times--Budgeting for School Media Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses budgeting strategies for school media technology programs. Highlights include sources for school funding, school district budget information, control of the budget, how to write an effective budget, working with other community and school groups, local politics, and sidebars that discuss spreadsheets and maintenance budgets. (LRW)

  7. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…

  8. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  9. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  10. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  11. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  12. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  13. Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An earth radiation budget satellite system planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales is considered. Topics discussed include: climate modeling, climate diagnostics, radiation modeling, radiation variability and correlation studies, cloudiness and the radiation budget, and radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond.

  14. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual budget. 41.12 Section 41.12 Indians BUREAU OF... NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations... identified in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Budget Justification. Funds appropriated for grants under this...

  15. A Capsule Look at Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William A., Jr.

    Weaknesses of the traditional incremental budgeting approach are considered as background to indicate the need for a new system of budgeting in educational institutions, and a step-by-step description of zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is presented. Proposed advantages of ZBB include the following: better staff morale due to a budget that is open and…

  16. 34 CFR 75.251 - The budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The budget period. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education... Multi-Year Projects § 75.251 The budget period. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of... budget period; and (2) Indicates his or her intention to make contination awards to fund the remainder of...

  17. 24 CFR 982.157 - Budget and expenditure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget and expenditure. 982.157... and PHA Administration of Program § 982.157 Budget and expenditure. (a) Budget submission. Each PHA fiscal year, the PHA must submit its proposed budget for the program to HUD for approval at such time and...

  18. Ground-water and surface-water flow and estimated water budget for Lake Seminole, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2004-01-01

    , and about 2 percent lake evaporation. Measurement error and uncertainty in flux calculations cause a flow imbalance of about 4 percent between inflow and outflow water-budget components. Most of this error can be attributed to errors in estimating ground-water discharge from the lake, which was calculated using a ground-water model calibrated to October 1986 conditions for the entire Apalachicola?Chattahoochee?Flint River Basin and not just the area around Lake Seminole. Evaporation rates were determined using the preferred, but mathematically complex, energy budget and five empirical equations: Priestley-Taylor, Penman, DeBruin-Keijman, Papadakis, and the Priestley-Taylor used by the Georgia Automated Environmental Monitoring Network. Empirical equations require a significant amount of data but are relatively easy to calculate and compare well to long-term average annual (April 2000?March 2001) pan evaporation, which is 65 inches. Calculated annual lake evaporation, for the study period, using the energy-budget method was 67.2 inches, which overestimated long-term average annual pan evaporation by 2.2 inches. The empirical equations did not compare well with the energy-budget method during the 18-month study period, with average differences in computed evaporation using each equation ranging from 8 to 26 percent. The empirical equations also compared poorly with long-term average annual pan evaporation, with average differences in evaporation ranging from 3 to 23 percent. Energy budget and long-term average annual pan evaporation estimates did compare well, with only a 3-percent difference between estimates. Monthly evaporation estimates using all methods ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 inches and were lowest during December 2000 and highest during May 2000. Although the energy budget is generally the preferred method, the dominance of surface water in the Lake Seminole water budget makes the method inaccurate and difficult to use, because surface water makes up m

  19. The Long-Term Budget Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Revenues Under CBO’s Long-Term Budget Scenarios 56A-8. Real Gross Domestic Product Under CBO’s Long-Term Budget Scenarios 57A-9. Total Surplus or...scenarios suggest that total federal spending for Medicare and Medicaid in 2050 could range anywhere from 7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP)—a...see the Congressional Budget Office’s glossary of budgetary and economic terms, available at www.cbo.gov. 2. The future path of productivity growth

  20. Implementing Site-based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five questions that must be answered before implementing site-based budgeting: Why are we doing this? What budgeting decisions will be devolved to the school site? How do dollars flow from the central office to the site? Who will be involved at the site? How will accountability be achieved? (Author/PKP)

  1. Colorado Children's Budget 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

  2. Federal Budget Considerations for Colleges, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    This document highlights federal budget considerations for colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario, Canada. A key focus of the budget is the Federal Government's Canadian Opportunities Strategy, which supports the acquisition of skills and knowledge required for the 21st century. The budget's emphasis on education over other social…

  3. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  4. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  5. Worst-error analysis of batch filter and sequential filter in navigation problems. [in spacecraft trajectory estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, T.

    1975-01-01

    This paper proposes a worst-error analysis for dealing with problems of estimation of spacecraft trajectories in deep space missions. Navigation filters in use assume either constant or stochastic (Markov) models for their estimated parameters. When the actual behavior of these parameters does not follow the pattern of the assumed model, the filters sometimes result in very poor performance. To prepare for such pathological cases, the worst errors of both batch and sequential filters are investigated based on the incremental sensitivity studies of these filters. By finding critical switching instances of non-gravitational accelerations, intensive tracking can be carried out around those instances. Also the worst errors in the target plane provide a measure in assignment of the propellant budget for trajectory corrections. Thus the worst-error study presents useful information as well as practical criteria in establishing the maneuver and tracking strategy of spacecraft's missions.

  6. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Community College Budgeting and Financing Demystified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David S.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of budgeting and financial resources often strikes fear in the hearts of community college administrators and faculty, as they believe it is an arcane and complex art understood only by accountants and financial specialists. This chapter attempts to demystify the basic concepts involved in budgeting and addresses approaches to budgeting,…

  8. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks... POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation. (a) Adoption of budgets. Each Bank's board of directors shall be responsible for the adoption of an...

  9. Predictive Modeling: Linking Enrollment and Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusheim, Dale; Rylee, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The hard choices that must be made to balance budgets at higher education institutions can be painful and have dramatic consequences that may linger for years. If enrollment projections and therefore tuition income/budgeting projections for future years are inaccurate, then the result may be unnecessary or insufficient budget reductions, both of…

  10. Budgeting Based on Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  11. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  12. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  13. Planning to Communicate: A Budget Companion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereef, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Failing to have a plan to communicate with stakeholders during the budget process is a plan to fail. Without community support, getting budget approval can be difficult. Thus, school business officials must have a plan to ensure the appropriate budget message is conveyed throughout all communication channels. In fact, a communication plan is the…

  14. EUV local CDU healing performance and modeling capability towards 5nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jee, Tae Kwon; Timoshkov, Vadim; Choi, Peter; Rio, David; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Koike, Kyohei; Fonseca, Carlos; Schoofs, Stijn

    2017-10-01

    Both local variability and optical proximity correction (OPC) errors are big contributors to the edge placement error (EPE) budget which is closely related to the device yield. The post-litho contact hole healing will be demonstrated to meet after-etch local variability specifications using a low dose, 30mJ/cm2 dose-to-size, positive tone developed (PTD) resist with relevant throughput in high volume manufacturing (HVM). The total local variability of the node 5nm (N5) contact holes will be characterized in terms of local CD uniformity (LCDU), local placement error (LPE), and contact edge roughness (CER) using a statistical methodology. The CD healing process has complex etch proximity effects, so the OPC prediction accuracy is challenging to meet EPE requirements for the N5. Thus, the prediction accuracy of an after-etch model will be investigated and discussed using ASML Tachyon OPC model.

  15. Long terms trends in CD4+ cell counts, CD8+ cell counts, and the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Rachael A.; May, Margaret T.; Tilling, Kate; Taylor, Ninon; Wittkop, Linda; Reiss, Peter; Gill, John; Schommers, Philipp; Costagliola, Dominique; Guest, Jodie L.; Lima, Viviane D.; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smith, Colette; Cavassini, Matthias; Saag, Michael; Castilho, Jessica L.; Sterne, Jonathan A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Model trajectories of CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts after starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and use the model to predict trends in these counts and the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio. Design: Cohort study of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive adults who started ART after 1997 (ART Cohort Collaboration) with more than 6 months of follow-up data. Methods: We jointly estimated CD4+ and CD8+ cell count trends and their correlation using a bivariate random effects model, with linear splines describing their population trends, and predicted the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio trend from this model. We assessed whether CD4+ and CD8+ cell count trends and the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio trend varied according to CD4+ cell count at start of ART (baseline), and, whether these trends differed in patients with and without virological failure more than 6 months after starting ART. Results: A total of 39 979 patients were included (median follow-up was 53 months). Among patients with baseline CD4+ cell count at least 50 cells/μl, predicted mean CD8+ cell counts continued to decrease between 3 and 15 years post-ART, partly driving increases in the predicted mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio. During 15 years of follow-up, normalization of the predicted mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio (to >1) was only observed among patients with baseline CD4+ cell count at least 200 cells/μl. A higher baseline CD4+ cell count predicted a shorter time to normalization. Conclusion: Declines in CD8+ cell count and increases in CD4+ : CD8+ ratio occurred up to 15 years after starting ART. The likelihood of normalization of the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio is strongly related to baseline CD4+ cell count. PMID:29851663

  16. Real-time high-resolution PC-based system for measurement of errors on compact disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehranchi, Babak; Howe, Dennis G.

    1994-10-01

    Hardware and software utilities are developed to directly monitor the Eight-to-Fourteen (EFM) demodulated data bytes at the input of a CD player's Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC) block decoder. The hardware is capable of identifying erroneous data with single-byte resolution in the serial data stream read from a Compact Disc by a CDD 461 Philips CD-ROM drive. In addition, the system produces graphical maps that show the physical location of the measured errors on the entire disc, or via a zooming and planning feature, on user selectable local disc regions.

  17. Effect of slope errors on the performance of mirrors for x-ray free electron laser applications

    DOE PAGES

    Pardini, Tom; Cocco, Daniele; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2015-12-02

    In this work we point out that slope errors play only a minor role in the performance of a certain class of x-ray optics for X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) applications. Using physical optics propagation simulations and the formalism of Church and Takacs [Opt. Eng. 34, 353 (1995)], we show that diffraction limited optics commonly found at XFEL facilities posses a critical spatial wavelength that makes them less sensitive to slope errors, and more sensitive to height error. Given the number of XFELs currently operating or under construction across the world, we hope that this simple observation will help tomore » correctly define specifications for x-ray optics to be deployed at XFELs, possibly reducing the budget and the timeframe needed to complete the optical manufacturing and metrology.« less

  18. Effect of slope errors on the performance of mirrors for x-ray free electron laser applications.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Tom; Cocco, Daniele; Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2015-12-14

    In this work we point out that slope errors play only a minor role in the performance of a certain class of x-ray optics for X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) applications. Using physical optics propagation simulations and the formalism of Church and Takacs [Opt. Eng. 34, 353 (1995)], we show that diffraction limited optics commonly found at XFEL facilities posses a critical spatial wavelength that makes them less sensitive to slope errors, and more sensitive to height error. Given the number of XFELs currently operating or under construction across the world, we hope that this simple observation will help to correctly define specifications for x-ray optics to be deployed at XFELs, possibly reducing the budget and the timeframe needed to complete the optical manufacturing and metrology.

  19. Budgeting in Higher Education (Teaching Module).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Rebecca A.

    A teaching module or student-oriented learning outline on budgeting in higher education is presented. The module is designed for either group or individual student use and is specifically for the study of higher education. Objectives of the unit are as follows: define "budget," list and describe several types of budgets, cite the three phases of…

  20. Most science spared big budget bite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Most science budgets emerged unscathed from President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1983 budget proposal. Total funding for research and development came out slightly ahead of inflation, as did funding for basic research (Eos, February 16, p. 162). The National Science Foundation (NSF) edged past the projected 7.3% inflation rate for 1982, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget is to be increased by 10.6%. However, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is budgeted for a 4.2% increase in funding, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will take an 8.3% cut.

  1. Defense.gov Special Report: 2013 Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov Websites

    the fiscal 2013 budget would balance the armed forces' needs with the nation's economic situation, the Remain Superior Force Hale: Budget Request Shows Balance Navy Official Outlines New Budget Priorities

  2. 7 CFR 1212.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3) A summary of proposed... comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget). (b) Each budget shall...

  3. 7 CFR 1212.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3) A summary of proposed... comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget). (b) Each budget shall...

  4. 7 CFR 1212.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3) A summary of proposed... comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget). (b) Each budget shall...

  5. 7 CFR 1212.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3) A summary of proposed... comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget). (b) Each budget shall...

  6. 7 CFR 1212.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3) A summary of proposed... comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget). (b) Each budget shall...

  7. Federal budget process: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.

    Much geophysical research funding originates from the federal government, and many who obtain federal funding consider the executive branch to be its source. In fact, the federal budget results from a complex ballet between the executive and legislative branches. Because it is both little understood and essential to our work, this report will review the fundamentals of the three-year budgetary process.The Constitution assigns the power of the purse to the Congress. Before the 1920s, executive branch agencies and departments submitted their own separate budgets to Congress, and deliberate planning and priority setting was minimal. In 1921 Congress empowered the president to submit an executive branch budget reflecting his priorities for the next fiscal year. Following this protocol, former President Reagan submitted his budget for Fiscal Year 1990 in January, and President Bush outlined his FY'90 priorities in February.

  8. Decreased CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28- T cell ratio can sensitively predict poor outcome for patients with complicated Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shi-Xue; Gu, Hong-Xiang; Lin, Qian-Yi; Wu, Yan-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Shao-Zhuo; Xing, Tiao-Si; Chen, Min-Hua; Zhang, Qing-Fang; Zheng, Zhong-Wen; Sha, Wei-Hong

    2017-06-01

    Crohn disease (CD) with complications such as penetrating, stricturing, and perianal disease is called complicated CD. The aim of this study is to test the efficiency with which the CD8CD28/CD8CD28 cell balance can predict a subsequent active stage in patients with newly diagnosed complicated CD.Seventeen patients with complicated CD and 48 CD patients with no complications were enrolled. Blood CD8 T cells were tested from all of the 65 newly diagnosed CD patients upon enrollment. The potential risk factors were compared between the 2 groups. A 30-week follow-up was performed, and the efficiency of the CD8 cell balance at predicting active CD was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic curves. The cumulative remission lasting rates (CRLRs) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.Compared with the control CD group, patients with complicated CD were predominantly male and younger in age; they also had lower body mass indices (BMIs), higher Crohn disease activity indices (CDAIs), higher immunosuppressant and steroid prescription rates, and significantly higher surgical rates. The CD8CD28/CD8CD28 balance was associated with BMI, CDAI, steroids, and surgery. The CD8CD28/CD8CD28 ratios were significantly lower at week 0 and on the 6th, 22nd, and 30th week during follow-up with a shorter lasting time of remission for the complicated CD patients. The CD8CD28/CD8CD28 ratio could accurately predict the active stage for the patients with complicated CD, and the highest sensitivity (89.2%) and specificity (85.3%) were found when the ratio was 1.03. Treatment with steroids and surgery, along with a significantly lower CD8CD28/CD8CD28 ratio and lower CRLRs, was closely related to a worse outcome for the patients with complicated CD.Patients requiring steroids and surgery experience more severe disease activity and thus a disequilibrated immunological balance, which could be the main reason for a decreased CD8CD28/CD8CD28 ratio. This ratio can sensitively predict the

  9. Generalized sediment budgets of the Lower Missouri River, 1968–2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.

    2016-09-13

    Sediment budgets of the Lower Missouri River were developed in a study led by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The scope of the study included the development of a long-term (post-impoundment, 1968–2014) average annual sediment budget and selected annual, monthly, and daily sediment budgets for a reach and period that adequate data were available. Included in the analyses were 31 main-stem and tributary stations of the Lower Missouri River and two Mississippi River stations—the Mississippi River below Grafton, Illinois, and the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri.Long-term average annual suspended-sediment loads of Missouri River main-stem stations ranged from 0.33 million tons at the Missouri River at Yankton, South Dakota, station to 71.2 million tons at Missouri River at Hermann, Mo., station. Gaged tributary gains accounted for 9–36 percent of the local reach budgets and cumulative gaged tributary contributions accounted for 84 percent of the long-term average suspended-sediment load of the Missouri River at Hermann, Mo., station. Although the sediment budgets for seven defined main-stem reaches generally were incomplete—missing bedload, reach storage, and ungaged tributary contributions—the budget residuals (net result of sediment inputs and outputs) for six of the seven reaches ranged from -7.0 to 1.7 million tons, or from -9.2 to 4.0 percent of the reach output suspended-sediment load, and were within the 10 percent reported measurement error of annual suspended-sediment loads for large rivers. The remaining reach, downstream from Gavin’s Point Dam, extended from Yankton, S. Dak., to Sioux City, Iowa, and had a budget residual of -9.8 million tons, which was -88 percent of the suspended-sediment load at Sioux City.The Lower Missouri River reach from Omaha, Nebraska, to Nebraska City, Nebr., had periods of concurrent sediment data for each primary budget component with which to analyze and

  10. Regulatory function of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tovar-Salazar, Adriana; Patterson-Bartlett, Julie; Jesser, Renee

    2010-03-15

    CMV infection is characterized by high of frequencies of CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T cells. Here we demonstrate that CMV-specific CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} cells are regulatory T cells (T{sub R}). CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} cells sorted from CMV-stimulated PBMC of CMV-seropositive donors inhibited de novo CMV-specific proliferation of autologous PBMC in a dose-dependent fashion. Compared with the entire CMV-stimulated CD4{sup +} T-cell population, higher proportions of CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R} expressed FoxP3, TGFbeta, granzyme B, perforin, GITR and PD-1, lower proportions expressed CD127 and PD1-L and similar proportions expressed CD25, CTLA4, Fas-L and GITR-L. CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -}more » T{sub R} expanded in response to IL-2, but not to CMV antigenic restimulation. The anti-proliferative effect of CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R} significantly decreased after granzyme B or TGFbeta inhibition. The CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R} of HIV-infected and uninfected donors had similar phenotypes and anti-proliferative potency, but HIV-infected individuals had higher proportions of CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R}. The CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R} may contribute to the downregulation of CMV-specific and nonspecific immune responses of CMV-infected individuals.« less

  11. Participative Budgeting, Budget Evaluation, and Organizational Trust in Post-Secondary Educational Institutions in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Cynthia V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between a participative budgeting system, the attitudes toward the budget, and levels of organizational trust held by administrators in post-secondary institutions. A 50-item questionnaire was distributed to college and university administrators across Canada. A series of regression…

  12. Error-related brain activity and error awareness in an error classification paradigm.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Francesco; Steinhauser, Marco; Maier, Martin E

    2016-10-01

    Error-related brain activity has been linked to error detection enabling adaptive behavioral adjustments. However, it is still unclear which role error awareness plays in this process. Here, we show that the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), an event-related potential reflecting early error monitoring, is dissociable from the degree of error awareness. Participants responded to a target while ignoring two different incongruent distractors. After responding, they indicated whether they had committed an error, and if so, whether they had responded to one or to the other distractor. This error classification paradigm allowed distinguishing partially aware errors, (i.e., errors that were noticed but misclassified) and fully aware errors (i.e., errors that were correctly classified). The Ne/ERN was larger for partially aware errors than for fully aware errors. Whereas this speaks against the idea that the Ne/ERN foreshadows the degree of error awareness, it confirms the prediction of a computational model, which relates the Ne/ERN to post-response conflict. This model predicts that stronger distractor processing - a prerequisite of error classification in our paradigm - leads to lower post-response conflict and thus a smaller Ne/ERN. This implies that the relationship between Ne/ERN and error awareness depends on how error awareness is related to response conflict in a specific task. Our results further indicate that the Ne/ERN but not the degree of error awareness determines adaptive performance adjustments. Taken together, we conclude that the Ne/ERN is dissociable from error awareness and foreshadows adaptive performance adjustments. Our results suggest that the relationship between the Ne/ERN and error awareness is correlative and mediated by response conflict. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating sediment budgets at the interface between rivers and estuaries with application to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.A.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Where rivers encounter estuaries, a transition zone develops where riverine and tidal processes both affect sediment transport processes. One such transition zone is the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, a large, complex system where several rivers meet to form an estuary (San Francisco Bay). Herein we present the results of a detailed sediment budget for this river/estuary transitional system. The primary regional goal of the study was to measure sediment transport rates and pathways in the delta in support of ecosystem restoration efforts. In addition to achieving this regional goal, the study has produced general methods to collect, edit, and analyze (including error analysis) sediment transport data at the interface of rivers and estuaries. Estimating sediment budgets for these systems is difficult because of the mixed nature of riverine versus tidal transport processes, the different timescales of transport in fluvial and tidal environments, and the sheer complexity and size of systems such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Sediment budgets also require error estimates in order to assess whether differences in inflows and outflows, which could be small compared to overall fluxes, are indeed distinguishable from zero. Over the 4 year period of this study, water years 1999-2002, 6.6 ?? 0.9 Mt of sediment entered the delta and 2.2 ?? 0.7 Mt exited, resulting in 4.4 ?? 1.1 Mt (67 ?? 17%) of deposition. The estimated deposition rate corresponding to this mass of sediment compares favorably with measured inorganic sediment accumulation on vegetated wetlands in the delta.

  14. Coherent errors in quantum error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    Analysis of quantum error correcting (QEC) codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. We present analytic results for the logical error as a function of concatenation level and code distance for coherent errors under the repetition code. For data-only coherent errors, we find that the logical error is partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the error is negligible after two or more concatenation levels or at fewer than ɛ - (d - 1) error correction cycles. Here ɛ << 1 is the rotation angle error per cycle for a single physical qubit and d is the code distance. These results support the validity of modeling coherent errors using a Pauli channel under some minimum requirements for code distance and/or concatenation. We discuss extensions to imperfect syndrome extraction and implications for general QEC.

  15. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  16. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the mobile emissions budget contained in the maintenance plan for the horizon years 2015 and beyond adopted..., 1996. (b) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Richmond maintenance area adjusting the mobile...

  17. Spending Smart: How To Budget and Finance. Making Sense of Your Budget Dollars; Success with Budget Proposals; Encumbering Grants: Managing the Money; Write a Grant? Me?; Using Microsoft[R] Excel To Plan and Budget in Your School Library; Charging Ahead; The No-Money Lottery; Coffee, Anyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Allison; Baule, Steve; Farmer, Lesley S. J.; Anderson, Cyndee; Barringer, Crystal; Buchanan, Peggy; Fullner, Sheryl Kindle; Knop, Kathi; Larson, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Includes eight articles that address issues related to budgeting and finances in secondary school libraries. Topics include limited budgets; budget proposals; administering grants; writing grants; using Microsoft's Excel software for budgeting; using credit cards for library purchases; offering prizes for donating books; and offering coffee and…

  18. NCTN Budget

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about the budget for the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), a National Cancer Institute program that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  19. [Immunological balance of CD8+CD28+/CD8+CD28- T lymphocytes can predict gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Dai, Shi-Xue; Gu, Hong-Xiang; Wu, Gang; Zhong, Tao; Jian, Hong-Jian; Zhan, Yong-le; Zhang, Min-Hai; Gao, Yong; Xu, Jun; Chen, Dong-Sheng; Liao, Guang-Jie; Feng, Yan-Ling; Liu, Hong-Bo; Zou, Ying; Chi, Hong-Gang

    2016-12-20

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CD8 + CD28 + /CD8 + CD28 - T lymphocyte balance in predicting the gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GH) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Forty-nine IBD patients, including 30 with ulcerous colitis (UC) and 19 with Crohn's disease (CD), were enrolled to test peripheral blood CD8 + CD28 + and CD8 + CD28 - T cells using flow cytometry. All the patients were followed up for one year. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to test the efficiency of CD8 + CD28 + /CD8 + CD28 - T lymphocyte balance to predict GH. The differences in lasting time of remission (LTR) under different factors were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and the correlation between CD8 + T lymphocytes and the factors were analyzed. The utilization rates of immunosuppressant, steroids, and biological agent (BA) were significantly higher in CD patients than in UC patients (P=0.003, 0.043 and 0.002, respectively). The frequencies of CD8 + CD28 + T cells were obviously higher in UC patients than those in CD patients (t=3.022, P=0.004). CD8 + CD28 + T cells, CD8 + CD28 - T cells, and especially CD8 + CD28 + /CD8 + CD28 - ratio (area under curve of 0.977, P=0.000; cut-off value of 1.14 [13.95%/12.24%] with a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 91.2%) showed good efficiencies in predicting GH (P<0.01). The mean and median of LTR of IBD patients who did not receive BA or surgical treatment were significantly longer (Χ 2 =9.730, P=0.002; Χ 2 =15.981, P=0.000). CD8 + CD28 + /CD8 + CD28 - ratio was significantly related to both BA (P=0.009) and surgery (P=0.038). Both decreased CD8 + CD28 + T cells and elevated CD8 + CD28 - T cells are closely correlated with GH, and their ratio can predict the occurrence of GH with a high sensitivity and specificity and is correlated with BA and surgery at the cut-off value of 1.14.

  20. Reading College Budgets: A Guide to Recent Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the National Education Association's new edition of "Budget Handbook for College Faculty and Staff," reflecting new rules for institutional accounting, are summarized and implications for faculty and staff are highlighted. Budget terminology, sources of budget information, and budget components are detailed as well as changes…

  1. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  2. THE CD ISOTOPE SIGNATURE OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J.; Middag, R.; de Baar, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Feldmann, H.; Raczek, I.

    2009-12-01

    The availability of micronutrients can limit and control plankton ecosystems, notably in the Southern Ocean which plays a major role in regulating the CO2 biological pump. Cadmium has a nutrient-like distribution in seawater - it is directly incorporated into living plankton in the upper water column and re-mineralised at depth. The nutritional role of Cd (Price and Morel, 1990) makes it a potentially useful tracer of biological productivity. We report Cd concentration and Cd stable isotope data obtained using a double-spike TIMS method on seawater samples collected during the Zero and Drake Passage cruise (ANTXXIV-III, IPY-GEOTRACES 2008). Four vertical profiles were collected from 40 to 70°S across the Polar Front using the ultra-clean Titan frame (De Baar et al., 2008), providing a record of changes in biological productivity from the Subantarctic to the Antarctic region. Data from two profiles from the SE Atlantic (47.66°S, 4.28W) and Drake Passage (55.13°S, 65.53°W) obtained on 1 litre-sized samples are presented. Both profiles show a increase in Cd concentration with depth, with noticeably higher concentrations in the SE Atlantic. Cd and PO4 are positively correlated with distinct slopes for the two profiles. The Cd isotope data are expressed as ɛ112/110Cd relative to our JMC Mainz standard (± 8ppm, 2SD, N=17). ɛ112/110Cd values show a continuous decrease with increasing depth and a significant shift towards heavier values in the upper 400m at both stations resolvable outside analytical error (2SE ≤ 20ppm). The sense of Cd isotope fractionation confirms previous findings of uptake of “light” Cd by phytoplankton in the upper water column (Lacan et al., 2006; Ripperger et al., 2007; Schmidt et al., 2009). Most important is the evidence for a distinctive heavier Cd isotope signature in AASW relative to AAIW. This result demonstrates that different water masses carry distinct Cd isotopic compositions reflecting changes in Cd uptake by phytoplankton

  3. CD and defect improvement challenges for immersion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Keisuke; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Nakagawa, Seiji; Ishitani, Seiji; Morita, Akihiko; Kim, Jeonghun; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2009-03-01

    The intention of this study is to develop an immersion lithography process using advanced track solutions to achieve world class critical dimension (CD) and defectivity performance in a state of the art manufacturing facility. This study looks at three important topics for immersion lithography: defectivity, CD control, and wafer backside contamination. The topic of defectivity is addressed through optimization of coat, develop, and rinse processes as well as implementation of soak steps and bevel cleaning as part of a comprehensive defect solution. Develop and rinse processing techniques are especially important in the effort to achieve a zero defect solution. Improved CD control is achieved using a biased hot plate (BHP) equipped with an electrostatic chuck. This electrostatic chuck BHP (eBHP) is not only able to operate at a very uniform temperature, but it also allows the user to bias the post exposure bake (PEB) temperature profile to compensate for systematic within-wafer (WiW) CD non-uniformities. Optimized CD results, pre and post etch, are presented for production wafers. Wafer backside particles can cause focus spots on an individual wafer or migrate to the exposure tool's wafer stage and cause problems for a multitude of wafers. A basic evaluation of the cleaning efficiency of a backside scrubber unit located on the track was performed as a precursor to a future study examining the impact of wafer backside condition on scanner focus errors as well as defectivity in an immersion scanner.

  4. What Is Your Budget Saying about Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Leslie; Strouse, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses budgeting for corporate libraries and how to keep budgets from getting cut. Topics include whether the budget is considered corporate overhead; recovering costs; models for content cost recovery; showing return on library investment; marketing library value to senior management; user needs and satisfaction; and comparing budgets to other…

  5. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget... change in the budget estimates, the sponsor shall submit a request for budget revision on a form...

  6. 24 CFR 791.405 - Reallocations of budget authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reallocations of budget authority... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.405 Reallocations of budget authority. (a) The field office shall make every reasonable effort to use the budget authority made available for each...

  7. Assessing Hydrological and Energy Budgets in Amazonia through Regional Downscaling, and Comparisons with Global Reanalysis Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, A.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although current global reanalyses provide reasonably accurate large-scale features of the atmosphere, systematic errors are still found in the hydrological and energy budgets of such products. In the tropics, precipitation is particularly challenging to model, which is also adversely affected by the scarcity of hydrometeorological datasets in the region. With the goal of producing downscaled analyses that are appropriate for a climate assessment at regional scales, a regional spectral model has used a combination of precipitation assimilation with scale-selective bias correction. The latter is similar to the spectral nudging technique, which prevents the departure of the regional model's internal states from the large-scale forcing. The target area in this study is the Amazon region, where large errors are detected in reanalysis precipitation. To generate the downscaled analysis, the regional climate model used NCEP/DOE R2 global reanalysis as the initial and lateral boundary conditions, and assimilated NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHed precipitation (CMORPH), available at 0.25-degree resolution, every 3 hours. The regional model's precipitation was successfully brought closer to the observations, in comparison to the NCEP global reanalysis products, as a result of the impact of a precipitation assimilation scheme on cumulus-convection parameterization, and improved boundary forcing achieved through a new version of scale-selective bias correction. Water and energy budget terms were also evaluated against global reanalyses and other datasets.

  8. Proposed NOAA Budget Includes Hefty Increase for Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with $5.55 billion, which represents a total increase of $806.1 million, or 17% above the FY 2010 budget enacted by Congress. At a February briefing about the budget, NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco said the budget is a very good package for the agency and that it reflects the administration's commitment to the environment, science, public safety, and job creation. Noting that the agency's budget remained essentially flat between FY 2005 and FY 2008 during the George W. Bush administration, Lubchenco said, “the increasing demand for NOAA's services, coupled with a static budget, created a major challenge for NOAA in delivering on expectations.” She said the funding picture for the agency improved with the FY 2009 and FY 2010 enacted budgets. Lubchenco noted that the proposed budget would include $949 million for research and development, an $82 million increase, adding, “Our 2011 request for each line office [within NOAA] is higher than it was in 2010, and we are better aligned with congressional funding levels than in previous budgets.”

  9. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  10. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  11. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  12. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  13. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  14. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress and attainment SIPs will apply for transportation conformity purposes only until new budgets based on updated...

  15. Budgeting in Tertiary Educational Institutions: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Administrators should examine the role and limitations of their budgeting systems and consider overemphasis on control of spending rather than efficiency or effectiveness, limitations on cash-based budgeting, need for information on operating costs, and the short range and fragmented nature of most budgets. (MSE)

  16. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official, or...

  17. Changes in Reactivity In Vitro of CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T Cell Subsets in Transplant Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Bruce M.; Robinson, Catherine M.; Plain, Karren M.; Verma, Nirupama D.; Tran, Giang T.; Nomura, Masaru; Carter, Nicole; Boyd, Rochelle; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J.

    2017-01-01

    Transplant tolerance induced in adult animals is mediated by alloantigen-specific CD4+CD25+ T cells, yet in many models, proliferation of CD4+ T cells from hosts tolerant to specific-alloantigen in vitro is not impaired. To identify changes that may diagnose tolerance, changes in the patterns of proliferation of CD4+, CD4+CD25+, and CD4+CD25− T cells from DA rats tolerant to Piebald Virol Glaxo rat strain (PVG) cardiac allografts and from naïve DA rats were examined. Proliferation of CD4+ T cells from both naïve and tolerant hosts was similar to both PVG and Lewis stimulator cells. In mixed lymphocyte culture to PVG, proliferation of naïve CD4+CD25− T cells was greater than naïve CD4+ T cells. In contrast, proliferation of CD4+CD25− T cells from tolerant hosts to specific-donor PVG was not greater than CD4+ T cells, whereas their response to Lewis and self-DA was greater than CD4+ T cells. Paradoxically, CD4+CD25+ T cells from tolerant hosts did not proliferate to PVG, but did to Lewis, whereas naïve CD4+CD25+ T cells proliferate to both PVG and Lewis but not to self-DA. CD4+CD25+ T cells from tolerant, but not naïve hosts, expressed receptors for interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-5 and these cytokines promoted their proliferation to specific-alloantigen PVG but not to Lewis or self-DA. We identified several differences in the patterns of proliferation to specific-donor alloantigen between cells from tolerant and naïve hosts. Most relevant is that CD4+CD25+ T cells from tolerant hosts failed to proliferate or suppress to specific donor in the absence of either IFN-γ or IL-5. The proliferation to third-party and self of each cell population from tolerant and naïve hosts was similar and not affected by IFN-γ or IL-5. Our findings suggest CD4+CD25+ T cells that mediate transplant tolerance depend on IFN−γ or IL-5 from alloactivated Th1 and Th2 cells. PMID:28878770

  18. CD19+CD21low B cells and CD4+CD45RA+CD31+ T cells correlate with first diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Greinix, Hildegard T; Kuzmina, Zoya; Weigl, Roman; Körmoczi, Ulrike; Rottal, Arno; Wolff, Daniel; Kralj, Mateja; Kalhs, Peter; Mitterbauer, Margit; Rabitsch, Werner; Edinger, Matthias; Holler, Ernst; Pickl, Winfried F

    2015-02-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a serious and frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Currently, no biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of cGVHD are available. We performed a large prospective study focusing on noninvasive biomarkers for National Institutes of Health-defined cGVHD patients (n = 163) in comparison to time-matched HCT recipients who never experienced cGVHD (n = 64), analyzed from day 100 after HCT. In logistic regression analysis, CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells (P = .002; hazard ratio [HR], 3.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 7.17) and CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells (P < .001; HR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.88 to 7.99) assessed on day 100 after HCT were significantly associated with subsequent development of cGVHD, independent of clinical parameters. A significant association with diagnosis of cGVHD was only observed for CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells (P = .008; HR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.33 to 6.75) and CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells (P = .017; HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.19 to 6.55). CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells were found to have the highest discriminatory value with an area under the receiver operating curve of .77 (95% CI, .64 to .90). Our results demonstrate that CD19(+)CD21(low) B cells and CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CD31(+) T cells are significantly elevated in patients with newly diagnosed cGVHD. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or proposed...

  20. 7 CFR 1208.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and... budget for research, promotion, or information may not be implemented prior to approval of the budget by... anticipated revenue, with comparative data of at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); and...

  1. 7 CFR 1208.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses and... budget for research, promotion, or information may not be implemented prior to approval of the budget by... anticipated revenue, with comparative data of at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); and...

  2. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  3. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the permitting...

  4. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit...

  5. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as provided...

  6. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2013" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, budget overviews organized by agency, and summary tables. The 2013 Budget contains a number of steps to put the country on a fiscally sustainable path. First, this Budget implements the tight…

  7. 7 CFR 1210.340 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1210.340 Section 1210.340... PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1210.340 Budget and... shall prepare and recommend a budget on a fiscal period basis of its anticipated expenses and...

  8. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23 Section 97.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit...

  9. Impact of transport and modelling errors on the estimation of methane sources and sinks by inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Robin; Bousquet, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Since the nineties, inverse modelling by assimilating atmospheric measurements into a chemical transport model (CTM) has been used to derive sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. More recently, the high global warming potential of methane (CH4) and unexplained variations of its atmospheric mixing ratio caught the attention of several research groups. Indeed, the diversity and the variability of methane sources induce high uncertainty on the present and the future evolution of CH4 budget. With the increase of available measurement data to constrain inversions (satellite data, high frequency surface and tall tower observations, FTIR spectrometry,...), the main limiting factor is about to become the representation of atmospheric transport in CTMs. Indeed, errors in transport modelling directly converts into flux changes when assuming perfect transport in atmospheric inversions. Hence, we propose an inter-model comparison in order to quantify the impact of transport and modelling errors on the CH4 fluxes estimated into a variational inversion framework. Several inversion experiments are conducted using the same set-up (prior emissions, measurement and prior errors, OH field, initial conditions) of the variational system PYVAR, developed at LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France). Nine different models (ACTM, IFS, IMPACT, IMPACT1x1, MOZART, PCTM, TM5, TM51x1 and TOMCAT) used in TRANSCOM-CH4 experiment (Patra el al, 2011) provide synthetic measurements data at up to 280 surface sites to constrain the inversions performed using the PYVAR system. Only the CTM (and the meteorological drivers which drive them) used to create the pseudo-observations vary among inversions. Consequently, the comparisons of the nine inverted methane fluxes obtained for 2005 give a good order of magnitude of the impact of transport and modelling errors on the estimated fluxes with current and future networks. It is shown that transport and modelling errors

  10. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  11. Strategic plan creates a blueprint for budgeting.

    PubMed

    Cook, D

    1990-05-01

    Effective healthcare organizations develop budgets that reflect and support a strategic plan. Senior managers set a framework that expresses the hospital's future strategic objectives. The budget enables executives to determine which specific service lines are profitable or unprofitable. Administrators and clinicians at all levels are involved in the budgeting process.

  12. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  13. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  14. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  15. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.340 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.341 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 1207.341 Section 1207.341... PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Expenses and Assessments § 1207.341 Budget and expenses. (a) At... recommend a budget on a fiscal period basis of its anticipated expenses and disbursements in the...

  17. 33 CFR 273.17 - Annual budget request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual budget request. 273.17... DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.17 Annual budget request. The Aquatic Plant Control Program is a... to utilize within the budget year taking into account the foreseeable availability of local funds to...

  18. The global carbon dioxide budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 levels during the last deglaciation was comparable in magnitude to the recent historical increase. However, global CO2 budgets for these changes reflect fundamental differences in rates and in sources and sinks. The modern oceans are a rapid net CO2 sink, whereas the oceans were a gradual source during the deglaciation. Unidentified terrestrial CO2 sinks are important uncertainties in both the deglacial and recent CO2 budgets. The deglacial CO2 budget represents a complexity of long-term dynamic behavior that is not adequately addressed by current models used to forecast future atmospheric CO2 levels.

  19. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  20. Different thresholds of T cell activation regulate FIV infection of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Joshi, Anjali; Garg, Himanshu; Tompkins, Mary B.

    2005-05-10

    Cellular activation plays an important role in retroviral replication. Previously, we have shown that CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells by the virtue of their partially activated phenotype represent ideal candidates for a productive feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. In the present study, we extended our previous observations with regard to FIV replication in CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} cells under different stimulation conditions. Both CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} cells remain latently infected in the absence of IL-2 or concanvalinA (ConA), respectively; harboring a replication competent provirus capable of reactivation several days post-infection. While CD4{sup +}CD25{supmore » +} cells require low levels of exogenous IL-2 and virus inputs for an efficient FIV replication, CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} T cells can only be productively infected in the presence of either high concentrations of IL-2 or high virus titers, even in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. Interestingly, while high virus input activates CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} cells to replicate FIV, it induces apoptosis in a high percentage of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells. High IL-2 concentrations but not high virus inputs lead to surface upregulation of CD25 and significant cellular proliferation in CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} cells. These results suggest that CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} T cells have different activation requirements which can be modulated by both viral and cytokine stimuli to reach threshold activation levels in order to harbor a productive FIV infection. This holds implications in vivo for CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} and CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} cells to serve as potential reservoirs of a productive and latent FIV infection.« less

  1. Fiscal Year 2007 Budget Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-02-06

    NASA Associate Administrator for Aeronautics Research Lisa J. Porter answers reporters questions during the fiscal year 2007 news conference, Monday, Feb. 6, 2006, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. NASA Administrator Michael Griffin was joined by the heads of NASA's four mission directorates to explain how the proposed $16.8 billion dollar budget supports the Vision for Space Exploration. The budget represents a 3.2% increase above the fiscal year 2006 appropriated budget. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Integration of Error Compensation of Coordinate Measuring Machines into Feature Measurement: Part I—Model Development

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Roque; D’Amato, Roberto; Gómez, Emilio; Domingo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The development of an error compensation model for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and its integration into feature measurement is presented. CMMs are widespread and dependable instruments in industry and laboratories for dimensional measurement. From the tip probe sensor to the machine display, there is a complex transformation of probed point coordinates through the geometrical feature model that makes the assessment of accuracy and uncertainty measurement results difficult. Therefore, error compensation is not standardized, conversely to other simpler instruments. Detailed coordinate error compensation models are generally based on CMM as a rigid-body and it requires a detailed mapping of the CMM’s behavior. In this paper a new model type of error compensation is proposed. It evaluates the error from the vectorial composition of length error by axis and its integration into the geometrical measurement model. The non-explained variability by the model is incorporated into the uncertainty budget. Model parameters are analyzed and linked to the geometrical errors and uncertainty of CMM response. Next, the outstanding measurement models of flatness, angle, and roundness are developed. The proposed models are useful for measurement improvement with easy integration into CMM signal processing, in particular in industrial environments where built-in solutions are sought. A battery of implementation tests are presented in Part II, where the experimental endorsement of the model is included. PMID:27690052

  3. 42 CFR 441.470 - Service budget elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service budget elements. 441.470 Section 441.470... Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.470 Service budget elements. A service budget must be developed and approved by the State based on the assessment of need and service plan and...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 60.4140 Section... Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of Hg allowances for the control periods in 2010 through 2017 and in 2018...

  5. 12 CFR 995.6 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and expenses. 995.6 Section 995.6 Banks... § 995.6 Budget and expenses. (a) Directorate approval. The Financing Corporation shall submit annually to the Directorate for approval, a budget of proposed expenditures for the next calendar year that...

  6. Development of Ocean Noise "Budgets"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Spain, G. L.; Miller, J. H.; Frisk, G. V.; Bradley, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    The National Oceanographic Partnership Program recently sponsored the third U.S. National Academy of Sciences study on the potential impact of manmade sound on the marine environment. Several recommendations for future research are made by the 11-member committee in their report titled Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals (National Academies Press, 2003). This presentation will focus on the subset of recommendations related to a "noise budget", i.e., an accounting of the relative contributions of various sources to the ocean noise field. A noise budget is defined in terms of a specific metric of the sound field. The metric, or budget "currency", typically considered is the acoustic pressure spectrum integrated over space and time, which is proportional to the total mechanical energy in the acoustic field. However, this currency may not be the only one of relevance to marine animals. Each of the various ways in which sound can potentially impact these animals, e.g., temporary threshold shift, masking, behavior disruption, etc, probably depends upon a different property, or set of properties, of the sound field. Therefore, a family of noise budgets based on various currencies will be required for complete evaluation of the potential impact of manmade noise on the marine environment. Validation of noise budgets will require sustained, long term measurements of the underwater noise field.

  7. Budget Increases Proposed for NOAA and Energy Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    In addition to the Obama administration's proposed budget increases for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009, and 90(20), 175, 2009), other federal Earth and space science agencies also would receive boosts in the proposed fiscal year (FY) 2010 budget. The proposed budget comes on top of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) US$18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development that can be apportioned between the FY 2009 and FY 2010 budgets. This news item focuses on the budget proposals for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Next week, Eos will look at the budget proposal for the National Science Foundation.

  8. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of CD4+ CD39+ FOXP3+ and CD4+ CD39+ FOXP3neg T-cell subsets in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Patrick J; Schilling, Bastian; Harasymczuk, Malgorzata; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Johnson, Jonas; Lang, Stephan; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2012-07-01

    Human CD4(+) CD39(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells hydrolyze exogenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and participate in immunosuppressive adenosine production. They contain two T-cell subsets whose role in mediating suppression is not understood. Frequencies of both CD4(+) CD39(+) subsets were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 57 cancer patients and in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) of 6 patients. CD4(+) CD39(+) and CD4(+) CD39(neg) T cells isolated using immunobeads and cell sorting were cultured under various conditions. Their conversion into CD39(+) FOXP3(+) CD25(+) or CD39(+) FOX(neg) CD25(neg) cells was monitored by multiparameter flow cytometry. Hydrolysis of exogenous ATP was measured in luminescence assays. Two CD4(+) CD39(+) cell subsets differing in expression of CD25, FOXP3, CTLA-4, CD121a, PD-1, latency associated peptide (LAP), glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), and the cytokine profile accumulated with equal frequencies in the blood and tumor tissues of cancer patients. The frequency of both subsets was significantly increased in cancer. CD39 expression levels correlated with the subsets' ability to hydrolyze ATP. Conventional CD4(+) CD39(neg) T cells incubated with IL-2 + TGF-β expanded to generate CD4(+) CD39(+) FOXP3(+) Treg cells, while CD4(+) CD39(+) FOXP3(neg) CD25(neg) subset cells stimulated via the TCR and IL-2 converted to FOXP3(+) CTLA4(+) CD25(+) TGF-β-expressing Treg cells. Among CD4(+) CD39(+) Treg cells, the CD4(+) CD39(+) FOXP3(neg) CD25(neg) subset serves as a reservoir of cells able to convert to Treg cells upon activation by environmental signals. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Education Takes Hit in Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    After months of arduous negotiation and partisan squabbling, states across the country have produced budgets for the new fiscal year that in many cases will bring deep cuts to state spending, including money for schools. The budget blueprints adopted by numerous states were postscripts to divisive legislative sessions that saw newly elected…

  10. Budget Reform to Improve Higher Education Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folger, John

    A national project designed to examine issues of budget reform and quality improvement in higher education is described. The focus is state-level budget practices and their impact on institutions. Most of the funding for quality improvement has been categorical: a small percent of the budget is set aside to achieve particular quality or…

  11. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  12. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  13. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  14. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  15. An Annotated Bibliography: Budgeting in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Rebecca A.

    Though the original focus of this annotated bibliography was upon budgeting in the public community college, its scope was expanded to include articles on budgeting in four-year colleges and in some private two- and four-year institutions when the articles were relevant to community colleges. Due to the inter-relationship between budgeting and…

  16. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.340 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State...

  17. Best practices for budget-based design.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (State DOTs) encounter difficulties in establishing feasible and : reliable project budget early in the project development. The lack of a systematic process for establishing : baseline budget with the consideratio...

  18. Sea Level Budget along the East Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, A. M.; Davis, J. L.; Vinogradova, N. T.

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed tide gauge data, taken from 1955 to 2015, from 29 locations along the east coast of North America. A well-documented period of sea-level acceleration began around 1990. The sea level rate (referenced to epoch 1985.0) and acceleration (post-1990) are spatially and temporally variable, due to various physical processes, each of which is also spatially and temporally variable. To determine the sea-level budgets for rate and acceleration, we considered a number of major contributors to sea level change: ocean density and dynamics, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), the inverted barometer effect, and mass change associated with the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The geographic variability in the budgets for sea-level rate is dominated by GIA. At some sites, GIA is the largest contributor to the rate. The geographic variability in the budgets for sea-level acceleration is dominated by ocean dynamics and density and GIS mass loss. The figure below shows budgets for sea-level rate (left) and acceleration (right) for Key West, Fla., (top) and The Battery in New York City (bottom). The blue represents values (with error bar shown) estimated from tide gauge observations, and the yellow represents the total values estimated from the individual model contributions (each in red, green, cyan, pink, and black). The estimated totals for rate and acceleration are good matches to the tide-gauge inferences. To achieve a reasonable fit, a scaling factor (admittance) for the combined contribution of ocean dynamics and density was estimated; this admittance may reflect the low spatial sampling of the GECCO2 model we used, or other problems in modeling coastal sea-level. The significant contributions of mass loss to the acceleration enable us to predict that, if such mass-loss continues or increases, the character of sea-level change on the North American east coast will change in the next 50-100 years. In particular, whereas GIA presently

  19. Importance of measuring discharge and sediment transport in lesser tributaries when closing sediment budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.

    2017-11-01

    necessarily correlate with drainage size, and may vary by two orders of magnitude on an annual basis, using techniques such as sediment-yield equations to estimate the sediment loads of ungaged tributaries may lead to large errors in sediment budgets.

  20. FY2013 Defense Budget Request: Overview and Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-20

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 FY2013 Defense Budget Request: Overview and Context Congressional Research Service Summary This report analyzes ...Congressional action on the FY2013 defense budget will be analyzed in a separate report. The FY2013 Department of Defense (DOD) budget request...defense-related nuclear programs conducted by the Department of Energy , and other activities. For discretionary DOD budget authority, the request includes

  1. Decreased proportions of CD4 + IL17+/CD4 + CD25 + CD127- and CD4 + IL17+/CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - FoxP3+ T cells in children with autoimmune thyroid diseases (.).

    PubMed

    Bossowski, Artur; Moniuszko, Marcin; Idźkowska, Ewelina; Grubczak, Kamil; Singh, Paulina; Bossowska, Anna; Diana, Tanja; Kahaly, George J

    2016-08-01

    Until now, altered balance of Th1 and Th2 immune cells has been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). However, recent studies on thyroid diseases have suggested a new role for Th17 cells that have been classified as a new lineage, distinct from Th1, Th2 and Treg cells. Despite wide interest, the role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases is still debated. The aim of the study was to estimate the proportions of Th17/Treg T cells in peripheral blood from patients with Graves' disease (GD; n = 29, mean age 15.4 ± 5.1 years), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT; n = 39, mean age 15.2 ± 4.1 years) and in healthy controls (n = 49, mean age 14.8 ± 3 years). Polychromatic flow cytometry and several fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies were applied to delineate Th17 and Treg cells. The analysis of Th17/Treg T cell proportions in peripheral blood from patients with Graves' disease revealed significantly lower ratios of CD4 + IL17+/CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - (p < 0.0021) and CD4 + IL17+/CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - FoxP3 + (p < 0.0031) than in the control group. In addition, in the case of HT, we observed a significant decrease in the ratios of CD4 + IL17+/CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - (p < 0.0001) and CD4 + IL17+/CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - FoxP3 + (p < 0.0001) T cells in comparison to healthy children. In patients with untreated GD, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between the proportions of CD4 + IL17+/CD4 + CD25 + CD127-, CD4 + IL17+/CD4 + CD25 + CD127 - FoxP3+ T cells and the TRAbs (R = 0.71, p < 0.029; R = 0.72, p < 0.026, respectively) and a positive correlation was noted between the percentage of CD4 + CD - IL - 17 + T cells and the level of TSAbs (R = 0.66, p < 0.037). We conclude that the changes

  2. CMV induces expansion of highly polyfunctional CD4+ T cell subset coexpressing CD57 and CD154.

    PubMed

    Pera, Alejandra; Vasudev, Anusha; Tan, Crystal; Kared, Hassen; Solana, Rafael; Larbi, Anis

    2017-02-01

    CD4 + T cells are essential for human CMV infection control. CMV-specific CD4 + T cells possess antiviral functions and participate in anti-CMV humoral/cellular responses. In the elderly, CMV infection impairs immunity to other viruses and has been traditionally associated with T cell senescence; however, recent results suggest that, in younger people, CMV confers immune protection against other pathogens (heterologous immunity). To shed light on this controversy, we analyzed latent CMV infection effects on the quality of young individuals' immune response, specifically, the presence of polyfunctional T cells through an extensive phenotypic and functional characterization of the CD4 + T cell subset. CD154 expression, degranulation (CD107a), and cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) as well as T cell phenotype markers (CD57, CD28, and CD27) were analyzed. We demonstrate that CD4 + T cells that coexpress CD57 and CD154, which are exclusively present in CMV-positive individuals, are the most polyfunctional CD4 + subset, whereas CD4 + CD27 + CD28 - T cells associate with lower polyfunctionality. Conversely, the frequency of CD4 + CD28 + T cells correlates with higher polyfunctionality of CD4 + CD57 - T cells from CMV-seronegative individuals and CD4 + CD57 + CD154 + T cells from CMV-seropositive individuals. Thus, polyfunctionality is a property of central memory CD4 + T cells in CMV-seronegative individuals, whereas after CMV infection, polyfunctional T cells become highly differentiated, which allows efficient eradication of infections. We extend previous observations of the impact of CMV on CD8 + T cell functionality to the CD4 + T cell compartment, revealing CD57 as a polyfunctionality marker of T cells which expands after CMV infection. CD57 + T cells have been associated with inflammatory conditions, but their potential role in the response against infectious disease and vaccination should now be investigated. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. Improvements in lake water budget computations using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Shih, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    A supervised multispectral classification was performed on Landsat data for Lake Okeechobee's extensive littoral zone to provide two types of information. First, the acreage of a given plant species as measured by satellite was combined with a more accurate transpiration rate to give a better estimate of evapotranspiration from the littoral zone. Second, the surface area coupled by plant communities was used to develop a better estimate of the water surface as a function of lake stage. Based on this information, more detailed representations of evapotranspiration and total water surface (and hence total lake volume) were provided to the water balance budget model for lake volume predictions. The model results based on information derived from satellite demonstrated a 94 percent reduction in cumulative lake stage error and a 70 percent reduction in the maximum deviation of the lake stage.

  4. Input-output analysis and the hospital budgeting process.

    PubMed Central

    Cleverly, W O

    1975-01-01

    Two hospitals budget systems, a conventional budget and an input-output budget, are compared to determine how they affect management decisions in pricing, output, planning, and cost control. Analysis of data from a 210-bed not-for-profit hospital indicates that adoption of the input-output budget could cause substantial changes in posted hospital rates in individual departments but probably would have no impact on hospital output determination. The input-output approach promises to be a more accurate system for cost control and planning because, unlike the conventional approach, it generates objective signals for investigating variances of expenses from budgeted levels. PMID:1205865

  5. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the NOX...

  6. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the NOX...

  7. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the NOX...

  8. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the NOX...

  9. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the NOX...

  10. Health Cost Strain School Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how the rising cost of health insurance is being picked as the top budget concern of school businesses. These data were the result of a survey conducted by the Association of School Business Officials International. Schools report that the cost of insuring employees is outpacing increases in state and local budgets that…

  11. Budgeting Based on Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jason; Hill, Matt

    2011-01-01

    School finance reform has become a key component for transforming public schools in the United States. Over the last decade, a growing number of districts have turned to an approach known by different names--student-based budgeting, weighted student funding and fair student funding, among others--in which budgets are allocated to schools in…

  12. Erratum: Synthesis of Cd-free InP/ZnS Quantum Dots Suitable for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    2016-02-29

    A correction was made to: Synthesis of Cd-free InP/ZnS Quantum Dots Suitable for Biomedical Applications. There was an error with an author's given name. The author's name was corrected to: Katye M. Fichter from: Kathryn M. Fichter.

  13. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    PubMed

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  14. National Science Foundation proposed budget could see another increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 would provide the agency with $7.37 billion, a $340 million increase, 4.8% above the FY 2012 estimated budget under which NSF has been operating. NSF has fared well during previous budget cycles, and the Obama administration's budget document for FY 2013 states that “NSF plays a critical role in the implementation of the President's Plan for Science and Technology.” With federal agencies operating under tighter budgets in a difficult financial climate, NSF director Subra Suresh said the budget includes substantial increases for core programs, frontier science, education, and human resources. “I am confident that NSF merits the $7.4 billion the president proposed. I'm optimistic Congress will approve the budget,” Suresh said at a 13 February NSF budget briefing.

  15. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  16. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  17. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  18. Decision making in the Navy Budget Office.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to familiarize the reader with the budget decision making pocesses and considerations which influence the ...formulation of the Department of the navy’s (DON) budget from perspective of the Office of Budget and Reports (OBR), the impact of resource allocation...budgetary) decisions upon the overall framwork within which DON budgetary decisions are made, the organizational

  19. Errors in causal inference: an organizational schema for systematic error and random error.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Tsuda, Toshihide; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-11-01

    To provide an organizational schema for systematic error and random error in estimating causal measures, aimed at clarifying the concept of errors from the perspective of causal inference. We propose to divide systematic error into structural error and analytic error. With regard to random error, our schema shows its four major sources: nondeterministic counterfactuals, sampling variability, a mechanism that generates exposure events and measurement variability. Structural error is defined from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning and divided into nonexchangeability bias (which comprises confounding bias and selection bias) and measurement bias. Directed acyclic graphs are useful to illustrate this kind of error. Nonexchangeability bias implies a lack of "exchangeability" between the selected exposed and unexposed groups. A lack of exchangeability is not a primary concern of measurement bias, justifying its separation from confounding bias and selection bias. Many forms of analytic errors result from the small-sample properties of the estimator used and vanish asymptotically. Analytic error also results from wrong (misspecified) statistical models and inappropriate statistical methods. Our organizational schema is helpful for understanding the relationship between systematic error and random error from a previously less investigated aspect, enabling us to better understand the relationship between accuracy, validity, and precision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Defense.gov Special Report: Fiscal Budget

    Science.gov Websites

    Request for Fiscal Year 2012 Air Force Budget Targets Efficiencies, Balance Budget Summary Summary of the Transcripts Gates' Opening Summary Secretary Gates Under Secretary Hale and Lt. Gen. Spencer Army Maj. Gen

  1. Preparation of School District Budgets with Microcomputer Electronic Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinitz, Herman J.; Gourley, Marlene Fisher, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    School districts prepare annual budgets in order to have adequate funding available for their operations. Today's budgets require flexibility and adaptability as school-district finances and governmental regulations and guidelines change. This article discusses several types of budgets and budget preparation that utilize microcomputer technology.…

  2. Analysis of total copper, cadmium and lead in refuse-derived fuels (RDF): study on analytical errors using synthetic samples.

    PubMed

    Skutan, Stefan; Aschenbrenner, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Components with extraordinarily high analyte contents, for example copper metal from wires or plastics stabilized with heavy metal compounds, are presumed to be a crucial source of errors in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) analysis. In order to study the error generation of those 'analyte carrier components', synthetic samples spiked with defined amounts of carrier materials were mixed, milled in a high speed rotor mill to particle sizes <1 mm, <0.5 mm and <0.2 mm, respectively, and analyzed repeatedly. Copper (Cu) metal and brass were used as Cu carriers, three kinds of polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) carriers, and paper and polyethylene as bulk components. In most cases, samples <0.2 mm delivered good recovery rates (rec), and low or moderate relative standard deviations (rsd), i.e. metallic Cu 87-91% rec, 14-35% rsd, Cd from flexible PVC yellow 90-92% rec, 8-10% rsd and Pb from rigid PVC 92-96% rec, 3-4% rsd. Cu from brass was overestimated (138-150% rec, 13-42% rsd), Cd from flexible PVC grey underestimated (72-75% rec, 4-7% rsd) in <0.2 mm samples. Samples <0.5 mm and <1 mm spiked with Cu or brass produced errors of up to 220% rsd (<0.5 mm) and 370% rsd (<1 mm). In the case of Pb from rigid PVC, poor recoveries (54-75%) were observed in spite of moderate variations (rsd 11-29%). In conclusion, time-consuming milling to <0.2 mm can reduce variation to acceptable levels, even given the presence of analyte carrier materials. Yet, the sources of systematic errors observed (likely segregation effects) remain uncertain.

  3. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  4. Global Budgeting in the OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Patrice R.; Moran, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries use global budgeting to control all or certain portions of their health care expenditures. Although the use of global budgets as a cost-containment tool has not been implemented in the United States in any comprehensive way, recent health care reform initiatives have increased the need for research into such tools. In general, the structure, process, and effectiveness of global budgets vary enormously from country to country, in part because the underlying social welfare system of each country is unique. PMID:10130584

  5. CD147-mediated chemotaxis of CD4+CD161+ T cells may contribute to local inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Minghua; Miao, Jinlin; Zhao, Peng; Luo, Xing; Han, Qing; Wu, Zhenbiao; Zhang, Kui; Zhu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    CD161 is used as a surrogate marker for Th17 cells, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the percentage, clinical significance, and CD98 and CD147 expression of CD4 + CD161 + T cells. The potential role of CD147 and CD98 in cyclophilin A-induced chemotaxis of CD4 + CD161 + T cells was analyzed. Thirty-seven RA patients, 15 paired synovial fluid (SF) of RA, and 22 healthy controls were recruited. The cell populations and surface expression of CD98 and CD147 were analyzed by flow cytometry. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were applied to calculate the correlations. Chemotaxis assay was used to investigate CD4 + CD161 + T cell migration. We found that the percentage of CD4 + CD161 + T cells and their expression of CD147 and CD98 in SF were higher than in the peripheral blood of RA patients. Percentage of SF CD4 + CD161 + T cells was positively correlated with 28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). CD147 monoclonal antibody (HAb18) attenuated the chemotactic ability of CD4 + CD161 + T cells. An increased CD4 + CD161 + T cell percentage and expression of CD147 and CD98 were shown in RA SF. Percentage of SF CD4 + CD161 + T cells can be used as a predictive marker of disease activity in RA. CD147 block significantly decreased the chemotactic index of CD4 + CD161 + cells induced by cyclophilin A (CypA). These results imply that the accumulation of CD4 + CD161 + T cells in SF and their high expression of CD147 may be associated with CypA-mediated chemotaxis and contribute to local inflammation in RA.

  6. Budgeting for Higher Education and the Legislative Oversight Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Five papers are presented from a legislative seminar on budgeting for higher education and the legislative oversight process. In "Budgeting: A University Perspective," Jack K. Williams addresses the preparation of an institutional budget, what legislators should know about budgets, plans for no-growth or retrenchment, and the importance…

  7. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2017

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2017" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, and summary tables. President Obama's 2017 Budget makes critical investments while adhering to the bipartisan budget agreement he signed into the previous fall, and it lifts sequestration in…

  8. Mass load estimation errors utilizing grab sampling strategies in a karst watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogle, A.W.; Taraba, J.L.; Dinger, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Developing a mass load estimation method appropriate for a given stream and constituent is difficult due to inconsistencies in hydrologic and constituent characteristics. The difficulty may be increased in flashy flow conditions such as karst. Many projects undertaken are constrained by budget and manpower and do not have the luxury of sophisticated sampling strategies. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine two grab sampling strategies with varying sampling intervals and determine the error in mass load estimates, and (2) determine the error that can be expected when a grab sample is collected at a time of day when the diurnal variation is most divergent from the daily mean. Results show grab sampling with continuous flow to be a viable data collection method for estimating mass load in the study watershed. Comparing weekly, biweekly, and monthly grab sampling, monthly sampling produces the best results with this method. However, the time of day the sample is collected is important. Failure to account for diurnal variability when collecting a grab sample may produce unacceptable error in mass load estimates. The best time to collect a sample is when the diurnal cycle is nearest the daily mean.

  9. Power Budget Analysis of Colorless Hybrid WDM/TDM-PON Scheme Using Downstream DPSK and Re-modulated Upstream OOK Data Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yousaf; Afridi, Muhammad Idrees; Khan, Ahmed Mudassir; Rehman, Waheed Ur; Khan, Jahanzeb

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid wavelength-division multiplexed/time-division multiplexed passive optical access networks (WDM/TDM-PONs) combine the advance features of both WDM and TDM PONs to provide a cost-effective access network solution. We demonstrate and analyze the transmission performances and power budget issues of a colorless hybrid WDM/TDM-PON scheme. A 10-Gb/s downstream differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and remodulated upstream on/off keying (OOK) data signals are transmitted over 25 km standard single mode fiber. Simulation results show error free transmission having adequate power margins in both downstream and upstream transmission, which prove the applicability of the proposed scheme to future passive optical access networks. The power budget confines both the PON splitting ratio and the distance between the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU).

  10. 7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budgets, programs, plans, and projects. 1219.50... Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.50 Budgets, programs, plans, and projects. (a) The Board shall submit to the Secretary, on a fiscal period basis, annual budgets of its anticipated expenses and...

  11. CD70 is downregulated by interaction with CD27

    PubMed Central

    Kuka, Mirela; Munitic, Ivana; Torchia, Maria Letizia Giardino; Ashwell, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Engagement of the receptor CD27 by CD70 affects the magnitude and quality of T cell responses in a variety of infection models, and exaggerated signaling via this pathway results in enhanced immune responses and autoimmunity. One means by which signaling is regulated is tight control of cell surface CD70, which is expressed on dendritic, T, and B cells only upon activation. Here we show that there is a second level of regulation. First, although undetectable on the cell surface by flow cytometry, immature dendritic cells (DC) have a small pool of CD70 that continuously recycles from the plasma membrane. In addition, surface levels of CD70 on DC and T cells were higher in mice deficient in CD27, or on DC for which the interaction between CD70 and CD27 was precluded by blocking antibodies. Binding of CD70 by its receptor resulted in downregulation of CD70 transcription and protein levels, suggesting that CD70-mediated “reverse signals” regulate its own levels. Therefore, the ability of CD70 to trigger costimulation is self-regulated when it binds its complementary receptor. PMID:23913967

  12. CD127 and CD25 expression defines CD4+ T cell subsets that are differentially depleted during HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Richard M; Cervasi, Barbara; Brenchley, Jason M; Albrecht, Helmut; Weintrob, Amy; Sumpter, Beth; Engram, Jessica; Gordon, Shari; Klatt, Nichole R; Frank, Ian; Sodora, Donald L; Douek, Daniel C; Paiardini, Mirko; Silvestri, Guido

    2008-04-15

    Decreased CD4(+) T cell counts are the best marker of disease progression during HIV infection. However, CD4(+) T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype and function, and it is unknown how preferential depletion of specific CD4(+) T cell subsets influences disease severity. CD4(+) T cells can be classified into three subsets by the expression of receptors for two T cell-tropic cytokines, IL-2 (CD25) and IL-7 (CD127). The CD127(+)CD25(low/-) subset includes IL-2-producing naive and central memory T cells; the CD127(-)CD25(-) subset includes mainly effector T cells expressing perforin and IFN-gamma; and the CD127(low)CD25(high) subset includes FoxP3-expressing regulatory T cells. Herein we investigated how the proportions of these T cell subsets are changed during HIV infection. When compared with healthy controls, HIV-infected patients show a relative increase in CD4(+)CD127(-)CD25(-) T cells that is related to an absolute decline of CD4(+)CD127(+)CD25(low/-) T cells. Interestingly, this expansion of CD4(+)CD127(-) T cells was not observed in naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. The relative expansion of CD4(+)CD127(-)CD25(-) T cells correlated directly with the levels of total CD4(+) T cell depletion and immune activation. CD4(+)CD127(-)CD25(-) T cells were not selectively resistant to HIV infection as levels of cell-associated virus were similar in all non-naive CD4(+) T cell subsets. These data indicate that, during HIV infection, specific changes in the fraction of CD4(+) T cells expressing CD25 and/or CD127 are associated with disease progression. Further studies will determine whether monitoring the three subsets of CD4(+) T cells defined based on the expression of CD25 and CD127 should be used in the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals.

  13. In ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies depletes CD4+CD25+ T cells in chickens.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    The CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have T regulatory cell properties in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo injection of anti-chicken CD25 monoclonal antibodies (0.5 mg/egg) on CD4(+)CD25(+) cell depletion and on amounts of interleukin-2 mRNA and interferon-γ mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(-) cells posthatch. Anti-chicken CD25 or PBS (control) was injected into 16-d-old embryos. Chicks hatched from eggs injected with anti-chicken CD25 antibodies had a lower CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the blood until 25 d posthatch. The anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection nearly depleted CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the blood until 16 d posthatch. At 30 d posthatch, the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentage in the anti-CD25-antibody-injected group was comparable with the percentage in the control group. At 16 d posthatch, the anti-chicken CD25 antibody injection decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) cell percentages in the thymus, spleen, and cecal tonsils. Chickens hatched from anti-CD25-antibody-injected eggs had approximately 25% of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in the cecal tonsils and thymus compared with those in the cecal tonsils and thymus of the control group. The CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the spleen and cecal tonsils of chicks hatched from anti-chicken-CD25-injected eggs had higher amounts of interferon-γ and interleukin-2 mRNA than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells from the control group. It could be concluded that injecting anti-chicken CD25 antibodies in ovo at 16 d of incubation nearly depleted the CD4(+)CD25(+) cells until 25 d posthatch.

  14. Morphology, structure and optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized CeO2/CdS nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Biswajyoti; Nayak, J.

    2018-04-01

    CeO2/CdS nanocomposites were synthesized using a two-step hydrothermal technique. The effects of precursor concentration on the optical and structural properties of the CeO2/CdS nanoparticles were systematically studied. The morphology, composition and the structure of the CeO2/CdS nanocomposite powder were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum analysis (EDXA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The optical properties of CeO2/CdS nanocomposites were studied by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical band gaps of the CeO2/CdS nanopowders ranged from 2.34 eV to 2.39 eV as estimated from the UV-vis absorption. In the room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of CeO2/CdS nanopowder, a strong blue emission band was observed at 400 nm. Since the powder shows strong visible luminescence, it may be used as a blue phosphor in future. The original article published with this DOI was submitted in error. The correct article was inadvertently left out of the original submission. This has been rectified and the correct article was published online on 16 April 2018.

  15. Science budget bills wind through U.S. Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. economy booming and the science community pushing for across the board increases for federal research and development programs, science budgets are faring well in the House and Senate. When Congress returns to Washington in September following a summer recess, its priorities include finalizing four major, nondefense budget bills that affect science. These bills could provide significant funding increases for fiscal year 1998.How do these number compare to the new balanced budget agreement? According to analysts, the budget for the next fiscal year actually increases, with precipitous cuts delayed for several years. Although the outlook for long-term funding may be grim, science budgets look good for this year.

  16. Preliminary Error Budget for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Gubbels, Timothy; Barnes, Robert

    2011-01-01

    irradiance 6) Broadband reflected and emitted radiative fluxes 7) Cloud properties 8) Surface albedo There are two methods the CLARREO mission will rely on to achieve these critical decadal change benchmarks: direct and reference inter-calibration. A quantitative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods has led to the recommended CLARREO mission approach. The project consists of two satellites launched into 90-degree, precessing orbits separated by 90 degrees. The instrument suite receiver on each spacecraft includes one emitted infrared spectrometer, two reflected solar spectrometers: dividing the spectrum from ultraviolet through near infrared, and one global navigation receiver for radio occultation. The measurements will be acquired for a period of three years minimum, with a five-year lifetime goal, enabling follow-on missions to extend the climate record over the decades needed to understand climate change. The current work concentrates on the reflected solar instrument giving an overview of its design and calibration approach. The calibration description includes the approach to achieving an SI-traceable system on orbit. The calibration overview is followed by a preliminary error budget based on techniques currently in place at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  17. 7 CFR 3015.114 - Budgets-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budgets-general. 3015.114 Section 3015.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions...

  18. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions...

  19. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-17

    in parenthesis). This defense primer addresses the National Defense Budget (050), which is frequently used to explain trends in military spending...but which also includes some activities not conducted by the Department of Defense. What Is the Purpose of the Budget Function System? The budget

  20. 10 CFR 603.885 - Updated program plans and budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Updated program plans and budgets. 603.885 Section 603.885... program plans and budgets. In addition to reports on progress to date, a TIA may include a provision... effort and a revised budget if there is a significant change from the initial budget. ...

  1. Evaluation of bone marrow specimens with acute myelogenous leukemia for CD34, CD15, CD117, and myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, C H; Polski, J M; Evans, H L; Gardner, L J

    2001-08-01

    Immunophenotyping of bone marrow (BM) specimens with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) may be performed by flow cytometric (FC) or immunohistochemical (IH) techniques. Some markers (CD34, CD15, and CD117) are available for both techniques. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) analysis may be performed by enzyme cytochemical (EC) or IH techniques. To determine the reliability of these markers and MPO by these techniques, we designed a study to compare the results of analyses of these markers and MPO by FC (CD34, CD15, and CD117), EC (MPO), and IH (CD34, CD15, CD117, and MPO) techniques. Twenty-nine AMLs formed the basis of the study. These AMLs all had been immunophenotyped previously by FC analysis; 27 also had had EC analysis performed. Of the AMLs, 29 had BM core biopsies and 26 had BM clots that could be evaluated. The paraffin blocks of the 29 BM core biopsies and 26 BM clots were stained for CD34, CD117, MPO, and CD15. These results were compared with results by FC analysis (CD34, CD15, and CD117) and EC analysis (MPO). Immunodetection of CD34 expression in AML had a similar sensitivity by FC and IH techniques. Immunodetection of CD15 and CD117 had a higher sensitivity by FC analysis than by IH analysis. Detection of MPO by IH analysis was more sensitive than by EC analysis. There was no correlation of French-American-British (FAB) subtype of AML with CD34 or CD117 expression. Expression of CD15 was associated with AMLs with a monocytic component. Myeloperoxidase reactivity by IH analysis was observed in AMLs originally FAB subtyped as M0. CD34 can be equally detected by FC and IH techniques. CD15 and CD117 are better detected by FC analysis and MPO is better detected by IH analysis.

  2. Fiscal 1982 Budget highlights R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Geophysical research and development programs show growth beyond inflation in the $739.3 billion budget for fiscal 1982 that Jimmy Carter sent to Congress 5 days before completing his term. Included in the budget are provisions for increased support for the Ocean Margin Drilling Program and funds for an interagency Geological Applications Program, funds for an agriculture and resource surveys program that relies on remote sensing, and funds for the Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar mission.Ronald Reagan is expected to make changes in the budget as early as late February, although in mid January the heads of the scientific agencies could not characterize possible changes. Some Washingtonians say sharp cuts are inevitable, with basic research a prime candidate. Others, however, contend that the Reagan administration's push for productivity and innovation could prevent severe carving. Eos will track the FY 1982 budget changes through congressional approval.

  3. School Budgeting and School Performance: The Impact of New York City's Performance Driven Budgeting Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Portas, Carole; Kim, Dae Yeop

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of Performance Driven Budgeting (PDB), a school-based budgeting initiative, on student test scores in the fourth and fifth grades and on spending patterns in selected New York City schools. Finds that PDB has a positive effect on some student test scores and leads to a change in the mix of spending, but not its level. (Contains…

  4. Increased Numbers of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ T-Cells in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis with Parvovirus B19 Infection.

    PubMed

    Naciute, Milda; Maciunaite, Gabriele; Mieliauskaite, Diana; Rugiene, Rita; Zinkeviciene, Aukse; Mauricas, Mykolas; Murovska, Modra; Girkontaite, Irute

    2017-01-01

    To investigate T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood of human parvovirus B19 DNA-positive (B19 + ) and -negative (B19 - ) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy persons. Blood samples were collected from 115 patients with RA and 47 healthy volunteers; 27 patients with RA and nine controls were B19 + Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4, 8, 25 and 45RA were analyzed on blood cells. CD25 expression on CD4 + CD45RA + , CD4 + CD45RA - , CD8 + CD45RA + , CD8 + CD45RA - subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD25 low and CD25 hi cells was increased on CD4 + CD45RA + , CD4 + CD45RA - T-cells and the percentage of CD25 + cells was increased on CD8 + CD45RA + , CD8 + CD45RA - T-cells of B19 + patients with RA in comparison with B19 - patients and controls. Raised levels of CD4 and CD8 regulatory T-cells in B19 + RA patients could cause down-regulation of antiviral clearance mechanisms and lead to activation of persistent human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with RA. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. 14 CFR 1260.125 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 1260....125 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the... required to report deviations from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for budget and...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium self-governance base budget is the amount of recurring funding identified in the President's annual budget request to...

  7. 28 CFR 70.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 70... Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the project or... from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for budget and program plan revisions, in...

  8. 24 CFR 84.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of budget and program... and Program Management § 84.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the... required to report deviations from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for budget and...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 2543.25... Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial expression of the project or... deviations from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for budget and program plan revisions...

  10. Observed Budgets for the Global Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottek, M.; Haimberger, L.; Rubel, F.; Hantel, M.

    2003-04-01

    A global dataset for selected budget quantities specifying the present climate for the period 1991-1995 has been compiled. This dataset is an essential component of the new climate volume within the series Landolt Boernstein - Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, to be published this year. Budget quantities are those that appear in a budget equation. Emphasis in this collection is placed on observational data of both in situ and remotely sensed quantities. The fields are presented as monthly means with a uniform space resolution of one degree. Main focus is on climatologically relevant state and flux quantities at the earth's surface and at the top of atmosphere. Some secondary and complex climate elements are also presented (e.g. tornadoe frequency). The progress of this collection as compared to other climate datasets is, apart from the quality of the input data, that all fields are presented in standardized form as far as possible. Further, visualization loops of the global fields in various projections will be available for the user in the eventual book. For some budget quantities, e.g. precipitation, it has been necessary to merge data from different sources; insufficiently observed parameters have been supplemented through the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalyses. If all quantities of a budget have been evaluated the gross residual represents an estimate of data quality. For example, the global water budget residual is found to be up to 30 % depending on the used data. This suggests that the observation of global climate parameters needs further improvement.

  11. High fidelity polycrystalline CdTe/CdS heterostructures via molecular dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Aguirre, Rodolfo; Chavez, Jose Juan; Zhou, Xiaowang; ...

    2017-06-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of polycrystalline growth of CdTe/CdS heterostructures have been performed. First, CdS was deposited on an amorphous CdS substrate, forming a polycrystalline film. Subsequently, CdTe was deposited on top of the polycrystalline CdS film. Cross-sectional images show grain formation at early stages of the CdS growth. During CdTe deposition, the CdS structure remains almost unchanged. Concurrently, CdTe grain boundary motion was detected after the first 24.4 nanoseconds of CdTe deposition. With the elapse of time, this grain boundary pins along the CdS/CdTe interface, leaving only a small region of epitaxial growth. CdTe grains are larger than CdS grainsmore » in agreement with experimental observations in the literature. Crystal phase analysis shows that zinc blende structure dominates over the wurtzite structure inside both CdS and CdTe grains. Composition analysis shows Te and S diffusion to the CdS and CdTe films, respectively. Lastly, these simulated results may stimulate new ideas for studying and improving CdTe solar cell efficiency.« less

  12. 40 CFR 52.2532 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... vehicle emissions budgets. (a) EPA approves the following revised 2009 and 2018 motor vehicle emissions... 2018 motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for the Huntington, West Virginia 8-hour ozone maintenance...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the...

  14. 40 CFR 45.140 - Budget and project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget and project period. 45.140 Section 45.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE § 45.140 Budget and project period. The budget and project periods for...

  15. FY 1986 science budget overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.; Robb, David W.

    Continental lithosphere research, scientific ocean drilling, investigative surveys in the Exclusive Economic Zone, and the Mars Observer were among those programs that fared best in the federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1986 that President Ronald Reagan sent to Congress last week. However, the Sea Grant and Coastal Zone Management programs were among those that fell victim to the budget ax once again.

  16. CD4/CD8/Dendritic cell complexes in the spleen: CD8+ T cells can directly bind CD4+ T cells and modulate their response

    PubMed Central

    Barinov, Aleksandr; Galgano, Alessia; Krenn, Gerald; Tanchot, Corinne; Vasseur, Florence

    2017-01-01

    CD4+ T cell help to CD8+ T cell responses requires that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells interact with the same antigen presenting dendritic cell (Ag+DC), but it remains controversial whether helper signals are delivered indirectly through a licensed DC and/or involve direct CD4+/CD8+ T cell contacts and/or the formation of ternary complexes. We here describe the first in vivo imaging of the intact spleen, aiming to evaluate the first interactions between antigen-specific CD4+, CD8+ T cells and Ag+DCs. We show that in contrast to CD4+ T cells which form transient contacts with Ag+DC, CD8+ T cells form immediate stable contacts and activate the Ag+DC, acquire fragments of the DC membranes by trogocytosis, leading to their acquisition of some of the DC properties. They express MHC class II, and become able to present the specific Marilyn peptide to naïve Marilyn CD4+ T cells, inducing their extensive division. In vivo, these CD8+ T cells form direct stable contacts with motile naïve CD4+ T cells, recruiting them to Ag+DC binding and to the formation of ternary complexes, where CD4+ and CD8+ T cells interact with the DC and with one another. The presence of CD8+ T cells during in vivo immune responses leads to the early activation and up-regulation of multiple functions by CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, while CD4+ T cell help is important to CD8+ T cell responses, CD8+ T cells can interact directly with naïve CD4+ T cells impacting their recruitment and differentiation. PMID:28686740

  17. Agreement on FY 1990 budget plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Bush administration has reached agreement with congressional leaders over a thumbnail version of the Fiscal Year 1990 budget. The plan contains few details but could have implications for NASA's Space Station Freedom and other big science projects.Overall, the budget agreement would achieve Gramm-Rudman-Hollings targets for budget deficit reduction without raising taxes, mostly through accounting manipulation and unspecified cuts in social programs. But a supplemental bill that calls for $1.2 billion in new spending for FY 1989 is expected to go to the House floor soon. That measure would violate the new agreement and add to the deficit.

  18. Increased Numbers of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ T-Cells in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis with Parvovirus B19 Infection

    PubMed Central

    NACIUTE, MILDA; MACIUNAITE, GABRIELE; MIELIAUSKAITE, DIANA; RUGIENE, RITA; ZINKEVICIENE, AUKSE; MAURICAS, MYKOLAS; MUROVSKA, MODRA; GIRKONTAITE, IRUTE

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood of human parvovirus B19 DNA-positive (B19+) and -negative (B19−) patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy persons. Patients and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 115 patients with RA and 47 healthy volunteers; 27 patients with RA and nine controls were B19+. Cluster of differentiation (CD) 4, 8, 25 and 45RA were analyzed on blood cells. CD25 expression on CD4+CD45RA+, CD4+CD45RA−, CD8+CD45RA+, CD8+CD45RA− subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The percentage of CD25low and CD25hi cells was increased on CD4+CD45RA+, CD4+CD45RA− T-cells and the percentage of CD25+ cells was increased on CD8+CD45RA+, CD8+CD45RA− T-cells of B19+ patients with RA in comparison with B19− patients and controls. Conclusion: Raised levels of CD4 and CD8 regulatory T-cells in B19+ RA patients could cause down-regulation of antiviral clearance mechanisms and lead to activation of persistent human parvovirus B19 infection in patients with RA PMID:28358698

  19. 20 CFR 653.112 - State agency program budget plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State agency program budget plans. 653.112... State agency program budget plans. (a) Each State agency, in its annual program budget plan, shall... and Budget under control number 1205-0039) (Pub. L. No. 96-511, 94 Stat. 2812 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq...

  20. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  1. Belgian guidelines for budget impact analyses.

    PubMed

    Neyt, M; Cleemput, I; Sande, S Van De; Thiry, N

    2015-06-01

    To develop methodological guidelines for budget impact analysis submitted to the Belgian health authorities as part of a reimbursement request. A review of the literature was performed and provided the basis for preliminary budget impact guidelines. These guidelines were improved after discussion with health economists from the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE) and different Belgian stakeholders from both government and industry. Preliminary guidelines were also discussed in a workshop with health economists from The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare. Finally, the guidelines were also externally validated by three external experts. The guidelines give explicit guidance for the following components of a budget impact analysis: perspective of the evaluation, target population, comparator, costs, time horizon, modeling, handling uncertainty and discount rate. Special attention is given to handling varying target population sizes over time, applying a time horizon up to the steady state instead of short-term predictions, and similarities and differences between budget impact analysis and economic evaluations. The guidelines provide a framework for both researchers and assessors to set up budget impact analyses that are transparent, relevant, of high quality and apply a consistent methodology. This might improve the extent to which such evaluations can reliably and consistently be used in the reimbursement decision making process.

  2. Waffle mode error in the AEOS adaptive optics point-spread function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makidon, Russell B.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Graham, James R.

    2003-02-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems have improved astronomical imaging capabilities significantly over the last decade, and have the potential to revolutionize the kinds of science done with 4-5m class ground-based telescopes. However, provided sufficient detailed study and analysis, existing AO systems can be improved beyond their original specified error budgets. Indeed, modeling AO systems has been a major activity in the past decade: sources of noise in the atmosphere and the wavefront sensing WFS) control loop have received a great deal of attention, and many detailed and sophisticated control-theoretic and numerical models predicting AO performance are already in existence. However, in terms of AO system performance improvements, wavefront reconstruction (WFR) and wavefront calibration techniques have commanded relatively little attention. We elucidate the nature of some of these reconstruction problems, and demonstrate their existence in data from the AEOS AO system. We simulate the AO correction of AEOS in the I-band, and show that the magnitude of the `waffle mode' error in the AEOS reconstructor is considerably larger than expected. We suggest ways of reducing the magnitude of this error, and, in doing so, open up ways of understanding how wavefront reconstruction might handle bad actuators and partially-illuminated WFS subapertures.

  3. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  4. Linking Planning and Budgeting through Business Process Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Marianne E.

    In the wake of an extensive strategic planning process that refocused institutional values at Northland College, Wisconsin, the administration undertook linking the budget with the newly articulated plan. Incremental budgeting was no longer feasible, and the new budget would have to reflect streamlining and new ways of functioning. Consequently…

  5. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress and...

  6. 24 CFR 990.300 - Preparation of operating budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preparation of operating budget... Resident Management Corporations (RMCs) § 990.300 Preparation of operating budget. (a) The RMC and the PHA must submit operating budgets and calculations of operating subsidy to HUD for approval in accordance...

  7. An uncertainty budget for VHF and UHF reflectometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridler, N. M.; Medley, C. J.

    1992-05-01

    Details of the derivation of an uncertainty budget for one port immittance or complex voltage reflection coefficient measuring instruments, operating at VHF and UHF in the 14 mm 50 ohm coaxial line size, are reported. The principles of the uncertainty budget are given along with experimental results obtained using six ports and a network analyzer as the measuring instruments. Details of the types of calibration for which the uncertainty budget is suitable are reported. Various aspects of the uncertainty budget are considered and general principles and treatment of the type A and type B contributions are discussed. Experimental results obtained using the uncertainty budget are given. A summary of uncertainties for the six ports and HP8753B automatic network analyzer are also given.

  8. Optimization of Stripping Voltammetric Sensor by a Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network for the Accurate Determination of Pb(II) in the Presence of Cd(II).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo; Wang, Hui; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-21

    An easy, but effective, method has been proposed to detect and quantify the Pb(II) in the presence of Cd(II) based on a Bi/glassy carbon electrode (Bi/GCE) with the combination of a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) without further electrode modification. The effects of Cd(II) in different concentrations on stripping responses of Pb(II) was studied. The results indicate that the presence of Cd(II) will reduce the prediction precision of a direct calibration model. Therefore, a two-input and one-output BP-ANN was built for the optimization of a stripping voltammetric sensor, which considering the combined effects of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on the SWASV detection of Pb(II) and establishing the nonlinear relationship between the stripping peak currents of Pb(II) and Cd(II) and the concentration of Pb(II). The key parameters of the BP-ANN and the factors affecting the SWASV detection of Pb(II) were optimized. The prediction performance of direct calibration model and BP-ANN model were tested with regard to the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), average relative error (ARE), and correlation coefficient. The results proved that the BP-ANN model exhibited higher prediction accuracy than the direct calibration model. Finally, a real samples analysis was performed to determine trace Pb(II) in some soil specimens with satisfactory results.

  9. Analysis of Health Sector Budget of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dulal, R K; Magar, A; Karki, S D; Khatiwada, D; Hamal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Primarily, health sector connects two segments - medicine and public health, where medicine deals with individual patients and public health with the population health. Budget enables both the disciplines to function effectively. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has adapted the inspiration of federalism and declared the provision of basic health care services free of cost as a fundamental right, which needs strengthening under foreseen federalism. An observational retrospective cohort study, aiming at examining the health sector budget allocation and outcome, was done. Authors gathered health budget figures (2001 to 2013) and facts published from authentic sources. Googling was done for further information. The keywords for search used were: fiscal federalism, health care, public health, health budget, health financing, external development partner, bilateral and multilateral partners and healthcare accessibility. The search was limited to English and Nepali-language report, articles and news published. Budget required to meet the population's need is still limited in Nepal. The health sector budget could not achieve even gainful results due to mismatch in policy and policy implementation despite of political commitment. Since Nepal is transforming towards federalism, an increased complexity under federated system is foreseeable, particularly in the face of changed political scenario and its players. It should have clear goals, financing policy and strict implementation plans for budget execution, task performance and achieving results as per planning. Additionally, collection of revenue, risk pooling and purchasing of services should be better integrated between central government and federated states to horn effectiveness and efficiency.

  10. 50 CFR 600.125 - Budgeting, funding, and accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budgeting, funding, and accounting. 600... Councils § 600.125 Budgeting, funding, and accounting. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 59150, Sept... Budgeting, funding, and accounting. (a) Council grant activities are governed by 15 CFR part 14 (Uniform...

  11. 20 CFR 1001.122 - Reporting and budget requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting and budget requirements. 1001.122... Services to Veterans and Eligible Persons § 1001.122 Reporting and budget requirements. (a) State agencies... agency shall make reports and prepare budgets pursuant to instructions issued by the ASVET and in such...

  12. Mouse CD23 regulates monocyte activation through an interaction with the adhesion molecule CD11b/CD18.

    PubMed

    Lecoanet-Henchoz, S; Plater-Zyberk, C; Graber, P; Gretener, D; Aubry, J P; Conrad, D H; Bonnefoy, J Y

    1997-09-01

    CD23 is expressed on a variety of hemopoietic cells. Recently, we have reported that blocking CD23 interactions in a murine model of arthritis resulted in a marked improvement of disease severity. Here, we demonstrate that CD11b, the alpha chain of the beta 2 integrin adhesion molecule complex CD11b/CD18 expressed on monocytes interacts with CD23. Using a recombinant fusion protein (ZZ-CD23), murine CD23 was shown to bind to peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood cells isolated from mice as well as the murine macrophage cell line, RAW. The interactions between mouse ZZ-CD23 and CD11b/CD18-expressing cells were significantly inhibited by anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies. A functional consequence was then demonstrated by inducing an up-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) production following ZZ-CD23 incubation with monocytes. The addition of Fab fragments generated from the monoclonal antibody CD11b impaired this cytokine production by 50%. Interestingly, a positive autocrine loop was identified as IL-6 was shown to increase CD23 binding to macrophages. These results demonstrate that similar to findings using human cells, murine CD23 binds to the surface adhesion molecule, CD11b, and these interactions regulate biological activities of murine myeloid cells.

  13. Outcome Based Budgeting: Connecting Budget Development, Allocation and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderes, Thomas

    This plan for outcome-based budgeting (OBB) is the result of growing demands for increased fiscal accountability, measurable outcomes, strengthened assessment processes, and more meaningful performance indicators as mandated by many State and Federal legislators. OBB focuses on linking funding with outputs and outcomes. Higher education…

  14. Capital Budgeting: Do Private Sector Methods of Budgeting for Capital Assets Have Applicability to the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    private sector and the Department of Defense. Additionally, the purpose is to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each capital budgeting method and conduct a comparison. The intent is to identify those capital budgeting practices that are used in the private sector , some of which have been implemented in other public sector organizations, which may have merit for implementation in the Federal sector and possibly the Department of Defense. Finally, a set of conclusions and recommendations on how to implement best practices of capital budgeting for

  15. Highly luminescent silica-coated CdS/CdSe/CdS nanoparticles with strong chemical robustness and excellent thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nianfang; Koh, Sungjun; Jeong, Byeong Guk; Lee, Dongkyu; Kim, Whi Dong; Park, Kyoungwon; Nam, Min Ki; Lee, Kangha; Kim, Yewon; Lee, Baek-Hee; Lee, Kangtaek; Bae, Wan Ki; Lee, Doh C.

    2017-05-01

    We present facile synthesis of bright CdS/CdSe/CdS@SiO2 nanoparticles with 72% of quantum yields (QYs) retaining ca 80% of the original QYs. The main innovative point is the utilization of the highly luminescent CdS/CdSe/CdS seed/spherical quantum well/shell (SQW) as silica coating seeds. The significance of inorganic semiconductor shell passivation and structure design of quantum dots (QDs) for obtaining bright QD@SiO2 is demonstrated by applying silica encapsulation via reverse microemulsion method to three kinds of QDs with different structure: CdSe core and 2 nm CdS shell (CdSe/CdS-thin); CdSe core and 6 nm CdS shell (CdSe/CdS-thick); and CdS core, CdSe intermediate shell and 5 nm CdS outer shell (CdS/CdSe/CdS-SQW). Silica encapsulation inevitably results in lower photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) than pristine QDs due to formation of surface defects. However, the retaining ratio of pristine QY is different in the three silica coated samples; for example, CdSe/CdS-thin/SiO2 shows the lowest retaining ratio (36%) while the retaining ratio of pristine PL QY in CdSe/CdS-thick/SiO2 and SQW/SiO2 is over 80% and SQW/SiO2 shows the highest resulting PL QY. Thick outermost CdS shell isolates the excitons from the defects at surface, making PL QY relatively insensitive to silica encapsulation. The bright SiO2-coated SQW sample shows robustness against harsh conditions, such as acid etching and thermal annealing. The high luminescence and long-term stability highlights the potential of using the SQW/SiO2 nanoparticles in bio-labeling or display applications.

  16. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    PubMed

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Activity-Based Budgeting in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmary, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As other universities across the country struggle with their financial challenges, continuing education units can serve the same pioneering role in the development of new financial and budget systems. Confronted by serious financial shortfalls during the last three decades, university administrators started to focus on new budget and revenue…

  18. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may...

  19. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may...

  1. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may...

  2. A Performance-Based Web Budget Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.; Lau, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    A web-based formula-driven tool has been developed for the purpose of performing two distinct academic department budgeting functions: allocation funding to the department, and budget management by the department. The tool's major features are discussed and its uses demonstrated. The tool's advantages are presented. (Contains 10 figures.)

  3. CD127 and CD25 Expression Defines CD4+ T Cell Subsets That Are Differentially Depleted during HIV Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Richard M.; Cervasi, Barbara; Brenchley, Jason M.; Albrecht, Helmut; Weintrob, Amy; Sumpter, Beth; Engram, Jessica; Gordon, Shari; Klatt, Nichole R.; Frank, Ian; Sodora, Donald L.; Douek, Daniel C.; Paiardini, Mirko; Silvestri, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Decreased CD4+ T cell counts are the best marker of disease progression during HIV infection. However, CD4+ T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype and function, and it is unknown how preferential depletion of specific CD4+ T cell subsets influences disease severity. CD4+ T cells can be classified into three subsets by the expression of receptors for two T cell-tropic cytokines, IL-2 (CD25) and IL-7 (CD127). The CD127+CD25low/− subset includes IL-2-producing naive and central memory T cells; the CD127−CD25− subset includes mainly effector T cells expressing perforin and IFN-γ; and the CD127lowCD25high subset includes FoxP3-expressing regulatory T cells. Herein we investigated how the proportions of these T cell subsets are changed during HIV infection. When compared with healthy controls, HIV-infected patients show a relative increase in CD4+CD127−CD25− T cells that is related to an absolute decline of CD4+CD127+CD25low/− T cells. Interestingly, this expansion of CD4+CD127− T cells was not observed in naturally SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. The relative expansion of CD4+CD127−CD25− T cells correlated directly with the levels of total CD4+ T cell depletion and immune activation. CD4+CD127−CD25− T cells were not selectively resistant to HIV infection as levels of cell-associated virus were similar in all non-naive CD4+ T cell subsets. These data indicate that, during HIV infection, specific changes in the fraction of CD4+ T cells expressing CD25 and/or CD127 are associated with disease progression. Further studies will determine whether monitoring the three subsets of CD4+ T cells defined based on the expression of CD25 and CD127 should be used in the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. PMID:18390743

  4. Budgeting: The Basics and Beyond. Learn at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska-Cue, Kathy; Sugden, Marilyn

    Designed as an at-home course to help users develop a realistic budget plan and set up a workable record-keeping system, these course materials provide practical tips, ideas, and suggestions for budgeting. The course begins with a nine-step budgeting process which emphasizes communicating among family members, considering personal or family…

  5. 40 CFR 60.4124 - Hg budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg budget permit revisions. 60.4124... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Permits § 60.4124 Hg budget permit revisions. Except as provided in § 60.4123(b), the permitting authority will revise the Hg Budget permit, as necessary, in...

  6. Linking budgets to desired academic outputs at Dalhousie University.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, B; Ruedy, J

    1995-05-01

    In 1993, faced with continuing university budget reductions and dissatisfaction with the budget-allocation process, the Faculty of Medicine at Dalhousie University undertook a financial planning process. The goal was to develop a new resource-allocation model to better link academic budget support to desired academic outputs over a three-year period. Department heads categorized academic outputs (e.g., teaching, research, administration, and subcategories of these), determined their relative values (expressed as percentages of the total department budget to be projected), and identified acceptable units of measuring the outputs (e.g., for teaching in the first and second years of medical school, the unit was the number of teaching hours). When dollar values were assigned to the units of measure, the new model was used to calculate budget allocations for all departments. However, many departments showed large negative shifts in their budgets; these shifts were too large to be achieved within three years because of departments' contractual obligations. Therefore, a practical limit in budget shift was determined. This adjustment permitted a three-year projection of academic budgets to be made for each department. The use of the resource-allocation model has achieved the Faculty's goal by creating a better rationalization of budgets to academic outputs, but carries the risk that departments might abandon essential but "undervalued" academic activities.

  7. Maintenance Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. McCree

    Three methods for the preparation of maintenance budgets are discussed--(1) a traditional method, inconclusive and obsolete, based on gross square footage, (2) the formula approach method based on building classification (wood-frame, masonry-wood, masonry-concrete) with maintenance cost factors for each type plus custodial service rates by type of…

  8. CD4+ CD25+ CD127low Regulatory T Cells as Indicator of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sahar S; El-Saied, Amany M; Mohammed, Rehab A; Mohamed, Eman E

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by disturbed immune regulation, inducing a progressive cartilage and bone destruction. Despite enrichment of T regulatory cell (T-regs) in synovial fluid, conflicting results are reported concerning T-regs in peripheral blood (PB) of RA patients. To determine possible correlation between the frequency of PB CD4+ CD25+CD127low (T-regs) with RA disease activity. Forty females with RA, classified according to the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS-28), as highly active, mild-moderate or low disease activity; and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls, were enrolled to study CD4+ CD25+ CD127low T- regs in PB by flow cytometry. Active RA patients had lower frequency of the CD4+ CD25+ CD127low T- regs compared to those with mild-moderate or low disease activity (P <0.001). The frequencies of the T- regs showed negative correlation with the DAS-28 (P<0.01). In conclusion, CD4+ CD25+ CD127low T-regs is significantly lower in highly active RA patients compared to patients with lower activity or controls. Copyright© by the Egyptian Association of Immunologists.

  9. The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2001-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2001-2010 Debt Held by the Public Under...20000223 042 THE BUDGET AND ECONOMIC OUTLOOK: FISCAL YEARS 2001-2010 The Congress of the United States Congressional Budget Office NOTES...recommendations. The analysis of the economic outlook presented in Chapter 2 was prepared by the Macroeco- nomic Analysis Division under the direction

  10. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results (Part I): Earths Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    Satellites always sample the Earth-atmosphere system in a finite temporal resolution. This study investigates the effect of sampling frequency on the satellite-derived Earth radiation budget, with the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) as an example. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the truth. The Nature Run is a high spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric simulation spanning a two-year period. The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by sampling the full Nature Run data with 1-h to 24-h frequencies. The uncertainty associated with a given sampling frequency is measured by computing means over daily, monthly, seasonal and annual intervals and determining the spread across different possible starting points. The skill with which a particular sampling frequency captures the structure of the full time series is measured using correlations and normalized errors. Results show that higher sampling frequency gives more information and less uncertainty in the derived radiation budget. A sampling frequency coarser than every 4 h results in significant error. Correlations between true and sampled time series also decrease more rapidly for a sampling frequency less than 4 h.

  11. Budget Update: June 3, 2010. Report 10-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On May 14, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the May Revision to the proposed budget for the current year (2009-10) and budget year (2010-11). State finances have continued a three-year decline, with anticipated General Fund spending of $83 billion, their lowest in six years. To address the budget shortfall, the Governor proposes major…

  12. Keynote: Beyond Budgeting in a Lean and Agile World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogsnes, Bjarte

    We suggest that we need a fundamentally different philosophy and a concept for how organisations are led and managed. We believe that it is time to challenge the traditional management myths. The main goal of Beyond Budgeting is not get rid of budgets. The budget must go, but it is more the budgeting mindset we need to get rid of, because it represents the old thinking that needs to be changed. Based on the works of The Beyond Budgeting Round Table, we review a set of 12 principles for a new style of contemporary leadership and management.

  13. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23 Section 96.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a)...

  14. California's Budget Problems Leave Community Colleges Holding IOU's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    When California approved its budget last month, the community-college system managed to escape the sharp budget cuts that befell most other agencies. But the state's fiscal troubles have nonetheless created a cash crisis for two-year colleges. As part of its plan to close a $41-billion budget deficit, California will delay providing $540-million…

  15. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress allograft rejection mediated by memory CD8+ T cells via a CD30-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhenhua; Li, Qi; Wang, Yinong; Gao, Ge; Diggs, Lonnette S; Tellides, George; Lakkis, Fadi G

    2004-01-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress naive T cell responses, prevent autoimmunity, and delay allograft rejection. It is not known, however, whether Treg cells suppress allograft rejection mediated by memory T cells, as the latter mount faster and stronger immune responses than their naive counterparts. Here we show that antigen-induced, but not naive, Treg cells suppress allograft rejection mediated by memory CD8(+) T cells. Suppression was allospecific, as Treg cells induced by third-party antigens did not delay allograft rejection. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed that the apoptosis of allospecific memory CD8(+) T cells is significantly increased in the presence of antigen-induced Treg cells, while their proliferation remains unaffected. Importantly, neither suppression of allograft rejection nor enhanced apoptosis of memory CD8(+) T cells was observed when Treg cells lacked CD30 or when CD30 ligand-CD30 interaction was blocked with anti-CD30 ligand Ab. This study therefore provides direct evidence that pathogenic memory T cells are amenable to suppression in an antigen-specific manner and identifies CD30 as a molecule that is critical for the regulation of memory T cell responses.

  16. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress allograft rejection mediated by memory CD8+ T cells via a CD30-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhenhua; Li, Qi; Wang, Yinong; Gao, Ge; Diggs, Lonnette S.; Tellides, George; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2004-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress naive T cell responses, prevent autoimmunity, and delay allograft rejection. It is not known, however, whether Treg cells suppress allograft rejection mediated by memory T cells, as the latter mount faster and stronger immune responses than their naive counterparts. Here we show that antigen-induced, but not naive, Treg cells suppress allograft rejection mediated by memory CD8+ T cells. Suppression was allospecific, as Treg cells induced by third-party antigens did not delay allograft rejection. In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed that the apoptosis of allospecific memory CD8+ T cells is significantly increased in the presence of antigen-induced Treg cells, while their proliferation remains unaffected. Importantly, neither suppression of allograft rejection nor enhanced apoptosis of memory CD8+ T cells was observed when Treg cells lacked CD30 or when CD30 ligand–CD30 interaction was blocked with anti–CD30 ligand Ab. This study therefore provides direct evidence that pathogenic memory T cells are amenable to suppression in an antigen-specific manner and identifies CD30 as a molecule that is critical for the regulation of memory T cell responses. PMID:14722622

  17. An Analysis of the President’s 2015 Budget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    President’s tax proposals that were prepared by the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT).1 In conjunction with analyzing the President’s budget...more details about the President’s tax proposals, see Joint Committee on Taxation , Estimated Budget Effects of the Revenue Provisions Contained in...in CBO’s Estimate of the President’s Budget (Billions of dollars) Sources: Congressional Budget Office; staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation

  18. Battling Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Higher-education institutions are facing financial crises in their capital programs. Constant increases in the cost of oil, combined with material shortages in copper, steel and gypsum products, have contributed to an inexorable rise in the cost of construction. At the same time, capital budgets are decreasing. The result is that the education…

  19. Program Budgeting and Educational Communications Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    Educational communications centers, also known as instructional resource centers or various other titles, bring together many pieces of equipment and technology formerly kept in separate areas. When they are brought together, these pieces require so large a budget that the budget is often brought under close scrutiny. As a result, those in charge…

  20. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  1. Becoming a Leader in University Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlotta, Lori E.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explains what senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) and those aspiring to the position should know and do in terms of budgeting to make the transition from division to university leadership. Before SSAOs can help lead any university-wide budget process, particularly ones that unfold amid fiscal decline, they must master divisional…

  2. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  3. The budget process in schools of nursing: a primer for the novice administrator.

    PubMed

    Starck, P L; Bailes, B

    1996-01-01

    All administrators are expected to be competent in budget and financial management. Novice administrators of schools of nursing are expected to know about the budgetary process, budgeting techniques, and the various types of budgets that can be used, such as the open-ended budget, incremental budget, alternate-level budget, quota budget, formula budget, intramural budget, zero-based budget, and cost center budget. In addition, administrators are expected to know what key questions need to be asked about how the budget is structured and revenue sources and how to manage and evaluate their budgets.

  4. Evaluating the design of satellite scanning radiometers for earth radiation budget measurements with system simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A set of system simulations was performed to evaluate candidate scanner configurations to fly as a part of the Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) on the polar platforms during the 1990's. The simulation is considered of instantaneous sampling (without diurnal averaging) of the longwave and shortwave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). After measurement and subsequent inversion to the TOA, the measured fluxes were compared to the reference fluxes for 2.5 deg lat/long resolution targets. The reference fluxes at this resolution are obtained by integrating over the 25 x 25 = 625 grid elements in each target. The differences between each of these two resultant spatially averaged sets of target measurements (errors) are taken and then statistically summarized. Five instruments are considered: (1) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR); (2) the ERBE Cross Track Scanner; (3) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner; (4) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument (CERES-1); and (5) the Active Cavity Array (ACA). Identical studies of instantaneous error were completed for many days, two seasons, and several satellite equator crossing longitudes. The longwave flux errors were found to have the same space and time characteristics as for the shortwave fluxes, but the errors are only about 25 pct. of the shortwave errors.

  5. Importance of measuring discharge and sediment transport in lesser tributaries when closing sediment budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald; Topping, David

    2017-01-01

    necessarily correlate with drainage size, and may vary by two orders of magnitude on an annual basis, using techniques such as sediment-yield equations to estimate the sediment loads of ungaged tributaries may lead to large errors in sediment budgets.

  6. Circulating CD4+CD28null and extra-thymic CD4+CD8+ double positive T cells are independently associated with disease damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Gil, M F; Sánchez-Zúñiga, C; Gamboa-Cárdenas, R V; Aliaga-Zamudio, M; Zevallos, F; Tineo-Pozo, G; Cucho-Venegas, J M; Mosqueira-Riveros, A; Medina, M; Perich-Campos, R A; Alfaro-Lozano, J L; Rodriguez-Bellido, Z; Alarcón, G S; Pastor-Asurza, C A

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether circulating CD4+CD28null and extra-thymic CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) T cells are independently associated with damage accrual in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2013 and April 2014 in consecutive SLE patients from our Rheumatology Department. CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD8+ DP T-cell frequencies were analyzed by flow-cytometry. The association of damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index, SDI) and CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD8+ DP T cells was examined by univariable and multivariable Poisson regression models, adjusting for possible confounders. All analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0. Patients' (n = 133) mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 35.5 (16.8) years, 124 (93.2%) were female; all were mestizo (mixed Caucasian and Amerindian ancestry). Disease duration was 7.4 (6.8) years. The SLE Disease Activity Index was 5.5 (4.2), and the SDI 0.9 (1.2). The percentages of CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD8+ DP T cells were 17.1 (14.4) and 0.4 (1.4), respectively. The percentage of CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD8+ DP T cells were positively associated with a higher SDI in both univariable (rate ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.03 and 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.27, respectively; p < 0.001 for both) and multivariable analyses RR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001 for CD4+CD28null T cells and 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.44, p < 0.001 for CD4+CD8+ DP T cells). Only the renal domain remained associated with CD4+CD28null in multivariable analyses (RR 1.023 (1.002-1.045); p = 0.034). In SLE patients, CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD8+ DP T cells are independently associated with disease damage. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the predictive value of these associations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. CD3-T cell receptor modulation is selectively induced in CD8 but not CD4 lymphocytes cultured in agar.

    PubMed Central

    Oudrhiri, N; Farcet, J P; Gourdin, M F; M'Bemba, E; Gaulard, P; Katz, A; Divine, M; Galazka, A; Reyes, F

    1990-01-01

    The CD3-T cell receptor (TcR) complex is central to the immune response. Upon binding by specific ligands, internalized CD3-TcR molecules increase, and either T cell response or unresponsiveness may ensue depending on the triggering conditions. Using semi-solid agar culture, we have shown previously that quiescent CD4 but not CD8 lymphocytes generate clonal colonies under phytohaemagglutinin stimulation. Here we have demonstrated that the agar induces selective CD3-TcR modulation in the CD8 and not in the CD4 subset. CD8 lymphocytes preactivated in liquid culture and recultured in agar with exogenous recombinant interleukin-2 generate colonies with a modulated CD3-TcR surface expression. The peptides composing the CD3-TcR complex are synthesized in CD8 colonies as well as in CD4; however, the CD3 gamma chain is phosphorylated at a higher level in CD8 colonies. A component of the agar polymer, absent in agarose, appears to be the ligand that induces differential CD3-TcR modulation in the CD8 subset. In contrast to agar culture, CD8 colonies can be derived from quiescent CD8 lymphocytes in agarose. These CD8 colonies express unmodulated CD-TcR. CD3-TcR modulation with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody prior to culturing in agarose inhibits the colony formation. We conclude that given triggering conditions can result in both CD3-TcR modulation and inhibition of the proliferative response selectively in the CD8 lymphocyte subset and not in the CD4. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2146997

  8. Traveltime budgets and mobility in urban areas

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-05-01

    The study tests by empirical comparative analysis the concept that tripmakers have a stable daily traveltime budget and discusses the implication of such a budget to transportation modeling techniques and the evaluation of alternative transportation ...

  9. U.S. Science Agency Budgets Slated for Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    The Obama administration released more details on 7 May about its proposed US$3.6 trillion federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2010 and the planned significant increases for science agencies and for research and development (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009). The budget, which needs to be approved by Congress, includes $147.6 billion for research and development, an increase of $555 million, or 0.4%, above the enacted 2009 budget. In addition, the 2009 budget includes $18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, said the FY 2009 and proposed 2010 budgets are among the two largest research and development investments in the nation's history, in real terms. “We in the science and technology community have done better than just about any other constituency in the budget,” Holdren explained in a 7 May budget overview briefing, noting that virtually every science agency is doing better now than it was doing 2 years ago. “We have, in the White House, a president who gets it, believes and gets that investments in science and technology are just that: investments that will pay off.”

  10. A hydrological budget (2002-2008) for a large subtropical wetland ecosystem indicates marine groundwater discharge accompanies diminished freshwater flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saha, Amartya K.; Moses, Christopher S.; Price, Rene M.; Engel, Victor; Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Water budget parameters are estimated for Shark River Slough (SRS), the main drainage within Everglades National Park (ENP) from 2002 to 2008. Inputs to the water budget include surface water inflows and precipitation while outputs consist of evapotranspiration, discharge to the Gulf of Mexico and seepage losses due to municipal wellfield extraction. The daily change in volume of SRS is equated to the difference between input and outputs yielding a residual term consisting of component errors and net groundwater exchange. Results predict significant net groundwater discharge to the SRS peaking in June and positively correlated with surface water salinity at the mangrove ecotone, lagging by 1 month. Precipitation, the largest input to the SRS, is offset by ET (the largest output); thereby highlighting the importance of increasing fresh water inflows into ENP for maintaining conditions in terrestrial, estuarine, and marine ecosystems of South Florida.

  11. CD94 surface density identifies a functional intermediary between the CD56bright and CD56dim human NK-cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Hsiaoyin C.; Wei, Min; Hughes, Tiffany; Zhang, Jianying; Park, Il-kyoo; Liu, Shujun; McClory, Susan; Marcucci, Guido; Trotta, Rossana

    2010-01-01

    Human CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells possess little or no killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), high interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production, but little cytotoxicity. CD56dim NK cells have high KIR expression, produce little IFN-γ, yet display high cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that, if human NK maturation progresses from a CD56bright to a CD56dim phenotype, an intermediary NK cell must exist, which demonstrates more functional overlap than these 2 subsets, and we used CD94 expression to test our hypothesis. CD94highCD56dim NK cells express CD62L, CD2, and KIR at levels between CD56bright and CD94lowCD56dim NK cells. CD94highCD56dim NK cells produce less monokine-induced IFN-γ than CD56bright NK cells but much more than CD94lowCD56dim NK cells because of differential interleukin-12–mediated STAT4 phosphorylation. CD94highCD56dim NK cells possess a higher level of granzyme B and perforin expression and CD94-mediated redirected killing than CD56bright NK cells but lower than CD94lowCD56dim NK cells. Collectively, our data suggest that the density of CD94 surface expression on CD56dim NK cells identifies a functional and likely developmental intermediary between CD56bright and CD94lowCD56dim NK cells. This supports the notion that, in vivo, human CD56bright NK cells progress through a continuum of differentiation that ends with a CD94lowCD56dim phenotype. PMID:19897577

  12. CD94 surface density identifies a functional intermediary between the CD56bright and CD56dim human NK-cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianhua; Mao, Hsiaoyin C; Wei, Min; Hughes, Tiffany; Zhang, Jianying; Park, Il-kyoo; Liu, Shujun; McClory, Susan; Marcucci, Guido; Trotta, Rossana; Caligiuri, Michael A

    2010-01-14

    Human CD56(bright) natural killer (NK) cells possess little or no killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), high interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, but little cytotoxicity. CD56(dim) NK cells have high KIR expression, produce little IFN-gamma, yet display high cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that, if human NK maturation progresses from a CD56(bright) to a CD56(dim) phenotype, an intermediary NK cell must exist, which demonstrates more functional overlap than these 2 subsets, and we used CD94 expression to test our hypothesis. CD94(high)CD56(dim) NK cells express CD62L, CD2, and KIR at levels between CD56(bright) and CD94(low)CD56(dim) NK cells. CD94(high)CD56(dim) NK cells produce less monokine-induced IFN-gamma than CD56(bright) NK cells but much more than CD94(low)CD56(dim) NK cells because of differential interleukin-12-mediated STAT4 phosphorylation. CD94(high)CD56(dim) NK cells possess a higher level of granzyme B and perforin expression and CD94-mediated redirected killing than CD56(bright) NK cells but lower than CD94(low)CD56(dim) NK cells. Collectively, our data suggest that the density of CD94 surface expression on CD56(dim) NK cells identifies a functional and likely developmental intermediary between CD56(bright) and CD94(low)CD56(dim) NK cells. This supports the notion that, in vivo, human CD56(bright) NK cells progress through a continuum of differentiation that ends with a CD94(low)CD56(dim) phenotype.

  13. Morphologic examination of CD3-CD4(bright) cells in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Yosinobu; Abo, Toru; Hatakeyama, Katsuyosi

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we found CD3-CD4(bright) cells with comparative specificity for normal rat liver. In the current study, we investigated the type and form of both CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells in the rat liver. The surface phenotype of hepatic mononuclear cells in Lewis rats was identified by using monoclonal antibodies including anti-CD4, anti-CD3, and antimacrophage in conjunction with two- or three-color immunofluorescence analysis. CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells were examined morphologically using May-Giemsa staining and scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells 48 hours after intravenous administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphate was also investigated. In comparison to CD3-CD4(dull) cells, CD3-CD4(bright) cells were slightly larger macrophages with abundant cytoplasmic granules, being present with comparative specificity for normal rat liver and showing negligible effects by intravenous liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphate administration. These data suggest that in normal young rat liver these CD3-CD4(dull) and CD3-CD4(bright) cells may be dendritic cells and Kupffer cells that shift from the liver to the spleen or vice versa. These cells may also be able to locally proliferate in liver or spleen due to changes in the developing liver.

  14. CD52, CD22, CD26, EG5 and IGF-1R expression in thymic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Remon, J; Abedallaa, N; Taranchon-Clermont, E; Bluthgen, V; Lindsay, C R; Besse, B; Thomas de Montpréville, V

    2017-06-01

    Thymic epithelial tumours are rare cancers for which new treatment options are required. Identification of putative predictive markers is important for developing clinical trials. We studied the expression of five putative predictive biomarkers, potentially actionable by approved experimental drugs. CD52, CD22, CD26, EG5, and IGF-1R expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed surgical samples of thymic epithelial tumour patients. All samples containing 10% positive epithelial tumour cells, independent of tumour cell intensity, were considered as positive. Correlation with histological subtype was performed. 106 surgical samples (89 thymomas, 12 thymic carcinoma, and 5 thymic neuroendocrine tumours) were evaluated. Overall, CD52, CD22, CD26, EG5 and IGF-1R expression was observed in 7%, 42%, 25%, 42% and 77% of samples, respectively. CD52 expression was more frequent in B2 and B3 thymoma. All TET subtypes stained for CD22, mainly AB thymoma (68%). CD26 expression also correlated with AB thymoma (68%), and A thymoma (50%) subtype, while IGFR1 was the most common marker expressed by thymic carcinoma samples (92%), followed by EG5 (60%). Only EG5 expression was significantly higher in thymic carcinomas than in thymomas (75% vs. 38%, p=0.026). Our data were consistent with a previous study of IGF-1R expression. Based on their expression, activity of agents targeting CD52, CD 22, CD26 and EG5 could be further explored in TET patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Budget Process in Schools of Nursing: A Primer for the Novice Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Patricia L.; Bailes, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    This primer on budgets for nursing schools includes the budgetary process; budgeting techniques; and information about various types of budgets, such as the open-ended budget, incremental budget, quota budget, and alternate-level budget. Questions about budget structure, revenue sources, and budget management and evaluation are answered. (JOW)

  16. The Budget. Introduction to Financial Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Dexter K.

    A school budget is a carefully drawn plan to allow for the efficient educational operation of the school. Everyone connected with the management of an independent school has something to learn about a budget, the most obvious person being the new headmaster. Similarly, all department heads, the librarian, the athletic director, the members of the…

  17. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  18. Setting National Priorities: The 1974 Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Edward R.; And Others

    This book attempts to make the problem of budgetary choice at the federal level more intelligible by classifying, analyzing, and projecting into the future the components of the budget in a way which makes it possible to put together several comprehensive alternative budgets, each illustrating from a different view how the Federal Government could…

  19. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  20. Budgeting in health care systems.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1984-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a recognition that all health care systems, public and private, are characterised by perverse incentives (especially moral hazard and third party pays) which generate inefficiency in the use of scarce economic resources. Inefficiency is unethical: doctors who use resources inefficiently deprive potential patients of care from which they could benefit. To eradicate unethical and inefficient practices two economic rules have to be followed: (i) no service should be provided if its total costs exceed its total benefits; (ii) if total benefits exceed total costs, the level of provision should be at that level at which the additional input cost (marginal cost) is equal to the additional benefits (marginal benefit). This efficiency test can be applied to health care systems, their component parts and the individuals (especially doctors) who control resource allocation within them. Unfortunately, all health care systems neither generate this relevant decision making data nor are they flexible enough to use it to affect health care decisions. There are two basic varieties of budgeting system: resource based and production targeted. The former generates obsession with cash limits and too little regard of the benefits, particularly at the margins, of alternative patterns of resource allocation. The latter generates undue attention to the production of processes of care and scant regard for costs, especially at the margins. Consequently, one set of budget rules may lead to cost containment regardless of benefits and the other set of budget rules may lead to output maximization regardless of costs. To close this circle of inefficiency it is necessary to evolve market-like structures. To do this a system of client group (defined broadly across all existing activities public and private) budgets is advocated with an identification of the budget holder who has the capacity to shift resources and seek out cost effective policies. Negotiated

  1. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Activity by Autologous Cd/CdO/CdS Heterojunction Photoanodes with High Conductivity and Separation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shilei; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Min; Liu, Peng; Li, Wei; Lu, Xihong; Cheng, Faliang; Tong, Yexiang

    2017-07-18

    The development for hydrogen from solar energy has attracted great attention due to the global demand for clean, environmentally friendly energy. Herein, autologous Cd/CdO/CdS heterojunctions were prepared in a carefully controlled process with metallic Cd as the inner layer and CdO as the interlayer. Further research revealed that the transportation and separation of photogenerated pairs were enhanced due to low resistance of the Cd inner layer and the type II CdO/CdS heterojunction. As a result, the optimized Cd/CdO/CdS heterojunction photoanode showed outstanding and long-term photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting, with a current density of 3.52 mA cm -2 , or a benchmark specific hydrogen production rate of 1.65 μmol cm -2  min -1 at -0.3 V versus Ag/AgCl, by using the environmental pollutants of sulfide and sulfite as sacrificial agents. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Incomplete Recovery of CD4 count, CD4 Percentage, and CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-Infected Patients on Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy with Suppressed Viremia.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Yoshikazu; Nishijima, Takeshi; Inaba, Yosuke; Tanaka, Noriko; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2018-03-02

    The extent and duration of long-term recovery of CD4 count, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 ratio after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients with suppressed viral load are largely unknown. HIV-1 infected patients who started cART between January 2004 and January 2012 and showed persistent viral suppression (<200 copies/mL) for at least 4 years were followed up at AIDS Clinical Center, Tokyo. Change point analysis was used to determine the time point where CD4 count recovery shows a plateau, and linear mixed model was applied to estimate CD4 count at the change point. Data of 752 patients were analyzed [93% males, median age 38, median baseline CD4 count 172/µL (IQR, 62-253), CD4% 13.8% (IQR, 7.7-18.5), and CD4/8 ratio 0.23 (IQR, 0.12-0.35)]. The median follow-up period was 81.2 months and 91 (12.1%) patients were followed for >10 years. Change point analysis showed that CD4 count, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 ratio, continued to increase until 78.6, 62.2, and 64.3 months, respectively, with adjusted mean of 590 /µL (95%CI 572-608), 29.5% (29-30.1), and 0.89 (0.86-0.93), respectively, at the change point. Although 73.8% of the study patients achieved CD4 count ≥500 /μL, 48.2% of the patients with baseline CD4 count <100 /μL did not achieve CD4 count ≥500 /μL. Neither CD4% nor CD4/CD8 ratio normalized in a majority of patients. The results showed lack of normalization of CD4 count, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 ratio to the levels seen in healthy individuals even after long-term successful cART in patients with suppressed viral load.

  3. Water Budget of East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water recharge is estimated from six monthly water budgets calculated using long-term average rainfall and streamflow data, estimated pan-evaporation and fog-drip data, and soil characteristics. The water-budget components are defined seasonally, through the use of monthly data, and spatially by broad climatic and geohydrologic areas, through the use of a geographic information system model. The long-term average water budget for east Maui was estimated for natural land-use conditions. The average rainfall, fog-drip, runoff, evapotranspiration, and ground-water recharge volumes for the east Maui study area are 2,246 Mgal/d, 323 Mgal/d, 771 Mgal/d, 735 Mgal/d, and 1,064 Mgal/d, respectively.

  4. Optimization of individualized graft composition: CD3/CD19 depletion combined with CD34 selection for haploidentical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Huenecke, Sabine; Bremm, Melanie; Cappel, Claudia; Esser, Ruth; Quaiser, Andrea; Bonig, Halvard; Jarisch, Andrea; Soerensen, Jan; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Koehl, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Excessive T-cell depletion (TCD) is a prerequisite for graft manufacturing in haploidentical stem cell (SC) transplantation by using either CD34 selection or direct TCD such as CD3/CD19 depletion. To optimize graft composition we compared 1) direct or indirect TCD only, 2) a combination of CD3/CD19-depleted with CD34-selected grafts, or 3) TCD twice for depletion improvement based on our 10-year experience with 320 separations in graft manufacturing and quality control. SC recovery was significantly higher (85%, n = 187 vs. 73%, n = 115; p < 0.0001), but TCD was inferior (median log depletion, -3.6 vs. -5.2) for CD3/CD19 depletion compared to CD34 selection, respectively. For end products with less than -2.5 log TCD, a second depletion step led to a successful improvement in TCD. Thawing of grafts showed a high viability and recovery of SCs, but low NK-cell yield. To optimize individualized graft engineering, a calculator was developed to estimate the results of the final graft based on the content of CD34+ and CD3+ cells in the leukapheresis product. Finally, calculated splitting of the starting product followed by CD3/19 depletion together with CD34+ graft manipulation may enable the composition of optimized grafts with high CD34+-cell and minimal T-cell content. © 2016 AABB.

  5. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    TOA flux reference level is used to define satellite TOA fluxes, and horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the planet is not accounted for in the radiation budget equation, systematic errors in net flux of up to 8 W/sq m can result. Since climate models generally use a plane-parallel model approximation to estimate TOA fluxes and the earth radiation budget, they implicitly assume zero horizontal transmission of solar radiation in the radiation budget equation, and do not need to specify a flux reference level. By defining satellite-based TOA flux estimates at a 20-km flux reference level, comparisons with plane-parallel climate model calculations are simplified since there is no need to explicitly correct plane-parallel climate model fluxes for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through a finite earth.

  7. Dual CD19 and CD123 targeting prevents antigen-loss relapses after CD19-directed immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, David M.; Shestova, Olga; Hofmann, Ted J.; Perazzelli, Jessica; Klichinsky, Michael; Aikawa, Vania; Nazimuddin, Farzana; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Scholler, John; Lacey, Simon F.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; Morrissette, Jennifer J.D.; Christian, David A.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Kalos, Michael; Porter, David L.; June, Carl H.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2016-01-01

    Potent CD19-directed immunotherapies, such as chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CART) and blinatumomab, have drastically changed the outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, CD19-negative relapses have emerged as a major problem that is observed in approximately 30% of treated patients. Developing approaches to preventing and treating antigen-loss escapes would therefore represent a vertical advance in the field. Here, we found that in primary patient samples, the IL-3 receptor α chain CD123 was highly expressed on leukemia-initiating cells and CD19-negative blasts in bulk B-ALL at baseline and at relapse after CART19 administration. Using intravital imaging in an antigen-loss CD19-negative relapse xenograft model, we determined that CART123, but not CART19, recognized leukemic blasts, established protracted synapses, and eradicated CD19-negative leukemia, leading to prolonged survival. Furthermore, combining CART19 and CART123 prevented antigen-loss relapses in xenograft models. Finally, we devised a dual CAR-expressing construct that combined CD19- and CD123-mediated T cell activation and demonstrated that it provides superior in vivo activity against B-ALL compared with single-expressing CART or pooled combination CART. In conclusion, these findings indicate that targeting CD19 and CD123 on leukemic blasts represents an effective strategy for treating and preventing antigen-loss relapses occurring after CD19-directed therapies PMID:27571406

  8. 40 CFR 60.4120 - General Hg budget trading program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General Hg budget trading program... budget trading program permit requirements. (a) For each Hg Budget source required to have a title V... source covered by the Hg Budget permit, all applicable Hg Budget Trading Program requirements and shall...

  9. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  10. CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratio among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy, tuberculosis), HIV infections, and normal healthy adults: a comparative analysis of studies in different regions of India.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tahziba; Kulshreshtha, K K; Yadav, V S; Katoch, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the CD4+, CD8+, CD3+ cell counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio among normal healthy controls (adults and children), leprosy patients (without any complications and during reactional states), TB patients (with and without HIV), and HIV-positive patients (early infection and full-blown AIDS) and correlated the changes with disease progression. In our study, it was observed that among adults, CD4+ cell counts ranged from 518-1098, CD8+ from 312-952, whereas CD4/CD8 ratio from 0.75-2.30. Among children, both CD4+ and CD8+ cells were more and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied from 0.91-3.17. With regard to leprosy patients, we observed that CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB (pauci-bacillary) and MB (multi-bacillary) patients. CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.99 ± 0.28 among PB patients while the ratio was lower, 0.78 ± 0.20, among MB patients. CD4+ cell counts were raised during RR (reversal reactions) and ENL (erythema nodosum leprosum) among the PB and MB patients whereas the CD8+ cell counts were lower among PB and MB patients. CD4/CD8 ratio doubled during reactional episodes of RR and ENL. Among the HIV-negative tuberculosis (TB) patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts were found to be less and the CD4/CD8 ratio varied between 0.53-1.75. Among the HIV-positive TB patients and HIV-positive patients, both the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were very less and ratio drops significantly. In the initial stages of infection, as CD4+ counts drop, an increase in the CD8+ cell counts was observed and the ratio declines. In full-blown cases, CD4+ cell counts were very low, 3-4 to 54 cells, CD8+ cells from 12-211 and the ratio drops too low. This study is the first of its kind in this region of the country and assumes importance since no other study has reported the values of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts among patients with mycobacterial diseases (leprosy and TB), HIV infections along with normal healthy individuals of the region, and correlation with clinical

  11. Influence of PPB on Capital Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur E.

    This talk is divided into two parts: Part one covers Planning, Programming and Budgeting for Capital Programs. Part two is a brief description of the Coho Salmon Program and how Program Planning and Budgeting in both the operation program and the capital phase was used to develop the Salmon Fishing Industry in Michigan. The planning process…

  12. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's…

  13. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  14. LJ's 2010 Budget Survey: Bottoming Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of "Library Journal's" 2010 budget survey. The overall trend in FY10 indicated that 72 percent of survey respondents said their budget had been cut, and 43 percent had staff cuts. Among libraries serving populations above one million, these figures were even more acute, with 86 percent reporting…

  15. 2005 Budget Drops below Bush Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education will see its smallest budget increase in nearly a decade under the catchall spending plan approved by the Republican-controlled Congress in a lame-duck session. For the first time since President Bush entered office, the budget will fall short of his overall request for education funding. The final fiscal 2005…

  16. Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) > Budget

    Science.gov Websites

    (Comptroller) Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) Home About OUSD(C) OUSD(C) Top Leaders OUSD(C) Org Chart functionalStatements OUSD(C) History FMR Budget Materials Budget Execution Financial Management Improving Financial Military Construction, Family Housing, and Base Realignment and Closure Program (C-1) PDF icon Excel icon

  17. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  18. Dealing with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Virtually every school district in the country is dealing with the need to reduce their budget. The process used to make those decisions varies from state to state but almost always includes a combination of short and long-term approaches. In many school districts the emphasis is on reducing individual budget line items and not filling vacant…

  19. [Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget].

    PubMed

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Garcia, Marcia; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Gerassi, Camila Duarte

    2012-12-01

    The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and political party coalitions. The article concludes that the amendments cannot be understood solely as a funding mechanism, but mainly as a political instrument, and that they are not necessarily subject to health planning logic.

  20. Functional and phenotypic characterization of CD8+CD28+ and CD28- T cells in atopic individuals sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, O; Fonseca, A M; Paiva, A; Arosa, F A; Taborda-Barata, L

    2006-01-01

    CD8+ T suppressor cells may play a role in immunoregulation. Recent studies have characterized this population by the lack of the CD28 molecule. These CD8+CD28 T cells differ phenotypically and functionally from CD8 + CD28 + T cells. Little is known about CD8 + CD28 cells in atopy. Our aim was to analyze the phenotype and functional properties of CD8 + CD28T cells in atopic and non-atopic individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained after density gradient centrifugation. CD8 + CD28 and CD8 + CD28 + T cells were isolated using immunomagnetic beads. Relative percentages of these cells and expression of several phenotypic markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Proliferation was assessed by thymidine incorporation in isolated populations and in co-cultures with PBMC using Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus as stimulus. Cytokine synthesis was evaluated in culture supernatants by cytometric bead array. The relative percentages of CD8+CD28 T cells and their phenotypic expression in atopic and non-atopic volunteers were not significantly different. However, CD8 + CD28 T cells showed greater proliferation than did CD8+CD28+ T cells when stimulated with D. pteronyssinus, although cytokine synthesis patterns were similar. CD8+CD28 co-cultures with PBMC showed greater proliferation than CD8+CD28+ T cell co-cultures, but cytokine synthesis patterns were not different. Our data confirm phenotypic and functional differences between CD28+ and CD28 T cells, irrespective of atopic status. Purified human CD8+CD28 T cells, freshly isolated from peripheral blood, do not have suppressor properties on allergen-specific proliferation or on cytokine synthesis in PBMC.

  1. A preliminary source-to-sink sediment budget for aeolian sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebe, Krisztina; Csillag, Gábor; Timár, Gábor; Jámbor, Áron

    2015-04-01

    Source-to-sink sediment budgets are being intensively studied in fluvial systems. In contrast, sediment budget calculations are very rare for wind-transported material. This may be attributed to the fact that the exact delineation of both source and sink areas in aeolian systems can pose difficulties. In the Pannonian Basin, aeolian action by northwesterly to northerly winds exerted a thorough impact on landscape evolution during the Quaternary, testified among others by yardangs, wind corridors and numerous ventifacts as well as extensive blown sand fields. Wind erosion has been dated to be important since at least 1.5 Ma ago. Considering the sand fraction, the Pleistocene Pannonian Basin seems to be a nearly complete aeolian sedimentary system from source to sink, thus it provides a good opportunity to carry out sediment budget calculations. The largest blown sand accumulation occupies ~10 000 km2 in the central part of the Pannonian Basin, in the area called Kiskunság, and contains considerable volumes of aeolian sands extending down to the Lower Pleistocene. Its material is traditionally considered to originate from fluvial sediments of the Danube floodplain. However, recent studies on wind erosion and wind direction reconstructions have indicated that a considerable portion of the sand can have had a provenance in the extensive unconsolidated sediments of the Late Miocene Lake Pannon, which cover the uplifting Transdanubian Range and its surroundings. To gain data on this question, we carried out sediment budget calculations to assess if material volumes of the supposed source and sink areas are comparable. In the source area we reconstructed a paleotopography, practically a bounding envelope surface for the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary using existing knowledge e.g. on the typical succession of Lake Pannon sediments and the evolution history of the area. The missing volume down to the present-day surface was then calculated, where the removed material was

  2. 2 CFR 215.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 215.25 Section 215.25 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved... Program Management § 215.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the financial...

  3. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  4. Brief Report: CD14brightCD16- monocytes and sCD14 level negatively associate with CD4-memory T-cell frequency and predict HCV-decline on therapy.

    PubMed

    Judge, Chelsey J; Sandberg, Johan K; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Sherman, Kenneth E; Butt, Adeel A; Kang, Minhee; Landay, Alan L; Lederman, Michael M; Anthony, Donald D

    2016-11-01

    During HIV+ hepatitis C virus (HCV)+ coinfection CD14CD16 monocytes produce soluble immune-activation markers that predict disease progression and poor response to interferon (IFN)-α treatment. We evaluated relationships among immune activation, monocyte phenotype, CD4-memory T cells, and HCV-, cytomegalovirus-, and cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr virus/influenza-specific IFN-γ-response before and during IFN-α treatment. Effector-memory and central-memory CD4 T-cell frequencies were lower in HCV+ HIV+ donors than in uninfected donors and correlated negatively with HCV level, CD14CD16 monocytes, and plasma sCD14. sCD14 and CD14CD16 monocytes negatively correlated with IFN-α-dependent HCV decline. CD4 effector-memory T cells positively associated with cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr virus/influenza(CEF)-specific IFN-γ response, while sCD14 negatively associated with both CD4 effector-memory T cells and CEF-specific IFN-γ response. These data support a role for memory-CD4 T cells in HCV containment and link immune activation and CD14CD16-monocyte frequency to the failure of IFN-dependent HCV clearance.

  5. Water Budget Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If you're designing a new landscape or rethinking your current one, the WaterSense Water Budget Tool will tell you if you have designed a landscape that will use an appropriate amount of water for your climate.

  6. Budget Update: "Budget 2011" Not Enough to Resolve Funding Crisis. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2011-EF-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Each budget year, the Ministry of Education responds to concerns about chronic underfunding of public education by asserting that the ministry is providing its "highest funding ever" during a sustained period of declining student enrolment. This assertion of the "highest funding ever" continues in "Budget 2011,"…

  7. CD142+/CD61+, CD146+ and CD45+ microparticles predict cardiovascular events in high risk patients following a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Crespo, Javier; Suades, Rosa; Arderiu, Gemma; Padro, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Cubedo, Judith; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Arós, Fernando; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Badimon, Lina

    2016-07-04

    Circulating microparticles (cMPs) are small phospholipid-rich microvesicles shed by activated cells that play a pivotal role in cell signalling related to the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of cMPs released from different vascular cells for cardiovascular event (CVE) presentation in asymptomatic patients at high cardiovascular risk factors under nutritional and pharmacologic treatment. This is a nested case-control study of 50 patients from the five-year follow-up prospective PREDIMED trial enrolled in the nuts arm of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet-nuts). We randomly selected 25 patients who had suffered a CVE during follow-up and pair-matched them for sex, age, and classical CV risk factors to 25 patients who remained asymptomatic (no-CVE). Total Annexin V-(AV)+ cMPs and cMPs from cells of the vascular compartment were quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after one year follow-up. MedDiet-nuts and pharmacological treatment neither modified levels nor source of MP shedding in CVE patients. However, no-CVE patients showed 40-86 % decreased total AV+, PAC-1+/AV+, CD61+/AV+, CD142+/CD61+/AV+, CD62P+/AV+, CD146+/AV+, CD63+/AV+ and CD11a+/AV+ cMPs at one year follow-up (p≤0.046, all). CD142+/CD61+/AV+, CD146+/AV+ and CD45+/AV+ cMPs were decreased in no-CVE patients compared to CVE patients. A ROC-curve clustered model for CD142+/CD61+/AV+, CD45+/AV+ and CD146+/AV+ cMPs predicted a future CVE [p<0.0001, AUC=0.805 (0.672 to 0.938)]. In patients at high CV risk profile treated with a controlled MedDiet supplemented with nuts and receiving up-to-date CV drug treatment, reduced cMPs derived from activated platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells are predictive of protection against CVE within the next four years.

  8. A Comparative Assessment of the Influences of Human Impacts on Soil Cd Concentrations Based on Stepwise Linear Regression, Classification and Regression Tree, and Random Forest Models

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lefeng; Wang, Kai; Long, Wenli; Wang, Ke; Hu, Wei; Amable, Gabriel S.

    2016-01-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has attracted a great deal of attention because of its detrimental effects on animals and humans. This study aimed to develop and compare the performances of stepwise linear regression (SLR), classification and regression tree (CART) and random forest (RF) models in the prediction and mapping of the spatial distribution of soil Cd and to identify likely sources of Cd accumulation in Fuyang County, eastern China. Soil Cd data from 276 topsoil (0–20 cm) samples were collected and randomly divided into calibration (222 samples) and validation datasets (54 samples). Auxiliary data, including detailed land use information, soil organic matter, soil pH, and topographic data, were incorporated into the models to simulate the soil Cd concentrations and further identify the main factors influencing soil Cd variation. The predictive models for soil Cd concentration exhibited acceptable overall accuracies (72.22% for SLR, 70.37% for CART, and 75.93% for RF). The SLR model exhibited the largest predicted deviation, with a mean error (ME) of 0.074 mg/kg, a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.160 mg/kg, and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.274 mg/kg, and the RF model produced the results closest to the observed values, with an ME of 0.002 mg/kg, an MAE of 0.132 mg/kg, and an RMSE of 0.198 mg/kg. The RF model also exhibited the greatest R2 value (0.772). The CART model predictions closely followed, with ME, MAE, RMSE, and R2 values of 0.013 mg/kg, 0.154 mg/kg, 0.230 mg/kg and 0.644, respectively. The three prediction maps generally exhibited similar and realistic spatial patterns of soil Cd contamination. The heavily Cd-affected areas were primarily located in the alluvial valley plain of the Fuchun River and its tributaries because of the dramatic industrialization and urbanization processes that have occurred there. The most important variable for explaining high levels of soil Cd accumulation was the presence of metal smelting industries. The

  9. A Comparative Assessment of the Influences of Human Impacts on Soil Cd Concentrations Based on Stepwise Linear Regression, Classification and Regression Tree, and Random Forest Models.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lefeng; Wang, Kai; Long, Wenli; Wang, Ke; Hu, Wei; Amable, Gabriel S

    2016-01-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has attracted a great deal of attention because of its detrimental effects on animals and humans. This study aimed to develop and compare the performances of stepwise linear regression (SLR), classification and regression tree (CART) and random forest (RF) models in the prediction and mapping of the spatial distribution of soil Cd and to identify likely sources of Cd accumulation in Fuyang County, eastern China. Soil Cd data from 276 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and randomly divided into calibration (222 samples) and validation datasets (54 samples). Auxiliary data, including detailed land use information, soil organic matter, soil pH, and topographic data, were incorporated into the models to simulate the soil Cd concentrations and further identify the main factors influencing soil Cd variation. The predictive models for soil Cd concentration exhibited acceptable overall accuracies (72.22% for SLR, 70.37% for CART, and 75.93% for RF). The SLR model exhibited the largest predicted deviation, with a mean error (ME) of 0.074 mg/kg, a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.160 mg/kg, and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.274 mg/kg, and the RF model produced the results closest to the observed values, with an ME of 0.002 mg/kg, an MAE of 0.132 mg/kg, and an RMSE of 0.198 mg/kg. The RF model also exhibited the greatest R2 value (0.772). The CART model predictions closely followed, with ME, MAE, RMSE, and R2 values of 0.013 mg/kg, 0.154 mg/kg, 0.230 mg/kg and 0.644, respectively. The three prediction maps generally exhibited similar and realistic spatial patterns of soil Cd contamination. The heavily Cd-affected areas were primarily located in the alluvial valley plain of the Fuchun River and its tributaries because of the dramatic industrialization and urbanization processes that have occurred there. The most important variable for explaining high levels of soil Cd accumulation was the presence of metal smelting industries. The

  10. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    PubMed

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  11. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  12. The impact of physician-level drug budgets on prescribing behavior.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Katharina Elisabeth; Koch, Taika; Kostev, Karel; Stargardt, Tom

    2018-03-01

    To contain pharmaceutical spending, drug budgets have been introduced across health systems. Apart from analyzing whether drug budgets fulfill their overall goal of reducing spending, changes in the cost and quality of prescribing and the enforcement mechanisms put in place need evaluation to assess the effectiveness of drug budgets at the physician level. In this study, we aim to analyze the cost and quality of prescribing conditional on the level of utilization of the drug budget and in view of varying levels of enforcement in cases of overspending. We observed drug budget utilization in a panel of 440 physicians in three federal states of Germany from 2005 to 2011. At the physician level, we retrospectively calculated drug budgets, the level of drug budget utilization, and differentiated by varying levels of enforcement where physicians overspent their budgets (i.e., more than 115/125% of the drug budget). Using lagged dependent-variable regression models, we analyzed whether the level of drug budget utilization in the previous year affected current prescribing in terms of various indicators to describe the cost and quality of prescribing. We controlled for patient and physician characteristics. The mean drug budget utilization is 92.3%. The level of drug budget utilization influences selected dimensions of cost and quality of prescribing (i.e., generic share (estimate 0.000215; p = 0.0246), concentration of generic brands (estimate 0.000585; p = 0.0056) and therapeutic substances (estimate -0.000060; p < 0.0001) and the share of potentially inappropriate medicines in the elderly (estimate 0.001; p < 0.0001)), whereas the level of enforcement does not. Physicians seem to gradually adjust their prescription patterns, especially in terms of generic substitution.

  13. 34 CFR 74.25 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 74.25 Section 74... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.25 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan...) Recipients are required to report deviations from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for...

  14. A Primer on the Budget Resolution's Impact on Education Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The budget resolution put forward by Congress each year--which sets out the congressional budget plan for the next five years--and the ensuing budget process itself are enormously significant for education funding. However, the arcane procedures under which Congress produces and acts upon the budget resolution are often confusing to the media and…

  15. 43 CFR 12.925 - Revision of budget and program plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of budget and program plans. 12... Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 12.925 Revision of budget and program plans. (a) The budget plan is the...) Recipients are required to report deviations from budget and program plans, and request prior approvals for...

  16. Heat budget of ionospheric electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, S. S.; Schneck, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Heat input calculations were detached from solar extreme UV data and monatomic oxygen densities were derived from simultaneously measured data sets (ion composition 146-191 km) in a study of the heat budget of ionosphere electrons. Earlier inferences that cooling predominates over heating are supported. A search for additional heat sources or a revision of the cooling rates is recommended, by way of balancing the heat budget. Importance is attached to electron cooling by fine structure excitation of monatomic oxygen.

  17. Water Budget for the Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1995-01-01

    A geographic information system model was created to calculate a monthly water budget for the island of Kauai. Ground-water recharge is the residual component of a monthly water budget calculated using long-term average rainfall, streamflow, and pan-evaporation data, applied irrigation-water estimates, and soil characteristics. The water-budget components are defined seasonally, through the use of the monthly water budget, and spatially by aquifer-system areas, through the use of the geographic information system model. The mean annual islandwide water-budget totals are 2,720 Mgal/d for rainfall plus irrigation; 1,157 Mgal/d for direct runoff; 911 Mgal/d for actual evapotranspiration; and 652 Mgal/d for ground-water recharge. Direct runoff is 43 percent, actual evapotranspiration is 33 percent, and ground-water recharge is 24 percent of rainfall plus irrigation. Ground-water recharge in the natural land-use areas is spatially distributed in a pattern similar to the rainfall distribution. Distinct seasonal variations in the water-budget components are apparent from the monthly water-budget calculations. Rainfall and ground-water recharge peak during the wet winter months with highs in January of 3,698 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) and 981 Mgal/d, respectively; a slight peak in July and August relative to June and September is caused by increased orographic rainfall. Recharge is lowest in June (454 Mgal/d) and November (461 Mgal/d).

  18. Substantial Cd-Cd Bonding in Ca6PtCd11: A Condensed Intermetallic Phase Built of Pentagonal Cd7 and Rectangular Cd4/2Pt Pyramids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gulo, Fakhili; Samal, Saroj L.; Corbett, John D.

    The new trail-breaking compound Ca6PtCd11 has been synthesized and its structural and bonding properties investigated. This unusual phase features an unprecedented degree of cadmium aggregation, including linear chains, novel Cd7 PBP aggregates, and edge-shared chains of PtCd4/2 square pyramids. Manifestations of this chemistry elsewhere has evidently been precluded in earlier work by the inclusion of larger amounts of the strong d-metal bonding Au or Pt. Under the right conditions Cd seems quite effective as an open s,p-band metal.

  19. The impact of 14nm photomask variability and uncertainty on computational lithography solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtevant, John; Tejnil, Edita; Buck, Peter D.; Schulze, Steffen; Kalk, Franklin; Nakagawa, Kent; Ning, Guoxiang; Ackmann, Paul; Gans, Fritz; Buergel, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Computational lithography solutions rely upon accurate process models to faithfully represent the imaging system output for a defined set of process and design inputs. These models rely upon the accurate representation of multiple parameters associated with the scanner and the photomask. Many input variables for simulation are based upon designed or recipe-requested values or independent measurements. It is known, however, that certain measurement methodologies, while precise, can have significant inaccuracies. Additionally, there are known errors associated with the representation of certain system parameters. With shrinking total CD control budgets, appropriate accounting for all sources of error becomes more important, and the cumulative consequence of input errors to the computational lithography model can become significant. In this work, we examine via simulation, the impact of errors in the representation of photomask properties including CD bias, corner rounding, refractive index, thickness, and sidewall angle. The factors that are most critical to be accurately represented in the model are cataloged. CD bias values are based on state of the art mask manufacturing data and other variables changes are speculated, highlighting the need for improved metrology and communication between mask and OPC model experts. The simulations are done by ignoring the wafer photoresist model, and show the sensitivity of predictions to various model inputs associated with the mask. It is shown that the wafer simulations are very dependent upon the 1D/2D representation of the mask and for 3D, that the mask sidewall angle is a very sensitive factor influencing simulated wafer CD results.

  20. Improved photoluminescence quantum yield and stability of CdSe-TOP, CdSe-ODA-TOPO, CdSe/CdS and CdSe/EP nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shutian; Zhu, Zhilin; Wang, Zhixiao; Wei, Gugangfen; Wang, Pingjian; Li, Hai; Hua, Zhen; Lin, Zhonghai

    2016-07-01

    Size-controllable monodisperse CdSe nanocrystals with different organic capping were prepared based on the hot-injection method. The effective separation of nucleation and growth was achieved by rapidly mixing two highly reactive precursors. As a contrast, we prepared CdSe/CdS nanocrystals (NCs) successfully based on the selective ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. This inorganic capping obtained higher photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 59.3% compared with organic capping of 40.8%. Furthermore, the CdSe-epoxy resin (EP) composites were prepared by adopting a flexible ex situ method, and showed excellent stability in the ambient environment for one year. So the composites with both high PLQY of nanocrystals and excellent stability are very promising to device application.

  1. 40 CFR 96.85 - NOX Budget opt-in permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. 96... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.85 NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget opt-in permit...

  2. 40 CFR 97.85 - NOX Budget opt-in permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. 97... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.85 NOX Budget opt-in permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget opt-in permit will contain all elements...

  3. Heterojunctions of model CdTe/CdSe mixtures

    DOE PAGES

    van Swol, Frank; Zhou, Xiaowang W.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; ...

    2015-03-18

    We report on the strain behavior of compound mixtures of model group II-VI semiconductors. We use the Stillinger-Weber Hamiltonian that we recently introduced, specifically developed to model binary mixtures of group II-VI compounds such as CdTe and CdSe. We also employ molecular dynamics simulations to examine the behavior of thin sheets of material, bilayers of CdTe and CdSe. The lattice mismatch between the two compounds leads to a strong bending of the entire sheet, with about a 0.5 to 1° deflection between neighboring planes. To further analyze bilayer bending, we introduce a simple one-dimensional model and use energy minimization tomore » find the angle of deflection. The analysis is equivalent to a least-squares straight line fit. We consider the effects of bilayers which are asymmetric with respect to the thickness of the CdTe and CdSe parts. We thus learn that the bending can be subdivided into four kinds depending on the compressive/tensile nature of each outer plane of the sheet. We use this approach to directly compare our findings with experimental results on the bending of CdTe/CdSe rods. To reduce the effects of the lattice mismatch we explore diffuse interfaces, where we mix (i.e. alloy) Te and Se, and estimate the strain response.« less

  4. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without...

  5. Meritorious Budget Award: An Opportunity to Enhance Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Anne; Bishop, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, local budgets undergo increased scrutiny. School boards and district administrators must collaborate to ensure the highest standards of budget development, implementation, and oversight. Those charged with the fiscal management of school districts must gain the public's confidence in their budgeting abilities.…

  6. Inflation and the Capital Budgeting Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    model . [10:22] Friend, Landskroner and Losq assert that the traditional capital asset pricing model *( CAPM ...value (NPV) capital budgeting model is used extensively in this report and the Consumer Price Index - Urban (CPI-U) and the Wholesale Price Index (WPI...general price level adjustments into the capital budgeting model . The consideration of inflation risk is also warranted. The effects of inflation

  7. Human CD34(lo)CD133(lo) fetal liver cells support the expansion of human CD34(hi)CD133(hi) hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Kylie Su Mei; Keng, Choong Tat; Tan, Shu Qi; Loh, Eva; Chang, Kenneth Te; Tan, Thiam Chye; Hong, Wanjin; Chen, Qingfeng

    2016-09-01

    We have recently discovered a unique CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cell population in the human fetal liver (FL) that gives rise to cells in the hepatic lineage. In this study, we further characterized the biological functions of FL CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells. Our findings show that these CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells express markers of both endodermal and mesodermal lineages and have the capability to differentiate into hepatocyte and mesenchymal lineage cells by ex vivo differentiation assays. Furthermore, we show that CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells express growth factors that are important for human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion: stem cell factor (SCF), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), and factors in the angiopoietin-like protein family. Co-culture of autologous FL HSCs and allogenic HSCs derived from cord blood with CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells supports and expands both types of HSCs.These findings are not only essential for extending our understanding of the HSC niche during the development of embryonic and fetal hematopoiesis but will also potentially benefit adult stem cell transplantations in clinics because expanded HSCs demonstrate the same capacity as primary cells to reconstitute the human immune system and mediate long-term hematopoiesis in vivo. Together, CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells not only serve as stem/progenitor cells for liver development but are also an essential component of the HSC niche in the human FL.

  8. Defense: FY2017 Budget Request, Authorization, and Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-12

    for FY2016. In addition to the base budget request, the Administration requested $58.8 billion—including $3.4 billion for the European Reassurance...than by enlarging their numbers. Congressional deliberations on the FY2017 defense budget may be influenced, in part, by the broader budget...changing their organization rather than by enlarging their numbers; and  emphasizing innovation. A number of observers have called for DOD to be

  9. Clinton Administration announces FY 2001 budget request

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Blessed with a strong US. economy the Clinton Administration on February 7 released a fiscal year 2001 federal budget request totaling a whopping $1,835 billion. Most of the funding request is slated for big ticket items including Social Security defense spending, Medicaid, Medicare, and paying down the federal debt. However, within the 19% of the budget that funds non-defense discretionary programs,science agencies receive fairly healthy increases.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request would increase NSF funding by 17.3% $675 million and bring the total budget request to $4.6 billion. This includes significant increases for several initiatives: biocomplexity in the environment, information technology research, nanoscale science and engineering, and 21st century workforce. Among the major Earth science projects are launching the Earthscope initiative which includes the US Array and San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

  10. Levels of human platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand depend on haplotypes of CD40LG-CD40-ITGA2

    PubMed Central

    Aloui, Chaker; Prigent, Antoine; Tariket, Sofiane; Sut, Caroline; Fagan, Jocelyne; Cognasse, Fabrice; Chakroun, Tahar; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Increased circulating soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is commonly associated with inflammatory disorders. We aimed to investigate whether gene polymorphisms in CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 are associated with a propensity to secrete sCD40L; thus, we examined this issue at the level of human platelets, the principal source of sCD40L. We performed single polymorphism and haplotype analyses to test for the effect of twelve polymorphisms across the CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 genes in blood donors. ITGA2 presented a positive association with rs1126643, with a significant modification in sCD40L secretion (carriers of C allele, P = 0.02), unlike the investigated CD40LG and CD40 polymorphisms. One CD40LG haplotype (TGGC) showing rs975379 (C/T), rs3092952 (A/G), rs3092933 (A/G) and rs3092929 (A/C) was associated with increased sCD40L levels (1.906 μg/L (95% CI: 1.060 to 2.751); P = 0.000009). The sCD40L level was associated with the inter-chromosomal CD40LG/CD40/ITGA2 haplotype (ATC), displaying rs3092952 (A/G), rs1883832 (C/T) and rs1126643 (C/T), with increased sCD40L levels (P = 0.0135). Our results help to decipher the genetic role of CD40LG, CD40 and ITGA2 with regard to sCD40L levels found in platelet components. Given the crucial role of sCD40L, this haplotype study in a transfusion model may be helpful to further determine the role of haplotypes in inflammatory clinical settings. PMID:27094978

  11. Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2018

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2018" contains the Budget Message of the President, information on the President's priorities, and summary tables. President Trump's 2018 Budget's defining ambition is to unleash the dreams of the American people. This requires laying a new foundation for American Greatness. Through…

  12. 3 CFR 101.2 - Office of Management and Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Management and Budget. 101.2 Section 101.2... PROCEDURES ACT § 101.2 Office of Management and Budget. Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of Management and Budget appear at 5 CFR Ch. III. ...

  13. Cd doping at PVD-CdS/CuInGaSe 2 heterojunctions

    DOE PAGES

    He, Xiaoqing; Paulauskas, Tadas; Ercius, Peter; ...

    2017-02-20

    In this paper, we report on direct evidence of Cd doping of the CuInGaSe 2 (CIGS) surface in physical vapor deposited (PVD) CdS/CIGS heterojunctions by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and related techniques. We find Cd doping of the CIGS near-surface region regardless of the presence or absence of Cu rich domains in the CdS for both zinc-blende (zb) and wurtzite (wz) CdS. However, we find that the Cd penetrates much farther into the CIGS when Cu-rich domains are present in the CdS. This suggests that Cu exchanges with Cd, increasing the concentration gradient for Cd in the CIGS andmore » thus driving Cd into the CIGS surface. The Cd doping is clearly resolved at atomic resolution in aberration-corrected STEM-high angle annular dark field images. In zb-CdS/CIGS heterojunctions, Cd is shown to substitute for both Cu and Ga atoms, while in wz-CdS/CIGS heterojunctions Cd seems to predominantly occupy Cu sites. Finally, Cd doping in the CIGS surface layer suggests the formation of a p-n homojunction in the CIGS, which may account for the high device efficiencies, comparable to CBD-CdS/CIGS processed structures.« less

  14. Drivers and predictions of coral reef carbonate budget trajectories.

    PubMed

    Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Jennings, Simon; Perry, Chris T

    2017-01-25

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats to the long-term maintenance of coral-dominated tropical ecosystems, and has received considerable attention over the past two decades. Coral bleaching and associated mortality events, which are predicted to become more frequent and intense, can alter the balance of different elements that are responsible for coral reef growth and maintenance. The geomorphic impacts of coral mass mortality have received relatively little attention, particularly questions concerning temporal recovery of reef carbonate production and the factors that promote resilience of reef growth potential. Here, we track the biological carbonate budgets of inner Seychelles reefs from 1994 to 2014, spanning the 1998 global bleaching event when these reefs lost more than 90% of coral cover. All 21 reefs had positive budgets in 1994, but in 2005 budgets were predominantly negative. By 2014, carbonate budgets on seven reefs were comparable with 1994, but on all reefs where an ecological regime shift to macroalgal dominance occurred, budgets remained negative through 2014. Reefs with higher massive coral cover, lower macroalgae cover and lower excavating parrotfish biomass in 1994 were more likely to have positive budgets post-bleaching. If mortality of corals from the 2016 bleaching event is as severe as that of 1998, our predictions based on past trends would suggest that six of eight reefs with positive budgets in 2014 would still have positive budgets by 2030. Our results highlight that reef accretion and framework maintenance cannot be assumed from the ecological state alone, and that managers should focus on conserving aspects of coral reefs that support resilient carbonate budgets. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Drivers and predictions of coral reef carbonate budget trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Jennings, Simon; Perry, Chris T.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the greatest threats to the long-term maintenance of coral-dominated tropical ecosystems, and has received considerable attention over the past two decades. Coral bleaching and associated mortality events, which are predicted to become more frequent and intense, can alter the balance of different elements that are responsible for coral reef growth and maintenance. The geomorphic impacts of coral mass mortality have received relatively little attention, particularly questions concerning temporal recovery of reef carbonate production and the factors that promote resilience of reef growth potential. Here, we track the biological carbonate budgets of inner Seychelles reefs from 1994 to 2014, spanning the 1998 global bleaching event when these reefs lost more than 90% of coral cover. All 21 reefs had positive budgets in 1994, but in 2005 budgets were predominantly negative. By 2014, carbonate budgets on seven reefs were comparable with 1994, but on all reefs where an ecological regime shift to macroalgal dominance occurred, budgets remained negative through 2014. Reefs with higher massive coral cover, lower macroalgae cover and lower excavating parrotfish biomass in 1994 were more likely to have positive budgets post-bleaching. If mortality of corals from the 2016 bleaching event is as severe as that of 1998, our predictions based on past trends would suggest that six of eight reefs with positive budgets in 2014 would still have positive budgets by 2030. Our results highlight that reef accretion and framework maintenance cannot be assumed from the ecological state alone, and that managers should focus on conserving aspects of coral reefs that support resilient carbonate budgets. PMID:28123092

  16. Learning time-dependent noise to reduce logical errors: real time error rate estimation in quantum error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.

  17. Assessing the Benefits of NASA Category 3, Low Cost Class C/D Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitten, Robert E.; Shinn, Steven A.; Mahr, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Category 3, Class C/D missions have the benefit of delivering worthwhile science at minimal cost which is increasingly important in NASA's constrained budget environment. Although higher cost Category 1 and 2 missions are necessary to achieve NASA's science objectives, Category 3 missions are shown to be an effective way to provide significant science return at a low cost. Category 3 missions, however, are often reviewed the same as the more risk averse Category 1 and 2 missions. Acknowledging that reviews are not the only aspect of a total engineering effort, reviews are still a significant concern for NASA programs. This can unnecessarily increase the cost and schedule of Category 3 missions. This paper quantifies the benefit and performance of Category 3 missions by looking at the cost vs. capability relative to Category 1 and 2 missions. Lessons learned from successful organizations that develop low cost Category 3, Class C/D missions are also investigated to help provide the basis for suggestions to streamline the review of NASA Category 3 missions.

  18. Providence of CD25+ KIR+ CD127- FOXP3- CD8+ T cell subset determines the dynamics of tumor immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Panda, Abir K; Kajal, Kirti; Bose, Sayantan; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2018-05-16

    CD8 + T-regulatory cells are progressively emerging as crucial components of immune system. The previous report suggests the presence of FOXP3-positive CD8 + Treg cells, similar to CD4 + Tregs, in cancer patients which produce high levels of IL10 and TGFβ for its immunosuppressive activities. At an early stage of tumor development, we have identified a subset of FOXP3-negative CD8 + CD25 + KIR + CD127 - a Treg-like subset which is essentially IFNγ-positive. However, this early induced CD8 + CD25 + CD127 - T cell subset certainly distinct from the IFNγ + CD8 + T-effecter cells. This CD8 + CD25 + CD127 - T cells are equipped with other FOXP3 - CD8 + Treg cell signature markers and can selectively suppress HLA-E-positive T FH cells in autoimmune condition as well as tumor-induced CD4 + Treg cells. Contrasting to FOXP3-positive CD8 + Tregs, this subset does not inhibit effector T cell proliferation or their functions as they are HLA-E-negative. Adoptive transfer of this early-CD8 + Treg-like subset detained tumor growth and inhibited CD4 + Treg generation that obstacles the immune surveillance and impairs cancer immunotherapy. At the late stage of tumor development, when CD4 + Treg cells dominate tumor-microenvironment, CD4 + Tregs mediate the clonal deletion of this tumor-suppressive FOXP3 - IFNγ + CD8 + CD25 + CD127 - T cells and ensures tumor immune evasion. Our findings suggest that at an early stage of the tumor, this tumor-induced IFNγ-producing FOXP3-negative CD8 + CD25 + CD127 - T cell subset can potentiate immune surveillance by targeting HLA-E-restricted CD4 + Treg cells whereas leaving the effector T cell population unaffected, and hence maneuvering their profile can open up a new avenue in cancer immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Expansion of natural killer cell receptor (CD94/NKG2A)-expressing cytolytic CD8 T cells and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells from the same cord blood unit.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Junji; Sugita, Junichi; Kato, Naoko; Toubai, Tomomi; Ibata, Makoto; Shono, Yusuke; Ota, Shuichi; Kondo, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Asaka, Masahiro; Imamura, Masahiro

    2007-10-01

    Cord blood contains a significant number of precursor cells that differentiate to cytotoxic effector cells and immunoregulatory cells. We tried to expand inhibitory natural killer cell receptor CD94-expressing CD8 T cells with cytolytic activity and CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells from the same cord cell unit. Cytotoxic CD94-expressing CD8 T cells were expanded from CD4-depleted cord blood using an immobilized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and a cytokine and also CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells were expanded from a CD4-enriched fraction derived from the same cord blood unit using anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibody-coated Dynabeads and cytokines. We were able to obtain a more than 1000-fold expansion of CD94-expressing CD8 T cells and a more than 50-fold expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells from the same cord blood unit. These expanded CD4(+)CD25(+) cells expressed FoxP3 mRNA at a level about 100-fold higher than that in isolated CD25(-) cells and could suppress allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture by >80% (effector cells: CD4(+)CD25(+) cells = 2:1). Cytolytic activities of purified CD94-expressing cells detected by a 4-hour (51)Cr release assay against K562 were >60%. Coculture of CD94-expressing cells with expanded CD4(+)CD25(+) cells did not have any effect on cytolytic activities of purified CD94-expressing cells against K562 cells. These expanded cytolytic CD94-expressing CD8 cells might be able to induce a graft-vs-leukemia effect without enhancing graft-vs-host disease, and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells might be able to suppress allogeneic responses, including graft-vs-host disease and graft rejection after cord blood transplantation.

  20. Lawmakers seek end to budget stalemate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    On March 15, President Bill Clinton signed into law the tenth short-term spending measure of the now-sixmonth-old 1996 fiscal year (FY'96), funding the federal government through March 22. At the same time, budget negotiators from both the Republican and Democratic parties scurried to put the finishing touches on a $166 billion-omnibus appropriations bill, H.R. 3019, to pay the government's bills for the rest of the fiscal year.As of March 21, parts of a dozen federal cabinet-level departments and agencies still did not have a definitive budget allocation for FY'96. Nearly all national science research and development programs, agencies, and departments remained tied up by that budget struggle, though very little of the debate has anything to do with those programs (Eos, February 20). H.R. 3019 is designed to end the string of short-term spending measures and to fund all federal departments for the remaining six months of the fiscal year. Congressional leaders hoped to have the bill passed by March 22, though many representatives anticipated that at least one more short-term spending resolution would have to be passed before budget negotiations with the President could be completed.