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Sample records for cdk inhibitor r-roscovitine

  1. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (R)-roscovitine mediates selective suppression of alloreactive human T cells but preserves pathogen-specific and leukemia-specific effectors

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Anoma; Liu, Bianling; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.; Li, Lequn

    2014-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GvHD), mediated by donor T cells, remains the primary cause of non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and novel therapeutic approaches are required. Cdk2 is a critical node of signal integration and programming of T cell responses towards immunity versus anergy but is dispensable for hematopoiesis and thymocyte development. We examined the effects of pharmacologic Cdk2 inhibition on alloreactive human T cells. Inhibition of Cdk2 blocked expansion of alloreactive T cells upon culture with HLA-mismatched dendritic cells and prevented generation of IFN-γ-producing alloantigen-specific effectors. In contrast, Cdk2 inhibition preserved effectors specific for Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1) leukemia antigen and for CMV as determined by WT1-specific and CMV-specific pentamers. Cdk2 inhibition preserved Treg cells, which have the ability to prevent GvHD while maintaining GvL. Thus, Cdk inhibitors may improve allogeneic HSCT by reducing alloreactivity and GvHD without loss of pathogen-specific and leukemia-specific immunity. PMID:24631965

  2. The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (R)-roscovitine mediates selective suppression of alloreactive human T cells but preserves pathogen-specific and leukemia-specific effectors.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Anoma; Liu, Bianling; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A; Li, Lequn

    2014-01-01

    Graft versus host disease (GvHD), mediated by donor T cells, remains the primary cause of non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and novel therapeutic approaches are required. Cdk2 is a critical node of signal integration and programming of T cell responses towards immunity versus anergy but is dispensable for hematopoiesis and thymocyte development. We examined the effects of pharmacologic Cdk2 inhibition on alloreactive human T cells. Inhibition of Cdk2 blocked expansion of alloreactive T cells upon culture with HLA-mismatched dendritic cells and prevented generation of IFN-γ-producing alloantigen-specific effectors. In contrast, Cdk2 inhibition preserved effectors specific for Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) leukemia antigen and for CMV as determined by WT1-specific and CMV-specific pentamers. Cdk2 inhibition preserved Treg cells, which have the ability to prevent GvHD while maintaining GvL. Thus, Cdk inhibitors may improve allogeneic HSCT by reducing alloreactivity and GvHD without loss of pathogen-specific and leukemia-specific immunity. PMID:24631965

  3. Modulating Innate and Adaptive Immunity by (R)-Roscovitine: Potential Therapeutic Opportunity in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Laurent; Nelson, Deborah J; Riazanski, Vladimir; Gabdoulkhakova, Aida G; Hery-Arnaud, Geneviève; Le Berre, Rozenn; Loaëc, Nadège; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Hervé; Nowak, Emmanuel; Gueganton, Laetitia; Dorothée, Guillaume; Prochazkova, Michaela; Hall, Bradford; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Gray, Robert D; Rossi, Adriano G; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Norez, Caroline; Becq, Frédéric; Ravel, Denis; Mottier, Dominique; Rault, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    (R)-Roscovitine, a pharmacological inhibitor of kinases, is currently in phase II clinical trial as a drug candidate for the treatment of cancers, Cushing's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. We here review the data that support the investigation of (R)-roscovitine as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). (R)-Roscovitine displays four independent properties that may favorably combine against CF: (1) it partially protects F508del-CFTR from proteolytic degradation and favors its trafficking to the plasma membrane; (2) by increasing membrane targeting of the TRPC6 ion channel, it rescues acidification in phagolysosomes of CF alveolar macrophages (which show abnormally high pH) and consequently restores their bactericidal activity; (3) its effects on neutrophils (induction of apoptosis), eosinophils (inhibition of degranulation/induction of apoptosis) and lymphocytes (modification of the Th17/Treg balance in favor of the differentiation of anti-inflammatory lymphocytes and reduced production of various interleukins, notably IL-17A) contribute to the resolution of inflammation and restoration of innate immunity, and (4) roscovitine displays analgesic properties in animal pain models. The fact that (R)-roscovitine has undergone extensive preclinical safety/pharmacology studies, and phase I and II clinical trials in cancer patients, encourages its repurposing as a CF drug candidate. PMID:26987072

  4. Novel R-roscovitine NO-donor hybrid compounds as potential pro-resolution of inflammation agents

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Gabriele; Bertinaria, Massimo; Rolando, Barbara; Fruttero, Roberta; Lucas, Christopher D.; Dorward, David A.; Rossi, Adriano G.; Megson, Ian L.; Gasco, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of multiple human inflammatory diseases. Novel pharmacological strategies which drive neutrophils to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) have been shown to facilitate the resolution of inflammation. Both the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) R-roscovitine and nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to enhance apoptosis of neutrophils and possess pro-resolution of inflammation properties. In order to search for new multi-target pro-resolution derivatives, here we describe the design, synthesis and investigation of the biological potential of a small series of hybrid compounds obtained by conjugating R-roscovitine with two different NO-donor moieties (compounds 2, 9a, 9c). The synthesized compounds were tested as potential pro-resolution agents, with their ability to promote human neutrophil apoptosis evaluated. Both compound 9a and 9c showed an increased pro-apoptotic activity when compared with either R-roscovitine or structurally related compounds devoid of the ability to release NO (des-NO analogues). Inhibition of either NO-synthase or soluble guanylate cyclase did not affect the induction of apoptosis by the R-roscovitine derivatives, similar to that reported for other classes of NO-donors. In contrast the NO scavenger PTIO prevented the enhanced apoptosis seen with compound 9a over R-roscovitine. These data show that novel compounds such as CDKi–NO-donor hybrids may have additive pro-resolution of inflammation effects. PMID:23394865

  5. Multiple CDK inhibitor dinaciclib suppresses neuroblastoma growth via inhibiting CDK2 and CDK9 activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenghu; Wang, Zhenyu; Pang, Jonathan C.; Yu, Yang; Bieerkehazhi, Shayahati; Lu, Jiaxiong; Hu, Ting; Zhao, Yanling; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Hong; Yi, Joanna S.; Liu, Shangfeng; Yang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, is responsible for approximately 15% of cancer-related mortality in children. Aberrant activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) has been shown to contribute to tumor cell progression in many cancers including NB. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors of CDKs comprise a strategic option in cancer therapy. Here we show that a novel multiple-CDK inhibitor, dinaciclib (SCH727965, MK-7965), exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects on a panel of NB cell lines by blocking the activity of CDK2 and CDK9. Dinaciclib also significantly sensitized NB cell lines to the treatment of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin (Dox) and etoposide (VP-16). Furthermore, dinaciclib revealed in vivo antitumor efficacy in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of two NB cell lines and blocked tumor development in the TH-MYCN transgenic NB mouse model. Taken together, this study suggests that CDK2 and CDK9 are potential therapeutic targets in NB and that abrogating CDK2 and CDK9 activity by small molecules like dinaciclib is a promising strategy and a treatment option for NB patients. PMID:27378523

  6. Covalent targeting of remote cysteine residues to develop CDK12 and CDK13 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tinghu; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Olson, Calla M; Dixon-Clarke, Sarah E; Abraham, Brian J; Greifenberg, Ann K; Ficarro, Scott B; Elkins, Jonathan M; Liang, Yanke; Hannett, Nancy M; Manz, Theresa; Hao, Mingfeng; Bartkowiak, Bartlomiej; Greenleaf, Arno L; Marto, Jarrod A; Geyer, Matthias; Bullock, Alex N; Young, Richard A; Gray, Nathanael S

    2016-10-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 12 and 13 (CDK12 and CDK13) play critical roles in the regulation of gene transcription. However, the absence of CDK12 and CDK13 inhibitors has hindered the ability to investigate the consequences of their inhibition in healthy cells and cancer cells. Here we describe the rational design of a first-in-class CDK12 and CDK13 covalent inhibitor, THZ531. Co-crystallization of THZ531 with CDK12-cyclin K indicates that THZ531 irreversibly targets a cysteine located outside the kinase domain. THZ531 causes a loss of gene expression with concurrent loss of elongating and hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II. In particular, THZ531 substantially decreases the expression of DNA damage response genes and key super-enhancer-associated transcription factor genes. Coincident with transcriptional perturbation, THZ531 dramatically induced apoptotic cell death. Small molecules capable of specifically targeting CDK12 and CDK13 may thus help identify cancer subtypes that are particularly dependent on their kinase activities. PMID:27571479

  7. Cdk4 and Cdk6 cooperate in counteracting the INK4 family of inhibitors during murine leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díez, Esther; Quereda, Victor; Bellutti, Florian; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Partida, David; Eguren, Manuel; Kollmann, Karoline; Gómez de Cedrón, Marta; Dubus, Pierre; Cañamero, Marta; Martínez, Dolores; Sexl, Veronika; Malumbres, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    Cdk4 and Cdk6 are related protein kinases that bind d-type cyclins and regulate cell-cycle progression. Cdk4/6 inhibitors are currently being used in advanced clinical trials and show great promise against many types of tumors. Cdk4 and Cdk6 are inhibited by INK4 proteins, which exert tumor-suppressing functions. To test the significance of this inhibitory mechanism, we generated knock-in mice that express a Cdk6 mutant (Cdk6 R31C) insensitive to INK4-mediated inhibition. Cdk6(R/R) mice display altered development of the hematopoietic system without enhanced tumor susceptibility, either in the presence or absence of p53. Unexpectedly, Cdk6 R31C impairs the potential of hematopoietic progenitors to repopulate upon adoptive transfer or after 5-fluorouracil-induced damage. The defects are overcome by eliminating sensitivity of cells to INK4 inhibitors by introducing the INK4-insensitive Cdk4 R24C allele, and INK4-resistant mice are more susceptible to hematopoietic and endocrine tumors. In BCR-ABL-transformed hematopoietic cells, Cdk6 R31C causes increased binding of p16(INK4a) to wild-type Cdk4, whereas cells harboring Cdk4 R24C and Cdk6 R31C are fully insensitive to INK4 inhibitors, resulting in accelerated disease onset. Our observations reveal that Cdk4 and Cdk6 cooperate in hematopoietic tumor development and suggest a role for Cdk6 in sequestering INK4 proteins away from Cdk4.

  8. Versatile templates for the development of novel kinase inhibitors: Discovery of novel CDK inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Michael P.; Paruch, Kamil; Alvarez, Carmen; Doll, Ronald J.; Keertikar, Kerry; Duca, Jose; Fischmann, Thierry O.; Hruza, Alan; Madison, Vincent; Lees, Emma; Parry, David; Seghezzi, Wolfgang; Sgambellone, Nicole; Shanahan, Frances; Wiswell, Derek; Guzi, Timothy J.

    2008-06-30

    A series of four bicyclic cores were prepared and evaluated as cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) inhibitors. From the in-vitro and cell-based analysis, the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine core (represented by 9) emerged as the superior core for further elaboration in the identification of novel CDK2 inhibitors.

  9. Conformational Adaption May Explain the Slow Dissociation Kinetics of Roniciclib (BAY 1000394), a Type I CDK Inhibitor with Kinetic Selectivity for CDK2 and CDK9.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Pelin; Andres, Dorothee; Kwiatkowski, Dennis A; Kolbe, Carl-Christian; Lienau, Philip; Siemeister, Gerhard; Lücking, Ulrich; Stegmann, Christian M

    2016-06-17

    Roniciclib (BAY 1000394) is a type I pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor which has revealed potent efficacy in xenograft cancer models. Here, we show that roniciclib displays prolonged residence times on CDK2 and CDK9, whereas residence times on other CDKs are transient, thus giving rise to a kinetic selectivity of roniciclib. Surprisingly, variation of the substituent at the 5-position of the pyrimidine scaffold results in changes of up to 3 orders of magnitude of the drug-target residence time. CDK2 X-ray cocrystal structures have revealed a DFG-loop adaption for the 5-(trifluoromethyl) substituent, while for hydrogen and bromo substituents the DFG loop remains in its characteristic type I inhibitor position. In tumor cells, the prolonged residence times of roniciclib on CDK2 and CDK9 are reflected in a sustained inhibitory effect on retinoblastoma protein (RB) phosphorylation, indicating that the target residence time on CDK2 may contribute to sustained target engagement and antitumor efficacy. PMID:27090615

  10. Structure-based drug design to the discovery of new 2-aminothiazole CDK2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vulpetti, Anna; Casale, Elena; Roletto, Fulvia; Amici, Raffaella; Villa, Manuela; Pevarello, Paolo

    2006-03-01

    N-(5-Bromo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)butanamide (compound 1) was found active (IC50=808 nM) in a high throughput screening (HTS) for CDK2 inhibitors. By exploiting crystal structures of several complexes between CDK2 and inhibitors and applying structure-based drug design (SBDD), we rapidly discovered a very potent and selective CDK2 inhibitor 4-[(5-isopropyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)amino] benzenesulfonamide (compound 4, IC50=20 nM). The syntheses, structure-based analog design, kinases inhibition data and X-ray crystallographic structures of CDK2/inhibitor complexes are reported.

  11. Development of mice without Cip/Kip CDK inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Akinobu; Kanie, Tomoharu; Hara, Eiji; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I.

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking Cip/Kip CKIs (p21, p27, and p57) survive until embryonic day 13.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of MEFs lacking all three Cip/Kip CKIs appears unexpectedly normal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDK2 kinase activity of the triple mutant MEFs is increased in G0 phase. -- Abstract: Timely exit of cells from the cell cycle is essential for proper cell differentiation during embryogenesis. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family (p21, p27, and p57) are negative regulators of cell cycle progression and are thought to be essential for development. However, the extent of functional redundancy among Cip/Kip family members has remained largely unknown. We have now generated mice that lack all three Cip/Kip CKIs (TKO mice) and compared them with those lacking each possible pair of these proteins (DKO mice). We found that the TKO embryos develop normally until midgestation but die around embryonic day (E) 13.5, slightly earlier than p27/p57 DKO embryos. The TKO embryos manifested morphological abnormalities as well as increased rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the placenta and lens that were essentially indistinguishable from those of p27/p57 DKO mice. Unexpectedly, the proliferation rate and cell cycle profile of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking all three Cip/Kip CKIs did not differ substantially from those of control MEFs. The abundance and kinase activity of CDK2 were markedly increased, whereas CDK4 activity and cyclin D1 abundance were decreased, in both p27/p57 DKO and TKO MEFs during progression from G{sub 0} to S phase compared with those in control MEFs. The extents of the increase in CDK2 activity and the decrease in CDK4 activity and cyclin D1 abundance were greater in TKO MEFs than in p27/p57 DKO MEFs. These results suggest that p27 and p57 play an essential role in mouse development after midgestation, and that p21 plays only an auxiliary role in

  12. A possible usage of a CDK4 inhibitor for breast cancer stem cell-targeted therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Ga-Young; Chun, Sung Hak; Han, Jeong Yun; Kim, Sung Dae; Lee, Janet; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yang, Kwangmo; Lee, Chang Geun

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► A CDK4 inhibitor may be used for breast cancer stem cell-targeted therapy. ► The CDK4 inhibitor differentiated the cancer stem cell population (CD24{sup −}/CD44{sup +}) of MDA-MB-231. ► The differentiation of the cancer stem cells by the CDK4 inhibitor radiosensitized MDA-MB-231. -- Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the main reasons behind cancer recurrence due to their resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapies. Thus, many efforts are being devoted to developing CSC-targeted therapies to overcome the resistance of CSCs to conventional anti-cancer therapies and decrease cancer recurrence. Differentiation therapy is one potential approach to achieve CSC-targeted therapies. This method involves inducing immature cancer cells with stem cell characteristics into more mature or differentiated cancer cells. In this study, we found that a CDK4 inhibitor sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells but not MCF7 cells to irradiation. This difference appeared to be associated with the relative percentage of CSC-population between the two breast cancer cells. The CDK4 inhibitor induced differentiation and reduced the cancer stem cell activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, which are shown by multiple marker or phenotypes of CSCs. Thus, these results suggest that radiosensitization effects may be caused by reducing the CSC-population of MDA-MB-231 through the use of the CDK4 inhibitor. Thus, further investigations into the possible application of the CDK4 inhibitor for CSC-targeted therapy should be performed to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy for breast cancer.

  13. Potent inhibitors of CDK5 derived from roscovitine: synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Demange, Luc; Abdellah, Fatma Nait; Lozach, Olivier; Ferandin, Yoan; Gresh, Nohad; Meijer, Laurent; Galons, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) family. CDK5 is involved in numerous neuronal diseases (including Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases, stroke, traumatic brain injury), pain signaling and cell migration. In the present Letter, we describe syntheses and biological evaluations of new 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines, structurally related to roscovitine, a promising CDK inhibitor currently in clinical trials (CDK1/Cyclin B, IC(50)=350 nM; CDK5/p25, IC(50)=200 nM). These new molecules were synthesized using an original Buchwald-Hartwig catalytic procedure; several compounds (3j, 3k, 3l, 3e, 4k, 6b, 6c) displayed potent kinase inhibitory potencies against CDK5 (IC(50) values ranging from 17 to 50 nM) and showed significant cell death inducing activities (IC(50) values ranging from 2 to 9 μM on SH-SY5Y). The docking of the inhibitors into the ATP binding domain of the CDK5 catalytic site highlighted the discriminatory effect of a hydrogen bond involving the CDK5 Lys-89. In addition, the calculated final energy balances for complexation measured for several inhibitors is consistent with the ranking of the IC(50) values. Lastly, we observed that several compounds exhibit submicromolar activities against DYRK1A (dual specificity, tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a kinase involved in Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease (3g, 3h, 4m; IC(50) values ranging from 300 to 400 nM). PMID:23218601

  14. Benzamide capped peptidomimetics as non-ATP competitive inhibitors of CDK2 using the REPLACE strategy.

    PubMed

    Premnath, Padmavathy Nandha; Craig, Sandra N; Liu, Shu; McInnes, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) in complex with cyclin A in G1/S phase of the cell cycle has been shown to promote selective apoptosis of cancer cells through the E2F1 pathway. An alternative approach to catalytic inhibition is to target the substrate recruitment site also known as the cyclin binding groove (CBG) to generate selective non-ATP competitive inhibitors. The REPLACE strategy has been applied to identify fragment alternatives and substituted benzoic acid derivatives were evaluated as a promising scaffold to present appropriate functionality to mimic key peptide determinants. Fragment Ligated Inhibitory Peptides (FLIPs) are described which potently inhibit both CDK2/cyclin A and CDK4/cyclin D1 and have preliminary anti-tumor activity. A structural rationale for binding was obtained through molecular modeling further demonstrating their potential for further development as next generation non ATP competitive CDK inhibitors.

  15. Benzamide capped peptidomimetics as non-ATP competitive inhibitors of CDK2 using the REPLACE strategy.

    PubMed

    Premnath, Padmavathy Nandha; Craig, Sandra N; Liu, Shu; McInnes, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    Inhibition of cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) in complex with cyclin A in G1/S phase of the cell cycle has been shown to promote selective apoptosis of cancer cells through the E2F1 pathway. An alternative approach to catalytic inhibition is to target the substrate recruitment site also known as the cyclin binding groove (CBG) to generate selective non-ATP competitive inhibitors. The REPLACE strategy has been applied to identify fragment alternatives and substituted benzoic acid derivatives were evaluated as a promising scaffold to present appropriate functionality to mimic key peptide determinants. Fragment Ligated Inhibitory Peptides (FLIPs) are described which potently inhibit both CDK2/cyclin A and CDK4/cyclin D1 and have preliminary anti-tumor activity. A structural rationale for binding was obtained through molecular modeling further demonstrating their potential for further development as next generation non ATP competitive CDK inhibitors. PMID:27297568

  16. The CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991 reverses epithelial dysplasia associated with abnormal activation of the Cyclin-CDK-Rb pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, M. Carla; Díaz-Cruz, Edgar S.; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Pishvaian, Michael J.; Grubbs, Clinton J.; Muccio, Donald D.; Furth, Priscilla A.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of normal growth control is a hallmark of cancer progression. Therefore, understanding the early mechanisms of normal growth regulation and the changes that occur during preneoplasia may provide insights of both diagnostic and therapeutic importance. Models of dysplasia that help elucidate the mechanisms responsible for disease progression are useful in highlighting potential targets for prevention. An important strategy in cancer prevention treatment programs is to reduce hyperplasia and dysplasia. This study identified abnormal up-regulation of cell cycle related proteins Cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK6 and phosphorylated pRb as mechanisms responsible for maintenance of hyperplasia and dysplasia following down-regulation of the initiating viral oncoprotein Simian Virus 40 T Antigen. Significantly, p53 was not required for successful reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. Ligand-induced activation of RXR and PPAR gamma agonists attenuated Cyclin D1 and CDK6 but not CDK4 or phosphorylated pRb upregulation with limited reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. PD0332991, an orally available CDK4/6 inhibitor, was able to prevent upregulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK6 as well as CDK4 and phosphorylated pRb and this correlated with a more profound reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. In summary, the study distinguished CDK4 and phosphorylated pRb as targets for chemoprevention regimens targeting reversal of hyperplasia and dysplasia. PMID:22508966

  17. Cdk inhibitor p27Kip1 and hormone dependence in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2004-01-01

    p27Kip1 is an important regulator of the G1 to S transition. While a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent-kinase (Cdk)2, p27 is also involved in assembly of cyclin D/Cdk4 complexes. Although rarely mutated, p27 is functionally downregulated in many human cancers by mechanisms involving enhanced degradation, cytoplasmic mislocalization, and/or sequestration by cyclin D/Cdk complexes in response to oncogenic signals. Therefore, low levels and/or cytoplasmic localized p27 have been associated with enhanced malignancy and poor patient prognosis in many neoplasias including breast cancer. Recent data discussed below suggest that a threshold of p27 is required for response to antiestrogens and, conversely, that low levels predict for antiestrogen resistance. These results imply that hormone receptor-positive tumors with low and/or cytosolic p27 respond poorly to antiestrogens and should be considered for alternative therapeutic strategies.

  18. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in rats by CDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Davis, S T; Benson, B G; Bramson, H N; Chapman, D E; Dickerson, S H; Dold, K M; Eberwein, D J; Edelstein, M; Frye, S V; Gampe Jr, R T; Griffin, R J; Harris, P A; Hassell, A M; Holmes, W D; Hunter, R N; Knick, V B; Lackey, K; Lovejoy, B; Luzzio, M J; Murray, D; Parker, P; Rocque, W J; Shewchuk, L; Veal, J M; Walker, D H; Kuyper, L F

    2001-01-01

    Most traditional cytotoxic anticancer agents ablate the rapidly dividing epithelium of the hair follicle and induce alopecia (hair loss). Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), a positive regulator of eukaryotic cell cycle progression, may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) by arresting the cell cycle and reducing the sensitivity of the epithelium to many cell cycle-active antitumor agents. Potent small-molecule inhibitors of CDK2 were developed using structure-based methods. Topical application of these compounds in a neonatal rat model of CIA reduced hair loss at the site of application in 33 to 50% of the animals. Thus, inhibition of CDK2 represents a potentially useful approach for the prevention of CIA in cancer patients.

  19. Effects of an Indolocarbazole-Derived CDK4 Inhibitor on Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan; Li, Ying-xia; Wu, Hai-jun; Wu, Si-hung; Wang, Y. Alan; Luo, Dian-zhong; Liao, D. Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cyclin D1 (D1) binds to cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 or 6 to form a holoenzyme that phosphorylates the Rb protein to promote cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Therefore, targeting CDK4/6 may be a good strategy for chemotherapy of cancer. We performed a proof-of-principle study to determine the effect of Naphtho [2, 1-α] pyrrolo [3, 4-c] carbazole-5, 7 (6H, 12H)-dione (NPCD), a novel CDK4 inhibitor, on breast cancer cell lines. Methods: NPCD was synthesized and purified to over 99% purity verified by HPLC. MCF7, MB231, MCF15, T47D and GI101Ap human breast cancer cells were analyzed for the efficacy of NPCD with MTT and clonogenic assays, with FACS and staining for ethidium bromide and acridine orange for cell death and cell cycle profile. Western blot, reverse transcription and PCR were used for studies of gene expression, and co-immunoprecipitation for protein-complex formation. Results: MTT assay showed that NPCD caused growth arrest and apoptosis of MCF7, MDA-MB231, T47D, MCF15 and GI101Ap cells with an IC50 ranging between 3 to 8 µM given as a single dose. The growth arrest persisted for many days after cessation of the treatment, as shown in a clonogenic assay. NPCD could induce or reduce the D1 and CDK4 protein levels, depending on the cell line, but this effect was not correlated with its efficacy. Phosphorylation of D1 at Thr286 was decreased but it unexpectedly did not correlate with the change in D1 level in the cell lines studied. Phosphorylation of the Rb protein was decreased as expected whereas the p27kip1 protein level was decreased unexpectedly. Protein levels of p21cip1, CDK2 and cyclin E were also decreased in some, but not all, of the cell lines, whereas the mRNA levels of D1, CDK4, cyclin E, CDK2, p27kip1 and p21cip1 were increased in different cell lines. Conclusions: NPCD can cause long-lasting growth arrest and cell death of breast cancer cell lines at an IC50 of 3-8 µM. Decreased phosphorylation of Rb by D1-CDK4

  20. Flavonoids as CDK1 Inhibitors: Insights in Their Binding Orientations and Structure-Activity Relationship.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos; Caballero, Julio

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, the interactions of flavonoids with protein kinases (PKs) have been described by using crystallographic experiments. Interestingly, different orientations have been found for one flavonoid inside different PKs and different chemical substitutions lead to different orientations of the flavonoid scaffold inside one PK. Accordingly, orientation predictions of novel analogues could help to the design of flavonoids with high PK inhibitory activities. With this in mind, we studied the binding modes of 37 flavonoids (flavones and chalcones) inside the cyclin-dependent PK CDK1 using docking experiments. We found that the compounds under study adopted two different orientations into the active site of CDK1 (orientations I and II in the manuscript). In addition, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using CoMFA and CoMSIA methodologies were constructed to explain the trend of the CDK1 inhibitory activities for the studied flavonoids. Template-based and docking-based alignments were used. Models developed starting from docking-based alignment were applied for describing the whole dataset and compounds with orientation I. Adequate R2 and Q2 values were obtained by each method; interestingly, only hydrophobic and hydrogen bond donor fields describe the differential potency of the flavonoids as CDK1 inhibitors for both defined alignments and subsets. Our current application of docking and QSAR together reveals important elements to be drawn for the design of novel flavonoids with increased PK inhibitory activities. PMID:27517610

  1. Intrinsic disorder mediates the diverse regulatory functions of the Cdk inhibitor p21

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefeng; Fisher, John C.; Mathew, Rose; Ou, Li; Otieno, Steve; Sublett, Jack; Xiao, Limin; Chen, Jianhan; Roussel, Martine F.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, well-defined three-dimensional structure was thought to be essential for protein function. However, myriad biological functions are performed by highly dynamic, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). IDPs often fold upon binding their biological targets and frequently exhibit “binding diversity” by targeting multiple ligands. We sought to understand the physical basis of IDP binding diversity and herein report that the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, p21Cip1, adaptively binds to and inhibits the various Cdk/cyclin complexes that regulate eukaryotic cell division. Based on results from NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical and cellular assays, we show that structural adaptability of a helical sub-domain within p21 termed LH enables two other sub-domains termed D1 and D2 to specifically bind conserved surface features of the cyclin and Cdk subunits, respectively, within otherwise structurally distinct Cdk/cyclin complexes. Adaptive folding upon binding is likely to mediate the diverse biological functions of the thousands of IDPs present in eukaryotes. PMID:21358637

  2. Flavonoids as CDK1 Inhibitors: Insights in Their Binding Orientations and Structure-Activity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Retamal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, the interactions of flavonoids with protein kinases (PKs) have been described by using crystallographic experiments. Interestingly, different orientations have been found for one flavonoid inside different PKs and different chemical substitutions lead to different orientations of the flavonoid scaffold inside one PK. Accordingly, orientation predictions of novel analogues could help to the design of flavonoids with high PK inhibitory activities. With this in mind, we studied the binding modes of 37 flavonoids (flavones and chalcones) inside the cyclin-dependent PK CDK1 using docking experiments. We found that the compounds under study adopted two different orientations into the active site of CDK1 (orientations I and II in the manuscript). In addition, quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models using CoMFA and CoMSIA methodologies were constructed to explain the trend of the CDK1 inhibitory activities for the studied flavonoids. Template-based and docking-based alignments were used. Models developed starting from docking-based alignment were applied for describing the whole dataset and compounds with orientation I. Adequate R2 and Q2 values were obtained by each method; interestingly, only hydrophobic and hydrogen bond donor fields describe the differential potency of the flavonoids as CDK1 inhibitors for both defined alignments and subsets. Our current application of docking and QSAR together reveals important elements to be drawn for the design of novel flavonoids with increased PK inhibitory activities. PMID:27517610

  3. Extra precision docking, free energy calculation and molecular dynamics simulation studies of CDK2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Sunil Kumar; Muttineni, Ravikumar; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Molecular docking, free energy calculation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies have been performed, to explore the putative binding modes of 3,5-diaminoindazoles, imidazo(1,2-b)pyridazines and triazolo(1,5-a) pyridazines series of Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2) inhibitors. To evaluate the effectiveness of docking protocol in flexible docking, we have selected crystallographic bound compound to validate our docking procedure as evident from root mean square deviations (RMSDs). We found different binding sites namely catalytic, inhibitory phosphorylation, cyclin binding and CKS-binding site of the CDK2 contributing towards the binding of these compounds. Moreover, correlation between free energy of binding and biological activity yielded a statistically significant correlation coefficient. Finally, three representative protein-ligand complexes were subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to determine the stability of the predicted conformations. The low value of the RMSDs between the initial complex structure and the energy minimized final average complex structure suggests that the derived docked complexes are close to equilibrium. We suggest that the phenylacetyl type of substituents and cyclohexyl moiety make the favorable interactions with a number of residues in the active site, and show better inhibitory activity to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of compounds against CDK2. The structure-based drug design strategy described in this study will be highly useful for the development of new inhibitors with high potency and selectivity.

  4. Novel optimization of valmerins (tetrahydropyrido[1,2-a]isoindolones) as potent dual CDK5/GSK3 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ouach, Aziz; Boulahjar, Rajâa; Vala, Christine; Bourg, Stéphane; Bonnet, Pascal; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Ravache, Myriam; Le Guevel, Rémy; Lozach, Olivier; Lazar, Saïd; Troin, Yves; Meijer, Laurent; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Akssira, Mohamed; Guillaumet, Gérald; Routier, Sylvain

    2016-06-10

    An efficient synthetic strategy able to modulate the structure of the tetrahydropyridine isoindolone (Valmerin) skeleton was developed. A library of more than 30 novel final structures was generated. Biological activities on CDK5 and GSK3 as well as cellular effects on cancer cell lines were measured for each novel compound. Additionally to support the SAR, a docking study was performed. A potent GSK3/CDK5 dual inhibitor (37, IC50 CDK5/GSK3 35/7 nM) was obtained. Best antiproliferative effects were obtained on lung and prostate cell lines with IC50 = 20 nM. PMID:27019296

  5. Targeting transcription regulation in cancer with a covalent CDK7 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Zhang, Tinghu; Rahl, Peter B; Abraham, Brian J; Reddy, Jessica; Ficarro, Scott B; Dastur, Anahita; Amzallag, Arnaud; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Tesar, Bethany; Jenkins, Christopher R; Hannett, Nancy M; McMillin, Douglas; Sanda, Takaomi; Sim, Taebo; Kim, Nam Doo; Look, Thomas; Mitsiades, Constantine; Weng, Andrew P; Brown, Jennifer R; Benes, Cyril H.; Marto, Jarrod A; Young, Richard A; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor oncogenes include transcription factors that co-opt the general transcriptional machinery to sustain the oncogenic state1, but direct pharmacological inhibition of transcription factors has thus far proven difficult2. However, the transcriptional machinery contains various enzymatic co-factors that can be targeted for development of new therapeutic candidates3, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)4. Here we present the discovery and characterization of the first covalent CDK7 inhibitor, THZ1, which has the unprecedented ability to target a remote cysteine residue located outside of the canonical kinase domain, providing an unanticipated means of achieving selectivity for CDK7. Cancer cell line profiling indicates that a subset of cancer cell lines, including T-ALL, exhibit exceptional sensitivity to THZ1. Genome-wide analysis in Jurkat T-ALL shows that THZ1 disproportionally affects transcription of RUNX1 and suggests that sensitivity to THZ1 may be due to vulnerability conferred by the RUNX1 super-enhancer and this transcription factor’s key role in the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of these tumor cells. Pharmacological modulation of CDK7 kinase activity may thus provide an approach to identify and treat tumor types exhibiting extreme dependencies on transcription for maintenance of the oncogenic state. PMID:25043025

  6. Analysing the Effect of Mutation on Protein Function and Discovering Potential Inhibitors of CDK4: Molecular Modelling and Dynamics Studies

    PubMed Central

    N, Nagasundaram; Zhu, Hailong; Liu, Jiming; V, Karthick; C, George Priya Doss; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Chen, Luonan

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)-cyclin D1 complex plays a crucial role in the transition from the G1 phase to S phase of the cell cycle. Among the CDKs, CDK4 is one of the genes most frequently affected by somatic genetic variations that are associated with various forms of cancer. Thus, because the abnormal function of the CDK4-cyclin D1 protein complex might play a vital role in causing cancer, CDK4 can be considered a genetically validated therapeutic target. In this study, we used a systematic, integrated computational approach to identify deleterious nsSNPs and predict their effects on protein-protein (CDK4-cyclin D1) and protein-ligand (CDK4-flavopiridol) interactions. This analysis resulted in the identification of possible inhibitors of mutant CDK4 proteins that bind the conformations induced by deleterious nsSNPs. Using computational prediction methods, we identified five nsSNPs as highly deleterious: R24C, Y180H, A205T, R210P, and R246C. From molecular docking and molecular dynamic studies, we observed that these deleterious nsSNPs affected CDK4-cyclin D1 and CDK4-flavopiridol interactions. Furthermore, in a virtual screening approach, the drug 5_7_DIHYDROXY_ 2_ (3_4_5_TRI HYDROXYPHENYL) _4H_CHROMEN_ 4_ONE displayed good binding affinity for proteins with the mutations R24C or R246C, the drug diosmin displayed good binding affinity for the protein with the mutation Y180H, and the drug rutin displayed good binding affinity for proteins with the mutations A205T and R210P. Overall, this computational investigation of the CDK4 gene highlights the link between genetic variation and biological phenomena in human cancer and aids in the discovery of molecularly targeted therapies for personalized treatment. PMID:26252490

  7. An In Vivo Reporter to Quantitatively and Temporally Analyze the Effects of CDK4/6 Inhibitor-Based Therapies in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Teh, Jessica L F; Purwin, Timothy J; Greenawalt, Evan J; Chervoneva, Inna; Goldberg, Allison; Davies, Michael A; Aplin, Andrew E

    2016-09-15

    Aberrant cell-cycle progression is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) drive progression through the G1 stage of the cell cycle, at least in part, by inactivating the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma. CDK4/6 are targetable and the selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, palbociclib, was recently FDA approved for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. In cutaneous melanoma, driver mutations in NRAS and BRAF promote CDK4/6 activation, suggesting that inhibitors such as palbociclib are likely to provide therapeutic benefit in combination with BRAF inhibitors and/or MEK inhibitors that are FDA-approved. However, the determinants of the response to CDK4/6 inhibitors alone and in combination with other targeted inhibitors are poorly defined. Furthermore, in vivo systems to quantitatively and temporally measure the efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibitors and determine the extent that CDK activity is reactivated during acquired resistance are lacking. Here, we describe the heterogeneous effects of CDK4/6 inhibitors, the expression of antiapoptotic proteins that associate with response to CDK4/6 and MEK inhibitors, and the development of a luciferase-based reporter system to determine the effects of CDK4/6 inhibitors alone and in combination with MEK inhibitors in melanoma xenografts. These findings are likely to inform on-going and future clinical trials utilizing CDK4/6 inhibitors in cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5455-66. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27488531

  8. Fragment based discovery of Arginine isosteres through REPLACE: towards non-ATP competitive CDK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Premnath, Padmavathy Nandha; Liu, Shu; Perkins, Tracy; Abbott, Jennifer; Anderson, Erin; McInnes, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop non-ATP competitive CDK2/cyclin A inhibitors, the REPLACE strategy has been applied to generate fragment alternatives for the N-terminal tetrapeptide of the cyclin binding motif (HAKRRLIF) involved in substrate recruitment prior to phosphotransfer. The docking approach used for the prediction of small molecule mimics for peptide determinants was validated through reproduction of experimental binding modes of known inhibitors and provides useful information for evaluating binding to protein-protein interaction sites. Further to this, potential arginine isosteres predicted using the validated LigandFit docking method were ligated to the truncated C-terminal peptide, RLIF using solid phase synthesis and evaluated in a competitive binding assay. After testing, identified fragments were shown to represent not only appropriate mimics for a critical arginine residue but also to interact effectively with a minor hydrophobic pocket present in the binding groove. Further evaluation of binding modes was undertaken to optimize the potency of these compounds. Through further application of the REPLACE strategy in this study, peptide-small molecule hybrid CDK2 inhibitors were identified that are more drug-like and suitable for further optimization as anti-tumor therapeutics. PMID:24286762

  9. Natural aristolactams and aporphine alkaloids as inhibitors of CDK1/cyclin B and DYRK1A.

    PubMed

    Marti, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Morleo, Barbara; Le Ven, Jessica; Apel, Cécile; Bodo, Bernard; Amand, Séverine; Dumontet, Vincent; Lozach, Olivier; Meijer, Laurent; Guéritte, Françoise; Litaudon, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to find potent inhibitors of the protein kinases DYRK1A and CDK1/Cyclin B, a systematic in vitro evaluation of 2,500 plant extracts from New Caledonia and French Guyana was performed. Some extracts were found to strongly inhibit the activity of these kinases. Four aristolactams and one lignan were purified from the ethyl acetate extracts of Oxandra asbeckii and Goniothalamus dumontetii, and eleven aporphine alkaloids were isolated from the alkaloid extracts of Siparuna pachyantha, S. decipiens, S. guianensis and S. poeppigii. Among these compounds, velutinam, aristolactam AIIIA and medioresinol showed submicromolar IC50 values on DYRK1A. PMID:23467012

  10. Antitumour potential of BPT: a dual inhibitor of cdk4 and tubulin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Mahale, S; Bharate, S B; Manda, S; Joshi, P; Jenkins, P R; Vishwakarma, R A; Chaudhuri, B

    2015-01-01

    The marine natural product fascaplysin (1) is a potent Cdk4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4)-specific inhibitor, but is toxic to all cell types possibly because of its DNA-intercalating properties. Through the design and synthesis of numerous fascaplysin analogues, we intended to identify inhibitors of cancer cell growth with good therapeutic window with respect to normal cells. Among various non-planar tryptoline analogues prepared, N-(biphenyl-2-yl) tryptoline (BPT, 6) was identified as a potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth and free from DNA-binding properties owing to its non-planar structure. This compound was tested in over 60 protein kinase assays. It displayed inhibition of Cdk4-cyclin D1 enzyme in vitro far more potently than many other kinases including Cdk family members. Although it blocks growth of cancer cells deficient in the mitotic-spindle checkpoint at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, the block occurs primarily at the G2/M phase. BPT inhibits tubulin polymerization in vitro and acts as an enhancer of tubulin depolymerization of paclitaxel-stabilized tubulin in live cells. Western blot analyses indicated that, in p53-positive cells, BPT upregulates the expression of p53, p21 and p27 proteins, whereas it downregulates the expression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1. BPT selectively kills SV40-transformed mouse embryonic hepatic cells and human fibroblasts rather than untransformed cells. BPT inhibited the growth of several human cancer cells with an IC50<1 μM. The pharmacokinetic study in BALB/c mice indicated good plasma exposure after intravenous administration. It was found to be efficacious at 1/10th the maximum-tolerated dose (1000 mg/kg) against human tumours derived from HCT-116 (colon) and NCI-H460 (lung) cells in SCID (severe-combined immunodeficient) mice models. BPT is a relatively better anticancer agent than fascaplysin with an unusual ability to block two overlapping yet crucial phases of the cell cycle, mitosis and G0/G1. Its ability to

  11. Antitumour potential of BPT: a dual inhibitor of cdk4 and tubulin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, S; Bharate, S B; Manda, S; Joshi, P; Jenkins, P R; Vishwakarma, R A; Chaudhuri, B

    2015-01-01

    The marine natural product fascaplysin (1) is a potent Cdk4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4)-specific inhibitor, but is toxic to all cell types possibly because of its DNA-intercalating properties. Through the design and synthesis of numerous fascaplysin analogues, we intended to identify inhibitors of cancer cell growth with good therapeutic window with respect to normal cells. Among various non-planar tryptoline analogues prepared, N-(biphenyl-2-yl) tryptoline (BPT, 6) was identified as a potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth and free from DNA-binding properties owing to its non-planar structure. This compound was tested in over 60 protein kinase assays. It displayed inhibition of Cdk4-cyclin D1 enzyme in vitro far more potently than many other kinases including Cdk family members. Although it blocks growth of cancer cells deficient in the mitotic-spindle checkpoint at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, the block occurs primarily at the G2/M phase. BPT inhibits tubulin polymerization in vitro and acts as an enhancer of tubulin depolymerization of paclitaxel-stabilized tubulin in live cells. Western blot analyses indicated that, in p53-positive cells, BPT upregulates the expression of p53, p21 and p27 proteins, whereas it downregulates the expression of cyclin B1 and Cdk1. BPT selectively kills SV40-transformed mouse embryonic hepatic cells and human fibroblasts rather than untransformed cells. BPT inhibited the growth of several human cancer cells with an IC50 <1 μM. The pharmacokinetic study in BALB/c mice indicated good plasma exposure after intravenous administration. It was found to be efficacious at 1/10th the maximum-tolerated dose (1000 mg/kg) against human tumours derived from HCT-116 (colon) and NCI-H460 (lung) cells in SCID (severe-combined immunodeficient) mice models. BPT is a relatively better anticancer agent than fascaplysin with an unusual ability to block two overlapping yet crucial phases of the cell cycle, mitosis and G0/G1. Its ability to

  12. CDK4/6 Inhibitor PD0332991 in Glioblastoma Treatment: Does It Have a Future?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Lisette B. W.; McDonald, Kerrie L.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is aggressive, highly infiltrating, and the most frequent malignant form of brain cancer. With a median survival time of only 14.6 months, when treated with the standard of care, it is essential to find new therapeutic options. A specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, PD0332991, obtained accelerated approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced estrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer. Common alterations in the cyclin D1-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-retinoblastoma 1 pathway in glioblastoma make PD0332991 also an interesting drug for the treatment of glioblastoma. Promising results in in vitro studies, where patient derived glioblastoma cell lines showed sensitivity to PD0332991, gave motive to start in vivo studies. Outcomes of these studies have been contrasting in terms of PD0332991 efficacy within the brain: more research is necessary to conclude whether CDK4/6 inhibitor can be beneficial in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26649278

  13. CDK4/6 inhibitor suppresses gastric cancer with CDKN2A mutation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiliang; Ye, Hua; Guo, Wenying; Dong, Xianwen; Wu, Nali; Zhang, Xie; Huang, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gastric cancer is a major health problem and current treatment lacks lasting effect. Targeted therapy for gastric cancer with specific genetic background is in urgent need. Methods: We have studied The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) and The Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) databases to reveal genes with high frequency of mutation and possible sensitive compound against such gene mutation. In vitro studies were conducted to validate the in silico findings. Results: CDKN2A is frequently mutated in gastric cancer, revealed in TCGA database. CDK4/6 inhibitor PD-0332991 was sensitive in cancer cells with CDKN2A mutation, revealed in GDSC database. In vitro studies showed that PD-0332991 could selectively inhibit proliferation of gastric cancer cell with CDKN2A mutation. PD-0332991 could also inhibit cell invasion, migration, and colony formation of gastric cancer cell with CDKN2A mutation. PD-0332991 induced cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis. PD-0332991 inhibited xenograft gastric cancer mouse model. Conclusion: Gastric cancer with CDKN2A mutation is sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibitor. PD-0332991 is a potential therapeutic agent for gastric cancer. PMID:26380006

  14. Clinical Development of the CDK4/6 Inhibitors Ribociclib and Abemaciclib in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barroso-Sousa, Romualdo; Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Tolaney, Sara M

    2016-06-01

    Clinical and preclinical data support a significant role for inhibitors of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Recently, based on data showing improvement in progression-free survival, the use of palbociclib (Ibrance; Pfizer, Inc.) in combination with endocrine agents was approved to treat patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced disease. Importantly, 2 other CDK4/6 inhibitors, abemaciclib (LY2835219; Lilly) and ribociclib (LEE011; Novartis), are in the late stage of clinical development. In this review, we will focus on clinical data on these 2 new drugs, highlighting their differences compared to palbociclib in terms of single-agent activity, central nervous system penetration, and common adverse events. In addition, we will present the ongoing clinical trials and discuss future directions in the field. PMID:27493615

  15. Proteolysis of Xenopus Cip-type CDK inhibitor, p16Xic2, is regulated by PCNA binding and CDK2 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell division is positively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) partnered with cyclins and negatively regulated by CDK inhibitors. In the frog, Xenopus laevis, three types of CDK inhibitors have been described: p27Xic1 (Xic1) which shares sequence homology with both p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 from mammals, p16Xic2 (Xic2) which shares sequence homology with p21Cip1, and p17Xic3 (Xic3) which shares sequence homology with p27Kip1. While past studies have demonstrated that during DNA polymerase switching, Xic1 is targeted for protein turnover dependent upon DNA, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), and the ubiquitin ligase CRL4Cdt2, little is known about the processes that regulate Xic2 or Xic3. Methods We used the Xenopus interphase egg extract as a model system to examine the regulation of Xic2 by proteolysis and phosphorylation. Results Our studies indicated that following primer synthesis during the initiation of DNA replication, Xic2 is targeted for DNA- and PCNA-dependent ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and that Cdt2 can promote Xic2 turnover. Additionally, during interphase, Xic2 is phosphorylated by CDK2 at Ser-98 and Ser-131 in a DNA-independent manner, inhibiting Xic2 turnover. In the presence of double-stranded DNA ends, Xic2 is also phosphorylated at Ser-78 and Ser-81 by a caffeine-sensitive kinase, but this phosphorylation does not alter Xic2 turnover. Conversely, in the presence or absence of DNA, Xic3 was stable in the Xenopus interphase egg extract and did not exhibit a shift indicative of phosphorylation. Conclusions During interphase, Xic2 is targeted for DNA- and PCNA-dependent proteolysis that is negatively regulated by CDK2 phosphorylation. During a response to DNA damage, Xic2 may be alternatively regulated by phosphorylation by a caffeine-sensitive kinase. Our studies suggest that the three types of Xenopus CDK inhibitors, Xic1, Xic2, and Xic3 appear to be uniquely regulated which may reflect their specialized roles during cell

  16. Association of CDK4 germline and BRAF somatic mutations in a patient with multiple primary melanomas and BRAF inhibitor resistance.

    PubMed

    Governa, Maurizio; Caprarella, Evelina; Dalla Pozza, Edoardo; Vigato, Enrico; Maritan, Monia; Caputo, Glenda G; Zannoni, Marina; Rosina, Paolo; Elefanti, Lisa; Stagni, Camilla; Menin, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Many genetic alterations, including predisposing or somatic mutations, may contribute toward the development of melanoma. Although CDKN2A and CDK4 are high-penetrance genes for melanoma, MC1R is a low-penetrance gene that has been associated most consistently with the disease. Moreover, BRAF is the most frequently somatically altered oncogene and is a validated therapeutic target in melanoma. This paper reports a case of multiple primary melanoma with germline CDK4 mutation, MC1R variant, and somatic BRAF mutation in nine out of 10 melanomas, indicating that a common pathogenesis, because of a predisposing genetic background, may be shared among distinct subsequent melanomas of probable clonal origin. After 3 months of targeted therapy with BRAF inhibitor, our patient developed resistance with rapid progression of the disease leading to death. This is the first case in which early resistance to BRAF inhibitor has been reported in a patient with CDK4 germline mutation.

  17. Association of CDK4 germline and BRAF somatic mutations in a patient with multiple primary melanomas and BRAF inhibitor resistance.

    PubMed

    Governa, Maurizio; Caprarella, Evelina; Dalla Pozza, Edoardo; Vigato, Enrico; Maritan, Monia; Caputo, Glenda G; Zannoni, Marina; Rosina, Paolo; Elefanti, Lisa; Stagni, Camilla; Menin, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Many genetic alterations, including predisposing or somatic mutations, may contribute toward the development of melanoma. Although CDKN2A and CDK4 are high-penetrance genes for melanoma, MC1R is a low-penetrance gene that has been associated most consistently with the disease. Moreover, BRAF is the most frequently somatically altered oncogene and is a validated therapeutic target in melanoma. This paper reports a case of multiple primary melanoma with germline CDK4 mutation, MC1R variant, and somatic BRAF mutation in nine out of 10 melanomas, indicating that a common pathogenesis, because of a predisposing genetic background, may be shared among distinct subsequent melanomas of probable clonal origin. After 3 months of targeted therapy with BRAF inhibitor, our patient developed resistance with rapid progression of the disease leading to death. This is the first case in which early resistance to BRAF inhibitor has been reported in a patient with CDK4 germline mutation. PMID:26110554

  18. A Novel CDK7 Inhibitor of the Pyrazolotriazine Class Exerts Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity at Nanomolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hutterer, Corina; Eickhoff, Jan; Milbradt, Jens; Korn, Klaus; Zeitträger, Isabel; Bahsi, Hanife; Wagner, Sabrina; Zischinsky, Gunther; Wolf, Alexander; Degenhart, Carsten; Unger, Anke; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent central and multifunctional regulators of a balanced virus-host interaction. Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 7 (CDK7) plays crucial regulatory roles in cell cycle and transcription, both connected with the replication of many viruses. Previously, we developed a CDK7 inhibitor, LDC4297, that inhibits CDK7 in vitro in the nano-picomolar range. Novel data from a kinome-wide evaluation (>330 kinases profiled in vitro) demonstrate a kinase selectivity. Importantly, we provide first evidence for the antiviral potential of the CDK7 inhibitor LDC4297, i.e., in exerting a block of the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in primary human fibroblasts at nanomolar concentrations (50% effective concentration, 24.5 ± 1.3 nM). As a unique feature compared to approved antiherpesviral drugs, inhibition occurred already at the immediate-early level of HCMV gene expression. The mode of antiviral action was considered multifaceted since CDK7-regulated cellular factors that are supportive of HCMV replication were substantially affected by the inhibitors. An effect of LDC4297 was identified in the interference with HCMV-driven inactivation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), a regulatory step generally considered a hallmark of herpesviral replication. In line with this finding, a broad inhibitory activity of the drug could be demonstrated against a selection of human and animal herpesviruses and adenoviruses, whereas other viruses only showed intermediate drug sensitivity. Summarized, the CDK7 inhibitor LDC4297 is a promising candidate for further antiviral drug development, possibly offering new options for a comprehensive approach to antiviral therapy. PMID:25624324

  19. Cyclin E1 and RTK/RAS signaling drive CDK inhibitor resistance via activation of E2F and ETS.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Harding, Barbie; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Cheon, Dong-Joo; Mizuno, Takako; Greenberg, Danielle; Allen, Jenieke R; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Wang, Qiang; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth Y; Wiedemeyer, W Ruprecht

    2015-01-20

    High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) are genomically complex, heterogeneous cancers with a high mortality rate, due to acquired chemoresistance and lack of targeted therapy options. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) target the retinoblastoma (RB) signaling network, and have been successfully incorporated into treatment regimens for breast and other cancers. Here, we have compared mechanisms of response and resistance to three CDKi that target either CDK4/6 or CDK2 and abrogate E2F target gene expression. We identify CCNE1 gain and RB1 loss as mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition, whereas receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and RAS signaling is associated with CDK2 inhibitor resistance. Mechanistically, we show that ETS factors are mediators of RTK/RAS signaling that cooperate with E2F in cell cycle progression. Consequently, CDK2 inhibition sensitizes cyclin E1-driven but not RAS-driven ovarian cancer cells to platinum-based chemotherapy. In summary, this study outlines a rational approach for incorporating CDKi into treatment regimens for HGSOC. PMID:25557169

  20. Dinaciclib, a novel CDK inhibitor, demonstrates encouraging single-agent activity in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji K; LaPlant, Betsy; Chng, Wee Joo; Zonder, Jeffrey; Callander, Natalie; Fonseca, Rafael; Fruth, Briant; Roy, Vivek; Erlichman, Charles; Stewart, A Keith

    2015-01-15

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases is a hallmark of myeloma, and specifically, cdk5 inhibition can enhance the activity of proteasome inhibitors in vitro. Dinaciclib is a novel potent small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)1, CDK2, CDK5, and CDK9. Patients with relapsed multiple myeloma and ≤5 prior lines of therapy, with measurable disease, were enrolled. Dinaciclib was administered on day 1 of a 21-day cycle at doses of 30 to 50 mg/m(2). Overall, 27 evaluable patients were accrued; the median number of prior therapies was 4. The dose level of 50 mg/m(2) was determined to be the maximally tolerated dose. The overall confirmed partial response rate (PR) was 3 of 27 (11%), including 1 patient at the 30 mg/m(2) dose (1 very good PR [VGPR]) and 2 patients at the 40 mg/m(2) dose (1 VGPR and 1 PR). In addition, 2 patients at the 50 mg/mg(2) dose achieved a minimal response (clinical benefit rate, 19%). Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, gastrointestinal symptoms, alopecia, and fatigue were the most common adverse events. The current study demonstrates single agent activity of dinaciclib in relapsed myeloma, with 2 patients achieving a deep response (VGPR) and 10 patients obtaining some degree of M protein stabilization or decrease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01096342. PMID:25395429

  1. Cyclin E1 and RTK/RAS signaling drive CDK inhibitor resistance via activation of E2F and ETS

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Harding, Barbie; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Cheon, Dong-Joo; Mizuno, Takako; Greenberg, Danielle; Allen, Jenieke R.; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent; Spiteri, Elizabeth; Wang, Qiang; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth Y.; Wiedemeyer, W. Ruprecht

    2015-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) are genomically complex, heterogeneous cancers with a high mortality rate, due to acquired chemoresistance and lack of targeted therapy options. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi) target the retinoblastoma (RB) signaling network, and have been successfully incorporated into treatment regimens for breast and other cancers. Here, we have compared mechanisms of response and resistance to three CDKi that target either CDK4/6 or CDK2 and abrogate E2F target gene expression. We identify CCNE1 gain and RB1 loss as mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition, whereas receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and RAS signaling is associated with CDK2 inhibitor resistance. Mechanistically, we show that ETS factors are mediators of RTK/RAS signaling that cooperate with E2F in cell cycle progression. Consequently, CDK2 inhibition sensitizes cyclin E1-driven but not RAS-driven ovarian cancer cells to platinum-based chemotherapy. In summary, this study outlines a rational approach for incorporating CDKi into treatment regimens for HGSOC. PMID:25557169

  2. Differential regulation of the Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation sites of inhibitor-1 and DARPP-32 by depolarization.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chan; Hosokawa, Tomohisa; Kuroiwa, Mahomi; Ip, Nancy Y; Nishi, Akinori; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Bibb, James A

    2007-11-01

    While cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is of growing importance to neuronal signaling, its regulation remains relatively unexplored. Examination of the mechanism by which NMDA modulates the phosphorylation of protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 at Ser6 and Ser67 and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein M(r) 32 000 at Thr75 revealed that generalized depolarization, rather than specific activation of NMDA receptors, was sufficient to induce decreases in these Cdk5 sites. Although no evidence for the involvement of the Cdk5 cofactors p35 or p39, or for L- and T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, was found, evaluation of the role of phosphatases and extracellular cations revealed differential regulation of the three sites. NMDA-induced decreases in the phosphorylation of Thr75 of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein M(r) 32 000 required protein phosphatase 1/2A activity and extracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, the effects on Ser6 and Ser67 of inhibitor-1 were not cation specific; either Na(+) or Ca(2+) sufficed. Furthermore, while the decrease in phosphorylation of Ser6 was partially dependent on protein phosphatase 2B, that of Ser67 was independent of the major protein serine/threonine phosphatases, likely indicating the presence of a pathway by which NMDA inhibits Cdk5 activity. Thus, in the striatum the regulation of phosphorylation of Cdk5-dependent sites by NMDA occurs through multiple distinct pathways.

  3. Effect of mimetic CDK9 inhibitors on HIV-1 activated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Van Duyne, Rachel; Guendel, Irene; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Sampey, Gavin; Klase, Zachary; Chen, Hao; Zeng, Chen; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; el Kouni, Mahmoud H.; Lepene, Benjamin; Patanarut, Alexis; Nekhai, Sergei; Price, David H.; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2013-01-01

    Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV-1 infection into a chronic manageable disease; however drug resistance remains a common problem that limits the effectiveness and clinical benefits of this type of treatment. The discovery of viral reservoirs in the body, in which HIV-1 may persist, has helped to explain why therapeutic eradication of HIV-1 has proved so difficult. In the current study we utilized a combination of structure based analysis of Cyclin/CDK complexes with our previously published Tat peptide derivatives. We modeled the Tat peptide inhibitors with CDKs and found a particular pocket which showed the most stable binding site (Cavity 1) using in silico analysis. Furthermore, we were able to find peptide mimetics that bound to similar regions using in silico searches of a chemical library, followed by cell based biological assays. Using these methods we obtained the first generation mimetic drugs and tested these compounds on HIV-1 LTR activated transcription. Using biological assays followed by similar in silico analysis to find a 2nd generation drugs resembling the original mimetic, we found the new targets of Cavity 1 and Cavity 2 regions on CDK9. We examined the 2nd generation mimetic against various viral isolates, and observed a generalized suppression of most HIV-1 isolates. Finally, the drug inhibited viral replication in humanized mouse models of Rag2-/-γc-/- with no toxicity to the animals at tested concentrations. Our results suggest that it may be possible to model peptide inhibitors into available crystal structures and further find drug mimetics using in silico analysis. PMID:23247501

  4. Structural basis for specificity and potency of a flavonoid inhibitor of human CDK2, a cell cycle kinase.

    PubMed Central

    De Azevedo, W F; Mueller-Dieckmann, H J; Schulze-Gahmen, U; Worland, P J; Sausville, E; Kim, S H

    1996-01-01

    The central role of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in cell cycle regulation makes them a promising target for studying inhibitory molecules that can modify the degree of cell proliferation. The discovery of specific inhibitors of CDKs such as polyhydroxylated flavones has opened the way to investigation and design of antimitotic compounds. A novel flavone, (-)-cis-5,7-dihydroxyphenyl-8-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl)piperidinyl] -4H-1-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride hemihydrate (L868276), is a potent inhibitor of CDKs. A chlorinated form, flavopiridol, is currently in phase I clinical trials as a drug against breast tumors. We determined the crystal structure of a complex between CDK2 and L868276 at 2.33 angstroms resolution and refined to an Rfactor 20.3%. The aromatic portion of the inhibitor binds to the adenine-binding pocket of CDK2, and the position of the phenyl group of the inhibitor enables the inhibitor to make contacts with the enzyme not observed in the ATP complex structure. The analysis of the position of this phenyl ring not only explains the great differences of kinase inhibition among the flavonoid inhibitors but also explains the specificity of L868276 to inhibit CDK2 and CDC2. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8610110

  5. CDK4/6 inhibitor PD 0332991 sensitizes acute myeloid leukemia to cytarabine-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chenyi; Boyson, Cynthia A.; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Huang, Xiangao; Hannah, Jeffrey; Dorn, David C.; Moore, Malcolm AS; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Zhou, Pengbo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 and CDK6 are frequently overexpressed or hyperactivated in human cancers. Targeting CDK4/CDK6 in combination with cytotoxic killing therefore represents a rational approach to cancer therapy. By selective inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 with PD 0332991, which leads to early G1 arrest and synchronous S phase entry upon release of the G1 block, we have developed a novel strategy to prime acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells for cytotoxic killing by cytarabine (Ara-C). This sensitization is achieved in part through enrichment of S-phase cells, which maximizes the AML populations for Ara-C incorporation into replicating DNA to elicit DNA damage. Moreover, PD 0332991 trigged apoptosis of AML cells through inhibition of the homeobox (HOX)A9 oncogene expression, reducing the transcription of its target PIM1. Reduced PIM1 synthesis attenuates PIM1-mediated phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic BAD and activates BAD-dependent apoptosis. In vivo, timely inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 by PD 0332991 and release profoundly suppresses tumor growth in response to reduced doses of Ara-C in a xenograft AML model. Collectively, these data suggest selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 as an effective means to enhance Ara-C killing of AML cells at reduced doses, which has implications for the treatment of elderly AML patients who are unable to tolerate high dose Ara-C therapy. PMID:25744718

  6. Development of Inhibitors of Protein-protein Interactions through REPLACE: Application to the Design and Development Non-ATP Competitive CDK Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nandha Premnath, Padmavathy; Craig, Sandra; McInnes, Campbell

    2015-10-26

    REPLACE is a unique strategy developed to more effectively target protein-protein interactions (PPIs). It aims to expand available drug target space by providing improved methodology for the identification of inhibitors for such binding sites and which represent the majority of potential drug targets. The main goal of this paper is to provide a methodological overview of the use and application of the REPLACE strategy which involves computational and synthetic chemistry approaches. REPLACE is exemplified through its application to the development of non-ATP competitive cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) inhibitors as anti-tumor therapeutics. CDKs are frequently deregulated in cancer and hence are considered as important targets for drug development. Inhibition of CDK2/cyclin A in S phase has been reported to promote selective apoptosis of cancer cells in a p53 independent manner through the E2F1 pathway. Targeting the protein-protein interaction at the cyclin binding groove (CBG) is an approach which will allow the specific inhibition of cell cycle over transcriptional CDKs. The CBG is recognized by a consensus sequence derived from CDK substrates and tumor suppressor proteins termed the cyclin binding motif (CBM). The CBM has previously been optimized to an octapeptide from p21Waf (HAKRRIF) and then further truncated to a pentapeptide retaining sufficient activity (RRLIF). Peptides in general are not cell permeable, are metabolically unstable and therefore the REPLACE (REplacement with Partial Ligand Alternatives through Computational Enrichment) strategy has been applied in order to generate more drug-like inhibitors. The strategy begins with the design of Fragment ligated inhibitory peptides (FLIPs) that selectively inhibit cell cycle CDK/cyclin complexes. FLIPs were generated by iteratively replacing residues of HAKRRLIF/RRLIF with fragment like small molecules (capping groups), starting from the N-terminus (Ncaps), followed by replacement on the C-terminus. These

  7. Discovery of thienoquinolone derivatives as selective and ATP non-competitive CDK5/p25 inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arindam; Cutler, Stephen J; Doerksen, Robert J; Khan, Ikhlas A; Williamson, John S

    2014-11-15

    Calpain mediated cleavage of CDK5 natural precursor p35 causes a stable complex formation of CDK5/p25, which leads to hyperphosphorylation of tau. Thus inhibition of this complex is a viable target for numerous acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases involving tau protein, including Alzheimer's disease. Since CDK5 has the highest sequence homology with its mitotic counterpart CDK2, our primary goal was to design selective CDK5/p25 inhibitors targeting neurodegeneration. A novel structure-based virtual screening protocol comprised of e-pharmacophore models and virtual screening workflow was used to identify nine compounds from a commercial database containing 2.84 million compounds. An ATP non-competitive and selective thieno[3,2-c]quinolin-4(5H)-one inhibitor (10) with ligand efficiency (LE) of 0.3 was identified as the lead molecule. Further SAR optimization led to the discovery of several low micromolar inhibitors with good selectivity. The research represents a new class of potent ATP non-competitive CDK5/p25 inhibitors with good CDK2/E selectivity.

  8. Maintenance of Leukemia-Initiating Cells Is Regulated by the CDK Inhibitor Inca1

    PubMed Central

    Bäumer, Nicole; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berkenfeld, Frank; Stehling, Martin; Köhler, Gabriele; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tschanter, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Functional differences between healthy progenitor and cancer initiating cells may provide unique opportunities for targeted therapy approaches. Hematopoietic stem cells are tightly controlled by a network of CDK inhibitors that govern proliferation and prevent stem cell exhaustion. Loss of Inca1 led to an increased number of short-term hematopoietic stem cells in older mice, but Inca1 seems largely dispensable for normal hematopoiesis. On the other hand, Inca1-deficiency enhanced cell cycling upon cytotoxic stress and accelerated bone marrow exhaustion. Moreover, AML1-ETO9a-induced proliferation was not sustained in Inca1-deficient cells in vivo. As a consequence, leukemia induction and leukemia maintenance were severely impaired in Inca1−/− bone marrow cells. The re-initiation of leukemia was also significantly inhibited in absence of Inca1−/− in MLL—AF9- and c-myc/BCL2-positive leukemia mouse models. These findings indicate distinct functional properties of Inca1 in normal hematopoietic cells compared to leukemia initiating cells. Such functional differences might be used to design specific therapy approaches in leukemia. PMID:25525809

  9. Reduction of ciliary length through pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of CDK5 attenuates polycystic kidney disease in a model of nephronophthisis

    PubMed Central

    Husson, Hervé; Moreno, Sarah; Smith, Laurie A.; Smith, Mandy M.; Russo, Ryan J.; Pitstick, Rose; Sergeev, Mikhail; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Bukanov, Nikolay O.; Lane, Monica; Zhang, Kate; Billot, Katy; Carlson, George; Shah, Jagesh; Meijer, Laurent; Beier, David R.; Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya, Oxana

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) comprise a subgroup of ciliopathies characterized by the formation of fluid-filled kidney cysts and progression to end-stage renal disease. A mechanistic understanding of cystogenesis is crucial for the development of viable therapeutic options. Here, we identify CDK5, a kinase active in post mitotic cells, as a new and important mediator of PKD progression. We show that long-lasting attenuation of PKD in the juvenile cystic kidneys (jck) mouse model of nephronophthisis by pharmacological inhibition of CDK5 using either R-roscovitine or S-CR8 is accompanied by sustained shortening of cilia and a more normal epithelial phenotype, suggesting this treatment results in a reprogramming of cellular differentiation. Also, a knock down of Cdk5 in jck cells using small interfering RNA results in significant shortening of ciliary length, similar to what we observed with R-roscovitine. Finally, conditional inactivation of Cdk5 in the jck mice significantly attenuates cystic disease progression and is associated with shortening of ciliary length as well as restoration of cellular differentiation. Our results suggest that CDK5 may regulate ciliary length by affecting tubulin dynamics via its substrate collapsin response mediator protein 2. Taken together, our data support therapeutic approaches aimed at restoration of ciliogenesis and cellular differentiation as a promising strategy for the treatment of renal cystic diseases. PMID:27053712

  10. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 8-hydroxypiperidinylmethyl-baicalein (BA-j) as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor in monkey.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong-Min; Sun, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Xuan; Ju, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ai-Yun; Li, Jing; Zou, Liang; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Li, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is the only necessary CDK in the cell proliferation process and a new target in the research and development of anti-cancer drugs. 8-Hydroxypiperidinemethyl-baicalein (BA-j) is a Mannich base derivative of baicalein (BA) isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor. 12 metabolites of BA-j in the monkey urine were identified by LC-MS-MS and (1)H NMR. The major metabolic pathways of BA-j, by capturing oxygen free radicals ((.)O2(-)) and releasing peroxides (H2O2), are degraded into active intermediate metabolite dihydroflavonol, then into main metabolite M179 by Shiff reaction, second metabolite M264 by sulfation, trace amount of metabolite M559 by glucuronidation UGT1A9, and without metabolism by CYP3A4. The metabolic process of BA-j by regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was related with BA-j selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Pharmacokinetics of 10mg/kg oral BA-j in monkey by HPLC-UV was best fitted to a two-compartment open model, with t1/2(β) of 4.2h, Cmax 25.4μM at 2h, and Vd 12.6L, meaning the drug distributing widely in body fluids with no special selectivity to certain tissues, and being able to permeate through the blood-brain barrier. The protein binding rate of BA-j was 91.8%. BA-j has excellent druggability for oral administration or injection, and it may be developed into a novel anti-cancer drug as a selective CDK1 inhibitor.

  11. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 8-hydroxypiperidinylmethyl-baicalein (BA-j) as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor in monkey.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong-Min; Sun, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Xuan; Ju, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ai-Yun; Li, Jing; Zou, Liang; Sun, Xiao-Dan; Li, Hai-Liang; Zheng, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is the only necessary CDK in the cell proliferation process and a new target in the research and development of anti-cancer drugs. 8-Hydroxypiperidinemethyl-baicalein (BA-j) is a Mannich base derivative of baicalein (BA) isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, as a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor. 12 metabolites of BA-j in the monkey urine were identified by LC-MS-MS and (1)H NMR. The major metabolic pathways of BA-j, by capturing oxygen free radicals ((.)O2(-)) and releasing peroxides (H2O2), are degraded into active intermediate metabolite dihydroflavonol, then into main metabolite M179 by Shiff reaction, second metabolite M264 by sulfation, trace amount of metabolite M559 by glucuronidation UGT1A9, and without metabolism by CYP3A4. The metabolic process of BA-j by regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was related with BA-j selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Pharmacokinetics of 10mg/kg oral BA-j in monkey by HPLC-UV was best fitted to a two-compartment open model, with t1/2(β) of 4.2h, Cmax 25.4μM at 2h, and Vd 12.6L, meaning the drug distributing widely in body fluids with no special selectivity to certain tissues, and being able to permeate through the blood-brain barrier. The protein binding rate of BA-j was 91.8%. BA-j has excellent druggability for oral administration or injection, and it may be developed into a novel anti-cancer drug as a selective CDK1 inhibitor. PMID:26474673

  12. The CDK4/6 inhibitor LY2835219 has potent activity in combination with mTOR inhibitor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jiae; Bae, Yeon-Hee; Sun, Jong-Mu; Lee, Se-hoon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Keunchil; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Deletion of CDKN2A (p16) or amplification of CCND1 (cyclin D1) occurs commonly in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and induces sustained cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activation. Here, we report the antiproliferative activity of LY2835219, a selective CDK4/6 inhibitor through inhibition of CDK4/6-dependent Ser780 phosphorylation in retinoblastoma (RB) and induction of cell cycle arrest in HNSCC cells. In addition, we demonstrated the antitumor effects of HNSCC xenografts to LY2835219 in vivo. Given the limited effect in HNSCC as a single-agent treatment with LY2835219, a combinational strategy is required to enhance antitumor activity. At the molecular level, we found that LY2835219 inhibited activation of AKT and ERK, but not mTOR. The combination of LY2835219 with mTOR inhibitor was found to be more effective than either drug alone in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combinational treatment with LY2835219 and mTOR inhibitor is a promising therapeutic approach for HNSCC. PMID:26909611

  13. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine CDK2 Inhibitors as Anti-Tumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    El-Moghazy, Samir M.; Ibrahim, Diaa A.; Abdelgawad, Nagwa M.; Farag, Nahla A. H.; El-Khouly, Ahmad S.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 2,5,7-trisubstituted pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2) inhibitors is designed and synthesized. 6-Amino-2-thiouracil is reacted with an aldehyde and thiourea to prepare the pyrimido[4,5-d]-pyrimidines. Alkylation and amination of the latter ones give different amino derivatives. These compounds show potent and selective CDK inhibitory activities and inhibit in vitro cellular proliferation in cultured human tumor cells. PMID:21886895

  14. BA-j as a novel CDK1 inhibitor selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells by regulating ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shixuan; Bao, Yongming; Ju, Xiulan; Li, Kangjian; Shang, Haiyan; Ha, Lisha; Qian, Yuan; Zou, Liang; Sun, Xiaodan; Li, Jing; Wang, Qianru; Fan, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is the only necessary CDK in cell proliferation and a novel target in the development of anticancer drugs. 8-Hydroxypiperidinemethyl-baicalein (BA-j) is a novel selective CDK1 inhibitor with broad spectrum anti-cancer activity (IC50 12.3 μM) and 2 tumor xenografts. Because of the differential mechanisms controlling redox-states in normal and cancer cells, BA-j can capture oxygen free radicals (·O2−) and selectively increase the level of H2O2 in cancer cells, thereby specifically oxidize and activate the intrinsic apoptosis pathway bypassing the extrinsic death receptor pathway, thus inducing apoptosis in cancer cells rather than in normal cells. BA-j is different from cytotoxic anticancer drugs which can activate both the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and the extrinsic death receptor pathway, and therefore harm normal cells while killing cancer cells. The molecular and biochemical mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation suggest that BA-j may be developed into a novel anticancer agent. PMID:26330167

  15. Chemoproteomics Reveals Novel Protein and Lipid Kinase Targets of Clinical CDK4/6 Inhibitors in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Natalia J; Kuenzi, Brent M; Knezevic, Claire E; Remsing Rix, Lily L; Rix, Uwe

    2015-12-18

    Several selective CDK4/6 inhibitors are in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Palbociclib (PD0332991) is included in the phase II/III Lung-MAP trial for squamous cell lung carcinoma (LUSQ). We noted differential cellular activity between palbociclib and the structurally related ribociclib (LEE011) in LUSQ cells. Applying an unbiased mass spectrometry-based chemoproteomics approach in H157 cells and primary tumor samples, we here report distinct proteome-wide target profiles of these two drug candidates in LUSQ, which encompass novel protein and, for palbociclib only, lipid kinases. In addition to CDK4 and 6, we observed CDK9 as a potent target of both drugs. Palbociclib interacted with several kinases not targeted by ribociclib, such as casein kinase 2 and PIK3R4, which regulate autophagy. Furthermore, palbociclib engaged several lipid kinases, most notably, PIK3CD and PIP4K2A/B/C. Accordingly, we observed modulation of autophagy and inhibition of AKT signaling by palbociclib but not ribociclib.

  16. CDK4/6 and IGF1 receptor inhibitors synergize to suppress the growth of p16INK4A-deficient pancreatic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Andreas M.; Perera, Rushika M.; Ecker, Veronika; Nicolay, Brandon N.; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Benes, Cyril H.; Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in p16INK4A (CDKN2A) occur in approximately 80% of sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), contributing to its early progression. While this loss activates the cell cycle-dependent kinases CDK4/6, which have been considered as drug targets for many years, p16INK4A-deficient PDAC cells are inherently resistant to CDK4/6 inhibitors. This study searched for targeted therapies that might synergize with CDK4/6 inhibition in this setting. We report that the IGF1R/IR inhibitor BMS-754807 cooperated with the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD-0332991 to strongly block proliferation of p16INK4A-deficient PDAC cells in vitro and in vivo. Sensitivity to this drug combination correlated with reduced activity of the master cell growth regulator mTORC1. Accordingly, replacing the IGF1R/IR inhibitor with the rapalog inhibitor temsirolimus broadened the sensitivity of PDAC cells to CDK4/6 inhibition. Our results establish targeted therapy combinations with robust cytostatic activity in p16INK4A-deficient PDAC cells and possible implications for improving treatment of a broad spectrum of human cancers characterized by p16INK4A loss. PMID:24986516

  17. A subset of cancer cell lines is acutely sensitive to the Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776 as monotherapy due to CDK2 activation in S phase

    PubMed Central

    Sakurikar, Nandini; Thompson, Ruth; Montano, Ryan; Eastman, Alan

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage activates Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) to halt cell cycle progression thereby preventing further DNA replication and mitosis until the damage has been repaired. Consequently, Chk1 inhibitors have emerged as promising anticancer therapeutics in combination with DNA damaging drugs, but their single agent activity also provides a novel approach that may be particularly effective in a subset of patients. From analysis of a large panel of cell lines, we demonstrate that 15% are very sensitive to the Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776. Upon inhibition of Chk1, sensitive cells rapidly accumulate DNA double-strand breaks in S phase in a CDK2- and cyclin A-dependent manner. In contrast, resistant cells can continue to grow for at least 7 days despite continued inhibition of Chk1. Resistance can be circumvented by inhibiting Wee1 kinase and thereby directly activating CDK2. Hence, sensitivity to Chk1 inhibition is regulated upstream of CDK2 and correlates with accumulation of CDC25A. We conclude that cells poorly tolerate CDK2 activity in S phase and that a major function of Chk1 is to ensure it remains inactive. Indeed, inhibitors of CDK1 and CDK2 arrest cells in G1 or G2, respectively, but do not prevent progression through S phase demonstrating that neither kinase is required for S phase progression. Inappropriate activation of CDK2 in S phase underlies the sensitivity of a subset of cell lines to Chk1 inhibitors, and this may provide a novel therapeutic opportunity for appropriately stratified patients. PMID:26595527

  18. A subset of cancer cell lines is acutely sensitive to the Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776 as monotherapy due to CDK2 activation in S phase.

    PubMed

    Sakurikar, Nandini; Thompson, Ruth; Montano, Ryan; Eastman, Alan

    2016-01-12

    DNA damage activates Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) to halt cell cycle progression thereby preventing further DNA replication and mitosis until the damage has been repaired. Consequently, Chk1 inhibitors have emerged as promising anticancer therapeutics in combination with DNA damaging drugs, but their single agent activity also provides a novel approach that may be particularly effective in a subset of patients. From analysis of a large panel of cell lines, we demonstrate that 15% are very sensitive to the Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776. Upon inhibition of Chk1, sensitive cells rapidly accumulate DNA double-strand breaks in S phase in a CDK2- and cyclin A-dependent manner. In contrast, resistant cells can continue to grow for at least 7 days despite continued inhibition of Chk1. Resistance can be circumvented by inhibiting Wee1 kinase and thereby directly activating CDK2. Hence, sensitivity to Chk1 inhibition is regulated upstream of CDK2 and correlates with accumulation of CDC25A. We conclude that cells poorly tolerate CDK2 activity in S phase and that a major function of Chk1 is to ensure it remains inactive. Indeed, inhibitors of CDK1 and CDK2 arrest cells in G1 or G2, respectively, but do not prevent progression through S phase demonstrating that neither kinase is required for S phase progression. Inappropriate activation of CDK2 in S phase underlies the sensitivity of a subset of cell lines to Chk1 inhibitors, and this may provide a novel therapeutic opportunity for appropriately stratified patients. PMID:26595527

  19. CDK inhibitors, p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1}, participate in cell cycle exit of mammalian cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tane, Shoji; Ikenishi, Aiko; Okayama, Hitomi; Iwamoto, Noriko; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Expression of p21 and p27 in the hearts showed a peak during postnatal stages. •p21 and p27 bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 in the hearts at postnatal stages. •Cardiomyocytes in both KO mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase. •These data show the first apparent phenotypes in the hearts of Cip/Kip KO mice. -- Abstract: Mammalian cardiomyocytes actively proliferate during embryonic stages, following which cardiomyocytes exit their cell cycle after birth. The irreversible cell cycle exit inhibits cardiac regeneration by the proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes. Exactly how the cell cycle exit occurs remains largely unknown. Previously, we showed that cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities are inhibited before the CDKs levels decrease in postnatal stages. This result suggests that factors such as CDK inhibitors (CKIs) inhibit CDK activities, and contribute to the cell cycle exit. In the present study, we focused on a Cip/Kip family, which can inhibit cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities. Expression of p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} but not p57{sup Kip2} showed a peak around postnatal day 5, when cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK activities start to decrease. p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} bound to cyclin E, cyclin A and CDK2 at postnatal stages. Cell cycle distribution patterns of postnatal cardiomyocytes in p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} knockout mice showed failure in the cell cycle exit at G1-phase, and endoreplication. These results indicate that p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip} play important roles in the cell cycle exit of postnatal cardiomyocytes.

  20. Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Hormone-Receptor Positive Advanced Breast Cancer-The Emerging Role of CDK4/6 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Ciara C

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathway in cancer cells may inhibit senescence and promote cellular proliferation. By using various different mechanisms, malignant cells may increase cyclin D-dependent activity. The cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls the cell cycle restriction point, and is commonly dysregulated in breast cancer; making it a rational target for anticancer therapy. To date, three oral highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) are in various stages of clinical development: PD0332991 (palbociclib), LEE011 (ribociclib) and LY2835219 (abemaciclib). Results from phase I, II and III trials in hormone-receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer have been encouraging, demonstrating convincing efficacy and a tolerable side-effect profile (mainly uncomplicated neutropenia). This article will review the preclinical and clinical development of the CDK4/6i, as well as reviewing the existing preclinical evidence regarding combination of these agents with chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. Future and ongoing clinical trials, which may expand the potential application of these agents, will also be discussed. In summary, CDK4/6i are exciting compounds which may change the therapeutic landscape of HR-positive breast cancer. PMID:26726315

  1. Incomplete Folding upon Binding Mediates Cdk4/Cyclin D Complex Activation by Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Inhibitor p27 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Li; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Otieno, Steve; Xiao, Limin; Bashford, Donald; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    p27Kip1 (p27), an intrinsically disordered protein, regulates the various Cdk/cyclin complexes that control cell cycle progression. The kinase inhibitory domain of p27 contains a cyclin-binding subdomain (D1), a Cdk-binding subdomain (D2), and a linker helix subdomain that connects D1 and D2. Here, we report that, despite extensive sequence conservation between Cdk4/cyclin D1 (hereafter Cdk4/cyclin D) and Cdk2/cyclin A, the thermodynamic details describing how the individual p27 subdomains contribute to equally high affinity binding to these two Cdk/cyclin complexes are strikingly different. Differences in enthalpy/entropy compensation revealed that the D2 subdomain of p27 folds incompletely when binding Cdk4/cyclin D versus Cdk2/cyclin A. Incomplete binding-induced folding exposes tyrosine 88 of p27 for phosphorylation by the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Abl. Importantly, tyrosine phosphorylation (of p27) relieves Cdk inhibition by p27, enabling cell cycle entry. Furthermore, the interaction between a conserved hydrophobic patch on cyclin D and subdomain D1 is much weaker than that with cyclin A; consequently, a construct containing subdomains D1 and LH (p27-D1LH) does not inhibit substrate binding to Cdk4/cyclin D as it does to Cdk2/cyclin A. Our results provide a mechanism by which Cdk4 (within the p27/Cdk4/cyclin D complex) is poised to be activated by extrinsic mitogenic signals that impinge upon p27 at the earliest stage of cell division. More broadly, our results further illustrate the regulatory versatility of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:21715330

  2. Downregulation of multiple CDK inhibitor ICK/KRP genes upregulates the E2F pathway and increases cell proliferation, and organ and seed sizes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Cao, Ling; Wang, Sheng; Li, Yongpeng; Shi, Xianzong; Liu, Han; Li, Lixia; Zhang, Zhengli; Fowke, Larry C; Wang, Hong; Zhou, Yongming

    2013-08-01

    The ICK/KRP cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors are important plant cell cycle factors sharing only limited similarity with the metazoan CIP/KIP family of CDK inhibitors. Little is known about the specific functions of different ICK/KRP genes in planta. In this study, we created double and multiple mutants from five single Arabidopsis ICK/KRP T-DNA mutants, and used a set of 20 lines for the functional investigation of the important gene family. There were gradual increases in CDK activity from single to multiple mutants, indicating that ICK/KRPs act as CDK inhibitors under normal physiological conditions in plants. Whereas lower-order mutants showed no morphological phenotypes, the ick1 ick2 ick6 ick7 and ick1 ick2 ick5 ick6 ick7 mutants had a slightly altered leaf shape. The quintuple mutant had larger cotyledons, leaves, petals and seeds than the wild-type control. At the cellular level, the ICK/KRP mutants had more but smaller cells in all the organs examined. These phenotypic effects became more apparent as more ICK/KRPs were downregulated, suggesting that to a large extent ICK/KRPs function in plants redundantly in a dosage-dependent manner. Analyses also revealed increased expression of E2F-dependent genes, and elevated RBR1 as well as an increased level of phospho-RBB1 protein in the quintuple mutant. Thus, downregulation of multiple ICK/KRP genes increases CDK activity, upregulates the E2F pathway and stimulates cell proliferation, resulting in increased cell numbers, and larger organs and seeds. PMID:23647236

  3. Discovery of pyrrolospirooxindole derivatives as novel cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitors by catalyst-free, green approach.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Mahesh, Rasala; Nayak, V Lakshma; Babu, Korrapati Suresh; Kumar, G Bharath; Shaik, Anver Basha; Kapure, Jeevak Sopanrao; Alarifi, Abdullah

    2016-01-27

    Aiming to develop a new target for the anticancer treatment, a series of 5'H-spiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrrolo [1,2-a]quinoxalin]-2-ones has been synthesized by simple, highly efficient and environmentally friendly method in excellent yields under catalyst-free conditions using ethanol as a green solvent. A simple filtration of the reaction mixture and subsequent drying affords analytically pure products. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against five different human cancer cell lines, among the congeners compound 3n showed significant cytotoxicity against the human prostate cancer (DU-145). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this compound induces cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase and Western blot analysis suggested that reduction in Cdk4 expression level leads to apoptotic cell death. This was further confirmed by mitochondrial membrane potential ((ΔΨm), Annexin V-FITC assay and docking experiments. Furthermore, it was observed that there is an increase in expression levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors like Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27.

  4. Jumping the nuclear envelop barrier: Improving polyplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency by a selective CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefei; Liu, Xiangrui; Zhao, Bingxiang; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Dingcheng; Qiu, Nasha; Zhou, Quan; Piao, Ying; Zhou, Zhuxian; Tang, Jianbin; Shen, Youqing

    2016-07-28

    Successful transfection of plasmid DNA (pDNA) requires intranuclear internalization of pDNA effectively and the nuclear envelope appears to be one of the critical intracellular barriers for polymer mediated pDNA delivery. Polyethylenimine (PEI), as the classic cationic polymer, compact the negatively charged pDNA tightly and make up stable polyplexes. The polyplexes are too large to enter the nuclear through nuclear pores and it is believed that the nuclear envelope breakdown in mitosis could facilitate the nuclear entry of polyplexes. To jump the nuclear envelope barrier, we used a selective and reversible CDK1 inhibitor RO-3306 to control the G2/M transition of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of mitotic cells which have disappeared nuclear envelope during transfection. Herein, we show that RO-3306 remarkably increases the transfection efficiency of PEI polyplexes through enhanced nuclear localization of PEI and pDNA. However, RO-3306 is less effective to the charge-reversal polymer poly[(2-acryloyl)ethyl(p-boronic acid benzyl)diethylammonium bromide] (B-PDEAEA) which responses to cellular stimuli and releases free pDNA in cytoplasm. Our findings not only offer new opportunities for improving non-viral based gene delivery but also provide theoretical support for the rational design of novel functional polymers for gene delivery. We also report current data showing that RO-3306 synergizes TRAIL gene induced apoptosis in cancer cells.

  5. AZD5438, an Inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Pavithra; Tumati, Vasu; Yu Lan; Chan, Norman; Tomimatsu, Nozomi; Burma, Sandeep; Bristow, Robert G.; Saha, Debabrata

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the primary modalities for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to the intrinsic radiation resistance of these tumors, many patients experience RT failure, which leads to considerable tumor progression including regional lymph node and distant metastasis. This preclinical study evaluated the efficacy of a new-generation cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, AZD5438, as a radiosensitizer in several NSCLC models that are specifically resistant to conventional fractionated RT. Methods and Materials: The combined effect of ionizing radiation and AZD5438, a highly specific inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, was determined in vitro by surviving fraction, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and homologous recombination (HR) assays in 3 NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, and H460). For in vivo studies, human xenograft animal models in athymic nude mice were used. Results: Treatment of NSCLC cells with AZD5438 significantly augmented cellular radiosensitivity (dose enhancement ratio rangeing from 1.4 to 1.75). The degree of radiosensitization by AZD5438 was greater in radioresistant cell lines (A549 and H1299). Radiosensitivity was enhanced specifically through inhibition of Cdk1, prolonged G{sub 2}-M arrest, inhibition of HR, delayed DNA DSB repair, and increased apoptosis. Combined treatment with AZD5438 and irradiation also enhanced tumor growth delay, with an enhancement factor ranging from 1.2-1.7. Conclusions: This study supports the evaluation of newer generation Cdk inhibitors, such as AZD5438, as potent radiosensitizers in NSCLC models, especially in tumors that demonstrate variable intrinsic radiation responses.

  6. Targeting transcriptional addictions in small cell lung cancer with a covalent CDK7 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Camilla L; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Abraham, Brian J; Carretero, Julian; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Zhang, Tinghu; Chipumuro, Edmond; Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Akbay, Esra A; Altabef, Abigail; Zhang, Jianming; Shimamura, Takeshi; Capelletti, Marzia; Reibel, Jakob B; Cavanaugh, Jillian D; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yan; Michaelsen, Signe R; Poulsen, Hans S; Aref, Amir R; Barbie, David A; Bradner, James E; George, Rani E; Gray, Nathanael S; Young, Richard A; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2014-12-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease with high mortality, and the identification of effective pharmacological strategies to target SCLC biology represents an urgent need. Using a high-throughput cellular screen of a diverse chemical library, we observe that SCLC is sensitive to transcription-targeting drugs, in particular to THZ1, a recently identified covalent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7. We find that expression of super-enhancer-associated transcription factor genes, including MYC family proto-oncogenes and neuroendocrine lineage-specific factors, is highly vulnerability to THZ1 treatment. We propose that downregulation of these transcription factors contributes, in part, to SCLC sensitivity to transcriptional inhibitors and that THZ1 represents a prototype drug for tailored SCLC therapy.

  7. Regulating the stability and localization of CDK inhibitor p27(Kip1) via CSN6-COP1 axis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Guma, Sergei; Fang, Lekun; Phan, Liem; Ivan, Cristina; Baggerly, Keith; Sood, Anil; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6), which is involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, is overexpressed in many types of cancer. CSN6 is critical in causing p53 degradation and malignancy, but its target in cell cycle progression is not fully characterized. Constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase associating with COP9 signalosome to regulate important target proteins for cell growth. p27 is a critical G1 CDK inhibitor involved in cell cycle regulation, but its upstream regulators are not fully characterized. Here, we show that the CSN6-COP1 link is regulating p27(Kip1) stability, and that COP1 is a negative regulator of p27(Kip1). Ectopic expression of CSN6 can decrease the expression of p27(Kip1), while CSN6 knockdown leads to p27(Kip1) stabilization. Mechanistic studies show that CSN6 interacts with p27(Kip1) and facilitates ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27(Kip1). CSN6-mediated p27 degradation depends on the nuclear export of p27(Kip1), which is regulated through COP1 nuclear exporting signal. COP1 overexpression leads to the cytoplasmic distribution of p27, thereby accelerating p27 degradation. Importantly, the negative impact of COP1 on p27 stability contributes to elevating expression of genes that are suppressed through p27 mediation. Kaplan-Meier analysis of tumor samples demonstrates that high COP1 expression was associated with poor overall survival. These data suggest that tumors with CSN6/COP1 deregulation may have growth advantage by regulating p27 degradation and subsequent impact on p27 targeted genes. PMID:25945542

  8. Conformation and recognition of DNA damaged by antitumor cis-dichlorido platinum(II) complex of CDK inhibitor bohemine.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Olga; Liskova, Barbora; Vystrcilova, Jana; Suchankova, Tereza; Vrana, Oldrich; Starha, Pavel; Travnicek, Zdenek; Brabec, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    A substitution of the ammine ligands of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2], for cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor bohemine (boh), [2-(3-hydroxypropylamino)-6-benzylamino-9-isopropylpurine], results in a compound, cis-[Pt(boh)2Cl2] (C1), with the unique anticancer profile which may be associated with some features of the damaged DNA and/or its cellular processing (Travnicek Z et al. (2003) J Inorg Biochem94, 307-316; Liskova B (2012) Chem Res Toxicol25, 500-509). A combination of biochemical and molecular biology techniques was used to establish mechanistic differences between cisplatin and C1 with respect to the DNA damage they produce and their interactions with critical DNA-binding proteins, DNA-processing enzymes and glutathione. The results show that replacement of the NH3 groups in cisplatin by bohemine modulates some aspects of the mechanism of action of C1. More specifically, the results of the present work are consistent with the thesis that, in comparison with cisplatin, effects of other factors, such as: (i) slower rate of initial binding of C1 to DNA; (ii) the lower efficiency of C1 to form bifunctional adducts; (iii) the reduced bend of longitudinal DNA axis induced by the major 1,2-GG intrastrand cross-link of C1; (iv) the reduced affinity of HMG domain proteins to the major adduct of C1; (v) the enhanced efficiency of the DNA adducts of C1 to block DNA polymerization and to inhibit transcription activity of human RNA pol II and RNA transcription; (vi) slower rate of the reaction of C1 with glutathione, may partially contribute to the unique activity of C1. PMID:24675180

  9. The CDK9 Inhibitor Dinaciclib Exerts Potent Apoptotic and Antitumor Effects in Preclinical Models of MLL-Rearranged Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Adele; Gregory, Gareth P; Verbrugge, Inge; Kats, Lev; Hilton, Joshua J; Vidacs, Eva; Lee, Erwin M; Lock, Richard B; Zuber, Johannes; Shortt, Jake; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2016-03-01

    Translocations of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene occur in 60% to 80% of all infant acute leukemias and are markers of poor prognosis. MLL-AF9 and other MLL fusion proteins aberrantly recruit epigenetic regulatory proteins, including histone deacetylases (HDAC), histone methyltransferases, bromodomain-containing proteins, and transcription elongation factors to mediate chromatin remodeling and regulate tumorigenic gene expression programs. We conducted a small-molecule inhibitor screen to test the ability of candidate pharmacologic agents targeting epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory proteins to induce apoptosis in leukemic cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of MLL-AF9-driven acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib and HDAC inhibitor panobinostat were the most potent inducers of apoptosis in short-term in vitro assays. Treatment of MLL-rearranged leukemic cells with dinaciclib resulted in rapidly decreased expression of the prosurvival protein Mcl-1, and accordingly, overexpression of Mcl-1 protected AML cells from dinaciclib-induced apoptosis. Administration of dinaciclib to mice bearing MLL-AF9-driven human and mouse leukemias elicited potent antitumor responses and significantly prolonged survival. Collectively, these studies highlight a new therapeutic approach to potentially overcome the resistance of MLL-rearranged AML to conventional chemotherapies and prompt further clinical evaluation of CDK inhibitors in AML patients harboring MLL fusion proteins. PMID:26627013

  10. Extra-cell cycle regulatory functions of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and CDK inhibitor proteins contribute to brain development and neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kawauchi, Takeshi; Shikanai, Mima; Kosodo, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    In developing brains, neural progenitors exhibit cell cycle-dependent nuclear movement within the ventricular zone [interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)] and actively proliferate to produce daughter progenitors and/or neurons, whereas newly generated neurons exit from the cell cycle and begin pial surface-directed migration and maturation. Dysregulation of the balance between the proliferation and the cell cycle exit in neural progenitors is one of the major causes of microcephaly (small brain). Recent studies indicate that cell cycle machinery influences not only the proliferation but also INM in neural progenitors. Furthermore, several cell cycle-related proteins, including p27kip1, p57kip2, Cdk5, and Rb, regulate the migration of neurons in the postmitotic state, suggesting that the growth arrest confers dual functions on cell cycle regulators. Consistently, several types of microcephaly occur in conjunction with neuronal migration disorders, such as periventricular heterotopia and lissencephaly. However, cell cycle re-entry by disturbance of growth arrest in mature neurons is thought to trigger neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we introduce the cell cycle protein-mediated regulation of two types of nuclear movement, INM and neuronal migration, during cerebral cortical development, and discuss the roles of growth arrest in cortical development and neurological disorders. PMID:23294285

  11. A Novel High-Throughput 3D Screening System for EMT Inhibitors: A Pilot Screening Discovered the EMT Inhibitory Activity of CDK2 Inhibitor SU9516

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Takanori; Rahman, M. Mamunur; Sakamoto, Ruriko; Masuda, Norio; Nakatsura, Tetsuya; Calderwood, Stuart K.; Kozaki, Ken-ichi; Itoh, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial pathological event in cancer, particularly in tumor cell budding and metastasis. Therefore, control of EMT can represent a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer. Here, we introduce an innovative three-dimensional (3D) high-throughput screening (HTS) system that leads to an identification of EMT inhibitors. For the establishment of the novel 3D-HTS system, we chose NanoCulture Plates (NCP) that provided a gel-free micro-patterned scaffold for cells and were independent of other spheroid formation systems using soft-agar. In the NCP-based 3D cell culture system, A549 lung cancer cells migrated, gathered, and then formed multiple spheroids within 7 days. Live cell imaging experiments showed that an established EMT-inducer TGF-β promoted peripheral cells around the core of spheroids to acquire mesenchymal spindle shapes, loss of intercellular adhesion, and migration from the spheroids. Along with such morphological change, EMT-related gene expression signatures were altered, particularly alteration of mRNA levels of ECAD/CDH1, NCAD/CDH2, VIM and ZEB1/TCF8. These EMT-related phenotypic changes were blocked by SB431542, a TGF-βreceptor I (TGFβR1) inhibitor. Inside of the spheroids were highly hypoxic; in contrast, spheroid-derived peripheral migrating cells were normoxic, revealed by visualization and quantification using Hypoxia Probe. Thus, TGF-β-triggered EMT caused spheroid hypoplasia and loss of hypoxia. Spheroid EMT inhibitory (SEMTIN) activity of SB431542 was calculated from fluorescence intensities of the Hypoxia Probe, and then was utilized in a drug screening of EMT-inhibitory small molecule compounds. In a pilot screening, 9 of 1,330 compounds were above the thresholds of the SEMTIN activity and cell viability. Finally, two compounds SB-525334 and SU9516 showed SEMTIN activities in a dose dependent manner. SB-525334 was a known TGFβR1 inhibitor. SU9516 was a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor

  12. A Novel High-Throughput 3D Screening System for EMT Inhibitors: A Pilot Screening Discovered the EMT Inhibitory Activity of CDK2 Inhibitor SU9516.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kazuya; Eguchi, Takanori; Rahman, M Mamunur; Sakamoto, Ruriko; Masuda, Norio; Nakatsura, Tetsuya; Calderwood, Stuart K; Kozaki, Ken-Ichi; Itoh, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial pathological event in cancer, particularly in tumor cell budding and metastasis. Therefore, control of EMT can represent a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer. Here, we introduce an innovative three-dimensional (3D) high-throughput screening (HTS) system that leads to an identification of EMT inhibitors. For the establishment of the novel 3D-HTS system, we chose NanoCulture Plates (NCP) that provided a gel-free micro-patterned scaffold for cells and were independent of other spheroid formation systems using soft-agar. In the NCP-based 3D cell culture system, A549 lung cancer cells migrated, gathered, and then formed multiple spheroids within 7 days. Live cell imaging experiments showed that an established EMT-inducer TGF-β promoted peripheral cells around the core of spheroids to acquire mesenchymal spindle shapes, loss of intercellular adhesion, and migration from the spheroids. Along with such morphological change, EMT-related gene expression signatures were altered, particularly alteration of mRNA levels of ECAD/CDH1, NCAD/CDH2, VIM and ZEB1/TCF8. These EMT-related phenotypic changes were blocked by SB431542, a TGF-βreceptor I (TGFβR1) inhibitor. Inside of the spheroids were highly hypoxic; in contrast, spheroid-derived peripheral migrating cells were normoxic, revealed by visualization and quantification using Hypoxia Probe. Thus, TGF-β-triggered EMT caused spheroid hypoplasia and loss of hypoxia. Spheroid EMT inhibitory (SEMTIN) activity of SB431542 was calculated from fluorescence intensities of the Hypoxia Probe, and then was utilized in a drug screening of EMT-inhibitory small molecule compounds. In a pilot screening, 9 of 1,330 compounds were above the thresholds of the SEMTIN activity and cell viability. Finally, two compounds SB-525334 and SU9516 showed SEMTIN activities in a dose dependent manner. SB-525334 was a known TGFβR1 inhibitor. SU9516 was a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) inhibitor

  13. Cellular response to antitumor cis-Dichlorido platinum(II) complexes of CDK inhibitor Bohemine and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Liskova, Barbora; Zerzankova, Lenka; Novakova, Olga; Kostrhunova, Hana; Travnicek, Zdenek; Brabec, Viktor

    2012-02-20

    The cellular and molecular pharmacology of the new class of anticancer drugs, in which the CDK inhibitor bohemine and its analogues are coordinated to Pt(II) to form cisplatin derivatives, was investigated. The results revealed the unique anticancer profile of a cisplatin-derived platinum(II) dichlorido complex involving N(7)-coordinated bohemine (C1). Although the IC(50) values were ∼6-fold higher for C1 than for cisplatin in cisplatin-sensitive tumor cells, the tumor cells in which C1 was also active are those which acquired resistance to cisplatin. In addition, among the novel conjugates of bohemine and its analogues with cisplatin, marked selectivity of C1 for tumor cells relative to the nontumorigenic, normal cells was observed. However, coordination of bohemine to platinum in C1 considerably reduced one of the dual functionalities anticipated to be effective after C1 reaches the nucleus. Further studies performed in the cells with wt p53 status show differences between cisplatin and C1 at the level of cell cycle regulation. Impedance-based real-time monitoring of the effects of C1 and cisplatin on cell growth supported the thesis that critical differences exist in the rate and mechanisms of cell kill caused by the two agents and that C1 was a more potent inducer of apoptosis and/or necrosis than cisplatin. The results also showed that the distinct differences in cell killing observed for C1 and cisplatin might be associated with processes at the DNA level. The DNA binding experiments carried out in a cell-free medium demonstrated that modification reactions resulting in the irreversible coordination of C1 to DNA were slower than that of cisplatin. Transcription mapping experiments and determination of interstrand cross-linking efficiency of C1 suggested that several aspects of DNA binding mode of C1 and cisplatin were similar. It was concluded that C1 remains a promising prototype of compounds for the generation of novel drug candidates with cytotoxicity

  14. CDK1 structures reveal conserved and unique features of the essential cell cycle CDK

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Korolchuk, Svitlana; Martin, Mathew P.; Stanley, Will; Moukhametzianov, Rouslan; Noble, Martin E.M.; Endicott, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    CDK1 is the only essential cell cycle CDK in human cells and is required for successful completion of M-phase. It is the founding member of the CDK family and is conserved across all eukaryotes. Here we report the crystal structures of complexes of CDK1–Cks1 and CDK1–cyclin B–Cks2. These structures confirm the conserved nature of the inactive monomeric CDK fold and its ability to be remodeled by cyclin binding. Relative to CDK2–cyclin A, CDK1–cyclin B is less thermally stable, has a smaller interfacial surface, is more susceptible to activation segment dephosphorylation, and shows differences in the substrate sequence features that determine activity. Both CDK1 and CDK2 are potential cancer targets for which selective compounds are required. We also describe the first structure of CDK1 bound to a potent ATP-competitive inhibitor and identify aspects of CDK1 structure and plasticity that might be exploited to develop CDK1-selective inhibitors. PMID:25864384

  15. CDK1 structures reveal conserved and unique features of the essential cell cycle CDK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Korolchuk, Svitlana; Martin, Mathew P.; Stanley, Will A.; Moukhametzianov, Rouslan; Noble, Martin E. M.; Endicott, Jane A.

    2015-04-01

    CDK1 is the only essential cell cycle CDK in human cells and is required for successful completion of M-phase. It is the founding member of the CDK family and is conserved across all eukaryotes. Here we report the crystal structures of complexes of CDK1-Cks1 and CDK1-cyclin B-Cks2. These structures confirm the conserved nature of the inactive monomeric CDK fold and its ability to be remodelled by cyclin binding. Relative to CDK2-cyclin A, CDK1-cyclin B is less thermally stable, has a smaller interfacial surface, is more susceptible to activation segment dephosphorylation and shows differences in the substrate sequence features that determine activity. Both CDK1 and CDK2 are potential cancer targets for which selective compounds are required. We also describe the first structure of CDK1 bound to a potent ATP-competitive inhibitor and identify aspects of CDK1 structure and plasticity that might be exploited to develop CDK1-selective inhibitors.

  16. Mitigation of acute kidney injury by cell-cycle inhibitors that suppress both CDK4/6 and OCT2 functions

    PubMed Central

    Pabla, Navjotsingh; Gibson, Alice A.; Buege, Mike; Ong, Su Sien; Li, Lie; Hu, Shuiying; Du, Guoqing; Sprowl, Jason A.; Vasilyeva, Aksana; Janke, Laura J.; Schlatter, Eberhard; Chen, Taosheng; Ciarimboli, Giuliano; Sparreboom, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially fatal syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in kidney function caused by ischemic or toxic injury to renal tubular cells. The widely used chemotherapy drug cisplatin accumulates preferentially in the renal tubular cells and is a frequent cause of drug-induced AKI. During the development of AKI the quiescent tubular cells reenter the cell cycle. Strategies that block cell-cycle progression ameliorate kidney injury, possibly by averting cell division in the presence of extensive DNA damage. However, the early signaling events that lead to cell-cycle activation during AKI are not known. In the current study, using mouse models of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, we show that the G1/S-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) pathway is activated in parallel with renal cell-cycle entry but before the development of AKI. Targeted inhibition of CDK4/6 pathway by small-molecule inhibitors palbociclib (PD-0332991) and ribociclib (LEE011) resulted in inhibition of cell-cycle progression, amelioration of kidney injury, and improved overall survival. Of additional significance, these compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), which contributes to the cellular accumulation of cisplatin and subsequent kidney injury. The unique cell-cycle and OCT2-targeting activities of palbociclib and LEE011, combined with their potential for clinical translation, support their further exploration as therapeutic candidates for prevention of AKI. PMID:25848011

  17. A computational study of the protein-ligand interactions in CDK2 inhibitors: using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics interaction energy as a predictor of the biological activity.

    PubMed

    Alzate-Morales, Jans H; Contreras, Renato; Soriano, Alejandro; Tuñon, Iñaki; Silla, Estanislao

    2007-01-15

    We report a combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) study to determine the protein-ligand interaction energy between CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2) and five inhibitors with the N(2)-substituted 6-cyclohexyl-methoxy-purine scaffold. The computational results in this work show that the QM/MM interaction energy is strongly correlated to the biological activity and can be used as a predictor, at least within a family of substrates. A detailed analysis of the protein-ligand structures obtained from molecular dynamics simulations shows specific interactions within the active site that, in some cases, have not been reported before to our knowledge. The computed interaction energy gauges the strength of protein-ligand interactions. Finally, energy decomposition and multiple regression analyses were performed to check the contribution of the electrostatic and van der Waals energies to the total interaction energy and to show the capabilities of the computational model to identify new potent inhibitors.

  18. Expression and Purification of Recombinant CDKs: CDK7, CDK8, and CDK9.

    PubMed

    Pinhero, Reena; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases have established roles in the regulation of cell cycle, in gene expression and in cell differentiation. Many of these kinases have been considered as drug targets and numerous efforts have been made to develop specific and potent inhibitors against them. The first step in all of these attempts and in many other biochemical analyses is the production of highly purified and reliable kinase, most frequently in a recombinant form. In this chapter we describe our experience in the cloning, expression, and purification of CDKs using CDK7/CycH, CDK8/CycC, and CDK9/CycT1 as an example.

  19. Inhibition of cyclin D-CDK4/CDK6 activity is associated with an E2F-mediated induction of cyclin kinase inhibitor activity.

    PubMed

    Khleif, S N; DeGregori, J; Yee, C L; Otterson, G A; Kaye, F J; Nevins, J R; Howley, P M

    1996-04-30

    Alterations of various components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery that controls the progression of cells from a quiescent to a growing state contribute to the development of many human cancers. Such alterations include the deregulated expression of G1 cyclins, the loss of function of activities such as those of protein p16INK4a that control G1 cyclin-dependent kinase activity, and the loss of function of the retinoblastoma protein (RB), which is normally regulated by the G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Various studies have revealed an inverse relationship in the expression of p16INK4a protein and the presence of functional RB in many cell lines. In this study we show that p16INK4a is expressed in cervical cancer cell lines in which the RB gene, Rb, is not functional, either as a consequence of Rb mutation or expression of the human papillomavirus E7 protein. We also demonstrate that p16INK4a levels are increased in primary cells in which RB has been inactivated by DNA tumor virus proteins. Given the role of RB in controlling E2F transcription factor activity, we investigated the role of E2F in controlling p16INK4a expression. We found that E2F1 overexpression leads to an inhibition of cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity and induces the expression of a p16-related transcript. We conclude that the accumulation of G1 cyclin-dependent kinase activity during normal G1 progression leads to E2F accumulation through the inactivation of RB, and that this then leads to the induction of cyclin kinase inhibitor activity and a shutdown of G1 kinase activity.

  20. Marine steroids as potential anticancer drug candidates: In silico investigation in search of inhibitors of Bcl-2 and CDK-4/Cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Surovi; Kolita, Bhaskor; Dutta, Partha P; Dutta, Deep J; Neipihoi; Nath, Shyamalendu; Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Quan, Pham Minh; Thuy, Tran Thu; Phuong, Doan Lan; Long, Pham Quoc

    2015-10-01

    Star fishes (Asteroidea) are rich in polar steroids with diverse structural characteristics. The structural modifications of star fish steroids occur at 3β, 4β, 5α, 6α (or β), 7α (or β), 8, 15α (or β) and 16β positions of the steroidal nucleus and in the side chain. Widely found polar steroids in starfishes include polyhydroxysteroids, steroidal sulfates, glycosides, steroid oligoglycosides etc. Bioactivity of these steroids is less studied; only a few reports like antibacterial, cytotoxic activity etc. are available. In continuation of our search for bioactive molecules from natural sources, we undertook in silico screening of steroids from star fishes against Bcl-2 and CDK-4/Cyclin D1 - two important targets of progression and proliferation of cancer cells. We have screened 182 natural steroids from star fishes occurring in different parts of the world and their 282 soft-derivatives by in silico methods. Their physico-chemical properties, drug-likeliness, binding potential with the selected targets, ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, toxicity) were predicted. Further, the results were compared with those of existing steroidal and non steroidal drugs and inhibitors of Bcl-2 and CDK-4/Cyclin D1. The results are promising and unveil that some of these steroids can be potent leads for cancer treatments.

  1. An opposite effect of the CDK inhibitor, p18(INK4c) on embryonic stem cells compared with tumor and adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxin; Pal, Rekha; Sung, Li-Ying; Feng, Haizhong; Miao, Weimin; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Tian, Cindy; Cheng, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Self-renewal is a feature common to both adult and embryonic stem (ES) cells, as well as tumor stem cells (TSCs). The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p18(INK4c), is a known tumor suppressor that can inhibit self-renewal of tumor cells or adult stem cells. Here, we demonstrate an opposite effect of p18 on ES cells in comparison with teratoma cells. Our results unexpectedly showed that overexpression of p18 accelerated the growth of mouse ES cells and embryonic bodies (EB); on the contrary, inhibited the growth of late stage teratoma. Up-regulation of ES cell markers (i.e., Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1) were detected in both ES and EB cells, while concomitant down-regulation of various differentiation markers was observed in EB cells. These results demonstrate that p18 has an opposite effect on ES cells as compared with tumor cells and adult stem cells. Mechanistically, expression of CDK4 was significantly increased with overexpression of p18 in ES cells, likely leading to a release of CDK2 from the inhibition by p21 and p27. As a result, self-renewal of ES cells was enhanced. Our current study suggests that targeting p18 in different cell types may yield different outcomes, thereby having implications for therapeutic manipulations of cell cycle machinery in stem cells. PMID:23049777

  2. CRL2(LRR-1) targets a CDK inhibitor for cell cycle control in C. elegans and actin-based motility regulation in human cells.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Natalia G; Simpliciano, Jennifer M; McGuirk, Michael A; Kipreos, Edward T

    2010-11-16

    The Cip/Kip CDK inhibitor (CKI) p21(Cip1/WAF1) has a critical role in the nucleus to limit cell proliferation by inhibiting CDK-cyclin complexes. In contrast, cytoplasmic p21 regulates cell survival and the actin cytoskeleton. These divergent functions for p21 in different cellular compartments suggest the necessity for complex regulation. In this study, we identify the CRL2(LRR-1) ubiquitin ligase as a conserved regulator of Cip/Kip CKIs that promotes the degradation of C. elegans CKI-1 and human p21. The nematode CRL2(LRR-1) complex negatively regulates nuclear CKI-1 levels to ensure G1-phase cell cycle progression in germ cells. In contrast, human CRL2(LRR1) targets cytoplasmic p21, acting as a critical regulator of cell motility that promotes a nonmotile stationary cell state by preventing p21 from inhibiting the Rho/ROCK/LIMK pathway. Inactivation of human CRL2(LRR1) leads to the activation of the actin-depolymerizing protein cofilin, dramatic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased cell motility.

  3. Dual Targeting of CDK4 and ARK5 Using a Novel Kinase Inhibitor ON123300 Exerts Potent Anticancer Activity against Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Deepak; Kuo, Pei-Yu; Leshchenko, Violetta V; Jiang, Zewei; Divakar, Sai Krishna Athaluri; Cho, Hearn Jay; Chari, Ajai; Brody, Joshua; Reddy, M V Ramana; Zhang, Weijia; Reddy, E Premkumar; Jagannath, Sundar; Parekh, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a fatal plasma cell neoplasm accounting for over 10,000 deaths in the United States each year. Despite new therapies, multiple myeloma remains incurable, and patients ultimately develop drug resistance and succumb to the disease. The response to selective CDK4/6 inhibitors has been modest in multiple myeloma, potentially because of incomplete targeting of other critical myeloma oncogenic kinases. As a substantial number of multiple myeloma cell lines and primary samples were found to express AMPK-related protein kinase 5(ARK5), a member of the AMPK family associated with tumor growth and invasion, we examined whether dual inhibition of CDK4 and ARK5 kinases using ON123300 results in a better therapeutic outcome. Treatment of multiple myeloma cell lines and primary samples with ON123300 in vitro resulted in rapid induction of cell-cycle arrest followed by apoptosis. ON123300-mediated ARK5 inhibition or ARK5-specific siRNAs resulted in the inhibition of the mTOR/S6K pathway and upregulation of the AMPK kinase cascade. AMPK upregulation resulted in increased SIRT1 levels and destabilization of steady-state MYC protein. Furthermore, ON123300 was very effective in inhibiting tumor growth in mouse xenograft assays. In addition, multiple myeloma cells sensitive to ON123300 were found to have a unique genomic signature that can guide the clinical development of ON123300. Our study provides preclinical evidence that ON123300 is unique in simultaneously inhibiting key oncogenic pathways in multiple myeloma and supports further development of ARK5 inhibition as a therapeutic approach in multiple myeloma.

  4. 3D-QSAR and 3D-QSSR studies of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl hydrazone analogues as CDK4 inhibitors by CoMFA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bao-qin; Jin, Hai-xiao; Yan, Xiao-jun; Zhu, Peng; Hu, Gui-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the structural basis underlying potency and selectivity of a series of novel analogues of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl hydrazones as cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitors and to use this information for drug design strategies. Methods: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and three-dimensional quantitative structure-selectivity relationship (3D-QSSR) models using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) were conducted on a training set of 48 compounds. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was employed. External validation was performed with a test set of 9 compounds. Results: The obtained 3D-QSAR model (q2=0.724, r2=0.965, r2pred=0.945) and 3D-QSSR model (q2=0.742, r2=0.923, r2pred=0.863) were robust and predictive. Contour maps with good compatibility to active binding sites provided insight into the potentially important structural features required to enhance activity and selectivity. The contour maps indicated that bulky groups at R1 position could potentially enhance CDK4 inhibitory activity, whereas bulky groups at R3 position have the opposite effect. Appropriate incorporation of bulky electropositive groups at R4 position is favorable and could improve both potency and selectivity to CDK4. Conclusion: These two models provide useful information to guide drug design strategies aimed at obtaining potent and selective CDK4 inhibitors. PMID:24122012

  5. In Silico Identification and In Vitro and In Vivo Validation of Anti-Psychotic Drug Fluspirilene as a Potential CDK2 Inhibitor and a Candidate Anti-Cancer Drug.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xi-Nan; Li, Hongjian; Yao, Hong; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lu, Di; Wong, Man-Hon; Lin, Marie Chia-mi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Surgical resection and conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy ultimately fail due to tumor recurrence and HCC's resistance. The development of novel therapies against HCC is thus urgently required. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathways are important and well-established targets for cancer treatment. In particular, CDK2 is a key factor regulating the cell cycle G1 to S transition and a hallmark for cancers. In this study, we utilized our free and open-source protein-ligand docking software, idock, prospectively to identify potential CDK2 inhibitors from 4,311 FDA-approved small molecule drugs using a repurposing strategy and an ensemble docking methodology. Sorted by average idock score, nine compounds were purchased and tested in vitro. Among them, the anti-psychotic drug fluspirilene exhibited the highest anti-proliferative effect in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Huh7 cells. We demonstrated for the first time that fluspirilene treatment significantly increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, and decreased the expressions of CDK2, cyclin E and Rb, as well as the phosphorylations of CDK2 on Thr160 and Rb on Ser795. We also examined the anti-cancer effect of fluspirilene in vivo in BALB/C nude mice subcutaneously xenografted with human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells. Our results showed that oral fluspirilene treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth. Fluspirilene (15 mg/kg) exhibited strong anti-tumor activity, comparable to that of the leading cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (10 mg/kg). Moreover, the cocktail treatment with fluspirilene and 5-fluorouracil exhibited the highest therapeutic effect. These results suggested for the first time that fluspirilene is a potential CDK2 inhibitor and a candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma. In view of the fact that fluspirilene has a long history of safe human

  6. In Silico Identification and In Vitro and In Vivo Validation of Anti-Psychotic Drug Fluspirilene as a Potential CDK2 Inhibitor and a Candidate Anti-Cancer Drug

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Lu, Di; Wong, Man-Hon; Lin, Marie Chia-mi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Surgical resection and conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy ultimately fail due to tumor recurrence and HCC’s resistance. The development of novel therapies against HCC is thus urgently required. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathways are important and well-established targets for cancer treatment. In particular, CDK2 is a key factor regulating the cell cycle G1 to S transition and a hallmark for cancers. In this study, we utilized our free and open-source protein-ligand docking software, idock, prospectively to identify potential CDK2 inhibitors from 4,311 FDA-approved small molecule drugs using a repurposing strategy and an ensemble docking methodology. Sorted by average idock score, nine compounds were purchased and tested in vitro. Among them, the anti-psychotic drug fluspirilene exhibited the highest anti-proliferative effect in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Huh7 cells. We demonstrated for the first time that fluspirilene treatment significantly increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, and decreased the expressions of CDK2, cyclin E and Rb, as well as the phosphorylations of CDK2 on Thr160 and Rb on Ser795. We also examined the anti-cancer effect of fluspirilene in vivo in BALB/C nude mice subcutaneously xenografted with human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells. Our results showed that oral fluspirilene treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth. Fluspirilene (15 mg/kg) exhibited strong anti-tumor activity, comparable to that of the leading cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (10 mg/kg). Moreover, the cocktail treatment with fluspirilene and 5-fluorouracil exhibited the highest therapeutic effect. These results suggested for the first time that fluspirilene is a potential CDK2 inhibitor and a candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma. In view of the fact that fluspirilene has a long history of safe human

  7. Fission yeast LAMMER kinase Lkh1 regulates the cell cycle by phosphorylating the CDK-inhibitor Rum1

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Eun-Young; Lee, Ju-Hee; Kang, Won-Hwa; Park, Yun-Hee; Kim, Lila; Park, Hee-Moon

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Deletion of lkh1{sup +} made cells pass the G1/S phase faster than the wild type. ► Lkh1 can interact with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) Rum1. ► Lkh1 can phosphorylate Rum1 to activate its CKI activity. ► Thr110 was confirmed as the Lkh1-dependent phosphorylation site of Rum1. ► Positive acting mechanism for the Rum1 activation is reported for the first time. - Abstract: In eukaryotes, LAMMER kinases are involved in various cellular events, including the cell cycle. However, no attempt has been made to investigate the mechanisms that underlie the involvement of LAMMER kinase. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of LAMMER kinase using the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. FACS analyses revealed that deletion of the gene that encodes the LAMMER kinase Lkh1 made mutant cells pass through the G1/S phase faster than their wild-type counterparts. Co-immunoprecipitation and an in vitro kinase assay also revealed that Lkh1 can interact with and phosphorylate Rum1 to activate this molecule as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which blocks cell cycle progression from the G1 phase to the S phase. Peptide mass fingerprinting and kinase assay with Rum1{sup T110A} confirmed T110 as the Lkh1-dependent phosphorylation residue. In this report we present for the first time a positive acting mechanism that is responsible for the CKI activity of Rum1, in which the LAMMER kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Rum1 is involved.

  8. Enhanced malignant tumorigenesis in Cdk4 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2004-03-11

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target.

  9. Enhanced Malignant Tumorigenesis in Cdk4-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Macias, Everardo; Conti, Claudio J.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of CDK4 in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target. PMID:14647432

  10. CDK4 coexpression with Ras generates malignant human epidermal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Mirella; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Cai, Ti; Dajee, Maya; Tarutani, Masahito; Lin, Qun; Fang, Min; Tao, Shiying; Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2002-10-01

    Ras acts with other proteins to induce neoplasia. By itself, however, strong Ras signaling can suppress proliferation of normal cells. In primary epidermal cells, we found that oncogenic Ras transiently decreases cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 expression in association with cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. CDK4 co-expression circumvents Ras growth suppression and induces invasive human neoplasia resembling squamous cell carcinoma. Tumorigenesis is dependent on CDK4 kinase function, with cyclin D1 required but not sufficient for this process. In facilitating escape from G1 growth restraints, Ras and CDK4 alter the composition of cyclin D and cyclin E complexes and promote resistance to growth inhibition by INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. These data identify a new role for oncogenic Ras in CDK4 regulation and highlight the functional importance of CDK4 suppression in preventing uncontrolled growth.

  11. Synthesis and optimization of an original V-shaped collection of 4-7-disubstituted pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidines as CDK5 and DYRK1A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dehbi, Oussama; Tikad, Abdellatif; Bourg, Stéphane; Bonnet, Pascal; Lozach, Olivier; Meijer, Laurent; Aadil, Mina; Akssira, Mohammed; Guillaumet, Gérald; Routier, Sylvain

    2014-06-10

    We here report the synthesis and biological evaluation of an original collection of 4,7-disubstituted pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidines designed as potential kinase inhibitors. The collection was generated from a single starting material, 4,7-dichloropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine, which afforded the final compounds after two steps: a sequential or one-pot sequence including selective cross coupling reactions in C-4, followed by the second cross-coupling in C-7. In position C-4, a Suzuki-Miyaura type reaction led to monosubstituted derivatives whereas in position C-7, synthesis was achieved via a Suzuki or a Buchwald type reaction using commercially available or undescribed boron derivatives. The biological activity of the V-shaped family was measured in protein kinase assays. The structure activity relationship (SAR) revealed that some compounds selectively inhibited DYRK1A and CDK5 without affecting GSK3. Docking studies furnished possible explanations that correlate with the SAR data. The most active compound on the two biological targets was 27 which exhibited the following IC50: 110 nM for CDK5, 24 nM for DYRK1A and only 1.2 μM for GSK3. In the C-7 amino subfamily, the best derivative was indubitably compound 48 which led to a near selective action on DYRK1A and a remarkable IC50 of 60 nM.

  12. Synthesis and optimization of an original V-shaped collection of 4-7-disubstituted pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidines as CDK5 and DYRK1A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dehbi, Oussama; Tikad, Abdellatif; Bourg, Stéphane; Bonnet, Pascal; Lozach, Olivier; Meijer, Laurent; Aadil, Mina; Akssira, Mohammed; Guillaumet, Gérald; Routier, Sylvain

    2014-06-10

    We here report the synthesis and biological evaluation of an original collection of 4,7-disubstituted pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidines designed as potential kinase inhibitors. The collection was generated from a single starting material, 4,7-dichloropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine, which afforded the final compounds after two steps: a sequential or one-pot sequence including selective cross coupling reactions in C-4, followed by the second cross-coupling in C-7. In position C-4, a Suzuki-Miyaura type reaction led to monosubstituted derivatives whereas in position C-7, synthesis was achieved via a Suzuki or a Buchwald type reaction using commercially available or undescribed boron derivatives. The biological activity of the V-shaped family was measured in protein kinase assays. The structure activity relationship (SAR) revealed that some compounds selectively inhibited DYRK1A and CDK5 without affecting GSK3. Docking studies furnished possible explanations that correlate with the SAR data. The most active compound on the two biological targets was 27 which exhibited the following IC50: 110 nM for CDK5, 24 nM for DYRK1A and only 1.2 μM for GSK3. In the C-7 amino subfamily, the best derivative was indubitably compound 48 which led to a near selective action on DYRK1A and a remarkable IC50 of 60 nM. PMID:24793883

  13. Molecular simulation studies on the binding selectivity of 2-anilino-4-(thiazol-5-yl)-pyrimidines in complexes with CDK2 and CDK7.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Tahir Ali; Qian, Hai-Yan; Pan, You-Lu; Chen, Jian-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) was regarded as a potentially therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Since the CDK family includes couples of high homology members, designing CDK2-selective inhibitors would provide valuable opportunities for the development of anticancer drugs with optimal efficacy. In this study, three thiazo-5-yl-pyrimidines as CDK2 inhibitors with different selectivity over cyclin dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) were examined to study the selectivity mechanism using a combined approach of computational techniques of flexible docking, EasyMIFs, molecular electrostatic potential (MESP), natural bond orbital (NBO), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and binding free energy calculations. Molecular simulations elicited new chemical insights into steric and electronic complementarities of these molecules to the binding sites of CDK2 and CDK7. The computed binding free energies were consistent with the ranking of their experimental binding affinities on CDK2 and CDK7. We also conducted in silico mutations of three key amino acids (CDK2: Gln85, Lys89, Asp145) to examine their impact on ligand binding with MD simulations and binding free energy calculations. The results indicated that these residues exhibited a strong tendency to mediate ligand-protein interactions through the H-bond and vdW interaction with CDK2-selective inhibitor. The present work may provide a better structural understanding of the molecular mechanism of CDK2 selective inhibition. The new computational insights presented in this study are expected to be valuable for the guidelines and development of new potent CDK2 inhibitors. PMID:26565382

  14. Peptide inhibitors of CDK2-cyclin A that target the cyclin recruitment-site: structural variants of the C-terminal Phe.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Gail E; Cowan, Angela; McInnes, Campbell; Zheleva, Daniella I; Fischer, Peter M; Chan, Weng C

    2002-09-16

    A focused series of octapeptides based on the lead compound H-His-Ala-Lys-Arg-Arg-Leu-Ile-Phe-NH(2) 1, in which the C-terminal phenylalanine residue was replaced by alpha and/or beta-modified variants, was synthesized using solid-phase chemistry. Both the L-threo-beta-hydroxy-phenylalanine (beta-phenylserine, Pse) and (2S)-phenylalaninol derivatives, as competitive binders at the cyclin-recruitment site, displayed potent inhibitory activity towards the CDK2-cyclin A complex. Unexpectedly, the D-threo-Pse derivatives also showed inhibitory activity. PMID:12182847

  15. CDK2 Is Required for the DNA Damage Response During Porcine Early Embryonic Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, HaiYang; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 inhibition plays a central role in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. However, whether CDK2 also influences early porcine embryo development is unknown. In this study, we examined whether CDK2 is involved in the regulation of oocyte meiosis and early embryonic development of porcine embryos. We found that disrupting CDK2 activity with RNAi or an inhibitor did not affect meiotic resumption or meiosis II arrest. However, CDK2 inhibitor-treated embryos showed delayed cleavage and ceased development before the blastocyst stage. Disrupting CDK2 activity is able to induce sustained DNA damage, as demonstrated by the formation of distinct gammaH2AX foci in nuclei of Day-3 and Day-5 embryos. Inhibiting CDK2 triggers a DNA damage checkpoint by activation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-P53-P21 pathway. However, the mRNA expression of genes involved in nonhomologous end joining or homologous recombination pathways for double-strand break repair were reduced after administering CDK2 inhibitor to 5-day-old embryos. Furthermore, CDK2 inhibition caused apoptosis in Day-7 blastocysts. Thus, our results indicate that an ATM-P53-P21 DNA damage checkpoint is intact in the absence of CDK2; however, CDK2 is important for proper repair of the damaged DNA by either directly or indirectly influencing DNA repair-related gene expression. PMID:27307074

  16. Targeting CDK6 in cancer: State of the art and new insights

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Solomon; Yu, Mingfeng; Kumarasiri, Malika; Le, Bich Thuy; Wang, Shudong

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) plays a vital role in regulating the progression of the cell cycle. More recently, CDK6 has also been shown to have a transcriptional role in tumor angiogenesis. Up-regulated CDK6 activity is associated with the development of several types of cancers. While CDK6 is over-expressed in cancer cells, it has a low detectable level in non-cancerous cells and CDK6-null mice develop normally, suggesting a specific oncogenic role of CDK6, and that its inhibition may represent an ideal mechanism-based and low toxic therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. Identification of selective small molecule inhibitors of CDK6 is thus needed for drug development. Herein, we review the latest understandings of the biological regulation and oncogenic roles of CDK6. The potential clinical relevance of CDK6 inhibition, the progress in the development of small-molecule CDK6 inhibitors and the rational design of potential selective CDK6 inhibitors are also discussed. PMID:26315616

  17. Silencing CDK4 radiosensitizes breast cancer cells by promoting apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The discovery of molecular markers associated with various breast cancer subtypes has greatly improved the treatment and outcome of breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, breast cancer cells acquire resistance to various therapies. Mounting evidence suggests that resistance is rooted in the deregulation of the G1 phase regulatory machinery. Methods To address whether deregulation of the G1 phase regulatory machinery contributes to radiotherapy resistance, the MCF10A immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line, ER-PR-Her2+ and ER-PR-Her2- breast cancer cell lines were irradiated. Colony formation assays measured radioresistance, while immunocytochemistry, Western blots, and flow cytometry measured the cell cycle, DNA replication, mitosis, apoptosis, and DNA breaks. Results Molecular markers common to all cell lines were overexpressed, including cyclin A1 and cyclin D1, which impinge on CDK2 and CDK4 activities, respectively. We addressed their potential role in radioresistance by generating cell lines stably expressing small hairpin RNAs (shRNA) against CDK2 and CDK4. None of the cell lines knocked down for CDK2 displayed radiosensitization. In contrast, all cell lines knocked down for CDK4 were significantly radiosensitized, and a CDK4/CDK6 inhibitor sensitized MDA-MB-468 to radiation induced apoptosis. Our data showed that silencing CDK4 significantly increases radiation induced cell apoptosis in cell lines without significantly altering cell cycle progression, or DNA repair after irradiation. Our results indicate lower levels of phospho-Bad at ser136 upon CDK4 silencing and ionizing radiation, which has been shown to signal apoptosis. Conclusion Based on our data we conclude that knockdown of CDK4 activity sensitizes breast cancer cells to radiation by activating apoptosis pathways. PMID:23886499

  18. Searching for novel Cdk5 substrates in brain by comparative phosphoproteomics of wild type and Cdk5-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vallejos, Erick; Utreras, Elías; Bórquez, Daniel A; Prochazkova, Michaela; Terse, Anita; Jaffe, Howard; Toledo, Andrea; Arruti, Cristina; Pant, Harish C; Kulkarni, Ashok B; González-Billault, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is the most common post-translational modification that regulates several pivotal functions in cells. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase which is mostly active in the nervous system. It regulates several biological processes such as neuronal migration, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal guidance and synaptic plasticity among others. In search for novel substrates of Cdk5 in the brain we performed quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis, isolating phosphoproteins from whole brain derived from E18.5 Cdk5+/+ and Cdk5-/- embryos, using an Immobilized Metal-Ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC), which specifically binds to phosphorylated proteins. The isolated phosphoproteins were eluted and isotopically labeled for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry identification. We found 40 proteins that showed decreased phosphorylation at Cdk5-/- brains. In addition, out of these 40 hypophosphorylated proteins we characterized two proteins, :MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich protein Kinase C substrate) and Grin1 (G protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1). MARCKS is known to be phosphorylated by Cdk5 in chick neural cells while Grin1 has not been reported to be phosphorylated by Cdk5. When these proteins were overexpressed in N2A neuroblastoma cell line along with p35, serine phosphorylation in their Cdk5 motifs was found to be increased. In contrast, treatments with roscovitine, the Cdk5 inhibitor, resulted in an opposite effect on serine phosphorylation in N2A cells and primary hippocampal neurons transfected with MARCKS. In summary, the results presented here identify Grin 1 as novel Cdk5 substrate and confirm previously identified MARCKS as a a bona fide Cdk5 substrate.

  19. Searching for novel Cdk5 substrates in brain by comparative phosphoproteomics of wild type and Cdk5-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vallejos, Erick; Utreras, Elías; Bórquez, Daniel A; Prochazkova, Michaela; Terse, Anita; Jaffe, Howard; Toledo, Andrea; Arruti, Cristina; Pant, Harish C; Kulkarni, Ashok B; González-Billault, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is the most common post-translational modification that regulates several pivotal functions in cells. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase which is mostly active in the nervous system. It regulates several biological processes such as neuronal migration, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal guidance and synaptic plasticity among others. In search for novel substrates of Cdk5 in the brain we performed quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis, isolating phosphoproteins from whole brain derived from E18.5 Cdk5+/+ and Cdk5-/- embryos, using an Immobilized Metal-Ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC), which specifically binds to phosphorylated proteins. The isolated phosphoproteins were eluted and isotopically labeled for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry identification. We found 40 proteins that showed decreased phosphorylation at Cdk5-/- brains. In addition, out of these 40 hypophosphorylated proteins we characterized two proteins, :MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich protein Kinase C substrate) and Grin1 (G protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1). MARCKS is known to be phosphorylated by Cdk5 in chick neural cells while Grin1 has not been reported to be phosphorylated by Cdk5. When these proteins were overexpressed in N2A neuroblastoma cell line along with p35, serine phosphorylation in their Cdk5 motifs was found to be increased. In contrast, treatments with roscovitine, the Cdk5 inhibitor, resulted in an opposite effect on serine phosphorylation in N2A cells and primary hippocampal neurons transfected with MARCKS. In summary, the results presented here identify Grin 1 as novel Cdk5 substrate and confirm previously identified MARCKS as a a bona fide Cdk5 substrate. PMID:24658276

  20. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-alkyl or aryl substituted isoindigo derivatives as potential dual cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Li, Yanzhong; Gao, Guangwei; Wang, Shuai; Yan, Yun; Zhan, Xiaoping; Liu, Zenglu; Mao, Zhenmin; Chen, Shaoxiong; Wang, Liqun

    2014-10-30

    A series of N-alkyl or aryl substituted isoindigo derivatives have been synthesized and their anti-proliferative activity was evaluated by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Some of the target compounds exhibited significant antitumor activity, including compounds 6h and 6k (against K562 cells), 6i (against HeLa cells) and 6j (against A549 cells). N-(p-methoxy-phenyl)-isoindigo (6k) exhibited a high and selective anti-proliferative activity against K562 cells (IC50 7.8 μM) and induced the apoptosis of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 6k arrested the cell cycle at S phase in K562 cells by decreasing the expression of cyclin A and CDK2, which played critical roles in DNA replication and passage through G2 phase. Moreover, compound 6k down-regulated the expression of p-GSK-3β (Ser9), β-catenin and c-myc proteins, up-regulated the expression of GSK-3β, consequently, suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and induced the apoptosis of K562 cells. The binding mode of compound 6k with GSK-3β was simulated using molecular docking tools. All of these studies gave a better understanding to the molecular mechanisms of this class of agents and clues to develop dual CDK2/GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation inhibitors applied in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25151579

  1. Cdk12 and Cdk13 regulate axonal elongation through a common signaling pathway that modulates Cdk5 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Ru; Lin, Guan-Ting; Huang, Chun-Kai; Fann, Ming-Ji

    2014-11-01

    Cdk12 and Cdk13 are Cdc2-related proteins that share 92% identity in their kinase domains. Using in situ hybridization and Western blot analysis, we detected the expression of Cdk12 and Cdk13 mRNAs and their proteins in developing mouse embryos, especially during development of the nervous system. We explored the roles of Cdk12 and Cdk13 in neuronal differentiation using the P19 neuronal differentiation model. Upon knockdown of Cdk12 or Cdk13, no effect on differentiated cell numbers was detected, but a substantial decrease of numbers of neurons with long neurites was identified. Similarly, knockdown of Cdk12 or Cdk13 in primarily cultured cortical neurons shortens the averaged axonal length. A microarray analysis was used to examine changes in gene expression after knockdown or overexpression of Cdk12 and we identified Cdk5 as a molecule potentially involved in mediating the effect of Cdk12 and Cdk13. Depletion of Cdk12 or Cdk13 in P19 cells significantly reduces Cdk5 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Expression of Cdk5 protein in the developing mouse brain is also reduced in conditional Cdk12-knockout mice in proportion to the residual amount of Cdk12 protein present. This suggests that the reduced axonal outgrowth after knockdown of Cdk12 or Cdk13 might be due to lower Cdk5 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Cdk5 protein in P19 cells was able to partially rescue the neurite outgrowth defect observed when Cdk12 or Cdk13 is depleted. Together, these findings suggest that Cdk12 and Cdk13 regulate axonal elongation through a common signaling pathway that modulates Cdk5 expression. PMID:24999027

  2. Cdk4 deficiency inhibits skin tumor development but does not affect normal keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L; Miliani de Marval, Paula L; LaCava, Margaret; Moons, David S; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Conti, Claudio J

    2002-08-01

    Most human tumors have mutations that result in deregulation of the cdk4/cyclin-Ink4-Rb pathway. Overexpression of D-type cyclins or cdk4 and inactivation of Ink4 inhibitors are common in human tumors. Conversely, lack of cyclin D1 expression results in significant reduction in mouse skin and mammary tumor development. However, complete elimination of tumor development was not observed in these models, suggesting that other cyclin/cdk complexes play an important role in tumorigenesis. Here we described the effects of cdk4 deficiency on mouse skin proliferation and tumor development. Cdk4 deficiency resulted in a 98% reduction in the number of tumors generated through the two-stage carcinogenesis model. The absence of cdk4 did not affect normal keratinocyte proliferation and both wild-type and cdk4 knockout epidermis are equally affected after topical treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), resulting in epidermal hyperplasia. In similar fashion, cdk4 knockout keratinocytes proliferated well in an in vivo model of wound-induced proliferation. Biochemical studies in mouse epidermis showed that cdk6 activity increased twofold in cdk4-deficient mice compared to wild-type siblings. These results suggest that therapeutic approaches to inhibit cdk4 activity could provide a target to inhibit tumor development with minimal or no effect in normal tissue.

  3. cdk4 Deficiency Inhibits Skin Tumor Development but Does Not Affect Normal Keratinocyte Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; LaCava, Margaret; Moons, David S.; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Conti, Claudio J.

    2002-01-01

    Most human tumors have mutations that result in deregulation of the cdk4/cyclin-Ink4-Rb pathway. Overexpression of D-type cyclins or cdk4 and inactivation of Ink4 inhibitors are common in human tumors. Conversely, lack of cyclin D1 expression results in significant reduction in mouse skin and mammary tumor development. However, complete elimination of tumor development was not observed in these models, suggesting that other cyclin/cdk complexes play an important role in tumorigenesis. Here we described the effects of cdk4 deficiency on mouse skin proliferation and tumor development. Cdk4 deficiency resulted in a 98% reduction in the number of tumors generated through the two-stage carcinogenesis model. The absence of cdk4 did not affect normal keratinocyte proliferation and both wild-type and cdk4 knockout epidermis are equally affected after topical treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), resulting in epidermal hyperplasia. In similar fashion, cdk4 knockout keratinocytes proliferated well in an in vivo model of wound-induced proliferation. Biochemical studies in mouse epidermis showed that cdk6 activity increased twofold in cdk4-deficient mice compared to wild-type siblings. These results suggest that therapeutic approaches to inhibit cdk4 activity could provide a target to inhibit tumor development with minimal or no effect in normal tissue. PMID:12163365

  4. Alternative roles for Cdk5 in learning and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Bibb, James A

    2007-08-01

    Protein kinases mediate the intracellular signal transduction pathways controlling synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. While the majority of protein kinases achieve this function via the phosphorylation of synaptic substrates, some kinases may contribute through alternative mechanisms in addition to enzymatic activity. There is growing evidence that protein kinases may often play structural roles in plasticity as well. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in learning and synaptic plasticity. Initial scrutiny focused on its enzymatic activity using pharmacological inhibitors and genetic modifications of Cdk5 cofactors. Quite recently Cdk5 has been shown to govern learning and plasticity via regulation of glutamate receptor degradation, a function that may not dependent on phosphorylation of downstream effectors. From these new studies, two roles emerge for Cdk5 in plasticity: one in which it controls structural plasticity via phosphorylation of synaptic substrates, and a second where it regulates functional plasticity via protein-protein interactions.

  5. A selective chemical probe for exploring the role of CDK8 and CDK19 in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Esdar, Christina; Waalboer, Dennis; Adeniji-Popoola, Olajumoke; Ortiz-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Mallinger, Aurélie; Samant, Rahul S.; Czodrowski, Paul; Musil, Djordje; Schwarz, Daniel; Schneider, Klaus; Stubbs, Mark; Ewan, Ken; Fraser, Elizabeth; TePoele, Robert; Court, Will; Box, Gary; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Gowan, Sharon; Rohdich, Felix; Raynaud, Florence; Schneider, Richard; Poeschke, Oliver; Blaukat, Andree; Workman, Paul; Schiemann, Kai; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Wienke, Dirk; Blagg, Julian

    2015-01-01

    There is unmet need for chemical tools to explore the role of the Mediator complex in human pathologies ranging from cancer to cardiovascular disease. Here we determine that CCT251545, a small molecule WNT-pathway inhibitor discovered through cell-based screening, is a potent and selective chemical probe for the human Mediator complex-associated protein kinases CDK8 and CDK19 with >100-fold selectivity over 291 other kinases. X-ray crystallography demonstrates a Type 1 binding mode involving insertion of the CDK8 C-terminus into the ligand binding site. In contrast to Type II inhibitors of CDK8/19, CCT251545 displays potent cell-based activity. We show that CCT251545 and close analogues alter WNT-pathway regulated gene expression and other on-target effects of modulating CDK8/19 including genes regulated by STAT1. Consistent with this we find that phosphorylation of STAT1SER727 is a biomarker of CDK8 kinase activity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate in vivo activity of CCT251545 in WNT-dependent tumors. PMID:26502155

  6. Essential CDK1 inhibitory role for separase during meiosis I in vertebrate oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gorr, Ingo H.; Reis, Alexandra; Boos, Dominik; Wühr, Martin; Madgwick, Suzanne; Jones, Keith T.; Stemmann, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Separase not only triggers anaphase of meiosis I by proteolytic cleavage of cohesin on chromosome arms; in vitro vertebrate separase also acts as a direct inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) upon liberation from inhibitory securin. Blocking separase-Cdk1 complex formation by microinjection of anti-separase antibodies prevents polar body extrusion in vertebrate oocytes. Importantly, proper meiotic maturation is rescued by chemical inhibition of Cdk1 or expression of Cdk1-binding separase fragments lacking cohesin-cleaving activity. PMID:16906143

  7. A kinetic model of the cyclin E/Cdk2 developmental timer in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Ciliberto, Andrea; Petrus, Matthew J; Tyson, John J; Sible, Jill C

    2003-07-01

    Early cell cycles of Xenopus laevis embryos are characterized by rapid oscillations in the activity of two cyclin-dependent kinases. Cdk1 activity peaks at mitosis, driven by periodic degradation of cyclins A and B. In contrast, Cdk2 activity oscillates twice per cell cycle, despite a constant level of its partner, cyclin E. Cyclin E degrades at a fixed time after fertilization, normally corresponding to the midblastula transition. Based on published data and new experiments, we constructed a mathematical model in which: (1) oscillations in Cdk2 activity depend upon changes in phosphorylation, (2) Cdk2 participates in a negative feedback loop with the inhibitory kinase Wee1; (3) cyclin E is cooperatively removed from the oscillatory system; and (4) removed cyclin E is degraded by a pathway activated by cyclin E/Cdk2 itself. The model's predictions about embryos injected with Xic1, a stoichiometric inhibitor of cyclin E/Cdk2, were experimentally validated. PMID:12914904

  8. Prolonged early G1 arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle–coupled loss of IRF4

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C.; Staudt, Louis M.; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G1 arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G1 and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G1 block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy. PMID:22718837

  9. Role of Cdk5 in drug abuse and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Benavides, David R; Bibb, James A

    2004-10-01

    Neuronal plasticity serves as the basis for learning and memory in the adult brain. Contextual, motor, and reward-based learning are important in reinforcing survival behavior in animals. Most psychostimulant drugs of abuse target the dopaminergic reward system of the brain. Drugs of abuse cause long-standing cellular and molecular neuroadaptations in the brain. The neuronal protein kinase Cdk5 is emerging as an important player in the cellular and physiological responses to drugs of abuse. Substantial evidence indicates that Cdk5 controls dopamine neurotransmission through regulation of the protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor, DARPP-32. Furthermore, the morphological changes associated with chronic cocaine exposure are dependent on Cdk5. Thus, Cdk5 mediates cellular responses to psychostimulant drug-induced changes in dopamine signal transduction and cytoskeletal reorganization. In this regard, Cdk5, through its targeting of various substrates, integrates a number of intracellular pathways that are targeted by psychostimulant drugs. These studies and the emerging role of Cdk5 in various forms of neuronal plasticity are reviewed.

  10. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors as Anticancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary E; Corsino, Patrick E; Narayan, Satya; Law, Brian K

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been considered promising drug targets for a number of years, but most CDK inhibitors have failed rigorous clinical testing. Recent studies demonstrating clear anticancer efficacy and reduced toxicity of CDK4/6 inhibitors such as palbociclib and multi-CDK inhibitors such as dinaciclib have rejuvenated the field. Favorable results with palbociclib and its recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval demonstrate that CDK inhibitors with narrow selectivity profiles can have clinical utility for therapy based on individual tumor genetics. A brief overview of results obtained with ATP-competitive inhibitors such as palbociclib and dinaciclib is presented, followed by a compilation of new avenues that have been pursued toward the development of novel, non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors. These creative ways to develop CDK inhibitors are presented along with crystal structures of these agents complexed with CDK2 to highlight differences in their binding sites and mechanisms of action. The recent successes of CDK inhibitors in the clinic, combined with the potential for structure-based routes to the development of non-ATP-competitive CDK inhibitors, and evidence that CDK inhibitors may have use in suppressing chromosomal instability and in synthetic lethal drug combinations inspire optimism that CDK inhibitors will become important weapons in the fight against cancer.

  11. The Role of CDK4/6 Inhibition in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dickler, Maura N.

    2015-01-01

    Imbalance of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathway in cancer cells may result in diversion away from a pathway to senescence and toward a more proliferative phenotype. Cancer cells may increase cyclin D-dependent activity through a variety of mechanisms. Therapeutic inhibition of CDKs in tumors to negate their evasion of growth suppressors has been identified as a key anticancer strategy. In this review, we outline the development of CDK inhibitory therapy in breast cancer, including the initial experience with the pan-CDK inhibitor flavopiridol and the next generation of oral highly selective CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors PD0332991 (palbociclib), LEE011 (ribociclib), and LY2835219 (abemaciclib). Data from phase I and II studies in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer demonstrate promising efficacy with manageable toxic effects, chiefly neutropenia. We discuss these studies and the phase III studies that are accruing or nearing completion. We describe the application of such therapy to other breast cancer settings, including HER2-positive breast cancer and the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. We also discuss potential concerns surrounding the combination of CDK inhibitors with chemotherapy and their effects on repair of double-strand DNA breaks in cancer cells. Oral highly selective CDK inhibitors show great promise in improving the outcomes of patients with ER+ breast cancer, although caution must apply to their combination with other agents and in the early breast cancer setting. PMID:25876993

  12. Taxol-induced growth arrest and apoptosis is associated with the upregulation of the Cdk inhibitor, p21WAF1/CIP1, in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2012-12-01

    The anticancer agent, taxol, stabilizes tubulin polymerization, resulting in arrest at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and apoptotic cell death. However, the molecular mechanism of this growth inhibition and apoptosis is poorly understood. In this study, we used MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells which have different estrogen receptor (ER) and tumor suppressor p53 statuses to examine the mechanisms of taxol-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Treatment of the cells with taxol resulted in a time-dependent inhibition of cell viability, which was accompanied by an accumulation of cells at G2/M and the sub-G1 apoptotic region, determined by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, chromatin condensation, DNA ladder formation and proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in both cell lines were observed following treatment with taxol, indicating the occurrence of apoptotic cell death. Western blot analysis using whole cell lysates from MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells treated with taxol demonstrated that taxol treatment inhibited expression of cyclin A and cyclin B1 proteins in a time-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of taxol on cell growth and apoptosis induced by taxol were also associated with the downregulation of Wee1 kinase expression and a marked induction in the activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF/CIP1. Furthermore, taxol elevated p21 promoter activity in both cell lines. These findings suggest that taxol-induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cells is mediated through the ER- and p53-independent upregulation of p21. PMID:23023313

  13. Roscovitine in cancer and other diseases.

    PubMed

    Cicenas, Jonas; Kalyan, Karthik; Sorokinas, Aleksandras; Stankunas, Edvinas; Levy, Josh; Meskinyte, Ingrida; Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Kaupinis, Algirdas; Valius, Mindaugas

    2015-06-01

    Roscovitine [CY-202, (R)-Roscovitine, Seliciclib] is a small molecule that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) through direct competition at the ATP-binding site. It is a broad-range purine inhibitor, which inhibits CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK7, but is a poor inhibitor for CDK4 and CDK6. Roscovitine is widely used as a biological tool in cell cycle, cancer, apoptosis and neurobiology studies. Moreover, it is currently evaluated as a potential drug to treat cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, viral infections, polycystic kidney disease and glomerulonephritis. This review focuses on the use of roscovitine in the disease model as well as clinical model research. PMID:26207228

  14. Searching for Novel Cdk5 Substrates in Brain by Comparative Phosphoproteomics of Wild Type and Cdk5−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Vallejos, Erick; Utreras, Elías; Bórquez, Daniel A.; Prochazkova, Michaela; Terse, Anita; Jaffe, Howard; Toledo, Andrea; Arruti, Cristina; Pant, Harish C.; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; González-Billault, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is the most common post-translational modification that regulates several pivotal functions in cells. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase which is mostly active in the nervous system. It regulates several biological processes such as neuronal migration, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal guidance and synaptic plasticity among others. In search for novel substrates of Cdk5 in the brain we performed quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis, isolating phosphoproteins from whole brain derived from E18.5 Cdk5+/+ and Cdk5−/− embryos, using an Immobilized Metal-Ion Affinity Chromatography (IMAC), which specifically binds to phosphorylated proteins. The isolated phosphoproteins were eluted and isotopically labeled for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry identification. We found 40 proteins that showed decreased phosphorylation at Cdk5−/− brains. In addition, out of these 40 hypophosphorylated proteins we characterized two proteins, :MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich protein Kinase C substrate) and Grin1 (G protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1). MARCKS is known to be phosphorylated by Cdk5 in chick neural cells while Grin1 has not been reported to be phosphorylated by Cdk5. When these proteins were overexpressed in N2A neuroblastoma cell line along with p35, serine phosphorylation in their Cdk5 motifs was found to be increased. In contrast, treatments with roscovitine, the Cdk5 inhibitor, resulted in an opposite effect on serine phosphorylation in N2A cells and primary hippocampal neurons transfected with MARCKS. In summary, the results presented here identify Grin 1 as novel Cdk5 substrate and confirm previously identified MARCKS as a a bona fide Cdk5 substrate. PMID:24658276

  15. miR-30e controls DNA damage-induced stress responses by modulating expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and caspase-3

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Dennis; Peters, Dominik; Piekorz, Roland P.; Budach, Wilfried; Jänicke, Reiner U.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs that usually cause gene silencing by translational repression or degradation of mRNAs, are implicated in DNA damage-induced stress responses. To identify senescence-associated miRNAs, we performed microarray analyses using wild-type and p53-deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells that following gamma-irradiation (γIR) are driven into senescence and apoptosis, respectively. Several miRNAs including miR-30e were found upregulated in a p53-dependent manner specifically in senescent cells, but not in apoptotic cells. Overexpression of miR-30e in HCT116 cells not only inhibited γIR-, etoposide- or miR-34a-induced caspase-3-like DEVDase activities and cell death, but greatly accelerated and augmented their senescent phenotype. Consistently, procaspase-3 protein, but not mRNA decreased in the presence of miR-30e, whereas expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 increased both at the mRNA and protein level. Performing luciferase reporter gene assays, we identified the 3′-UTR of the caspase-3 mRNA as a direct miR-30e target. In contrast, although miR-30e was unable to bind to the p21 mRNA, it increased expression of a luciferase construct containing the p21 promoter, suggesting that the miR-30e-mediated upregulation of p21 occurs indirectly at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, despite suppressing procaspase-3 expression, miR-30e was unable to protect RKO colon carcinoma cells from DNA damage-induced death or to induce senescence, as miR-30e completely fails to upregulate p21 in these cells. These data suggest that miR-30e functions in a cell type-dependent manner as an important molecular switch for DNA damage-induced stress responses and may thus represent a target of therapeutic value. PMID:26895377

  16. miR-30e controls DNA damage-induced stress responses by modulating expression of the CDK inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Dennis; Peters, Dominik; Piekorz, Roland P; Budach, Wilfried; Jänicke, Reiner U

    2016-03-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs that usually cause gene silencing by translational repression or degradation of mRNAs, are implicated in DNA damage-induced stress responses. To identify senescence-associated miRNAs, we performed microarray analyses using wild-type and p53-deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells that following gamma-irradiation (γIR) are driven into senescence and apoptosis, respectively. Several miRNAs including miR-30e were found upregulated in a p53-dependent manner specifically in senescent cells, but not in apoptotic cells. Overexpression of miR-30e in HCT116 cells not only inhibited γIR-, etoposide- or miR-34a-induced caspase-3-like DEVDase activities and cell death, but greatly accelerated and augmented their senescent phenotype. Consistently, procaspase-3 protein, but not mRNA decreased in the presence of miR-30e, whereas expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 increased both at the mRNA and protein level. Performing luciferase reporter gene assays, we identified the 3'-UTR of the caspase-3 mRNA as a direct miR-30e target. In contrast, although miR-30e was unable to bind to the p21 mRNA, it increased expression of a luciferase construct containing the p21 promoter, suggesting that the miR-30e-mediated upregulation of p21 occurs indirectly at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, despite suppressing procaspase-3 expression, miR-30e was unable to protect RKO colon carcinoma cells from DNA damage-induced death or to induce senescence, as miR-30e completely fails to upregulate p21 in these cells. These data suggest that miR-30e functions in a cell type-dependent manner as an important molecular switch for DNA damage-induced stress responses and may thus represent a target of therapeutic value.

  17. Inhibition of Eimeria tenella CDK-related Kinase 2: From Target Identification to Lead Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Kristin; Beyer, Carsten; Fernández, Maria L. Suárez; Bender, Frank; Gaßel, Michael; Unden, Gottfried; Marhöfer, Richard J.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Selzer, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites encompass several human-pathogenic as well as animal-pathogenic protozoans like Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Eimeria tenella. E. tenella is the causative agent of coccidiosis a disease of chickens, which causes tremendous economic losses to the world poultry industry. Considerable increase of drug resistance makes it necessary to develop and pursue new therapeutic strategies. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key molecules in the regulation of the cell cycle and are therefore prominent target proteins in parasitic diseases. Bioinformatic analysis revealed four potential CDK-like proteins of which one – E. tenella CDK-related kinase 2 (EtCRK2) – is already cloned, expressed and characterized.[1] Using the CDK specific inhibitor Flavopiridol in EtCRK2 enzyme assays and schizont maturation assays we could chemically validate CDK-like proteins as potential drug targets. An X-ray crystal structure of human CDK2 (HsCDK2) served as template to built protein models of EtCRK2 by comparative homology modeling. Structural differences in the ATP-binding site between EtCRK2 and HsCDK2 as well as chicken CDK3 have been addressed for the optimization of selective ATP-competitive inhibitors. Virtual screening and “wet-bench” high throughput screening campaigns on large compound libraries resulted in an initial set of hit compounds. These compounds were further analyzed and characterized leading to a set of four promising lead compounds inhibiting EtCRK2. PMID:20575139

  18. Inhibition of endothelial Cdk5 reduces tumor growth by promoting non-productive angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Merk, Henriette; Zhang, Siwei; Lehr, Thorsten; Müller, Christoph; Ulrich, Melanie; Bibb, James A; Adams, Ralf H; Bracher, Franz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Liebl, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic success of VEGF-based anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is limited due to resistance. Thus, new strategies for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy based on novel targets are urgently required. Our previous in vitro work suggested that small molecule Cdk5 inhibitors affect angiogenic processes such as endothelial migration and proliferation. Moreover, we recently uncovered a substantial role of Cdk5 in the development of lymphatic vessels. Here we pin down the in vivo impact of endothelial Cdk5 inhibition in angiogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanism in order to judge the potential of Cdk5 as a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer target. By the use of endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockout mouse models and various endothelial and tumor cell based assays including human tumor xenograft models, we show that endothelial-specific knockdown of Cdk5 results in excessive but non-productive angiogenesis during development but also in tumors, which subsequently leads to inhibition of tumor growth. As Cdk5 inhibition disrupted Notch function by reducing the generation of the active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Cdk5 modulates Notch-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting, we propose that the Dll4/Notch driven angiogenic signaling hub is an important and promising mechanistic target of Cdk5. In fact, Cdk5 inhibition can sensitize tumors to conventional anti-angiogenic treatment as shown in tumor xenograft models. In summary our data set the stage for Cdk5 as a drugable target to inhibit Notch-driven angiogenesis condensing the view that Cdk5 is a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26755662

  19. Inhibition of endothelial Cdk5 reduces tumor growth by promoting non-productive angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Merk, Henriette; Zhang, Siwei; Lehr, Thorsten; Müller, Christoph; Ulrich, Melanie; Bibb, James A.; Adams, Ralf H.; Bracher, Franz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Liebl, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic success of VEGF-based anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is limited due to resistance. Thus, new strategies for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy based on novel targets are urgently required. Our previous in vitro work suggested that small molecule Cdk5 inhibitors affect angiogenic processes such as endothelial migration and proliferation. Moreover, we recently uncovered a substantial role of Cdk5 in the development of lymphatic vessels. Here we pin down the in vivo impact of endothelial Cdk5 inhibition in angiogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanism in order to judge the potential of Cdk5 as a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer target. By the use of endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockout mouse models and various endothelial and tumor cell based assays including human tumor xenograft models, we show that endothelial-specific knockdown of Cdk5 results in excessive but non-productive angiogenesis during development but also in tumors, which subsequently leads to inhibition of tumor growth. As Cdk5 inhibition disrupted Notch function by reducing the generation of the active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Cdk5 modulates Notch-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting, we propose that the Dll4/Notch driven angiogenic signaling hub is an important and promising mechanistic target of Cdk5. In fact, Cdk5 inhibition can sensitize tumors to conventional anti-angiogenic treatment as shown in tumor xenograft models. In summary our data set the stage for Cdk5 as a drugable target to inhibit Notch-driven angiogenesis condensing the view that Cdk5 is a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26755662

  20. Inhibition of endothelial Cdk5 reduces tumor growth by promoting non-productive angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Merk, Henriette; Zhang, Siwei; Lehr, Thorsten; Müller, Christoph; Ulrich, Melanie; Bibb, James A; Adams, Ralf H; Bracher, Franz; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Liebl, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic success of VEGF-based anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is limited due to resistance. Thus, new strategies for anti-angiogenic cancer therapy based on novel targets are urgently required. Our previous in vitro work suggested that small molecule Cdk5 inhibitors affect angiogenic processes such as endothelial migration and proliferation. Moreover, we recently uncovered a substantial role of Cdk5 in the development of lymphatic vessels. Here we pin down the in vivo impact of endothelial Cdk5 inhibition in angiogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanism in order to judge the potential of Cdk5 as a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer target. By the use of endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockout mouse models and various endothelial and tumor cell based assays including human tumor xenograft models, we show that endothelial-specific knockdown of Cdk5 results in excessive but non-productive angiogenesis during development but also in tumors, which subsequently leads to inhibition of tumor growth. As Cdk5 inhibition disrupted Notch function by reducing the generation of the active Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Cdk5 modulates Notch-dependent endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting, we propose that the Dll4/Notch driven angiogenic signaling hub is an important and promising mechanistic target of Cdk5. In fact, Cdk5 inhibition can sensitize tumors to conventional anti-angiogenic treatment as shown in tumor xenograft models. In summary our data set the stage for Cdk5 as a drugable target to inhibit Notch-driven angiogenesis condensing the view that Cdk5 is a promising target for cancer therapy.

  1. βTrCP controls the lysosome-mediated degradation of CDK1, whose accumulation correlates with tumor malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Mora-Santos, Mar; Giráldez, Servando; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á.; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, cell cycle progression is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases, among which CDK1 plays important roles in the regulation of the G2/M transition, G1 progression and G1/S transition. CDK1 is highly regulated by its association to cyclins, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, changes in subcellular localization, and by direct binding of CDK inhibitor proteins. CDK1 steady-state protein levels are held constant throughout the cell cycle by a coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and degradation. We show that CDK1 is ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFβTrCP and degraded by the lysosome. Furthermore, we found that DNA damage not only triggers the stabilization of inhibitory phosphorylation sites on CDK1 and repression of CDK1 gene expression, but also regulates βTrCP-induced CDK1 degradation in a cell type-dependent manner. Specifically, treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin in certain cell lines provokes CDK1 degradation and induces apoptosis, whereas in others it inhibits destruction of the protein. These observations raise the possibility that different tumor types, depending on their pathogenic spectrum mutations, may display different sensitivity to βTrCP-induced CDK1 degradation after DNA damage. Finally, we found that CDK1 accumulation in patients’ tumors shows a negative correlation with βTrCP and a positive correlation with the degree of tumor malignancy. PMID:25149538

  2. Forebrain-specific deletion of Cdk5 in pyramidal neurons results in mania-like behavior and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Susan C.; Rudenko, Andrii; Cho, Sukhee; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is associated with synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previous reports have demonstrated that Cdk5 is necessary for memory formation, although others have reported Cdk5 conditional knockout mouse models exhibiting enhanced learning and memory. Furthermore, how Cdk5 acts in specific cell populations to affect behavior and cognitive outcomes remains unclear. Here we conduct a behavioral characterization of a forebrain-specific Cdk5 conditional knockout mouse model under the αCaMKII promoter, in which Cdk5 is ablated in excitatory pyramidal neurons of the forebrain. The Cdk5 conditional knockouts exhibit hyperactivitiy in the open field, reduced anxiety, and reduced behavioral despair. Moreover, the Cdk5 conditional knockouts also display impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze and are severely impaired in contextual fear memory, which correspond to deficits in synaptic transmission. Remarkably, the hyperactivity of the Cdk5 conditional knockouts can be ameliorated by the administration of lithium chloride, an inhibitor of GSK3β signaling. Collectively, our data reveal that Cdk5 ablation from forebrain excitatory neurons results in deleterious effects on emotional and cognitive behavior and highlight a key role for Cdk5 in regulating the GSK3β signaling pathway. PMID:23850563

  3. Crystal structure of a human cyclin-dependent kinase 6 complexwith a flavonol inhibitor, Fisetin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Heshu; Chang, Debbie J.; Baratte, Blandine; Meijer, Laurent; Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula

    2005-01-10

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in cell cycle control, apoptosis, transcription and neuronal functions. They are important targets for the design of drugs with anti-mitotic and/or anti-neurodegenerative effects. CDK4 and CDK6 form a subfamily among the CDKs in mammalian cells, as defined by sequence similarities. Compared to CDK2 and CDK5, structural information on CDK4 and CDK6 is sparse. We describe here the crystal structure of human CDK6 in complex with a viral cyclin and a flavonol inhibitor, fisetin. Fisetin binds to the active form of CDK6, forming hydrogen bonds with the side chains of residues in the binding pocket that undergo large conformational changes during CDK activation by cyclin binding. The 4-keto group and the 3-hydroxyl group of fisetin are hydrogen bonded with the backbone in the hinge region between the N-terminal and C-terminal kinase domain, as has been observed for many CDK inhibitors. However, CDK2 and HCK kinase in complex with other flavone inhibitors such as quercetin and flavopiridol showed a different binding mode with the inhibitor rotated by about 180. The structural information of the CDK6-fisetin complex is correlated with the binding affinities of different flavone inhibitors for CDK6. This complex structure is the first description of an inhibitor complex with a kinase from the CDK4/6 subfamily and can provide a basis for selecting and designing inhibitor compounds with higher affinity and specificity.

  4. Inhibition of CDK9 as a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hellvard, Annelie; Zeitlmann, Lutz; Heiser, Ulrich; Kehlen, Astrid; Niestroj, André; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Koziel, Joanna; Delaleu, Nicolas; Jan Potempa; Mydel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by synovial inflammation and proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The induction of apoptosis has long been proposed as a target for proliferative autoimmune diseases, and has further been shown to act as a successful treatment of experimental models of arthritis, such as collagen-induced arthritis. Here we examined the effects of specific oral small-molecule inhibitors of the transcription regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 9 on the development and progression of collagen-induced arthritis. DBA/1 mice were immunised with bovine collagen type II and treated orally with specific CDK9 inhibitors. The effects of CDK9 inhibition on RNA levels and protein expression, apoptosis induction, caspase activation and lymphocyte phenotype were further analysed. Mice showed a significant delay in disease onset and a reduction in disease severity following treatment with CDK9 inhibitors. Inhibiting CDK9 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells resulted in the loss of Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and RNA levels, along with a subsequent increase in apoptosis. CDK9 specific inhibitors may be a potential alternative treatment not only of cancer, but also for autoimmune- and inflammatory diseases. Taken together, these results show that transient inhibition of CDK9 induces apoptosis in leukocyte subsets and modulates the immune response. PMID:27511630

  5. Inhibition of CDK9 as a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hellvard, Annelie; Zeitlmann, Lutz; Heiser, Ulrich; Kehlen, Astrid; Niestroj, André; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Koziel, Joanna; Delaleu, Nicolas; Jan Potempa; Mydel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is characterised by synovial inflammation and proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The induction of apoptosis has long been proposed as a target for proliferative autoimmune diseases, and has further been shown to act as a successful treatment of experimental models of arthritis, such as collagen-induced arthritis. Here we examined the effects of specific oral small-molecule inhibitors of the transcription regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 9 on the development and progression of collagen-induced arthritis. DBA/1 mice were immunised with bovine collagen type II and treated orally with specific CDK9 inhibitors. The effects of CDK9 inhibition on RNA levels and protein expression, apoptosis induction, caspase activation and lymphocyte phenotype were further analysed. Mice showed a significant delay in disease onset and a reduction in disease severity following treatment with CDK9 inhibitors. Inhibiting CDK9 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells resulted in the loss of Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and RNA levels, along with a subsequent increase in apoptosis. CDK9 specific inhibitors may be a potential alternative treatment not only of cancer, but also for autoimmune- and inflammatory diseases. Taken together, these results show that transient inhibition of CDK9 induces apoptosis in leukocyte subsets and modulates the immune response. PMID:27511630

  6. Requirement for CDK6 in MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Placke, Theresa; Faber, Katrin; Nonami, Atsushi; Putwain, Sarah L.; Salih, Helmut R.; Heidel, Florian H.; Krämer, Alwin; Root, David E.; Barbie, David A.; Krivtsov, Andrei V.; Armstrong, Scott A.; Hahn, William C.; Huntly, Brian J.; Sykes, Stephen M.; Milsom, Michael D.; Scholl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving the H3K4 methyltransferase mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) trigger aberrant gene expression in hematopoietic progenitors and give rise to an aggressive subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Insights into MLL fusion-mediated leukemogenesis have not yet translated into better therapies because MLL is difficult to target directly, and the identity of the genes downstream of MLL whose altered transcription mediates leukemic transformation are poorly annotated. We used a functional genetic approach to uncover that AML cells driven by MLL-AF9 are exceptionally reliant on the cell-cycle regulator CDK6, but not its functional homolog CDK4, and that the preferential growth inhibition induced by CDK6 depletion is mediated through enhanced myeloid differentiation. CDK6 essentiality is also evident in AML cells harboring alternate MLL fusions and a mouse model of MLL-AF9–driven leukemia and can be ascribed to transcriptional activation of CDK6 by mutant MLL. Importantly, the context-dependent effects of lowering CDK6 expression are closely phenocopied by a small-molecule CDK6 inhibitor currently in clinical development. These data identify CDK6 as critical effector of MLL fusions in leukemogenesis that might be targeted to overcome the differentiation block associated with MLL-rearranged AML, and underscore that cell-cycle regulators may have distinct, noncanonical, and nonredundant functions in different contexts. PMID:24764564

  7. Requirement for CDK6 in MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Placke, Theresa; Faber, Katrin; Nonami, Atsushi; Putwain, Sarah L; Salih, Helmut R; Heidel, Florian H; Krämer, Alwin; Root, David E; Barbie, David A; Krivtsov, Andrei V; Armstrong, Scott A; Hahn, William C; Huntly, Brian J; Sykes, Stephen M; Milsom, Michael D; Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving the H3K4 methyltransferase mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) trigger aberrant gene expression in hematopoietic progenitors and give rise to an aggressive subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Insights into MLL fusion-mediated leukemogenesis have not yet translated into better therapies because MLL is difficult to target directly, and the identity of the genes downstream of MLL whose altered transcription mediates leukemic transformation are poorly annotated. We used a functional genetic approach to uncover that AML cells driven by MLL-AF9 are exceptionally reliant on the cell-cycle regulator CDK6, but not its functional homolog CDK4, and that the preferential growth inhibition induced by CDK6 depletion is mediated through enhanced myeloid differentiation. CDK6 essentiality is also evident in AML cells harboring alternate MLL fusions and a mouse model of MLL-AF9-driven leukemia and can be ascribed to transcriptional activation of CDK6 by mutant MLL. Importantly, the context-dependent effects of lowering CDK6 expression are closely phenocopied by a small-molecule CDK6 inhibitor currently in clinical development. These data identify CDK6 as critical effector of MLL fusions in leukemogenesis that might be targeted to overcome the differentiation block associated with MLL-rearranged AML, and underscore that cell-cycle regulators may have distinct, noncanonical, and nonredundant functions in different contexts.

  8. Cdk7 mediates RPB1-driven mRNA synthesis in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Abhijit S.; Mitra, Pallabi; Maruthi, Mulaka

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 in conjunction with CyclinH and Mat1 activates cell cycle CDKs and is a part of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Role of Cdk7 is well characterized in model eukaryotes however its relevance in protozoan parasites has not been investigated. This important regulator of key processes warrants closer examination particularly in this parasite given its unique cell cycle progression and flexible mode of replication. We report functional characterization of TgCdk7 and its partners TgCyclinH and TgMat1. Recombinant Cdk7 displays kinase activity upon binding its cyclin partner and this activity is further enhanced in presence of Mat1. The activated kinase phosphorylates C-terminal domain of TgRPB1 suggesting its role in parasite transcription. Therefore, the function of Cdk7 in CTD phosphorylation and RPB1 mediated transcription was investigated using Cdk7 inhibitor. Unphosphorylated CTD binds promoter DNA while phosphorylation by Cdk7 triggers its dissociation from DNA with implications for transcription initiation. Inhibition of Cdk7 in the parasite led to strong reduction in Serine 5 phosphorylation of TgRPB1-CTD at the promoters of constitutively expressed actin1 and sag1 genes with concomitant reduction of both nascent RNA synthesis and 5′-capped transcripts. Therefore, we provide compelling evidence for crucial role of TgCdk7 kinase activity in mRNA synthesis. PMID:27759017

  9. Differential expression of cell cycle regulators in CDK5-dependent medullary thyroid carcinoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karine; Hillmann, Antje; Augustyn, Alexander; Plattner, Florian; Hai, Tao; Singh, Tanvir; Ramezani, Saleh; Sun, Xiankai; Pfragner, Roswitha; Minna, John D; Cote, Gilbert J; Chen, Herbert; Bibb, James A; Nwariaku, Fiemu E

    2015-05-20

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer of thyroid C-cells, for which few treatment options are available. We have recently reported a role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in MTC pathogenesis. We have generated a mouse model, in which MTC proliferation is induced upon conditional overexpression of the CDK5 activator, p25, in C-cells, and arrested by interrupting p25 overexpression. Here, we identify genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in proliferating versus arrested benign mouse MTC. We find that downstream target genes of the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein, including genes encoding cell cycle regulators such as CDKs, cyclins and CDK inhibitors, are significantly upregulated in malignant mouse tumors in a CDK5-dependent manner. Reducing CDK5 activity in human MTC cells down-regulated these cell cycle regulators suggesting that CDK5 activity is critical for cell cycle progression and MTC proliferation. Finally, the same set of cell cycle proteins was consistently overexpressed in human sporadic MTC but not in hereditary MTC. Together these findings suggest that aberrant CDK5 activity precedes cell cycle initiation and thus may function as a tumor-promoting factor facilitating cell cycle protein expression in MTC. Targeting aberrant CDK5 or its downstream effectors may be a strategy to halt MTC tumorigenesis. PMID:25900242

  10. Differential expression of cell cycle regulators in CDK5-dependent medullary thyroid carcinoma tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Karine; Hillmann, Antje; Augustyn, Alexander; Plattner, Florian; Hai, Tao; Singh, Tanvir; Ramezani, Saleh; Sun, Xiankai; Pfragner, Roswitha; Minna, John D.; Cote, Gilbert J.; Chen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer of thyroid C-cells, for which few treatment options are available. We have recently reported a role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in MTC pathogenesis. We have generated a mouse model, in which MTC proliferation is induced upon conditional overexpression of the CDK5 activator, p25, in C-cells, and arrested by interrupting p25 overexpression. Here, we identify genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in proliferating versus arrested benign mouse MTC. We find that downstream target genes of the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein, including genes encoding cell cycle regulators such as CDKs, cyclins and CDK inhibitors, are significantly upregulated in malignant mouse tumors in a CDK5-dependent manner. Reducing CDK5 activity in human MTC cells down-regulated these cell cycle regulators suggesting that CDK5 activity is critical for cell cycle progression and MTC proliferation. Finally, the same set of cell cycle proteins was consistently overexpressed in human sporadic MTC but not in hereditary MTC. Together these findings suggest that aberrant CDK5 activity precedes cell cycle initiation and thus may function as a tumor-promoting factor facilitating cell cycle protein expression in MTC. Targeting aberrant CDK5 or its downstream effectors may be a strategy to halt MTC tumorigenesis. PMID:25900242

  11. Differential expression of cell cycle regulators in CDK5-dependent medullary thyroid carcinoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karine; Hillmann, Antje; Augustyn, Alexander; Plattner, Florian; Hai, Tao; Singh, Tanvir; Ramezani, Saleh; Sun, Xiankai; Pfragner, Roswitha; Minna, John D; Cote, Gilbert J; Chen, Herbert; Bibb, James A; Nwariaku, Fiemu E

    2015-05-20

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer of thyroid C-cells, for which few treatment options are available. We have recently reported a role for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in MTC pathogenesis. We have generated a mouse model, in which MTC proliferation is induced upon conditional overexpression of the CDK5 activator, p25, in C-cells, and arrested by interrupting p25 overexpression. Here, we identify genes and proteins that are differentially expressed in proliferating versus arrested benign mouse MTC. We find that downstream target genes of the tumor suppressor, retinoblastoma protein, including genes encoding cell cycle regulators such as CDKs, cyclins and CDK inhibitors, are significantly upregulated in malignant mouse tumors in a CDK5-dependent manner. Reducing CDK5 activity in human MTC cells down-regulated these cell cycle regulators suggesting that CDK5 activity is critical for cell cycle progression and MTC proliferation. Finally, the same set of cell cycle proteins was consistently overexpressed in human sporadic MTC but not in hereditary MTC. Together these findings suggest that aberrant CDK5 activity precedes cell cycle initiation and thus may function as a tumor-promoting factor facilitating cell cycle protein expression in MTC. Targeting aberrant CDK5 or its downstream effectors may be a strategy to halt MTC tumorigenesis.

  12. Differentiation of trophoblast stem cells into giant cells is triggered by p57/Kip2 inhibition of CDK1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zakir; Kohn, Matthew J.; Yagi, Rieko; Vassilev, Lyubomir T.; DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2008-01-01

    Genome endoreduplication during mammalian development is a rare event for which the mechanism is unknown. It first appears when fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) deprivation induces differentiation of trophoblast stem (TS) cells into the nonproliferating trophoblast giant (TG) cells required for embryo implantation. Here we show that RO3306 inhibition of cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDK1), the enzyme required to enter mitosis, induced differentiation of TS cells into TG cells. In contrast, RO3306 induced abortive endoreduplication and apoptosis in embryonic stem cells, revealing that inactivation of CDK1 triggers endoreduplication only in cells programmed to differentiate into polyploid cells. Similarly, FGF4 deprivation resulted in CDK1 inhibition by overexpressing two CDK-specific inhibitors, p57/KIP2 and p21/CIP1. TS cell mutants revealed that p57 was required to trigger endoreduplication by inhibiting CDK1, while p21 suppressed expression of the checkpoint protein kinase CHK1, thereby preventing induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, Cdk2−/− TS cells revealed that CDK2 is required for endoreduplication when CDK1 is inhibited. Expression of p57 in TG cells was restricted to G-phase nuclei to allow CDK activation of S phase. Thus, endoreduplication in TS cells is triggered by p57 inhibition of CDK1 with concomitant suppression of the DNA damage response by p21. PMID:18981479

  13. A CDK4/6-Dependent Epigenetic Mechanism Protects Cancer Cells from PML-induced Senescence.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Mariana; Vernier, Mathieu; Mignacca, Lian; Lessard, Frédéric; Huot, Geneviève; Moiseeva, Olga; Bourdeau, Véronique; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) plays a tumor suppressive role by inducing cellular senescence in response to oncogenic stress. However, tumor cell lines fail to engage in complete senescence upon PML activation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying resistance to PML-induced senescence. Here, we report that activation of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 are essential and sufficient to impair senescence induced by PML expression. Disrupting CDK function by RNA interference or pharmacological inhibition restored senescence in tumor cells and diminished their tumorigenic potential in mouse xenograft models. Complete senescence correlated with an increase in autophagy, repression of E2F target genes, and an gene expression signature of blocked DNA methylation. Accordingly, treatment of tumor cells with inhibitors of DNA methylation reversed resistance to PML-induced senescence. Further, CDK inhibition with palbociclib promoted autophagy-dependent degradation of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Lastly, we found that CDK4 interacted with and phosphorylated DNMT1 in vitro, suggesting that CDK activity is required for its stabilization. Taken together, our findings highlight a potentially valuable feature of CDK4/6 inhibitors as epigenetic modulators to facilitate activation of senescence programs in tumor cells. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3252-64. ©2016 AACR.

  14. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 is epigenetically regulated in carboplatin resistance and results in collateral sensitivity to the CDK inhibitor seliciclib in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coley, H M; Safuwan, N A M; Chivers, P; Papacharalbous, E; Giannopoulos, T; Butler-Manuel, S; Madhuri, K; Lovell, D P; Crook, T

    2012-01-01

    Background: Carboplatin remains a first-line agent in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Unfortunately, platinum-resistant disease ultimately occurs in most patients. Using a novel EOC cell line with acquired resistance to carboplatin: PEO1CarbR, genome-wide micro-array profiling identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 as specifically downregulated in carboplatin resistance. Presently, we describe confirmation of these preliminary data with a variety of approaches. Methods: Cytotoxicity testing (MTT) and cell cycle blockade assessed drug responsiveness. Methylation specific PCR and pyrosequencing identified sites of promoter methylation in p57Kip2. siRNA to p57Kip2 was used to look at the changes in apoptosis of carboplatin treated EOC cells. EOC tissues (20 cases) were assessed for mRNA levels of p57Kip2. Results: Carboplatin resistance was reversed using 5-aza-cytidine in vitro. Promoter methylation sites and preferential sensitivity to seliciclib were seen in PEO1CarbR cells. Silencing p57Kip2 decreased the apoptotic response to the effects of platinum but produced sensitisation to seliciclib. EOC biopsies indicated an association of high levels of p57Kip2mRNA with complete responses to chemotherapy and improved outcome. Conclusion: We conclude that p57Kip2 is a candidate biomarker of platinum sensitivity/resistance in EOC and such cases may show preferential response to the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor seliciclib. PMID:22233925

  15. Rb and FZR1/Cdh1 determine CDK4/6-cyclin D requirement in C. elegans and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Cristobal, Alba; Prinsen, Martine B W; van Mourik, Tim; Koreth, John; Xu, Huihong; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna; Cuppen, Edwin; Boxem, Mike; Muñoz, Javier; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases, starting from an unbiased screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that simultaneous mutation of lin-35, a retinoblastoma (Rb)-related gene, and fzr-1, an orthologue to the APC/C co-activator Cdh1, completely eliminates the essential requirement of CDK4/6-cyclin D (CDK-4/CYD-1) in C. elegans. CDK-4/CYD-1 phosphorylates specific residues in the LIN-35 Rb spacer domain and FZR-1 amino terminus, resembling inactivating phosphorylations of the human proteins. In human breast cancer cells, simultaneous knockdown of Rb and FZR1 synergistically bypasses cell division arrest induced by the CDK4/6-specific inhibitor PD-0332991. Our data identify FZR1 as a candidate CDK4/6-cyclin D substrate and point to an APC/C(FZR1) activity as an important determinant in response to CDK4/6-inhibitors.

  16. Discovery of 8-Cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile (7x) as a Potent Inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) and AMPK-Related Kinase 5 (ARK5)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The success of imatinib, a BCR-ABL inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, has created a great impetus for the development of additional kinase inhibitors as therapeutic agents. However, the complexity of cancer has led to recent interest in polypharmacological approaches for developing multikinase inhibitors with low toxicity profiles. With this goal in mind, we analyzed more than 150 novel cyano pyridopyrimidine compounds and identified structure–activity relationship trends that can be exploited in the design of potent kinase inhibitors. One compound, 8-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile (7x), was found to be the most active, inducing apoptosis of tumor cells at a concentration of approximately 30–100 nM. In vitro kinase profiling revealed that 7x is a multikinase inhibitor with potent inhibitory activity against the CDK4/CYCLIN D1 and ARK5 kinases. Here, we report the synthesis, structure–activity relationship, kinase inhibitory profile, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo tumor regression studies by this lead compound. PMID:24417566

  17. Discovery of 8-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile (7x) as a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and AMPK-related kinase 5 (ARK5).

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V Ramana; Akula, Balireddy; Cosenza, Stephen C; Athuluridivakar, Saikrishna; Mallireddigari, Muralidhar R; Pallela, Venkat R; Billa, Vinay K; Subbaiah, D R C Venkata; Bharathi, E Vijaya; Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Padgaonkar, Amol; Baker, Stacey J; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2014-02-13

    The success of imatinib, a BCR-ABL inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, has created a great impetus for the development of additional kinase inhibitors as therapeutic agents. However, the complexity of cancer has led to recent interest in polypharmacological approaches for developing multikinase inhibitors with low toxicity profiles. With this goal in mind, we analyzed more than 150 novel cyano pyridopyrimidine compounds and identified structure-activity relationship trends that can be exploited in the design of potent kinase inhibitors. One compound, 8-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile (7x), was found to be the most active, inducing apoptosis of tumor cells at a concentration of approximately 30-100 nM. In vitro kinase profiling revealed that 7x is a multikinase inhibitor with potent inhibitory activity against the CDK4/CYCLIN D1 and ARK5 kinases. Here, we report the synthesis, structure-activity relationship, kinase inhibitory profile, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo tumor regression studies by this lead compound.

  18. Ubiquitination of p27 is regulated by Cdk-dependent phosphorylation and trimeric complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Montagnoli, Alessia; Fiore, Francesca; Eytan, Esther; Carrano, Andrea C.; Draetta, Giulio F.; Hershko, Avram; Pagano, Michele

    1999-01-01

    The cellular abundance of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 is regulated by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Activation of p27 degradation is seen in proliferating cells and in many types of aggressive human carcinomas. p27 can be phosphorylated on threonine 187 by Cdks, and cyclin E/Cdk2 overexpression can stimulate the degradation of wild-type p27, but not of a threonine 187-to-alanine p27 mutant [p27(T187A)]. However, whether threonine 187 phosphorylation stimulates p27 degradation through the ubiquitin–proteasome system or an alternative pathway is still not known. Here, we demonstrate that p27 ubiquitination (as assayed in vivo and in an in vitro reconstituted system) is cell-cycle regulated and that Cdk activity is required for the in vitro ubiquitination of p27. Furthermore, ubiquitination of wild-type p27, but not of p27(T187A), can occur in G1-enriched extracts only upon addition of cyclin E/Cdk2 or cyclin A/Cdk2. Using a phosphothreonine 187 site-specific antibody for p27, we show that threonine 187 phosphorylation of p27 is also cell-cycle dependent, being present in proliferating cells but undetectable in G1 cells. Finally, we show that in addition to threonine 187 phosphorylation, efficient p27 ubiquitination requires formation of a trimeric complex with the cyclin and Cdk subunits. In fact, cyclin B/Cdk1 which can phosphorylate p27 efficiently, but cannot form a stable complex with it, is unable to stimulate p27 ubiquitination by G1 extracts. Furthermore, another p27 mutant [p27(CK−)] that can be phosphorylated by cyclin E/Cdk2 but cannot bind this kinase complex, is refractory to ubiquitination. Thus throughout the cell cycle, both phosphorylation and trimeric complex formation act as signals for the ubiquitination of a Cdk inhibitor. PMID:10323868

  19. Insights on Structural Characteristics and Ligand Binding Mechanisms of CDK2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Jingxiao; Gao, Weimin; Zhang, Lilei; Pan, Yanqiu; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is a crucial regulator of the eukaryotic cell cycle. However it is well established that monomeric CDK2 lacks regulatory activity, which needs to be aroused by its positive regulators, cyclins E and A, or be phosphorylated on the catalytic segment. Interestingly, these activation steps bring some dynamic changes on the 3D-structure of the kinase, especially the activation segment. Until now, in the monomeric CDK2 structure, three binding sites have been reported, including the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site (Site I) and two non-competitive binding sites (Site II and III). In addition, when the kinase is subjected to the cyclin binding process, the resulting structural changes give rise to a variation of the ATP binding site, thus generating an allosteric binding site (Site IV). All the four sites are demonstrated as being targeted by corresponding inhibitors, as is illustrated by the allosteric binding one which is targeted by inhibitor ANS (fluorophore 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate). In the present work, the binding mechanisms and their fluctuations during the activation process attract our attention. Therefore, we carry out corresponding studies on the structural characterization of CDK2, which are expected to facilitate the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of kinase proteins. Besides, the binding mechanisms of CDK2 with its relevant inhibitors, as well as the changes of binding mechanisms following conformational variations of CDK2, are summarized and compared. The summary of the conformational characteristics and ligand binding mechanisms of CDK2 in the present work will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the bioactivities of CDK2. PMID:25918937

  20. Artemisinin blocks prostate cancer growth and cell cycle progression by disrupting Sp1 interactions with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) promoter and inhibiting CDK4 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Jamin A; Sundar, Shyam N; Cheung, Mark; Tin, Antony S; Modiano, Jaime; Firestone, Gary L

    2009-01-23

    Artemisinin, a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, is a potent anti-malaria compound that has recently been shown to have anti-proliferative effects on a number of human cancer cell types, although little is know about the molecular mechanisms of this response. We have observed that artemisinin treatment triggers a stringent G1 cell cycle arrest of LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) human prostate cancer cells that is accompanied by a rapid down-regulation of CDK2 and CDK4 protein and transcript levels. Transient transfection with promoter-linked luciferase reporter plasmids revealed that artemisinin strongly inhibits CDK2 and CDK4 promoter activity. Deletion analysis of the CDK4 promoter revealed a 231-bp artemisinin-responsive region between -1737 and -1506. Site-specific mutations revealed that the Sp1 site at -1531 was necessary for artemisinin responsiveness in the context of the CDK4 promoter. DNA binding assays as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this Sp1-binding site in the CDK4 promoter forms a specific artemisinin-responsive DNA-protein complex that contains the Sp1 transcription factor. Artemisinin reduced phosphorylation of Sp1, and when dephosphorylation of Sp1 was inhibited by treatment of cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, the ability of artemisinin to down-regulate Sp1 interactions with the CDK4 promoter was ablated, rendering the CDK4 promoter unresponsive to artemisinin. Finally, overexpression of Sp1 mostly reversed the artemisinin down-regulation of CDK4 promoter activity and partially reversed the cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a key event in the artemisinin anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells is the transcriptional down-regulation of CDK4 expression by disruption of Sp1 interactions with the CDK4 promoter. PMID:19017637

  1. Artemisinin Blocks Prostate Cancer Growth and Cell Cycle Progression by Disrupting Sp1 Interactions with the Cyclin-dependent Kinase-4 (CDK4) Promoter and Inhibiting CDK4 Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Jamin A.; Sundar, Shyam N.; Cheung, Mark; Tin, Antony S.; Modiano, Jaime; Firestone, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    Artemisinin, a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, is a potent anti-malaria compound that has recently been shown to have anti-proliferative effects on a number of human cancer cell types, although little is know about the molecular mechanisms of this response. We have observed that artemisinin treatment triggers a stringent G1 cell cycle arrest of LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate) human prostate cancer cells that is accompanied by a rapid down-regulation of CDK2 and CDK4 protein and transcript levels. Transient transfection with promoter-linked luciferase reporter plasmids revealed that artemisinin strongly inhibits CDK2 and CDK4 promoter activity. Deletion analysis of the CDK4 promoter revealed a 231-bp artemisinin-responsive region between -1737 and -1506. Site-specific mutations revealed that the Sp1 site at -1531 was necessary for artemisinin responsiveness in the context of the CDK4 promoter. DNA binding assays as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this Sp1-binding site in the CDK4 promoter forms a specific artemisinin-responsive DNA-protein complex that contains the Sp1 transcription factor. Artemisinin reduced phosphorylation of Sp1, and when dephosphorylation of Sp1 was inhibited by treatment of cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, the ability of artemisinin to down-regulate Sp1 interactions with the CDK4 promoter was ablated, rendering the CDK4 promoter unresponsive to artemisinin. Finally, overexpression of Sp1 mostly reversed the artemisinin down-regulation of CDK4 promoter activity and partially reversed the cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our results demonstrate that a key event in the artemisinin anti-proliferative effects in prostate cancer cells is the transcriptional down-regulation of CDK4 expression by disruption of Sp1 interactions with the CDK4 promoter. PMID:19017637

  2. Biochemical characterizations reveal different properties between CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Myung; Yang, Kyungmi; Yang, Beom-Seok

    2003-10-31

    CDK2 and CDK4 known promoter of cell cycling catalyze phosphorylation of RB protein. Enzyme specificity between two CDKs that work at a different cell cycle phase is not clearly understood. In order to define kinase properties of CDK2 and CDK4 in complex with cycline A or cycline D1 in relation to their respective role in cell cycling regulation, we examined enzymatic properties of both CDK4/cycline D1 and CDK2/cycline A in vitro. Association constant, Km for ATP in CDK4/cyclin D1 was found as 418 microM, a value unusually high whereas CDK2/cyclin A was 23 microM, a value close to most of other regulatory protein kinases. Turnover value for both CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A were estimated as 3.4 and 3.9 min(-1) respectively. Kinetic efficiency estimation indicates far over one order magnitude less efficiency for CDK4/cyclin D1 than the value of CDK2/cycline A (9.3 pM(-1) min(-1) and 170 pM(-1) min(-1) respectively). In addition, inhibition of cellular CDK4 caused increase of cellular levels of ATP, even though inhibition of CDK2 did not change it noticeably. These data suggest cellular CDK4/cyclin D1 activity is tightly associated with cellular ATP concentration. Also, analysis of phosphorylated serine/threonine sites on RB catalyzed by CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A showed significant differences in their preference of phosphorylation sites in RB C-terminal domain. Since RB is known to regulate various cellular proteins by binding and this binding is controlled by its phosphorylation, these data shown here clearly indicate significant difference in their biochemical properties between CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A affecting regulation of cellular RB function. PMID:14646596

  3. CDK7-Dependent Transcriptional Addiction in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yubao; Zhang, Tinghu; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Abraham, Brian J.; Lee, Tong Ihn; Xie, Shaozhen; Yuzugullu, Haluk; Von, Thanh; Li, Heyuan; Lin, Ziao; Stover, Daniel G.; Lim, Elgene; Wang, Zhigang C.; Iglehart, J. Dirk; Young, Richard A.; Gray, Nathanael S.; Zhao, Jean J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive form of breast cancer that exhibits extremely high levels of genetic complexity and yet a relatively uniform transcriptional program. We postulate that TNBC might be highly dependent on uninterrupted transcription of a key set of genes within this gene expression program and might therefore be exceptionally sensitive to inhibitors of transcription. Utilizing kinase inhibitors and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing, we show here that triple-negative but not hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cells are exceptionally dependent on CDK7, a transcriptional cyclin-dependent kinase. TNBC cells are unique in their dependence on this transcriptional CDK and suffer apoptotic cell death upon CDK7 inhibition. An “Achilles cluster” of TNBC-specific genes is especially sensitive to CDK7 inhibition and frequently associated with super-enhancers. We conclude that CDK7 mediates transcriptional addiction to a vital cluster of genes in TNBC and CDK7 inhibition may be a useful therapy for this challenging cancer. PMID:26406377

  4. CDK4/6 inhibition induces epithelial cell cycle arrest and ameliorates acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    DiRocco, Derek P.; Bisi, John; Roberts, Patrick; Strum, Jay; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sharpless, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and urgently requires new preventative therapies. Expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor transgene protects against AKI, suggesting that manipulating the tubular epithelial cell cycle may be a viable therapeutic strategy. Broad spectrum small molecule CDK inhibitors are protective in some kidney injury models, but these have toxicities and epithelial proliferation is eventually required for renal repair. Here, we tested a well-tolerated, novel and specific small molecule inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, PD 0332991, to investigate the effects of transient cell cycle inhibition on epithelial survival in vitro and kidney injury in vivo. We report that CDK4/6 inhibition induced G0/G1 cycle arrest in cultured human renal proximal tubule cells (hRPTC) at baseline and after injury. Induction of transient G0/G1 cycle arrest through CDK4/6 inhibition protected hRPTC from DNA damage and caspase 3/7 activation following exposure to the nephrotoxins cisplatin, etoposide, and antimycin A. In vivo, mice treated with PD 0332991 before ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) exhibited dramatically reduced epithelial progression through S phase 24 h after IRI. Despite reduced epithelial proliferation, PD 0332991 ameliorated kidney injury as reflected by improved serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels 24 h after injury. Inflammatory markers and macrophage infiltration were significantly decreased in injured kidneys 3 days following IRI. These results indicate that induction of proximal tubule cell cycle arrest with specific CDK4/6 inhibitors, or “pharmacological quiescence,” represents a novel strategy to prevent AKI. PMID:24338822

  5. CDK4/6 inhibition induces epithelial cell cycle arrest and ameliorates acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    DiRocco, Derek P; Bisi, John; Roberts, Patrick; Strum, Jay; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sharpless, Norman; Humphreys, Benjamin D

    2014-02-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and urgently requires new preventative therapies. Expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor transgene protects against AKI, suggesting that manipulating the tubular epithelial cell cycle may be a viable therapeutic strategy. Broad spectrum small molecule CDK inhibitors are protective in some kidney injury models, but these have toxicities and epithelial proliferation is eventually required for renal repair. Here, we tested a well-tolerated, novel and specific small molecule inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, PD 0332991, to investigate the effects of transient cell cycle inhibition on epithelial survival in vitro and kidney injury in vivo. We report that CDK4/6 inhibition induced G0/G1 cycle arrest in cultured human renal proximal tubule cells (hRPTC) at baseline and after injury. Induction of transient G0/G1 cycle arrest through CDK4/6 inhibition protected hRPTC from DNA damage and caspase 3/7 activation following exposure to the nephrotoxins cisplatin, etoposide, and antimycin A. In vivo, mice treated with PD 0332991 before ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) exhibited dramatically reduced epithelial progression through S phase 24 h after IRI. Despite reduced epithelial proliferation, PD 0332991 ameliorated kidney injury as reflected by improved serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels 24 h after injury. Inflammatory markers and macrophage infiltration were significantly decreased in injured kidneys 3 days following IRI. These results indicate that induction of proximal tubule cell cycle arrest with specific CDK4/6 inhibitors, or "pharmacological quiescence," represents a novel strategy to prevent AKI.

  6. The role of Cdk5 in cognition and neuropsychiatric and neurological pathology.

    PubMed

    Barnett, David G S; Bibb, James A

    2011-04-25

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that is ubiquitous in the nervous system and interacts with a myriad of substrates. Its modulation of synaptic plasticity and associated mechanisms of learning and memory as well as neurodegeneration and cognitive disease highlights its importance in the human brain. Cdk5 is active throughout the neuron via its kinase activity, protein-protein interactions, and nuclear associations. It regulates functions thought vital to memory and plasticity, including synaptic vesicle recycling, dendritic spine formation, neurotransmitter receptor density, and neuronal excitability. Although conditional knockout of Cdk5 improves learning and plasticity, the associated deleterious effects of increased excitability cast doubts on the therapeutic efficacy of systemic inhibitors. However, through further work on the regulation of Cdk5 and its effectors, this important molecule promises to aid in elucidating key pathways involved in learning and memory and uncover innovative therapeutic targets to treat neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases.

  7. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor therapy for hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Prithviraj; Simmons, Gary L; Grant, Steven

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate cell cycle progression. Certain CDKs (e.g., CDK7, CDK9) also control cellular transcription. Consequently, CDKs represent attractive targets for anti-cancer drug development, as their aberrant expression is common in diverse malignancies, and CDK inhibition can trigger apoptosis. CDK inhibition may be particularly successful in hematologic malignancies, which are more sensitive to inhibition of cell cycling and apoptosis induction. AREAS COVERED A number of CDK inhibitors, ranging from pan-CDK inhibitors such as flavopiridol (alvocidib) to highly selective inhibitors of specific CDKs (e.g., CDK4/6), such as PD0332991, that are currently in various phases of development, are profiled in this review. Flavopiridol induces cell cycle arrest, and globally represses transcription via CDK9 inhibition. The latter may represent its major mechanism of action via down-regulation of multiple short-lived proteins. In early phase trials, flavopiridol has shown encouraging efficacy across a wide spectrum of hematologic malignancies. Early results with dinaciclib and PD0332991 also appear promising. EXPERT OPINION In general, the anti-tumor efficacy of CDK inhibitor monotherapy is modest, and rational combinations are being explored, including those involving other targeted agents. While selective CDK4/6 inhibition might be effective against certain malignancies, broad spectrum CDK inhibition will likely be required for most cancers. PMID:23647051

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Classical Multidimensional Scaling Unveil New Metastable States in the Conformational Landscape of CDK2

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Pasquale; Rastelli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases are key regulatory nodes in cellular networks and their function has been shown to be intimately coupled with their structural flexibility. However, understanding the key structural mechanisms of large conformational transitions remains a difficult task. CDK2 is a crucial regulator of cell cycle. Its activity is finely tuned by Cyclin E/A and the catalytic segment phosphorylation, whereas its deregulation occurs in many types of cancer. ATP competitive inhibitors have failed to be approved for clinical use due to toxicity issues raised by a lack of selectivity. However, in the last few years type III allosteric inhibitors have emerged as an alternative strategy to selectively modulate CDK2 activity. In this study we have investigated the conformational variability of CDK2. A low dimensional conformational landscape of CDK2 was modeled using classical multidimensional scaling on a set of 255 crystal structures. Microsecond-scale plain and accelerated MD simulations were used to populate this landscape by using an out-of-sample extension of multidimensional scaling. CDK2 was simulated in the apo-form and in complex with the allosteric inhibitor 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonic acid (ANS). The apo-CDK2 landscape analysis showed a conformational equilibrium between an Src-like inactive conformation and an active-like form. These two states are separated by different metastable states that share hybrid structural features with both forms of the kinase. In contrast, the CDK2/ANS complex landscape is compatible with a conformational selection picture where the binding of ANS in proximity of the αC helix causes a population shift toward the inactive conformation. Interestingly, the new metastable states could enlarge the pool of candidate structures for the development of selective allosteric CDK2 inhibitors. The method here presented should not be limited to the CDK2 case but could be used to systematically unmask similar mechanisms throughout the human

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Classical Multidimensional Scaling Unveil New Metastable States in the Conformational Landscape of CDK2.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Pasquale; Caporuscio, Fabiana; Carlino, Luca; Rastelli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases are key regulatory nodes in cellular networks and their function has been shown to be intimately coupled with their structural flexibility. However, understanding the key structural mechanisms of large conformational transitions remains a difficult task. CDK2 is a crucial regulator of cell cycle. Its activity is finely tuned by Cyclin E/A and the catalytic segment phosphorylation, whereas its deregulation occurs in many types of cancer. ATP competitive inhibitors have failed to be approved for clinical use due to toxicity issues raised by a lack of selectivity. However, in the last few years type III allosteric inhibitors have emerged as an alternative strategy to selectively modulate CDK2 activity. In this study we have investigated the conformational variability of CDK2. A low dimensional conformational landscape of CDK2 was modeled using classical multidimensional scaling on a set of 255 crystal structures. Microsecond-scale plain and accelerated MD simulations were used to populate this landscape by using an out-of-sample extension of multidimensional scaling. CDK2 was simulated in the apo-form and in complex with the allosteric inhibitor 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonic acid (ANS). The apo-CDK2 landscape analysis showed a conformational equilibrium between an Src-like inactive conformation and an active-like form. These two states are separated by different metastable states that share hybrid structural features with both forms of the kinase. In contrast, the CDK2/ANS complex landscape is compatible with a conformational selection picture where the binding of ANS in proximity of the αC helix causes a population shift toward the inactive conformation. Interestingly, the new metastable states could enlarge the pool of candidate structures for the development of selective allosteric CDK2 inhibitors. The method here presented should not be limited to the CDK2 case but could be used to systematically unmask similar mechanisms throughout the human

  10. ING5 Is Phosphorylated by CDK2 and Controls Cell Proliferation Independently of p53

    PubMed Central

    Linzen, Ulrike; Lilischkis, Richard; Pandithage, Ruwin; Schilling, Britta; Ullius, Andrea; Lüscher-Firzlaff, Juliane; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Lüscher, Bernhard; Vervoorts, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor of growth (ING) proteins have multiple functions in the control of cell proliferation, mainly by regulating processes associated with chromatin regulation and gene expression. ING5 has been described to regulate aspects of gene transcription and replication. Moreover deregulation of ING5 is observed in different tumors, potentially functioning as a tumor suppressor. Gene transcription in late G1 and in S phase and replication is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) in complex with cyclin E or cyclin A. CDK2 complexes phosphorylate and regulate several substrate proteins relevant for overcoming the restriction point and promoting S phase. We have identified ING5 as a novel CDK2 substrate. ING5 is phosphorylated at a single site, threonine 152, by cyclin E/CDK2 and cyclin A/CDK2 in vitro. This site is also phosphorylated in cells in a cell cycle dependent manner, consistent with it being a CDK2 substrate. Furthermore overexpression of cyclin E/CDK2 stimulates while the CDK2 inhibitor p27KIP1 represses phosphorylation at threonine 152. This site is located in a bipartite nuclear localization sequence but its phosphorylation was not sufficient to deregulate the subcellular localization of ING5. Although ING5 interacts with the tumor suppressor p53, we could not establish p53-dependent regulation of cell proliferation by ING5 and by phospho-site mutants. Instead we observed that the knockdown of ING5 resulted in a strong reduction of proliferation in different tumor cell lines, irrespective of the p53 status. This inhibition of proliferation was at least in part due to the induction of apoptosis. In summary we identified a phosphorylation site at threonine 152 of ING5 that is cell cycle regulated and we observed that ING5 is necessary for tumor cell proliferation, without any apparent dependency on the tumor suppressor p53. PMID:25860957

  11. p16/CDKN2 and CDK4 gene mutations in sporadic melanoma development and progression.

    PubMed

    Piccinin, S; Doglioni, C; Maestro, R; Vukosavljevic, T; Gasparotto, D; D'Orazi, C; Boiocchi, M

    1997-02-20

    The p16/CDKN2(MTS1) gene encoding for the p16 inhibitor of cyclin D/CDK4 complexes is frequently mutated and deleted in a large fraction of melanoma cell lines, and p16 germline mutations have also been observed in familial melanomas. Moreover, a CDK4 gene mutation, responsible for a functional resistance of CDK4 kinase to p16 inhibitory activity, has been described to occur in some cases of familial melanoma. These data strongly support the idea that deregulation of the CDK4/cyclin D pathway, via CDKN2 or CDK4 mutations, is of biological significance in the development of melanoma. To shed light on the role of these alterations in the development and progression of sporadic melanoma, 12 primary melanomas and 9 corresponding metastases were analyzed for CDKN2 and CDK4 gene mutations. Of the 12 primary melanomas analyzed, 4 showed the presence of mutational inactivation of the p 16 protein and 2 carried silent mutations. No metastases showed the presence of CDKN2 mutations, indicating that mutations of this cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor is not common in the progression of sporadic melanoma. On the other hand, the absence, in the metastases, of the CDKN2 mutation detected in the corresponding primary tumors suggests that 9p21 homozygous deletion may play a major role in the metastatic spreading of this type of tumor. None of the cases analyzed showed the presence of an Arg24Cys mutation, which functionally protects CDK4 from p16 inhibition. This indicates that CDK4 mutation plays a minor role in the development and progression of sporadic melanoma.

  12. Phosphorylation of the centrosomal protein, Cep169, by Cdk1 promotes its dissociation from centrosomes in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoko; Taniyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Sayori; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-25

    Cep169 is a centrosomal protein conserved among vertebrates. In our previous reports, we showed that mammalian Cep169 interacts and collaborates with CDK5RAP2 to regulate microtubule (MT) dynamics and stabilization. Although Cep169 is required for MT regulation, its precise cellular function remains largely elusive. Here we show that Cep169 associates with centrosomes during interphase, but dissociates from these structures from the onset of mitosis, although CDK5RAP2 (Cep215) is continuously located at the centrosomes throughout cell cycle. Interestingly, treatment with purvalanol A, a Cdk1 inhibitor, nearly completely blocked the dissociation of Cep169 from centrosomes during mitosis. In addition, mass spectrometry analyses identified 7 phosphorylated residues of Cep169 corresponding to consensus phosphorylation sequence for Cdk1. These data suggest that the dissociation of Cep169 from centrosomes is controlled by Cdk1/Cyclin B during mitosis, and that Cep169 might regulate MT dynamics of mitotic spindle. PMID:26549230

  13. Phosphorylation of the centrosomal protein, Cep169, by Cdk1 promotes its dissociation from centrosomes in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoko; Taniyama, Yuki; Tanaka, Sayori; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2015-12-25

    Cep169 is a centrosomal protein conserved among vertebrates. In our previous reports, we showed that mammalian Cep169 interacts and collaborates with CDK5RAP2 to regulate microtubule (MT) dynamics and stabilization. Although Cep169 is required for MT regulation, its precise cellular function remains largely elusive. Here we show that Cep169 associates with centrosomes during interphase, but dissociates from these structures from the onset of mitosis, although CDK5RAP2 (Cep215) is continuously located at the centrosomes throughout cell cycle. Interestingly, treatment with purvalanol A, a Cdk1 inhibitor, nearly completely blocked the dissociation of Cep169 from centrosomes during mitosis. In addition, mass spectrometry analyses identified 7 phosphorylated residues of Cep169 corresponding to consensus phosphorylation sequence for Cdk1. These data suggest that the dissociation of Cep169 from centrosomes is controlled by Cdk1/Cyclin B during mitosis, and that Cep169 might regulate MT dynamics of mitotic spindle.

  14. 1α,25 dihydroxi-vitamin D{sub 3} modulates CDK4 and CDK6 expression and localization

    SciTech Connect

    Irazoqui, Ana P.; Heim, Nadia B.; Boland, Ricardo L.; Buitrago, Claudia G.

    2015-03-27

    We recently reported that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and p38 MAPK participate in pro-differentiation events triggered by 1α,25(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} [1,25D] in skeletal muscle cells. Specifically, our studies demonstrated that 1,25D promotes G0/G1 arrest of cells inducing cyclin D3 and cyclin dependent kinases inhibitors (CKIs) p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} expression in a VDR and p38 MAPK dependent manner. In this work we present data indicating that cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 also play a role in the mechanism by which 1,25D stimulates myogenesis. To investigate VDR involvement in hormone regulation of CDKs 4 and 6, we significantly reduced its expression by the use of a shRNA against mouse VDR, generating the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12-VDR. Investigation of changes in cellular cycle regulating proteins by immunoblotting showed that the VDR is involved in the 1,25D –induced CDKs 4 and 6 protein levels at 6 h of hormone treatment. CDK4 levels remains high during S phase peak and G0/G1 arrest while CDK6 expression decreases at 12 h and increases again al 24 h. The up-regulation of CDKs 4 and 6 by 1,25D (6 h) was abolished in C2C12 cells pre-treated with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, UO126. Moreover, CDKs 4 and 6 expression induced by the hormone nor was detected when α and β isoforms of p38 MAPK were inhibited by compound SB203580. Confocal images show that there is not co-localization between VDR and CDKs at 6 h of hormone treatment, however CDK4 and VDR co-localizates in nucleus after 12 h of 1,25D exposure. Of relevance, at this time 1,25D promotes CDK6 localization in a peri-nuclear ring. Our data demonstrate that the VDR, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK are involved in the control of CDKs 4 and 6 by 1,25D in skeletal muscle cells sustaining the operation of a VDR and MAPKs –dependent mechanism in hormone modulation of myogenesis. - Highlights: • 1,25D modulates CDKs 4 and 6 expression in skeletal muscle cells. • CDK4 co

  15. CDK5 and its activator P35 in normal pituitary and in pituitary adenomas: relationship to VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weiyan; Wang, Hongyun; He, Yue; Li, Dan; Gong, Lei; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are monoclonal adenomas that account for about 10-15% of intracranial tumors. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulates the activities of various proteins and cellular processes in the nervous system, but its potential roles in pituitary adenomas are poorly understood. The kinase activity of CDK5 requires association with an activating protein, p35 (also known as CDK5 activator 1, p35). Here, we show that functional CDK5, associated with p35, is present in normal human pituitary and in pituitary tumors. Furthermore, p35 mRNA and protein levels were higher in pituitary adenomas than in the normal glands, suggesting that CDK5 activity might be upregulated in pituitary tumors. Inhibition of CDK5 activity in rat pituitary cells, reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that regulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Our results suggest that increased CDK5-mediated VEGF expression might play a crucial role in the development of pituitary adenomas, and that roscovitine and other CDK5 inhibitors could be useful as anticancer agents. PMID:24550687

  16. CDK5 and Its Activator P35 in Normal Pituitary and in Pituitary Adenomas: Relationship to VEGF Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weiyan; Wang, Hongyun; He, Yue; Li, Dan; Gong, Lei; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are monoclonal adenomas that account for about 10-15% of intracranial tumors. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulates the activities of various proteins and cellular processes in the nervous system, but its potential roles in pituitary adenomas are poorly understood. The kinase activity of CDK5 requires association with an activating protein, p35 (also known as CDK5 activator 1, p35). Here, we show that functional CDK5, associated with p35, is present in normal human pituitary and in pituitary tumors. Furthermore, p35 mRNA and protein levels were higher in pituitary adenomas than in the normal glands, suggesting that CDK5 activity might be upregulated in pituitary tumors. Inhibition of CDK5 activity in rat pituitary cells, reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that regulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Our results suggest that increased CDK5-mediated VEGF expression might play a crucial role in the development of pituitary adenomas, and that roscovitine and other CDK5 inhibitors could be useful as anticancer agents. PMID:24550687

  17. Metabolic re-programming of pancreatic cancer mediated by CDK4/6 inhibition elicits unique vulnerabilities

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jorge; Balaji, Uthra; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Knudsen, Erik S.

    2016-01-01

    Due to loss of p16ink4a in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), pharmacological suppression of CDK4/6 could represent a potent target for treatment. In PDA models CDK4/6 inhibition had variable effect on cell cycle, but yielded accumulation of ATP and mitochondria. Pharmacological CDK4/6 inhibitors induce cyclin D1 protein levels; however, RB activation was required and sufficient for mitochondrial accumulation. CDK4/6 inhibition stimulated glycolytic and oxidative metabolism and was associated with an increase in mTORC1 activity. MTOR and MEK inhibitors potently cooperate with CDK4/6 inhibition in eliciting cell cycle exit. However, MTOR inhibition fully suppressed metabolism and yielded apoptosis and suppression of tumor growth. The metabolic state mediated by CDK4/6 inhibition increases mitochondrial number and ROS. Concordantly, the suppression of ROS scavenging or BCL2-antagonists cooperated with CDK4/6 inhibition. Together, these data define the impact of therapeutics on PDA metabolism and provide strategies for converting cytostatic response to tumor cell killing. PMID:26804906

  18. Germ line transmission of the Cdk4(R24C) mutation facilitates tumorigenesis and escape from cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Rane, Sushil G; Cosenza, Stephen C; Mettus, Richard V; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in CDK4 and its key kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) have been implicated in the genesis and progression of familial human melanoma. The importance of the CDK4 locus in human cancer first became evident following the identification of a germ line CDK4-Arg24Cys (R24C) mutation, which abolishes the ability of CDK4 to bind to p16(INK4a). To determine the role of the Cdk4(R24C) germ line mutation in the genesis of other cancer types, we introduced the R24C mutation in the Cdk4 locus of mice by using Cre-loxP-mediated "knock-in" technology. Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) displayed increased Cdk4 kinase activity resulting in hyperphosphorylation of all three members of the Rb family, pRb, p107, and p130. MEFs derived from Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice displayed decreased doubling times, escape from replicative senescence, and escape sensitivity to contact-induced growth arrest. These MEFs also exhibited a high degree of susceptibility to oncogene-induced transformation, suggesting that the Cdk4(R24C) mutation can serve as a primary event in the progression towards a fully transformed phenotype. In agreement with the in vitro data, homozygous Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice developed tumors of various etiology within 8 to 10 months of their life span. The majority of these tumors were found in the pancreas, pituitary, brain, mammary tissue, and skin. In addition, Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice showed extraordinary susceptibility to carcinogens and developed papillomas within the first 8 to 10 weeks following cutaneous application of the carcinogens 9,10-di-methyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This report formally establishes that the activation of Cdk4 is sufficient to promote cancer in many tissues. The observation that a wide variety of tumors develop in mice harboring the Cdk4(R24C) mutation offers a genetic proof that Cdk4 activation may constitute a central event in the genesis of many types of cancers in addition to melanoma.

  19. High glucose increases Cdk5 activity in podocytes via transforming growth factor-β1 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Hongbo; Hao, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wei

    2014-08-15

    Podocytes are highly specialized and terminally differentiated glomerular cells that play a vital role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), who is an atypical but essential member of the Cdk family of proline-directed serine/threonine kinases, has been shown as a key regulator of podocyte differentiation, proliferation and morphology. Our previous studies demonstrated that the expression of Cdk5 was significantly increased in podocytes of diabetic rats, and was closely related with podocyte injury of DN. However, the mechanisms of how expression and activity of Cdk5 are regulated under the high glucose environment have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that high glucose up-regulated the expression of Cdk5 and its co-activator p35 with a concomitant increase in Cdk5 kinase activity in conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes in vitro. When exposed to 30 mM glucose, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was activated. Most importantly, we found that SB431542, the Tgfbr1 inhibitor, significantly decreased the expression of Cdk5 and p35 and Cdk5 kinase activity in high glucose-treated podocytes. Moreover, high glucose increased the expression of early growth response-1 (Egr-1) via TGF-β1-ERK1/2 pathway in podocytes and inhibition of Egr-1 by siRNA decreased p35 expression and Cdk5 kinase activity. Furthermore, inhibition of Cdk5 kinase activity effectively alleviated podocyte apoptosis induced by high glucose or TGF-β1. Thus, the TGF-β1-ERK1/2-Egr-1 signaling pathway may regulate the p35 expression and Cdk5 kinase activity in high glucose-treated podocytes, which contributes to podocyte injury of DN. - Highlights: • HG up-regulated the expression of Cdk5 and p35, and Cdk5 activity in podocytes. • HG activated TGF-β1 pathway and SB431542 inhibited Cdk5 expression and activity. • HG increased the expression of Egr-1 via TGF-β1-ERK1/2 pathway. • Inhibition of Egr-1

  20. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

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  1. Evidence for a CDK4-dependent checkpoint in a conditional model of cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Sharon; Gagrica, Sladjana; Sanij, Elaine; Rowe, Janice; Gregory, Fiona J; Hara, Eiji; Peters, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence, the stable cell cycle arrest elicited by various forms of stress, is an important facet of tumor suppression. Although much is known about the key players in the implementation of senescence, including the pRb and p53 axes and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16INK4a and p21CIP1, many details remain unresolved. In studying conditional senescence in human fibroblasts that express a temperature sensitive SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), we uncovered an unexpected role for CDK4. At the permissive temperature, where pRb and p53 are functionally compromised by T-Ag, cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are disrupted by the high p16INK4a levels and reduced expression of p21CIP1. In cells arrested at the non-permissive temperature, p21CIP1 promotes reassembly of cyclin D-CDK4 yet pRb is in a hypo-phosphorylated state, consistent with cell cycle arrest. In exploring whether the reassembled cyclin D-CDK4-p21 complexes are functional, we found that shRNA-mediated knockdown or chemical inhibition of CDK4 prevented the increase in cell size associated with the senescent phenotype by allowing the cells to arrest in G1 rather than G2/M. The data point to a role for CDK4 kinase activity in a G2 checkpoint that contributes to senescence. PMID:25695870

  2. Conformational Equilibrium of CDK/Cyclin Complexes by Molecular Dynamics with Excited Normal Modes

    PubMed Central

    Floquet, Nicolas; Costa, Mauricio G.S.; Batista, Paulo R.; Renault, Pedro; Bisch, Paulo M.; Raussin, Florent; Martinez, Jean; Morris, May C.; Perahia, David

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their associated regulatory cyclins are central for timely regulation of cell-cycle progression. They constitute attractive pharmacological targets for development of anticancer therapeutics, since they are frequently deregulated in human cancers and contribute to sustained, uncontrolled tumor proliferation. Characterization of their structural/dynamic features is essential to gain in-depth insight into structure-activity relationships. In addition, the identification of druggable pockets or key intermediate conformations yields potential targets for the development of novel classes of inhibitors. Structural studies of CDK2/cyclin A have provided a wealth of information concerning monomeric/heterodimeric forms of this kinase. There is, however, much less structural information for other CDK/cyclin complexes, including CDK4/cyclin D1, which displays an alternative (open) position of the cyclin partner relative to CDK, contrasting with the closed CDK2/cyclin A conformation. In this study, we carried out normal-mode analysis and enhanced sampling simulations with our recently developed method, molecular dynamics with excited normal modes, to understand the conformational equilibrium on these complexes. Interestingly, the lowest-frequency normal mode computed for each complex described the transition between the open and closed conformations. Exploration of these motions with an explicit-solvent representation using molecular dynamics with excited normal modes confirmed that the closed conformation is the most stable for the CDK2/cyclin A complex, in agreement with their experimentally available structures. On the other hand, we clearly show that an open↔closed equilibrium may exist in CDK4/cyclin D1, with closed conformations resembling that captured for CDK2/cyclin A. Such conformational preferences may result from the distinct distributions of frustrated contacts in each complex. Using the same approach, the putative roles of

  3. Dephosphorylation of CDK9 by protein phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase-1 in Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ammosova, Tatyana; Washington, Kareem; Debebe, Zufan; Brady, John; Nekhai, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Background HIV-1 Tat protein recruits human positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, consisting of CDK9 and cyclin T1, to HIV-1 transactivation response (TAR) RNA. CDK9 is maintained in dephosphorylated state by TFIIH and undergo phosphorylation upon the dissociation of TFIIH. Thus, dephosphorylation of CDK9 prior to its association with HIV-1 preinitiation complex might be important for HIV-1 transcription. Others and we previously showed that protein phosphatase-2A and protein phosphatase-1 regulates HIV-1 transcription. In the present study we analyze relative contribution of PP2A and PP1 to dephosphorylation of CDK9 and to HIV-1 transcription in vitro and in vivo. Results In vitro, PP2A but not PP1 dephosphorylated autophosphorylated CDK9 and reduced complex formation between P-TEFb, Tat and TAR RNA. Inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid inhibited basal as well as Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription whereas inhibition of PP1 by recombinant nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) inhibited only Tat-induced transcription in vitro. In cultured cells, low concentration of okadaic acid, inhibitory for PP2A, only mildly inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription. In contrast Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription was strongly inhibited by expression of NIPP1. Okadaic acid induced phosphorylation of endogenous as well transiently expressed CDK9, but this induction was not seen in the cells expressing NIPP1. Also the okadaic acid did not induce phosphorylation of CDK9 with mutation of Thr 186 or with mutations in Ser-329, Thr-330, Thr-333, Ser-334, Ser-347, Thr-350, Ser-353, and Thr-354 residues involved in autophosphorylation of CDK9. Conclusion Our results indicate that although PP2A dephosphorylates autophosphorylated CDK9 in vitro, in cultured cells PP1 is likely to dephosphorylate CDK9 and contribute to the regulation of activated HIV-1 transcription. PMID:16048649

  4. Synthetic Lethal Therapy for KRAS Mutant Non-small-cell Lung Carcinoma with Nanoparticle-mediated CDK4 siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Cheng-Qiong; Xiong, Meng-Hua; Liu, Yang; Shen, Song; Du, Xiao-Jiao; Yang, Xian-Zhu; Dou, Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Zhuo; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The KRAS mutation is present in ~20% of lung cancers and has not yet been effectively targeted for therapy. This mutation is associated with a poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and confers resistance to standard anticancer treatment drugs, including epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this study, we exploited a new therapeutic strategy based on the synthetic lethal interaction between cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) downregulation and the KRAS mutation to deliver micellar nanoparticles (MNPs) containing small interfering RNA targeting CDK4 (MNPsiCDK4) for treatment in NSCLCs harboring the oncogenic KRAS mutation. Following MNPsiCDK4 administration, CDK4 expression was decreased, accompanied by inhibited cell proliferation, specifically in KRAS mutant NSCLCs. However, this intervention was harmless to normal KRAS wild-type cells, confirming the proposed mechanism of synthetic lethality. Moreover, systemic delivery of MNPsiCDK4 significantly inhibited tumor growth in an A549 NSCLC xenograft murine model, with depressed expression of CDK4 and mutational KRAS status, suggesting the therapeutic promise of MNPsiCDK4 delivery in KRAS mutant NSCLCs via a synthetic lethal interaction between KRAS and CDK4. PMID:24496383

  5. Cdk5 promotes DNA replication stress checkpoint activation through RPA-32 phosphorylation, and impacts on metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chiker, Sara; Pennaneach, Vincent; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Biard, Denis; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Gemble, Simon; Vacher, Sophie; Bieche, Ivan; Hall, Janet; Fernet, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a determinant of PARP inhibitor and ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity. Here we show that Cdk5-depleted (Cdk5-shRNA) HeLa cells show higher sensitivity to S-phase irradiation, chronic hydroxyurea exposure, and 5-fluorouracil and 6-thioguanine treatment, with hydroxyurea and IR sensitivity also seen in Cdk5-depleted U2OS cells. As Cdk5 is not directly implicated in DNA strand break repair we investigated in detail its proposed role in the intra-S checkpoint activation. While Cdk5-shRNA HeLa cells showed altered basal S-phase dynamics with slower replication velocity and fewer active origins per DNA megabase, checkpoint activation was impaired after a hydroxyurea block. Cdk5 depletion was associated with reduced priming phosphorylations of RPA32 serines 29 and 33 and SMC1-Serine 966 phosphorylation, lower levels of RPA serine 4 and 8 phosphorylation and DNA damage measured using the alkaline Comet assay, gamma-H2AX signal intensity, RPA and Rad51 foci, and sister chromatid exchanges resulting in impaired intra-S checkpoint activation and subsequently higher numbers of chromatin bridges. In vitro kinase assays coupled with mass spectrometry demonstrated that Cdk5 can carry out the RPA32 priming phosphorylations on serines 23, 29, and 33 necessary for this checkpoint activation. In addition we found an association between lower Cdk5 levels and longer metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients and survival in Cdk5-depleted breast tumor cells after treatment with IR and a PARP inhibitor. Taken together, these results show that Cdk5 is necessary for basal replication and replication stress checkpoint activation and highlight clinical opportunities to enhance tumor cell killing. PMID:26237679

  6. Cdk5 promotes DNA replication stress checkpoint activation through RPA-32 phosphorylation, and impacts on metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiker, Sara; Pennaneach, Vincent; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Biard, Denis; Cordelières, Fabrice P; Gemble, Simon; Vacher, Sophie; Bieche, Ivan; Hall, Janet; Fernet, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a determinant of PARP inhibitor and ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity. Here we show that Cdk5-depleted (Cdk5-shRNA) HeLa cells show higher sensitivity to S-phase irradiation, chronic hydroxyurea exposure, and 5-fluorouracil and 6-thioguanine treatment, with hydroxyurea and IR sensitivity also seen in Cdk5-depleted U2OS cells. As Cdk5 is not directly implicated in DNA strand break repair we investigated in detail its proposed role in the intra-S checkpoint activation. While Cdk5-shRNA HeLa cells showed altered basal S-phase dynamics with slower replication velocity and fewer active origins per DNA megabase, checkpoint activation was impaired after a hydroxyurea block. Cdk5 depletion was associated with reduced priming phosphorylations of RPA32 serines 29 and 33 and SMC1-Serine 966 phosphorylation, lower levels of RPA serine 4 and 8 phosphorylation and DNA damage measured using the alkaline Comet assay, gamma-H2AX signal intensity, RPA and Rad51 foci, and sister chromatid exchanges resulting in impaired intra-S checkpoint activation and subsequently higher numbers of chromatin bridges. In vitro kinase assays coupled with mass spectrometry demonstrated that Cdk5 can carry out the RPA32 priming phosphorylations on serines 23, 29, and 33 necessary for this checkpoint activation. In addition we found an association between lower Cdk5 levels and longer metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients and survival in Cdk5-depleted breast tumor cells after treatment with IR and a PARP inhibitor. Taken together, these results show that Cdk5 is necessary for basal replication and replication stress checkpoint activation and highlight clinical opportunities to enhance tumor cell killing. PMID:26237679

  7. The lethal response to Cdk1 inhibition depends on sister chromatid alignment errors generated by KIF4 and isoform 1 of PRC1

    PubMed Central

    Voets, Erik; Marsman, Judith; Demmers, Jeroen; Beijersbergen, Roderick; Wolthuis, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is absolutely essential for cell division. Complete ablation of Cdk1 precludes the entry of G2 phase cells into mitosis, and is early embryonic lethal in mice. Dampening Cdk1 activation, by reducing gene expression or upon treatment with cell-permeable Cdk1 inhibitors, is also detrimental for proliferating cells, but has been associated with defects in mitotic progression, and the formation of aneuploid daughter cells. Here, we used a large-scale RNAi screen to identify the human genes that critically determine the cellular toxicity of Cdk1 inhibition. We show that Cdk1 inhibition leads to fatal sister chromatid alignment errors and mitotic arrest in the spindle checkpoint. These problems start early in mitosis and are alleviated by depletion of isoform 1 of PRC1 (PRC1-1), by gene ablation of its binding partner KIF4, or by abrogation of KIF4 motor activity. Our results show that, normally, Cdk1 activity must rise above the level required for mitotic entry. This prevents KIF4-dependent PRC1-1 translocation to astral microtubule tips and safeguards proper chromosome congression. We conclude that cell death in response to Cdk1 inhibitors directly relates to chromosome alignment defects generated by insufficient repression of PRC1-1 and KIF4 during prometaphase. PMID:26423135

  8. The lethal response to Cdk1 inhibition depends on sister chromatid alignment errors generated by KIF4 and isoform 1 of PRC1.

    PubMed

    Voets, Erik; Marsman, Judith; Demmers, Jeroen; Beijersbergen, Roderick; Wolthuis, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is absolutely essential for cell division. Complete ablation of Cdk1 precludes the entry of G2 phase cells into mitosis, and is early embryonic lethal in mice. Dampening Cdk1 activation, by reducing gene expression or upon treatment with cell-permeable Cdk1 inhibitors, is also detrimental for proliferating cells, but has been associated with defects in mitotic progression, and the formation of aneuploid daughter cells. Here, we used a large-scale RNAi screen to identify the human genes that critically determine the cellular toxicity of Cdk1 inhibition. We show that Cdk1 inhibition leads to fatal sister chromatid alignment errors and mitotic arrest in the spindle checkpoint. These problems start early in mitosis and are alleviated by depletion of isoform 1 of PRC1 (PRC1-1), by gene ablation of its binding partner KIF4, or by abrogation of KIF4 motor activity. Our results show that, normally, Cdk1 activity must rise above the level required for mitotic entry. This prevents KIF4-dependent PRC1-1 translocation to astral microtubule tips and safeguards proper chromosome congression. We conclude that cell death in response to Cdk1 inhibitors directly relates to chromosome alignment defects generated by insufficient repression of PRC1-1 and KIF4 during prometaphase. PMID:26423135

  9. CDK4/6 inhibition provides a potent adjunct to Her2-targeted therapies in preclinical breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Cox, Derek; Knudsen, Erik S.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the efficacy of Her2-targeted therapies, recurrence and progression remain a challenge for treatment of Her2 positive breast cancer. CDK4/6 controls pathway downstream of Her2, Inhibition of these kinases could represent an important therapeutic approach to augment the effectiveness of standard therapies. In models of acquired resistance to Her2-targeted therapies, Cyclin D1 was inappropriately activated and CDK4/6 inhibition was effective at blocking proliferation by targeting this common pathway associated with resistance. These data were recapitulated in Her2 positive xenografts. Furthermore, in a series of 35 primary breast tumor explants, treatment with PD-0332991 resulted in a greater than 4-fold suppression of the Ki67. The effects of CDK4/6 inhibition were dependent on an intact RB-pathway, and consonantly, loss of RB and high-levels of p16 were associated with resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition. Combination studies illustrated that CDK4/6 inhibition is cooperative with multiple Her2-targeted agents and provides a complementary mechanism of action to T-DM1 to efficiently suppresses the proliferation of residual Her2-positive tumor cell populations that survive T-DM1. Together, these data indicate CDK4/6 is a viable therapeutic target that functions downstream of Her2, and tissue based markers are available to direct rational utilization of CDK4/6 inhibitors in combination with Her2-targeted agents. PMID:25221644

  10. Securin and not CDK1/cyclin B1 regulates sister chromatid disjunction during meiosis II in mouse eggs.

    PubMed

    Nabti, Ibtissem; Reis, Alexandra; Levasseur, Mark; Stemmann, Olaf; Jones, Keith T

    2008-09-15

    Mammalian eggs remain arrested at metaphase of the second meiotic division (metII) for an indeterminate time before fertilization. During this period, which can last several hours, the continued attachment of sister chromatids is thought to be achieved by inhibition of the protease separase. Separase is known to be inhibited by binding either securin or Maturation (M-Phase)-Promoting Factor, a heterodimer of CDK1/cyclin B1. However, the relative contribution of securin and CDK/cyclin B1 to sister chromatid attachment during metII arrest has not been assessed. Although there are conditions in which either CDK1/cyclinB1 activity or securin can prevent sister chromatid disjunction, principally by overexpression of non-degradable cyclin B1 or securin, we find here that separase activity is primarily regulated by securin and not CDK1/cyclin B1. Thus the CDK1 inhibitor roscovitine and an antibody we designed to block the interaction of CDK1/cyclin B1 with separase, both failed to induce sister disjunction. In contrast, securin morpholino knockdown specifically induced loss of sister attachment, that could be restored by securin cRNA rescue. During metII arrest separase appears primarily regulated by securin binding, not CDK1/cyclin B1. PMID:18639540

  11. Successive phosphorylation of p27(KIP1) protein at serine-10 and C terminus crucially controls its potency to inactivate Cdk2.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Atish R; Kan, Qiuming; Srivastava, Saumya; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Arakawa-Takeuchi, Shiho; Fujita, Naoya; Okayama, Hiroto

    2012-06-22

    During the G(1)-S transition, the activity of Cdk2 is regulated by its association with p27(KIP1), which in rodent fibroblasts undergoes phosphorylation mainly at serine 10, threonine 187, and C-terminal threonine 197 by KIS, Cdk2, and Pim or ROCK, respectively. Recently Cdc6 the AAA+ ATPase, identified initially to assemble pre-replicative complexes on origins of replication and later to activate p21(CIP1)-inactivated Cdk2, was found also to activate p27-bound Cdk2 but only after the bound p27 is C-terminally phosphorylated. On the other hand, the biological significance of the serine 10 phosphorylation remains elusive aside from its involvement in the stability of p27 itself. We report here that serine 10 phosphorylation is required for efficient C-terminal phosphorylation of its own by PIM and ROCK kinases and critically controls the potency of p27 as a Cdk2 inhibitor. In vitro, PIM1 and active ROCK1 efficiently phosphorylated free as well as Cdk2-bound p27 but only when the p27 was phosphorylated at Ser-10 in advance. Consistently, a Ser-10 nonphosphorylatable mutant p27 protein was not phosphorylated at the C terminus in vivo. Furthermore, when double-phosphorylated, free p27 was no longer a potent inhibitor of Cdk2, and Cdk2-bound p27 could be removed by Cdc6 to reactivate the Cdk2. Thus, phosphorylation at these two sites crucially controls the potency of this CDK inhibitor in two distinct modes.

  12. Inhibition of CDK1 activity by sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuxuan; Lucas, Benjamin; Molcho, Elana; Schiff, Tania; Vigodner, Margarita

    2016-09-16

    Sumoylation (a covalent modification by Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers or SUMO proteins) has been implicated in the regulation of various cellular events including cell cycle progression. We have recently identified CDK1, a master regulator of mitosis and meiosis, as a SUMO target both in vivo and in vitro, supporting growing evidence concerning a close cross talk between sumoylation and phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. However, any data regarding the effect of sumoylation upon CDK1 activity have been missing. In this study, we performed a series of in vitro experiments to inhibit sumoylation by three different means (ginkgolic acid, physiological levels of oxidative stress, and using an siRNA approach) and assessed the changes in CDK1 activity using specific antibodies and a kinase assay. We have also tested for an interaction between SUMO and active and/or inactive CDK1 isoforms in addition to having assessed the status of CDK1-interacting sumoylated proteins upon inhibition of sumoylation. Our data suggest that inhibition of sumoylation increases the activity of CDK1 probably through changes in sumoylated status and/or the ability of specific proteins to bind CDK1 and inhibit its activity. PMID:27520372

  13. Selective CDK7 inhibition with BS-181 suppresses cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo-Yong; Liu, Quan-Yan; Cao, Jun; Chen, Ji-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Su

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family members have been considered as attractive therapeutic targets for cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the anticancer effects of a selective CDK7 inhibitor, BS-181, in gastric cancer (GC) cell line. Human GC cells (BGC823) were cultured with or without BS-181 at different concentrations for 24–72 hours. BS-181 significantly reduced the activity of CDK7 with downregulation of cyclin D1 and XIAP in GC cells. Treatment with BS-181 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The expression of Bax and caspase-3 was significantly increased, while Bcl-2 expression was decreased in cells treated with BS-181. In addition, the inhibition of CDK7 with BS-181 resulted in reduced rates of proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cells. Those results demonstrated the anticancer activities of selective CDK7 inhibitor BS-181 in BGC823 cells, suggesting that CDK7 may serve as a novel therapeutic target or the treatment of GC. PMID:27042010

  14. Immunohistochemical detection of CDK4 and p16INK4 proteins in cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Uhara, H; Yamazaki, Y; Nikaido, T; Saida, T

    1996-02-01

    p16INK4 gene, which encodes a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), has been recently reported as an important tumour suppressor gene. It is mapped to chromosome 9p21, which is frequently deleted or mutated in many tumour cell lines including malignant melanoma. Since the CDK4/cyclin D complex propels a cell to go through the G1 check point of the cell cycle, a critical phase of cell division, alteration of the p16INK4 gene could lead a cell to uncontrolled proliferation and malignant transformation. To clarify any role for p16INK4 and CDK4 proteins in the development of human malignant melanoma, we have examined, immunohistochemically, the expression of these two proteins in melanocytic neoplasms including 19 primary lesions of non-familial melanoma. Intense nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression of the CDK4 protein was observed in 11 of 19 cases (58%) of melanoma. In contrast, virtually no nuclear or cytoplasmic staining for CDK4 protein was detected in 28 benign melanocytic naevi, including six Spitz naevi. Expression of p16INK4 protein was observed in three of 19 melanomas (16%) and in 17 of 28 benign naevi (61%). Inverse expression of CDK4 and p16INK4, at individual cell level, was detected in one case of melanoma. The present study suggests that CDK4 overexpression is characteristic for malignant melanoma, and probably reflects its autonomous accelerated cell proliferation. The expression rate of p16INK4 protein in malignant melanoma was lower than that in benign naevi, although the significance of p16INK4 deletion in melanoma development has not been definitely confirmed.

  15. Cdk5r1 Overexpression Induces Primary β-Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Draney, Carrie; Hobson, Amanda E.; Grover, Samuel G.; Jack, Benjamin O.; Tessem, Jeffery S.

    2016-01-01

    Decreased β-cell mass is a hallmark of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Islet transplantation as a method of diabetes therapy is hampered by the paucity of transplant ready islets. Understanding the pathways controlling islet proliferation may be used to increase functional β-cell mass through transplantation or by enhanced growth of endogenous β-cells. We have shown that the transcription factor Nkx6.1 induces β-cell proliferation by upregulating the orphan nuclear hormone receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Using expression analysis to define Nkx6.1-independent mechanisms by which Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 induce β-cell proliferation, we demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 1 (Cdk5r1) is upregulated by Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 but not by Nkx6.1. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 is sufficient to induce primary rat β-cell proliferation while maintaining glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 in β-cells confers protection against apoptosis induced by etoposide and thapsigargin, but not camptothecin. The Cdk5 kinase complex inhibitor roscovitine blocks islet proliferation, suggesting that Cdk5r1 mediated β-cell proliferation is a kinase dependent event. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 results in pRb phosphorylation, which is inhibited by roscovitine treatment. These data demonstrate that activation of the Cdk5 kinase complex is sufficient to induce β-cell proliferation while maintaining glucose stimulated insulin secretion. PMID:26788519

  16. Cdk5r1 Overexpression Induces Primary β-Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Draney, Carrie; Hobson, Amanda E; Grover, Samuel G; Jack, Benjamin O; Tessem, Jeffery S

    2016-01-01

    Decreased β-cell mass is a hallmark of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Islet transplantation as a method of diabetes therapy is hampered by the paucity of transplant ready islets. Understanding the pathways controlling islet proliferation may be used to increase functional β-cell mass through transplantation or by enhanced growth of endogenous β-cells. We have shown that the transcription factor Nkx6.1 induces β-cell proliferation by upregulating the orphan nuclear hormone receptors Nr4a1 and Nr4a3. Using expression analysis to define Nkx6.1-independent mechanisms by which Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 induce β-cell proliferation, we demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 1 (Cdk5r1) is upregulated by Nr4a1 and Nr4a3 but not by Nkx6.1. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 is sufficient to induce primary rat β-cell proliferation while maintaining glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 in β-cells confers protection against apoptosis induced by etoposide and thapsigargin, but not camptothecin. The Cdk5 kinase complex inhibitor roscovitine blocks islet proliferation, suggesting that Cdk5r1 mediated β-cell proliferation is a kinase dependent event. Overexpression of Cdk5r1 results in pRb phosphorylation, which is inhibited by roscovitine treatment. These data demonstrate that activation of the Cdk5 kinase complex is sufficient to induce β-cell proliferation while maintaining glucose stimulated insulin secretion.

  17. Functional ablation of pRb activates Cdk2 and causes antiestrogen resistance in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Hemant; Skildum, Andrew J; Conrad, Susan E

    2007-12-05

    Estrogens are required for the proliferation of hormone dependent breast cancer cells, making estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors amenable to endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens. However, resistance to these agents remains a significant cause of treatment failure. We previously demonstrated that inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) family tumor suppressors causes antiestrogen resistance in MCF-7 cells, a widely studied model of estrogen responsive human breast cancers. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which pRb inactivation leads to antiestrogen resistance. Cdk4 and cdk2 are two key cell cycle regulators that can phosphorylate and inactivate pRb, therefore we tested whether these kinases are required in cells lacking pRb function. pRb family members were inactivated in MCF-7 cells by expressing polyomavirus large tumor antigen (PyLT), and cdk activity was inhibited using the cdk inhibitors p16(INK4A) and p21(Waf1/Cip1). Cdk4 activity was no longer required in cells lacking functional pRb, while cdk2 activity was required for proliferation in both the presence and absence of pRb function. Using inducible PyLT cell lines, we further demonstrated that pRb inactivation leads to increased cyclin A expression, cdk2 activation and proliferation in antiestrogen arrested cells. These results demonstrate that antiestrogens do not inhibit cdk2 activity or proliferation of MCF-7 cells in the absence of pRb family function, and suggest that antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cells resulting from pRb pathway inactivation would be susceptible to therapies that target cdk2.

  18. An ERK/Cdk5 axis controls the diabetogenic actions of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Banks, Alexander S; McAllister, Fiona E; Camporez, João Paulo G; Zushin, Peter-James H; Jurczak, Michael J; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Shulman, Gerald I; Gygi, Steven P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-01-15

    Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) at serine 273 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic drugs that bind PPARγ, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARγ partial agonists or non-agonists. For a better understanding of the importance of this obesity-linked PPARγ phosphorylation, we created mice that ablated Cdk5 specifically in adipose tissues. These mice have both a paradoxical increase in PPARγ phosphorylation at serine 273 and worsened insulin resistance. Unbiased proteomic studies show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases are activated in these knockout animals. Here we show that ERK directly phosphorylates serine 273 of PPARγ in a robust manner and that Cdk5 suppresses ERKs through direct action on a novel site in MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MEK and ERK markedly improves insulin resistance in both obese wild-type and ob/ob mice, and also completely reverses the deleterious effects of the Cdk5 ablation. These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARγ function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25409143

  19. Selective impact of CDK4/6 suppression on patient-derived models of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Borja, Nicholas A.; Franco, Jorge; Brody, Jonathan R.; Yeo, Charles J.; Mansour, John; Choti, Michael A.; McCue, Peter; Knudsen, Erik S.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) harbors an exceedingly poor prognosis, and is generally considered a therapy-recalcitrant disease due to poor response to conventional chemotherapy coupled with non-actionable genetic drivers (e.g. KRAS mutations). However, PDA frequently loses p16ink4a, thereby leading to deregulation of CDK4/6. Surprisingly, in established cell models and xenografts, CDK4/6 inhibition has a modest effect on proliferation and resistance develops rapidly. To determine if such weak response was an intrinsic feature of PDA, we developed primary tumor explants that maintain the tumor environment and recapitulate feuture of primary PDA. The CDK4/6 inhibitor PD-0332991 was highly efficient at suppressing proliferation in 14 of the 15 explants. In the single resistant explant, we identified the rare loss of the RB tumor suppressor as the basis for resistance. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were developed in parallel, and unlike the xenografts emerging from established cell lines, the PDXs maintained the histoarchitecture of the primary tumor. These PDXs were highly sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibition, yielding a complete suppression of PDA proliferation. Together, these data indicate that primary PDA is sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibition, that specific biomarkers can delineate intrinsic resistance, and that established cell line models may not represent an adequate means for evaluating therapeutic sensitivities. PMID:26158861

  20. Selective impact of CDK4/6 suppression on patient-derived models of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Borja, Nicholas A; Franco, Jorge; Brody, Jonathan R; Yeo, Charles J; Mansour, John; Choti, Michael A; McCue, Peter; Knudsen, Erik S

    2015-06-30

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) harbors an exceedingly poor prognosis, and is generally considered a therapy-recalcitrant disease due to poor response to conventional chemotherapy coupled with non-actionable genetic drivers (e.g. KRAS mutations). However, PDA frequently loses p16ink4a, thereby leading to deregulation of CDK4/6. Surprisingly, in established cell models and xenografts, CDK4/6 inhibition has a modest effect on proliferation and resistance develops rapidly. To determine if such weak response was an intrinsic feature of PDA, we developed primary tumor explants that maintain the tumor environment and recapitulate feuture of primary PDA. The CDK4/6 inhibitor PD-0332991 was highly efficient at suppressing proliferation in 14 of the 15 explants. In the single resistant explant, we identified the rare loss of the RB tumor suppressor as the basis for resistance. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were developed in parallel, and unlike the xenografts emerging from established cell lines, the PDXs maintained the histoarchitecture of the primary tumor. These PDXs were highly sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibition, yielding a complete suppression of PDA proliferation. Together, these data indicate that primary PDA is sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibition, that specific biomarkers can delineate intrinsic resistance, and that established cell line models may not represent an adequate means for evaluating therapeutic sensitivities.

  1. CDK-1 inhibits meiotic spindle shortening and dynein-dependent spindle rotation in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Ellefson, Marina L; McNally, Francis J

    2011-06-27

    In animals, the female meiotic spindle is positioned at the egg cortex in a perpendicular orientation to facilitate the disposal of half of the chromosomes into a polar body. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the metaphase spindle lies parallel to the cortex, dynein is dispersed on the spindle, and the dynein activators ASPM-1 and LIN-5 are concentrated at spindle poles. Anaphase-promoting complex (APC) activation results in dynein accumulation at spindle poles and dynein-dependent rotation of one spindle pole to the cortex, resulting in perpendicular orientation. To test whether the APC initiates spindle rotation through cyclin B-CDK-1 inactivation, separase activation, or degradation of an unknown dynein inhibitor, CDK-1 was inhibited with purvalanol A in metaphase-I-arrested, APC-depleted embryos. CDK-1 inhibition resulted in the accumulation of dynein at spindle poles and dynein-dependent spindle rotation without chromosome separation. These results suggest that CDK-1 blocks rotation by inhibiting dynein association with microtubules and with LIN-5-ASPM-1 at meiotic spindle poles and that the APC promotes spindle rotation by inhibiting CDK-1.

  2. CDK1 Is a Synthetic Lethal Target for KRAS Mutant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Cabral, Sara; Brough, Rachel; Konde, Asha; Aarts, Marieke; Campbell, James; Marinari, Eliana; Riffell, Jenna; Bardelli, Alberto; Torrance, Christopher; Lord, Christopher J.; Ashworth, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Activating KRAS mutations are found in approximately 20% of human cancers but no RAS-directed therapies are currently available. Here we describe a novel, robust, KRAS synthetic lethal interaction with the cyclin dependent kinase, CDK1. This was discovered using parallel siRNA screens in KRAS mutant and wild type colorectal isogenic tumour cells and subsequently validated in a genetically diverse panel of 26 colorectal and pancreatic tumour cell models. This established that the KRAS/CDK1 synthetic lethality applies in tumour cells with either amino acid position 12 (p.G12V, pG12D, p.G12S) or amino acid position 13 (p.G13D) KRAS mutations and can also be replicated in vivo in a xenograft model using a small molecule CDK1 inhibitor. Mechanistically, CDK1 inhibition caused a reduction in the S-phase fraction of KRAS mutant cells, an effect also characterised by modulation of Rb, a master control of the G1/S checkpoint. Taken together, these observations suggest that the KRAS/CDK1 interaction is a robust synthetic lethal effect worthy of further investigation. PMID:26881434

  3. CDK1 Is a Synthetic Lethal Target for KRAS Mutant Tumours.

    PubMed

    Costa-Cabral, Sara; Brough, Rachel; Konde, Asha; Aarts, Marieke; Campbell, James; Marinari, Eliana; Riffell, Jenna; Bardelli, Alberto; Torrance, Christopher; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Activating KRAS mutations are found in approximately 20% of human cancers but no RAS-directed therapies are currently available. Here we describe a novel, robust, KRAS synthetic lethal interaction with the cyclin dependent kinase, CDK1. This was discovered using parallel siRNA screens in KRAS mutant and wild type colorectal isogenic tumour cells and subsequently validated in a genetically diverse panel of 26 colorectal and pancreatic tumour cell models. This established that the KRAS/CDK1 synthetic lethality applies in tumour cells with either amino acid position 12 (p.G12V, pG12D, p.G12S) or amino acid position 13 (p.G13D) KRAS mutations and can also be replicated in vivo in a xenograft model using a small molecule CDK1 inhibitor. Mechanistically, CDK1 inhibition caused a reduction in the S-phase fraction of KRAS mutant cells, an effect also characterised by modulation of Rb, a master control of the G1/S checkpoint. Taken together, these observations suggest that the KRAS/CDK1 interaction is a robust synthetic lethal effect worthy of further investigation. PMID:26881434

  4. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for monitoring CDK4/cyclin D kinase activity in melanoma cell extracts, mouse xenografts and skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; González-Vera, Juan A; Henri, Pauline; Meunier, Laurent; Vollaire, Julien; Josserand, Véronique; Morris, May C

    2016-11-15

    Melanoma constitutes the most aggressive form of skin cancer, which further metastasizes into a deadly form of cancer. The p16(INK4a)-Cyclin D-CDK4/6-pRb pathway is dysregulated in 90% of melanomas. CDK4/Cyclin D kinase hyperactivation, associated with mutation of CDK4, amplification of Cyclin D or loss of p16(INK4a) leads to increased risk of developing melanoma. This kinase therefore constitutes a key biomarker in melanoma and an emerging pharmacological target, however there are no tools enabling direct detection or quantification of its activity. Here we report on the design and application of a fluorescent peptide biosensor to quantify CDK4 activity in melanoma cell extracts, skin biopsies and melanoma xenografts. This biosensor provides sensitive means of comparing CDK4 activity between different melanoma cell lines and further responds to CDK4 downregulation by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors. By affording means of monitoring CDK4 hyperactivity consequent to cancer-associated molecular alterations in upstream signaling pathways that converge upon this kinase, this biosensor offers an alternative to immunological identification of melanoma-specific biomarkers, thereby constituting an attractive tool for diagnostic purposes, providing complementary functional information to histological analysis, of particular utility for detection of melanoma onset in precancerous lesions. This is indeed the first fluorescent peptide biosensor which has been successfully implemented to monitor kinase activity in skin samples and melanoma tumour xenografts. Moreover by enabling to monitor response to CDK4 inhibitors, this biosensor constitutes an attractive companion assay to identify compounds of therapeutic relevance for melanoma. PMID:27203461

  5. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for monitoring CDK4/cyclin D kinase activity in melanoma cell extracts, mouse xenografts and skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; González-Vera, Juan A; Henri, Pauline; Meunier, Laurent; Vollaire, Julien; Josserand, Véronique; Morris, May C

    2016-11-15

    Melanoma constitutes the most aggressive form of skin cancer, which further metastasizes into a deadly form of cancer. The p16(INK4a)-Cyclin D-CDK4/6-pRb pathway is dysregulated in 90% of melanomas. CDK4/Cyclin D kinase hyperactivation, associated with mutation of CDK4, amplification of Cyclin D or loss of p16(INK4a) leads to increased risk of developing melanoma. This kinase therefore constitutes a key biomarker in melanoma and an emerging pharmacological target, however there are no tools enabling direct detection or quantification of its activity. Here we report on the design and application of a fluorescent peptide biosensor to quantify CDK4 activity in melanoma cell extracts, skin biopsies and melanoma xenografts. This biosensor provides sensitive means of comparing CDK4 activity between different melanoma cell lines and further responds to CDK4 downregulation by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors. By affording means of monitoring CDK4 hyperactivity consequent to cancer-associated molecular alterations in upstream signaling pathways that converge upon this kinase, this biosensor offers an alternative to immunological identification of melanoma-specific biomarkers, thereby constituting an attractive tool for diagnostic purposes, providing complementary functional information to histological analysis, of particular utility for detection of melanoma onset in precancerous lesions. This is indeed the first fluorescent peptide biosensor which has been successfully implemented to monitor kinase activity in skin samples and melanoma tumour xenografts. Moreover by enabling to monitor response to CDK4 inhibitors, this biosensor constitutes an attractive companion assay to identify compounds of therapeutic relevance for melanoma.

  6. Regulation of cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) by cdk4-activating kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, J Y; Matsuoka, M; Strom, D K; Sherr, C J

    1994-01-01

    The accumulation of assembled holoenzymes composed of regulatory D-type cyclins and their catalytic partner, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), is rate limiting for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle in mammalian fibroblasts. Both the synthesis and assembly of D-type cyclins and cdk4 depend upon serum stimulation, but even when both subunits are ectopically overproduced, they do not assemble into complexes in serum-deprived cells. When coexpressed from baculoviral vectors in intact Sf9 insect cells, cdk4 assembles with D-type cyclins to form active protein kinases. In contrast, recombinant D-type cyclin and cdk4 subunits produced in insect cells or in bacteria do not assemble as efficiently into functional holoenzymes when combined in vitro but can be activated in the presence of lysates obtained from proliferating mammalian cells. Assembly of cyclin D-cdk4 complexes in coinfected Sf9 cells facilitates phosphorylation of cdk4 on threonine 172 by a cdk-activating kinase (CAK). Assembly can proceed in the absence of this modification, but cdk4 mutants which cannot be phosphorylated by CAK remain catalytically inactive. Therefore, formation of the cyclin D-cdk4 complex and phosphorylation of the bound catalytic subunit are independently regulated, and in addition to the requirement for CAK activity, serum stimulation is required to promote assembly of the complexes in mammalian cells. Images PMID:8139570

  7. Cell Cycle Regulating Kinase Cdk4 as a Potential Target for Tumor Cell Treatment and Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Franziska; Koehler, Lena; Kniess, Torsten; Wuest, Frank; Mosch, Birgit; Pietzsch, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-cyclin D/retinoblastoma (pRb)/E2F cascade, which controls the G1/S transition of cell cycle, has been found to be altered in many neoplasias. Inhibition of this pathway by using, for example, selective Cdk4 inhibitors has been suggested to be a promising approach for cancer therapy. We hypothesized that appropriately radiolabeled Cdk4 inhibitors are suitable probes for tumor imaging and may be helpful studying cell proliferation processes in vivo by positron emission tomography. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological, biochemical, and radiopharmacological characterizations of two 124I-labeled small molecule Cdk4 inhibitors (8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-7-one (CKIA) and 8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(5-(piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-2-yl-amino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (CKIB)). Our data demonstrate a defined and specific inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through CKIA and CKIB by inhibition of the Cdk4/pRb/E2F pathway emphasizing potential therapeutic benefit of CKIA and CKIB. Furthermore, radiopharmacological properties of [124I]CKIA and [124I]CKIB observed in human tumor cells are promising prerequisites for in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies. PMID:19551155

  8. Suppression of Vimentin Phosphorylation by the Avian Reovirus p17 through Inhibition of CDK1 and Plk1 Impacting the G2/M Phase of the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Huang, Wei-Ru; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Wu, Hung-Yi; Munir, Muhammad; Shih, Wing-Ling; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    The p17 protein of avian reovirus (ARV) causes cell cycle retardation in a variety of cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism(s) by which p17 regulates the cell cycle remains largely unknown. We demonstrate for the first time that p17 interacts with CDK1 and vimentin as revealed by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that direct interaction of p17 and CDK1/vimentin was mapped within the amino terminus (aa 1–60) of p17 and central region (aa 27–118) of CDK1/vimentin. Furthermore, p17 was found to occupy the Plk1-binding site within the vimentin, thereby blocking Plk1 recruitment to CDK1-induced vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 56. Interaction of p17 to CDK1 or vimentin interferes with CDK1-catalyzed phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser 56 and subsequently vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 82 by Plk1. Furthermore, we have identified upstream signaling pathways and cellular factor(s) targeted by p17 and found that p17 regulates inhibitory phosphorylation of CDK1 and blocks vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 56 and Ser 82. The p17-mediated inactivation of CDK1 is dependent on several mechanisms, which include direct interaction with CDK1, p17-mediated suppression of Plk1 by activating the Tpr/p53 and ATM/Chk1/PP2A pathways, and p17-mediated cdc25C degradation via an ubiquitin- proteasome pathway. Additionally, depletion of p53 with a shRNA as well as inhibition of ATM and vimentin by inhibitors diminished virus yield while Tpr and CDK1 knockdown increased virus yield. Taken together, results demonstrate that p17 suppresses both CDK1 and Plk1functions, disrupts vimentin phosphorylation, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest and thus benefits virus replication. PMID:27603133

  9. Suppression of Vimentin Phosphorylation by the Avian Reovirus p17 through Inhibition of CDK1 and Plk1 Impacting the G2/M Phase of the Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Huang, Wei-Ru; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Wu, Hung-Yi; Munir, Muhammad; Shih, Wing-Ling; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    The p17 protein of avian reovirus (ARV) causes cell cycle retardation in a variety of cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism(s) by which p17 regulates the cell cycle remains largely unknown. We demonstrate for the first time that p17 interacts with CDK1 and vimentin as revealed by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that direct interaction of p17 and CDK1/vimentin was mapped within the amino terminus (aa 1-60) of p17 and central region (aa 27-118) of CDK1/vimentin. Furthermore, p17 was found to occupy the Plk1-binding site within the vimentin, thereby blocking Plk1 recruitment to CDK1-induced vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 56. Interaction of p17 to CDK1 or vimentin interferes with CDK1-catalyzed phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser 56 and subsequently vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 82 by Plk1. Furthermore, we have identified upstream signaling pathways and cellular factor(s) targeted by p17 and found that p17 regulates inhibitory phosphorylation of CDK1 and blocks vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 56 and Ser 82. The p17-mediated inactivation of CDK1 is dependent on several mechanisms, which include direct interaction with CDK1, p17-mediated suppression of Plk1 by activating the Tpr/p53 and ATM/Chk1/PP2A pathways, and p17-mediated cdc25C degradation via an ubiquitin- proteasome pathway. Additionally, depletion of p53 with a shRNA as well as inhibition of ATM and vimentin by inhibitors diminished virus yield while Tpr and CDK1 knockdown increased virus yield. Taken together, results demonstrate that p17 suppresses both CDK1 and Plk1functions, disrupts vimentin phosphorylation, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest and thus benefits virus replication. PMID:27603133

  10. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Dependent cdk1 Inhibition Prevents G2/M Progression in Differentiating Tetraploid Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ovejero-Benito, María C.; Frade, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is often associated with DNA synthesis in neurons, the latter usually remaining for a long time as tetraploid cells before dying by apoptosis. The molecular mechanism preventing G2/M transition in these neurons remains unknown, but it may be reminiscent of the mechanism that maintains tetraploid retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a G2-like state during normal development, thus preventing their death. Here we show that this latter process, known to depend on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), requires the inhibition of cdk1 by TrkB. We demonstrate that a subpopulation of chick RGCs previously shown to become tetraploid co-expresses TrkB and cdk1 in vivo. By using an in vitro system that recapitulates differentiation and cell cycle re-entry of chick retinal neurons we show that BDNF, employed at concentrations specific for the TrkB receptor, reduces the expression of cdk1 in TrkB-positive, differentiating neurons. In this system, BDNF also inhibits the activity of both endogenous cdk1 and exogenously-expressed cdk1/cyclin B1 complex. This inhibition correlates with the phosphorylation of cdk1 at Tyr15, an effect that can be prevented with K252a, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor commonly used to prevent the activity of neurotrophins through their Trk receptors. The effect of BDNF on cdk1 activity is Tyr15-specific since BDNF cannot prevent the activity of a constitutively active form of cdk1 (Tyr15Phe) when expressed in differentiating retinal neurons. We also show that BDNF-dependent phosphorylation of cdk1 at Tyr15 could not be blocked with MK-1775, a Wee1-selective inhibitor, indicating that Tyr15 phosphorylation in cdk1 does not seem to occur through the canonical mechanism observed in proliferating cells. We conclude that the inhibition of both expression and activity of cdk1 through a BDNF-dependent mechanism contributes to the maintenance of tetraploid RGCs in a G2-like state. PMID:23741412

  11. Cdk2 deficiency decreases ras/CDK4-dependent malignant progression, but not myc-induced tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Macias, Everardo; Kim, Yongbaek; Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Klein-Szanto, Andres; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2007-10-15

    We have previously shown that forced expression of CDK4 in mouse skin (K5CDK4 mice) results in increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development in a chemical carcinogenesis protocol. This protocol induces skin papilloma development, causing a selection of cells bearing activating Ha-ras mutations. We have also shown that myc-induced epidermal proliferation and oral tumorigenesis (K5Myc mice) depends on CDK4 expression. Biochemical analysis of K5CDK4 and K5Myc epidermis as well as skin tumors showed that keratinocyte proliferation is mediated by CDK4 sequestration of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, and activation of CDK2. Here, we studied the role of CDK2 in epithelial tumorigenesis. In normal skin, loss of CDK2 rescues CDK4-induced, but not myc-induced epidermal hyperproliferation. Ablation of CDK2 in K5CDK4 mice results in decreased incidences and multiplicity of skin tumors as well as malignant progression to SCC. Histopathologic analysis showed that K5CDK4 tumors are drastically more aggressive than K5CDK4/CDK2-/- tumors. On the other hand, we show that CDK2 is dispensable for myc-induced tumorigenesis. In contrast to our previous report of K5Myc/CDK4-/-, K5Myc/CDK2-/- mice developed oral tumors with the same frequency as K5Myc mice. Overall, we have established that ras-induced tumors are more susceptible to CDK2 ablation than myc-induced tumors, suggesting that the efficacy of targeting CDK2 in tumor development and malignant progression is dependent on the oncogenic pathway involved.

  12. Cdk2 deficiency decrease ras/cdk4-dependent malignant progression, but not myc-induced tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Everardo; Kim, Yongbaek; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Klein-Szanto, Andres; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that forced expression of CDK4 in mouse skin (K5CDK4 mice) results in increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) development in a chemical carcinogenesis protocol. This protocol induces skin papilloma development causing a selection of cells bearing activating Ha-ras mutations. We have also demonstrated that myc-induced epidermal proliferation and oral tumorigenesis (K5Myc mice) depends on CDK4 expression. Biochemical analysis of K5CDK4 and K5Myc epidermis as well as skin tumors showed that keratinocyte proliferation is mediated by CDK4 sequestration of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, and activation of CDK2. Here, we studied the role of CDK2 in epithelial tumorigenesis. In normal skin loss of CDK2 rescues CDK4-induced, but not myc-induce epidermal hyperproliferation. Ablation of CDK2 in K5CDK4 mice results in decrease incidences and multiplicity of skin tumors as well as malignant progression to SCC. Histopathological analysis showed that K5CDK4 tumors are drastically more aggressive than K5CDK4/CDK2−/− tumors. On the other hand, we show that CDK2 is dispensable for myc-induced tumorigenesis. In contrast to our previous report K5Myc/CDK4−/− mice, K5Myc/CDK2−/− mice developed oral tumors with the same frequency as K5Myc mice. Overall we have established that ras-induced tumors are more susceptible to CDK2 ablation than myc-induced tumors, suggesting that the efficacy of targeting CDK2 in tumor development and malignant progression is dependent on the oncogenic pathway involved. PMID:17942901

  13. CDK4 regulates cancer stemness and is a novel therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meiou; Zhang, Chenjing; Ali, Ayad; Hong, Xinyuan; Tian, Jun; Lo, Chieh; Fils-Aimé, Nadège; Burgos, Sergio A.; Ali, Suhad; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers exhibit very aggressive features and poor patient outcomes. These tumors are enriched in cancer stem cells and exhibit resistance to most treatments and chemotherapy. In this study, we found the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) to act as a cancer stem cell regulator and novel prognostic marker in triple negative breast cancers. We found CDK4 to be highly expressed in these tumors and its expression to correlate with poor overall and relapse free survival outcomes, high tumor grade and poor prognostic features of triple negative breast cancer patients. Moreover, we found that blocking CDK4 expression or kinase activity, using a pharmacological inhibitor prevented breast cancer stem cell self-renewal. Interestingly, suppression of CDK4 expression or kinase activity reversed the basal-B TNBC mesenchymal phenotype to an epithelial- and luminal-like phenotype which correlates with better clinical prognosis. Finally, blocking CDK4 activity efficiently eliminated both normal and chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells in triple negative breast cancers, highlighting CDK4 as a promising novel therapeutic target for these aggressive breast tumors. PMID:27759034

  14. Cdk5 Is Required for Memory Function and Hippocampal Plasticity via the cAMP Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Joseph, Nadine; Xie, Zhigang; Zhou, Ying; Durak, Omer; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, J. Julius; Clauser, Karl R.; Carr, Steven A.; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Memory formation is modulated by pre- and post-synaptic signaling events in neurons. The neuronal protein kinase Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylates a variety of synaptic substrates and is implicated in memory formation. It has also been shown to play a role in homeostatic regulation of synaptic plasticity in cultured neurons. Surprisingly, we found that Cdk5 loss of function in hippocampal circuits results in severe impairments in memory formation and retrieval. Moreover, Cdk5 loss of function in the hippocampus disrupts cAMP signaling due to an aberrant increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) proteins. Dysregulation of cAMP is associated with defective CREB phosphorylation and disrupted composition of synaptic proteins in Cdk5-deficient mice. Rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor that prevents cAMP depletion, restores synaptic plasticity and memory formation in Cdk5-deficient mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate a critical role for Cdk5 in the regulation of cAMP-mediated hippocampal functions essential for synaptic plasticity and memory formation. PMID:21984943

  15. Phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) at Tyr-15 is inhibited by Cdk5 activators and does not contribute to the activation of Cdk5.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Taro; Sato, Ko; Furusawa, Kotaro; Hosokawa, Tomohisa; Tsutsumi, Koji; Asada, Akiko; Kamada, Shinji; Ohshima, Toshio; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi

    2014-07-11

    Cdk5 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) family. In contrast to other Cdks that promote cell proliferation, Cdk5 plays a role in regulating various neuronal functions, including neuronal migration, synaptic activity, and neuron death. Cdks responsible for cell proliferation need phosphorylation in the activation loop for activation in addition to binding a regulatory subunit cyclin. Cdk5, however, is activated only by binding to its activator, p35 or p39. Furthermore, in contrast to Cdk1 and Cdk2, which are inhibited by phosphorylation at Tyr-15, the kinase activity of Cdk5 is reported to be stimulated when phosphorylated at Tyr-15 by Src family kinases or receptor-type tyrosine kinases. We investigated the activation mechanism of Cdk5 by phosphorylation at Tyr-15. Unexpectedly, however, it was found that Tyr-15 phosphorylation occurred only on monomeric Cdk5, and the coexpression of activators, p35/p25, p39, or Cyclin I, inhibited the phosphorylation. In neuron cultures, too, the activation of Fyn tyrosine kinase did not increase Tyr-15 phosphorylation of Cdk5. Further, phospho-Cdk5 at Tyr-15 was not detected in the p35-bound Cdk5. In contrast, expression of active Fyn increased p35 in neurons. These results indicate that phosphorylation at Tyr-15 is not an activation mechanism of Cdk5 but, rather, indicate that tyrosine kinases could activate Cdk5 by increasing the protein amount of p35. These results call for reinvestigation of how Cdk5 is regulated downstream of Src family kinases or receptor tyrosine kinases in neurons, which is an important signaling cascade in a variety of neuronal activities.

  16. Inhibition of cdk9 during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Impedes Viral Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Mark; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M.

    2013-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection there is a loss of the serine-2 phosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) found in elongation complexes. This occurs in part because RNAP II undergoes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation during times of highly active viral transcription, which may result from stalled elongating complexes. In addition, a viral protein, ICP22, was reported to trigger a loss of serine-2 RNAP II. These findings have led to some speculation that the serine-2 phosphorylated form of RNAP II may not be required for HSV-1 transcription, although this form is required for cellular transcription elongation and RNA processing. Cellular kinase cdk9 phosphorylates serine-2 in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAP II. To determine if serine-2 phosphorylated RNAP II is required for HSV-1 transcription, we inhibited cdk9 during HSV-1 infection and measured viral gene expression. Inhibition was achieved by adding cdk9 inhibitors 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazone-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB) or flavopiridol (FVP) or by expression of a dominant–negative cdk9 or HEXIM1, which in conjunction with 7SK snRNA inhibits cdk9 in complex with cyclin 1. Here we report that inhibition of cdk9 resulted in decreased viral yields and levels of late proteins, poor formation of viral transcription-replication compartments, reduced levels of poly(A)+ mRNA and decreased RNA synthesis as measured by uptake of 5-bromouridine into nascent RNA. Importantly, a global reduction in viral mRNAs was seen as determined by microarray analysis. We conclude that serine-2 phosphorylation of the CTD of RNAP II is required for HSV-1 transcription. PMID:24205359

  17. Partial inhibition of Cdk1 in G2 phase overrides the SAC and decouples mitotic events

    PubMed Central

    McCloy, Rachael A; Rogers, Samuel; Caldon, C Elizabeth; Lorca, Thierry; Castro, Anna; Burgess, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Entry and progression through mitosis has traditionally been linked directly to the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). In this study we utilized low doses of the Cdk1-specific inhibitor, RO3306 from early G2 phase onwards. Addition of low doses of RO3306 in G2 phase induced minor chromosome congression and segregation defects. In contrast, mild doses of RO3306 during G2 phase resulted in cells entering an aberrant mitosis, with cells fragmenting centrosomes and failing to fully disassemble the nuclear envelope. Cells often underwent cytokinesis and metaphase simultaneously, despite the presence of an active spindle assembly checkpoint, which prevented degradation of cyclin B1 and securin, resulting in the random partitioning of whole chromosomes. This highly aberrant mitosis produced a significant increase in the proportion of viable polyploid cells present up to 3 days post-treatment. Furthermore, cells treated with medium doses of RO3306 were only able to reach the threshold of Cdk1 substrate phosphorylation required to initiate nuclear envelope breakdown, but failed to reach the levels of phosphorylation required to correctly complete pro-metaphase. Treatment with low doses of Okadaic acid, which primarily inhibits PP2A, rescued the mitotic defects and increased the number of cells that completed a normal mitosis. This supports the current model that PP2A is the primary phosphatase that counterbalances the activity of Cdk1 during mitosis. Taken together these results show that continuous and subtle disruption of Cdk1 activity from G2 phase onwards has deleterious consequences on mitotic progression by disrupting the balance between Cdk1 and PP2A. PMID:24626186

  18. Inhibition of Cdk5 in the nucleus accumbens enhances the locomotor-activating and incentive-motivational effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane R; Lynch, Wendy J; Sanchez, Hayde; Olausson, Peter; Nestler, Eric J; Bibb, James A

    2007-03-01

    Neuronal adaptations in striatal dopamine signaling have been implicated in enhanced responses to addictive drugs. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates striatal dopamine signaling and is a downstream target gene of the transcription factor DeltaFosB, which accumulates in striatal neurons after chronic cocaine exposure. Here we investigated the role of Cdk5 activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, responding for reward-associated stimuli (conditioned reinforcement), and cocaine self-administration under a progressive ratio schedule. Repeated infusions of the Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine into the NAc before cocaine injections augmented both the development and expression of cocaine sensitization without having any intrinsic stimulant actions of its own. Additionally, repeated intra-NAc infusions of roscovitine to saline-injected rats enhanced locomotor responses to a subsequent cocaine challenge. Similar effects were found after infusions of another Cdk5 inhibitor, olomoucine, but not its inactive congener, iso-olomoucine. Repeated inhibition of Cdk5 within the NAc also robustly enhanced the incentive-motivational effects of cocaine, similar to the effect of prior repeated cocaine exposure. The enhanced responding with conditioned reinforcement induced by cocaine persisted at least 2 weeks after the final roscovitine infusion. NAc infusions of olomoucine also produced acute and enduring increases in "breakpoints" achieved on a progressive ratio schedule for cocaine reinforcement. These results demonstrate profound and persistent effects of NAc Cdk5 inhibition on locomotor sensitization and incentive-motivational processes and provide direct evidence for a role for striatal Cdk5-induced alterations in the brain's long-term adaptations to cocaine.

  19. Targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/Cyclin D1/Cdk4 Survival Signaling Pathway for Eradication of Tumor Radioresistance Acquired by Fractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kakuda, Satoshi; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Takai, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Radioresistance is a major cause of treatment failure of radiotherapy (RT) in human cancer. We have recently revealed that acquired radioresistance of tumor cells induced by fractionated radiation is attributable to cyclin D1 overexpression as a consequence of the downregulation of GSK3{beta}-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis mediated by a constitutively activated serine-threonine kinase, AKT. This prompted us to hypothesize that targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/cyclin D1 pathway may improve fractionated RT by suppressing acquired radioresistance of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Two human tumor cell lines with acquired radioresistance were exposed to X-rays after incubation with either an AKT inhibitor, AKT/PKB signaling inhibitor-2 (API-2), or a Cdk4 inhibitor (Cdk4-I). Cells were then subjected to immunoblotting, clonogenic survival assay, cell growth analysis, and cell death analysis with TUNEL and annexin V staining. In vivo radiosensitivity was assessed by growth of human tumors xenografted into nude mice. Results: Treatment with API-2 resulted in downregulation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with acquired radioresistance. Cellular radioresistance disappeared completely both in vitro and in vivo with accompanying apoptosis when treated with API-2. Furthermore, inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 by Cdk4-I was sufficient for abolishing radioresistance. Treatment with either API-2 or Cdk4-I was also effective in suppressing resistance to cis-platinum (II)-diamine-dichloride in the cells with acquired radioresistance. Interestingly, the radiosensitizing effect of API-2 was canceled by overexpression of cyclin D1 whereas Cdk4-I was still able to sensitize cells with cyclin D1 overexpression. Conclusion: Cyclin D1/Cdk4 is a critical target of the AKT survival signaling pathway responsible for tumor radioresistance. Targeting the AKT/GSK3{beta}/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway would provide a novel approach to improve fractionated RT and would have an impact on tumor

  20. Molecular basis of cyclin-CDK-CKI regulation by reversible binding of an inositol pyrophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sam; Huang, Kexin; Quiocho, Florante A; O’Shea, Erin K

    2008-01-01

    When Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are starved of inorganic phosphate, the Pho80-Pho85 cyclin–cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) is inactivated by the Pho81 CDK inhibitor (CKI). The regulation of Pho80-Pho85 is distinct from previously characterized mechanisms of CDK regulation: the Pho81 CKI is constitutively associated with Pho80-Pho85, and a small-molecule ligand, inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7), is required for kinase inactivation. We investigated the molecular basis of the IP7- and Pho81-dependent Pho80-Pho85 inactivation using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, enzyme kinetics and fluorescence spectroscopy. We found that IP7 interacts noncovalently with Pho80-Pho85-Pho81 and induces additional interactions between Pho81 and Pho80-Pho85 that prevent substrates from accessing the kinase active site. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to Pho81, we define regions of Pho81 responsible for constitutive Pho80-Pho85 binding and IP7-regulated interaction and inhibition. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms of cyclin-CDK regulation and of the biochemical mechanisms of IP7 action. PMID:18059263

  1. Transforming growth factor beta stabilizes p15INK4B protein, increases p15INK4B-cdk4 complexes, and inhibits cyclin D1-cdk4 association in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, C; Garbe, J; Bhattacharya, N; Daksis, J; Pan, C H; Yaswen, P; Koh, J; Slingerland, J M; Stampfer, M R

    1997-01-01

    The effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) were studied in closely related human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), both finite-life-span 184 cells and immortal derivatives, 184A1S, and 184A1L5R, which differ in their cell cycle responses to TGF-beta but express type I and type II TGF-beta receptors and retain TGF-beta induction of extracellular matrix. The arrest-resistant phenotype was not due to loss of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors. TGF-beta was shown to regulate p15INK4B expression at at least two levels: mRNA accumulation and protein stability. In TGF-beta-arrested HMEC, there was not only an increase in p15 mRNA but also a major increase in p5INK4B protein stability. As cdk4- and cdk6-associated p15INK4B increased during TGF-beta arrest of sensitive cells, there was a loss of cyclin D1, p21Cip1, and p27Kip1 from these kinase complexes, and cyclin E-cdk2-associated p27Kip1 increased. In HMEC, p15INK4B complexes did not contain detectable cyclin. p15INK4B from both sensitive and resistant cells could displace in vitro cyclin D1, p21Cip1, and p27Kip1 from cdk4 isolated from sensitive cells. Cyclin D1 could not be displaced from cdk4 in the resistant 184A1L5R cell lysates. Thus, in TGF-beta arrest, p15INK4B may displace already associated cyclin D1 from cdks and prevent new cyclin D1-cdk complexes from forming. Furthermore, p27Kip1 binding shifts from cdk4 to cyclin E-cdk2 during TGF-beta-mediated arrest. The importance of posttranslational regulation of p15INK4B by TGF-beta is underlined by the observation that in TGF-beta-resistant 184A1L5R, although the p15 transcript increased, p15INK4B protein was not stabilized and did not accumulate, and cyclin D1-cdk association and kinase activation were not inhibited. PMID:9111314

  2. Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 1: structure-activity relationships, assessments of selectivity and cellular potency.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Long, Scott A; Pierce, Betsy S; Mahoney, Matthew W; Mourey, Robert J

    2009-08-15

    Identification of potent benzothiophene inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, selectivity assessments against CDK2, cellular potency and mechanism of action are presented. Crystallographic data provide a rationale for the observed MK2 potency as well as selectivity over CDK2 for this class of inhibitors.

  3. Palbociclib treatment of FLT3-ITD+ AML cells uncovers a kinase-dependent transcriptional regulation of FLT3 and PIM1 by CDK6.

    PubMed

    Uras, Iris Z; Walter, Gina J; Scheicher, Ruth; Bellutti, Florian; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Tigan, Anca S; Valent, Peter; Heidel, Florian H; Kubicek, Stefan; Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan; Sexl, Veronika

    2016-06-01

    Up to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia have constitutively activating internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase. Such mutations are associated with a poor prognosis and a high propensity to relapse after remission. FLT3 inhibitors are being developed as targeted therapy for FLT3-ITD(+) acute myeloid leukemia; however, their use is complicated by rapid development of resistance, which illustrates the need for additional therapeutic targets. We show that the US Food and Drug Administration-approved CDK4/6 kinase inhibitor palbociclib induces apoptosis of FLT3-ITD leukemic cells. The effect is specific for FLT3-mutant cells and is ascribed to the transcriptional activity of CDK6: CDK6 but not its functional homolog CDK4 is found at the promoters of the FLT3 and PIM1 genes, another important leukemogenic driver. There CDK6 regulates transcription in a kinase-dependent manner. Of potential clinical relevance, combined treatment with palbociclib and FLT3 inhibitors results in synergistic cytotoxicity. Simultaneously targeting two critical signaling nodes in leukemogenesis could represent a therapeutic breakthrough, leading to complete remission and overcoming resistance to FLT3 inhibitors. PMID:27099147

  4. Palbociclib treatment of FLT3-ITD+ AML cells uncovers a kinase-dependent transcriptional regulation of FLT3 and PIM1 by CDK6

    PubMed Central

    Uras, Iris Z.; Walter, Gina J.; Scheicher, Ruth; Bellutti, Florian; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Tigan, Anca S.; Valent, Peter; Heidel, Florian H.; Kubicek, Stefan; Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Up to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia have constitutively activating internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase. Such mutations are associated with a poor prognosis and a high propensity to relapse after remission. FLT3 inhibitors are being developed as targeted therapy for FLT3-ITD+ acute myeloid leukemia; however, their use is complicated by rapid development of resistance, which illustrates the need for additional therapeutic targets. We show that the US Food and Drug Administration–approved CDK4/6 kinase inhibitor palbociclib induces apoptosis of FLT3-ITD leukemic cells. The effect is specific for FLT3-mutant cells and is ascribed to the transcriptional activity of CDK6: CDK6 but not its functional homolog CDK4 is found at the promoters of the FLT3 and PIM1 genes, another important leukemogenic driver. There CDK6 regulates transcription in a kinase-dependent manner. Of potential clinical relevance, combined treatment with palbociclib and FLT3 inhibitors results in synergistic cytotoxicity. Simultaneously targeting two critical signaling nodes in leukemogenesis could represent a therapeutic breakthrough, leading to complete remission and overcoming resistance to FLT3 inhibitors. PMID:27099147

  5. Functional, chemical genomic, and super-enhancer screening identify sensitivity to cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway inhibition in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, Brian; Cowley, Glenn; Vazquez, Francisca; Weir, Barbara A.; Tsherniak, Aviad; Parasuraman, Sudha; Kim, Sunkyu; Alexe, Gabriela; Stegmaier, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor in children and adolescents, with treatment remaining a clinical challenge. This disease is mediated by somatic chromosomal translocations of the EWS gene and a gene encoding an ETS transcription factor, most commonly, FLI1. While direct targeting of aberrant transcription factors remains a pharmacological challenge, identification of dependencies incurred by EWS/FLI1 expression would offer a new therapeutic avenue. We used a combination of super-enhancer profiling, near-whole genome shRNA-based and small-molecule screening to identify cyclin D1 and CDK4 as Ewing sarcoma-selective dependencies. We revealed that super-enhancers mark Ewing sarcoma specific expression signatures and EWS/FLI1 target genes in human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Particularly, a super-enhancer regulates cyclin D1 and promotes its expression in Ewing sarcoma. We demonstrated that Ewing sarcoma cells require CDK4 and cyclin D1 for survival and anchorage-independent growth. Additionally, pharmacologic inhibition of CDK4 with selective CDK4/6 inhibitors led to cytostasis and cell death of Ewing sarcoma cell lines in vitro and growth delay in an in vivo Ewing sarcoma xenograft model. These results demonstrated a dependency in Ewing sarcoma on CDK4 and cyclin D1 and support exploration of CDK4/6 inhibitors as a therapeutic approach for patients with this disease. PMID:26337082

  6. NF-κB induces abnormal centrosome amplification by upregulation of CDK2 in laryngeal squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Li; Ma, Hui-Ping; Lu, Xiu-Li; Sun, Shao-Hua; Guo, Xing; Li, Fu-Cai

    2011-10-01

    Centrosome amplification can drive chromosomal instability (CIN) which is a major source of tumor initiation. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) on centrosome amplification of Hep-2 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed to display centrosomes. BAY11-7082 was used as an inhibitor of NF-κB to assess the inhibition of centrosome amplification, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), ensuring cell cycle cycle coordination with centrosome cycle was detected by Western blotting. Furthermore, a 1556-bp fragment of the CDK2 promoter was analyzed using the TRANSFAC-TESS software. Luciferase assay, including a series of truncated CDK2 promoters and site mutations, was carried out to determine NF-κB binding sites in the CDK2 promoter. Electrophoresis mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were applied to confirm whether NF-κB indeed binds to the 5'-promoter region of the CDK2 gene. To reveal the clinical significance of CDK2 expression in laryngeal squamous cell cancer, mRNA and protein levels were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. We found that the transcription factor NF-κB plays a role in centrosome amplification in Hep-2 cells. Centrosome amplification is reduced by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, expression of the p65 subunit of NF-κB is sufficient to promote centrosome amplification and increase in CDK2 protein levels. We further identified a functional NF-κB binding site located in the CDK2 promoter. Single mutation of the NF-κB site III (construct mutIII) however resulted in 76±5% (p<0.01) luciferase activity reduction. Electromobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitaton results suggest that NF-κB indeed binds to this responsive element associating with CDK2 expression and centrosome amplification. RT-PCR and Western blotting results revealed that both mRNA and protein levels of CDK2 were significantly higher in tumor tissues than those in paired

  7. CDK5RAP2 is required for spindle checkpoint function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Dongyun; Lv, Shuang; Wang, Haibo; Zhong, Xueyan; Liu, Bo; Wang, Bo; Liao, Ji; Li, Jing; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Xu, Xingzhi

    2009-04-15

    The combination of paclitaxel and doxorubicin is among the most successful chemotherapy regimens in cancer treatment. CDK5RAP2, when mutated, causes primary microcephaly. We show here that inhibition of CDK5RAP2 expression causes chromosome mis-segregation, fails to maintain the spindle checkpoint, and is associated with reduced expression of the spindle checkpoint proteins BUBR1 and MAD2 and an increase in chromatin-associated CDC20. CDK5RAP2 resides on the BUBR1 and MAD2 promoters and regulates their transcription. Furthermore, CDK5RAP2-knockdown cells have increased resistance to paclitaxel and doxorubicin, and this resistance is partially rescued upon restoration of CDK5RAP2 expression. Cancer cells cultured in the presence of paclitaxel or doxorubicin exhibit dramatically decreased CDK5RAP2 levels. These results suggest that CDK5RAP2 is required for spindle checkpoint function and is a common target in paclitaxel and doxorubicin resistance. PMID:19282672

  8. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) Controls Melanoma Cell Motility, Invasiveness, and Metastatic Spread—Identification of a Promising Novel therapeutic target1

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Savita; Nolting, Jens; Schütte, Ute; Haarmann, Jens; Jain, Prashi; Shah, Dhruv; Brossart, Peter; Flaherty, Patrick; Feldmann, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in recent years, the overall prognosis of metastatic malignant melanoma remains poor, and curative therapeutic options are lacking. Therefore, better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma progression and metastasis, as well as identification of novel therapeutic targets that allow inhibition of metastatic spread, are urgently required. The current study provides evidence for aberrant cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activation in primary and metastatic melanoma lesions by overexpression of its activator protein CDK5R1/p35. Moreover, using melanoma in vitro model systems, shRNA-mediated inducible knockdown of CDK5 was found to cause marked inhibition of cell motility, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent growth, while at the same time net cell growth was not affected. In vivo, CDK5 knockdown inhibited growth of orthotopic xenografts as well as formation of lung and liver colonies in xenogenic injection models mimicking systemic metastases. Inhibition of lung metastasis was further validated in a syngenic murine melanoma model. CDK5 knockdown was accompanied by dephosphorylation and overexpression of caldesmon, and concomitant caldesmon knockdown rescued cell motility and proinvasive phenotype. Finally, it was found that pharmacological inhibition of CDK5 activity by means of roscovitine as well as by a novel small molecule CDK5-inhibitor, N-(5-isopropylthiazol-2-yl)-3-phenylpropanamide, similarly caused marked inhibition of invasion/migration, colony formation, and anchorage-independent growth of melanoma cells. Thus, experimental data presented here provide strong evidence for a crucial role of aberrantly activated CDK5 in melanoma progression and metastasis and establish CDK5 as promising target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26310376

  9. NSun2 delays replicative senescence by repressing p27 (KIP1) translation and elevating CDK1 translation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Junyue; Liu, Zhenyun; Jiang, Bin; Dou, Yali; Gorospe, Myriam; Wang, Wengong

    2015-01-01

    A rise in the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27KIP1 is important for the growth arrest of senescent cells, but the mechanisms responsible for this increase are poorly understood. Here, we show that the tRNA methyltransferase NSun2 represses the expression of p27 in replicative senescence. NSun2 methylated the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of p27 mRNA at cytosine C64 in vitro and in cells, thereby repressing the translation of p27. During replicative senescence, increased p27 protein levels were accompanied by decreased NSun2 protein levels. Knockdown of NSun2 in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) elevated p27 levels and reduced the expression of CDK1 (encoded by CDK1 mRNA, a previously reported target of NSun2), which in turn further repressed cell proliferation and accelerated replicative senescence, while overexpression of NSun2 exerted the opposite effect. Ectopic overexpression of the p27 5′UTR fragment rescued the effect of NSun2 overexpression in lowering p27, increasing CDK1, promoting cell proliferation, and delaying replicative senescence. Our findings indicate that NSun2-mediated mRNA methylation regulates p27 and CDK1 levels during replicative senescence. PMID:26687548

  10. Identification of a Myc-dependent step during the formation of active G1 cyclin-cdk complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, P; Philipp, A; Lukas, J; Godden-Kent, D; Pagano, M; Mittnacht, S; Bartek, J; Eilers, M

    1995-01-01

    Activation of conditional alleles of Myc can induce proliferation in quiescent cells. We now report that induction of Myc in density-arrested fibroblasts triggers rapid hyperphosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and activation of both cyclin D1- and cyclin E-associated kinase activities in the absence of significant changes in the amounts of cyclin-cdk complexes. Kinase activation by Myc is blocked by inhibitors of transcription and requires intact DNA binding and heterodimerization domains of Myc. Activation of cyclin E-cdk2 kinase in serum-starved cells occurs in two steps. The first is induced by Myc and involves the release of a 120 kDa cyclin E-cdk2 complex from a 250 kDa inactive complex that is present in starved cells. This is necessary, but not sufficient, to generate full kinase activity, as cdc25 phosphatase activity is limiting in the absence of external growth factors. In vivo cdc25 activity can be supplied by the addition of growth factors. In vitro recombinant cdc25a strongly activates the 120 kDa, but only poorly activates the 250 kDa cyclin E-cdk2 complex. Our data show that two distinct signals, one of which is supplied by Myc, are necessary for consecutive steps during growth factor-induced formation of active cyclin E-cdk2 complexes in G(o)-arrested rodent fibroblasts. Images PMID:7588611

  11. Pharmacologic inhibition of cdk4/6 arrests the growth of glioblastoma multiforme intracranial xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Karine; Solomon, David A.; Oermann, Eric; Kim, Jung-Sik; Zhong, Wei-Zhu; Prados, Michael D.; Ozawa, Tomoko; James, C. David; Waldman, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Activation of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (cdk4/6) occurs in the majority of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors, and represents a promising molecular target for the development of small molecule inhibitors. In the current study we investigated the molecular determinants and in vivo response of diverse GBM cell lines and xenografts to PD-0332991, a cdk4/6 specific inhibitor. In vitro testing of PD-0332991 against a panel of GBM cell lines revealed a potent G1 cell cycle arrest and induction of senescence in each of 16 Rb-proficient cell lines regardless of other genetic lesions, whereas each of 5 cell lines with homozygous inactivation of Rb were completely resistant to treatment. shRNA depletion of Rb expression conferred resistance of GBM cells to PD-0332991, further demonstrating a requirement of Rb for sensitivity to cdk4/6 inhibition. PD-0332991 was found to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier and proved highly effective in suppressing the growth of intracranial GBM xenograft tumors, including those that had recurred after initial therapy with temozolomide. Remarkably, no mice receiving PD-0332991 had significant disease progression or died while on therapy. Additionally, the combination of PD-0332991 and radiation therapy resulted in significantly increased survival benefit compared with either therapy alone. In total, our results support clinical trial evaluation of PD-0332991 against newly-diagnosed as well as recurrent GBM, and indicate that Rb status is the primary determinant of potential benefit from this therapy. PMID:20354191

  12. Redundant Regulation of Cdk1 Tyrosine Dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Erin K; Dysart, Michael; Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C; Pilon, Sophie; Doré, Carole; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien; Rudner, Adam D

    2016-03-01

    Cdk1 activity drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in all eukaryotes. The kinase Wee1 and the phosphatase Cdc25 regulate the mitotic activity of Cdk1 by the reversible phosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine residue. Mutation of cdc25 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocks Cdk1 dephosphorylation and causes cell cycle arrest. In contrast, deletion of MIH1, the cdc25 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is viable. Although Cdk1-Y19 phosphorylation is elevated during mitosis in mih1∆ cells, Cdk1 is dephosphorylated as cells progress into G1, suggesting that additional phosphatases regulate Cdk1 dephosphorylation. Here we show that the phosphatase Ptp1 also regulates Cdk1 dephosphorylation in vivo and can directly dephosphorylate Cdk1 in vitro. Using a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, we also show that PP2A bound to Rts1, the budding yeast B56-regulatory subunit, regulates dephosphorylation of Cdk1 independently of a function regulating Swe1, Mih1, or Ptp1, suggesting that PP2A(Rts1) either directly dephosphorylates Cdk1-Y19 or regulates an unidentified phosphatase. PMID:26715668

  13. Redundant Regulation of Cdk1 Tyrosine Dephosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Erin K; Dysart, Michael; Lianga, Noel; Williams, Elizabeth C; Pilon, Sophie; Doré, Carole; Deneault, Jean-Sebastien; Rudner, Adam D

    2016-03-01

    Cdk1 activity drives both mitotic entry and the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in all eukaryotes. The kinase Wee1 and the phosphatase Cdc25 regulate the mitotic activity of Cdk1 by the reversible phosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine residue. Mutation of cdc25 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe blocks Cdk1 dephosphorylation and causes cell cycle arrest. In contrast, deletion of MIH1, the cdc25 homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is viable. Although Cdk1-Y19 phosphorylation is elevated during mitosis in mih1∆ cells, Cdk1 is dephosphorylated as cells progress into G1, suggesting that additional phosphatases regulate Cdk1 dephosphorylation. Here we show that the phosphatase Ptp1 also regulates Cdk1 dephosphorylation in vivo and can directly dephosphorylate Cdk1 in vitro. Using a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, we also show that PP2A bound to Rts1, the budding yeast B56-regulatory subunit, regulates dephosphorylation of Cdk1 independently of a function regulating Swe1, Mih1, or Ptp1, suggesting that PP2A(Rts1) either directly dephosphorylates Cdk1-Y19 or regulates an unidentified phosphatase.

  14. Mechanism of p27 Unfolding for CDK2 Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Soumya Lipsa; Senapati, Sanjib

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cycle regulatory protein, CDK2 is active when bound to its complementary partner protein, CyclinA or E. Recent discovery of the Kip/Cip family of proteins has indicated that the activity of CDK2 is also regulated by a member protein, p27. Although, the mechanism of CDK2 inhibition by p27 binding is known from crystal structure, little is known about the mechanism of CDK2 reactivation. Here, we execute classical and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of unphosphorylated- and phosphorylated-p27 bound CDK2/CyclinA to unravel the CDK2 reactivation mechanism at molecular-to-atomic detail. Results suggest that the phosphorylation of p27 Y88 residue (pY88-p27) first disrupts the p27/CDK2 hybrid β-sheet and subsequently ejects the p27 310 helix from CDK2 catalytic cleft. The unbinding of p27 from CDK2/CyclinA complex, thus, follows a two-step unfolding mechanism, where the 310 helix ejection constitutes the rate-limiting step. Interestingly, the unfolding of p27 leaves CDK2/CyclinA in an active state, where the prerequisite CDK2-CyclinA interfacial contacts were regained and ATP achieved its native position for smooth transfer of phosphate. Our findings match very well with NMR chemical shift data that indicated the flip-out of p27 310 helix from CDK2 pocket and kinetic experiments that exhibited significant kinase activity of CDK2 when saturated with pY88-p27. PMID:27211815

  15. Functional specialization of chordate CDK1 paralogs during oogenic meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Øvrebø, Jan Inge; Campsteijn, Coen; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Hausen, Harald; Raasholm, Martina; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In contrast to interphase CDKs, the mitotic phase CDK1 is the only CDK capable of driving the entire cell cycle and it can do so from yeast to mammals. Interestingly, plants and the marine chordate, Oikopleura dioica, possess paralogs of the highly conserved CDK1 regulator. However, whereas in plants the 2 CDK1 paralogs replace interphase CDK functions, O. dioica has a full complement of interphase CDKs in addition to its 5 odCDK1 paralogs. Here we show specific sub-functionalization of odCDK1 paralogs during oogenesis. Differential spatiotemporal dynamics of the odCDK1a, d and e paralogs and the meiotic polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and aurora kinase determine the subset of meiotic nuclei in prophase I arrest that will seed growing oocytes and complete meiosis. Whereas we find odCDK1e to be non-essential, knockdown of the odCDK1a paralog resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes of reduced size. Knockdown of odCDK1d also resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes. In this case, the oocytes were of normal size, but were unable to extrude polar bodies upon exposure to sperm, because they were unable to resume meiosis from prophase I arrest, a classical function of the sole CDK1 during meiosis in other organisms. Thus, we reveal specific sub-functionalization of CDK1 paralogs, during the meiotic oogenic program. PMID:25714331

  16. Functional specialization of chordate CDK1 paralogs during oogenic meiosis.

    PubMed

    Øvrebø, Jan Inge; Campsteijn, Coen; Kourtesis, Ioannis; Hausen, Harald; Raasholm, Martina; Thompson, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are central regulators of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In contrast to interphase CDKs, the mitotic phase CDK1 is the only CDK capable of driving the entire cell cycle and it can do so from yeast to mammals. Interestingly, plants and the marine chordate, Oikopleura dioica, possess paralogs of the highly conserved CDK1 regulator. However, whereas in plants the 2 CDK1 paralogs replace interphase CDK functions, O. dioica has a full complement of interphase CDKs in addition to its 5 odCDK1 paralogs. Here we show specific sub-functionalization of odCDK1 paralogs during oogenesis. Differential spatiotemporal dynamics of the odCDK1a, d and e paralogs and the meiotic polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and aurora kinase determine the subset of meiotic nuclei in prophase I arrest that will seed growing oocytes and complete meiosis. Whereas we find odCDK1e to be non-essential, knockdown of the odCDK1a paralog resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes of reduced size. Knockdown of odCDK1d also resulted in the spawning of non-viable oocytes. In this case, the oocytes were of normal size, but were unable to extrude polar bodies upon exposure to sperm, because they were unable to resume meiosis from prophase I arrest, a classical function of the sole CDK1 during meiosis in other organisms. Thus, we reveal specific sub-functionalization of CDK1 paralogs, during the meiotic oogenic program. PMID:25714331

  17. Ischemic stroke injury is mediated by aberrant Cdk5.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Douglas A; Torres-Altoro, Melissa I; Tan, Zhenjun; Tozzi, Alessandro; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; DiNapoli, Vincent; Plattner, Florian; Kansy, Janice W; Benkovic, Stanley A; Huber, Jason D; Miller, Diane B; Greengard, Paul; Calabresi, Paolo; Rosen, Charles L; Bibb, James A

    2014-06-11

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Treatment options are limited and only a minority of patients receive acute interventions. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate neuronal injury and death may identify targets for neuroprotective treatments. Here we show that the aberrant activity of the protein kinase Cdk5 is a principal cause of neuronal death in rodents during stroke. Ischemia induced either by embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo or by oxygen and glucose deprivation in brain slices caused calpain-dependent conversion of the Cdk5-activating cofactor p35 to p25. Inhibition of aberrant Cdk5 during ischemia protected dopamine neurotransmission, maintained field potentials, and blocked excitotoxicity. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or conditional knock-out (CKO) of Cdk5 prevented neuronal death in response to ischemia. Moreover, Cdk5 CKO dramatically reduced infarctions following MCAO. Thus, targeting aberrant Cdk5 activity may serve as an effective treatment for stroke.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of CDK and cyclin proteins in premetazoan lineages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The molecular history of animal evolution from single-celled ancestors remains a major question in biology, and little is known regarding the evolution of cell cycle regulation during animal emergence. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of CDK and cyclin proteins in metazoans and their unicellular relatives. Results Our analysis divided the CDK family into eight subfamilies. Seven subfamilies (CDK1/2/3, CDK5, CDK7, CDK 20, CDK8/19, CDK9, and CDK10/11) are conserved in metazoans and fungi, with the remaining subfamily, CDK4/6, found only in eumetazoans. With respect to cyclins, cyclin C, H, L, Y subfamilies, and cyclin K and T as a whole subfamily, are generally conserved in animal, fungi, and amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. In contrast, cyclin subfamilies B, A, E, and D, which are cell cycle-related, have distinct evolutionary histories. The cyclin B subfamily is generally conserved in D. discoideum, fungi, and animals, whereas cyclin A and E subfamilies are both present in animals and their unicellular relatives such as choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and filasterean Capsaspora owczarzaki, but are absent in fungi and D. discoideum. Although absent in fungi and D. discoideum, cyclin D subfamily orthologs can be found in the early-emerging, non-opisthokont apusozoan Thecamonas trahens. Within opisthokonta, the cyclin D subfamily is conserved only in eumetazoans, and is absent in fungi, choanoflagellates, and the basal metazoan Amphimedon queenslandica. Conclusions Our data indicate that the CDK4/6 subfamily and eumetazoans emerged simultaneously, with the evolutionary conservation of the cyclin D subfamily also tightly linked with eumetazoan appearance. Establishment of the CDK4/6-cyclin D complex may have been the key step in the evolution of cell cycle control during eumetazoan emergence. PMID:24433236

  19. Cdk5 modulates cocaine reward, motivation, and striatal neuron excitability.

    PubMed

    Benavides, David R; Quinn, Jennifer J; Zhong, Ping; Hawasli, Ammar H; DiLeone, Ralph J; Kansy, Janice W; Olausson, Peter; Yan, Zhen; Taylor, Jane R; Bibb, James A

    2007-11-21

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates dopamine neurotransmission and has been suggested to serve as a homeostatic target of chronic psychostimulant exposure. To study the role of Cdk5 in the modulation of the cellular and behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs of abuse, we developed Cre/loxP conditional knock-out systems that allow temporal and spatial control of Cdk5 expression in the adult brain. Here, we report the generation of Cdk5 conditional knock-out (cKO) mice using the alphaCaMKII promoter-driven Cre transgenic line (CaMKII-Cre). In this model system, loss of Cdk5 in the adult forebrain increased the psychomotor-activating effects of cocaine. Additionally, these CaMKII-Cre Cdk5 cKO mice show enhanced incentive motivation for food as assessed by instrumental responding on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Behavioral changes were accompanied by increased excitability of medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in Cdk5 cKO mice. To study NAc-specific effects of Cdk5, another model system was used in which recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing Cre recombinase caused restricted loss of Cdk5 in NAc neurons. Targeted knock-out of Cdk5 in the NAc facilitated cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference for cocaine. These results suggest that Cdk5 acts as a negative regulator of neuronal excitability in the NAc and that Cdk5 may govern the behavioral effects of cocaine and motivation for reinforcement.

  20. Myt1 inhibition of Cyclin A/Cdk1 is essential for fusome integrity and premeiotic centriole engagement in Drosophila spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, Ramya; Ayeni, Joseph; Jin, Zhigang; Homola, Ellen; Campbell, Shelagh D

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of cell cycle arrest in premeiotic G2 phase coordinates germ cell maturation and meiotic cell division with hormonal and developmental signals by mechanisms that control Cyclin B synthesis and inhibitory phosphorylation of the M-phase kinase, Cdk1. In this study, we investigated how inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 by Myt1 kinase regulates premeiotic G2 phase of Drosophila male meiosis. Immature spermatocytes lacking Myt1 activity exhibit two distinct defects: disrupted intercellular bridges (fusomes) and premature centriole disengagement. As a result, the myt1 mutant spermatocytes enter meiosis with multipolar spindles. These myt1 defects can be suppressed by depletion of Cyclin A activity or ectopic expression of Wee1 (a partially redundant Cdk1 inhibitory kinase) and phenocopied by expression of a Cdk1F mutant defective for inhibitory phosphorylation. We therefore conclude that Myt1 inhibition of Cyclin A/Cdk1 is essential for normal fusome behavior and centriole engagement during premeiotic G2 arrest of Drosophila male meiosis. The novel meiotic functions we discovered for Myt1 kinase are spatially and temporally distinct from previously described functions of Myt1 as an inhibitor of Cyclin B/Cdk1 to regulate G2/MI timing. PMID:27170181

  1. The cyclin encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus stimulates cdk6 to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein and histone H1.

    PubMed Central

    Godden-Kent, D; Talbot, S J; Boshoff, C; Chang, Y; Moore, P; Weiss, R A; Mittnacht, S

    1997-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus 8) is a novel gammaherpesvirus implicated in the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma and certain malignancies of lymphatic origin. One of the candidate genes possibly involved in promoting tumor development is an open reading frame (ORF) with sequence similarity to human type D cyclin genes. This cyclin-like gene, when expressed in tissue culture cells, promotes phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein and thereby may result in deregulation of cell division control. We report here the biochemical characterization of this cyclin (KSHV-cyc) and the kinase activity that it elicits upon expression in tissue culture cells. We demonstrate that the kinase activity associated with KSHV-cyc is sensitive to the cdk inhibitor p27 (KIP) and due to activation of cdk6. However, in contrast to cdk6 activated by cellular type D cyclins, the cdk6 activated by KSHV-cyc is capable of phosphorylating not only the retinoblastoma protein but also histone H1. This finding implies that activation by KSHV-cyc alters the substrate preference of this cdk. This may have important physiological consequences in that the kinase activity triggered by this viral cyclin may abrogate cell cycle checkpoints in addition to those targeted by cellular cyclin D-cdk6 kinase. PMID:9151805

  2. Myt1 inhibition of Cyclin A/Cdk1 is essential for fusome integrity and premeiotic centriole engagement in Drosophila spermatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Ramya; Ayeni, Joseph; Jin, Zhigang; Homola, Ellen; Campbell, Shelagh D.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell cycle arrest in premeiotic G2 phase coordinates germ cell maturation and meiotic cell division with hormonal and developmental signals by mechanisms that control Cyclin B synthesis and inhibitory phosphorylation of the M-phase kinase, Cdk1. In this study, we investigated how inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 by Myt1 kinase regulates premeiotic G2 phase of Drosophila male meiosis. Immature spermatocytes lacking Myt1 activity exhibit two distinct defects: disrupted intercellular bridges (fusomes) and premature centriole disengagement. As a result, the myt1 mutant spermatocytes enter meiosis with multipolar spindles. These myt1 defects can be suppressed by depletion of Cyclin A activity or ectopic expression of Wee1 (a partially redundant Cdk1 inhibitory kinase) and phenocopied by expression of a Cdk1F mutant defective for inhibitory phosphorylation. We therefore conclude that Myt1 inhibition of Cyclin A/Cdk1 is essential for normal fusome behavior and centriole engagement during premeiotic G2 arrest of Drosophila male meiosis. The novel meiotic functions we discovered for Myt1 kinase are spatially and temporally distinct from previously described functions of Myt1 as an inhibitor of Cyclin B/Cdk1 to regulate G2/MI timing. PMID:27170181

  3. CDK2 differentially controls normal cell senescence and cancer cell proliferation upon exposure to reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chae Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Park, Sung Sup; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} differently adjusted senescence and proliferation in normal and cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently decreased PCNA levels in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently increased CDK2 activity in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup Cip1} is likely dispensable when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces senescence in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggestively, CDK2 and PCNA play critical roles in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell fate decision. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species modulate cell fate in a context-dependent manner. Sublethal doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in normal cells (including primary human dermal fibroblasts and IMR-90 cells) without affecting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and subsequent senescence. In contrast, exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation. A CDK2 inhibitor, CVT-313, prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cancer cell proliferation. These results support the notion that the cyclin/CDK2/p21{sup Cip1}/PCNA complex plays an important role as a regulator of cell fate decisions.

  4. Development of highly potent and selective diaminothiazole inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrunn, Ernst; Betzi, Stephane; Alam, Riazul; Martin, Mathew P.; Becker, Andreas; Han, Huijong; Francis, Rawle; Chakrasali, Ramappa; Jakkaraj, Sudhakar; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Sebti, Said M.; Cubitt, Christopher L.; Gebhard, Anthony W.; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Tash, Joseph S.; Georg, Gunda I.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that act as key regulatory elements in cell cycle progression. We describe the development of highly potent diaminothiazole inhibitors of CDK2 (IC50 = 0.0009 – 0.0015 µM) from a single hit compound with weak inhibitory activity (IC50 = 15 µM), discovered by high-throughput screening. Structure-based design was performed using 35 co-crystal structures of CDK2 liganded with distinct analogues of the parent compound. The profiling of compound 51 against a panel of 339 kinases revealed high selectivity for CDKs, with preference for CDK2 and CDK5 over CDK9, CDK1, CDK4 and CDK6. Compound 51 inhibited the proliferation of 13 out of 15 cancer cell lines with IC50 values between 0.27 and 6.9 µM, which correlated with the complete suppression of retinoblastoma phosphorylation and the onset of apoptosis. Combined, the results demonstrate the potential of this new inhibitors series for further development into CDK-specific chemical probes or therapeutics. PMID:23600925

  5. The Establishment of a Hyperactive Structure Allows the Tumour Suppressor Protein p53 to Function through P-TEFb during Limited CDK9 Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Albert, Thomas K; Antrecht, Claudia; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Meisterernst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    CDK9 is the catalytic subunit of positive elongation factor b (P-TEFb) that controls the transition of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) into elongation. CDK9 inhibitors block mRNA synthesis and trigger activation of the stress-sensitive p53 protein. This in turn induces transcription of CDKN1A (p21) and other cell cycle control genes. It is presently unclear if and how p53 circumvents a general P-TEFb-requirement when it activates its target genes. Our investigations using a panel of specific inhibitors reason for a critical role of CDK9 also in the case of direct inhibition of the kinase. At the prototypic p21 gene, the activator p53 initially accumulates at the pre-bound upstream enhancer followed-with significant delay-by de novo binding to a secondary enhancer site within the first intron of p21. This is accompanied by recruitment of the RNAPII initiation machinery to both elements. ChIP and functional analyses reason for a prominent role of CDK9 itself and elongation factor complexes PAF1c and SEC involved in pause and elongation control. It appears that the strong activation potential of p53 facilitates gene activation in the situation of global repression of RNAPII transcription. The data further underline the fundamental importance of CDK9 for class II gene transcription. PMID:26745862

  6. CDK9 Autophosphorylation Regulates High-Affinity Binding of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat–P-TEFb Complex to TAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Mitchell E.; Mayall, Timothy P.; Suess, Eric M.; Meisenhelder, Jill; Thompson, Nancy E.; Jones, Katherine A.

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat interacts with cyclin T1 (CycT1), a regulatory partner of CDK9 in the positive transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) complex, and binds cooperatively with CycT1 to TAR RNA to recruit P-TEFb and promote transcription elongation. We show here that Tat also stimulates phosphorylation of affinity-purified core RNA polymerase II and glutathione S-transferase–C-terminal-domain substrates by CycT1-CDK9, but not CycH-CDK7, in vitro. Interestingly, incubation of recombinant Tat–P-TEFb complexes with ATP enhanced binding to TAR RNA dramatically, and the C-terminal half of CycT1 masked binding of Tat to TAR RNA in the absence of ATP. ATP incubation lead to autophosphorylation of CDK9 at multiple C-terminal Ser and Thr residues, and full-length CycT1 (amino acids 728) [CycT1(1–728)], but not truncated CycT1(1–303), was also phosphorylated by CDK9. P-TEFb complexes containing a catalytically inactive CDK9 mutant (D167N) bound TAR RNA weakly and independently of ATP, as did a C-terminal truncated CDK9 mutant that was catalytically active but unable to undergo autophosphorylation. Analysis of different Tat proteins revealed that the 101-amino-acid SF2 HIV-1 Tat was unable to bind TAR with CycT1(1–303) in the absence of phosphorylated CDK9, whereas unphosphorylated CDK9 strongly blocked binding of HIV-2 Tat to TAR RNA in a manner that was reversed upon autophosphorylation. Replacement of CDK9 phosphorylation sites with negatively charged residues restored binding of CycT1(1–303)-D167N-Tat, and rendered D167N a more potent inhibitor of transcription in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CDK9 phosphorylation is required for high-affinity binding of Tat–P-TEFb to TAR RNA and that the state of P-TEFb phosphorylation may regulate Tat transactivation in vivo. PMID:10958691

  7. CDK2 activation in mouse epidermis induces keratinocyte proliferation but does not affect skin tumor development.

    PubMed

    Macias, Everardo; Miliani de Marval, Paula L; De Siervi, Adriana; Conti, Claudio J; Senderowicz, Adrian M; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2008-08-01

    It has been widely assumed that elevated CDK2 kinase activity plays a contributory role in tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that mice overexpressing CDK4 under control of the keratin 5 promoter (K5CDK4 mice) develop epidermal hyperplasia and increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinomas. In this model, CDK4 overexpression results in increased CDK2 activity associated with the noncatalytic function of CDK4, sequestration of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Furthermore, we have shown that ablation of Cdk2 reduces Ras-Cdk4 tumorigenesis, suggesting that increased CDK2 activity plays an important role in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated two transgenic mouse models of elevated CDK2 kinase activity, K5Cdk2 and K5Cdk4(D158N) mice. The D158N mutation blocks CDK4 kinase activity without interfering with its binding capability. CDK2 activation via overexpression of CDK4(D158N), but not of CDK2, resulted in epidermal hyperplasia. We observed elevated levels of p21(Cip1) in K5Cdk2, but not in K5Cdk4(D158N), epidermis, suggesting that CDK2 overexpression elicits a p21(Cip1) response to maintain keratinocyte homeostasis. Surprisingly, we found that neither CDK2 overexpression nor the indirect activation of CDK2 enhanced skin tumor development. Thus, although the indirect activation of CDK2 is sufficient to induce keratinocyte hyperproliferation, activation of CDK2 alone does not induce malignant progression in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis.

  8. CDK2 Activation in Mouse Epidermis Induces Keratinocyte Proliferation but Does Not Affect Skin Tumor Development

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Everardo; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; De Siervi, Adriana; Conti, Claudio J.; Senderowicz, Adrian M.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2008-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that elevated CDK2 kinase activity plays a contributory role in tumorigenesis. We have previously shown that mice overexpressing CDK4 under control of the keratin 5 promoter (K5CDK4 mice) develop epidermal hyperplasia and increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinomas. In this model, CDK4 overexpression results in increased CDK2 activity associated with the noncatalytic function of CDK4, sequestration of p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. Furthermore, we have shown that ablation of Cdk2 reduces Ras-Cdk4 tumorigenesis, suggesting that increased CDK2 activity plays an important role in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated two transgenic mouse models of elevated CDK2 kinase activity, K5Cdk2 and K5Cdk4D158N mice. The D158N mutation blocks CDK4 kinase activity without interfering with its binding capability. CDK2 activation via overexpression of CDK4D158N, but not of CDK2, resulted in epidermal hyperplasia. We observed elevated levels of p21Cip1 in K5Cdk2, but not in K5Cdk4D158N, epidermis, suggesting that CDK2 overexpression elicits a p21Cip1 response to maintain keratinocyte homeostasis. Surprisingly, we found that neither CDK2 overexpression nor the indirect activation of CDK2 enhanced skin tumor development. Thus, although the indirect activation of CDK2 is sufficient to induce keratinocyte hyperproliferation, activation of CDK2 alone does not induce malignant progression in Ras-mediated tumorigenesis. PMID:18599613

  9. Cyclin D1-CDK4 Controls Glucose Metabolism Independently of Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonjin; Dominy, John E.; Choi, Yoon Jong; Jurczak, Michael; Tolliday, Nicola; Camporez, Joao Paulo; Chim, Helen; Lim, Ji-Hong; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Yang, Xiaoyong; Vazquez, Francisca; Sicinski, Piotr; Shulman, Gerald I.; Puigserver, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Insulin constitutes a major evolutionarily conserved hormonal axis for maintaining glucose homeostasis1-3; dysregulation of this axis causes diabetes2,4. PGC-1α links insulin signaling to the expression of glucose and lipid metabolic genes5-7. GCN5 acetylates PGC-1α and suppresses its transcriptional activity, whereas SIRT1 deacetylates and activates PGC-1α8,9. Although insulin is a mitogenic signal in proliferative cells10,11, whether components of the cell cycle machinery contribute to insulin’s metabolic action is poorly understood. Herein, we report that insulin activates cyclin D1-CDK4, which, in turn, increases GCN5 acetyltransferase activity and suppresses hepatic glucose production independently of cell cycle progression. Through a cell-based high throughput chemical screen, we identified a CDK4 inhibitor that potently decreases PGC-1α acetylation. Insulin/GSK3β signaling induces cyclin D1 protein stability via sequestering cyclin D1 in the nucleus. In parallel, dietary amino acids increase hepatic cyclin D1 mRNA transcripts. Activated cyclin D1-CDK4 kinase phosphorylates and activates GCN5, which then acetylates and inhibits PGC-1α activity on gluconeogenic genes. Loss of hepatic cyclin D1 results in increased gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. In diabetic models, cyclin D1-CDK4 is chronically elevated and refractory to fasting/feeding transitions; nevertheless further activation of this kinase normalizes glycemia. Our findings show that insulin uses components of the cell cycle machinery in post-mitotic cells to control glucose homeostasis independently of cell division. PMID:24870244

  10. Cdk1-dependent control of membrane-trafficking dynamics

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, Derek; Royou, Anne; Velours, Christophe; Kellogg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required for initiation and maintenance of polarized cell growth in budding yeast. Cdk1 activates Rho-family GTPases, which polarize the actin cytoskeleton for delivery of membrane to growth sites via the secretory pathway. Here we investigate whether Cdk1 plays additional roles in the initiation and maintenance of polarized cell growth. We find that inhibition of Cdk1 causes a cell surface growth defect that is as severe as that caused by actin depolymerization. However, unlike actin depolymerization, Cdk1 inhibition does not result in a massive accumulation of intracellular secretory vesicles or their cargoes. Analysis of post-Golgi vesicle dynamics after Cdk1 inhibition demonstrates that exocytic vesicles are rapidly mistargeted away from the growing bud, possibly to the endomembrane/vacuolar system. Inhibition of Cdk1 also causes defects in the organization of endocytic and exocytic zones at the site of growth. Cdk1 thus modulates membrane-trafficking dynamics, which is likely to play an important role in coordinating cell surface growth with cell cycle progression. PMID:22767578

  11. Elevated expression of CDK4 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in lung cancer and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. Furthermore, the involvement of CDK4-mediated cell cycle progression and its molecular basis were investigated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. Methods Using immunohistochemistry analysis, we analyzed CDK4 protein expression in 89 clinicopathologically characterized lung cancer patients (59 males and 30 females) with ages ranging from 36 to 78 years and compared them to 23 normal lung tissues. Cases with cytoplasmic and nuclear CDK4 immunostaining score values greater than or equal to 7 were regarded as high expression while scores less than 7 were considered low expression. The correlation between the expression level of CDK4 and clinical features was analyzed. Furthermore, we used lentiviral-mediated shRNA to suppress the expression of CDK4 and investigate its function and molecular mechanism for mediating cell cycle progression. Results The expression level of CDK4 protein was significantly increased in lung cancer tissues compared to normal tissues (P < 0.001). In addition, high levels of CDK4 protein were positively correlated with the status of pathology classification (P = 0.047), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007), and clinical stage (P = 0.004) of lung cancer patients. Patients with higher CDK4 expression had a markedly shorter overall survival time than patients with low CDK4 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested the level of CDK4 expression was an independent prognostic indicator (P < 0.001) for the survival of patients with lung cancer. Use of lentiviral-mediated shRNA to inhibit the expression of CDK4 in lung cancer cell line A549 not only inhibited cell cycle progression, but also dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration. Furthermore, suppressing CDK4 expression also significantly elevated the expression of cell cycle regulator p21

  12. The role of Cdk5 in neuroendocrine thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karine; Castro-Rivera, Emely; Tan, Chunfeng; Plattner, Florian; Schwach, Gert; Siegl, Veronika; Meyer, Douglas; Guo, Ailan; Gundara, Justin; Mettlach, Gabriel; Richer, Edmond; Guevara, Jonathan A; Ning, Li; Gupta, Anjali; Hao, Guiyang; Tsai, Li-Huei; Sun, Xiankai; Antich, Pietro; Sidhu, Stanley; Robinson, Bruce G; Chen, Herbert; Nwariaku, Fiemu E; Pfragner, Roswitha; Richardson, James A; Bibb, James A

    2013-10-14

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer that originates from calcitonin-secreting parafollicular cells, or C cells. We found that Cdk5 and its cofactors p35 and p25 are highly expressed in human MTC and that Cdk5 activity promotes MTC proliferation. A conditional MTC mouse model was generated and corroborated the role of aberrant Cdk5 activation in MTC. C cell-specific overexpression of p25 caused rapid C cell hyperplasia leading to lethal MTC, which was arrested by repressing p25 overexpression. A comparative phosphoproteomic screen between proliferating and arrested MTC identified the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) as a crucial Cdk5 downstream target. Prevention of Rb phosphorylation at Ser807/Ser811 attenuated MTC proliferation. These findings implicate Cdk5 signaling via Rb as critical to MTC tumorigenesis and progression. PMID:24135281

  13. The role of Cdk5 in neuroendocrine thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karine; Castro-Rivera, Emely; Tan, Chunfeng; Plattner, Florian; Schwach, Gert; Siegl, Veronika; Meyer, Douglas; Guo, Ailan; Gundara, Justin; Mettlach, Gabriel; Richer, Edmond; Guevara, Jonathan A; Ning, Li; Gupta, Anjali; Hao, Guiyang; Tsai, Li-Huei; Sun, Xiankai; Antich, Pietro; Sidhu, Stanley; Robinson, Bruce G; Chen, Herbert; Nwariaku, Fiemu E; Pfragner, Roswitha; Richardson, James A; Bibb, James A

    2013-10-14

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine cancer that originates from calcitonin-secreting parafollicular cells, or C cells. We found that Cdk5 and its cofactors p35 and p25 are highly expressed in human MTC and that Cdk5 activity promotes MTC proliferation. A conditional MTC mouse model was generated and corroborated the role of aberrant Cdk5 activation in MTC. C cell-specific overexpression of p25 caused rapid C cell hyperplasia leading to lethal MTC, which was arrested by repressing p25 overexpression. A comparative phosphoproteomic screen between proliferating and arrested MTC identified the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) as a crucial Cdk5 downstream target. Prevention of Rb phosphorylation at Ser807/Ser811 attenuated MTC proliferation. These findings implicate Cdk5 signaling via Rb as critical to MTC tumorigenesis and progression.

  14. Foxo3 circular RNA retards cell cycle progression via forming ternary complexes with p21 and CDK2

    PubMed Central

    Du, William W.; Yang, Weining; Liu, Elizabeth; Yang, Zhenguo; Dhaliwal, Preet; Yang, Burton B.

    2016-01-01

    Most RNAs generated by the human genome have no protein-coding ability and are termed non-coding RNAs. Among these include circular RNAs, which include exonic circular RNAs (circRNA), mainly found in the cytoplasm, and intronic RNAs (ciRNA), predominantly detected in the nucleus. The biological functions of circular RNAs remain largely unknown, although ciRNAs have been reported to promote gene transcription, while circRNAs may function as microRNA sponges. We demonstrate that the circular RNA circ-Foxo3 was highly expressed in non-cancer cells and were associated with cell cycle progression. Silencing endogenous circ-Foxo3 promoted cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of circ-Foxo3 repressed cell cycle progression by binding to the cell cycle proteins cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (also known as cell division protein kinase 2 or CDK2) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (or p21), resulting in the formation of a ternary complex. Normally, CDK2 interacts with cyclin A and cyclin E to facilitate cell cycle entry, while p21works to inhibit these interactions and arrest cell cycle progression. The formation of this circ-Foxo3-p21-CDK2 ternary complex arrested the function of CDK2 and blocked cell cycle progression. PMID:26861625

  15. Drug Synergy Screen and Network Modeling in Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Identifies CDK4 and IGF1R as Synergistic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Martin L.; Molinelli, Evan J.; Nair, Jayasree S.; Sheikh, Tahir; Samy, Rita; Jing, Xiaohong; He, Qin; Korkut, Anil; Crago, Aimee M.; Singer, Samuel; Schwartz, Gary K.; Sander, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) is a rare but aggressive cancer with high recurrence and low response rates to targeted therapies. Increasing treatment efficacy may require combinations of targeted agents that counteract the effects of multiple abnormalities. To identify a possible multicomponent therapy, we performed a combinatorial drug screen in a DDLS-derived cell line and identified cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as synergistic drug targets. We measured the phosphorylation of multiple proteins and cell viability in response to systematic drug combinations and derived computational models of the signaling network. These models predict that the observed synergy in reducing cell viability with CDK4 and IGF1R inhibitors depend on activity of the AKT pathway. Experiments confirmed that combined inhibition of CDK4 and IGF1R cooperatively suppresses the activation of proteins within the AKT pathway. Consistent with these findings, synergistic reductions in cell viability were also found when combining CDK4 inhibition with inhibition of either AKT or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), another receptor similar to IGF1R that activates AKT. Thus, network models derived from context-specific proteomic measurements of systematically perturbed cancer cells may reveal cancer-specific signaling mechanisms and aid in the design of effective combination therapies. PMID:24065146

  16. Discovery of 4,6-disubstituted pyrimidines as potent inhibitors of the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) stress pathway and CDK9† †The authors declare the following competing financial interest(s): C. Rye, N. Chessum, L. Zani, M. Cheeseman, F. Raynaud, A. Hayes, A. Henley, E. de Billy, C. Lynch, S. Sharp, R. te Poele, L. O'Fee, P. Workman, and K. Jones are or have been employees of The Institute of Cancer Research which has a commercial interest in the development of HSF1 inhibitors. Authors who are or have been employed by The Institute of Cancer Research are subject to a “Rewards to Discoverers Scheme” which may reward contributors to a program that is subsequently licensed. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and assay procedures, crystallographic data, compound characterisation data. See DOI: 10.1039/c6md00159a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rye, Carl S.; Chessum, Nicola E. A.; Lamont, Scott; Pike, Kurt G.; Faulder, Paul; Demeritt, Julie; Kemmitt, Paul; Tucker, Julie; Zani, Lorenzo; Cheeseman, Matthew D.; Isaac, Rosie; Goodwin, Louise; Boros, Joanna; Raynaud, Florence; Hayes, Angela; Henley, Alan T.; de Billy, Emmanuel; Lynch, Christopher J.; Sharp, Swee Y.; te Poele, Robert; Fee, Lisa O’; Foote, Kevin M.; Green, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that plays key roles in cancer, including providing a mechanism for cell survival under proteotoxic stress. Therefore, inhibition of the HSF1-stress pathway represents an exciting new opportunity in cancer treatment. We employed an unbiased phenotypic screen to discover inhibitors of the HSF1-stress pathway. Using this approach we identified an initial hit (1) based on a 4,6-pyrimidine scaffold (2.00 μM). Optimisation of cellular SAR led to an inhibitor with improved potency (25, 15 nM) in the HSF1 phenotypic assay. The 4,6-pyrimidine 25 was also shown to have high potency against the CDK9 enzyme (3 nM). PMID:27746890

  17. Knockdown of Expression of Cdk5 or p35 (a Cdk5 Activator) Results in Podocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Zhang, Xia; Fu, Hai-Xia; Guo, Mei; Shukla, Varsha; Amin, Niranjana D.; E, Jing; Bao, Li; Luo, Hong-Yan; Li, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Gao, Yong-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Podocytes are terminally differentiated glomerular epithelial cells. Podocyte loss has been found in many renal diseases. Cdk5 is a cyclin-dependent protein kinase which is predominantly regulated by p35. To study the role of Cdk5/p35 in podocyte survival, we first applied western blotting (WB) analysis to confirm the time-course expression of Cdk5 and p35 during kidney development and in cultured immortalized mouse podocytes. We also demonstrated that p35 plays an important role in promoting podocyte differentiation by overexpression of p35 in podocytes. To deregulate the expression of Cdk5 or p35 in mouse podocytes, we used RNAi and analyzed cell function and apoptosis assaying for podocyte specific marker Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) and cleaved caspase 3, respectively. We also counted viable cells using cell counting kit-8. We found that depletion of Cdk5 causes decreased expression of WT1 and apoptosis. It is noteworthy, however, that downregulation of p35 reduced Cdk5 activity, but had no effect on cleaved caspase 3 expression. It did, however, reduce expression of WT1, a transcription factor, and produced podocyte dysmorphism. On the other hand increased apoptosis could be detected in p35-deregulated podocytes using the TUNEL analysis and immunofluorescent staining with cleaved caspase3 antibody. Viability of podocytes was decreased in both Cdk5 and p35 knockdown cells. Knocking down Cdk5 or p35 gene by RNAi does not affect the cycline I expression, another Cdk5 activator in podocyes. We conclude that Cdk5 and p35 play a crucial role in maintaining podocyte differentiation and survival, and suggest these proteins as targets for therapeutic intervention in podocyte-damaged kidney diseases. PMID:27479491

  18. CDK4 is an essential insulin effector in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lagarrigue, Sylviane; Lopez-Mejia, Isabel C.; Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Escoté, Xavier; Castillo-Armengol, Judit; Jimenez, Veronica; Chavey, Carine; Giralt, Albert; Lai, Qiuwen; Zhang, Lianjun; Martinez-Carreres, Laia; Delacuisine, Brigitte; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Blanchet, Emilie; Huré, Sébastien; Abella, Anna; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Vendrell, Joan; Dubus, Pierre; Bosch, Fatima; Kahn, C. Ronald; Fajas, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a fundamental pathogenic factor that characterizes various metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue contributes to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance through increased release of fatty acids, altered adipokine secretion, and/or macrophage infiltration and cytokine release. Here, we aimed to analyze the participation of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) in adipose tissue biology. We determined that white adipose tissue (WAT) from CDK4-deficient mice exhibits impaired lipogenesis and increased lipolysis. Conversely, lipolysis was decreased and lipogenesis was increased in mice expressing a mutant hyperactive form of CDK4 (CDK4R24C). A global kinome analysis of CDK4-deficient mice following insulin stimulation revealed that insulin signaling is impaired in these animals. We determined that insulin activates the CCND3-CDK4 complex, which in turn phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) at serine 388, thereby creating a positive feedback loop that maintains adipocyte insulin signaling. Furthermore, we found that CCND3 expression and IRS2 serine 388 phosphorylation are increased in human obese subjects. Together, our results demonstrate that CDK4 is a major regulator of insulin signaling in WAT. PMID:26657864

  19. Rarity of CDK4 germline mutations in familial melanoma.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, A M; Chidambaram, A; Halpern, A; Holly, E A; Guerry IV, D; Sagebiel, R; Elder, D E; Tucker, M A

    2002-02-01

    To date, two genes have been implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. The first, CDKN2A, is a tumour suppressor gene with germline mutations detected in 20% of melanoma-prone families. The second, CDK4, is an oncogene with co-segregating germline mutations detected in only three kindreds worldwide. We examined 16 American melanoma-prone families for mutations in all coding exons of CDK4 and screened additional members of two previously reported families with the Arg24Cys germline CDK4 mutation to evaluate the penetrance of the mutation. No new CDK4 mutations were identified. In the two Arg24Cys families, the penetrance was estimated to be 63%. Overall, 12 out of 12 invasive melanoma patients, none out of one in situ melanoma patient, five out of 13 dysplastic naevi patients, two out of 15 unaffected family members, and none out of 10 spouses carried the Arg24Cys mutation. Dysplastic naevi did not strongly co-segregate with the Arg24Cys mutation. Thus the phenotype observed in melanoma-prone CDK4 families appears to be more complex than just the CDK4 mutation. Both genetic and environmental factors are likely to contribute to the occurrence of melanoma and dysplastic naevi in these families. In summary, although CDK4 is a melanoma susceptibility gene, it plays a minor role in hereditary melanoma.

  20. Cdk5: multitasking between physiological and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joao P; Agostinho, Paula

    2011-06-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a peculiar proline-directed serine/threonine kinase. Unlike the other members of the Cdk family, Cdk5 is not directly involved in cell cycle regulation, being normally associated with neuronal processes such as migration, cortical layering and synaptic plasticity. This kinase is present mainly in post-mitotic neurons and its activity is tightly regulated by the interaction with the specific activators, p35 and p39. Despite its pivotal role in CNS development, Cdk5 dysregulation has been implicated in different pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD) and, most recently, prion-related encephalopathies (PRE). In these neurodegenerative conditions, Cdk5 overactivation and relocalization occurs upon association with p25, a truncated form of the normal activator p35. This activator switching will cause a shift in the phosphorylative pattern of Cdk5, with an alteration both in targets and activity, ultimately leading to neuronal demise. In AD and PRE, two disorders that share clinical and neuropathological features, Cdk5 dysregulation is a linking event between the major neuropathological markers: amyloid plaques, tau hyperphosphorylation and synaptic and neuronal loss. Moreover, this kinase was shown to be involved in abortive cell cycle re-entry, a feature recently proposed as a possible step in the neuronal apoptosis mechanism of several neurological diseases. This review focuses on the role of Cdk5 in neurons, namely in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, synaptic function and cell survival, both in physiological and in pathological conditions, highlighting the relevance of Cdk5 in the main mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and other brain pathologies.

  1. Regulation of protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chan; Nishi, Akinori; Kansy, Janice W; Fernandez, Joseph; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Gillardon, Frank; Hemmings, Hugh C; Nairn, Angus C; Bibb, James A

    2007-06-01

    Inhibitor-1, the first identified endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1), was previously reported to be a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) at Ser67. Further investigation has revealed the presence of an additional Cdk5 site identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis as Ser6. Basal levels of phospho-Ser6 inhibitor-1, as detected by a phosphorylation state-specific antibody against the site, existed in specific regions of the brain and varied with age. In the striatum, basal in vivo phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Ser6 were mediated by Cdk5, PP-2A, and PP-1, respectively. Additionally, calcineurin contributed to dephosphorylation under conditions of high Ca2+. In biochemical assays the function of Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of inhibitor-1 at Ser6 and Ser67 was demonstrated to be an intramolecular impairment of the ability of inhibitor-1 to be dephosphorylated at Thr35; this effect was recapitulated in two systems in vivo. Dephosphorylation of inhibitor-1 at Thr35 is equivalent to inactivation of the protein, as inhibitor-1 only serves as an inhibitor of PP-1 when phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA) at Thr35. Thus, inhibitor-1 serves as a critical junction between kinase- and phosphatase-signaling pathways, linking PP-1 to not only PKA and calcineurin but also Cdk5.

  2. Cdk5 and the mystery of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chan; Bibb, James A

    2003-11-24

    Regulation of endocytosis by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is critical to synaptic vesicle recycling. Two groups have now identified the neuronal kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) as an important regulator of this process. Robinson and coworkers recently demonstrated that Cdk5 is necessary for synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) (Tan et al., 2003), whereas a new report in this issue claims that Cdk5 negatively regulates SVE (Tomizawa et al., 2003). Careful examination of the data reveals a model that helps resolve the apparently contradictory nature of these reports.

  3. Kinetic mechanistic studies of Cdk5/p25-catalyzed H1P phosphorylation: metal effect and solvent kinetic isotope effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Girma, Eleni; Glicksman, Marcie A; Stein, Ross L

    2010-06-15

    Cdk5/p25 is a member of the cyclin-dependent, Ser/Thr kinase family and has been identified as one of the principle Alzheimer's disease-associated kinases that promote the formation of hyperphosphorylated tau, the major component of neurofibrillary tangles. We and others have been developing inhibitors of cdk5/p25 as possible therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In support of these efforts, we examine the metal effect and solvent kinetic isotope effect on cdk5/p25-catalyzed H1P (a histone H-1-derived peptide) phosphorylation. Here, we report that a second Mg(2+) in addition to the one forming the MgATP complex is required to bind to cdk5/p25 for its catalytic activity. It activates cdk5/p25 by demonstrating an increase in k(cat) and induces a conformational change that favors ATP binding but has no effect on the binding affinity for the H1P peptide substrate. The binding of the second Mg(2+) does not change the binding order of substrates. The reaction follows the same rapid equilibrium random mechanism in the presence or absence of the second Mg(2+) as evidenced by initial velocity analysis and substrate analogue and product inhibition studies. A linear proton inventory with a normal SKIE of 2.0 +/- 0.1 in the presence of the second Mg(2+) was revealed and suggested a single proton transfer in the rate-limiting phosphoryl transfer step. The pH profile revealed a residue with a pK(a) of 6.5 that is most likely the general acid-base catalyst facilitating the proton transfer.

  4. Pharmacological cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors: Implications for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Vyas, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer accounts for a significant proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. The need to develop more chemotherapeutic agents to combat this disease is critical. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), along with its binding partner cyclins, serve to control the growth of cells through the cell cycle. A new class of drugs, termed CDK inhibitors, has been studied in preclinical and now clinical trials. These inhibitors are believed to act as an anti-cancer drug by blocking CDKs to block the uncontrolled cellular proliferation that is hallmark of cancers like colorectal cancer. CDK article provides overview of the emerging drug class of CDK inhibitors and provides a list of ones that are currently in clinical trials. PMID:26900281

  5. Mutations in CDK5RAP2 cause Seckel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Gökhan; Brown, Karen E; Kayserili, Hülya; Pohl, Esther; Caliebe, Almuth; Zahnleiter, Diana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Bögershausen, Nina; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Altunoglu, Umut; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Rauch, Anita; Li, Yun; Thiel, Christian Thomas; Wollnik, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Seckel syndrome is a heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder marked by prenatal proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. Here, we describe the novel homozygous splice-site mutations c.383+1G>C and c.4005-9A>G in CDK5RAP2 in two consanguineous families with Seckel syndrome. CDK5RAP2 (CEP215) encodes a centrosomal protein which is known to be essential for centrosomal cohesion and proper spindle formation and has been shown to be causally involved in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. We establish CDK5RAP2 as a disease-causing gene for Seckel syndrome and show that loss of functional CDK5RAP2 leads to severe defects in mitosis and spindle organization, resulting in cells with abnormal nuclei and centrosomal pattern, which underlines the important role of centrosomal and mitotic proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, we present an intriguing case of possible digenic inheritance in Seckel syndrome: A severely affected child of nonconsanguineous German parents was found to carry heterozygous mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. This finding points toward a potential additive genetic effect of mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. PMID:26436113

  6. Mutations in CDK5RAP2 cause Seckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Gökhan; Brown, Karen E; Kayserili, Hülya; Pohl, Esther; Caliebe, Almuth; Zahnleiter, Diana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Bögershausen, Nina; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Altunoglu, Umut; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Rauch, Anita; Li, Yun; Thiel, Christian Thomas; Wollnik, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Seckel syndrome is a heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder marked by prenatal proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. Here, we describe the novel homozygous splice-site mutations c.383+1G>C and c.4005-9A>G in CDK5RAP2 in two consanguineous families with Seckel syndrome. CDK5RAP2 (CEP215) encodes a centrosomal protein which is known to be essential for centrosomal cohesion and proper spindle formation and has been shown to be causally involved in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. We establish CDK5RAP2 as a disease-causing gene for Seckel syndrome and show that loss of functional CDK5RAP2 leads to severe defects in mitosis and spindle organization, resulting in cells with abnormal nuclei and centrosomal pattern, which underlines the important role of centrosomal and mitotic proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, we present an intriguing case of possible digenic inheritance in Seckel syndrome: A severely affected child of nonconsanguineous German parents was found to carry heterozygous mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. This finding points toward a potential additive genetic effect of mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152.

  7. Mutations in CDK5RAP2 cause Seckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Gökhan; Brown, Karen E; Kayserili, Hülya; Pohl, Esther; Caliebe, Almuth; Zahnleiter, Diana; Rosser, Elisabeth; Bögershausen, Nina; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Altunoglu, Umut; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Rauch, Anita; Li, Yun; Thiel, Christian Thomas; Wollnik, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Seckel syndrome is a heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder marked by prenatal proportionate short stature, severe microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. Here, we describe the novel homozygous splice-site mutations c.383+1G>C and c.4005-9A>G in CDK5RAP2 in two consanguineous families with Seckel syndrome. CDK5RAP2 (CEP215) encodes a centrosomal protein which is known to be essential for centrosomal cohesion and proper spindle formation and has been shown to be causally involved in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. We establish CDK5RAP2 as a disease-causing gene for Seckel syndrome and show that loss of functional CDK5RAP2 leads to severe defects in mitosis and spindle organization, resulting in cells with abnormal nuclei and centrosomal pattern, which underlines the important role of centrosomal and mitotic proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, we present an intriguing case of possible digenic inheritance in Seckel syndrome: A severely affected child of nonconsanguineous German parents was found to carry heterozygous mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. This finding points toward a potential additive genetic effect of mutations in CDK5RAP2 and CEP152. PMID:26436113

  8. Progranulin Deficiency Reduces CDK4/6/pRb Activation and Survival of Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    de la Encarnación, Ana; Alquézar, Carolina; Esteras, Noemí; Martín-Requero, Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    Null mutations in GRN are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP). However, the influence of progranulin (PGRN) deficiency in neurodegeneration is largely unknown. In neuroblastoma cells, silencing of GRN gene causes significantly reduced cell survival after serum withdrawal. The following observations suggest that alterations of the CDK4/6/retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway, secondary to changes in PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation induced by PGRN deficiency, are involved in the control of serum deprivation-induced apoptosis: (i) inhibiting CDK4/6 levels or their associated kinase activity by sodium butyrate or PD332991 sensitized control SH-SY5Y cells to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis without affecting survival of PGRN-deficient cells; (ii) CDK4/6/pRb seems to be downstream of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways since their specific inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, were able to decrease CDK6-associated kinase activity and induce death of control SH-SY5Y cells; (iii) PGRN-deficient cells show reduced stimulation of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, and CDK4/6 activities compared with control cells in the absence of serum; and (iv) supplementation of recombinant human PGRN was able to rescue survival of PGRN-deficient cells. These observations highlight the important role of PGRN-mediated stimulation of the PI3K/Akt-ERK1/2/CDK4/6/pRb pathway in determining the cell fate survival/death under serum deprivation.

  9. Cyclic AMP-induced G1 phase arrest mediated by an inhibitor (p27Kip1) of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 activation.

    PubMed

    Kato, J Y; Matsuoka, M; Polyak, K; Massagué, J; Sherr, C J

    1994-11-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) blocks the mitogenic effects of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) in macrophages, inducing cell cycle arrest in mid-G1 phase. Complexes between cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) assemble in growth arrested cells, but cdk4 is not phosphorylated in vivo by the cdk-activating kinase (CAK) and remains inactive. Although undetectable in lysates of cAMP-treated cells, active CAK is recovered after antibody precipitation, indicating that it is not the direct target of inhibition. Levels of the cdk inhibitor p27Klp1 increase in cAMP-treated cells, and its immunodepletion from inhibitory lysates restores CAK-mediated cdk4 activation. Kip1 does not bind to CAK, but its association with cyclin D-cdk4 prevents CAK from phosphorylating and activating the holoenzyme. PMID:7954814

  10. CK1δ activity is modulated by CDK2/E- and CDK5/p35-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ianes, Chiara; Xu, Pengfei; Werz, Natalie; Meng, Zhigang; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Bischof, Joachim; Knippschild, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    CK1 protein kinases form a family of serine/threonine kinases which are highly conserved through different species and ubiquitously expressed. CK1 family members can phosphorylate numerous substrates thereby regulating different biological processes including membrane trafficking, cell cycle regulation, circadian rhythm, apoptosis, and signal transduction. Deregulation of CK1 activity and/or expression contributes to the development of neurological diseases and cancer. Therefore, CK1 became an interesting target for drug development and it is relevant to further understand the mechanisms of its regulation. In the present study, Cyclin-dependent kinase 2/Cyclin E (CDK2/E) and Cyclin-dependent kinase 5/p35 (CDK5/p35) were identified as cellular kinases able to modulate CK1δ activity through site-specific phosphorylation of its C-terminal domain. Furthermore, pre-incubation of CK1δ with CDK2/E or CDK5/p35 reduces CK1δ activity in vitro, indicating a functional impact of the interaction between CK1δ and CDK/cyclin complexes. Interestingly, inhibition of Cyclin-dependent kinases by Dinaciclib increases CK1δ activity in pancreatic cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that CK1δ activity can be modulated by the interplay between CK1δ and CDK2/E or CDK5/p35. These findings extend our knowledge about CK1δ regulation and may be of use for future development of CK1-related therapeutic strategies in the treatment of neurological diseases or cancer. PMID:26464264

  11. Dissection of Cdk1–cyclin complexes in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ear, Po Hien; Booth, Michael J.; Abd-Rabbo, Diala; Kowarzyk Moreno, Jacqueline; Hall, Conrad; Chen, Daici; Vogel, Jackie; Michnick, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are regulatory enzymes with temporal and spatial selectivity for their protein substrates that are governed by cell cycle-regulated cyclin subunits. Specific cyclin–Cdk complexes bind to and phosphorylate target proteins, coupling their activity to cell cycle states. The identification of specific cyclin–Cdk substrates is challenging and so far, has largely been achieved through indirect correlation or use of in vitro techniques. Here, we use a protein-fragment complementation assay based on the optimized yeast cytosine deaminase to systematically identify candidate substrates of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdk1 and show dependency on one or more regulatory cyclins. We identified known and candidate cyclin dependencies for many predicted protein kinase Cdk1 targets and showed elusory Clb3–Cdk1-specific phosphorylation of γ-tubulin, thus establishing the timing of this event in controlling assembly of the mitotic spindle. Our strategy can be generally applied to identify substrates and accessory subunits of multisubunit protein complexes. PMID:24019491

  12. Staurosporine resistance accompanies DNA tumor virus-induced immortalization and is independent of the expression and activities of ERK1, ERK2, cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2, and cdk4.

    PubMed

    Chang, T; Khalsa, O; Wang, H; Lee, M E; Schlegel, R

    1996-03-01

    Staurosporine, a potent protein kinase inhibitor, has been shown to arrest the growth of a number of normal cell types in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, while having little effect on several transformed lines. We wished to determine whether increased resistance to staurosporine was a common feature of virus-immortalized human cells and whether this phenotype was an early event following the expression of SV40 tumor antigens. Human foreskin keratinocytes immortalized by the SV40 DNA tumor virus displayed an increased resistance to staurosporine-induced growth arrest when compared with normal parental cells, as has been seen in human diploid fibroblasts. Keratinocytes immortalized by human papillomaviruses, or by just the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes were also staurosporine resistant, suggesting that this phenotype often accompanies the immortalization of human cells by DNA tumor viruses. Acquisition of staurosporine resistance was a late event during immortalization, because precrisis human diploid fibroblasts that expressed the SV40 large T and small t antigens were not resistant to staurosporine. The same parental cells that were fully immortalized by SV40 were resistant. Staurosporine resistance was not the result of increased activities and/or expression of cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2, cdk4, or the mitogen-activated kinases ERK1 and ERK2. Although increased activities and/or expression of cyclin A and cdk2 and cdk4 proteins, but not ERK1 or ERK2, were associated with immortalization, similar increases were found in staurosporine-sensitive precrisis cells expressing SV40 tumor antigens.

  13. Novel Alternative Splice Variants of Mouse Cdk5rap2

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Nadine; Issa-Jahns, Lina; Neubert, Gerda; Ravindran, Ethiraj; Mani, Shyamala; Ninnemann, Olaf; Kaindl, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a pronounced reduction of brain volume and intellectual disability. A current model for the microcephaly phenotype invokes a stem cell proliferation and differentiation defect, which has moved the disease into the spotlight of stem cell biology and neurodevelopmental science. Homozygous mutations of the Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 gene CDK5RAP2 are one genetic cause of MCPH. To further characterize the pathomechanism underlying MCPH, we generated a conditional Cdk5rap2 LoxP/hCMV Cre mutant mouse. Further analysis, initiated on account of a lack of a microcephaly phenotype in these mutant mice, revealed the presence of previously unknown splice variants of the Cdk5rap2 gene that are at least in part accountable for the lack of microcephaly in the mice. PMID:26322982

  14. Novel Alternative Splice Variants of Mouse Cdk5rap2.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Nadine; Issa-Jahns, Lina; Neubert, Gerda; Ravindran, Ethiraj; Mani, Shyamala; Ninnemann, Olaf; Kaindl, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a pronounced reduction of brain volume and intellectual disability. A current model for the microcephaly phenotype invokes a stem cell proliferation and differentiation defect, which has moved the disease into the spotlight of stem cell biology and neurodevelopmental science. Homozygous mutations of the Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 gene CDK5RAP2 are one genetic cause of MCPH. To further characterize the pathomechanism underlying MCPH, we generated a conditional Cdk5rap2 LoxP/hCMV Cre mutant mouse. Further analysis, initiated on account of a lack of a microcephaly phenotype in these mutant mice, revealed the presence of previously unknown splice variants of the Cdk5rap2 gene that are at least in part accountable for the lack of microcephaly in the mice. PMID:26322982

  15. Heterochromatin remodeling by CDK12 contributes to learning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lixia; Xie, Wenbing; Li, Kai-Le; Yang, Zhihao; Xu, Jiang; Zhang, Wenhao; Liu, Lu-Ping; Ren, Xingjie; He, Zhimin; Wu, Junyu; Sun, Jin; Wei, Hui-Min; Wang, Daliang; Xie, Wei; Li, Wei; Ni, Jian-Quan; Sun, Fang-Lin

    2015-11-10

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure is required to modulate the transcription of genes in eukaryotes. However, the factors that contribute to the plasticity of heterochromatin structure are elusive. Here, we report that cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12), a transcription elongation-associated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) kinase, antagonizes heterochromatin enrichment in Drosophila chromosomes. Notably, loss of CDK12 induces the ectopic accumulation of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) on euchromatic arms, with a prominent enrichment on the X chromosome. Furthermore, ChIP and sequencing analysis reveals that the heterochromatin enrichment on the X chromosome mainly occurs within long genes involved in neuronal functions. Consequently, heterochromatin enrichment reduces the transcription of neuronal genes in the adult brain and results in a defect in Drosophila courtship learning. Taken together, these results define a previously unidentified role of CDK12 in controlling the epigenetic transition between euchromatin and heterochromatin and suggest a chromatin regulatory mechanism in neuronal behaviors. PMID:26508632

  16. Heterochromatin remodeling by CDK12 contributes to learning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lixia; Xie, Wenbing; Li, Kai-Le; Yang, Zhihao; Xu, Jiang; Zhang, Wenhao; Liu, Lu-Ping; Ren, Xingjie; He, Zhimin; Wu, Junyu; Sun, Jin; Wei, Hui-Min; Wang, Daliang; Xie, Wei; Li, Wei; Ni, Jian-Quan; Sun, Fang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure is required to modulate the transcription of genes in eukaryotes. However, the factors that contribute to the plasticity of heterochromatin structure are elusive. Here, we report that cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12), a transcription elongation-associated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) kinase, antagonizes heterochromatin enrichment in Drosophila chromosomes. Notably, loss of CDK12 induces the ectopic accumulation of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) on euchromatic arms, with a prominent enrichment on the X chromosome. Furthermore, ChIP and sequencing analysis reveals that the heterochromatin enrichment on the X chromosome mainly occurs within long genes involved in neuronal functions. Consequently, heterochromatin enrichment reduces the transcription of neuronal genes in the adult brain and results in a defect in Drosophila courtship learning. Taken together, these results define a previously unidentified role of CDK12 in controlling the epigenetic transition between euchromatin and heterochromatin and suggest a chromatin regulatory mechanism in neuronal behaviors. PMID:26508632

  17. Phosphorylation of AIB1 at Mitosis Is Regulated by CDK1/CYCLIN B

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Macarena; Ferragud, Juan; Orlando, Leonardo; Valero, Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel; Farràs, Rosa; Font de Mora, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the AIB1 oncogene has an important role during the early phase of the cell cycle as a coactivator of E2F1, little is known about its function during mitosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitotic cells isolated by nocodazole treatment as well as by shake-off revealed a post-translational modification occurring in AIB1 specifically during mitosis. This modification was sensitive to the treatment with phosphatase, suggesting its modification by phosphorylation. Using specific inhibitors and in vitro kinase assays we demonstrate that AIB1 is phosphorylated on Ser728 and Ser867 by Cdk1/cyclin B at the onset of mitosis and remains phosphorylated until exit from M phase. Differences in the sensitivity to phosphatase inhibitors suggest that PP1 mediates dephosphorylation of AIB1 at the end of mitosis. The phosphorylation of AIB1 during mitosis was not associated with ubiquitylation or degradation, as confirmed by western blotting and flow cytometry analysis. In addition, luciferase reporter assays showed that this phosphorylation did not alter the transcriptional properties of AIB1. Importantly, fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation showed that AIB1 phosphorylation correlated with the exclusion from the condensed chromatin, thus preventing access to the promoters of AIB1-dependent genes. Phospho-specific antibodies developed against Ser728 further demonstrated the presence of phosphorylated AIB1 only in mitotic cells where it was localized preferentially in the periphery of the cell. Conclusions Collectively, our results describe a new mechanism for the regulation of AIB1 during mitosis, whereby phosphorylation of AIB1 by Cdk1 correlates with the subcellular redistribution of AIB1 from a chromatin-associated state in interphase to a more peripheral localization during mitosis. At the exit of mitosis, AIB1 is dephosphorylated, presumably by PP1. This exclusion from chromatin during mitosis may represent a mechanism for governing the

  18. Cdk2 catalytic activity is essential for meiotic cell division in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sangeeta; Diril, M Kasim; Lee, Joanna H S; Bisteau, Xavier; Manoharan, Vanessa; Adhikari, Deepak; Ratnacaram, Chandrahas Koumar; Janela, Baptiste; Noffke, Juliane; Ginhoux, Florent; Coppola, Vincenzo; Liu, Kui; Tessarollo, Lino; Kaldis, Philipp

    2016-09-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) control the eukaryotic cell cycle by phosphorylating serine and threonine residues in key regulatory proteins, but some Cdk family members may exert kinase-independent functions that cannot easily be assessed using gene knockout approaches. While Cdk2-deficient mice display near-normal mitotic cell proliferation due to the compensatory activities of Cdk1 and Cdk4, they are unable to undergo meiotic generation of gametes and are consequently sterile. To investigate whether Cdk2 regulates meiosis via protein phosphorylation or by alternative kinase-independent mechanisms, we generated two different knockin mouse strains in which Cdk2 point mutations ablated enzyme activity without altering protein expression levels. Mice homozygous for the mutations Cdk2(D145N/D145N) or Cdk2(T160A/T160A) expressed only 'kinase-dead' variants of Cdk2 under the control of the endogenous promoter, and despite exhibiting normal expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and complexes, both mutations rendered mice sterile. Mouse cells that expressed only 'kinase-dead' variants of Cdk2 displayed normal mitotic cell cycle progression and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that loss of Cdk2 kinase activity exerted little effect on this mode of cell division. In contrast, the reproductive organs of Cdk2 mutant mice exhibited abnormal morphology and impaired function associated with defective meiotic cell division and inability to produce gametes. Cdk2 mutant animals were therefore comparable to gene knockout mice, which completely lack the Cdk2 protein. Together, our data indicate that the essential meiotic functions of Cdk2 depend on its kinase activity, without which the generation of haploid cells is disrupted, resulting in sterility of otherwise healthy animals. PMID:27371320

  19. Protein-Protein Interaction for the De Novo Design of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Peptide Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Arumugasamy, Karthiga; Tripathi, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Poonam; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The homology of the inhibitor binding site regions on the surface of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) makes actual CDK inhibitors unable to bind specifically to their molecular targets. Most of them are ATP competitive inhibitors with low specificity that also affect the phosphorylation mechanisms of other nontarget kinases giving rise to harmful side effects. So, the search of specific and potent inhibitors able to bind to the desired CDK target is still a pending issue. Structure based drug design minimized the erroneous binding and increased the affinity of the inhibitor interaction. In the case of CDKs their activation and regulation mechanisms mainly depend on protein-protein interactions (PPIs). The design of drugs targeting these PPIs makes feasible and promising towards the discovery of new and specific CDK inhibitors. Development of peptide inhibitors for a target protein is an emerging approach in computer aided drug designing. This chapter describes in detail methodology for use of the VitAL-Viterbi algorithm for de novo peptide design of CDK2 inhibitors.

  20. Nuclear HuR accumulation through phosphorylation by Cdk1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Lal, Ashish; Pullmann, Rudolf; Yang, Xiaoling; Galban, Stefanie; Srikantan, Subramanya; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Blethrow, Justin; Shokat, Kevan M.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    A predominantly nuclear RNA-binding protein, HuR translocates to the cytoplasm in response to stress and proliferative signals, where it stabilizes or modulates the translation of target mRNAs. Here, we present evidence that HuR phosphorylation at S202 by the G2-phase kinase Cdk1 influences its subcellular distribution. HuR was specifically phosphorylated in synchronous G2-phase cultures; its cytoplasmic levels increased by Cdk1-inhibitory interventions and declined in response to Cdk1-activating interventions. In keeping with the prominently cytoplasmic location of the nonphosphorylatable point mutant HuR(S202A), phospho-HuR(S202) was shown to be predominantly nuclear using a novel anti-phospho-HuR(S202) antibody. The enhanced cytoplasmic presence of unphosphorylated HuR was linked to its decreased association with 14–3–3 and to its heightened binding to target mRNAs. Our findings suggest that Cdk1 phosphorylates HuR during G2, thereby helping to retain it in the nucleus in association with 14–3–3 and hindering its post-transcriptional function and anti-apoptotic influence. PMID:18593881

  1. Roscovitine is a proteostasis regulator that corrects the trafficking defect of F508del-CFTR by a CDK-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Norez, C; Vandebrouck, C; Bertrand, J; Noel, S; Durieu, E; Oumata, N; Galons, H; Antigny, F; Chatelier, A; Bois, P; Meijer, L; Becq, F

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF), F508del, causes defects in trafficking, channel gating and endocytosis of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Because CF is an orphan disease, therapeutic strategies aimed at improving mutant CFTR functions are needed to target the root cause of CF. Experimental Approach Human CF airway epithelial cells were treated with roscovitine 100 μM for 2 h before CFTR maturation, expression and activity were examined. The mechanism of action of roscovitine was explored by recording the effect of depleting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ on the F508del-CFTR/calnexin interaction and by measuring proteasome activity. Key Results Of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors investigated, roscovitine was found to restore the cell surface expression and defective channel function of F508del-CFTR in human CF airway epithelial cells. Neither olomoucine nor (S)-CR8, two very efficient CDK inhibitors, corrected F508del-CFTR trafficking demonstrating that the correcting effect of roscovitine was independent of CDK inhibition. Competition studies with inhibitors of the ER quality control (ERQC) indicated that roscovitine acts on the calnexin pathway and on the degradation machinery. Roscovitine was shown (i) to partially inhibit the interaction between F508del-CFTR and calnexin by depleting ER Ca2+ and (ii) to directly inhibit the proteasome activity in a Ca2+-independent manner. Conclusions and Implications Roscovitine is able to correct the defective function of F508del-CFTR by preventing the ability of the ERQC to interact with and degrade F508del-CFTR via two synergistic but CDK-independent mechanisms. Roscovitine has potential as a pharmacological therapy for CF. PMID:25065395

  2. Cell Cycle Control by a Minimal Cdk Network

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Claude; Tyson, John J.; Coudreuse, Damien; Novák, Béla

    2015-01-01

    In present-day eukaryotes, the cell division cycle is controlled by a complex network of interacting proteins, including members of the cyclin and cyclin-dependent protein kinase (Cdk) families, and the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC). Successful progression through the cell cycle depends on precise, temporally ordered regulation of the functions of these proteins. In light of this complexity, it is surprising that in fission yeast, a minimal Cdk network consisting of a single cyclin-Cdk fusion protein can control DNA synthesis and mitosis in a manner that is indistinguishable from wild type. To improve our understanding of the cell cycle regulatory network, we built and analysed a mathematical model of the molecular interactions controlling the G1/S and G2/M transitions in these minimal cells. The model accounts for all observed properties of yeast strains operating with the fusion protein. Importantly, coupling the model’s predictions with experimental analysis of alternative minimal cells, we uncover an explanation for the unexpected fact that elimination of inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk is benign in these strains while it strongly affects normal cells. Furthermore, in the strain without inhibitory phosphorylation of the fusion protein, the distribution of cell size at division is unusually broad, an observation that is accounted for by stochastic simulations of the model. Our approach provides novel insights into the organization and quantitative regulation of wild type cell cycle progression. In particular, it leads us to propose a new mechanistic model for the phenomenon of mitotic catastrophe, relying on a combination of unregulated, multi-cyclin-dependent Cdk activities. PMID:25658582

  3. AC1MMYR2 impairs high dose paclitaxel-induced tumor metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Wang, Qi-xue; Han, Lei; Song, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yan; Tian, Wei-ping; Zhang, Lun; Mei, Mei; Kang, Chun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used chemo-drug for many solid tumors, while continual taxol treatment is revealed to stimulate tumor dissemination. We previously found that a small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, had the potential to impair tumorigenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining AC1MMYR2 with taxol could be explored as a means to limit tumor metastasis. Here we showed that abnormal activation of miR-21/CDK5 axis was associated with breast cancer lymph node metastasis, which was also contribute to high dose taxol-induced invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and glioblastoma cell line U87VIII. AC1MMYR2 attenuated CDK5 activity by functional targeting CDK5RAP1, CDK5 activator p39 and target p-FAK(ser732). A series of in vitro assays indicated that treatment of AC1MMYR2 combined with taxol suppressed tumor migration and invasion ability in both MDA-MB-231 and U87VIII cell. More importantly, combination therapy impaired high-dose taxol induced invadopodia, and EMT markers including β-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin. Strikingly, a significant reduction of lung metastasis in mice was observed in the AC1MMYR2 plus taxol treatment. Taken together, our work demonstrated that AC1MMYR2 appeared to be a promising strategy in combating taxol induced cancer metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis, which highlighted the potential for development of therapeutic modalities for better clinic taxol application.

  4. CDK2 and mTOR are direct molecular targets of isoangustone A in the suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunjung; Son, Joe Eun; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Yeong A; Liu, Kangdong; Kim, Jiyoung; Lim, Soon Sung; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2013-10-01

    Licorice extract which is used as a natural sweetener has been shown to possess inhibitory effects against prostate cancer, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we report a compound, isoangustone A (IAA) in licorice that potently suppresses the growth of aggressive prostate cancer and sought to clarify its mechanism of action. We analyzed its inhibitory effects on the growth of PTEN-deleted human prostate cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Administration of IAA significantly attenuated the growth of prostate cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. These effects were found to be attributable to inhibition of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition and the accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. The elevated p27{sup kip1} expression levels were concurrent with the decrease of its phosphorylation at threonine 187 through suppression of CDK2 kinase activity and the reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Serine 473 by diminishing the kinase activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Further analysis using recombinant proteins and immunoprecipitated cell lysates determined that IAA exerts suppressive effects against CDK2 and mTOR kinase activity by direct binding with both proteins. These findings suggested that the licorice compound IAA is a potent molecular inhibitor of CDK2 and mTOR, with strong implications for the treatment of prostate cancer. Thus, licorice-derived extracts with high IAA content warrant further clinical investigation for nutritional sources for prostate cancer patients. - Highlights: • Isoangustone A suppresses growth of PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. • Administration of isoangustone A inhibits tumor growth in mice. • Treatment of isoangustone A induces cell cycle arrest and accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. • Isoangustone A inhibits CDK2 and mTOR activity. • Isoangustone A directly binds with CDK2 and mTOR complex in prostate cancer cells.

  5. AC1MMYR2 impairs high dose paclitaxel-induced tumor metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Wang, Qi-xue; Han, Lei; Song, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yan; Tian, Wei-ping; Zhang, Lun; Mei, Mei; Kang, Chun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used chemo-drug for many solid tumors, while continual taxol treatment is revealed to stimulate tumor dissemination. We previously found that a small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, had the potential to impair tumorigenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining AC1MMYR2 with taxol could be explored as a means to limit tumor metastasis. Here we showed that abnormal activation of miR-21/CDK5 axis was associated with breast cancer lymph node metastasis, which was also contribute to high dose taxol-induced invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and glioblastoma cell line U87VIII. AC1MMYR2 attenuated CDK5 activity by functional targeting CDK5RAP1, CDK5 activator p39 and target p-FAK(ser732). A series of in vitro assays indicated that treatment of AC1MMYR2 combined with taxol suppressed tumor migration and invasion ability in both MDA-MB-231 and U87VIII cell. More importantly, combination therapy impaired high-dose taxol induced invadopodia, and EMT markers including β-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin. Strikingly, a significant reduction of lung metastasis in mice was observed in the AC1MMYR2 plus taxol treatment. Taken together, our work demonstrated that AC1MMYR2 appeared to be a promising strategy in combating taxol induced cancer metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis, which highlighted the potential for development of therapeutic modalities for better clinic taxol application. PMID:25827073

  6. CDK6 as a key regulator of hematopoietic and leukemic stem cell activation.

    PubMed

    Scheicher, Ruth; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea; Bellutti, Florian; Tigan, Anca-Sarmiza; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Heller, Gerwin; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Salazar-Roa, María; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Zuber, Johannes; Malumbres, Marcos; Kollmann, Karoline; Sexl, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) and CDK4 have redundant functions in regulating cell-cycle progression. We describe a novel role for CDK6 in hematopoietic and leukemic stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs] and leukemic stem cells [LSCs]) that exceeds its function as a cell-cycle regulator. Although hematopoiesis appears normal under steady-state conditions, Cdk6(-/-) HSCs do not efficiently repopulate upon competitive transplantation, and Cdk6-deficient mice are significantly more susceptible to 5-fluorouracil treatment. We find that activation of HSCs requires CDK6, which interferes with the transcription of key regulators, including Egr1. Transcriptional profiling of HSCs is consistent with the central role of Egr1. The impaired repopulation capacity extends to BCR-ABL(p210+) LSCs. Transplantation with BCR-ABL(p210+)-infected bone marrow from Cdk6(-/-) mice fails to induce disease, although recipient mice do harbor LSCs. Egr1 knock-down in Cdk6(-/-) BCR-ABL(p210+) LSKs significantly enhances the potential to form colonies, underlining the importance of the CDK6-Egr1 axis. Our findings define CDK6 as an important regulator of stem cell activation and an essential component of a transcriptional complex that suppresses Egr1 in HSCs and LSCs.

  7. CDK6 as a key regulator of hematopoietic and leukemic stem cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Scheicher, Ruth; Hoelbl-Kovacic, Andrea; Bellutti, Florian; Tigan, Anca-Sarmiza; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Heller, Gerwin; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Salazar-Roa, María; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Zuber, Johannes; Malumbres, Marcos; Kollmann, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) and CDK4 have redundant functions in regulating cell-cycle progression. We describe a novel role for CDK6 in hematopoietic and leukemic stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs] and leukemic stem cells [LSCs]) that exceeds its function as a cell-cycle regulator. Although hematopoiesis appears normal under steady-state conditions, Cdk6−/− HSCs do not efficiently repopulate upon competitive transplantation, and Cdk6-deficient mice are significantly more susceptible to 5-fluorouracil treatment. We find that activation of HSCs requires CDK6, which interferes with the transcription of key regulators, including Egr1. Transcriptional profiling of HSCs is consistent with the central role of Egr1. The impaired repopulation capacity extends to BCR-ABLp210+ LSCs. Transplantation with BCR-ABLp210+–infected bone marrow from Cdk6−/− mice fails to induce disease, although recipient mice do harbor LSCs. Egr1 knock-down in Cdk6−/− BCR-ABLp210+ LSKs significantly enhances the potential to form colonies, underlining the importance of the CDK6-Egr1 axis. Our findings define CDK6 as an important regulator of stem cell activation and an essential component of a transcriptional complex that suppresses Egr1 in HSCs and LSCs. PMID:25342715

  8. Structural basis for CDK6 activation by a virus-encoded cyclin

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Gahmen, Ursula; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2002-01-17

    Cyclin from herpesvirus saimiri (Vcyclin) preferentially forms complexes with cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) from primate host cells. These complexes show higher kinase activity than host cell CDK complexes with cellular cyclins and are resistant to cyclin-dependent inhibitory proteins (CDKIs). The crystal structure of human CDK6-Vcyclin in an active state was determined to 3.1 Angstrom resolution to get a better understanding of the structural basis of CDK6 activation by viral cyclins. The unphosphorylated CDK6 complexed to Vcyclin has many features characteristic of cyclinA-activated, phosphorylated CDK2. There are, however, differences in the conformation at the tip of the T-loop and its interactions with Vcyclin. Residues in the N-terminal extension of Vcyclin wrap around the tip of the CDK6 T-loop and form a short b-sheet with the T-loop backbone. These interactions lead to a 20 percent larger buried surface in the CDK6-Vcyclin interface than in the CDK2-cyclinA complex and are probably largely responsible for Vcyclin specificity for CDK6 and resistance of the complex to inhibition by INK-typeCDKIs.

  9. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Li, Congyu; Hu, Ya-Fang; Cao, Li; Wang, Hui; Li, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Bao, Li; Luo, Hong-Yan; Shukla, Varsha; Amin, Niranjana D; Pant, Harish C

    2013-01-01

    Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG) results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs), however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs). Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5) with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24039692

  10. Cdk1, PKCδ and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathway contributes to mitochondrial fission-induced cardiomyocyte death

    SciTech Connect

    Zaja, Ivan; Bai, Xiaowen; Liu, Yanan; Kikuchi, Chika; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Yan, Yasheng; Canfield, Scott G.; Bosnjak, Zeljko J.

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Drp1-mediated increased mitochondrial fission but not fusion is involved the cardiomyocyte death during anoxia-reoxygenation injury. • Reactive oxygen species are upstream initiators of mitochondrial fission. • Increased mitochondrial fission is resulted from Cdk1-, PKCδ-, and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathways. - Abstract: Myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to be involved in cardiomyocyte death. However, molecular machinery involved in mitochondrial fission during I/R injury has not yet been completely understood. In this study we aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms of controlling activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, a key protein in mitochondrial fission) during anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) injury of HL1 cardiomyocytes. A/R injury induced cardiomyocyte death accompanied by the increases of mitochondrial fission, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated Drp1 (pSer616 Drp1), and decrease of inactivated Drp1 (pSer637 Drp1) while mitochondrial fusion protein levels were not significantly changed. Blocking Drp1 activity with mitochondrial division inhibitor mdivi1 attenuated cell death, mitochondrial fission, and Drp1 activation after A/R. Trolox, a ROS scavenger, decreased pSer616 Drp1 level and mitochondrial fission after A/R. Immunoprecipitation assay further indicates that cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and protein kinase C isoform delta (PKCδ) bind Drp1, thus increasing mitochondrial fission. Inhibiting Cdk1 and PKCδ attenuated the increases in pSer616 Drp1, mitochondrial fission, and cardiomyocyte death. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, blocked the decrease in expression of inactivated pSer637 Drp1 and mitochondrial fission. Our findings reveal the following novel molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial fission during A/R injury of cardiomyocytes: (1) ROS are upstream initiators of

  11. What's the hype about CDK5RAP2?

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Nadine; Issa, Lina; Hauck, Stefanie C R; Mani, Shyamala; Ninnemann, Olaf; Kaindl, Angela M

    2011-05-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 (CDK5RAP2) has gained attention in the last years following the discovery, in 2005, that recessive mutations cause primary autosomal recessive microcephaly. This disease is seen as an isolated developmental defect of the brain, particularly of the cerebral cortex, and was thus historically also referred to as microcephalia vera. Unraveling the pathomechanisms leading to this human disease is fascinating scientists because it can convey insight into basic mechanisms of physiologic brain development (particularly of cortex formation). It also finds itself in the spotlight because of its implication in trends in mammalian evolution with a massive increase in the size of the cerebral cortex in primates. Here, we provide a timely overview of the current knowledge on the function of CDK5RAP2 and mechanisms that might lead to disease in humans when the function of this protein is disturbed. PMID:21327915

  12. Selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors discriminating between cell cycle and transcriptional kinases: future reality or utopia?

    PubMed

    Wesierska-Gadek, Józefa; Krystof, Vladimír

    2009-08-01

    Progression of the cell cycle is controlled by activating and inhibiting cellular factors. The delicate balance between these positive- and negative-acting regulators warrants proper cell cycle progression in normal cells and facilitates cellular response to a variety of stress stimuli. The increased activity of the positive regulators of the cell cycle in cancer cells is frequently accompanied by the loss or inactivation of the inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The supplementation of the cellular CDK inhibitors by the pharmacological counterparts is a very promising therapeutic option. The generated pharmacological inhibitors of CDKs belong to different classes of compounds and display various CDK inhibitory features. In this article the action and specificity of CDK inhibitor roscovitine, belonging to the group of purine analogues, is reviewed and the rationale for dissecting the inhibitory action on cell cycle and transcriptional CDKs is discussed.

  13. Activation of Cdk5/p25 and tau phosphorylation following chronic brain hypoperfusion in rats involves microRNA-195 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Hua; Ban, Tao; Liu, Cheng-Di; Chen, Qing-Xin; Wang, Xu; Yan, Mei-Ling; Hu, Xue-Ling; Su, Xiao-Lin; Bao, Ya-Nan; Sun, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Lin-Jing; Pei, Shuang-Chao; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Zong, De-Kang; Ai, Jing

    2015-09-01

    . Schematic diagram of miR-195 mediated Aβ aggregation and tau hyperphosphorylation in chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH). First, CBH results in the elevation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which binds with the promoter sequences of miR-195 and negatively regulates the expression of miR-195. Second, down-regulated miR-195 induces up-regulation of APP and BACE1 and leads to an increase in Aβ levels. Third, some of the elevated Aβ then enter the intracellular space and activate calpain, which promotes the conversion of Cdk5/p35 to Cdk5/p25 and catalyzes the degradation of IκB; IκB is an inhibitor of NF-κB, which activates NF-κB. Cdk5/p25 directly phosphorylates Tau. Fourth, down-regulated miR-195 induces an up-regulation of p35, which provides the active substrates of p25. Our findings demonstrated that the down-regulation of miR-195 plays a key role in the increased vulnerability to dementia via the regulation of multiple targets following CBH.

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans Cyclin D/CDK4 and Cyclin E/CDK2 Induce Distinct Cell Cycle Re-Entry Programs in Differentiated Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Korzelius, Jerome; The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Prinsen, Martine B. W.; Portegijs, Vincent; Middelkoop, Teije C.; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J.; Holstege, Frank C. P.; Boxem, Mike; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are regulated in a highly coordinated and inverse manner during development and tissue homeostasis. Terminal differentiation usually coincides with cell cycle exit and is thought to engage stable transcriptional repression of cell cycle genes. Here, we examine the robustness of the post-mitotic state, using Caenorhabditis elegans muscle cells as a model. We found that expression of a G1 Cyclin and CDK initiates cell cycle re-entry in muscle cells without interfering with the differentiated state. Cyclin D/CDK4 (CYD-1/CDK-4) expression was sufficient to induce DNA synthesis in muscle cells, in contrast to Cyclin E/CDK2 (CYE-1/CDK-2), which triggered mitotic events. Tissue-specific gene-expression profiling and single molecule FISH experiments revealed that Cyclin D and E kinases activate an extensive and overlapping set of cell cycle genes in muscle, yet failed to induce some key activators of G1/S progression. Surprisingly, CYD-1/CDK-4 also induced an additional set of genes primarily associated with growth and metabolism, which were not activated by CYE-1/CDK-2. Moreover, CYD-1/CDK-4 expression also down-regulated a large number of genes enriched for catabolic functions. These results highlight distinct functions for the two G1 Cyclin/CDK complexes and reveal a previously unknown activity of Cyclin D/CDK-4 in regulating metabolic gene expression. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that many cell cycle genes can still be transcriptionally induced in post-mitotic muscle cells, while maintenance of the post-mitotic state might depend on stable repression of a limited number of critical cell cycle regulators. PMID:22102824

  15. HIV-1 Tat-associated RNA polymerase C-terminal domain kinase, CDK2, phosphorylates CDK7 and stimulates Tat-mediated transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nekhai, Sergei; Zhou, Meisheng; Fernandez, Anne; Lane, William S; Lamb, Ned J C; Brady, John; Kumar, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    HIV-1 gene expression is regulated by a viral transactivator protein (Tat) which induces transcriptional elongation of HIV-1 long tandem repeat (LTR). This induction requires hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) repeats of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). To achieve CTD hyperphosphorylation, Tat stimulates CTD kinases associated with general transcription factors of the promoter complex, specifically TFIIH-associated CDK7 and positive transcription factor b-associated CDK9 (cyclin-dependent kinase 9). Other studies indicate that Tat may bind an additional CTD kinase that regulates the target-specific phosphorylation of RNA Pol II CTD. We previously reported that Tat-associated T-cell-derived kinase (TTK), purified from human primary T-cells, stimulates Tat-dependent transcription of HIV-1 LTR in vivo [Nekhai, Shukla, Fernandez, Kumar and Lamb (2000) Virology 266, 246-256]. In the work presented here, we characterized the components of TTK by biochemical fractionation and the function of TTK in transcription assays in vitro. TTK uniquely co-purified with CDK2 and not with either CDK9 or CDK7. Tat induced the TTK-associated CDK2 kinase to phosphorylate CTD, specifically at Ser-2 residues. The TTK fraction restored Tat-mediated transcription activation of HIV-1 LTR in a HeLa nuclear extract immunodepleted of CDK9, but not in the HeLa nuclear extract double-depleted of CDK9 and CDK7. Direct microinjection of the TTK fraction augmented Tat transactivation of HIV-1 LTR in human primary HS68 fibroblasts. The results argue that TTK-associated CDK2 may function to maintain target-specific phosphorylation of RNA Pol II that is essential for Tat transactivation of HIV-1 promoter. They are also consistent with the observed cell-cycle-specific induction of viral gene transactivation. PMID:12049628

  16. Consequences of abnormal CDK activity in S phase.

    PubMed

    Anda, Silje; Rothe, Christiane; Boye, Erik; Grallert, Beáta

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKs) are important regulators of DNA replication. In this work we have investigated the consequences of increasing or decreasing the CDK activity in S phase. To this end we identified S-phase regulators of the fission yeast CDK, Cdc2, and used appropriate mutants to modulate Cdc2 activity. In fission yeast Mik1 has been thought to be the main regulator of Cdc2 activity in S phase. However, we find that Wee1 has a major function in S phase and thus we used wee1 mutants to investigate the consequences of increased Cdc2 activity. These wee1 mutants display increased replication stress and, particularly in the absence of the S-phase checkpoint, accumulate DNA damage. Notably, more cells incorporate EdU in a wee1(-) strain as compared to wildtype, suggesting altered regulation of DNA replication. In addition, a higher number of cells contain chromatin-bound Cdc45, an indicator of active replication forks. In addition, we found that Cdc25 is required to activate Cdc2 in S phase and used a cdc25 mutant to explore a situation where Cdc2 activity is reduced. Interestingly, a cdc25 mutant has a higher tolerance for replication stress than wild-type cells, suggesting that reduced CDK activity in S phase confers resistance to at least some forms of replication stress. PMID:26918805

  17. Dynamic recruitment of CDK5RAP2 to centrosomes requires its association with dynein.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yue; Fong, Ka-Wing; Choi, Yuk-Kwan; See, Siu-San; Qi, Robert Z

    2013-01-01

    CDK5RAP2 is a centrosomal protein known to be involved in the regulation of the γ-tubulin ring complex and thus the organization of microtubule arrays. However, the mechanism by which CDK5RAP2 is itself recruited to centrosomes is poorly understood. We report here that CDK5RAP2 displays highly dynamic attachment to centrosomes in a microtubule-dependent manner. CDK5RAP2 associates with the retrograde transporter dynein-dynactin and contains a sequence motif that binds to dynein light chain 8. Significantly, disruption of cellular dynein-dynactin function reduces the centrosomal level of CDK5RAP2. These results reveal a key role of the dynein-dynactin complex in the dynamic recruitment of CDK5RAP2 to centrosomes. PMID:23874654

  18. Cdk1 activity acts as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle progression with periodic transcription

    PubMed Central

    Banyai, Gabor; Baïdi, Feriel; Coudreuse, Damien; Szilagyi, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and requires the periodic expression of particular gene clusters in different cell cycle phases. However, the interplay between the networks that generate these transcriptional oscillations and the core cell cycle machinery remains largely unexplored. In this work, we use a synthetic regulable Cdk1 module to demonstrate that periodic expression is governed by quantitative changes in Cdk1 activity, with different clusters directly responding to specific activity levels. We further establish that cell cycle events neither participate in nor interfere with the Cdk1-driven transcriptional program, provided that cells are exposed to the appropriate Cdk1 activities. These findings contrast with current models that propose self-sustained and Cdk1-independent transcriptional oscillations. Our work therefore supports a model in which Cdk1 activity serves as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle transitions with the expression of critical genes to bring about proper cell cycle progression. PMID:27045731

  19. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events.

  20. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events. PMID:27554859

  1. Cooperativity of Cdk4R24C and Ras in melanoma development.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rachna; Procknow, Judith A; Tantravahi, Ramana V; Khurana, Jasvir S; Litvin, Judith; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2010-08-15

    The importance of the CDK4 protein in human cancer first became evident following the identification of a germ line mutation in the Cdk4 locus that predisposes humans to melanoma. This mutation results in substitution of arginine with cysteine at position 24 (R24C). In an earlier study, we introduced the R24C mutation into the Cdk4 locus of mice using Cre-loxP-mediated "knock-in" technology and observed a very low incidence of spontaneous melanomas in Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice. This suggested that additional oncogenic mutations might be required for development of melanomas. Here we report an increased incidence of spontaneous cutaneous melanoma in mice expressing the oncogene HRAS(G12V) in melanocytes on a Cdk4(R24C) background. Treatment of Tyr-HRas:Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice with the carcinogen, DMBA/TPA resulted in a further increase in the number of nevi and melanomas developed when compared with Tyr-HRas:Cdk4(+/+) mice. In summary, in Tyr-HRas:Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice, we observed that activated CDK4 cooperates with the oncogenic HRAS(G12V) protein to increase the susceptibility of melanoma development in vivo.

  2. Cooperativity of Cdk4R24C and Ras in melanoma development.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rachna; Procknow, Judith A; Tantravahi, Ramana V; Khurana, Jasvir S; Litvin, Judith; Reddy, E Premkumar

    2010-08-15

    The importance of the CDK4 protein in human cancer first became evident following the identification of a germ line mutation in the Cdk4 locus that predisposes humans to melanoma. This mutation results in substitution of arginine with cysteine at position 24 (R24C). In an earlier study, we introduced the R24C mutation into the Cdk4 locus of mice using Cre-loxP-mediated "knock-in" technology and observed a very low incidence of spontaneous melanomas in Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice. This suggested that additional oncogenic mutations might be required for development of melanomas. Here we report an increased incidence of spontaneous cutaneous melanoma in mice expressing the oncogene HRAS(G12V) in melanocytes on a Cdk4(R24C) background. Treatment of Tyr-HRas:Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice with the carcinogen, DMBA/TPA resulted in a further increase in the number of nevi and melanomas developed when compared with Tyr-HRas:Cdk4(+/+) mice. In summary, in Tyr-HRas:Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice, we observed that activated CDK4 cooperates with the oncogenic HRAS(G12V) protein to increase the susceptibility of melanoma development in vivo. PMID:20703083

  3. A Kinase-Independent Function of CDK6 Links the Cell Cycle to Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, Karoline; Heller, Gerwin; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Warsch, Wolfgang; Scheicher, Ruth; Ott, Rene G.; Schäfer, Markus; Fajmann, Sabine; Schlederer, Michaela; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Reichart, Ursula; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Hoeller, Christoph; Zöchbauer-Müller, Sabine; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Bock, Christoph; Kenner, Lukas; Hoefler, Gerald; Freissmuth, Michael; Green, Anthony R.; Moriggl, Richard; Busslinger, Meinrad; Malumbres, Marcos; Sexl, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Summary In contrast to its close homolog CDK4, the cell cycle kinase CDK6 is expressed at high levels in lymphoid malignancies. In a model for p185BCR-ABL+ B-acute lymphoid leukemia, we show that CDK6 is part of a transcription complex that induces the expression of the tumor suppressor p16INK4a and the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF-A. This function is independent of CDK6’s kinase activity. High CDK6 expression thus suppresses proliferation by upregulating p16INK4a, providing an internal safeguard. However, in the absence of p16INK4a, CDK6 can exert its full tumor-promoting function by enhancing proliferation and stimulating angiogenesis. The finding that CDK6 connects cell-cycle progression to angiogenesis confirms CDK6’s central role in hematopoietic malignancies and could underlie the selection pressure to upregulate CDK6 and silence p16INK4a. PMID:23948297

  4. Structure-based discovery of the first allosteric inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Rastelli, Giulio; Anighoro, Andrew; Chripkova, Martina; Carrassa, Laura; Broggini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric targeting of protein kinases via displacement of the structural αC helix with type III allosteric inhibitors is currently gaining a foothold in drug discovery. Recently, the first crystal structure of CDK2 with an open allosteric pocket adjacent to the αC helix has been described, prospecting new opportunities to design more selective inhibitors, but the structure has not yet been exploited for the structure-based design of type III allosteric inhibitors. In this work we report the results of a virtual screening campaign that resulted in the discovery of the first-in-class type III allosteric ligands of CDK2. Using a combination of docking and post-docking analyses made with our tool BEAR, 7 allosteric ligands (hit rate of 20%) with micromolar affinity for CDK2 were identified, some of them inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell lines in the micromolar range. Competition experiments performed in the presence of the ATP-competitive inhibitor staurosporine confirmed that the 7 ligands are truly allosteric, in agreement with their design. Of these, compound 2 bound CDK2 with an EC50 value of 3 μM and inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB231 and ZR-75–1 breast cancer cells with IC50 values of approximately 20 μM, while compound 4 had an EC50 value of 71 μM and IC50 values around 4 μM. Remarkably, the most potent compound 4 was able to selectively inhibit CDK2-mediated Retinoblastoma phosphorylation, confirming that its mechanism of action is fully compatible with a selective inhibition of CDK2 phosphorylation in cells. Finally, hit expansion through analog search of the most potent inhibitor 4 revealed an additional ligand 4g with similar in vitro potency on breast cancer cells. PMID:24911186

  5. ClC-3 Chloride Channel Proteins Regulate the Cell Cycle by Up-regulating cyclin D1-CDK4/6 through Suppressing p21/p27 Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dong; Luo, Hai; Lai, Zhouyi; Zou, Lili; Zhu, Linyan; Mao, Jianwen; Jacob, Tim; Ye, Wencai; Wang, Liwei; Chen, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    It was shown in this study that knockdown of ClC-3 expression by ClC-3 siRNA prevented the activation of hypotonicity-induced chloride currents, and arrested cells at the G0/G1 phase in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells. Reconstitution of ClC-3 expression with ClC-3 expression plasmids could rescue the cells from the cell cycle arrest caused by ClC-3 siRNA treatments. Transfection of cells with ClC-3 siRNA decreased the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase 4 and 6, and increased the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs), p21 and p27. Pretreatments of cells with p21 and p27 siRNAs depleted the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on the expression of CDK4 and CDK6, but not on that of cyclin D1, indicating the requirement of p21 and p27 for the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on CDK4 and CDK6 expression. ClC-3 siRNA inhibited cells to progress from the G1 phase to the S phase, but pretreatments of cells with p21 and p27 siRNAs abolished the inhibitory effects of ClC-3 siRNA on the cell cycle progress. Our data suggest that ClC-3 may regulate cell cycle transition between G0/G1 and S phases by up-regulation of the expression of CDK4 and CDK6 through suppression of p21 and p27 expression. PMID:27451945

  6. STAR syndrome-associated CDK10/Cyclin M regulates actin network architecture and ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guen, Vincent J; Gamble, Carly; Perez, Dahlia E; Bourassa, Sylvie; Zappel, Hildegard; Gärtner, Jutta; Lees, Jacqueline A; Colas, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    CDK10/CycM is a protein kinase deficient in STAR (toe Syndactyly, Telecanthus and Anogenital and Renal malformations) syndrome, which results from mutations in the X-linked FAM58A gene encoding Cyclin M. The biological functions of CDK10/CycM and etiology of STAR syndrome are poorly understood. Here, we report that deficiency of CDK10/Cyclin M promotes assembly and elongation of primary cilia. We establish that this reflects a key role for CDK10/Cyclin M in regulation of actin network organization, which is known to govern ciliogenesis. In an unbiased screen, we identified the RhoA-associated kinase PKN2 as a CDK10/CycM phosphorylation substrate. We establish that PKN2 is a bone fide regulator of ciliogenesis, acting in a similar manner to CDK10/CycM. We discovered that CDK10/Cyclin M binds and phosphorylates PKN2 on threonines 121 and 124, within PKN2's core RhoA-binding domain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deficiencies in CDK10/CycM or PKN2, or expression of a non-phosphorylatable version of PKN2, destabilize both the RhoA protein and the actin network architecture. Importantly, we established that ectopic expression of RhoA is sufficient to override the induction of ciliogenesis resulting from CDK10/CycM knockdown, indicating that RhoA regulation is critical for CDK10/CycM's negative effect on ciliogenesis. Finally, we show that kidney sections from a STAR patient display dilated renal tubules and abnormal, elongated cilia. Altogether, these results reveal CDK10/CycM as a key regulator of actin dynamics and a suppressor of ciliogenesis through phosphorylation of PKN2 and promotion of RhoA signaling. Moreover, they suggest that STAR syndrome is a ciliopathy.

  7. Prevalence of Germline BAP1, CDKN2A, and CDK4 Mutations in an Australian Population-Based Sample of Cutaneous Melanoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Gartside, Michael; Johansson, Peter; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) contribute to susceptibility in approximately 40% of high-density cutaneous melanoma (CMM) families and about 2% of unselected CMM cases. BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) has been more recently shown to predispose to CMM and uveal melanoma (UMM) in some families; however, its contribution to CMM development in the general population is unreported. We sought to determine the contribution of these genes to CMM susceptibility in a population-based sample of cases from Australia. We genotyped 1,109 probands from Queensland families and found that approximately 1.31% harbored mutations in CDKN2A, including some with novel missense mutations (p.R22W, p.G35R and p.I49F). BAP1 missense variants occurred in 0.63% of cases but no CDK4 variants were observed in the sample. This is the first estimate of the contribution of BAP1 and CDK4 to a population-based sample of CMM and supports the previously reported estimate of CDKN2A germline mutation prevalence.

  8. Prevalence of Germline BAP1, CDKN2A, and CDK4 Mutations in an Australian Population-Based Sample of Cutaneous Melanoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Aoude, Lauren G; Gartside, Michael; Johansson, Peter; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) contribute to susceptibility in approximately 40% of high-density cutaneous melanoma (CMM) families and about 2% of unselected CMM cases. BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) has been more recently shown to predispose to CMM and uveal melanoma (UMM) in some families; however, its contribution to CMM development in the general population is unreported. We sought to determine the contribution of these genes to CMM susceptibility in a population-based sample of cases from Australia. We genotyped 1,109 probands from Queensland families and found that approximately 1.31% harbored mutations in CDKN2A, including some with novel missense mutations (p.R22W, p.G35R and p.I49F). BAP1 missense variants occurred in 0.63% of cases but no CDK4 variants were observed in the sample. This is the first estimate of the contribution of BAP1 and CDK4 to a population-based sample of CMM and supports the previously reported estimate of CDKN2A germline mutation prevalence. PMID:25787093

  9. Advances in tetrahydropyrido[1,2-a]isoindolone (valmerins) series: Potent glycogen synthase kinase 3 and cyclin dependent kinase 5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Boulahjar, Rajâa; Ouach, Aziz; Bourg, Stéphane; Bonnet, Pascal; Lozach, Olivier; Meijer, Laurent; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Le Guevel, Rémy; Lazar, Saïd; Akssira, Mohamed; Troin, Yves; Guillaumet, Gérald; Routier, Sylvain

    2015-08-28

    An efficient synthetic strategy was developed to modulate the structure of the tetrahydropyridine isoindolone (Valmerin) skeleton. A library of more than 30 novel final structures was generated. Biological activities on CDK5 and GSK3 as well as cellular effects on cancer cell lines were measured for each novel compound. Additionally docking studies were performed to support medicinal chemistry efforts. A strong GSK3/CDK5 dual inhibitor (38, IC50 GSK3/CDK5 32/84 nM) was obtained. A set of highly selective GSK3 inhibitors was synthesized by fine-tuning structural modifications (29 IC50 GSK3/CDK5 32/320 nM). Antiproliferative effects on cells were correlated with the in vitro kinase activities and the best effects were obtained with lung and colon cell lines. PMID:26142492

  10. Cloning of three novel neuronal Cdk5 activator binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ching, Y P; Qi, Z; Wang, J H

    2000-01-25

    Neuronal Cdc2-like kinase (Nclk) is involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation and neuro-cytoskeleton dynamics. The active kinase consists of a catalytic subunit, Cdk5, and a 25 kDa activator protein (p25nck5a) derived from a 35 kDa neuronal-specific protein (p35nck5a). As an extension of our previous study (Qi, Z., Tang, D., Zhu, X., Fujita, D.J., Wang, J.H., 1998. Association of neurofilament proteins with neuronal Cdk5 activator. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2329-2335), which showed that neurofilament is one of the p35nck5a-associated proteins, we now report the isolation of three other novel p35nck5a-associated proteins using the yeast two-hybrid screen. The full-length forms of these three novel proteins, designated C42, C48 and C53, have a molecular mass of 66, 24, and 57 kDa, respectively. Northern analysis indicates that these novel proteins are widely expressed in human tissues, including the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, placenta, lung, liver, kidney and pancreas. The bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion forms of these three proteins were able to co-precipitate p35nck5a complexed with Cdk5 from insect cell lysate. Among these three proteins, only C48 and C53 can be phosphorylated by Nclk, suggesting that they may be the substrates of Nclk. Sequence homology searches have suggested that the C48 protein is marginally related to restin protein, whereas the C42 protein has homologues of unknown function in Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:10721722

  11. A flexible multiplex bead-based assay for detecting germline CDKN2A and CDK4 variants in melanoma-prone kindreds.

    PubMed

    Lang, Julie M; Shennan, Michael; Njauw, Jenny C-N; Luo, Su; Bishop, Julia N; Harland, Mark; Hayward, Nicholas K; Tucker, Margaret A; Goldstein, Alisa M; Landi, Maria T; Puig, Susana; Gruis, Nelleke A; Bergman, Wilma; Bianchi-Scarra, Giovanna; Ghiorzo, Paola; Hogg, David; Tsao, Hensin

    2011-02-01

    The presence of recurrent high-risk mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDKN2A/CDK4) among melanoma-prone families suggests that a high-throughput, multiplex assay could serve as an effective initial screening tool. To this end, we have developed a multiplex bead-based assay for high-throughput CDKN2A/CDK4 genotyping in the context of familial melanoma. Genomic DNA from 1,603 subjects (1,005 in training set and 598 in validation set) were amplified by multiplex PCR using five CDKN2A/CDK4 primer sets followed by multiplex allele-specific primer extension for 39 distinct germline variants. The products were then sorted and analyzed using the Luminex xMAP system. Genotypes were compared with previously determined sequence data. In the Toronto training cohort, all 145 samples with known variants were detected by the bead assay (100% concordance). Analysis of the 598 samples from the GenoMEL validation set led to identification of 150/155 expected variants (96.77%). Overall, the bead assay correctly genotyped 1,540/1,603 (96.07%) of all individuals in the study and 1,540/1,545 (99.68%) of individuals whose variants were represented in the probe set. Out of a total of 62,517 allelic calls, 62,512 (99.99%) were correctly assigned. The multiplex bead-based assay is an accurate method for genotyping CDKN2A/CDK4 variants and is potentially useful in genotyping low-to-moderate melanoma risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

  12. A flexible multiplex bead-based assay for detecting germline CDKN2A and CDK4 variants in melanoma-prone kindreds.

    PubMed

    Lang, Julie M; Shennan, Michael; Njauw, Jenny C-N; Luo, Su; Bishop, Julia N; Harland, Mark; Hayward, Nicholas K; Tucker, Margaret A; Goldstein, Alisa M; Landi, Maria T; Puig, Susana; Gruis, Nelleke A; Bergman, Wilma; Bianchi-Scarra, Giovanna; Ghiorzo, Paola; Hogg, David; Tsao, Hensin

    2011-02-01

    The presence of recurrent high-risk mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDKN2A/CDK4) among melanoma-prone families suggests that a high-throughput, multiplex assay could serve as an effective initial screening tool. To this end, we have developed a multiplex bead-based assay for high-throughput CDKN2A/CDK4 genotyping in the context of familial melanoma. Genomic DNA from 1,603 subjects (1,005 in training set and 598 in validation set) were amplified by multiplex PCR using five CDKN2A/CDK4 primer sets followed by multiplex allele-specific primer extension for 39 distinct germline variants. The products were then sorted and analyzed using the Luminex xMAP system. Genotypes were compared with previously determined sequence data. In the Toronto training cohort, all 145 samples with known variants were detected by the bead assay (100% concordance). Analysis of the 598 samples from the GenoMEL validation set led to identification of 150/155 expected variants (96.77%). Overall, the bead assay correctly genotyped 1,540/1,603 (96.07%) of all individuals in the study and 1,540/1,545 (99.68%) of individuals whose variants were represented in the probe set. Out of a total of 62,517 allelic calls, 62,512 (99.99%) were correctly assigned. The multiplex bead-based assay is an accurate method for genotyping CDKN2A/CDK4 variants and is potentially useful in genotyping low-to-moderate melanoma risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms. PMID:21085193

  13. CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of p19INK4d avoids DNA damage-induced neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus and prevents loss of cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Ogara, María Florencia; Belluscio, Laura M; de la Fuente, Verónica; Berardino, Bruno G; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Byk, Laura; Marazita, Mariela; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2014-07-01

    DNA damage, which perturbs genomic stability, has been linked to cognitive decline in the aging human brain, and mutations in DNA repair genes have neurological implications. Several studies have suggested that DNA damage is also increased in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanisms connecting DNA damage with neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. CDK5, a critical enzyme in the development of the central nervous system, phosphorylates a number of synaptic proteins and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. In addition to these physiological roles, CDK5 has been involved in the neuronal death initiated by DNA damage. We hypothesized that p19INK4d, a member of the cell cycle inhibitor family INK4, is involved in a neuroprotective mechanism activated in response to DNA damage. We found that in response to genotoxic injury or increased levels of intracellular calcium, p19INK4d is transcriptionally induced and phosphorylated by CDK5 which provides it with greater stability in postmitotic neurons. p19INK4d expression improves DNA repair, decreases apoptosis and increases neuronal survival under conditions of genotoxic stress. Our in vivo experiments showed that decreased levels of p19INK4d rendered hippocampal neurons more sensitive to genotoxic insult resulting in the loss of cognitive abilities that rely on the integrity of this brain structure. We propose a feedback mechanism by which the neurotoxic effects of CDK5-p25 activated by genotoxic stress or abnormal intracellular calcium levels are counteracted by the induction and stabilization of p19INK4d protein reducing the adverse consequences on brain functions.

  14. Targeting CDK11 in osteosarcoma cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yong; Sassi, Slim; Shen, Jacson K; Yang, Xiaoqian; Gao, Yan; Osaka, Eiji; Zhang, Jianming; Yang, Shuhua; Yang, Cao; Mankin, Henry J.; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type primary malignant tumor of bone. Patients with regional osteosarcoma are routinely treated with surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, many patients with metastatic or recurrent osteosarcoma show poor prognosis with current chemotherapy agents. Therefore, it is important to improve the general condition and the overall survival rate of patients with osteosarcoma by identifying novel therapeutic strategies. Recent studies have revealed that CDK11 is essential in osteosarcoma cell growth and survival by inhibiting CDK11 mRNA expression with RNAi. Here, we apply the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system, a robust and highly efficient novel genome editing tool, to determine the effect of targeting endogenous CDK11 gene at the DNA level in osteosarcoma cell lines. We show that CDK11 can be efficiently silenced by CRISPR-Cas9. Inhibition of CDK11 is associated with decreased cell proliferation and viability, and induces cell death in osteosarcoma cell lines KHOS and U-2OS. Furthermore, the migration and invasion activities are also markedly reduced by CDK11 knockout. These results demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 system is a useful tool for the modification of endogenous CDK11 gene expression, and CRISPR-Cas9 targeted CDK11 knockout may be a promising therapeutic regimen for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:25348612

  15. CDK-1 Inhibition in G2 Stabilizes Kinetochore-Microtubules in the following Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Gayek, A. Sophia; Ohi, Ryoma

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation is driven by cyclical activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which produce distinct biochemical cell cycle phases. Mitosis (M phase) is orchestrated by CDK-1, complexed with mitotic cyclins. During M phase, chromosomes are segregated by a bipolar array of microtubules called the mitotic spindle. The essential bipolarity of the mitotic spindle is established by the kinesin-5 Eg5, but factors influencing the maintenance of spindle bipolarity are not fully understood. Here, we describe an unexpected link between inhibiting CDK-1 before mitosis and bipolar spindle maintenance. Spindles in human RPE-1 cells normally collapse to monopolar structures when Eg5 is inhibited at metaphase. However, we found that inhibition of CDK-1 in the G2 phase of the cell cycle improved the ability of RPE-1 cells to maintain spindle bipolarity without Eg5 activity in the mitosis immediately after release from CDK-1 inhibition. This improved bipolarity maintenance correlated with an increase in the stability of kinetochore-microtubules, the subset of microtubules that link chromosomes to the spindle. The improvement in bipolarity maintenance after CDK-1 inhibition in G2 required both the kinesin-12 Kif15 and increased stability of kinetochore-microtubules. Consistent with increased kinetochore-microtubule stability, we find that inhibition of CDK-1 in G2 impairs mitotic fidelity by increasing the incidence of lagging chromosomes in anaphase. These results suggest that inhibition of CDK-1 in G2 causes unpredicted effects in mitosis, even after CDK-1 inhibition is relieved. PMID:27281342

  16. Preferential targeting of p39-activated Cdk5 to Rac1-induced lamellipodia.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuki; Asada, Akiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Takano, Tetsuya; Sharma, Govinda; Saito, Taro; Ohta, Yasutaka; Amano, Mutsuki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi

    2014-07-01

    Cdk5 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) family that plays a role in various neuronal activities including brain development, synaptic regulation, and neurodegeneration. Cdk5 requires the neuronal specific activators, p35 and p39 for subcellular compartmentalization. However, it is not known how active Cdk5 is recruited to F-actin cytoskeleton, which is a Cdk5 target. Here we found p35 and p39 localized to F-actin rich regions of the plasma membrane and investigated the underlying targeting mechanism in vitro by expressing them with Rho family GTPases in Neuro2A cells. Both p35 and p39 accumulated at the cell peripheral lamellipodia and perinuclear regions, where active Rac1 is localized. Interestingly, p35 and p39 displayed different localization patterns as p35 was found more at the perinuclear region and p39 was found more in peripheral lamellipodia. We then confirmed this distinct localization in primary hippocampal neurons. We also determined that the localization of p39 to lamellipodia requires myristoylation and Lys clusters within the N-terminal p10 region. Additionally, we found that p39-Cdk5, but not p35-Cdk5 suppressed lamellipodia formation by reducing Rac1 activity. These results suggest that p39-Cdk5 has a dominant role in Rac1-dependent lamellipodial activity. PMID:24877974

  17. 55K isoform of CDK9 associates with Ku70 and is involved in DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hongbing; Herrmann, Christine H.; Chiang, Karen; Sung, Tzu-Ling; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Rice, Andrew P.

    2010-06-25

    Positive elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is a cellular protein kinase that is required for RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcriptional elongation of protein coding genes. P-TEFb is a set of different molecular complexes, each containing CDK9 as the catalytic subunit. There are two isoforms of the CDK9 protein - the major 42 KDa CDK9 isoform and the minor 55KDa isoform that is translated from an in-frame mRNA that arises from an upstream transcriptional start site. We found that shRNA depletion of the 55K CDK9 protein in HeLa cells induces apoptosis and double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). The levels of apoptosis and DSBs induced by the depletion were reduced by expression of a 55K CDK9 protein variant resistant to the shRNA, indicating that these phenotypes are the consequence of depletion of the 55K protein and not off-target effects. We also found that the 55K CDK9 protein, but not the 42K CDK9 protein, specifically associates with Ku70, a protein involved in DSB repair. Our findings suggest that the 55K CDK9 protein may function in repair of DNA through an association with Ku70.

  18. Targeting CDK11 in osteosarcoma cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Sassi, Slim; Shen, Jacson K; Yang, Xiaoqian; Gao, Yan; Osaka, Eiji; Zhang, Jianming; Yang, Shuhua; Yang, Cao; Mankin, Henry J; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type primary malignant tumor of bone. Patients with regional osteosarcoma are routinely treated with surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, many patients with metastatic or recurrent osteosarcoma show poor prognosis with current chemotherapy agents. Therefore, it is important to improve the general condition and the overall survival rate of patients with osteosarcoma by identifying novel therapeutic strategies. Recent studies have revealed that CDK11 is essential in osteosarcoma cell growth and survival by inhibiting CDK11 mRNA expression with RNAi. Here, we apply the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system, a robust and highly efficient novel genome editing tool, to determine the effect of targeting endogenous CDK11 gene at the DNA level in osteosarcoma cell lines. We show that CDK11 can be efficiently silenced by CRISPR-Cas9. Inhibition of CDK11 is associated with decreased cell proliferation and viability, and induces cell death in osteosarcoma cell lines KHOS and U-2OS. Furthermore, the migration and invasion activities are also markedly reduced by CDK11 knockout. These results demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 system is a useful tool for the modification of endogenous CDK11 gene expression, and CRISPR-Cas9 targeted CDK11 knockout may be a promising therapeutic regimen for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  19. Pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridazines as novel and selective inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Braña, Miguel F; Cacho, Mónica; García, M Luisa; Mayoral, Elena P; López, Berta; de Pascual-Teresa, Beatriz; Ramos, Ana; Acero, Nuria; Llinares, Francisco; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores; Lozach, Olivier; Meijer, Laurent

    2005-11-01

    Pyrazolopyridazine 1a was identified in a high-throughput screening carried out by BASF Bioresearch Corp. (Worcester, MA) as a potent inhibitor of CDK1/cyclin B and shown to have selectivity for the CDK family. Analogues of the lead compound have been synthesized and their antitumor activities have been tested. A molecular model of the complex between the lead compound and the CDK2 ATP binding site has been built using a combination of conformational search and automated docking techniques. The stability of the resulting complex has been assessed by molecular dynamics simulations and the experimental results obtained for the synthesized analogues have been rationalized on the basis of the proposed binding mode for compound 1a. As a result of the SAR study, monofuryl 1o has been synthesized and is one of the most active compounds against CDK1 of this series.

  20. Cdk5 controls lymphatic vessel development and function by phosphorylation of Foxc2.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Johanna; Zhang, Siwei; Moser, Markus; Agalarov, Yan; Demir, Cansaran Saygili; Hager, Bianca; Bibb, James A; Adams, Ralf H; Kiefer, Friedemann; Miura, Naoyuki; Petrova, Tatiana V; Vollmar, Angelika M; Zahler, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system maintains tissue fluid balance, and dysfunction of lymphatic vessels and valves causes human lymphedema syndromes. Yet, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying lymphatic vessel development is still limited. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is an essential regulator of lymphatic vessel development. Endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockdown causes congenital lymphatic dysfunction and lymphedema due to defective lymphatic vessel patterning and valve formation. We identify the transcription factor Foxc2 as a key substrate of Cdk5 in the lymphatic vasculature, mechanistically linking Cdk5 to lymphatic development and valve morphogenesis. Collectively, our findings show that Cdk5-Foxc2 interaction represents a critical regulator of lymphatic vessel development and the transcriptional network underlying lymphatic vascular remodeling. PMID:26027726

  1. Cdk5 controls lymphatic vessel development and function by phosphorylation of Foxc2.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Johanna; Zhang, Siwei; Moser, Markus; Agalarov, Yan; Demir, Cansaran Saygili; Hager, Bianca; Bibb, James A; Adams, Ralf H; Kiefer, Friedemann; Miura, Naoyuki; Petrova, Tatiana V; Vollmar, Angelika M; Zahler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The lymphatic system maintains tissue fluid balance, and dysfunction of lymphatic vessels and valves causes human lymphedema syndromes. Yet, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying lymphatic vessel development is still limited. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is an essential regulator of lymphatic vessel development. Endothelial-specific Cdk5 knockdown causes congenital lymphatic dysfunction and lymphedema due to defective lymphatic vessel patterning and valve formation. We identify the transcription factor Foxc2 as a key substrate of Cdk5 in the lymphatic vasculature, mechanistically linking Cdk5 to lymphatic development and valve morphogenesis. Collectively, our findings show that Cdk5-Foxc2 interaction represents a critical regulator of lymphatic vessel development and the transcriptional network underlying lymphatic vascular remodeling.

  2. Species-Specific Expression of Full-Length and Alternatively Spliced Variant Forms of CDK5RAP2

    PubMed Central

    Park, John S. Y.; Lee, Marie-Katrina; Kang, SungMyung; Jin, Yan; Fu, Songbin; Rosales, Jesusa L.; Lee, Ki-Young

    2015-01-01

    CDK5RAP2 is one of the primary microcephaly genes that are associated with reduced brain size and mental retardation. We have previously shown that human CDK5RAP2 exists as a full-length form (hCDK5RAP2) or an alternatively spliced variant form (hCDK5RAP2-V1) that is lacking exon 32. The equivalent of hCDK5RAP2-V1 has been reported in rat and mouse but the presence of full-length equivalent hCDK5RAP2 in rat and mouse has not been examined. Here, we demonstrate that rat expresses both a full length and an alternatively spliced variant form of CDK5RAP2 that are equivalent to our previously reported hCDK5RAP2 and hCDK5RAP2-V1, repectively. However, mouse expresses only one form of CDK5RAP2 that is equivalent to the human and rat alternatively spliced variant forms. Knowledge of this expression of different forms of CDK5RAP2 in human, rat and mouse is essential in selecting the appropriate model for studies of CDK5RAP2 and primary microcephaly but our findings further indicate the evolutionary divergence of mouse from the human and rat species. PMID:26550838

  3. Species-Specific Expression of Full-Length and Alternatively Spliced Variant Forms of CDK5RAP2.

    PubMed

    Park, John S Y; Lee, Marie-Katrina; Kang, SungMyung; Jin, Yan; Fu, Songbin; Rosales, Jesusa L; Lee, Ki-Young

    2015-01-01

    CDK5RAP2 is one of the primary microcephaly genes that are associated with reduced brain size and mental retardation. We have previously shown that human CDK5RAP2 exists as a full-length form (hCDK5RAP2) or an alternatively spliced variant form (hCDK5RAP2-V1) that is lacking exon 32. The equivalent of hCDK5RAP2-V1 has been reported in rat and mouse but the presence of full-length equivalent hCDK5RAP2 in rat and mouse has not been examined. Here, we demonstrate that rat expresses both a full length and an alternatively spliced variant form of CDK5RAP2 that are equivalent to our previously reported hCDK5RAP2 and hCDK5RAP2-V1, repectively. However, mouse expresses only one form of CDK5RAP2 that is equivalent to the human and rat alternatively spliced variant forms. Knowledge of this expression of different forms of CDK5RAP2 in human, rat and mouse is essential in selecting the appropriate model for studies of CDK5RAP2 and primary microcephaly but our findings further indicate the evolutionary divergence of mouse from the human and rat species. PMID:26550838

  4. The cell cycle rallies the transcription cycle: Cdc28/Cdk1 is a cell cycle-regulated transcriptional CDK.

    PubMed

    Chymkowitch, Pierre; Enserink, Jorrit M

    2013-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) Kin28, Bur1 and Ctk1 regulate basal transcription by phosphorylating the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. However, very little is known about the involvement of the cell cycle CDK Cdc28 in the transcription process. We have recently shown that, upon cell cycle entry, Cdc28 kinase activity boosts transcription of a subset of genes by directly stimulating the basal transcription machinery. Here, we discuss the biological significance of this finding and give our view of the kinase-dependent role of Cdc28 in regulation of RNA polymerase II.

  5. CDK1 phosphorylates WRN at collapsed replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Valentina; Rinalducci, Sara; Sanchez, Massimo; Grillini, Francesca; Sommers, Joshua A.; Brosh, Robert M.; Zolla, Lello; Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of end-processing is critical for accurate repair and to switch between homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). End resection is a two-stage process but very little is known about regulation of the long-range resection, especially in humans. WRN participates in one of the two alternative long-range resection pathways mediated by DNA2 or EXO1. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation of WRN by CDK1 is essential to perform DNA2-dependent end resection at replication-related DSBs, promoting HR, replication recovery and chromosome stability. Mechanistically, S1133 phosphorylation of WRN is dispensable for relocalization in foci but is involved in the interaction with the MRE11 complex. Loss of WRN phosphorylation negatively affects MRE11 foci formation and acts in a dominant negative manner to prevent long-range resection altogether, thereby licensing NHEJ at collapsed forks. Collectively, we unveil a CDK1-dependent regulation of the WRN-DNA2-mediated resection and identify an undescribed function of WRN as a DSB repair pathway switch. PMID:27634057

  6. CDK1 phosphorylates WRN at collapsed replication forks.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Valentina; Rinalducci, Sara; Sanchez, Massimo; Grillini, Francesca; Sommers, Joshua A; Brosh, Robert M; Zolla, Lello; Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of end-processing is critical for accurate repair and to switch between homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). End resection is a two-stage process but very little is known about regulation of the long-range resection, especially in humans. WRN participates in one of the two alternative long-range resection pathways mediated by DNA2 or EXO1. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation of WRN by CDK1 is essential to perform DNA2-dependent end resection at replication-related DSBs, promoting HR, replication recovery and chromosome stability. Mechanistically, S1133 phosphorylation of WRN is dispensable for relocalization in foci but is involved in the interaction with the MRE11 complex. Loss of WRN phosphorylation negatively affects MRE11 foci formation and acts in a dominant negative manner to prevent long-range resection altogether, thereby licensing NHEJ at collapsed forks. Collectively, we unveil a CDK1-dependent regulation of the WRN-DNA2-mediated resection and identify an undescribed function of WRN as a DSB repair pathway switch. PMID:27634057

  7. C-reactive protein promotes acute kidney injury via Smad3-dependent inhibition of CDK2/cyclin E.

    PubMed

    Lai, Weiyan; Tang, Ying; Huang, Xiao R; Ming-Kuen Tang, Patrick; Xu, Anping; Szalai, Alexander J; Lou, Tan-Qi; Lan, Hui Y

    2016-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is exacerbated in C-reactive protein transgenic mice but alleviated in Smad3 knockout mice. Here we used C-reactive protein transgenic/Smad3 wild-type and C-reactive protein transgenic/Smad3 knockout mice to investigate the signaling mechanisms by which C-reactive protein promotes AKI. Serum creatinine was elevated, and the extent of tubular epithelial cell necrosis following ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI was greater in C-reactive protein transgenics but was blunted when Smad3 was deleted. Exacerbation of AKI in C-reactive protein transgenics was associated with increased TGF-β/Smad3 signaling and expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27, but decreased phosphorylated CDK2 and expression of cyclin E. Concomitantly, tubular epithelial cell proliferation was arrested at the G1 phase in C-reactive protein transgenics with fewer cells entering the S-phase cell cycle as evidenced by fewer bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells. In contrast, the protection from AKI in C-reactive protein transgenic/Smad3 knockout mice was associated with decreased expression of p27 and promotion of CDK2/cyclin E-dependent G1/S transition of tubular epithelial cells. In vitro studies using tubular epithelial cells showed that C-reactive protein activates Smad3 via both TGF-β-dependent and ERK/MAPK cross talk mechanisms, Smad3 bound directly to p27, and blockade of Smad3 or the Fc receptor CD32 prevented C-reactive protein-induced p27-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. In vivo, treatment of C-reactive protein transgenics with a Smad3 inhibitor largely improved AKI outcomes. Thus, C-reactive protein may promote AKI by impairing tubular epithelial cell regeneration via the CD32-Smad3-p27-driven inhibition of the CDK2/cyclin E complex. Targeting Smad3 may offer a new treatment approach for AKI. PMID:27470679

  8. NPM phosphorylation stimulates Cdk1, overrides G2/M checkpoint and increases leukemic blasts in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Zhou, Yun; Pike, Suzette; Pang, Qishen

    2010-02-01

    An elevated level of nucleophosmin (NPM) is often found in actively proliferative cells including human tumors. To identify the regulatory role for NPM phosphorylation in proliferation and cell cycle control, a series of mutants targeting the consensus cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation sites was created to mimic or abrogate either single-site or multi-site phosphorylation. Simultaneous inactivation of two CDK phosphorylation sites at Ser10 and Ser70 (NPM-AA) induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, phosphorylation of Cdk1 at Tyr15 (Cdc2(Tyr15)) and increased cytoplasmic accumulation of Cdc25C. Strikingly, stress-induced Cdk1(Tyr15) and Cdc25C sequestration was suppressed by expression of a phosphomimetic NPM mutant created on the same CDK sites (S10E/S70E, NPM-EE). Further analysis revealed that phosphorylation of NPM at both Ser10 and Ser70 was required for proper interaction between Cdk1 and Cdc25C. Moreover, NPM-EE directly bound to Cdc25C and prevented phosphorylation of Cdc25C at Ser216 during mitosis. Finally, NPM-EE overrided stress-induced G(2)/M arrest and increased leukemia blasts in a NOD/SCID xenograft model. Thus, these findings reveal a novel function of NPM on regulation of cell cycle progression, in which phosphorylation of NPM controls cell cycle progression at G(2)/M transition through modulation of Cdk1 and Cdc25C activities.

  9. CDK8 kinase phosphorylates transcription factor STAT1 to selectively regulate the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Bancerek, Joanna; Poss, Zachary C; Steinparzer, Iris; Sedlyarov, Vitaly; Pfaffenwimmer, Thaddäus; Mikulic, Ivana; Dölken, Lars; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias; Taatjes, Dylan J; Kovarik, Pavel

    2013-02-21

    Gene regulation by cytokine-activated transcription factors of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family requires serine phosphorylation within the transactivation domain (TAD). STAT1 and STAT3 TAD phosphorylation occurs upon promoter binding by an unknown kinase. Here, we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module of the Mediator complex phosphorylated regulatory sites within the TADs of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, including S727 within the STAT1 TAD in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. We also observed a CDK8 requirement for IFN-γ-inducible antiviral responses. Microarray analyses revealed that CDK8-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation positively or negatively regulated over 40% of IFN-γ-responsive genes, and RNA polymerase II occupancy correlated with gene expression changes. This divergent regulation occurred despite similar CDK8 occupancy at both S727 phosphorylation-dependent and -independent genes. These data identify CDK8 as a key regulator of STAT1 and antiviral responses and suggest a general role for CDK8 in STAT-mediated transcription. As such, CDK8 represents a promising target for therapeutic manipulation of cytokine responses.

  10. Cdk5 promotes synaptogenesis by regulating the subcellular distribution of the MAGUK family member CASK

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Hsueh, Yi-Ping; Shu, Tianzhi; Liang, Haoya; Tseng, Huang-Chun; Hong, Chen-Jei; Su, Susan C; Volker, Janet; Neve, Rachael L; Yue, David T; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2007-01-01

    Synaptogenesis is a highly regulated process that underlies formation of neural circuitry. Considerable work has demonstrated the capability of some adhesion molecules, such as SynCAM and Neurexins/Neuroligins, to induce synapse formation in vitro. Furthermore, Cdk5 gain-of-function results in an increased number of synapses in vivo. To gain a better understanding of how Cdk5 might promote synaptogenesis, we investigated potential crosstalk between Cdk5 and the cascade of events mediated by synapse-inducing proteins. One protein recruited to developing terminals by SynCAM and Neurexins/Neuroligins is the MAGUK family member CASK. We found that Cdk5 phosphorylates and regulates CASK distribution to membranes. In the absence of Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation, CASK is not recruited to developing synapses and thus fails to interact with essential presynaptic components. Functional consequences include alterations in calcium influx. Mechanistically, Cdk5 regulates the interaction between CASK and liprin-α. These results provide a molecular explanation of how Cdk5 can promote synaptogenesis. PMID:18054859

  11. The Drosophila Cyclin D–Cdk4 complex promotes cellular growth

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Sanjeev A.; Jacobs, Henning W.; de la Cruz, Aida Flor A.; Lehner, Christian F.; Edgar, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cyclin D–Cdk4 complexes have been characterized as growth factor-responsive cell cycle regulators. Their levels rise upon growth factor stimulation, and they can phosphorylate and thus neutralize Retinoblastoma (Rb) family proteins to promote an E2F-dependent transcriptional program and S-phase entry. Here we characterize the in vivo function of Drosophila Cyclin D (CycD). We find that Drosophila CycD–Cdk4 does not act as a direct G1/S-phase regulator, but instead promotes cellular growth (accumulation of mass). The cellular response to CycD–Cdk4-driven growth varied according to cell type. In undifferentiated proliferating wing imaginal cells, CycD–Cdk4 caused accelerated cell division (hyperplasia) without affecting cell cycle phasing or cell size. In endoreplicating salivary gland cells, CycD–Cdk4 caused excessive DNA replication and cell enlargement (hypertrophy). In differentiating eyes, CycD–Cdk4 caused cell enlargement (hypertrophy) in post-mitotic cells. Interaction tests with a Drosophila Rb homolog, RBF, indicate that CycD–Cdk4 can counteract the cell cycle suppressive effects of RBF, but that its growth promoting activity is mediated at least in part via other targets. PMID:10970848

  12. CDK14 expression is down-regulated by cigarette smoke in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Daniel; Xiao, Yuxuan; Shrivasatava, Vibha; Levy, Avi; Andrusier, Miriam; D’Armiento, Jeanine; Holz, Marina K.; Vigodner, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this study, DNA arrays have been employed to monitor gene expression patterns in testis of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 24 weeks and compared to control animals. The results of the analysis revealed significant changes in expression of several genes that may have a role in spermatogenesis. Cdk14 was chosen for further characterization because of a suggested role in the testis and in regulation of Wnt signaling. RT-PCR analysis confirmed down regulation of Cdk14 in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Cdk14 is expressed in all testicular cells; spermatogonia- and Sertoli-derived cell lines treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro showed down-regulation of CDK14 mRNA and protein levels as well as down-regulation of β-catenin levels. CS-induced down-regulation of CDK14 mRNA and protein levels was also observed in several lung epithelium-derived cell lines including primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), suggesting that the effect is not restricted to the testis. Similar to testicular cells, CS-induced down-regulation of CDK14 in lung cells correlated with decreased levels of β-catenin, a finding suggesting impaired Wnt signaling. In the lungs, CDK14 was localized to the alveolar and bronchial epithelium. PMID:25680692

  13. Cdk1 plays matchmaker for the Polo-like kinase and its activator SPAT-1/Bora

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Nicolas; Panbianco, Costanza; Gotta, Monica; Pintard, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Mitosis is orchestrated by several protein kinases including Cdks, Plks and Aurora kinases. Despite considerable progress toward understanding the individual function of these protein kinases, how their activity is coordinated in space and time during mitosis is less well understood. In a recent article published in the Journal of Cell Biology, we show that CDK-1 regulates PLK-1 activity during mitosis in C. elegans embryos through multisite phosphorylation of the PLK-1 activator SPAT-1 (Aurora Borealis, Bora in human). SPAT-1 variants mutated on CDK-1 phosphorylation sites results in severe delays in mitotic entry, mimicking embryos lacking spat-1 or plk-1 function. We further show that SPAT-1 phosphorylation by CDK-1 promotes its binding to PLK-1 and stimulates PLK-1 phosphorylation on its activator T-loop by Aurora A kinase in vitro. Likewise, we find that phosphorylation of Bora by Cdk1 promotes phosphorylation of human Plk1 by Aurora A suggesting that this mechanism is conserved in humans. These results indicate that Cdk1 regulates Plk1 by boosting its kinase activity. Here we discuss these recent findings and open questions regarding the regulation of Plk1/PLK-1 by Cdk1/CDK-1 and Bora/SPAT-1. PMID:26038951

  14. Cdk1 plays matchmaker for the Polo-like kinase and its activator SPAT-1/Bora.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Nicolas; Panbianco, Costanza; Gotta, Monica; Pintard, Lionel

    2015-08-01

    Mitosis is orchestrated by several protein kinases including Cdks, Plks and Aurora kinases. Despite considerable progress toward understanding the individual function of these protein kinases, how their activity is coordinated in space and time during mitosis is less well understood. In a recent article published in the Journal of Cell Biology, we show that CDK-1 regulates PLK-1 activity during mitosis in C. elegans embryos through multisite phosphorylation of the PLK-1 activator SPAT-1 (Aurora Borealis, Bora in human). SPAT-1 variants mutated on CDK-1 phosphorylation sites results in severe delays in mitotic entry, mimicking embryos lacking spat-1 or plk-1 function. We further show that SPAT-1 phosphorylation by CDK-1 promotes its binding to PLK-1 and stimulates PLK-1 phosphorylation on its activator T-loop by Aurora A kinase in vitro. Likewise, we find that phosphorylation of Bora by Cdk1 promotes phosphorylation of human Plk1 by Aurora A suggesting that this mechanism is conserved in humans. These results indicate that Cdk1 regulates Plk1 by boosting its kinase activity. Here we discuss these recent findings and open questions regarding the regulation of Plk1/PLK-1 by Cdk1/CDK-1 and Bora/SPAT-1. PMID:26038951

  15. Identification of tyrosine hydroxylase as a physiological substrate for Cdk5.

    PubMed

    Kansy, Janice W; Daubner, S Colette; Nishi, Akinori; Sotogaku, Naoki; Lloyd, Michael D; Nguyen, Chan; Lu, Lin; Haycock, John W; Hope, Bruce T; Fitzpatrick, Paul F; Bibb, James A

    2004-10-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is emerging as a neuronal protein kinase involved in multiple aspects of neurotransmission in both post- and presynaptic compartments. Within the reward/motor circuitry of the basal ganglia, Cdk5 regulates dopamine neurotransmission via phosphorylation of the postsynaptic signal transduction pathway integrator, DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein, M(r) 32,000). Cdk5 has also been implicated in regulating various steps in the presynaptic vesicle cycle. Here we report that Cdk5 phosphorylates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the key enzyme for synthesis of dopamine. Using phosphopeptide mapping, site-directed mutagenesis, and phosphorylation state-specific antibodies, the site was identified as Ser31, a previously defined extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) site. The phosphorylation of Ser31 by Cdk5 versus ERK1/2 was investigated in intact mouse striatal tissue using a pharmacological approach. The results indicated that Cdk5 phosphorylates TH directly and also regulates ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of TH through the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1). Finally, phospho-Ser31 TH levels were increased in dopaminergic neurons of rats trained to chronically self-administer cocaine. These results demonstrate direct and indirect regulation of the phosphorylation state of a Cdk5/ERK1/2 site on TH and suggest a role for these pathways in the neuroadaptive changes associated with chronic cocaine exposure.

  16. A 24-Residue Peptide (p5), Derived from p35, the Cdk5 Neuronal Activator, Specifically Inhibits Cdk5-p25 Hyperactivity and Tau Hyperphosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Amin, Niranjana D.; Hu, Ya-Fang; Rudrabhatla, Parvathi; Shukla, Varsha; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Kesavapany, Sashi; Grant, Philip; Albers, Wayne; Pant, Harish C.

    2010-01-01

    The activity of Cdk5-p35 is tightly regulated in the developing and mature nervous system. Stress-induced cleavage of the activator p35 to p25 and a p10 N-terminal domain induces deregulated Cdk5 hyperactivity and perikaryal aggregations of hyperphosphorylated Tau and neurofilaments, pathogenic hallmarks in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respectively. Previously, we identified a 125-residue truncated fragment of p35 called CIP that effectively and specifically inhibited Cdk5-p25 activity and Tau hyperphosphorylation induced by Aβ peptides in vitro, in HEK293 cells, and in neuronal cells. Although these results offer a possible therapeutic approach to those neurodegenerative diseases assumed to derive from Cdk5-p25 hyperactivity and/or Aβ induced pathology, CIP is too large for successful therapeutic regimens. To identify a smaller, more effective peptide, in this study we prepared a 24-residue peptide, p5, spanning CIP residues Lys245–Ala277. p5 more effectively inhibited Cdk5-p25 activity than did CIP in vitro. In neuron cells, p5 inhibited deregulated Cdk5-p25 activity but had no effect on the activity of endogenous Cdk5-p35 or on any related endogenous cyclin-dependent kinases in HEK293 cells. Specificity of p5 inhibition in cortical neurons may depend on the p10 domain in p35, which is absent in p25. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that p5 reduced Aβ(1–42)-induced Tau hyperphosphorylation and apoptosis in cortical neurons. These results suggest that p5 peptide may be a unique and useful candidate for therapeutic studies of certain neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20720012

  17. Multipotent neurogenic fate of mesenchymal stem cell is determined by Cdk4-mediated hypophosphorylation of Smad-STAT3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Janet; Kang, Dongrim; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Kim, Yoon-Ja; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Kim, Dong-Ik; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) in complex with a corresponding cyclin plays a pivotal role in neurogenic differentiation. In particular, Cdk4 activity acts as a signaling switch to direct human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to neural transdifferentiation. However, the molecular evidence of how Cdk4 activity converts MSCs to neurogenic lineage remains unknown. Here, we found that Cdk4 inhibition in human MSCs enriches the populations of neural stem and progenitor pools rather than differentiated glial and neuronal cell pools. Interestingly, Cdk4 inhibition directly inactivates Smads and subsequently STAT3 signaling by hypophosphorylation, and both Cdk4 and Smads levels are linked during the processes of neural transdifferentiation and differentiation. In summary, our results provide novel molecular evidence in which Cdk4 inhibition leads to directing human MSCs to a multipotent neurogenic fate by inactivating Smads-STAT3 signaling. PMID:27192561

  18. Methods Of Using Chemical Libraries To Search For New Kinase Inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S. , Schultz, Peter , Wodicka, Lisa , Meijer, Laurent , Lockhart, David J.

    2003-06-03

    The generation of selective inhibitors for specific protein kinases would provide new tools for analyzing signal transduction pathways and possibly new therapeutic agents. We have invented an approach to the development of selective protein kinase inhibitors based on the unexpected binding mode of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines to the ATP binding site of human CDK2. The most potent inhibitor, purvalanol B (IC.sub.50 =6 nM), binds with a 30-fold greater affinity than the known CDK2 inhibitor, flavopiridol. The cellular effects of this class of compounds were examined and compared to those of flavopiridol by monitoring changes in mRNA expression levels for all genes in treated cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays.

  19. Cdk5 at crossroads of protein oligomerization in neurodegenerative diseases: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Wilkaniec, Anna; Czapski, Grzegorz A; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is involved in proper neurodevelopment and brain function and serves as a switch between neuronal survival and death. Overactivation of Cdk5 is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. It is believed that in those diseases Cdk5 may be an important link between disease-initiating factors and cell death effectors. A common hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders is incorrect folding of specific proteins, thus leading to their intra- and extracellular accumulation in the nervous system. Abnormal Cdk5 signaling contributes to dysfunction of individual proteins and has a substantial role in either direct or indirect interactions of proteins common to, and critical in, different neurodegenerative diseases. While the roles of Cdk5 in α-synuclein (ASN) - tau or β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) - tau interactions are well documented, its contribution to many other pertinent interactions, such as that of ASN with Aβ, or interactions of the Aβ - ASN - tau triad with prion proteins, did not get beyond plausible hypotheses and remains to be proven. Understanding of the exact position of Cdk5 in the deleterious feed-forward loop critical for development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases may help designing successful therapeutic strategies of several fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. It is believed that in those diseases Cdk5 may be an important factor involved in protein misfolding, toxicity and interaction. We suggest that Cdk5 may contribute to the vicious circle of neurotoxic events involved in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26376455

  20. Cdk5 at crossroads of protein oligomerization in neurodegenerative diseases: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Wilkaniec, Anna; Czapski, Grzegorz A; Adamczyk, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is involved in proper neurodevelopment and brain function and serves as a switch between neuronal survival and death. Overactivation of Cdk5 is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. It is believed that in those diseases Cdk5 may be an important link between disease-initiating factors and cell death effectors. A common hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders is incorrect folding of specific proteins, thus leading to their intra- and extracellular accumulation in the nervous system. Abnormal Cdk5 signaling contributes to dysfunction of individual proteins and has a substantial role in either direct or indirect interactions of proteins common to, and critical in, different neurodegenerative diseases. While the roles of Cdk5 in α-synuclein (ASN) - tau or β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) - tau interactions are well documented, its contribution to many other pertinent interactions, such as that of ASN with Aβ, or interactions of the Aβ - ASN - tau triad with prion proteins, did not get beyond plausible hypotheses and remains to be proven. Understanding of the exact position of Cdk5 in the deleterious feed-forward loop critical for development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases may help designing successful therapeutic strategies of several fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. It is believed that in those diseases Cdk5 may be an important factor involved in protein misfolding, toxicity and interaction. We suggest that Cdk5 may contribute to the vicious circle of neurotoxic events involved in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Cdk8 deletion in the Apc(Min) murine tumour model represses EZH2 activity and accelerates tumourigenesis.

    PubMed

    McCleland, Mark L; Soukup, Tim M; Liu, Scot D; Esensten, Jonathan H; de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Yaylaoglu, Murat; Warming, Soren; Roose-Girma, Merone; Firestein, Ron

    2015-12-01

    CDK8 is a dissociable kinase module of the Mediator complex and has been shown to play an important role in transcriptional regulation in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans. Recent studies suggest that CDK8 functions as an oncoprotein in melanoma and colon cancer. Importantly, these studies were conducted using in vitro cell line models and the role of CDK8 in tumourigenesis in vivo has not been explored. We have generated a mouse with a Cdk8 conditional knockout allele and examined the consequences of Cdk8 loss on normal tissue homeostasis and tumour development in vivo. Cdk8 deletion in the young adult mouse did not induce any gross or histopathological abnormalities, implying that Cdk8 is largely dispensable for somatic cellular homeostasis. In contrast, Cdk8 deletion in the Apc(Min) intestinal tumour model shortened the animals' survival and increased tumour burden. Although Cdk8 deletion did not affect tumour initiation, intestinal tumour size and growth rate were significantly increased in Cdk8-null animals. Transcriptome analysis performed on Cdk8-null intestinal cells revealed up-regulation of genes that are governed by the Polycomb group (PcG) complex. In support of these findings, Cdk8-null intestinal cells and tumours displayed a reduction in histone H3K27 trimethylation, both globally and at the promoters of a number of PcG-regulated genes involved in oncogenic signalling. Together, our findings uncover a tumour suppressor function for CDK8 in vivo and suggest that the role of CDK8 activity in driving oncogenesis is context-specific. Sequencing data were deposited at GEO (Accession No. GSE71385).

  2. Low Expression of CDK5 and p27 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Qin; Xie, Jian-Wei; Chen, Peng-Chen; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong; Lin, Yao; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that CDK5 or p27 expression in gastric cancer are associated with overall survival. We have previously reported that tumor suppressive function of CDK5 is related to p27. The aim of this study was to investigate correlation between the clinicopathological parameters and overall survival with different CDK5/p27 expression statuses in 244 gastric cancer patients using immunohistochemistry. Low CDK5 expression was detected in 93 cases (38.11%) and low p27 in 157 cases (64.34%). The expression of CDK5 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.034) and Lauren's classification (P = 0.013). The expression of p27 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.012), differentiation (P = 0.003), TNM stage (P = 0.013) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Based on the combined expression of CDK5 and p27, we classified the patients into four subtypes: CDK5 Low/p27 Low (n = 69), CDK5 High/p27 Low (n = 88), CDK5 Low/p27 High (n = 24) and CDK5 High/p27 High (n = 63). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low expression was closely related to female (P = 0.026), diffuse type (P = 0.027) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.010). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low patients displayed poorer survival in comparison with the rest of the patients in Kaplan-Meier analysis. No significant overall survival difference was observed among the patients with CDK5 High and/or p27 High expression. In the multivariate analysis, CDK5 and p27 co-expression status was identified as an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27326247

  3. Low Expression of CDK5 and p27 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Qin; Xie, Jian-Wei; Chen, Peng-Chen; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Lu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Tu, Ru-Hong; Lin, Yao; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that CDK5 or p27 expression in gastric cancer are associated with overall survival. We have previously reported that tumor suppressive function of CDK5 is related to p27. The aim of this study was to investigate correlation between the clinicopathological parameters and overall survival with different CDK5/p27 expression statuses in 244 gastric cancer patients using immunohistochemistry. Low CDK5 expression was detected in 93 cases (38.11%) and low p27 in 157 cases (64.34%). The expression of CDK5 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.034) and Lauren's classification (P = 0.013). The expression of p27 was significantly related to sex (P = 0.012), differentiation (P = 0.003), TNM stage (P = 0.013) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Based on the combined expression of CDK5 and p27, we classified the patients into four subtypes: CDK5 Low/p27 Low (n = 69), CDK5 High/p27 Low (n = 88), CDK5 Low/p27 High (n = 24) and CDK5 High/p27 High (n = 63). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low expression was closely related to female (P = 0.026), diffuse type (P = 0.027) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.010). The CDK5 Low/p27 Low patients displayed poorer survival in comparison with the rest of the patients in Kaplan-Meier analysis. No significant overall survival difference was observed among the patients with CDK5 High and/or p27 High expression. In the multivariate analysis, CDK5 and p27 co-expression status was identified as an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27326247

  4. Cdk8 deletion in the Apc(Min) murine tumour model represses EZH2 activity and accelerates tumourigenesis.

    PubMed

    McCleland, Mark L; Soukup, Tim M; Liu, Scot D; Esensten, Jonathan H; de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Yaylaoglu, Murat; Warming, Soren; Roose-Girma, Merone; Firestein, Ron

    2015-12-01

    CDK8 is a dissociable kinase module of the Mediator complex and has been shown to play an important role in transcriptional regulation in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans. Recent studies suggest that CDK8 functions as an oncoprotein in melanoma and colon cancer. Importantly, these studies were conducted using in vitro cell line models and the role of CDK8 in tumourigenesis in vivo has not been explored. We have generated a mouse with a Cdk8 conditional knockout allele and examined the consequences of Cdk8 loss on normal tissue homeostasis and tumour development in vivo. Cdk8 deletion in the young adult mouse did not induce any gross or histopathological abnormalities, implying that Cdk8 is largely dispensable for somatic cellular homeostasis. In contrast, Cdk8 deletion in the Apc(Min) intestinal tumour model shortened the animals' survival and increased tumour burden. Although Cdk8 deletion did not affect tumour initiation, intestinal tumour size and growth rate were significantly increased in Cdk8-null animals. Transcriptome analysis performed on Cdk8-null intestinal cells revealed up-regulation of genes that are governed by the Polycomb group (PcG) complex. In support of these findings, Cdk8-null intestinal cells and tumours displayed a reduction in histone H3K27 trimethylation, both globally and at the promoters of a number of PcG-regulated genes involved in oncogenic signalling. Together, our findings uncover a tumour suppressor function for CDK8 in vivo and suggest that the role of CDK8 activity in driving oncogenesis is context-specific. Sequencing data were deposited at GEO (Accession No. GSE71385). PMID:26235356

  5. CDK9-mediated transcription elongation is required for MYC addiction in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Lujambio, Amaia; Zuber, Johannes; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F.; Doran, Michael G.; Evans, Michael J.; Kitzing, Thomas; Zhu, Nan; de Stanchina, Elisa; Sawyers, Charles L.; Armstrong, Scott A.; Lewis, Jason S.; Sherr, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    One-year survival rates for newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are <50%, and unresectable HCC carries a dismal prognosis owing to its aggressiveness and the undruggable nature of its main genetic drivers. By screening a custom library of shRNAs directed toward known drug targets in a genetically defined Myc-driven HCC model, we identified cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) as required for disease maintenance. Pharmacological or shRNA-mediated CDK9 inhibition led to robust anti-tumor effects that correlated with MYC expression levels and depended on the role that both CDK9 and MYC exert in transcription elongation. Our results establish CDK9 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy for MYC-overexpressing liver tumors and highlight the relevance of transcription elongation in the addiction of cancer cells to MYC. PMID:25128497

  6. Fimbrin phosphorylation by metaphase Cdk1 regulates actin cable dynamics in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yansong; Han, Xuemei; Zheng, Liangzhen; Xie, Ying; Mu, Yuguang; Yates, John R; Drubin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Actin cables, composed of actin filament bundles nucleated by formins, mediate intracellular transport for cell polarity establishment and maintenance. We previously observed that metaphase cells preferentially promote actin cable assembly through cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity. However, the relevant metaphase Cdk1 targets were not known. Here we show that the highly conserved actin filament crosslinking protein fimbrin is a critical Cdk1 target for actin cable assembly regulation in budding yeast. Fimbrin is specifically phosphorylated on threonine 103 by the metaphase cyclin-Cdk1 complex, in vivo and in vitro. On the basis of conformational simulations, we suggest that this phosphorylation stabilizes fimbrin's N-terminal domain, and modulates actin filament binding to regulate actin cable assembly and stability in cells. Overall, this work identifies fimbrin as a key target for cell cycle regulation of actin cable assembly in budding yeast, and suggests an underlying mechanism.

  7. Fimbrin phosphorylation by metaphase Cdk1 regulates actin cable dynamics in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yansong; Han, Xuemei; Zheng, Liangzhen; Xie, Ying; Mu, Yuguang; Yates, John R; Drubin, David G

    2016-01-01

    Actin cables, composed of actin filament bundles nucleated by formins, mediate intracellular transport for cell polarity establishment and maintenance. We previously observed that metaphase cells preferentially promote actin cable assembly through cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity. However, the relevant metaphase Cdk1 targets were not known. Here we show that the highly conserved actin filament crosslinking protein fimbrin is a critical Cdk1 target for actin cable assembly regulation in budding yeast. Fimbrin is specifically phosphorylated on threonine 103 by the metaphase cyclin-Cdk1 complex, in vivo and in vitro. On the basis of conformational simulations, we suggest that this phosphorylation stabilizes fimbrin's N-terminal domain, and modulates actin filament binding to regulate actin cable assembly and stability in cells. Overall, this work identifies fimbrin as a key target for cell cycle regulation of actin cable assembly in budding yeast, and suggests an underlying mechanism. PMID:27068241

  8. Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH.

    PubMed

    Shiekhattar, R; Mermelstein, F; Fisher, R P; Drapkin, R; Dynlacht, B; Wessling, H C; Morgan, D O; Reinberg, D

    1995-03-16

    Transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) contains a kinase capable of phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Here we report the identification of the Cdk-activating kinase (Cak) complex (Cdk7 and cyclin H) as a component of TFIIH after extensive purification of TFIIH by chromatography. We find that affinity-purified antibodies directed against cyclin H inhibit TFIIH-dependent transcription and that both cyclin H and Cdk7 antibodies inhibit phosphorylation of the CTD of the largest subunit of the RNAPII in the preinitiation complex. Cak is present in at least two distinct complexes, TFIIH and a smaller complex that is unable to phosphorylate RNAPII in the preinitiation complex. Both Cak complexes, as well as recombinant Cak, phosphorylate a CTD peptide. Finally, TFIIH was shown to phosphorylate both Cdc2 and Cdk2, suggesting that there could be a link between transcription and the cell cycle machinery.

  9. Fimbrin phosphorylation by metaphase Cdk1 regulates actin cable dynamics in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yansong; Han, Xuemei; Zheng, Liangzhen; Xie, Ying; Mu, Yuguang; Yates, John R.; Drubin, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Actin cables, composed of actin filament bundles nucleated by formins, mediate intracellular transport for cell polarity establishment and maintenance. We previously observed that metaphase cells preferentially promote actin cable assembly through cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity. However, the relevant metaphase Cdk1 targets were not known. Here we show that the highly conserved actin filament crosslinking protein fimbrin is a critical Cdk1 target for actin cable assembly regulation in budding yeast. Fimbrin is specifically phosphorylated on threonine 103 by the metaphase cyclin–Cdk1 complex, in vivo and in vitro. On the basis of conformational simulations, we suggest that this phosphorylation stabilizes fimbrin's N-terminal domain, and modulates actin filament binding to regulate actin cable assembly and stability in cells. Overall, this work identifies fimbrin as a key target for cell cycle regulation of actin cable assembly in budding yeast, and suggests an underlying mechanism. PMID:27068241

  10. Role of Cdk5 in neuronal signaling, plasticity, and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Bibb, James A

    2003-01-01

    Functional and structural neuronal plasticity are mediated by a complex network of biochemical signal transduction pathways that control the strength of specific synapses and the formation of new synapses de novo. The neuronal protein kinase Cdk5 has been implicated as being involved in numerous aspects of both functional and structural plasticity through its regulation of signal transduction pathways. In this review the findings of a number of studies are summarized that have advanced our understanding of how Cdk5 may be involved in these processes. We focus on the modulation of protein phosphatase activity in both the hippocampus and basal ganglia, and review findings that indicate Cdk5 is likely to regulate neuronal plasticity in these brain regions. Studies showing involvement of Cdk5 in reward and motor-based plasticity, which are thought to underlie drug abuse, are discussed.

  11. CDK5 is essential for TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qian; Li, Lili; Zhang, Jianchao; Lei, Yang; Wang, Liping; Liu, Dong-Xu; Feng, Jingxin; Hou, Pingfu; Yao, Ruosi; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a change of cellular plasticity critical for embryonic development and tumor metastasis. CDK5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase playing important roles in cancer progression. Here we show that CDK5 is commonly overexpressed and significantly correlated with several poor prognostic parameters of breast cancer. We found that CDK5 participated in TGF-β1-induced EMT. In MCF10A, TGF-β1 upregulated the CDK5 and p35 expression, and CDK5 knockdown inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT. CDK5 overexpression also exhibited a potential synergy in promoting TGF-β1-induced EMT. In mesenchymal breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and BT549, CDK5 knockdown suppressed cell motility and tumorigenesis. We further demonstrated that CDK5 modulated cancer cell migration and tumor formation by regulating the phosphorylation of FAK at Ser-732. Therefore, CDK5-FAK pathway, as a downstream step of TGF-β1 signaling, is essential for EMT and motility in breast cancer cells. This study implicates the potential value of CDK5 as a molecular marker for breast cancer. PMID:24121667

  12. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M.; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E.; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval–pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval–pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval–pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  13. Selective CDK4/6 inhibition with tumor responses by PD0332991 in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Leonard, John P; LaCasce, Ann S; Smith, Mitchell R; Noy, Ariela; Chirieac, Lucian R; Rodig, Scott J; Yu, Jian Q; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Schoder, Heiko; English, Patricia; Neuberg, Donna S; Martin, Peter; Millenson, Michael M; Ely, Scott A; Courtney, Rachel; Shaik, Naveed; Wilner, Keith D; Randolph, Sophia; Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Chen-Kiang, Selina Y; Yap, Jeffrey T; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2012-05-17

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) carries an unfavorable prognosis and requires new treatment strategies. The associated t(11:14) translocation results in enhanced cyclin D1 expression and cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity to promote cell-cycle progression. A pharmacodynamic study of the selective CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991 was conducted in 17 patients with relapsed disease, using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and 3-deoxy-3[(18)F]fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) to study tumor metabolism and proliferation, respectively, in concert with pre- and on-treatment lymph node biopsies to assess retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Substantial reductions in the summed FLT-PET maximal standard uptake value (SUV(max)), as well as in Rb phosphorylation and Ki-67 expression, occurred after 3 weeks in most patients, with significant correlations among these end points. Five patients achieved progression-free survival time of > 1 year (range, 14.9-30.1+ months), with 1 complete and 2 partial responses (18% objective response rate; 90% confidence interval, 5%-40%). These patients demonstrated > 70%, > 90%, and ≥ 87.5% reductions in summed FLT SUV(max) and expression of phospho-Rb and Ki67, respectively, parameters necessary but not sufficient for long-term disease control. The results of the present study confirm CDK4/6 inhibition by PD0332991 at a well-tolerated dose and schedule and suggest clinical benefit in a subset of MCL patients. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00420056.

  14. p35 and Rac1 underlie the neuroprotection and cognitive improvement induced by CDK5 silencing.

    PubMed

    Posada-Duque, Rafael Andres; López-Tobón, Alejandro; Piedrahita, Diego; González-Billault, Christian; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria Patricia

    2015-07-01

    CDK5 plays an important role in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in the normal function of the adult brain, and dysregulation can lead to Tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive impairment. In a previous study, we demonstrated that RNAi knock down of CDK5 reduced the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and prevented neuronal loss in triple transgenic Alzheimer's mice. Here, we report that CDK5 RNAi protected against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity using primary hippocampal neurons transduced with adeno-associated virus 2.5 viral vector eGFP-tagged scrambled or CDK5 shRNA-miR during 12 days. Protection was dependent on a concomitant increase in p35 and was reversed using p35 RNAi, which affected the down-stream Rho GTPase activity. Furthermore, p35 over-expression and constitutively active Rac1 mimicked CDK5 silencing-induced neuroprotection. In addition, 3xTg-Alzheimer's disease mice (24 months old) were injected in the hippocampus with scrambled or CDK5 shRNA-miR, and spatial learning and memory were performed 3 weeks post-injection using 'Morris' water maze test. Our data showed that CDK5 knock down induced an increase in p35 protein levels and Rac activity in triple transgenic Alzheimer's mice, which correlated with the recovery of cognitive function; these findings confirm that increased p35 and active Rac are involved in neuroprotection. In summary, our data suggest that p35 acts as a mediator of Rho GTPase activity and contributes to the neuroprotection induced by CDK5 RNAi. PMID:25864429

  15. Cell-cell contact regulates gene expression in CDK4-transformed mouse podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sakairi, Toru; Abe, Yoshifusa; Jat, Parmijit S.

    2010-01-01

    We transformed mouse podocytes by ectopic expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Compared with podocytes transformed with a thermo-sensitive SV40 large T antigen mutant tsA58U19 (tsT podocytes), podocytes transformed with CDK4 (CDK4 podocytes) exhibited significantly higher expression of nephrin mRNA. Synaptopodin mRNA expression was significantly lower in CDK4 podocytes and in tsT podocytes under growth-permissive conditions (33°C) compared with tsT podocytes under growth-restricted conditions (37°C), which suggests a role for cell cycle arrest in synaptopodin mRNA expression. Confluent CDK4 podocytes showed significantly higher mRNA expression levels for nephrin, synaptopodin, Wilms tumor 1, podocalyxin, and P-cadherin compared with subconfluent cultures. We carried out experiments to clarify roles of various factors in the confluent podocyte cultures; our findings indicate that cell-cell contact promotes expression of five podocyte marker genes studied, that cellular quiescence increases synaptopodin and podocalyxin mRNA expression, and that soluble factors play a role in nephrin mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that CDK4 podocytes are useful tools to study podocyte biology. Furthermore, the role of cell-cell contact in podocyte gene expression may have relevance for podocyte function in vivo. PMID:20668098

  16. Cdk5 Modulates Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity and Motor Learning in Dorsolateral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Adan; Tan, Chunfeng; Mettlach, Gabriel; Pozo, Karine; Plattner, Florian; Bibb, James A

    2016-01-01

    The striatum controls multiple cognitive aspects including motivation, reward perception, decision-making and motor planning. In particular, the dorsolateral striatum contributes to motor learning. Here we define an approach for investigating synaptic plasticity in mouse dorsolateral cortico-striatal circuitry and interrogate the relative contributions of neurotransmitter receptors and intracellular signaling components. Consistent with previous studies, we show that long-term potentiation (LTP) in cortico-striatal circuitry is facilitated by dopamine, and requires activation of D1-dopamine receptors, as well as NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and their calcium-dependent downstream effectors, including CaMKII. Moreover, we assessed the contribution of the protein kinase Cdk5, a key neuronal signaling molecule, in cortico-striatal LTP. Pharmacological Cdk5 inhibition, brain-wide Cdk5 conditional knockout, or viral-mediated dorsolateral striatal-specific loss of Cdk5 all impaired dopamine-facilitated LTP or D1-dopamine receptor-facilitated LTP. Selective loss of Cdk5 in dorsolateral striatum increased locomotor activity and attenuated motor learning. Taken together, we report an approach for studying synaptic plasticity in mouse dorsolateral striatum and critically implicate D1-dopamine receptor, NMDAR, Cdk5, and CaMKII in cortico-striatal plasticity. Furthermore, we associate striatal plasticity deficits with effects upon behaviors mediated by this circuitry. This approach should prove useful for the study of the molecular basis of plasticity in the dorsolateral striatum. PMID:27443506

  17. Phosphorylation of CHIP at Ser20 by Cdk5 promotes tAIF-mediated neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kim, C; Yun, N; Lee, J; Youdim, M B H; Ju, C; Kim, W-K; Han, P-L; Oh, Y J

    2016-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase and its dysregulation is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Likewise, C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is linked to neurological disorders, serving as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for targeting damaged or toxic proteins for proteasomal degradation. Here, we demonstrate that CHIP is a novel substrate for Cdk5. Cdk5 phosphorylates CHIP at Ser20 via direct binding to a highly charged domain of CHIP. Co-immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assays reveal that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation disrupts the interaction between CHIP and truncated apoptosis-inducing factor (tAIF) without affecting CHIP's E3 ligase activity, resulting in the inhibition of CHIP-mediated degradation of tAIF. Lentiviral transduction assay shows that knockdown of Cdk5 or overexpression of CHIP(S20A), but not CHIP(WT), attenuates tAIF-mediated neuronal cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Thus, we conclude that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of CHIP negatively regulates its neuroprotective function, thereby contributing to neuronal cell death progression following neurotoxic stimuli.

  18. PLK1-dependent activation of LRRK1 regulates spindle orientation by phosphorylating CDK5RAP2.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, Hiroshi; Kedashiro, Shin; Tezuka, Motohiro; Funatsu, Motoki; Usami, Satoshi; Toyoshima, Fumiko; Matsumoto, Kunihiro

    2015-08-01

    Correct formation of the cell division axis requires the initial precise orientation of the mitotic spindle. Proper spindle orientation depends on centrosome maturation, and Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is known to play a crucial role in this process. However, the molecular mechanisms that function downstream of PLK1 are not well understood. Here we show that LRRK1 is a PLK1 substrate that is phosphorylated on Ser 1790. PLK1 phosphorylation is required for CDK1-mediated activation of LRRK1 at the centrosomes, and this in turn regulates mitotic spindle orientation by nucleating the growth of astral microtubules from the centrosomes. Interestingly, LRRK1 in turn phosphorylates CDK5RAP2(Cep215), a human homologue of Drosophila Centrosomin (Cnn), in its γ-tubulin-binding motif, thus promoting the interaction of CDK5RAP2 with γ-tubulin. LRRK1 phosphorylation of CDK5RAP2 Ser 140 is necessary for CDK5RAP2-dependent microtubule nucleation. Thus, our findings provide evidence that LRRK1 regulates mitotic spindle orientation downstream of PLK1 through CDK5RAP2-dependent centrosome maturation. PMID:26192437

  19. The effect of cdk-5 overexpression on tau phosphorylation and spatial memory of rat.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Yipeng; Wang, Jianzhi

    2004-06-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), hyperphosphorylation of tau may be the underlying mechanism for the cytoskeletal abnormalities and neuronal death. It was reported that cyclin-dependent kinase5 (cdk-5) could phosphorylate tau at most AD-related epitopes in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effect of cdk-5 overexpression on tau phosphorylation and spatial memory in rat. We demonstrated that 24 h after transfection into rat hippocampus, cdk-5 was overexpressed and induced a reduced staining with antibody tau-1 and an enhanced staining with antibodies 12e8 and PHF-1, suggesting hyperphosphorylation of tau at Ser199/202, Ser262/356 and Ser396/404 sites. Additionally, the cdk-5 transfected rats showed long latency to find the hidden platform in Morris water maze compared to the control rat. 48 h after transfection, the level of cdk-5 was decreased significantly, and the latency of rats to find the hidden platform was prolonged. It implies that in vivo overexpression of cdk-5 leads to impairment of spatial memory in rat and tau hyperphosphorylation may be the underlying mechanism.

  20. Cdk5 Modulates Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity and Motor Learning in Dorsolateral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Adan; Tan, Chunfeng; Mettlach, Gabriel; Pozo, Karine; Plattner, Florian; Bibb, James A

    2016-07-22

    The striatum controls multiple cognitive aspects including motivation, reward perception, decision-making and motor planning. In particular, the dorsolateral striatum contributes to motor learning. Here we define an approach for investigating synaptic plasticity in mouse dorsolateral cortico-striatal circuitry and interrogate the relative contributions of neurotransmitter receptors and intracellular signaling components. Consistent with previous studies, we show that long-term potentiation (LTP) in cortico-striatal circuitry is facilitated by dopamine, and requires activation of D1-dopamine receptors, as well as NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and their calcium-dependent downstream effectors, including CaMKII. Moreover, we assessed the contribution of the protein kinase Cdk5, a key neuronal signaling molecule, in cortico-striatal LTP. Pharmacological Cdk5 inhibition, brain-wide Cdk5 conditional knockout, or viral-mediated dorsolateral striatal-specific loss of Cdk5 all impaired dopamine-facilitated LTP or D1-dopamine receptor-facilitated LTP. Selective loss of Cdk5 in dorsolateral striatum increased locomotor activity and attenuated motor learning. Taken together, we report an approach for studying synaptic plasticity in mouse dorsolateral striatum and critically implicate D1-dopamine receptor, NMDAR, Cdk5, and CaMKII in cortico-striatal plasticity. Furthermore, we associate striatal plasticity deficits with effects upon behaviors mediated by this circuitry. This approach should prove useful for the study of the molecular basis of plasticity in the dorsolateral striatum.

  1. Cdk5 Modulates Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity and Motor Learning in Dorsolateral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Adan; Tan, Chunfeng; Mettlach, Gabriel; Pozo, Karine; Plattner, Florian; Bibb, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum controls multiple cognitive aspects including motivation, reward perception, decision-making and motor planning. In particular, the dorsolateral striatum contributes to motor learning. Here we define an approach for investigating synaptic plasticity in mouse dorsolateral cortico-striatal circuitry and interrogate the relative contributions of neurotransmitter receptors and intracellular signaling components. Consistent with previous studies, we show that long-term potentiation (LTP) in cortico-striatal circuitry is facilitated by dopamine, and requires activation of D1-dopamine receptors, as well as NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and their calcium-dependent downstream effectors, including CaMKII. Moreover, we assessed the contribution of the protein kinase Cdk5, a key neuronal signaling molecule, in cortico-striatal LTP. Pharmacological Cdk5 inhibition, brain-wide Cdk5 conditional knockout, or viral-mediated dorsolateral striatal-specific loss of Cdk5 all impaired dopamine-facilitated LTP or D1-dopamine receptor-facilitated LTP. Selective loss of Cdk5 in dorsolateral striatum increased locomotor activity and attenuated motor learning. Taken together, we report an approach for studying synaptic plasticity in mouse dorsolateral striatum and critically implicate D1-dopamine receptor, NMDAR, Cdk5, and CaMKII in cortico-striatal plasticity. Furthermore, we associate striatal plasticity deficits with effects upon behaviors mediated by this circuitry. This approach should prove useful for the study of the molecular basis of plasticity in the dorsolateral striatum. PMID:27443506

  2. Overexpressed cyclin D3 contributes to retaining the growth inhibitor p27 in the cytoplasm of thyroid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarre, Gustavo; Belletti, Barbara; Bruni, Paola; Boccia, Angelo; Trapasso, Francesco; Pentimalli, Francesca; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Vento, Maria Teresa; Spiezia, Stefania; Fusco, Alfredo; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    The majority of thyroid carcinomas maintain the expression of the cell growth suppressor p27, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (Cdk2). However, we find that 80% of p27-expressing tumors show an uncommon cytoplasmic localization of p27 protein, associated with high Cdk2 activity. To reproduce such a situation, a mutant p27 devoid of its COOH-terminal nuclear-localization signal was generated (p27-NLS). p27-NLS accumulates in the cytoplasm and fails to induce growth arrest in 2 different cell lines, indicating that cytoplasm-residing p27 is inactive as a growth inhibitor, presumably because it does not interact with nuclear Cdk2. Overexpression of cyclin D3 may account in part for p27 cytoplasmic localization. In thyroid tumors and cell lines, cyclin D3 expression was associated with cytoplasmic localization of p27. Moreover, expression of cyclin D3 in thyroid carcinoma cells induced cytoplasmic retention of cotransfected p27 and rescued p27-imposed growth arrest. Endogenous p27 also localized prevalently to the cytoplasm in normal thyrocytes engineered to stably overexpress cyclin D3 (PC-D3 cells). In these cells, cyclin D3 induced the formation of cytoplasmic p27–cyclin D3–Cdk complexes, which titrated p27 away from intranuclear complexes that contain cyclins A–E and Cdk2. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism that may contribute to overcoming the p27 inhibitory threshold in transformed thyroid cells. PMID:10510327

  3. CDK6-a review of the past and a glimpse into the future: from cell-cycle control to transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Tigan, A-S; Bellutti, F; Kollmann, K; Tebb, G; Sexl, V

    2016-06-16

    The G1 cell-cycle kinase CDK6 has long been thought of as a redundant homolog of CDK4. Although the two kinases have very similar roles in cell-cycle progression, it has recently become apparent that they differ in tissue-specific functions and contribute differently to tumor development. CDK6 is directly involved in transcription in tumor cells and in hematopoietic stem cells. These functions point to a role of CDK6 in tissue homeostasis and differentiation that is partially independent of CDK6's kinase activity and is not shared with CDK4. We review the literature on the contribution of CDK6 to transcription in an attempt to link the new findings on CDK6's transcriptional activity to cell-cycle progression. Finally, we note that anticancer therapies based on the inhibition of CDK6 kinase activity fail to take into account its kinase-independent role in tumor development.

  4. Multiple Roles of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Patrick J.; Bisi, John E.; Strum, Jay C.; Combest, Austin J.; Darr, David B.; Usary, Jerry E.; Zamboni, William C.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Perou, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate cell proliferation and coordinate the cell cycle checkpoint response to DNA damage. Although inhibitors with varying selectivity to specific CDK family members have been developed, selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have emerged as the most attractive antineoplastic agents because of the importance of CDK4/6 activity in regulating cell proliferation and the toxic effects associated with inhibition of other CDKs (eg, CDK1 and CDK2). Methods FVB/N wild-type mice (n = 13) were used to evaluate carboplatin-induced myelosuppression in bone marrow by complete blood cell counts after treatment with the CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991. Genetically engineered murine models of retinoblastoma (Rb)-competent (MMTV-c-neu) and Rb-incompetent (C3-TAg) breast cancer (n = 16 MMTV-c-neu mice in the carboplatin plus vehicle control group, n = 17 MMTV-c-neu mice in the carboplatin plus PD0332991 group, n = 17 C3-TAg mice in the carboplatin plus vehicle control group, and n = 14 C3-TAg mice in the carboplatin plus PD0332991 group) were used to investigate the antitumor activity of PD0332991 alone or in combination with chemotherapy. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Coadministration of PD0332991 with carboplatin compared with carboplatin alone in FVB/N wild-type mice increased hematocrit (51.2% vs 33.5%, difference = 17.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −26.7% to −8.6%, P < .001), platelet counts (1321 vs 758.5 thousand cells per μL, difference = 562.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = −902.8 to −222.6, P = .002), myeloid cells (granulocytes and monocytes; 3.1 vs 1.6 thousand cells per μL, difference = 1.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = −2.23 to −0.67, P < .001), and lymphocytes (7.9 vs 5.4 thousand cells per μL, difference = 2.5 thousand cells per μL, 95% CI = −4.75 to −0.18, P = .02). Daily administration of PD0332991 exhibited antitumor activity in MMTV-c-neu mice as a single agent. However, the combination of

  5. CDK2 and PKA Mediated-Sequential Phosphorylation Is Critical for p19INK4d Function in the DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Marazita, Mariela C.; Ogara, M. Florencia; Sonzogni, Silvina V.; Martí, Marcelo; Dusetti, Nelson J.; Pignataro, Omar P.; Cánepa, Eduardo T.

    2012-01-01

    DNA damage triggers a phosphorylation-based signaling cascade known as the DNA damage response. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 family of CDK4/6 inhibitors, has been reported to participate in the DNA damage response promoting DNA repair and cell survival. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the activation mechanism of p19INK4d linked to the response to DNA damage. Results showed that p19INK4d becomes phosphorylated following UV radiation, β-amyloid peptide and cisplatin treatments. ATM-Chk2/ATR-Chk1 signaling pathways were found to be differentially involved in p19INK4d phosphorylation depending on the type of DNA damage. Two sequential phosphorylation events at serine 76 and threonine 141 were identified using p19INK4d single-point mutants in metabolic labeling assays with 32P-orthophosphate. CDK2 and PKA were found to participate in p19INK4d phosphorylation process and that they would mediate serine 76 and threonine 141 modifications respectively. Nuclear translocation of p19INK4d induced by DNA damage was shown to be dependent on serine 76 phosphorylation. Most importantly, both phosphorylation sites were found to be crucial for p19INK4d function in DNA repair and cell survival. In contrast, serine 76 and threonine 141 were dispensable for CDK4/6 inhibition highlighting the independence of p19INK4d functions, in agreement with our previous findings. These results constitute the first description of the activation mechanism of p19INK4d in response to genotoxic stress and demonstrate the functional relevance of this activation following DNA damage. PMID:22558186

  6. Cyclin B-Cdk1 Kinase Stimulates ORC- and Cdc6-Independent Steps of Semiconservative Plasmid Replication in Yeast Nuclear Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Bernard P.; Pasero, Philippe; Braguglia, Diego; Heun, Patrick; Weinreich, Michael; Gasser, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells synchronized in S phase support the semiconservative replication of supercoiled plasmids in vitro. We examined the dependence of this reaction on the prereplicative complex that assembles at yeast origins and on S-phase kinases that trigger initiation in vivo. We found that replication in nuclear extracts initiates independently of the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6p, and an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) consensus. Nonetheless, quantitative density gradient analysis showed that S- and M-phase nuclear extracts consistently promote semiconservative DNA replication more efficiently than G1-phase extracts. The observed semiconservative replication is compromised in S-phase nuclear extracts deficient for the Cdk1 kinase (Cdc28p) but not in extracts deficient for the Cdc7p kinase. In a cdc4-1 G1-phase extract, which accumulates high levels of the specific Clb-Cdk1 inhibitor p40SIC1, very low levels of semiconservative DNA replication were detected. Recombinant Clb5-Cdc28 restores replication in a cdc28-4 S-phase extract yet fails to do so in the cdc4-1 G1-phase extract. In contrast, the addition of recombinant Xenopus CycB-Cdc2, which is not sensitive to inhibition by p40SIC1, restores efficient replication to both extracts. Our results suggest that in addition to its well-characterized role in regulating the origin-specific prereplication complex, the Clb-Cdk1 complex modulates the efficiency of the replication machinery itself. PMID:9891057

  7. Triptolide Induces Cell Killing in Multidrug-Resistant Tumor Cells via CDK7/RPB1 Rather than XPB or p44.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun-Mei; Huan, Xia-Juan; Song, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Hu; Wang, Ying-Qing; Miao, Ze-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of tumor treatment failure; therefore, drugs that can avoid this outcome are urgently needed. We studied triptolide, which directly kills MDR tumor cells with a high potency and a broad spectrum of cell death. Triptolide did not inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux and reduced P-gp and MDR1 mRNA resulting from transcription inhibition. Transcription factors including c-MYC, SOX-2, OCT-4, and NANOG were not correlated with triptolide-induced cell killing, but RPB1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, was critical in mediating triptolide's inhibition of MDR cells. Triptolide elicited antitumor and anti-MDR activity through a universal mechanism: by activating CDK7 by phosphorylating Thr170 in both parental and MDR cell lines and in SK-OV-3 cells. The CDK7-selective inhibitor BS-181 partially rescued cell killing induced by 72-hour treatment of triptolide, which may be due to partial rescue of RPB1 degradation. We suggest that a precise phosphorylation site on RPB1 (Ser1878) was phosphorylated by CDK7 in response to triptolide. In addition, XPB and p44, two transcription factor TFIIH subunits, did not contribute to triptolide-driven RPB1 degradation and cell killing, although XPB was reported to covalently bind to triptolide. Several clinical trials are underway to test triptolide and its analogues for treating cancer and other diseases, so our data may help expand potential clinical uses of triptolide, as well as offer a compound that overcomes tumor MDR. Future investigations into the primary molecular target(s) of triptolide responsible for RPB1 degradation may suggest novel anti-MDR target(s) for therapeutic development. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1495-503. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197304

  8. Interaction of CDK5RAP2 with EB1 to track growing microtubule tips and to regulate microtubule dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ka-Wing; Hau, Shiu-Yeung; Kho, Yik-Shing; Jia, Yue; He, Lisheng; Qi, Robert Z

    2009-08-01

    Mutations in cdk5rap2 are linked to autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, and attention has been paid to its function at centrosomes. In this report, we demonstrate that CDK5RAP2 localizes to microtubules and concentrates at the distal tips in addition to centrosomal localization. CDK5RAP2 interacts directly with EB1, a prototypic member of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins, and contains the basic and Ser-rich motif responsible for EB1 binding. The EB1-binding motif is conserved in the CDK5RAP2 sequences of chimpanzee, bovine, and dog but not in those of rat and mouse, suggesting a function gained during the evolution of mammals. The mutation of the Ile/Leu-Pro dipeptide within the motif abolishes EB1 interaction and plus-end attachment. In agreement with the mutational analysis, suppression of EB1 expression inhibits microtubule tip-tracking of CDK5RAP2. We have also found that the CDK5RAP2-EB1 complex regulates microtubule dynamics and stability. CDK5RAP2 depletion by RNA interference impacts the dynamic behaviors of microtubules. The CDK5RAP2-EB1 complex induces microtubule bundling and acetylation when expressed in cell cultures and stimulates microtubule assembly and bundle formation in vitro. Collectively, these results show that CDK5RAP2 targets growing microtubule tips in association with EB1 to regulate microtubule dynamics. PMID:19553473

  9. Cdk3-promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activating AP-1 is involved in colorectal cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Na; Li, Yuejin; Peng, Zhengke; Lu, Chengrong; Dong, Zigang; Tang, Faqing

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase-3 (Cdk3) is a positive regulator of the G1 mammalian cell cycle phase. Cdk3 is involved in cancer progression, but very little is known about its mechanism in cancer development and progression. Herein, we found that Cdk3 increased colorectal cancer metastasis through promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) shift. Cdk3 was found to highly express in metastatic cancer and induce cell motility and invasion. Cdk3 was shown to phosphorylate c-Jun at Ser 63 and Ser 73 in vitro and ex vivo. Cdk3-phosphorylated c-Jun at Ser 63 and Ser 73 resulted in an increased AP-1 activity. Ectopic expression of Cdk3 promoted colorectal cancer from epithelial to mesenchymal transition conjugating AP-1 activation, while AP-1 inhibition dramatically decreased Cdk3-increased EMT shift. These results showed that the Cdk3/c-Jun signaling axis mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition plays an important role in colorectal cancer metastasis. PMID:26755651

  10. Immunohistochemical study of cyclins D and E and cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) 2 and 4 in human endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Sasano, H; Yoshida, Y; Sato, S; Yajima, A

    1998-01-01

    We studied the immunolocalization of cyclins D1 and E and their corresponding partner cyclin dependent kinases (cdk), cdk4 and cdk2 in 39 cases of human endometrioid endometrial carcinoma and examined the correlations between the labeling indexes of the cyclins, cdks and clinicopathologic parameters and the clinical outcome of the patients. Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in the nuclei of tumor cells in 22/39 (56%) of the cases examined. Immunoreactivity for cyclin E, cdk2, and cdk4 was detected in carcinoma cells of 37/39 (95%), 39/39 and 36/39 cases, respectively. There were no significant correlations between the labeling indices of any of the parameters examined. Cyclins D1 and E labeling indices were not significantly correlated with any of the clinicopathologic parameters examined. However, there was a significant correlation between cdk2 labeling index and the histological grade of carcinoma (p < 0.0001), and a significant correlation (p = 0.015) was also detected between the cdk4 labeling index and pathologic stages. There was no significant difference in clinical outcome of the patients according to the cyclin and ckd4 immunostaining patterns. These results indicate that cdk2 and cdk4 overexpression may be involved in the development and/or progression of human endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. PMID:9673386

  11. Alterations in cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (CDK5) protein levels, activity and immunocytochemistry in canine motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Green, S L; Vulliet, P R; Pinter, M J; Cork, L C

    1998-11-01

    Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is a dominantly inherited motor neuron disease in Brittany spaniels that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness leading to paralysis. Histopathologically, degeneration is confined to motor neurons with accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilaments in axonal internodes. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a kinase related to the cell cycle kinase cdc2, phosphorylates neurofilaments and regulates neurofilament dynamics. We examined CDK5 activity, protein levels, and cellular immunoreactivity in nervous tissue from dogs with HCSMA, from closely age-matched controls and from dogs with other neurological diseases. On immunoblot analysis, CDK5 protein levels were increased in the HCSMA dogs (by approximately 1.5-fold in both the cytosolic and the particulate fractions). CDK5 activity was significantly increased (by approximately 3-fold) in the particulate fractions in the HCSMA dogs compared to all controls. The finding that CDK5 activity was increased in the young HCSMA homozygotes with the accelerated form of the disease, who do not show axonal swellings histologically, suggests that alterations in CDK5 occurs early in the pathogenesis, prior to the development of significant neurofilament pathology. Immunocytochemically, there was strong CDK5 staining of the nuclei, cytoplasm and axonal processes of the motor neurons in both control dogs and dogs with HCSMA. Further immunocytochemical studies demonstrated CDK5 staining where neurofilaments accumulated, in axonal swellings in the dogs with HCSMA. Our observations suggest phosphorylation-dependent events mediated by CDK5 occur in canine motor neuron disease.

  12. Conserved motif of CDK5RAP2 mediates its localization to centrosomes and the Golgi complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Wu, Tao; Shi, Lin; Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Wei; Qu, Jianan Y; Niu, Ruifang; Qi, Robert Z

    2010-07-16

    As the primary microtubule-organizing centers, centrosomes require gamma-tubulin for microtubule nucleation and organization. Located in close vicinity to centrosomes, the Golgi complex is another microtubule-organizing organelle in interphase cells. CDK5RAP2 is a gamma-tubulin complex-binding protein and functions in gamma-tubulin attachment to centrosomes. In this study, we find that CDK5RAP2 localizes to the Golgi complex in an ATP- and centrosome-dependent manner and associates with Golgi membranes independently of microtubules. CDK5RAP2 contains a centrosome-targeting domain with its core region highly homologous to the Motif 2 (CM2) of centrosomin, a functionally related protein in Drosophila. This sequence, referred to as the CM2-like motif, is also conserved in related proteins in chicken and zebrafish. Therefore, CDK5RAP2 may undertake a conserved mechanism for centrosomal localization. Using a mutational approach, we demonstrate that the CM2-like motif plays a crucial role in the centrosomal and Golgi localization of CDK5RAP2. Furthermore, the CM2-like motif is essential for the association of the centrosome-targeting domain to pericentrin and AKAP450. The binding with pericentrin is required for the centrosomal and Golgi localization of CDK5RAP2, whereas the binding with AKAP450 is required for the Golgi localization. Although the CM2-like motif possesses the activity of Ca(2+)-independent calmodulin binding, binding of calmodulin to this sequence is dispensable for centrosomal and Golgi association. Altogether, CDK5RAP2 may represent a novel mechanism for centrosomal and Golgi localization. PMID:20466722

  13. A large Norwegian family with inherited malignant melanoma, multiple atypical nevi, and CDK4 mutation.

    PubMed

    Molven, Anders; Grimstvedt, Magne B; Steine, Solrun J; Harland, Mark; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Hayward, Nicholas K; Akslen, Lars A

    2005-09-01

    Mutations in two loci encoding cell-cycle-regulatory proteins have been shown to cause familial malignant melanoma. About 20% of melanoma-prone families bear a mutation in the CDKN2A locus, which encodes two unrelated proteins, p16INK4A and p14ARF. Mutations in the other locus, CDK4, are much rarer and have been linked to the disease in only three families worldwide. In the 1960s, a large Norwegian pedigree with multiple atypical nevi and malignant melanomas was identified. Subsequently, six generations and more than 100 family members were traced and 20 cases of melanoma verified. In this article, we report that CDK4 codon 24 is mutated from CGT to CAT (Arg24His) in this unusually large melanoma kindred. Intriguingly, one of the family members had ocular melanoma, but the CDK4 mutation could not be detected in archival tissue samples from this subject. Thus, the case of ocular melanoma in this family was sporadic, suggesting an etiology different from that of the skin tumors. The CDK4 mutation in the Norwegian family was identical to that in melanoma families in France, Australia, and England. Haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers flanking the CDK4 gene and single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene did not support the possibility that there was a common founder, but rather indicated at least two independent mutational events. All CDK4 melanoma families known to date have a substitution of amino acid 24. In addition to resulting from selection pressure, this observation may be explained by the CG dinucleotide of codon 24 representing a mutational hot spot in the CDK4 gene.

  14. CDK5 activator protein p25 preferentially binds and activates GSK3β.

    PubMed

    Chow, Hei-Man; Guo, Dong; Zhou, Jie-Chao; Zhang, Guan-Yun; Li, Hui-Fang; Herrup, Karl; Zhang, Jie

    2014-11-11

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) are tau kinases and have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The 3D structures of these kinases are remarkably similar, which led us to hypothesize that both might be capable of binding cyclin proteins--the activating cofactors of all CDKs. CDK5 is normally activated by the cyclin-like proteins p35 and p39. By contrast, we show that GSK3β does not bind to p35 but unexpectedly binds to p25, the calpain cleavage product of p35. Indeed, overexpressed GSK3β outcompetes CDK5 for p25, whereas CDK5 is the preferred p35 partner. FRET analysis reveals nanometer apposition of GSK3β:p25 in cell soma as well as in synaptic regions. Interaction with p25 also alters GSK3β substrate specificity. The GSK3β:p25 interaction leads to enhanced phosphorylation of tau, but decreased phosphorylation of β-catenin. A partial explanation for this situation comes from in silico modeling, which predicts that the docking site for p25 on GSK3β is the AXIN-binding domain; because of this, p25 inhibits the formation of the GSK3β/AXIN/APC destruction complex, thus preventing GSK3β from binding to and phosphorylating β-catenin. Coexpression of GSK3β and p25 in cultured neurons results in a neurodegeneration phenotype that exceeds that observed with CDK5 and p25. When p25 is transfected alone, the resulting neuronal damage is blocked more effectively with a specific siRNA against Gsk3β than with one against Cdk5. We propose that the effects of p25, although normally attributed to activate CDK5, may be mediated in part by elevated GSK3β activity.

  15. TNFα Signaling Regulates Cystic Epithelial Cell Proliferation through Akt/mTOR and ERK/MAPK/Cdk2 Mediated Id2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Julie X.; Fan, Lucy X.; Li, Xiaoyan; Calvet, James P.; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is present in cyst fluid and promotes cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, the cross-talk between TNFα and PKD associated signaling pathways remains elusive. In this study, we found that stimulation of renal epithelial cells with TNFα or RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand), a member of the TNFα cytokine family, activated either the PI3K pathway, leading to AKT and mTOR mediated the increase of Id2 protein, or MAPK and Cdk2 to induce Id2 nuclear translocation. The effects of TNFα/RANKL on increasing Id2 protein and its nuclear translocation caused significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of the Cdk inhibitor p21, allowing increased cell proliferation. TNFα levels increase in cystic kidneys in response to macrophage infiltration and thus might contribute to cyst growth and enlargement during the progression of disease. As such, this study elucidates a novel mechanism for TNFα signaling in regulating cystic renal epithelial cell proliferation in ADPKD. PMID:26110849

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines as selective cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Kirk L.; Reno, Michael J.; Alberti, Jennifer B.; Price, Daniel J.; Kane-Carson, Laurie S.; Knick, Victoria B.; Shewchuk, Lisa M.; Hassell, Anne M.; Veal, James M.; Davis, Stephen T.; Griffin, Robert J.; Peel, Michael R.

    2010-10-01

    A novel series of pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines have been synthesized and identified as cyclin dependant kinase inhibitors potentially useful for the treatment of solid tumors. Modification of the hinge-binding amine or the C(2)- and C(6)-substitutions on the pyrazolopyridazine core provided potent inhibitors of CDK4 and demonstrated enzyme selectivity against VEGFR-2 and GSK3{beta}.

  17. A novel PKC-ι inhibitor abrogates cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Prajit; Desai, Shraddha; Patel, Rekha; Sajan, Mini; Farese, Robert; Ostrov, David; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred

    2011-05-01

    Protein Kinase C-iota (PKC-ι), an atypical protein kinase C isoform manifests its potential as an oncogene by targeting various aspects of cancer cells such as growth, invasion and survival. PKC-ι confers resistance to drug-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. The acquisition of drug resistance is a major obstacle to good prognosis in neuroblastoma. The focus of this research was to identify the efficacy of [4-(5-amino-4-carbamoylimidazol-1-yl)-2,3-dihydroxycyclopentyl] methyl dihydrogen phosphate (ICA-1) as a novel PKC-ι inhibitor in neuroblastoma cell proliferation and apoptosis. ICA-1 specifically inhibits the activity of PKC-ι but not that of PKC-zeta (PKC-ζ), the closely related atypical PKC family member. The IC(50) for the kinase activity assay was approximately 0.1μM which is 1000 times less than that of aurothiomalate, a known PKC-ι inhibitor. Cyclin dependent kinase 7 (Cdk7) phosphorylates cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) and promotes cell proliferation. Our data shows that PKC-ι is an in vitro Cdk7 kinase and the phosphorylation of Cdk7 by PKC-ι was potently inhibited by ICA-1. Furthermore, our data shows that neuroblastoma cells proliferate via a PKC-ι/Cdk7/cdk2 cell signaling pathway and ICA-1 mediates its antiproliferative effects by inhibiting this pathway. ICA-1 (0.1μM) inhibited the in vitro proliferation of BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells by 58% (P=0.01). Additionally, ICA-1 also induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. Interestingly, ICA-1 did not affect the proliferation of normal neuronal cells suggesting its potential as chemotherapeutic with low toxicity. Hence, our results emphasize the potential of ICA-1 as a novel PKC-ι inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agent for neuroblastoma.

  18. Cdk5 disruption attenuates tumor PD-L1 expression and promotes antitumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dorand, R. Dixon; Nthale, Joseph; Myers, Jay T.; Barkauskas, Deborah S.; Avril, Stefanie; Chirieleison, Steven M.; Pareek, Tej K.; Abbott, Derek W.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Letterio, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancers often evade immune surveillance by adopting peripheral tissue–tolerance mechanisms, such as the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the inhibition of which results in potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a serine-threonine kinase that is highly active in postmitotic neurons and in many cancers, allows medulloblastoma (MB) to evade immune elimination. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced PD-L1 up-regulation on MB requires Cdk5, and disruption of Cdk5 expression in a mouse model of MB results in potent CD4+ T cell–mediated tumor rejection. Loss of Cdk5 results in persistent expression of the PD-L1 transcriptional repressors, the interferon regulatory factors IRF2 and IRF2BP2, which likely leads to reduced PD-L1 expression on tumors. Our finding highlights a central role for Cdk5 in immune checkpoint regulation by tumor cells. PMID:27463676

  19. Cdk5 disruption attenuates tumor PD-L1 expression and promotes antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Dorand, R Dixon; Nthale, Joseph; Myers, Jay T; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Avril, Stefanie; Chirieleison, Steven M; Pareek, Tej K; Abbott, Derek W; Stearns, Duncan S; Letterio, John J; Huang, Alex Y; Petrosiute, Agne

    2016-07-22

    Cancers often evade immune surveillance by adopting peripheral tissue- tolerance mechanisms, such as the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the inhibition of which results in potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a serine-threonine kinase that is highly active in postmitotic neurons and in many cancers, allows medulloblastoma (MB) to evade immune elimination. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced PD-L1 up-regulation on MB requires Cdk5, and disruption of Cdk5 expression in a mouse model of MB results in potent CD4(+) T cell-mediated tumor rejection. Loss of Cdk5 results in persistent expression of the PD-L1 transcriptional repressors, the interferon regulatory factors IRF2 and IRF2BP2, which likely leads to reduced PD-L1 expression on tumors. Our finding highlights a central role for Cdk5 in immune checkpoint regulation by tumor cells. PMID:27463676

  20. Cdk5 disruption attenuates tumor PD-L1 expression and promotes antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Dorand, R Dixon; Nthale, Joseph; Myers, Jay T; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Avril, Stefanie; Chirieleison, Steven M; Pareek, Tej K; Abbott, Derek W; Stearns, Duncan S; Letterio, John J; Huang, Alex Y; Petrosiute, Agne

    2016-07-22

    Cancers often evade immune surveillance by adopting peripheral tissue- tolerance mechanisms, such as the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), the inhibition of which results in potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a serine-threonine kinase that is highly active in postmitotic neurons and in many cancers, allows medulloblastoma (MB) to evade immune elimination. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced PD-L1 up-regulation on MB requires Cdk5, and disruption of Cdk5 expression in a mouse model of MB results in potent CD4(+) T cell-mediated tumor rejection. Loss of Cdk5 results in persistent expression of the PD-L1 transcriptional repressors, the interferon regulatory factors IRF2 and IRF2BP2, which likely leads to reduced PD-L1 expression on tumors. Our finding highlights a central role for Cdk5 in immune checkpoint regulation by tumor cells.

  1. Centriolar satellites assemble centrosomal microcephaly proteins to recruit CDK2 and promote centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Andrew; Yu, Timothy W; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Jayaraman, Divya; Johnson, Tasha L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Sztriha, Lāszló; Partlow, Jennifer N; Kim, Hanjun; Krup, Alexis L; Dammermann, Alexander; Krogan, Nevan J; Walsh, Christopher A; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Primary microcephaly (MCPH) associated proteins CDK5RAP2, CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 colocalize at the centrosome. We found that they interact to promote centriole duplication and form a hierarchy in which each is required to localize another to the centrosome, with CDK5RAP2 at the apex, and CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 at sequentially lower positions. MCPH proteins interact with distinct centriolar satellite proteins; CDK5RAP2 interacts with SPAG5 and CEP72, CEP152 with CEP131, WDR62 with MOONRAKER, and CEP63 with CEP90 and CCDC14. These satellite proteins localize their cognate MCPH interactors to centrosomes and also promote centriole duplication. Consistent with a role for satellites in microcephaly, homozygous mutations in one satellite gene, CEP90, may cause MCPH. The satellite proteins, with the exception of CCDC14, and MCPH proteins promote centriole duplication by recruiting CDK2 to the centrosome. Thus, centriolar satellites build a MCPH complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication. PMID:26297806

  2. Centriolar satellites assemble centrosomal microcephaly proteins to recruit CDK2 and promote centriole duplication

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Andrew; Yu, Timothy W; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Jayaraman, Divya; Johnson, Tasha L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Sztriha, Lāszló; Partlow, Jennifer N; Kim, Hanjun; Krup, Alexis L; Dammermann, Alexander; Krogan, Nevan J; Walsh, Christopher A; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Primary microcephaly (MCPH) associated proteins CDK5RAP2, CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 colocalize at the centrosome. We found that they interact to promote centriole duplication and form a hierarchy in which each is required to localize another to the centrosome, with CDK5RAP2 at the apex, and CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 at sequentially lower positions. MCPH proteins interact with distinct centriolar satellite proteins; CDK5RAP2 interacts with SPAG5 and CEP72, CEP152 with CEP131, WDR62 with MOONRAKER, and CEP63 with CEP90 and CCDC14. These satellite proteins localize their cognate MCPH interactors to centrosomes and also promote centriole duplication. Consistent with a role for satellites in microcephaly, homozygous mutations in one satellite gene, CEP90, may cause MCPH. The satellite proteins, with the exception of CCDC14, and MCPH proteins promote centriole duplication by recruiting CDK2 to the centrosome. Thus, centriolar satellites build a MCPH complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07519.001 PMID:26297806

  3. CDK5RAP2 functions in centrosome to spindle pole attachment and DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Barr, Alexis R; Kilmartin, John V; Gergely, Fanni

    2010-04-01

    The centrosomal protein, CDK5RAP2, is mutated in primary microcephaly, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by reduced brain size. The Drosophila melanogaster homologue of CDK5RAP2, centrosomin (Cnn), maintains the pericentriolar matrix (PCM) around centrioles during mitosis. In this study, we demonstrate a similar role for CDK5RAP2 in vertebrate cells. By disrupting two evolutionarily conserved domains of CDK5RAP2, CNN1 and CNN2, in the avian B cell line DT40, we find that both domains are essential for linking centrosomes to mitotic spindle poles. Although structurally intact, centrosomes lacking the CNN1 domain fail to recruit specific PCM components that mediate attachment to spindle poles. Furthermore, we show that the CNN1 domain enforces cohesion between parental centrioles during interphase and promotes efficient DNA damage-induced G2 cell cycle arrest. Because mitotic spindle positioning, asymmetric centrosome inheritance, and DNA damage signaling have all been implicated in cell fate determination during neurogenesis, our findings provide novel insight into how impaired CDK5RAP2 function could cause premature depletion of neural stem cells and thereby microcephaly. PMID:20368616

  4. Cdk5rap2 regulates centrosome function and chromosome segregation in neuronal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Sofia B; Margossian, Steven P; Harris, Marian H; Campagna, Dean R; Han, An-Ping; Blevins, Sherika; Mudbhary, Raksha; Barker, Jane E; Walsh, Christopher A; Fleming, Mark D

    2010-06-01

    Microcephaly affects approximately 1% of the population and is associated with mental retardation, motor defects and, in some cases, seizures. We analyzed the mechanisms underlying brain size determination in a mouse model of human microcephaly. The Hertwig's anemia (an) mutant shows peripheral blood cytopenias, spontaneous aneuploidy and a predisposition to hematopoietic tumors. We found that the an mutation is a genomic inversion of exon 4 of Cdk5rap2, resulting in an in-frame deletion of exon 4 from the mRNA. The finding that CDK5RAP2 human mutations cause microcephaly prompted further analysis of Cdk5rap2(an/an) mice and we demonstrated that these mice exhibit microcephaly comparable to that of the human disease, resulting from striking neurogenic defects that include proliferative and survival defects in neuronal progenitors. Cdk5rap2(an/an) neuronal precursors exit the cell cycle prematurely and many undergo apoptosis. These defects are associated with impaired mitotic progression coupled with abnormal mitotic spindle pole number and mitotic orientation. Our findings suggest that the reduction in brain size observed in humans with mutations in CDK5RAP2 is associated with impaired centrosomal function and with changes in mitotic spindle orientation during progenitor proliferation. PMID:20460369

  5. CDK5RAP2 regulates centriole engagement and cohesion in mice.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Jose A; Kao, Ling-Rong; Hammer, Robert E; Seemann, Joachim; Fuchs, Jannon L; Megraw, Timothy L

    2010-06-15

    Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle, ensuring that each cell contains two centrosomes, each containing a mother-daughter pair of tightly engaged centrioles at mitotic entry. Loss of the tight engagement between mother and daughter centrioles appears to license the next round of centriole duplication. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process remain largely unknown. Mutations in CDK5RAP2, which encodes a centrosomal protein, cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in humans. Here we show that CDK5RAP2 loss of function in mice causes centriole amplification with a preponderance of single, unpaired centrioles and increased numbers of daughter-daughter centriole pairs. These results indicate that CDK5RAP2 is required to maintain centriole engagement and cohesion, thereby restricting centriole replication. Early in mitosis, amplified centrosomes assemble multipolar spindles in CDK5RAP2 mutant cells. Moreover, both mother and daughter centrioles are amplified and the excess mother centrioles template multiple primary cilia in CDK5RAP2 mutant cells. PMID:20627074

  6. CUL4B promotes replication licensing by up-regulating the CDK2-CDC6 cascade.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yongxin; Mi, Jun; Wang, Wenxing; Lu, Juanjuan; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Zhaojian; Hu, Huili; Yang, Yang; Gao, Xiaoxing; Jiang, Baichun; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin

    2013-03-18

    Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) participate in the regulation of diverse cellular processes including cell cycle progression. Mutations in the X-linked CUL4B, a member of the cullin family, cause mental retardation and other developmental abnormalities in humans. Cells that are deficient in CUL4B are severely selected against in vivo in heterozygotes. Here we report a role of CUL4B in the regulation of replication licensing. Strikingly, CDC6, the licensing factor in replication, was positively regulated by CUL4B and contributed to the loading of MCM2 to chromatin. The positive regulation of CDC6 by CUL4B depends on CDK2, which phosphorylates CDC6, protecting it from APC(CDH1)-mediated degradation. Thus, aside being required for cell cycle reentry from quiescence, CDK2 also contributes to pre-replication complex assembly in G1 phase of cycling cells. Interestingly, the up-regulation of CDK2 by CUL4B is achieved via the repression of miR-372 and miR-373, which target CDK2. Our findings thus establish a CUL4B-CDK2-CDC6 cascade in the regulation of DNA replication licensing.

  7. CDK5 is a major regulator of the tumor suppressor DLC1.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Brajendra K; Qian, Xiaolan; Mertins, Philipp; Wang, Dunrui; Papageorge, Alex G; Carr, Steven A; Lowy, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    DLC1 is a tumor suppressor protein whose full activity depends on its presence at focal adhesions, its Rho-GTPase activating protein (Rho-GAP) function, and its ability to bind several ligands, including tensin and talin. However, the mechanisms that regulate and coordinate these activities remain poorly understood. Here we identify CDK5, a predominantly cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase, as an important regulator of DLC1 functions. The CDK5 kinase phosphorylates four serines in DLC1 located N-terminal to the Rho-GAP domain. When not phosphorylated, this N-terminal region functions as an autoinhibitory domain that places DLC1 in a closed, inactive conformation by efficiently binding to the Rho-GAP domain. CDK5 phosphorylation reduces this binding and orchestrates the coordinate activation DLC1, including its localization to focal adhesions, its Rho-GAP activity, and its ability to bind tensin and talin. In cancer, these anti-oncogenic effects of CDK5 can provide selective pressure for the down-regulation of DLC1, which occurs frequently in tumors, and can contribute to the pro-oncogenic activity of CDK5 in lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:25452387

  8. Centriolar satellites assemble centrosomal microcephaly proteins to recruit CDK2 and promote centriole duplication.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Andrew; Yu, Timothy W; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Jayaraman, Divya; Johnson, Tasha L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Sztriha, Lāszló; Partlow, Jennifer N; Kim, Hanjun; Krup, Alexis L; Dammermann, Alexander; Krogan, Nevan J; Walsh, Christopher A; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2015-08-22

    Primary microcephaly (MCPH) associated proteins CDK5RAP2, CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 colocalize at the centrosome. We found that they interact to promote centriole duplication and form a hierarchy in which each is required to localize another to the centrosome, with CDK5RAP2 at the apex, and CEP152, WDR62 and CEP63 at sequentially lower positions. MCPH proteins interact with distinct centriolar satellite proteins; CDK5RAP2 interacts with SPAG5 and CEP72, CEP152 with CEP131, WDR62 with MOONRAKER, and CEP63 with CEP90 and CCDC14. These satellite proteins localize their cognate MCPH interactors to centrosomes and also promote centriole duplication. Consistent with a role for satellites in microcephaly, homozygous mutations in one satellite gene, CEP90, may cause MCPH. The satellite proteins, with the exception of CCDC14, and MCPH proteins promote centriole duplication by recruiting CDK2 to the centrosome. Thus, centriolar satellites build a MCPH complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication.

  9. Striatal dysregulation of Cdk5 alters locomotor responses to cocaine, motor learning, and dendritic morphology.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Douglas A; Richer, Edmond; Benkovic, Stanley A; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Kansy, Janice W; Hale, Carly F; Moy, Lily Y; Kim, Yong; O'Callaghan, James P; Tsai, Li-Huei; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C; Cowan, Christopher W; Miller, Diane B; Antich, Pietro; Bibb, James A

    2008-11-25

    Motor learning and neuro-adaptations to drugs of abuse rely upon neuronal signaling in the striatum. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates striatal dopamine neurotransmission and behavioral responses to cocaine. Although the role for Cdk5 in neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus and in hippocampal-dependent learning has been demonstrated, its dysregulation in the striatum has not been examined. Here we show that strong activation of striatal NMDA receptors produced p25, the truncated form of the Cdk5 co-activator p35. Furthermore, inducible overexpression of p25 in the striatum prevented locomotor sensitization to cocaine and attenuated motor coordination and learning. This corresponded with reduced dendritic spine density, increased neuro-inflammation, altered dopamine signaling, and shifted Cdk5 specificity with regard to physiological and aberrant substrates, but no apparent loss of striatal neurons. Thus, dysregulation of Cdk5 dramatically affects striatal-dependent brain function and may be relevant to non-neurodegenerative disorders involving dopamine neurotransmission.

  10. 5-Substituted 3-isopropyl-7-[4-(2-pyridyl)benzyl]amino-1(2)H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines with anti-proliferative activity as potent and selective inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Vymětalová, Ladislava; Havlíček, Libor; Šturc, Antonín; Skrášková, Zuzana; Jorda, Radek; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Strnad, Miroslav; Kryštof, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    A series of 5-substituted 3-isopropyl-7-[4-(2-pyridyl)benzyl]amino-1(2)H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for their cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibition activity. The most potent compounds contained various hydroxyalkylamines at the 5 position and possessed low nanomolar IC50 values for CDK2 and CDK5. Preliminary profiling of one of the most active compounds on a panel of 50 protein kinases revealed its high selectivity for CDKs. The compounds arrested cells in S and G2/M phases, and induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Significant dephosphorylation of the C-terminus of RNA polymerase II and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), well-established substrates of CDKs, has been found in treated cells. Cleavage of PARP-1, down-regulation of Mcl-1 and activation of caspases correlated well with CDK inhibition and confirmed apoptosis as the primary type of cell death induced in cancer cells treated with the compounds in vitro. A comparison of known purine-based CDK inhibitor CR8 with its pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine bioisosteres confirmed that the novel compounds are more potent in cellular assays than purines. Therefore, pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine may emerge as a novel scaffold in medicinal chemistry and as a source of potent CDK inhibitors. PMID:26851505

  11. Proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Tomaszewski, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have a 20 year history in cancer therapy. The first proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a break-through multiple myeloma treatment, moved rapidly through development from bench in 1994 to first approval in 2003. Bortezomib is a reversible boronic acid inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Next generation proteasome inhibitors include carfilzomib and oprozomib which are irreversible epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors; and ixazomib and delanzomib which are reversible boronic acid proteasome inhibitors. Two proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA approved drugs and ixazomib and oprozomib are in late stage clinical trials. All of the agents are potent cytotoxics. The disease focus for all the proteasome inhibitors is multiple myeloma. This focus arose from clinical observations made in bortezomib early clinical trials. Later preclinical studies confirmed that multiple myeloma cells were indeed more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than other tumor cell types. The discovery and development of the proteasome inhibitor class of anticancer agents has progressed through a classic route of serendipity and scientific investigation. These agents are continuing to have a major impact in their treatment of hematologic malignancies and are beginning to be explored as potential treatment agent for non-cancer indications. PMID:25935605

  12. Therapeutic Targeting of the Cyclin D3:CDK4/6 Complex in T Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Catherine; Freund, Jacquelyn; Oh, Philmo; Ndiaye-Lobry, Delphine; Bretz, Jamieson C.; Strikoudis, Alexandros; Genesca, Lali; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Clark, Marcus; Soulier, Jean; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Aifantis, Iannis

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY D-type cyclins form complexes with cyclin dependent kinases (CDK4/6), and promote cell cycle progression. Although cyclin D functions appear largely tissue specific, we demonstrate that cyclin D3 has unique functions in lymphocyte development and cannot be replaced by cyclin D2, which is also expressed during blood differentiation. We show that only combined deletion of p27Kip1 and Rb is sufficient to rescue the development of Ccnd3−/− thymocytes. Furthermore, we show that a small molecule targeting the kinase function of cyclin D3:CDK4/6 inhibits both cell cycle entry in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and disease progression in animal models of T-ALL. These studies identify unique functions for cyclin D3:CDK4/6 complexes and suggest potential therapeutic protocols for this devastating blood tumor. PMID:23079656

  13. Cdi1, a human G1 and S phase protein phosphatase that associates with Cdk2.

    PubMed

    Gyuris, J; Golemis, E; Chertkov, H; Brent, R

    1993-11-19

    We used the interaction trap, a yeast genetic selection for interacting proteins, to isolate human cyclin-dependent kinase interactor 1 (Cdi1). In yeast, Cdi1 interacts with cyclin-dependent kinases, including human Cdc2, Cdk2, and Cdk3, but not with Ckd4. In HeLa cells, Cdi1 is expressed at the G1 to S transition, and the protein forms stable complexes with Cdk2. Cdi1 bears weak sequence similarity to known tyrosine and dual specificity phosphatases. In vitro, Cdi1 removes phosphate from tyrosine residues in model substrates, but a mutant protein that bears a lesion in the putative active site cysteine does not. Overexpression of wild-type Cdi1 delays progression through the cell cycle in yeast and HeLa cells; delay is dependent on Cdi1 phosphatase activity. These experiments identify Cdi1 as a novel type of protein phosphatase that forms complexes with cyclin-dependent kinases. PMID:8242750

  14. Involvement of cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb mediated by PI3K/AKT pathway activation in Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death in cultured hippocampal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chenchen Xing Tairan Tang Mingliang Yong Wu Yan Dan Deng Hongmin Wang Huili Wang Ming Chen Jutao Ruan Diyun

    2008-06-15

    Lead (Pb) is widely recognized as a neurotoxicant. One of the suggested mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity is apoptotic cell death. And the mechanism by which Pb{sup 2+} causes neuronal death is not well understood. The present study sought to examine the obligate nature of cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), phosphorylation of its substrate retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and its select upstream signal phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in the death of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+}. Our data showed that lead treatment of primary hippocampal cultures results in dose-dependent cell death. Inhibition of CDK4 prevented Pb{sup 2+}-induced neuronal death significantly but was incomplete. In addition, we demonstrated that the levels of cyclin D1 and pRb/p107 were increased during Pb{sup 2+} treatment. These elevated expression persisted up to 48 h, returning to control levels after 72 h. We also presented pharmacological and morphological evidences that cyclin D1/CDK4 and pRb/p107 were required for such kind of neuronal death. Addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (30 {mu}M) or wortmannin (100 nM) significantly rescued the cultured hippocampal neurons from death caused by Pb{sup 2+}. And that Pb{sup 2+}-elicited phospho-AKT (Ser473) participated in the induction of cyclin D1 and partial pRb/p107 expression. These results provide evidences that cell cycle elements play a required role in the death of neurons evoked by Pb{sup 2+} and suggest that certain signaling elements upstream of cyclin D1/CDK4 are modified and/or required for this form of neuronal death.

  15. Berberine inhibits growth, induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells by regulating Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP.

    PubMed

    Mantena, Sudheer K; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-10-01

    Chemotherapeutic approach using non-toxic botanicals may be one of the strategies for the management of the skin cancers. Here we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, decreased cell viability (3-77%, P < 0.05-0.001) and induced cell death (3-51%, P < 0.01-0.001) in a dose (5-75 microM)- and time (12-72 h)-dependent manner, which was associated with an increase in G(1) arrest. G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle is known to be controlled by cyclin dependent kinases (Cdk), cyclin kinase inhibitors (Cdki) and cyclins. Our western blot analysis showed that berberine-induced G(1) cell cycle arrest was mediated through the increased expression of Cdki proteins (Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27), a simultaneous decrease in Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. In additional studies, treatment of A431 cells with berberine (15-75 microM) for 72 h resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in apoptosis (31-60%, P < 0.05-0.001) than non-berberine-treated control (11.7%), which was associated with an increased expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspases 9, 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) significantly blocked the berberine-induced apoptosis in A431 cells confirmed that berberine-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase 3-dependent pathway. Together, this study for the first time identified berberine as a chemotherapeutic agent against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells in vitro, further in vivo studies are required to determine whether berberine could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the management of non-melanoma skin cancers.

  16. CDK5RAP2 is a pericentriolar protein that functions in centrosomal attachment of the gamma-tubulin ring complex.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ka-Wing; Choi, Yuk-Kwan; Rattner, Jerome B; Qi, Robert Z

    2008-01-01

    Microtubule nucleation and organization by the centrosome require gamma-tubulin, a protein that exists in a macromolecular complex called the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gammaTuRC). We report characterization of CDK5RAP2, a novel centrosomal protein whose mutations have been linked to autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. In somatic cells, CDK5RAP2 localizes throughout the pericentriolar material in all stages of the cell cycle. When overexpressed, CDK5RAP2 assembled a subset of centrosomal proteins including gamma-tubulin onto the centrosomes or under the microtubule-disrupting conditions into microtubule-nucleating clusters in the cytoplasm. CDK5RAP2 associates with the gammaTuRC via a short conserved sequence present in several related proteins found in a range of organisms from fungi to mammals. The binding of CDK5RAP2 is required for gammaTuRC attachment to the centrosome but not for gammaTuRC assembly. Perturbing CDK5RAP2 function delocalized gamma-tubulin from the centrosomes and inhibited centrosomal microtubule nucleation, thus leading to disorganization of interphase microtubule arrays and formation of anastral mitotic spindles. Together, CDK5RAP2 is a pericentriolar structural component that functions in gammaTuRC attachment and therefore in the microtubule organizing function of the centrosome. Our findings suggest that centrosome malfunction due to the CDK5RAP2 mutations may underlie autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. PMID:17959831

  17. Essential role of the Cdk2 activator RingoA in meiotic telomere tethering to the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Mikolcevic, Petra; Isoda, Michitaka; Shibuya, Hiroki; del Barco Barrantes, Ivan; Igea, Ana; Suja, José A.; Shackleton, Sue; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Nebreda, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play key roles in cell cycle regulation. Genetic analysis in mice has revealed an essential role for Cdk2 in meiosis, which renders Cdk2 knockout (KO) mice sterile. Here we show that mice deficient in RingoA, an atypical activator of Cdk1 and Cdk2 that has no amino acid sequence homology to cyclins, are sterile and display meiotic defects virtually identical to those observed in Cdk2 KO mice including non-homologous chromosome pairing, unrepaired double-strand breaks, undetectable sex-body and pachytene arrest. Interestingly, RingoA is required for Cdk2 targeting to telomeres and RingoA KO spermatocytes display severely affected telomere tethering as well as impaired distribution of Sun1, a protein essential for the attachment of telomeres to the nuclear envelope. Our results identify RingoA as an important activator of Cdk2 at meiotic telomeres, and provide genetic evidence for a physiological function of mammalian Cdk2 that is not dependent on cyclins. PMID:27025256

  18. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1

    PubMed Central

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1–3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4–9 did not influence the cell cycle–regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4–9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1. PMID:27226481

  19. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.

    PubMed

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.

  20. Identification of a common protein association region in the neuronal Cdk5 activator.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Ching, Y P; Lam, W H; Qi, Z; Zhang, M; Wang, J H

    2000-10-13

    Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) depends on the association with neuronal Cdk5 activator (Nck5a) for kinase activity. A variety of cellular proteins have been shown to undergo high affinity association with Nck5a, including three novel proteins, C42, C48, and C53 found by a yeast two-hybrid screen (Ching, Y. P., Qi, Z., and Wang, J. H. (2000) Gene 242, 285-294). The three proteins show competitive binding to Nck5a suggesting that they bind at a common site. The binding site has been mapped to a region of 26 amino acid residues (residues 145 to 170) at the N-terminal boundary of the kinase activation domain of Nck5a. This region of Nck5a contains an amphipathic alpha-helix whose hydrophobic face is involved in Cdk5 activation (Chin, K. T., Ohki, S, Tang, D., Cheng, H. C., Wang, J. H. , and Zhang, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 7120-7127). Several lines of evidence suggest that Nck5a interacts with the binding proteins at the hydrophilic face of the amphipathic alpha-helix. First, the Nck5a-(145-170) peptide can bind Cdk5 and Nck5a-binding proteins simultaneously. Second, the association of Nck5a-(145-170) to C48 can be markedly reduced by high ionic strength whereas the interaction between Nck5a and Cdk5 is not affected. Third, substitution of Glu(157) by glutamine in Nck5a-(145-170) abolishes the peptide's ability to bind to the three Nck5a-binding proteins without diminishing its Cdk5 binding activity. PMID:10915792

  1. CDK4-mediated MnSOD activation and mitochondrial homeostasis in radioadaptive protection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cuihong; Qin, Lili; Shi, Yan; Candas, Demet; Fan, Ming; Lu, Chung-Ling; Vaughan, Andrew T M; Shen, Rulong; Wu, Larry S; Liu, Rui; Li, Robert F; Murley, Jeffrey S; Woloschak, Gayle; Grdina, David J; Li, Jian Jian

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian cells are able to sense environmental oxidative and genotoxic conditions such as the environmental low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) present naturally on the earth's surface. The stressed cells then can induce a so-called radioadaptive response with an enhanced cellular homeostasis and repair capacity against subsequent similar genotoxic conditions such as a high dose radiation. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a primary mitochondrial antioxidant in mammals, has long been known to play a crucial role in radioadaptive protection by detoxifying O2(•-) generated by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast to the well-studied mechanisms of SOD2 gene regulation, the mechanisms underlying posttranslational regulation of MnSOD for radioprotection remain to be defined. Herein, we demonstrate that cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) serves as the messenger to deliver the stress signal to mitochondria to boost mitochondrial homeostasis in human skin keratinocytes under LDIR-adaptive radioprotection. Cyclin D1/CDK4 relocates to mitochondria at the same time as MnSOD enzymatic activation peaks without significant changes in total MnSOD protein level. The mitochondrial-localized CDK4 directly phosphorylates MnSOD at serine-106 (S106), causing enhanced MnSOD enzymatic activity and mitochondrial respiration. Expression of mitochondria-targeted dominant negative CDK4 or the MnSOD-S106 mutant reverses LDIR-induced mitochondrial enhancement and adaptive protection. The CDK4-mediated MnSOD activation and mitochondrial metabolism boost are also detected in skin tissues of mice receiving in vivo whole-body LDIR. These results demonstrate a unique CDK4-mediated mitochondrial communication that allows cells to sense environmental genotoxic stress and boost mitochondrial homeostasis by enhancing phosphorylation and activation of MnSOD.

  2. CDK4-mediated MnSOD activation and mitochondrial homeostasis in radioadaptive protection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cuihong; Qin, Lili; Shi, Yan; Candas, Demet; Fan, Ming; Lu, Chung-Ling; Vaughan, Andrew T M; Shen, Rulong; Wu, Larry S; Liu, Rui; Li, Robert F; Murley, Jeffrey S; Woloschak, Gayle; Grdina, David J; Li, Jian Jian

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian cells are able to sense environmental oxidative and genotoxic conditions such as the environmental low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) present naturally on the earth's surface. The stressed cells then can induce a so-called radioadaptive response with an enhanced cellular homeostasis and repair capacity against subsequent similar genotoxic conditions such as a high dose radiation. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a primary mitochondrial antioxidant in mammals, has long been known to play a crucial role in radioadaptive protection by detoxifying O2(•-) generated by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast to the well-studied mechanisms of SOD2 gene regulation, the mechanisms underlying posttranslational regulation of MnSOD for radioprotection remain to be defined. Herein, we demonstrate that cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) serves as the messenger to deliver the stress signal to mitochondria to boost mitochondrial homeostasis in human skin keratinocytes under LDIR-adaptive radioprotection. Cyclin D1/CDK4 relocates to mitochondria at the same time as MnSOD enzymatic activation peaks without significant changes in total MnSOD protein level. The mitochondrial-localized CDK4 directly phosphorylates MnSOD at serine-106 (S106), causing enhanced MnSOD enzymatic activity and mitochondrial respiration. Expression of mitochondria-targeted dominant negative CDK4 or the MnSOD-S106 mutant reverses LDIR-induced mitochondrial enhancement and adaptive protection. The CDK4-mediated MnSOD activation and mitochondrial metabolism boost are also detected in skin tissues of mice receiving in vivo whole-body LDIR. These results demonstrate a unique CDK4-mediated mitochondrial communication that allows cells to sense environmental genotoxic stress and boost mitochondrial homeostasis by enhancing phosphorylation and activation of MnSOD. PMID:25578653

  3. Discovery of [4-Amino-2-(1-methanesulfonylpiperidin-4-ylamino)pyrimidin-5-yl](2,3-difluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)methanone (R547), A Potent and Selective Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor with Significiant in Vivo Antitumor Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chu,X.; DePinto, W.; Bartkovitz, D.; So, S.; Vu, B.; Packman, K.; Lukacs, C.; Ding, Q.; Jiang, N.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their cyclin partners are key regulators of the cell cycle. Since deregulation of CDKs is found with high frequency in many human cancer cells, pharmacological inhibition of CDKs with small molecules has the potential to provide an effective strategy for the treatment of cancer. The 2,4-diamino-5-ketopyrimidines 6 reported here represent a novel class of potent and ATP-competitive inhibitors that selectively target the cyclin-dependent kinase family. This diaminopyrimidine core with a substituted 4-piperidine moiety on the C2-amino position and 2-methoxybenzoyl at the C5 position has been identified as the critical structure responsible for the CDK inhibitory activity. Further optimization has led to a good number of analogues that show potent inhibitory activities against CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4 but are inactive against a large panel of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases (K{sub i} > 10 {mu}M). As one of these representative analogues, compound 39 (R547) has the best CDK inhibitory activities (K{sub i} = 0.001, 0.003, and 0.001 M for CDK1, CDK2, and CDK4, respectively) and excellent in vitro cellular potency, inhibiting the growth of various human tumor cell lines including an HCT116 cell line (IC{sub 50} = 0.08 {mu}M). An X-ray crystal structure of 39 bound to CDK2 has been determined in this study, revealing a binding mode that is consistent with our SAR. Compound 39 demonstrates significant in vivo efficacy in the HCT116 human colorectal tumor xenograft model in nude mice with up to 95% tumor growth inhibition. On the basis of its superior overall profile, 39 was chosen for further evaluation and has progressed into Phase I clinical trial for the treatment of cancer.

  4. Platelet Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shifrin, Megan M; Widmar, S Brian

    2016-03-01

    Antithrombotic medications have become standard of care for management of acute coronary syndrome. Platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation are essential components of platelet function; platelet-inhibiting medications interfere with these components and reduce incidence of thrombosis. Active bleeding is a contraindication for administration of platelet inhibitors. There is currently no reversal agent for platelet inhibitors, although platelet transfusion may be used to correct active bleeding after administration of platelet inhibitors. PMID:26897422

  5. Cdk3, a conjugation-specific cyclin-dependent kinase, is essential for the initiation of meiosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guan-Xiong; Zhang, Jing; Shodhan, Anura; Tian, Miao; Miao, Wei

    2016-09-16

    Meiosis is an important process in sexual reproduction. Meiosis initiation has been found to be highly diverse among species. In yeast, it has been established that cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and cyclins are essential components in the meiosis initiation pathway. In this study, we identified 4 Cdks in the model ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, and we found one of them, Cdk3, which is specifically expressed during early conjugation, to be essential for meiosis initiation. Cdk3 deletion led to arrest at the pair formation stage of conjugation. We then confirmed that Cdk3 acts upstream of double-strand break (DSB) formation. Moreover, we detected that Cdk3 is necessary for the expression of many genes involved in early meiotic events. Through proteomic quantification of phosphorylation, co-expression analysis and RNA-Seq analyses, we identified a conjugation-specific cyclin, Cyc2, which most likely partners with Cdk3 to initiate meiosis.

  6. Cdk5 controls IL-2 gene expression via repression of the mSin3a-HDAC complex.

    PubMed

    Lam, Eric; Pareek, Tej K; Letterio, John J

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a unique member of a family of serine/threonine cyclin-dependent protein kinases. We previously demonstrated disruption of Cdk5 gene expression in mice impairs T-cell function and ameliorates T-cell-mediated neuroinflammation. Here, we show Cdk5 modulates gene expression during T-cell activation by impairing the repression of gene transcription by histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) through specific phosphorylation of the mSin3a protein at serine residue 861. Disruption of Cdk5 activity in T-cells enhances HDAC activity and binding of the HDAC1/mSin3a complex to the IL-2 promoter, leading to suppression of IL-2 gene expression. These data point to essential roles for Cdk5 in regulating gene expression in T-cells and transcriptional regulation by the co-repressor mSin3a. PMID:25785643

  7. CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2009-08-28

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

  8. Cdk3, a conjugation-specific cyclin-dependent kinase, is essential for the initiation of meiosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guan-Xiong; Zhang, Jing; Shodhan, Anura; Tian, Miao; Miao, Wei

    2016-09-16

    Meiosis is an important process in sexual reproduction. Meiosis initiation has been found to be highly diverse among species. In yeast, it has been established that cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and cyclins are essential components in the meiosis initiation pathway. In this study, we identified 4 Cdks in the model ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, and we found one of them, Cdk3, which is specifically expressed during early conjugation, to be essential for meiosis initiation. Cdk3 deletion led to arrest at the pair formation stage of conjugation. We then confirmed that Cdk3 acts upstream of double-strand break (DSB) formation. Moreover, we detected that Cdk3 is necessary for the expression of many genes involved in early meiotic events. Through proteomic quantification of phosphorylation, co-expression analysis and RNA-Seq analyses, we identified a conjugation-specific cyclin, Cyc2, which most likely partners with Cdk3 to initiate meiosis. PMID:27420775

  9. miR-449a and CDK6 in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, LI-PING; WU, WEI-JING; SUN, DA-YONG; XIE, ZI-YING; MA, YAN-CHUN; ZHAO, YA-GANG

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the association between microRNA (miR/miRNA)-449a, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)6 protein and gastric carcinoma, and discuss the effect of miR-449a on the expression of the CDK6 protein. Quantitative (q)PCR and western blot analysis were used to analyze the expression of the miR-449a and the CDK6 protein in gastric carcinoma and tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The real-time cell analyzer and the DAPI staining test were used to monitor the different miR-449a levels regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of the MGC-803 cell line. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses were used to detect the expression level of the CDK6 protein in the cells of the miR-449a upregulation and downregulation groups, and a control group. A scratch test was used to study the effects of miR-449a expression on migration and invasion. It was found that the expression of miR-449a was downregulated and the expression of CDK6 protein was upregulated in gastric carcinoma tissue. The level of MGC-803 cell proliferation was decreased and the apoptosis level was increased by the upregulation of miR-449a expression, and the opposite effect was shown by the downregulation of expression. The expression of the CDK6 protein in the MGC-803 cells was downregulated by upregulating the expression of miR-449a. The distance of the scratch was shortened markedly after 12 h by downregulating the expression of miR-449a in the MGC-803 cells. The present study identified that a lower expression level of miR-449 and a higher expression level of CDK6 may contribute to the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Furthermore, it was shown that miR-449a is able to regulate the expression of the CDK6 protein. PMID:25202363

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is essential for cell division and suppression of DNA re-replication but not for liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Diril, M. Kasim; Ratnacaram, Chandrahas Koumar; Padmakumar, V. C.; Wasser, Martin; Coppola, Vincenzo; Tessarollo, Lino; Kaldis, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is an archetypical kinase and a central regulator that drives cells through G2 phase and mitosis. Knockouts of Cdk2, Cdk3, Cdk4, or Cdk6 have resulted in viable mice, but the in vivo functions of Cdk1 have not been fully explored in mammals. Here we have generated a conditional-knockout mouse model to study the functions of Cdk1 in vivo. Ablation of Cdk1 leads to arrest of embryonic development around the blastocyst stage. Interestingly, liver-specific deletion of Cdk1 is well tolerated, and liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is not impaired, indicating that regeneration can be driven by cell growth without cell division. The loss of Cdk1 does not affect S phase progression but results in DNA re-replication because of an increase in Cdk2/cyclin A2 activity. Unlike other Cdks, loss of Cdk1 in the liver confers complete resistance against tumorigenesis induced by activated Ras and silencing of p53. PMID:22355113

  11. CDK1-Cyclin B1 Activates RNMT, Coordinating mRNA Cap Methylation with G1 Phase Transcription.

    PubMed

    Aregger, Michael; Kaskar, Aneesa; Varshney, Dhaval; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Elena; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A; Weidlich, Simone; Cowling, Victoria H

    2016-03-01

    The creation of translation-competent mRNA is dependent on RNA polymerase II transcripts being modified by addition of the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap. The factors that mediate splicing, nuclear export, and translation initiation are recruited to the transcript via the cap. The cap structure is formed by several activities and completed by RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase), which catalyzes N7 methylation of the cap guanosine. We report that CDK1-cyclin B1 phosphorylates the RNMT regulatory domain on T77 during G2/M phase of the cell cycle. RNMT T77 phosphorylation activates the enzyme both directly and indirectly by inhibiting interaction with KPNA2, an RNMT inhibitor. RNMT T77 phosphorylation results in elevated m7G cap methyltransferase activity at the beginning of G1 phase, coordinating mRNA capping with the burst of transcription that occurs following nuclear envelope reformation. RNMT T77 phosphorylation is required for the production of cohort of proteins, and inhibiting T77 phosphorylation reduces the cell proliferation rate. PMID:26942677

  12. CDK1-Cyclin B1 Activates RNMT, Coordinating mRNA Cap Methylation with G1 Phase Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Aregger, Michael; Kaskar, Aneesa; Varshney, Dhaval; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Elena; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A.; Weidlich, Simone; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The creation of translation-competent mRNA is dependent on RNA polymerase II transcripts being modified by addition of the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap. The factors that mediate splicing, nuclear export, and translation initiation are recruited to the transcript via the cap. The cap structure is formed by several activities and completed by RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase), which catalyzes N7 methylation of the cap guanosine. We report that CDK1-cyclin B1 phosphorylates the RNMT regulatory domain on T77 during G2/M phase of the cell cycle. RNMT T77 phosphorylation activates the enzyme both directly and indirectly by inhibiting interaction with KPNA2, an RNMT inhibitor. RNMT T77 phosphorylation results in elevated m7G cap methyltransferase activity at the beginning of G1 phase, coordinating mRNA capping with the burst of transcription that occurs following nuclear envelope reformation. RNMT T77 phosphorylation is required for the production of cohort of proteins, and inhibiting T77 phosphorylation reduces the cell proliferation rate. PMID:26942677

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits cancer cell growth via p27Kip1, CDK2, ERK1/ERK2, and retinoblastoma phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naim A; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Aires, Virginie; Yamashita, Tomoko; Oaxaca-Castillo, David; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2006-10-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PUFA of the n-3 family, inhibited the growth of FM3A mouse mammary cancer cells by arresting their progression from the late-G(1) to the S phase of the cell cycle. DHA upregulated p27(Kip1) levels by inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, i.e., ERK1/ERK2. Indeed, inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation by DHA, U0126 [chemical MAPK extracellularly signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor], and MEK(SA) (cells expressing dominant negative constructs of MEK) resulted in the accumulation of p27(Kip1). MAP kinase (MAPK) inhibition by DHA did not increase p27(Kip1) mRNA levels. Rather, this fatty acid stabilized p27(Kip1) contents and inhibited MAPK-dependent proteasomal degradation of this protein. DHA also diminished cyclin E phosphorylation, cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) activity, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in these cells. Our study shows that DHA arrests cell growth by modulating the phosphorylation of cell cycle-related proteins.

  14. The prognostic significance and value of cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16 in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Loss of the retinoblastoma protein tumor suppressor gene (RB) coding for a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates the cell cycle is found in many human cancers and probably leads to disruption of the p16-cyclin D1-CDK4/6-RB pathway. Cyclin D1 is known to activate CDK4, which then phosphorylates the RB protein, leading to cell cycle progression. p16 inhibits CDK4, keeping RB hypophosphorylated and preventing cell cycle progression. The significance of these three markers, cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16, for breast cancer and carcinogenesis is nevertheless still controversial. Methods The material consisted of 102 formalin-fixed human breast cancer samples, in which cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically. The amounts of cyclin D1 mRNA present were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR. Results High cyclin D1 expression statistically significantly correlated with lower tumor grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity and lower proliferation activity in breast tumors and increased breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival. Tumors with high cyclin D1 protein had 1.8 times higher expression of cyclin D1 mRNA. CDK4 expression did not correlate with cyclin D1 expression or the survival data. p16 expression was associated with Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) negativity and increased breast cancer-specific survival and disease-free survival. No statistical correlations between cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16 were found. Conclusions Cyclin D1 was associated with a good breast cancer prognosis but functioned independently of CDK4. High cyclin D1 expression may be partially due to increased CCND1 transcription. p16 correlated with a better prognosis and may function without CDK4. In conclusion, it appears that cyclin D1, CDK4 and p16 function independently in human breast cancer. PMID:23336272

  15. Cyclin D1 is dispensable for G1 control in retinoblastoma gene-deficient cells independently of cdk4 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, J; Bartkova, J; Rohde, M; Strauss, M; Bartek, J

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the regulator-versus-target relationship in the cyclin D1/cdk4/retinoblastoma protein (pRB) pathway, we examined fibroblasts from RB-1 gene-deficient and RB-1 wild-type littermate mouse embryos (ME) and in human tumor cell lines that differed in the status of the RB-1 gene. The RB+/+ and RB-/- ME fibroblasts expressed similar protein levels of D-type cyclins, cdk4, and cdk6, showed analogous spectra and abundance of cellular proteins complexed with cdk4 and/or cyclins D1 and D2, and exhibited comparable associated kinase activities. Of the two human cell lines established from the same sarcoma biopsy, the RB-positive SKUT1B cells contained cdk4 that was mainly associated with D-type cyclins, contrary to a predominant cdk4-p16INK4 complex in the RB-deficient SKUT1A cells. Antibody-mediated neutralization of cyclin D1 arrested the RB-positive ME and SKUT1B cells in G1, whereas this cyclin appeared dispensable in the RB-deficient ME and SKUT1A cells. Lack of requirement for cyclin D1 therefore correlated with absence of functional pRB, regardless of whether active cyclin D1/cdk4 holoenzyme was present in the cells under study. Consistent with a potential role of cyclin D/cdk4 in phosphorylation of pRB, monoclonal anti-cyclin D1 antibodies supporting the associated kinase activity failed to significantly affect proliferation of RB-positive cells, whereas the antibody DCS-6, unable to coprecipitate cdk4, efficiently inhibited G1 progression and prevented pRB phosphorylation in vivo. These data provide evidence for an upstream control function of cyclin D1/cdk4, and a downstream role for pRB, in the order of events regulating transition through late G1 phase of the mammalian cell division cycle. PMID:7739541

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded with p5, Derived from CDK5 Activator p35, Inhibit Calcium-Induced CDK5 Activation in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Kumar, Shant; McDowell, Garry; Smith, David; Krupinski, Jurek; Olah, Peter; Al-Baradie, Raid Saleem; Al-Rukban, Mohammad Othman; Petcu, Eugene Bogdan; Slevin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The potential use of stem cells as therapeutics in disease has gained momentum over the last few years and recently phase-I clinical trials have shown favourable results in treatment of a small cohort of acute stroke patients. Similarly, they have been used in preclinical models drug-loaded for the effective treatment of solid tumours. Here we have characterized uptake and release of a novel p5-cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) inhibitory peptide by mesenchymal stem cells and showed release levels capable of blocking aberrant cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) signaling pathways, through phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and p53. These pathways represent the major acute mechanism stimulating apoptosis after stroke and hence its modulation could benefit patient recovery. This work indicates a potential use for drug-loaded stem cells as delivery vehicles for stroke therapeutics and in addition as anticancer receptacles particularly, if a targeting and/or holding mechanism can be defined. PMID:27651795

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded with p5, Derived from CDK5 Activator p35, Inhibit Calcium-Induced CDK5 Activation in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shant; McDowell, Garry; Krupinski, Jurek; Olah, Peter; Al-Baradie, Raid Saleem; Al-Rukban, Mohammad Othman; Petcu, Eugene Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The potential use of stem cells as therapeutics in disease has gained momentum over the last few years and recently phase-I clinical trials have shown favourable results in treatment of a small cohort of acute stroke patients. Similarly, they have been used in preclinical models drug-loaded for the effective treatment of solid tumours. Here we have characterized uptake and release of a novel p5-cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) inhibitory peptide by mesenchymal stem cells and showed release levels capable of blocking aberrant cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) signaling pathways, through phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and p53. These pathways represent the major acute mechanism stimulating apoptosis after stroke and hence its modulation could benefit patient recovery. This work indicates a potential use for drug-loaded stem cells as delivery vehicles for stroke therapeutics and in addition as anticancer receptacles particularly, if a targeting and/or holding mechanism can be defined.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded with p5, Derived from CDK5 Activator p35, Inhibit Calcium-Induced CDK5 Activation in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shant; McDowell, Garry; Krupinski, Jurek; Olah, Peter; Al-Baradie, Raid Saleem; Al-Rukban, Mohammad Othman; Petcu, Eugene Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The potential use of stem cells as therapeutics in disease has gained momentum over the last few years and recently phase-I clinical trials have shown favourable results in treatment of a small cohort of acute stroke patients. Similarly, they have been used in preclinical models drug-loaded for the effective treatment of solid tumours. Here we have characterized uptake and release of a novel p5-cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) inhibitory peptide by mesenchymal stem cells and showed release levels capable of blocking aberrant cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) signaling pathways, through phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and p53. These pathways represent the major acute mechanism stimulating apoptosis after stroke and hence its modulation could benefit patient recovery. This work indicates a potential use for drug-loaded stem cells as delivery vehicles for stroke therapeutics and in addition as anticancer receptacles particularly, if a targeting and/or holding mechanism can be defined. PMID:27651795

  19. Corrosion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Wisotsky, M.J.; Metro, S.J.

    1989-10-31

    A corrosion inhibitor for use in synthetic ester lubricating oils is disclosed. It comprises an effective amount of: at least one aromatic amide; and at least one hydroxy substituted aromatic compound. The corrosion inhibitor thus formed is particularly useful in synthetic ester turbo lubricating oils.

  20. Feasibility of using molecular docking-based virtual screening for searching dual target kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shunye; Li, Youyong; Hou, Tingjun

    2013-04-22

    Multitarget agents have been extensively explored for solving limited efficacies, poor safety, and resistant profiles of an individual target. Theoretical approaches for searching and designing multitarget agents are critically useful. Here, the performance of molecular docking to search dual-target inhibitors for four kinase pairs (CDK2-GSK3B, EGFR-Src, Lck-Src, and Lck-VEGFR2) was assessed. First, the representative structures for each kinase target were chosen by structural clustering of available crystal structures. Next, the performance of molecular docking to distinguish inhibitors from noninhibitors for each individual kinase target was evaluated. The results show that molecular docking-based virtual screening illustrates good capability to find known inhibitors for individual targets, but the prediction accuracy is structurally dependent. Finally, the performance of molecular docking to identify the dual-target kinase inhibitors for four kinase pairs was evaluated. The analyses show that molecular docking successfully filters out most noninhibitors and achieves promising performance for identifying dual-kinase inhibitors for CDK2-GSK3B and Lck-VEGFR2. But a high false-positive rate leads to low enrichment of true dual-target inhibitors in the final list. This study suggests that molecular docking serves as a useful tool in searching inhibitors against dual or even multiple kinase targets, but integration with other virtual screening tools is necessary for achieving better predictions.

  1. Targeted Epigenetic Remodeling of the Cdk5 Gene in Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Cocaine- and Stress-Evoked Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Peter J.; Burek, Dominika D.; Lombroso, Sonia I.; Peña, Catherine J.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated epigenetic remodeling in brain reward regions following psychostimulant or stress exposure. It has only recently become possible to target a given type of epigenetic remodeling to a single gene of interest, and to probe the functional relevance of such regulation to neuropsychiatric disease. We sought to examine the role of histone modifications at the murine Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) locus, given growing evidence of Cdk5 expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) influencing reward-related behaviors. Viral-mediated delivery of engineered zinc finger proteins (ZFP) targeted histone H3 lysine 9/14 acetylation (H3K9/14ac), a transcriptionally active mark, or histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is associated with transcriptional repression, specifically to the Cdk5 locus in NAc in vivo. We found that Cdk5-ZFP transcription factors are sufficient to bidirectionally regulate Cdk5 gene expression via enrichment of their respective histone modifications. We examined the behavioral consequences of this epigenetic remodeling and found that Cdk5-targeted H3K9/14ac increased cocaine-induced locomotor behavior, as well as resilience to social stress. Conversely, Cdk5-targeted H3K9me2 attenuated both cocaine-induced locomotor behavior and conditioned place preference, but had no effect on stress-induced social avoidance behavior. The current study provides evidence for the causal role of Cdk5 epigenetic remodeling in NAc in Cdk5 gene expression and in the control of reward and stress responses. Moreover, these data are especially compelling given that previous work demonstrated opposite behavioral phenotypes compared with those reported here upon Cdk5 overexpression or knockdown, demonstrating the importance of targeted epigenetic remodeling tools for studying more subtle molecular changes that contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Addiction and depression are highly heritable diseases, yet it has been

  2. A haploid genetic screen identifies the G1/S regulatory machinery as a determinant of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Blomen, Vincent A; Bisteau, Xavier; Degener, Fabian; Matsushita, Felipe Yu; Kaldis, Philipp; Foijer, Floris; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2015-12-01

    The Wee1 cell cycle checkpoint kinase prevents premature mitotic entry by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases. Chemical inhibitors of Wee1 are currently being tested clinically as targeted anticancer drugs. Wee1 inhibition is thought to be preferentially cytotoxic in p53-defective cancer cells. However, TP53 mutant cancers do not respond consistently to Wee1 inhibitor treatment, indicating the existence of genetic determinants of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity other than TP53 status. To optimally facilitate patient selection for Wee1 inhibition and uncover potential resistance mechanisms, identification of these currently unknown genes is necessary. The aim of this study was therefore to identify gene mutations that determine Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity. We performed a genome-wide unbiased functional genetic screen in TP53 mutant near-haploid KBM-7 cells using gene-trap insertional mutagenesis. Insertion site mapping of cells that survived long-term Wee1 inhibition revealed enrichment of G1/S regulatory genes, including SKP2, CUL1, and CDK2. Stable depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 or chemical Cdk2 inhibition rescued the γ-H2AX induction and abrogation of G2 phase as induced by Wee1 inhibition in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Remarkably, live cell imaging showed that depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 did not rescue the Wee1 inhibition-induced karyokinesis and cytokinesis defects. These data indicate that the activity of the DNA replication machinery, beyond TP53 mutation status, determines Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity, and could serve as a selection criterion for Wee1-inhibitor eligible patients. Conversely, loss of the identified S-phase genes could serve as a mechanism of acquired resistance, which goes along with development of severe genomic instability. PMID:26598692

  3. A haploid genetic screen identifies the G1/S regulatory machinery as a determinant of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Blomen, Vincent A.; Bisteau, Xavier; Degener, Fabian; Matsushita, Felipe Yu; Foijer, Floris; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Wee1 cell cycle checkpoint kinase prevents premature mitotic entry by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases. Chemical inhibitors of Wee1 are currently being tested clinically as targeted anticancer drugs. Wee1 inhibition is thought to be preferentially cytotoxic in p53-defective cancer cells. However, TP53 mutant cancers do not respond consistently to Wee1 inhibitor treatment, indicating the existence of genetic determinants of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity other than TP53 status. To optimally facilitate patient selection for Wee1 inhibition and uncover potential resistance mechanisms, identification of these currently unknown genes is necessary. The aim of this study was therefore to identify gene mutations that determine Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity. We performed a genome-wide unbiased functional genetic screen in TP53 mutant near-haploid KBM-7 cells using gene-trap insertional mutagenesis. Insertion site mapping of cells that survived long-term Wee1 inhibition revealed enrichment of G1/S regulatory genes, including SKP2, CUL1, and CDK2. Stable depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 or chemical Cdk2 inhibition rescued the γ-H2AX induction and abrogation of G2 phase as induced by Wee1 inhibition in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Remarkably, live cell imaging showed that depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 did not rescue the Wee1 inhibition-induced karyokinesis and cytokinesis defects. These data indicate that the activity of the DNA replication machinery, beyond TP53 mutation status, determines Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity, and could serve as a selection criterion for Wee1-inhibitor eligible patients. Conversely, loss of the identified S-phase genes could serve as a mechanism of acquired resistance, which goes along with development of severe genomic instability. PMID:26598692

  4. Cdk4 functions in multiple cell types to control Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Adlesic, Mojca; Frei, Christian; Frew, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and differentiation of enteroblasts to form mature enteroendocrine cells and enterocytes in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium must be tightly regulated to maintain homeostasis. We show that genetic modulation of CyclinD/Cdk4 activity or mTOR-dependent signalling cell-autonomously regulates enterocyte growth, which influences ISC proliferation and enteroblast differentiation. Increased enterocyte growth results in higher numbers of ISCs and defective enterocyte growth reduces ISC abundance and proliferation in the midgut. Adult midguts deficient for Cdk4 show severe disruption of intestinal homeostasis characterised by decreased ISC self-renewal, enteroblast differentiation defects and low enteroendocrine cell and enterocyte numbers. The ISC/enteroblast phenotypes result from a combination of cell autonomous and non-autonomous requirements for Cdk4 function. One non-autonomous consequence of Cdk4-dependent deficient enterocyte growth is high expression of Delta in ISCs and Delta retention in enteroblasts. We postulate that aberrant activation of the Delta-Notch pathway is a possible partial cause of lost ISC stemness. These results support the idea that enterocytes contribute to a putative stem cell niche that maintains intestinal homeostasis in the Drosophila anterior midgut. PMID:26879465

  5. Dependency of the spindle assembly checkpoint on Cdk1 renders the anaphase transition irreversible.

    PubMed

    Rattani, Ahmed; Vinod, P K; Godwin, Jonathan; Tachibana-Konwalski, Kikuë; Wolna, Magda; Malumbres, Marcos; Novák, Béla; Nasmyth, Kim

    2014-03-17

    Activation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(Cdc20)) by Cdc20 is delayed by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). When all kinetochores come under tension, the SAC is turned off and APC/C(Cdc20) degrades cyclin B and securin, which activates separase [1]. The latter then cleaves cohesin holding sister chromatids together [2]. Because cohesin cleavage also destroys the tension responsible for turning off the SAC, cells must possess a mechanism to prevent SAC reactivation during anaphase, which could be conferred by a dependence of the SAC on Cdk1 [3-5]. To test this, we analyzed mouse oocytes and embryos expressing nondegradable cyclin B together with a Cdk1-resistant form of separase. After biorientation and SAC inactivation, APC/C(Cdc20) activates separase but the resulting loss of (some) cohesion is accompanied by SAC reactivation and APC/C(Cdc20) inhibition, which aborts the process of further securin degradation. Cyclin B is therefore the only APC/C(Cdc20) substrate whose degradation at the onset of anaphase is necessary to prevent SAC reactivation. The mutual activation of tension sensitive SAC and Cdk1 creates a bistable system that ensures complete activation of separase and total downregulation of Cdk1 when all chromosomes have bioriented.

  6. CDK5RAP2 stimulates microtubule nucleation by the gamma-tubulin ring complex.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuk-Kwan; Liu, Pengfei; Sze, Siu Kwan; Dai, Chao; Qi, Robert Z

    2010-12-13

    CDK5RAP2 is a human microcephaly protein that contains a γ-tubulin complex (γ-TuC)-binding domain conserved in Drosophila melanogaster centrosomin and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mto1p and Pcp1p, which are γ-TuC-tethering proteins. In this study, we show that this domain within CDK5RAP2 associates with the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) to stimulate its microtubule-nucleating activity and is therefore referred to as the γ-TuRC-mediated nucleation activator (γ-TuNA). γ-TuNA but not its γ-TuC-binding-deficient mutant stimulates microtubule nucleation by purified γ-TuRC in vitro and induces extensive, γ-TuRC-dependent nucleation of microtubules in a microtubule regrowth assay. γ-TuRC bound to γ-TuNA contains NME7, FAM128A/B, and actin in addition to γ-tubulin and GCP2-6. RNA interference-mediated depletion of CDK5RAP2 impairs both centrosomal and acentrosomal microtubule nucleation, although γ-TuRC assembly is unaffected. Collectively, these results suggest that the γ-TuNA found in CDK5RAP2 has regulatory functions in γ-TuRC-mediated microtubule nucleation. PMID:21135143

  7. Mutually Unbiased Maximally Entangled Bases for the Bipartite System Cd⊗ C^{dk}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Hua; Tao, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Tian-Jiao; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The construction of maximally entangled bases for the bipartite system Cd⊗ Cd is discussed firstly, and some mutually unbiased bases with maximally entangled bases are given, where 2≤ d≤5. Moreover, we study a systematic way of constructing mutually unbiased maximally entangled bases for the bipartite system Cd⊗ C^{dk}.

  8. Cdk1 orders mitotic events through coordination of a chromosome-associated phosphatase switch.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junbin; Beullens, Monique; Huang, Jin; De Munter, Sofie; Lesage, Bart; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    RepoMan is a scaffold for signalling by mitotic phosphatases at the chromosomes. During (pro)metaphase, RepoMan-associated protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A-B56 regulate the chromosome targeting of Aurora-B kinase and RepoMan, respectively. Here we show that this task division is critically dependent on the phosphorylation of RepoMan by protein kinase Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), which reduces the binding of PP1 but facilitates the recruitment of PP2A-B56. The inactivation of Cdk1 in early anaphase reverses this phosphatase switch, resulting in the accumulation of PP1-RepoMan to a level that is sufficient to catalyse its own chromosome targeting in a PP2A-independent and irreversible manner. Bulk-targeted PP1-RepoMan also inactivates Aurora B and initiates nuclear-envelope reassembly through dephosphorylation-mediated recruitment of Importin β. Bypassing the Cdk1 regulation of PP1-RepoMan causes the premature dephosphorylation of its mitotic-exit substrates in prometaphase. Hence, the regulation of RepoMan-associated phosphatases by Cdk1 is essential for the timely dephosphorylation of their mitotic substrates. PMID:26674376

  9. Cdk4 functions in multiple cell types to control Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Adlesic, Mojca; Frei, Christian; Frew, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and differentiation of enteroblasts to form mature enteroendocrine cells and enterocytes in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium must be tightly regulated to maintain homeostasis. We show that genetic modulation of CyclinD/Cdk4 activity or mTOR-dependent signalling cell-autonomously regulates enterocyte growth, which influences ISC proliferation and enteroblast differentiation. Increased enterocyte growth results in higher numbers of ISCs and defective enterocyte growth reduces ISC abundance and proliferation in the midgut. Adult midguts deficient for Cdk4 show severe disruption of intestinal homeostasis characterised by decreased ISC self-renewal, enteroblast differentiation defects and low enteroendocrine cell and enterocyte numbers. The ISC/enteroblast phenotypes result from a combination of cell autonomous and non-autonomous requirements for Cdk4 function. One non-autonomous consequence of Cdk4-dependent deficient enterocyte growth is high expression of Delta in ISCs and Delta retention in enteroblasts. We postulate that aberrant activation of the Delta–Notch pathway is a possible partial cause of lost ISC stemness. These results support the idea that enterocytes contribute to a putative stem cell niche that maintains intestinal homeostasis in the Drosophila anterior midgut. PMID:26879465

  10. The cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 directly regulates vacuole inheritance.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yutian; Weisman, Lois S

    2008-09-01

    In budding yeast, vacuole inheritance is tightly coordinated with the cell cycle. The movement of vacuoles and several other organelles is actin-based and is mediated by interaction between the yeast myosin V motor Myo2 and organelle-specific adaptors. Myo2 binds to vacuoles via the adaptor protein Vac17, which binds to the vacuole membrane protein Vac8. Here we show that the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 phosphorylates Vac17 and that phosphorylation of Vac17 parallels cell cycle-dependent movement of the vacuole. Substitution of the Cdk1 sites in Vac17 decreases its interaction with Myo2 and causes a partial defect in vacuole inheritance. This defect is enhanced in the presence of Myo2 with mutated phosphorylation sites. Thus, Cdk1 appears to control the timing of vacuole movement. The presence of multiple predicted Cdk1 sites in other organelle-specific myosin V adaptors suggests that the inheritance of other cytoplasmic organelles may be regulated by a similar mechanism.

  11. Cdk1 orders mitotic events through coordination of a chromosome-associated phosphatase switch

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junbin; Beullens, Monique; Huang, Jin; De Munter, Sofie; Lesage, Bart; Bollen, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    RepoMan is a scaffold for signalling by mitotic phosphatases at the chromosomes. During (pro)metaphase, RepoMan-associated protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A-B56 regulate the chromosome targeting of Aurora-B kinase and RepoMan, respectively. Here we show that this task division is critically dependent on the phosphorylation of RepoMan by protein kinase Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), which reduces the binding of PP1 but facilitates the recruitment of PP2A-B56. The inactivation of Cdk1 in early anaphase reverses this phosphatase switch, resulting in the accumulation of PP1-RepoMan to a level that is sufficient to catalyse its own chromosome targeting in a PP2A-independent and irreversible manner. Bulk-targeted PP1-RepoMan also inactivates Aurora B and initiates nuclear-envelope reassembly through dephosphorylation-mediated recruitment of Importin β. Bypassing the Cdk1 regulation of PP1-RepoMan causes the premature dephosphorylation of its mitotic-exit substrates in prometaphase. Hence, the regulation of RepoMan-associated phosphatases by Cdk1 is essential for the timely dephosphorylation of their mitotic substrates. PMID:26674376

  12. Cyclin A–CDK phosphorylates Sp1 and enhances Sp1-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    de Borja, Patrick Fojas; Collins, N.Keith; Du, Ping; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Mudryj, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Cyclin A-mediated activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is essential for cell cycle transversal. Cyclin A activity is regulated on several levels and cyclin A elevation in a number of cancers suggests a role in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we used a modified DNA binding site selection and PCR amplification procedure to identify DNA binding proteins that are potential substrates of cyclin A–CDK. One of the sequences identified is the Sp1 transcription factor binding site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin A and Sp1 can interact physically. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation studies indicate that cyclin A–CDK complexes can phosphorylate Sp1. The phosphorylation site is located in the N-terminal region of the protein. Cells overexpressing cyclin A have elevated levels of Sp1 DNA binding activity, suggesting that cyclin A–CDK-mediated phosphorylation augments Sp1 DNA binding properties. In co-transfection studies, cyclin A expression stimulated transcription from an Sp1-regulated promoter. Mutation of the phosphorylation site abrogated cyclin A–CDK-dependent phosphorylation, augmentation of Sp1 transactivation function and DNA binding activity. PMID:11598016

  13. p18 inhibits reprogramming through inactivation of Cdk4/6

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shaohua; Cao, Jiani; Sun, Hongyan; Liu, Kun; Li, Yaqiong; Zhao, Tongbiao

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), show atypical cell cycle regulation characterized by a high proliferation rate and a shorter G1 phase compared with somatic cells. The mechanisms by which somatic cells remodel their cell cycle to achieve the high proliferation rate of PSCs during reprogramming are unclear. Here we identify that the Ink4 protein p18, which is expressed at high levels in somatic cells but at low levels in PSCs, is a roadblock to successful reprogramming. Mild inhibition of p18 expression enhances reprogramming efficiency, while ectopic expression of p18 completely blocks reprogramming. Mechanistic studies show that expression of wild-type p18, but not a p18D68N mutant which cannot inhibit Cdk4/6, down-regulates expression of Cdk4/6 target genes involved in DNA synthesis (TK, TS, DHFR, PCNA) and cell cycle regulation (CDK1 and CCNA2) and thus inhibits reprogramming. These results indicate that p18 blocks reprogramming by targeting Cdk4/6-mediated cell cycle regulation. Taken together, our results define a novel pathway that inhibits somatic cell reprogramming, and provide a new target to enhance reprogramming efficiency. PMID:27484146

  14. Protein kinase Czeta regulates Cdk5/p25 signaling during myogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Thonel, Aurélie; Ferraris, Saima E; Pallari, Hanna-Mari; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Kochin, Vitaly; Hosokawa, Tomohisa; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Eriksson, John E

    2010-04-15

    Atypical protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta) is emerging as a mediator of differentiation. Here, we describe a novel role for PKCzeta in myogenic differentiation, demonstrating that PKCzeta activity is indispensable for differentiation of both C2C12 and mouse primary myoblasts. PKCzeta was found to be associated with and to regulate the Cdk5/p35 signaling complex, an essential factor for both neuronal and myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of PKCzeta activity prevented both myotube formation and simultaneous reorganization of the nestin intermediate filament cytoskeleton, which is known to be regulated by Cdk5 during myogenesis. p35, the Cdk5 activator, was shown to be a specific phosphorylation target of PKCzeta. PKCzeta-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-33 on p35 promoted calpain-mediated cleavage of p35 to its more active and stable fragment, p25. Strikingly, both calpain activation and the calpain-mediated cleavage of p35 were shown to be PKCzeta-dependent in differentiating myoblasts. Overall, our results identify PKCzeta as a controller of myogenic differentiation by its regulation of the phosphorylation-dependent and calpain-mediated p35 cleavage, which is crucial for the amplification of the Cdk5 activity that is required during differentiation.

  15. Enrichment of Cdk1-cyclins at DNA double-strand breaks stimulates Fun30 phosphorylation and DNA end resection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuefeng; Niu, Hengyao; Yu, Yang; Wang, Jingjing; Zhu, Shuangyi; Zhou, Jianjie; Papusha, Alma; Cui, Dandan; Pan, Xuewen; Kwon, Youngho; Sung, Patrick; Ira, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic types of DNA lesion challenging genome integrity. The activity of cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 is essential for DSB repair by homologous recombination and for DNA damage signaling. Here we identify the Fun30 chromatin remodeler as a new target of Cdk1. Fun30 is phosphorylated by Cdk1 on Serine 28 to stimulate its functions in DNA damage response including resection of DSB ends. Importantly, Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Fun30-S28 increases upon DNA damage and requires the recruitment of Fun30 to DSBs, suggesting that phosphorylation increases in situ at the DNA damage. Consistently, we find that Cdk1 and multiple cyclins become highly enriched at DSBs and that the recruitment of Cdk1 and cyclins Clb2 and Clb5 ensures optimal Fun30 phosphorylation and checkpoint activation. We propose that the enrichment of Cdk1-cyclin complexes at DSBs serves as a mechanism for enhanced targeting and modulating of the activity of DNA damage response proteins. PMID:26801641

  16. Involvement of the CDK2-E2F1 pathway in cisplatin cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Megyesi, Judit; Safirstein, Robert L; Price, Peter M

    2007-07-01

    E2F1 is a key regulator that links cell cycle progression and cell death. E2F1 activity is controlled by Cdk2-cyclin complexes via several mechanisms, such as phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) to release E2F1, direct phosphorylation, and stable physical interaction. We have demonstrated that cisplatin cytotoxicity depends on Cdk2 activity, and Cdk2 inhibition protects kidney cells from cisplatin-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Now we show that E2F1 is an important downstream effector of Cdk2 that accumulates in mouse kidneys and in cultured mouse proximal tubular cells (TKPTS) after cisplatin exposure by a Cdk2-dependent mechanism. Direct inhibition of E2F1 by transduction with adenoviruses expressing an E2F1-binding protein (TopBP1) protected TKPTS cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of E2F1 caused cell death. Moreover, E2F1 knockout mice were markedly protected against cisplatin nephrotoxicity by both functional and histological criteria. Collectively, cisplatin-induced cell death is dependent on Cdk2 activity, which is at least partly through the Cdk2-E2F1 pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. CDK5 knockdown in astrocytes provide neuroprotection as a trophic source via Rac1.

    PubMed

    Posada-Duque, Rafael Andrés; Palacio-Castañeda, Valentina; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes perform metabolic and structural support functions in the brain and contribute to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes influence neuronal survival and prevent gliotoxicity by capturing glutamate (Glu), reactive oxygen species, and nutrients. During these processes, astrocytic morphological changes are supported by actin cytoskeleton remodeling and require the involvement of Rho GTPases, such as Rac1. The protein cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) may have a dual effect on astrocytes because it has been shown to be involved in migration, senescence, and the dysfunction of glutamate recapture; however, its role in astrocytes remains unclear. Treating a possible deregulation of CDK5 with RNAi is a strategy that has been proposed as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. Models of glutamate gliotoxicity in the C6 astroglioma cell line, primary cultures of astrocytes, and co-cultures with neurons were used to analyze the effects of CDK5 RNAi in astrocytes and the role of Rac1 in neuronal viability. In C6 cells and primary astrocytes, CDK5 RNAi prevented the cell death generated by glutamate-induced gliotoxicity, and this finding was corroborated by pharmacological inhibition with roscovitine. This effect was associated with the appearance of lamellipodia, protrusions, increased cell area, stellation, Rac1 activation, BDNF release, and astrocytic protection in neurons that were exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity. Interestingly, Rac1 inhibition in astrocytes blocked BDNF upregulation and the astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and stellation may be a functional phenotype for BDNF release that promotes neuroprotection. In summary, our findings suggest that CDK5- knockdown in astrocytes acts as a trophic source for neuronal protection in a Rac1-dependent manner. PMID:26160434

  18. CDK19 is disrupted in a female patient with bilateral congenital retinal folds, microcephaly and mild mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jamie M.; Merkx, Gerard; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Smeets, Dominique F.; Oortveld, Merel A. W.; Blokland, Ellen A. W.; Agrawal, Jyoti; Schenck, Annette; van Bokhoven, Hans; Huys, Erik; Schoenmakers, Eric F.; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; van Nouhuys, C. Erik

    2010-01-01

    Microcephaly, mental retardation and congenital retinal folds along with other systemic features have previously been reported as a separate clinical entity. The sporadic nature of the syndrome and lack of clear inheritance patterns pointed to a genetic heterogeneity. Here, we report a genetic analysis of a female patient with microcephaly, congenital bilateral falciform retinal folds, nystagmus, and mental retardation. Karyotyping revealed a de novo pericentric inversion in chromosome 6 with breakpoints in 6p12.1 and 6q21. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis narrowed down the region around the breakpoints, and the breakpoint at 6q21 was found to disrupt the CDK19 gene. CDK19 was found to be expressed in a diverse range of tissues including fetal eye and fetal brain. Quantitative PCR of the CDK19 transcript from Epstein–Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines of the patient revealed ~50% reduction in the transcript (p = 0.02), suggesting haploinsufficiency of the gene. cdk8, the closest orthologue of human CDK19 in Drosophila has been shown to play a major role in eye development. Conditional knock-down of Drosophila cdk8 in multiple dendrite (md) neurons resulted in 35% reduced dendritic branching and altered morphology of the dendritic arbour, which appeared to be due in part to a loss of small higher order branches. In addition, Cdk8 mutant md neurons showed diminished dendritic fields revealing an important role of the CDK19 orthologue in the developing nervous system of Drosophila. This is the first time the CDK19 gene, a component of the mediator co-activator complex, has been linked to a human disease. PMID:20563892

  19. Structure-based lead discovery for protein kinase C zeta inhibitor design by exploiting kinase-inhibitor complex crystal structure data and potential therapeutics for preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Cui-Juan; Li, Jie

    2014-10-14

    The protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases with a broad range of cellular targets. Members of the PKC family participate at the diverse biological events involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The PKC isoform zeta (PKCζ) is an atypical member that has recently been found to play an essential role in promoting human uterine contractility and thus been raised as a new target for treating preterm labour and other tocolytic diseases. In this study, an integrative protocol was described to graft hundreds of inhibitor ligands from their complex crystal structures with cognate kinases into the active pocket of PKCζ and, based on the modeled structures, to evaluate the binding strength of these inhibitors to the non-cognate PKCζ receptor by using a consensus scoring strategy. A total of 32 inhibitors with top score were compiled, and eight out of them were tested for inhibitory potency against PKCζ. Consequently, five compounds, i.e. CDK6 inhibitor fisetin, PIM1 inhibitor myricetin, CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol and PknB inhibitor mitoxantrone as well as the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed high or moderate inhibitory activity on PKCζ, with IC50 values of 58 ± 9, 1.7 ± 0.4, 108 ± 17, 280 ± 47 and 0.019 ± 0.004 μM, respectively, while other three compounds, including two marketed drugs dasatinib and sunitinib as well as the Rho inhibitor fasudil, have not been detected to possess observable activity. Next, based on the modeled structure data we modified three flavonoid kinase inhibitors, i.e. fisetin, myricetin and flavopiridol, to generate a number of more potential molecular entities, two of which were found to have a moderately improved activity as compared to their parent compounds.

  20. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor dinaciclib potently synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiu-Jie; Lin, Feng; Pan, Shi-Shi; Gong, Li-Hua; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Mei, Xiao-Long; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal of woman cancers, and its clinical therapeutic outcome currently is unsatisfied. Dinaciclib, a novel small molecule inhibitor of CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK9, is assessed in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects and mechanisms of dinaciclib alone or combined with cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Dinaciclib alone actively induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS levels, which were accompanied by obvious alterations of related proteins such as CDKs, Cyclins, Mcl-1, XIAP and survivin. Pretreatment with N-acety-L-cysteine significantly blocked ROS generation but only partially rescued apoptosis triggered by dinaciclib. Moreover, the combination of dinaciclib with cisplatin synergistically promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibited the subcutaneous xenograft growth of ovarian cancer in nude mice. Altogether, dinaciclib potently synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer, indicating this beneficial combinational therapy may be a promising strategy for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25962959

  1. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor dinaciclib potently synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Xiu; Xie, Feng-Feng; Zhu, Xiu-Jie; Lin, Feng; Pan, Shi-Shi; Gong, Li-Hua; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Mei, Xiao-Long; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2015-06-20

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal of woman cancers, and its clinical therapeutic outcome currently is unsatisfied. Dinaciclib, a novel small molecule inhibitor of CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK9, is assessed in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects and mechanisms of dinaciclib alone or combined with cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Dinaciclib alone actively induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS levels, which were accompanied by obvious alterations of related proteins such as CDKs, Cyclins, Mcl-1, XIAP and survivin. Pretreatment with N-acety-L-cysteine significantly blocked ROS generation but only partially rescued apoptosis triggered by dinaciclib. Moreover, the combination of dinaciclib with cisplatin synergistically promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibited the subcutaneous xenograft growth of ovarian cancer in nude mice. Altogether, dinaciclib potently synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer, indicating this beneficial combinational therapy may be a promising strategy for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25962959

  2. 2-(6-Phenyl-1H-indazol-3-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazoles: Design and synthesis of a potent and isoform selective PKC-[zeta] inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, John I.; Kiefer, James R.; Huang, Wei; Thorarensen, Atli; Xing, Li; Caspers, Nicole L.; Day, Jacqueline E.; Mathis, Karl J.; Kretzmer, Kuniko K.; Reitz, Beverley A.; Weinberg, Robin A.; Stegeman, Roderick A.; Wrightstone, Ann; Christine, Lori; Compton, Robert; Li, Xiong

    2009-03-16

    The inhibition of PKC-{zeta} has been proposed to be a potential drug target for immune and inflammatory diseases. A series of 2-(6-phenyl-1H indazol-3-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazoles with initial high crossover to CDK-2 has been optimized to afford potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase c-zeta (PKC-{zeta}). The determination of the crystal structures of key inhibitor:CDK-2 complexes informed the design and analysis of the series. The most selective and potent analog was identified by variation of the aryl substituent at the 6-position of the indazole template to give a 4-NH{sub 2} derivative. The analog displays good selectivity over other PKC isoforms ({alpha}, {beta}II, {gamma}, {delta}, {epsilon}, {mu}, {theta}, {eta} and {ell}/{lambda}) and CDK-2, however it displays marginal selectivity against a panel of other kinases (37 profiled).

  3. In Silico Design and Biological Evaluation of a Dual Specificity Kinase Inhibitor Targeting Cell Cycle Progression and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Antony M.; Kankanala, Jayakanth; Fearnley, Gareth W.; Gage, Matthew C.; Kearney, Mark T.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Wheatcroft, Stephen B.; Fishwick, Colin W. G.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein kinases play a central role in tumor progression, regulating fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. Such enzymes are an increasingly important class of drug target with small molecule kinase inhibitors being a major focus in drug development. However, balancing drug specificity and efficacy is problematic with off-target effects and toxicity issues. Methodology We have utilized a rational in silico-based approach to demonstrate the design and study of a novel compound that acts as a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). This compound acts by simultaneously inhibiting pro-angiogenic signal transduction and cell cycle progression in primary endothelial cells. JK-31 displays potent in vitro activity against recombinant VEGFR2 and CDK1/cyclin B proteins comparable to previously characterized inhibitors. Dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-mediated signaling response and CDK1-mediated mitotic entry elicits anti-angiogenic activity both in an endothelial-fibroblast co-culture model and a murine ex vivo model of angiogenesis. Conclusions We deduce that JK-31 reduces the growth of both human endothelial cells and human breast cancer cells in vitro. This novel synthetic molecule has broad implications for development of similar multi-kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer properties. In silico design is an attractive and innovative method to aid such drug discovery. PMID:25393739

  4. The cloning of the cdk2 transcript and the localization of its expression during gametogenesis in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Ping; Li, Zhen; Chen, Ying; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are key regulators of the cell cycle. In mammals, cdk2 plays an essential role in the meiosis of spermatocytes and oocytes. To investigate the role of cdk2 kinase during gametogenesis in crustaceans, we cloned a complete cDNA sequence of cdk2 from the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and examined its localization and expression in the developing gonads. The prawn cdk2 cDNA is 1,745 bp in length and encodes a putative protein of 305 amino acids. The deduced protein contains a conserved cyclin binding motif PSTAIRE and shares high homology with reported cdk2 kinases of other species. RT-PCR analysis showed a wide distribution of the cdk2 mRNA in all tested organs including the testis, ovary, heart, muscles, hepatopancreas and gills, and the highest level of expression in the ovary and testis. Localization by in situ hybridization of cdk2 mRNA in the ovary showed high expression in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and the nuclei of late vitellogenic oocytes. In testicular sections, cdk2 transcript is low in spermatogonia, high in spermatocytes, but reduced in spermatids and sperm. The high expression of the cdk2 transcripts in meiotic spermatocytes and oocytes indicated that the cdk2 gene has the conservative function in the germ cells meiosis during gametogenesis.

  5. Cdk1/cyclin B plays a key role in mitotic arrest-induced apoptosis by phosphorylation of Mcl-1, promoting its degradation and freeing Bak from sequestration.

    PubMed

    Chu, Rong; Terrano, David T; Chambers, Timothy C

    2012-01-15

    Mcl-1 is one of the major anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptotic regulatory proteins. In this study we investigated the role of Mcl-1 in mitotic arrest-induced apoptosis. Vinblastine treatment of KB-3 cells initially resulted in a phosphatase-sensitive mobility shift in Mcl-1 and then subsequent loss of Mcl-1 protein expression which was prevented by MG132, suggesting that phosphorylation triggered proteosome-mediated degradation. Mcl-1 phosphorylation/degradation was a specific response to microtubule inhibition and did not occur in response to lethal concentrations of DNA damaging agents. Vinblastine treatment caused degradation of Mcl-1 in cells in which apoptosis was blocked by Bcl-xL overexpression, indicating that Mcl-1 degradation was not a consequence of apoptosis. A partial reversible phosphorylation of Mcl-1 was observed in synchronized cells traversing mitosis, whereas more extensive phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of Mcl-1 was observed if synchronized cells were treated with vinblastine. Mcl-1 phosphorylation closely paralleled cyclin B expression, and specific cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors blocked vinblastine-induced Mcl-1 phosphorylation, its subsequent degradation, and improved cell viability after mitotic arrest. Co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated that Mcl-1 was complexed with Bak, but not Bax or Noxa, in untreated cells, and that Bak became activated in concert with loss of Mcl-1 expression. These results suggest that Cdk1/cyclin B plays a key role in mitotic arrest-induced apoptosis via Mcl-1 phosphorylation, promoting its degradation and subsequently releasing Bak from sequestration.

  6. p120-catenin is necessary for neuroprotection induced by CDK5 silencing in models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Arias, Alejandro; Posada-Duque, Rafael Andrés; González-Billault, Christian; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays important roles in synaptic function. Its unregulated over-activation has been, however, associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Our previous studies revealed that CDK5 silencing ameliorates tauopathy and spatial memory impairment in the 3xTgAD mouse model. However, how CDK5 targeting affects synaptic adhesion proteins, such as those involved in the cadherin/catenin system, during learning and memory processes is not completely understood. In this study, we detected reduced expression of p120 catenin (p120 ctn), N-cadherin, and β-catenin in the brain of human Alzheimer's disease patients, in addition to a reduced PSD95 and GluN2B protein levels in a 3xTgAD mouse model. Such decrease in synaptic proteins was recovered by CDK5 silencing in mice leading to a better learning and memory performance. Additionally, CDK5 inhibition or knockout increased p120 ctn levels. Moreover, in a glutamate-induced excitotoxicity model, CDK5 silencing-induced neuroprotection depended on p120 ctn. Together, those findings suggest that p120 ctn plays an important role in the neuronal dysfunction of Alzheimer's disease models and contributes to CDK5 silencing-induced neuroprotection and improvement of memory function. p120ctn is part of the synaptic adhesion molecular complex N-cadh/p120ctn/B-ctn/PSD95, and it has a pivotal role in cell adhesion stabilization and dendritic spine modulation. Our data show that synaptic adhesion complex is affected in AD human brains and in AD models. This complex is recovered by the silencing of CDK5, preventing memory dysfunction in an AD mice model and contributing to the neuroprotection in a depend-mode of p120ctn. PMID:27273428

  7. mTORC1 Down-Regulates Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 8 (CDK8) and Cyclin C (CycC)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Daorong; Youn, Dou Yeon; Zhao, Xiaoping; Gao, Yanguang; Quinn, William J.; Xiaoli, Alus M.; Sun, Yan; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Yang, Fajun

    2015-01-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance, hepatic de novo lipogenesis is often elevated, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, we show that CDK8 functions to suppress de novo lipogenesis. Here, we identify the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a critical regulator of CDK8 and its activating partner CycC. Using pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we show that increased mTORC1 activation causes the reduction of the CDK8-CycC complex in vitro and in mouse liver in vivo. In addition, mTORC1 is more active in three mouse models of NAFLD, correlated with the lower abundance of the CDK8-CycC complex. Consistent with the inhibitory role of CDK8 on de novo lipogenesis, nuclear SREBP-1c proteins and lipogenic enzymes are accumulated in NAFLD models. Thus, our results suggest that mTORC1 activation in NAFLD and insulin resistance results in down-regulation of the CDK8-CycC complex and elevation of lipogenic protein expression. PMID:26042770

  8. Melatonin attenuates MPTP-induced neurotoxicity via preventing CDK5-mediated autophagy and SNCA/α-synuclein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ling-Yan; Li, Hao; Lv, Li; Feng, Yue-Mei; Li, Guo-Dong; Luo, Rongcan; Zhou, He-Jiang; Lei, Xiao-Guang; Ma, Liang; Li, Jia-Li; Xu, Lin; Hu, Xin-Tian; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in neurodegenerative process. In this study, we characterized aberrant activation of autophagy induced by neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and demonstrated that melatonin has a protective effect on neurotoxicity. We found an excessive activation of autophagy in monkey brain tissues and C6 cells, induced by MPTP, which is mediated by CDK5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5). MPTP treatment significantly reduced total dendritic length and dendritic complexity of cultured primary cortical neurons and melatonin could reverse this effect. Decreased TH (tyrosine hydroxylase)-positive cells and dendrites of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) were observed in MPTP-treated monkeys and mice. Along with decreased TH protein level, we observed an upregulation of CDK5 and enhanced autophagic activity in the striatum of mice with MPTP injection. These changes could be salvaged by melatonin treatment or knockdown of CDK5. Importantly, melatonin or knockdown of CDK5 reduced MPTP-induced SNCA/α-synuclein aggregation in mice, which is widely thought to trigger the pathogenesis of PD. Finally, melatonin or knockdown of CDK5 counteracted the PD phenotype in mice induced by MPTP. Our findings uncover a potent role of CDK5-mediated autophagy in the pathogenesis of PD, and suggest that control of autophagic pathways may provide an important clue for exploring potential target for novel therapeutics of PD. PMID:26292069

  9. Melatonin attenuates MPTP-induced neurotoxicity via preventing CDK5-mediated autophagy and SNCA/α-synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Su, Ling-Yan; Li, Hao; Lv, Li; Feng, Yue-Mei; Li, Guo-Dong; Luo, Rongcan; Zhou, He-Jiang; Lei, Xiao-Guang; Ma, Liang; Li, Jia-Li; Xu, Lin; Hu, Xin-Tian; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in neurodegenerative process. In this study, we characterized aberrant activation of autophagy induced by neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and demonstrated that melatonin has a protective effect on neurotoxicity. We found an excessive activation of autophagy in monkey brain tissues and C6 cells, induced by MPTP, which is mediated by CDK5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5). MPTP treatment significantly reduced total dendritic length and dendritic complexity of cultured primary cortical neurons and melatonin could reverse this effect. Decreased TH (tyrosine hydroxylase)-positive cells and dendrites of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) were observed in MPTP-treated monkeys and mice. Along with decreased TH protein level, we observed an upregulation of CDK5 and enhanced autophagic activity in the striatum of mice with MPTP injection. These changes could be salvaged by melatonin treatment or knockdown of CDK5. Importantly, melatonin or knockdown of CDK5 reduced MPTP-induced SNCA/α-synuclein aggregation in mice, which is widely thought to trigger the pathogenesis of PD. Finally, melatonin or knockdown of CDK5 counteracted the PD phenotype in mice induced by MPTP. Our findings uncover a potent role of CDK5-mediated autophagy in the pathogenesis of PD, and suggest that control of autophagic pathways may provide an important clue for exploring potential target for novel therapeutics of PD.

  10. The Cdk1-APC/C cell cycle oscillator circuit functions as a time-delayed, ultrasensitive switch

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiong; Ferrell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the complexity and variety of biological oscillators, their core design invariably includes an essential negative feedback loop. In the Xenopus laevis embryonic cell cycle oscillator, this loop consists of the kinase cyclin B-Cdk1 and the ubiquitin ligase APC/CCdc20; active Cdk1 activates APC/CCdc20, which then brings about cyclin B degradation and inactivates Cdk1. Here we ask how this negative feedback loop functions quantitatively, with the aim of understanding what mechanisms keep the Cdk1-APC/CCdc20 system from settling into a stable steady state with intermediate levels of Cdk1 and APC/CCdc20 activity. We found that the system operates as a time-delayed, digital switch, with a time lag of ~15 min between Cdk1 and APC/CCdc20 activation and a tremendously high degree of ultrasensitivity (nH ≈ 17). Computational modeling shows how these attributes contribute to the generation of robust, clock-like oscillations. Principles uncovered here may also apply to other activator-repressor oscillators and help in designing robust synthetic clocks. PMID:23624406

  11. Minimal Models for Cell-Cycle Control Based on Competitive Inhibition and Multisite Phosphorylations of Cdk Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Claude; Tyson, John J.; Novák, Béla

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell cycle is characterized by alternating oscillations in the activities of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Successful completion of the cell cycle is dependent on the precise, temporally ordered appearance of these activities. A modest level of Cdk activity is sufficient to initiate DNA replication, but mitosis and APC activation require an elevated Cdk activity. In present-day eukaryotes, this temporal order is provided by a complex network of regulatory proteins that control both Cdk and APC activities via sharp thresholds, bistability, and time delays. Using simple computational models, we show here that these dynamical features of cell-cycle organization could emerge in a control system driven by a single Cdk/cyclin complex and APC wired in a negative-feedback loop. We show that ordered phosphorylation of cellular proteins could be explained by multisite phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and competition of substrates for interconverting kinase (Cdk) and phosphatase. In addition, the competition of APC substrates for ubiquitylation can create and maintain sustained oscillations in cyclin levels. We propose a sequence of models that gets closer and closer to a realistic model of cell-cycle control in yeast. Since these models lack the elaborate control mechanisms characteristic of modern eukaryotes, they suggest that bistability and time delay may have characterized eukaryotic cell divisions before the current cell-cycle control network evolved in all its complexity. PMID:23528096

  12. Characterization of a Pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine Inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases 2 and 5 and Aurora A With Pro-Apoptotic and Anti-Angiogenic Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Řezníčková, Eva; Weitensteiner, Sabine; Havlíček, Libor; Jorda, Radek; Gucký, Tomáš; Berka, Karel; Bazgier, Václav; Zahler, Stefan; Kryštof, Vladimír; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-12-01

    Selective inhibitors of kinases that regulate the cell cycle, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and aurora kinases, could potentially become powerful tools for the treatment of cancer. We prepared and studied a series of 3,5,7-trisubstituted pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines, a new CDK inhibitor scaffold, to assess their CDK2 inhibitory and antiproliferative activities. A new compound, 2i, which preferentially inhibits CDK2, CDK5, and aurora A was identified. Both biochemical and cellular assays indicated that treatment with compound 2i caused the downregulation of cyclins A and B, the dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10, and the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. It also reduced migration as well as tube and lamellipodia formation in human endothelial cells. The kinase inhibitory profile of compound 2i suggests that its anti-angiogenic activity is linked to CDK5 inhibition. This dual mode of action involving apoptosis induction in cancer cells and the blocking of angiogenesis-like activity in endothelial cells offers possible therapeutic potential. PMID:26198005

  13. Functional interplay between MSL1 and CDK7 controls RNA polymerase II Ser5 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chlamydas, Sarantis; Holz, Herbert; Samata, Maria; Chelmicki, Tomasz; Georgiev, Plamen; Pelechano, Vicent; Dündar, Friederike; Dasmeh, Pouria; Mittler, Gerhard; Cadete, Filipe Tavares; Ramírez, Fidel; Conrad, Thomas; Wei, Wu; Raja, Sunil; Manke, Thomas; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Steinmetz, Lars M; Akhtar, Asifa

    2016-06-01

    Proper gene expression requires coordinated interplay among transcriptional coactivators, transcription factors and the general transcription machinery. We report here that MSL1, a central component of the dosage compensation complex in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis, displays evolutionarily conserved sex-independent binding to promoters. Genetic and biochemical analyses reveal a functional interaction of MSL1 with CDK7, a subunit of the Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Importantly, MSL1 depletion leads to decreased phosphorylation of Ser5 of RNA polymerase II. In addition, we demonstrate that MSL1 is a phosphoprotein, and transgenic flies expressing MSL1 phosphomutants show mislocalization of the histone acetyltransferase MOF and histone H4 K16 acetylation, thus ultimately causing male lethality due to a failure of dosage compensation. We propose that, by virtue of its interaction with components of the general transcription machinery, MSL1 exists in different phosphorylation states, thereby modulating transcription in flies. PMID:27183194

  14. Cdk5rap2 exposes the centrosomal root of microcephaly syndromes.

    PubMed

    Megraw, Timothy L; Sharkey, James T; Nowakowski, Richard S

    2011-08-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is characterized by small brain size as a result of deficient neuron production in the developing cerebral cortex. Although MCPH is a rare disease, the questions surrounding its etiology strike at the core of stem cell biology. The seven genes implicated in MCPH all encode centrosomal proteins and disruption of the MCPH gene Cdk5rap2 in mice revealed its role in neural progenitor proliferation and in maintaining normal centriole replication control. We discuss here the impact that centrosome regulation has upon neural progenitors in the developing brain. We integrate the impact of centriole replication defects with the functions of Cdk5rap2 and other MCPH proteins, propose mechanisms for progenitor loss in MCPH, and discuss links to two other microcephaly syndromes. PMID:21632253

  15. Nanog interact with CDK6 to regulates astrocyte cells proliferation following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jun; Ni, Yingjie; Xu, Lin; Xu, Hongliang; Cai, Zhengdong

    2016-01-22

    Previous research had reported transcription factors Nanog expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCS) that played an important role in regulating the cell proliferation. Nanog levels are frequently elevated in ESCS, but the role in the spinal cord was not clear. To examine the biological relevance of Nanog, we studied its properties in spinal cord injury model. The expression of Nanog and PCNA was gradually increased and reached a peak at 3 day by western blot analysis. The expression of Nanog was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorescent staining uncovered that Nanog can co-labeled with PCNA and GFAP in the spinal cord tissue. In vitro, Nanog can promote the proliferation of astrocyte cell by Fluorescence Activating Cell Sorter (FACS) and CCK8. Meanwhile, the cell-cycle protein CDK6 could interact with Nanog in the spinal cord tissue. Taken together, these data suggested that both Nanog may play important roles in spinal cord pathophysiology via interact with CDK6.

  16. CDK8-Mediated STAT1-S727 Phosphorylation Restrains NK Cell Cytotoxicity and Tumor Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Eva Maria; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Hoermann, Gregor; Csiszar, Agnes; Wirth, Silvia; Berger, Angelika; Straka, Elisabeth; Rigler, Doris; Wallner, Barbara; Jamieson, Amanda M.; Pickl, Winfried F.; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva Maria; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas; Sexl, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor STAT1 is important in natural killer (NK) cells, which provide immediate defense against tumor and virally infected cells. We show that mutation of a single phosphorylation site (Stat1-S727A) enhances NK cell cytotoxicity against a range of tumor cells, accompanied by increased expression of perforin and granzyme B. Stat1-S727A mice display significantly delayed disease onset in NK cell-surveilled tumor models including melanoma, leukemia, and metastasizing breast cancer. Constitutive phosphorylation of S727 depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8). Inhibition of CDK8-mediated STAT1-S727 phosphorylation may thus represent a therapeutic strategy for stimulating NK cell-mediated tumor surveillance. PMID:23933255

  17. Cdk5 phosphorylation of ErbB4 is required for tangential migration of cortical interneurons.

    PubMed

    Rakić, Sonja; Kanatani, Shigeaki; Hunt, David; Faux, Clare; Cariboni, Anna; Chiara, Francesca; Khan, Shabana; Wansbury, Olivia; Howard, Beatrice; Nakajima, Kazunori; Nikolić, Margareta; Parnavelas, John G

    2015-04-01

    Interneuron dysfunction in humans is often associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. Some of these disorders are believed to emerge during brain formation, at the time of interneuron specification, migration, and synapse formation. Here, using a mouse model and a host of histological and molecular biological techniques, we report that the signaling molecule cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), and its activator p35, control the tangential migration of interneurons toward and within the cerebral cortex by modulating the critical neurodevelopmental signaling pathway, ErbB4/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, that has been repeatedly linked to schizophrenia. This finding identifies Cdk5 as a crucial signaling factor in cortical interneuron development in mammals. PMID:24142862

  18. TIGAR regulates DNA damage and repair through pentosephosphate pathway and Cdk5-ATM pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Pei; Xie, Jia-Ming; Li, Bin; Sun, Yi-Hui; Gao, Quan-Geng; Ding, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Hao-Rong; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Previous study revealed that the protective effect of TIGAR in cell survival is mediated through the increase in PPP (pentose phosphate pathway) flux. However, it remains unexplored if TIGAR plays an important role in DNA damage and repair. This study investigated the role of TIGAR in DNA damage response (DDR) induced by genotoxic drugs and hypoxia in tumor cells. Results showed that TIGAR was increased and relocated to the nucleus after epirubicin or hypoxia treatment in cancer cells. Knockdown of TIGAR exacerbated DNA damage and the effects were partly reversed by the supplementation of PPP products NADPH, ribose, or the ROS scavenger NAC. Further studies with pharmacological and genetic approaches revealed that TIGAR regulated the phosphorylation of ATM, a key protein in DDR, through Cdk5. The Cdk5-AMT signal pathway involved in regulation of DDR by TIGAR defines a new role of TIGAR in cancer cell survival and it suggests that TIGAR may be a therapeutic target for cancers. PMID:25928429

  19. Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Iqg1 governs actomyosin ring assembly prior to cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Stephen G; Morgan, David O

    2014-03-01

    Contraction of the actomyosin ring (AMR) provides the centripetal force that drives cytokinesis. In budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), assembly and contraction of the AMR is coordinated with membrane deposition and septum formation at the bud neck. A central player in this process is Iqg1, which promotes recruitment of actin to the myosin ring and links AMR assembly with that of septum-forming components. We observed early actin recruitment in response to inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity, and we find that the Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation state of Iqg1 is a determining factor in the timing of bud neck localization of both Iqg1 and actin, with both proteins accumulating prematurely in cells expressing nonphosphorylatable Iqg1 mutants. We also identified the primary septum regulator Hof1 as a binding partner of Iqg1, providing a regulatory link between the septation and contractile pathways that cooperate to complete cytokinesis. PMID:24413167

  20. CDK-mediated RNF4 phosphorylation regulates homologous recombination in S-phase

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kuntian; Deng, Min; Li, Yunhui; Wu, Chenming; Xu, Ziwen; Yuan, Jian; Lou, Zhenkun

    2015-01-01

    There are the two major pathways responsible for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs): non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ operates throughout the cell-cycle, while HR is primarily active in the S/G2 phases suggesting that there are cell cycle-specific mechanisms that regulate the balance between NHEJ and HR. Here we reported that CDK2 could phosphorylate RNF4 on T26 and T112 and enhance RNF4 E3 ligase activity, which is important for MDC1 degradation and proper HR repair during S phase. Mutation of the RNF4 phosphorylation sites results in MDC1 stabilization, which in turn compromised HR during S-phase. These results suggest that in addition to drive cell cycle progression, CDK also targets RNF4, which is involved in the regulatory network of DSBs repair. PMID:25948581

  1. Phosphorylation of EB2 by Aurora B and CDK1 ensures mitotic progression and genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Iimori, Makoto; Watanabe, Sugiko; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Sakasai, Ryo; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Temporal regulation of microtubule dynamics is essential for proper progression of mitosis and control of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins by phosphorylation is an essential component of this regulation. Here we show that Aurora B and CDK1 phosphorylate microtubule end-binding protein 2 (EB2) at multiple sites within the amino terminus and a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the calponin homology and end-binding homology domains. EB2 phosphorylation, which is strictly associated with mitotic entry and progression, reduces the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules. Expression of non-phosphorylatable EB2 induces stable kinetochore microtubule dynamics and delays formation of bipolar metaphase plates in a microtubule binding-dependent manner, and leads to aneuploidy even in unperturbed mitosis. We propose that Aurora B and CDK1 temporally regulate the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules, thereby ensuring kinetochore microtubule dynamics, proper mitotic progression and genome stability. PMID:27030108

  2. A centrosomal mechanism involving CDK5RAP2 and CENPJ controls brain size.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jacquelyn; Roberts, Emma; Springell, Kelly; Lizarraga, Sofia B; Lizarraga, Sophia; Scott, Sheila; Higgins, Julie; Hampshire, Daniel J; Morrison, Ewan E; Leal, Gabriella F; Silva, Elias O; Costa, Suzana M R; Baralle, Diana; Raponi, Michela; Karbani, Gulshan; Rashid, Yasmin; Jafri, Hussain; Bennett, Christopher; Corry, Peter; Walsh, Christopher A; Woods, C Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly is a potential model in which to research genes involved in human brain growth. We show that two forms of the disorder result from homozygous mutations in the genes CDK5RAP2 and CENPJ. We found neuroepithelial expression of the genes during prenatal neurogenesis and protein localization to the spindle poles of mitotic cells, suggesting that a centrosomal mechanism controls neuron number in the developing mammalian brain. PMID:15793586

  3. MicroRNA-191 triggers keratinocytes senescence by SATB1 and CDK6 downregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lena, A.M.; Mancini, M.; Rivetti di Val Cervo, P. [University of 'Tor Vergata', Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, Via Montpellier 1, Rome 00133; Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico , Laboratory of Biochemistry c Saintigny, G.; Mahe, C. [CHANEL Parfums Beaute, 135 av. Charles de Gaulle, F 92521, Neuilly Melino, G. [University of 'Tor Vergata', Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, Via Montpellier 1, Rome 00133; Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico , Laboratory of Biochemistry c Association Cell Death and Differentiation c and others

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-191 expression is upregulated in senescencent human epidermal keratinocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-191 overexpression is sufficient per se to induce senescence in keratinocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SATB1 and CDK6 are downregulated in senescence and are direct miR-191 targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SATB1 and CDK6 silencing by siRNA triggers senescence in HEKn cells. -- Abstract: Keratinocyte replicative senescence has an important role in time-dependent changes of the epidermis, a tissue with high turnover. Senescence encompasses growth arrest during which cells remain metabolically active but acquire a typical enlarged, vacuolar and flattened morphology. It is also accompanied by the expression of endogenous senescence-associated-{beta}-galactosidase and specific gene expression profiles. MicroRNAs levels have been shown to be modulated during keratinocytes senescence, playing key roles in inhibiting proliferation and in the acquisition of senescent markers. Here, we identify miR-191 as an anti-proliferative and replicative senescence-associated miRNA in primary human keratinocytes. Its overexpression is sufficient per se to induce senescence, as evaluated by induction of several senescence-associated markers. We show that SATB1 and CDK6 3 Prime UTRs are two miR-191 direct targets involved in this pathway. Cdk6 and Satb1 protein levels decrease during keratinocytes replicative senescence and their silencing by siRNA is able to induce a G1 block in cell cycle, accompanied by an increase in senescence-associated markers.

  4. Cell cycle regulation and apoptotic cell death in experimental colon carcinogenesis: intervening with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2015-01-01

    Relative imbalance in the pathways regulating cell cycle, cell proliferation, or cell death marks a prerequisite for neoplasm. C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis and a selective COX-2 inhibitor along with piroxicam, a traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug was used to investigate the role of cell cycle regulatory proteins and proinflammatory transcription factor NFκB in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Cell cycle regulators [cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), CDK4, and p53], NFκB (p65) pathway, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated by gene and protein expression, whereas apoptosis was studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and apoptotic bleb assay. Molecular docking of ligand protein interaction was done to validate the in vivo results. Cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK2, and CDK4 were overexpressed in DMH, whereas piroxicam and c-phycocyanin promoted the cell cycle arrest by downregulating them. Both drugs mediated apoptosis through p53 activation. Piroxicam and c-phycocyanin also stimulated antiproliferation by restraining PCNA expression and reduced cell survival via inhibiting NFκB (p65) pathway. Molecular docking revealed that phycocyanobilin (a chromophore of c-phycocyanin) interact with DNA binding site of NFκB. Inhibition of cyclin/CDK complex by piroxicam and c-phycocyanin affects the expression of p53 in colon cancer followed by downregulation of NFκB and PCNA levels, thus substantiating the antineoplastic role of these agents. PMID:25825916

  5. Regulation of sensitivity of tumor cells to antitubulin drugs by Cdk1-TAZ signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yulei; Yang, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    Antitubulin drugs are commonly used for the treatment of numerous cancers. However, either the intrinsic or acquired resistances of patients to these drugs result in the failure of the treatment and high mortality of cancers. Therefore, identifying genes or signalling pathways involved in antitubulin drug resistances is critical for future successful treatment of cancers. TAZ (Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), which is a core component of the Hippo pathway, is overexpressed in various cancers. We have recently shown that high levels of TAZ in cancer cells result in Taxol resistance through up-regulation of downstream targets Cyr61 and CTGF. However, how TAZ is regulated in response to Taxol is largely unknown. In this study, we found that Cdk1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1) directly phosphorylated TAZ on six novel sites independent of the Hippo pathway, which further resulted in TAZ degradation through proteasome system. Phosphorylation-mimicking TAZ mutant was unstable, and therefore abolished TAZ-induced antitubulin drug resistances. This study provides first evidence that Cdk1 is a novel kinase phosphorylating and regulating TAZ stability and suggests that Cdk1-TAZ signalling is a critical regulator of antitubulin drug response in cancer cells and may be a potential target for the treatment of antitubulin-drug resistant cancer patients. PMID:26183396

  6. S-nitrosylation-dependent proteasomal degradation restrains Cdk5 activity to regulate hippocampal synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Fu, Wing-Yu; Fu, Amy K. Y.; Ip, Nancy Y.

    2015-01-01

    Precise regulation of synaptic strength requires coordinated activity and functions of synaptic proteins, which is controlled by a variety of post-translational modification. Here we report that S-nitrosylation of p35, the activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), by nitric oxide (NO) is important for the regulation of excitatory synaptic strength. While blockade of NO signalling results in structural and functional synaptic deficits as indicated by reduced mature dendritic spine density and surface expression of glutamate receptor subunits, phosphorylation of numerous synaptic substrates of Cdk5 and its activity are aberrantly upregulated following reduced NO production. The results show that the NO-induced reduction in Cdk5 activity is mediated by S-nitrosylation of p35, resulting in its ubiquitination and degradation by the E3 ligase PJA2. Silencing p35 protein in hippocampal neurons partially rescues the NO blockade-induced synaptic deficits. These findings collectively demonstrate that p35 S-nitrosylation by NO signalling is critical for regulating hippocampal synaptic strength. PMID:26503494

  7. Molecular evolution of the brain size regulator genes CDK5RAP2 and CENPJ.

    PubMed

    Evans, Patrick D; Vallender, Eric J; Lahn, Bruce T

    2006-06-21

    Primary microcephaly is a developmental defect of the brain characterized by severely reduced brain size but an absence of other overt abnormalities. Mutations in several loci have been linked to primary microcephaly. The underlying genes for two of these were recently identified as CDK5RAP2 and CENPJ. Here, we focus on CDK5RAP2 and show that the protein evolutionary rate of this gene is significantly higher in primates than rodents or carnivores. We further show that the evolutionary rate within primates is particularly high in the human and chimpanzee terminal branches. Thus, the pattern of molecular evolution seen in CDK5RAP2 appears to parallel, at least approximately, that seen in two other previously identified primary microcephaly genes, microcephalin and ASPM. We also briefly discuss CENPJ, which similarly exhibits higher rate of protein evolution in primates as compared to rodents and carnivores. Together, the evolutionary patterns of all four presently known primary microcephaly genes are consistent with the hypothesis that genes regulating brain size during development might also play a role in brain evolution in primates and especially humans. PMID:16631324

  8. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. PMID:27163259

  9. CDK1 Prevents Unscheduled PLK4-STIL Complex Assembly in Centriole Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zitouni, Sihem; Francia, Maria E; Leal, Filipe; Montenegro Gouveia, Susana; Nabais, Catarina; Duarte, Paulo; Gilberto, Samuel; Brito, Daniela; Moyer, Tyler; Kandels-Lewis, Steffi; Ohta, Midori; Kitagawa, Daiju; Holland, Andrew J; Karsenti, Eric; Lorca, Thierry; Lince-Faria, Mariana; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica

    2016-05-01

    Centrioles are essential for the assembly of both centrosomes and cilia. Centriole biogenesis occurs once and only once per cell cycle and is temporally coordinated with cell-cycle progression, ensuring the formation of the right number of centrioles at the right time. The formation of new daughter centrioles is guided by a pre-existing, mother centriole. The proximity between mother and daughter centrioles was proposed to restrict new centriole formation until they separate beyond a critical distance. Paradoxically, mother and daughter centrioles overcome this distance in early mitosis, at a time when triggers for centriole biogenesis Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) and its substrate STIL are abundant. Here we show that in mitosis, the mitotic kinase CDK1-CyclinB binds STIL and prevents formation of the PLK4-STIL complex and STIL phosphorylation by PLK4, thus inhibiting untimely onset of centriole biogenesis. After CDK1-CyclinB inactivation upon mitotic exit, PLK4 can bind and phosphorylate STIL in G1, allowing pro-centriole assembly in the subsequent S phase. Our work shows that complementary mechanisms, such as mother-daughter centriole proximity and CDK1-CyclinB interaction with centriolar components, ensure that centriole biogenesis occurs once and only once per cell cycle, raising parallels to the cell-cycle regulation of DNA replication and centromere formation.

  10. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. PMID:27163259