Science.gov

Sample records for cdse colloidal quantum

  1. Optics of colloidal quantum-confined CdSe nanoscrolls

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliev, R B; Sokolikova, M S; Vitukhnovskii, A G; Ambrozevich, S A; Selyukov, A S; Lebedev, V S

    2015-09-30

    Nanostructures in the form of 1.2-nm-thick colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets rolled into scrolls are investigated. The morphology of these scrolls is analysed and their basic geometric parameters are determined (diameter 29 nm, longitudinal size 100 – 150 nm) by TEM microscopy. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra of these objects are recorded, and the luminescence decay kinetics is studied. It is shown that the optical properties of CdSe nanoscrolls differ significantly from the properties of CdSe quantum dots and that these nanoscrolls are attractive for nanophotonic devices due to large oscillator strengths of the transition, small widths of excitonic peaks and short luminescence decay times. Nanoscrolls can be used to design hybrid organic–inorganic pure-color LEDs with a high luminescence quantum yield and low operating voltages. (optics and technology of nanostructures)

  2. The study of CdSe colloidal quantum dots synthesized in aqueous and organic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. I.; Tarasov, S. A.; Solomonov, A. V.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Mazing, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The samples of CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized in aqueous and organic media are studied. The possibility of luminescence peak position control depending on nanoparticle growth process is demonstrated. The samples synthesized in organic medium revealed the luminescence color variation effect with nanoparticle growth. The relation of this effect with processes of nucleation and defect formation in nanoparticles is considered. The CQDs of CdSe coated with CdS shell are fabricated. The use of inorganic shell can provide a double increase of the luminescence quantum yield.

  3. Enhanced random lasing from a colloidal CdSe quantum dot-Rh6G system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Anju K.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we report random laser action in a system where optical amplification is provided by colloidal CdSe quantum dots (CQDs) triggered by the emission from Rhodamine 6G. The laser emission from CdSe QDs is optically excited by Rh-6G which in turn is photo-pumped by a frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd : YAG laser system at an excitation wavelength of 532 nm. At intensities greater than the threshold value, laser emission is characterized by narrowing peaks.

  4. Advanced Architecture for Colloidal PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells Exploiting a CdSe Quantum Dot Buffer Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tianshuo; Goodwin, Earl D; Guo, Jiacen; Wang, Han; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2016-09-22

    Advanced architectures are required to further improve the performance of colloidal PbS heterojunction quantum dot solar cells. Here, we introduce a CdI2-treated CdSe quantum dot buffer layer at the junction between ZnO nanoparticles and PbS quantum dots in the solar cells. We exploit the surface- and size-tunable electronic properties of the CdSe quantum dots to optimize its carrier concentration and energy band alignment in the heterojunction. We combine optical, electrical, and analytical measurements to show that the CdSe quantum dot buffer layer suppresses interface recombination and contributes additional photogenerated carriers, increasing the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of PbS quantum dot solar cells, leading to a 25% increase in solar power conversion efficiency.

  5. Selenium Redox Reactivity on Colloidal CdSe Quantum Dot Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the structural and compositional origins of midgap states in semiconductor nanocrystals is a longstanding challenge in nanoscience. Here, we report a broad variety of reagents useful for photochemical reduction of colloidal CdSe quantum dots, and we establish that these reactions proceed via a dark surface prereduction step prior to photoexcitation. Mechanistic studies relying on the specific properties of various reductants lead to the proposal that this surface prereduction occurs at oxidized surface selenium sites. These results demonstrate the use of small-molecule inorganic chemistries to control the physical properties of colloidal QDs and provide microscopic insights into the identities and reactivities of their localized surface species. PMID:27518320

  6. Auger-Limited Carrier Recombination and Relaxation in CdSe Colloidal Quantum Wells.

    PubMed

    Baghani, Erfan; O'Leary, Stephen K; Fedin, Igor; Talapin, Dmitri V; Pelton, Matthew

    2015-03-19

    Using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, we show that two-exciton Auger recombination dominates carrier recombination and cooling dynamics in CdSe nanoplatelets, or colloidal quantum wells. The electron-hole recombination rate depends only on the number of electron-hole pairs present in each nanoplatelet, and is consistent with a two-exciton recombination process over a wide range of exciton densities. The carrier relaxation rate within the conduction and valence bands also depends only on the number of electron-hole pairs present, apart from an initial rapid decay, and is consistent with the cooling rate being limited by reheating due to Auger recombination processes. These Auger-limited recombination and relaxation dynamics are qualitatively different from the carrier dynamics in either colloidal quantum dots or epitaxial quantum wells.

  7. Preparation and characterization of CdSe colloidal quantum dots by pptical spectroscopy and 2D DOSY NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geru, I.; Bordian, O.; Culeac, I.; Turta, C.; Verlan, V.; Barba, A.

    2015-02-01

    We present experimental results on preparation and characterization of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QD) in organic solvent. CdSe QDs were synthesized following a modified literature method and have been characterized by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopy, as well as by 2D Diffusion Ordered Spectroscopy (DOSY) NMR. The average CdSe particles size estimated from the UV-Vis absorption spectra was found to be in the range 2.28 - 2.92 nm, which correlates very well with the results obtained from NMR measurements. The PL spectrum for CdSe nanodots can be characterized by a narrow emission band with the peak maximum shifting from 508 to 566 nm in dependence of the CdSe nanoparticle size. The PL is dominated by a near-band-edge emission, accompanied by a weak broad band in the near IR, related to the surface shallow trap emission.

  8. Measuring photoluminescence spectra of self-assembly array nanowire of colloidal CdSe quantum dots using scanning near-field optics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhongchen; Hao, Licai; Zhang, Zhengping; Qin, Shuijie

    2016-05-01

    A novel periodic array CdSe nanowire is prepared on a substrate of the porous titanium dioxide by using a self-assembly method of the colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs). The experimental results show that the colloidal CdSe QDs have renewedly assembled on its space scale and direction in process of losing background solvent and form the periodic array nanowire. The main peak wavelength of Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, which is measured by using a 100-nm aperture laser beam spot on a scanning near-field optics microscopy, has shifted 60 nm with compared to the colloidal CdSe QDs. Furthermore, we have measured smaller ordered nanometer structure in thin QDs area as well, a 343-nm periodic nanowire in thick QDs area and the colloidal QDs in edge of well-ordered nanowire.

  9. A mirage study of CdSe colloidal quantum dot films, Urbach tail, and surface states.

    PubMed

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Liu, Heng

    2012-10-21

    Thermal deflection spectroscopy allows to measure very small absorption and uncovers absorption tails extending well below the bulk bandgap energy for CdSe quantum dots films after ligand exchange by sulfide. In this monodispersed system, the redshift, the broadening, and the absorption tails cannot be solely attributed to electronic coupling between the dots. Instead, mixing of hole states from the quantum dot and surface is proposed to dominate the changes of the interband spectra at the absorption edge.

  10. A mirage study of CdSe colloidal quantum dot films, Urbach tail, and surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Liu, Heng

    2012-10-01

    Thermal deflection spectroscopy allows to measure very small absorption and uncovers absorption tails extending well below the bulk bandgap energy for CdSe quantum dots films after ligand exchange by sulfide. In this monodispersed system, the redshift, the broadening, and the absorption tails cannot be solely attributed to electronic coupling between the dots. Instead, mixing of hole states from the quantum dot and surface is proposed to dominate the changes of the interband spectra at the absorption edge.

  11. Shell-dependent electroluminescence from colloidal CdSe quantum dots in multilayer light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Pengtao; Zheng, Jinju; Zeng, Qinghui; Zhang, Youlin; Liu, Xiaomin; Liu, Xueyan; Kong, Xianggui; Zhao, Jialong

    2009-02-01

    We report electroluminescence (EL) of colloidal CdSe/CdS, CdSe/ZnS, and CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) in multilayer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by spin coating a near monolayer of the core/shell QDs on cross-linkable hole transporting layers. It is found that CdSe/CdS QD-LEDs exhibit a faster decrease in EL quantum efficiency (˜2% at a brightness of 100 cd/m2) with increasing current density and lower maximum brightness than those of CdSe/ZnS QD-LEDs. A more significant redshift and spectral broadening of the EL observed in CdSe core/shell QDs with a CdS or CdS/CdZnS/ZnS shell than with a ZnS shell indicate that the electron wave function can penetrate into the shell under electric field. The difference in device performance and EL spectra results from conduction band offsets between the CdSe cores and CdS or ZnS shells, suggesting the existence of the exciton ionization in the QD-LEDs.

  12. Direct Observation of sp-d Exchange Interactions in Colloidal Mn2+- and Co2+-Doped CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Paul I.; Santangelo, Steven A.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2007-03-23

    The defining attribute of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) is the existence of dopant-carrier magnetic exchange interactions. In this letter, we report the first direct observation of such exchange interactions in colloidal doped CdSe nanocrystals. Doped CdSe quantum dots were synthesized by thermal decomposition of (Me4N)2[Cd4(SePh)10] in the presence of TMCl2 (TM2+ ) Mn2+ or Co2+) in hexadecylamine and were characterized by several analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy, successful doping and the existence of giant excitonic Zeeman splittings in both Mn2+- and Co2+-doped wurtzite CdSe quantum dots are demonstrated unambiguously.

  13. Quantum Yield Enhancement of Cd/Se Colloidal Quantum Dots by Variation of Surface Ligands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    a solvent and a ligand, and oleic acid , which also serves as a ligand. The second used more complex ligands, octadecylphosphonic acid , and oleyamine...outgassed for another 30 min. To prepare the Cd precursor 26 mg of cadmium oxide (CdO) powder was mixed with 1.2 ml of oleic acid (OA) and 9.0 ml ODE...Acronyms Ar argon Cd cadmium CdO cadmium oxide OA oleic acid ODE octadecene QD quantum dots QY quantum yield Rh6G rhodamine 6G Se selenium NO. OF

  14. Nonlinear optical switching and optical limiting in colloidal CdSe quantum dots investigated by nanosecond Z-scan measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valligatla, Sreeramulu; Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Patra, Amitava; Desai, Narayana Rao

    2016-10-01

    The semiconductor nanocrystals are found to be promising class of third order nonlinear optical materials because of quantum confinement effects. Here, we highlight the nonlinear optical switching and optical limiting of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) using nanosecond Z-scan measurement. The intensity dependent nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of CdSe QDs were investigated by applying the Z-scan technique with 532 nm, nanosecond laser pulses. At lower intensities, the nonlinear process is dominated by saturable absorption (SA) and it is changed to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) at higher intensities. The SA behaviour is attributed to the ground state bleaching and the RSA is ascribed to free carrier absorption (FCA) of CdSe QDs. The nonlinear optical switching behaviour and reverse saturable absorption makes CdSe QDs are good candidate for all-optical device and optical limiting applications.

  15. Giant Excitonic Exchange Splittings at Zero Field in Single Colloidal CdSe Quantum Dots Doped with Individual Mn(2+) Impurities.

    PubMed

    Fainblat, Rachel; Barrows, Charles J; Hopmann, Eric; Siebeneicher, Simon; Vlaskin, Vladmir A; Gamelin, Daniel R; Bacher, Gerd

    2016-09-28

    Replacing a single atom of a host semiconductor nanocrystal with a functional dopant can introduce completely new properties potentially valuable for "solotronic" information-processing applications. Here, we report successful doping of colloidal CdSe quantum dots with a very small number of manganese ions-down to the ultimate limit of one. Single-particle spectroscopy reveals spectral fingerprints of the spin-spin interactions between individual dopants and quantum-dot excitons. Spectrally well-resolved emission peaks are observed that can be related to the discrete spin projections of individual Mn(2+) ions. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the exchange splittings are enhanced by more than an order of magnitude in these quantum dots compared to their epitaxial counterparts, opening a path for solotronic applications at elevated temperatures.

  16. Nonradiative energy transfer in colloidal CdSe nanoplatelet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzelturk, Burak; Olutas, Murat; Delikanli, Savas; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Erdem, Onur; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) has been extensively studied in colloidal nanocrystal (quantum dots) and nanorod (quantum wires) assemblies. In this work, we present the first account of spectroscopic evidence of NRET in solid thin films of CdSe based colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs), also known as colloidal quantum wells. The NRET was investigated as a function of the concentration of two NPL populations with different vertical thicknesses via steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. NRET takes place from the NPLs with smaller vertical thickness (i.e., larger band gap) to the ones with a larger vertical thickness (i.e., smaller band gap) with efficiency up to ~60%. Here, we reveal that the NRET efficiency is limited in these NPL solid film assemblies due to the self-stacking of NPLs within their own population causing an increased distance between the donor-acceptor pairs, which is significantly different to previously studied colloidal quantum dot based architectures for nonradiative energy transfer.Nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) has been extensively studied in colloidal nanocrystal (quantum dots) and nanorod (quantum wires) assemblies. In this work, we present the first account of spectroscopic evidence of NRET in solid thin films of CdSe based colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs), also known as colloidal quantum wells. The NRET was investigated as a function of the concentration of two NPL populations with different vertical thicknesses via steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. NRET takes place from the NPLs with smaller vertical thickness (i.e., larger band gap) to the ones with a larger vertical thickness (i.e., smaller band gap) with efficiency up to ~60%. Here, we reveal that the NRET efficiency is limited in these NPL solid film assemblies due to the self-stacking of NPLs within their own population causing an increased distance between the donor-acceptor pairs, which is significantly different to previously studied colloidal quantum dot based

  17. Self-assembly of CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanium dioxide on copolymer microspheres (PS) for CdSe/PS and TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-07-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals serve as the building blocks for designing next generation solar cells, chemical/biological sensors, and metal chalcogenides (e.g., CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe) are particularly useful for harnessing size-dependent optical and electronic properties in nanostructures. In this paper, relying on the interaction including van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond, CdSe/PS sub-microspheres composite and TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure were prepared via self-assembly of CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanium dioxide on modified PS surface. The morphology, structure and composition obtained products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations show the CdSe quantum dots and colloidal titanate were assembled on the surface of PS sub-microspheres. CdSe QD-polymer sub-microspheres composites in which the QDs retain their original emission efficiency can be obtained. TiO2/CdSe/PS sub-microspheres with yolk-shell structure can improve the efficiency of charge separation.

  18. Optical properties and effect of carrier tunnelling in CdSe colloidal quantum dots: A comparative study with different ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Syamanta Kumar; Kim, Tae Soo; Oh, Eunsoon; Challa, Kiran Kumar; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2012-09-01

    We studied both cw and time-resolved photoluminescence of colloidal CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots capped with chemical ligands. For the trioctylphosphine oxide capped CdSe/ZnS QDs, both the luminescence intensity and lifetime were found to be increased with increasing temperatures, which can be explained by the thermal activation of the carriers trapped at shallow trapping centers. After the ligand exchange into 3-mercaptopropionic acid, the non-radiative recombination rate was increased and the luminescence efficiency was decreased at room temperature. When the QDs were employed in photovoltaic devices, photocurrent was found to be increased after the ligand exchange. The improved photocurrents observed in photovoltaic devices can be explained by the improved tunnelling probability between the neighbouring QDs.

  19. Resonant and Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy of CDSE Quantum Dots for Nonlinear Photonic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    excitations. 1. INTRODUCTION Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn significant attention because of their distinct roles in nonlinear... colloidal semiconductor nanoscale materials significantly changes with resonant and nonresonant excitation processes. The processes leading to non...2. EXPERIMENT CdSe colloidal quantum-dot nanocrystals for Z- scan and DFWM spectroscopy were prepared by injecting Se solution (a mixture of

  20. Low-temperature synthesis of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Siy, Jacqueline T; Brauser, Eric M; Bartl, Michael H

    2011-01-07

    A method for fabricating colloidal CdSe nanocrystals at low reaction temperatures was developed. The transition from CdSe clusters to continuously-growing nanocrystals was found to be crucial in the formation of high-quality quantum dots with narrow size distribution and efficient, tunable optical properties.

  1. Spontaneous emission enhancement of colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhili; Pelton, Matthew; Waks, Edo

    Colloidal CdS /CdSe/CdS nanoplatelets synthesized recently are high efficient nano-emitters and gain media for nanoscale lasers and other nonlinear optical devices. They are characterized as quantum well structure due to energy gap difference between core CdSe and shell CdS, of which the luminescent wavelength could be tuned precisely by their thickness of growth. However, the influence of environment on the material's optical properties and further enhancement of the emission to implement nanoscale systems remains to be investigated. Here we demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement of these CdSe nanoplatelets coupled to a photonic crystal cavity. We show clearly the photoluminescent spectrum modification of the nanoplatelets emission and an averaged Purcell enhancement factor of 3.1 is achieved when they are coupled to carefully-designed nanobeam photonic crystal cavities compared to the ones on unpatterned surface in our experiment of lifetime measurement. Also the phenomenon of cavity quality factor increasing is observed when increasing intensity of pumping, which attributes to saturable absorption of the nanoplatelets. Our success in enhancement of emission from these nanoplatelets here paves the road to realize actual nanoscale integrated systems such as ultra-low threshold micro-cavity lasers.

  2. Compressive and Tensile Stress in CdSe Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R W; Jennings, T; Strouse, G F

    2004-06-02

    Compressive and tensile stress in colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is examined using resonance Raman spectroscopy. We find that the dispersion of the longitudinal optical phonon mode with size does not follow theoretical calculations based on phonon confinement models. To account for these deviations, the presence of compressive or tensile stress in the QDs was proposed. We find that CdSe QDs prepared via a single source precursor (SSP) method exhibit compressive stress, while CdSe QDs prepared via high temperature lyothermal methods exhibit tensile stress. Evidence is provided that the SSP CdSe QDs stress is directly related to a surface effect.

  3. Valence-band mixing effects in the upper-excited-state magneto-optical responses of colloidal Mn2+-doped CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Fainblat, Rachel; Muckel, Franziska; Barrows, Charles J; Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Gamelin, Daniel R; Bacher, Gerd

    2014-12-23

    We present an experimental study of the magneto-optical activity of multiple excited excitonic states of manganese-doped CdSe quantum dots chemically prepared by the diffusion doping method. Giant excitonic Zeeman splittings of each of these excited states can be extracted for a series of quantum dot sizes and are found to depend on the radial quantum number of the hole envelope function involved in each transition. As seven out of eight transitions involve the same electron energy state, 1Se, the dominant hole character of each excitonic transition can be identified, making use of the fact that the g-factor of the pure heavy-hole component has a different sign compared to pure light hole or split-off components. Because the magnetic exchange interactions are sensitive to hole state mixing, the giant Zeeman splittings reported here provide clear experimental evidence of quantum-size-induced mixing among valence-band states in nanocrystals.

  4. Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad A

    2008-06-25

    The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.

  5. Spin Dynamics of Charged Colloidal Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, N. P.

    2005-03-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are promising structures for controlling spin phenomena because of their highly size- tunable physical properties, ease of manufacture, and nanosecond-scale spin lifetimes at room temperature. Recent experiments have succeeded in controlling the charging of the lowest electronic state of colloidal quantum dots ootnotetextC. Wang, B. L. Wehrenberg, C. Y. Woo, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, J. Phys. Chem B 108, 9027 (2004).. Here we use time-resolved Faraday rotation measurements in the Voigt geometry to investigate the spin dynamics of colloidal CdSe quantum dot films in both a charged and uncharged state at room temperature. The charging of the film is controlled by applying a voltage in an electrochemical cell and is confirmed by absorbance measurements. Significant changes in the spin precession are observed upon charging, reflecting the voltage- controlled electron occupation of the quantum dot states and filling of surface states.

  6. Persistent Inter-Excitonic Quantum Coherence in CdSe Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Justin R.; Zheng, Haibin; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Griffin, Graham B.; Fidler, Andrew F.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    The creation and manipulation of quantum superpositions is a fundamental goal for the development of materials with novel optoelectronic properties. In this letter, we report persistent (~80 fs lifetime) quantum coherence between the 1S and 1P excitonic states in zinc-blende colloidal CdSe quantum dots at room temperature, measured using Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy. We demonstrate that this quantum coherence manifests as an intradot phenomenon, the frequency of which depends on the size of the dot excited within the ensemble of QDs. We model the lifetime of the coherence and demonstrate that correlated interexcitonic fluctuations preserve relative phase between excitonic states. These observations suggest an avenue for engineering long-lived interexcitonic quantum coherence in colloidal quantum dots. PMID:24719679

  7. Persistent Inter-Excitonic Quantum Coherence in CdSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Caram, Justin R; Zheng, Haibin; Dahlberg, Peter D; Rolczynski, Brian S; Griffin, Graham B; Fidler, Andrew F; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Talapin, Dmitri V; Engel, Gregory S

    2014-01-02

    The creation and manipulation of quantum superpositions is a fundamental goal for the development of materials with novel optoelectronic properties. In this letter, we report persistent (~80 fs lifetime) quantum coherence between the 1S and 1P excitonic states in zinc-blende colloidal CdSe quantum dots at room temperature, measured using Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy. We demonstrate that this quantum coherence manifests as an intradot phenomenon, the frequency of which depends on the size of the dot excited within the ensemble of QDs. We model the lifetime of the coherence and demonstrate that correlated interexcitonic fluctuations preserve relative phase between excitonic states. These observations suggest an avenue for engineering long-lived interexcitonic quantum coherence in colloidal quantum dots.

  8. Ab Initio Study on Atomic Structures and Physical Properties of CdSe Quantum Nanodots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-25

    CdSe quantum dots , with magic number (( CdSe )13, ( CdSe )19, ( CdSe )33 and ( CdSe )34 ). Effects of organic ligand binding on the stability of CdSe as well...calculations of optical absorption spectra for CdSe quantum dots , with magic number (( CdSe )13, ( CdSe )19, ( CdSe )33 and ( CdSe )34 ), have been calculated in...1 AOARD-08-4037 Title of Proposed Project: Ab initio study on atomic structures and physical

  9. Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnaeni, Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha

    2016-03-01

    We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.

  10. Slow Electron Cooling in Colloidal Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Anshu; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2008-11-01

    Hot electrons in semiconductors lose their energy very quickly (within picoseconds) to lattice vibrations. Slowing this energy loss could prove useful for more efficient photovoltaic or infrared devices. With their well-separated electronic states, quantum dots should display slow relaxation, but other mechanisms have made it difficult to observe. We report slow intraband relaxation (>1 nanosecond) in colloidal quantum dots. The small cadmium selenide (CdSe) dots, with an intraband energy separation of ~0.25 electron volts, are capped by an epitaxial zinc selenide (ZnSe) shell. The shell is terminated by a CdSe passivating layer to remove electron traps and is covered by ligands of low infrared absorbance (alkane thiols) at the intraband energy. We found that relaxation is markedly slowed with increasing ZnSe shell thickness.

  11. Detection of CdSe quantum dot photoluminescence for security label on paper

    SciTech Connect

    Isnaeni, Sugiarto, Iyon Titok; Bilqis, Ratu; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro

    2016-02-08

    CdSe quantum dot has great potential in various applications especially for emitting devices. One example potential application of CdSe quantum dot is security label for anti-counterfeiting. In this work, we present a practical approach of security label on paper using one and two colors of colloidal CdSe quantum dot, which is used as stamping ink on various types of paper. Under ambient condition, quantum dot is almost invisible. The quantum dot security label can be revealed by detecting emission of quantum dot using photoluminescence and cnc machine. The recorded quantum dot emission intensity is then analyzed using home-made program to reveal quantum dot pattern stamp having the word ’RAHASIA’. We found that security label using quantum dot works well on several types of paper. The quantum dot patterns can survive several days and further treatment is required to protect the quantum dot. Oxidation of quantum dot that occurred during this experiment reduced the emission intensity of quantum dot patterns.

  12. Origins of low energy-transfer efficiency between patterned GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xingsheng

    2015-03-02

    For hybrid light emitting devices (LEDs) consisting of GaN quantum wells and colloidal quantum dots, it is necessary to explore the physical mechanisms causing decreases in the quantum efficiencies and the energy transfer efficiency between a GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots. This study investigated the electro-luminescence for a hybrid LED consisting of colloidal quantum dots and a GaN quantum well patterned with photonic crystals. It was found that both the quantum efficiency of colloidal quantum dots on a GaN quantum well and the energy transfer efficiency between the patterned GaN quantum well and the colloidal quantum dots decreased with increases in the driving voltage or the driving time. Under high driving voltages, the decreases in the quantum efficiency of the colloidal quantum dots and the energy transfer efficiency can be attributed to Auger recombination, while those decreases under long driving time are due to photo-bleaching and Auger recombination.

  13. Study of the Spectral Properties of Nanocomposites with CdSe Quantum Dots in a Wide Range of Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaryan, K. A.; Eremchev, I. Y.; Karimullin, K. R.; Knyazev, M. V.; Mikhailov, M. A.; Vasilieva, I. A.; Klimusheva, G. V.

    2015-09-01

    Luminescence spectra of the colloidal solution of CdSe quantum dots (in toluene) were studied in a wide range of low temperatures. Samples were synthesized in the liquid crystal matrix of cadmium octanoate (CdC8). A comparative analysis of the obtained data with previous results was performed.

  14. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  15. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  16. Laser cooling of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2014-05-01

    We present a theoretical scheme for laser cooling of the colloidal cadmium selenide (CbSe) QDs. The laser cooling process is based on the anti-Stokes fluorescence observed in QDs. We have considered laser cooling in the system of identical CdSe QDs laser pumped with energy of photons less than mean fluorescence energy. The dependences of all parameters of the system on the temperature have been taken into account. Following to our simulation the laser cooling with temperature drop ~100K can be realised with well technologically developed today passivated CdSe QDs.

  17. Femtosecond studies of photoinduced electron dynamics in colloidal quantum-confined II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles: CdS, CdSe and CdZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, Trevor

    A variety of synthetic and spectroscopic techniques have been applied to elucidate photoinduced charge carrier processes in II-VI semiconductor quantum dots. These semiconductor nanoparticles exhibit both size-dependent optical tuning due to the quantum-confinement effect and power-dependent absorption, bleach and emission characteristics. Although the tunable-absorption has been well characterized, the subsequent trapping and recombination processes are still under much investigation and are the subject of this dissertation. Particles with vastly differing surfaces, sizes, energetics and solvents have been characterized using various spectroscopic techniques in unison. The primary technique was transient femtosecond near-IR absorption, which was used to characterize charge carrier processes on the subpicosecond and picosecond time scales. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to characterize the size of the particles. Static fluorescence measurements were used to characterize the surface of the particles and the relative amount of radiative recombination. Nanosecond fluorescence measurements were also used to assist in the assignment of the fast, power-dependent near-IR absorption decay. The research reported here makes two fundamental contributions to the photophysics of semiconductor nanoparticles. First, the power-dependent, few picosecond decay process has primarily been assigned to electron-hole recombination via exciton-exciton annihilation. As the power increases, higher order, Auger processes may also arise. The exciton-exciton annihilation mechanism was primarily deduced based on power-dependent fluorescence measurements which exhibited the formation of short-lived exciton fluorescence at high powers. Secondly, many nanoparticle properties and environments were varied in order to better understand the observed picosecond processes and the effect of variations on these processes. The systems studied ranged from aqueous acidic and basic quantum dots of differing

  18. Quantum chemistry of the minimal CdSe clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Tretiak, Sergei; Masunov, Artëm E.; Ivanov, Sergei

    2008-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) which have stimulated a great deal of research and have attracted technical interest in recent years due to their chemical stability and the tunability of photophysical properties. While internal structure of large quantum dots is similar to bulk, their surface structure and passivating role of capping ligands (surfactants) are not fully understood to date. We apply ab initio wavefunction methods, density functional theory, and semiempirical approaches to study the passivation effects of substituted phosphine and amine ligands on the minimal cluster Cd2Se2, which is also used to benchmark different computational methods versus high level ab initio techniques. Full geometry optimization of Cd2Se2 at different theory levels and ligand coverage is used to understand the affinities of various ligands and the impact of ligands on cluster structure. Most possible bonding patterns between ligands and surface Cd/Se atoms are considered, including a ligand coordinated to Se atoms. The degree of passivation of Cd and Se atoms (one or two ligands attached to one atom) is also studied. The results suggest that B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory is appropriate for the system modeling, whereas frequently used semiempirical methods (such as AM1 and PM3) produce unphysical results. The use of hydrogen atom for modeling of the cluster passivating ligands is found to yield unphysical results as well. Hence, the surface termination of II-VI semiconductor NCs with hydrogen atoms often used in computational models should probably be avoided. Basis set superposition error, zero-point energy, and thermal corrections, as well as solvent effects simulated with polarized continuum model are found to produce minor variations on the ligand binding energies. The effects of Cd-Se complex structure on both the electronic band gap (highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy difference) and ligand binding

  19. Fortification of CdSe quantum dots with graphene oxide. Excited state interactions and light energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Lightcap, Ian V; Kamat, Prashant V

    2012-04-25

    Graphene based 2-D carbon nanostructures provide new opportunities to fortify semiconductor based light harvesting assemblies. Electron and energy transfer rates from photoexcited CdSe colloidal quantum dots (QDs) to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were isolated by analysis of excited state deactivation lifetimes as a function of degree of oxidation and charging in (R)GO. Apparent rate constants for energy and electron transfer determined for CdSe-GO composites were 5.5 × 10(8) and 6.7 × 10(8) s(-1), respectively. Additionally, incorporation of GO in colloidal CdSe QD films deposited on conducting glass electrodes was found to enhance the charge separation and electron conduction through the QD film, thus allowing three-dimensional sensitization. Photoanodes assembled from CdSe-graphene composites in quantum dot sensitized solar cells display improved photocurrent response (~150%) over those prepared without GO.

  20. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using various long-chain fatty acids and their phase transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Aiyu; Yang, Ping; Shen, Jianxing

    2013-06-01

    Monodispersed colloidal photoluminescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized via an organic approach by using cadmium oxide and elemental selenium as precursors, and long-chain fatty acids as surface ligands. The hydrocarbon chain length of the fatty acid was adjusted to investigate the effect on CdSe QDs. The fatty acid ligands with different hydrocarbon chain lengths showed an apparent effect on the nanocrystal nucleation and growth which is the key controlling the size, size distribution and crystal structure of resulting CdSe QDs. This effect was attributable to the steric hindrance of different hydrocarbon length of the fatty acids, which affected the reactivity of the monomers and nanocrystals during the nanocrystal nucleation and growth. The water-soluble CdSe QDs were obtained by encapsulating the CdSe ODs in oil phase with amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA)-ethanolamine (EA) polymers, which made it possible for further applications of the CdSe QDs in aqueous environment such as surface functionalization for biological labeling and application in photocatalysis and photosensitization.

  1. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-shi

    2003-01-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  2. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Neetu Kapoor, Avinashi; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, R. M.

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  3. New transient absorption observed in the spectrum of colloidal CdSe nanoparticles pumped with high-power femtosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, C.; Link, S.; Green, T.C.; El-Sayed, M.A.

    1999-12-09

    The power dependence of the transient absorption spectrum of CdSe nanoparticle colloids with size distribution of 4.0 {+-} 0.4 nm diameter is studied with femtosecond pump-probe techniques. At the lowest pump laser power, the absorption bleaching (negative spectrum) characteristic of the exciton spectrum is observed with maxima at 560 and 480 nm. As the pump laser power increases, two new transient absorptions at 510 and 590 nm with unresolved fast rise (<100 fs) and long decay times ({much{underscore}gt}150 ps) are observed. The energy of each of the positive absorption is red shifted from that of the bleach bands by {approximately}120 MeV. The origin of this shift is discussed in terms of the effect of the internal electric field of the many electron-hole pairs formed within the quantum dot at the high pump intensity, absorption from a metastable excited state or the formation of biexcitons.

  4. Experimental Observation of Quantum Confinement in the Conduction Band of CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J I; Meulenberg, R W; Hanif, K M; Mattoussi, H; Klepeis, J E; Terminello, L J; van Buuren, T

    2006-12-15

    Recent theoretical descriptions as to the magnitude of effect that quantum confinement has on he conduction band (CB) of CdSe quantum dots (QD) have been conflicting. In this manuscript, we experimentally identify quantum confinement effects in the CB of CdSe QDs for the first time. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have unambiguously witnessed the CB minimum shift to higher energy with decreasing particle size and have been able to compare these results to recent theories. Our experiments have been able to identify which theories correctly describe the CB states in CdSe QDs. In particular, our experiments suggest that multiple theories describe the shifts in the CB of CdSe QDs and are not mutually exclusive.

  5. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Photoluminescence properties of single CdSe quantum dots in ZnSe obtained by self-organized growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. Y.; Goto, T.; Kurtz, E.; Zhu, Z.; Yao, T.

    1998-03-01

    The photoluminescence of single CdSe quantum dots in ZnSe grown by molecular beam epitaxy and that of the same system grown by atomic layer epitaxy were investigated. The spectral diffusion and on/off behaviour of single CdSe quantum dots were observed, and the spectral diffusion range was only about 1 meV. The spectral peak shifting became quicker as the temperature rose. The spectral change from blue-shift to red-shift (or vice versa) was much quicker than that found in CdSe quantum dots synthesized as colloids. The phenomena are qualitatively explained by a Stark effect which originated from an Auger ionization process. The spectral diffusion may be a common property among single quantum dots.

  6. Chemically synthesized CdSe quantum dots inhibit growth of human lung carcinoma cells via ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Jigyasu, Aditya Kumar; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Lohani, Mohatashim; Khan, Irfan Ali; Arshad, Md

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), semiconducting materials have potential applications in the field of electronic and biomedical applications including cancer therapy. In present study, cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs were synthesized by chemical method. Octadecene was used as non-coordinating solvent which facilitated the formation of colloidal solutions of nanoparticles. CdSe QDs were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The size measured by TEM was varied between 2-5 nm depending upon temperature. The cytotoxic activity of QDs was monitored by MTT assay, nuclear condensation, ROS activity and DNA fragmentation assay on human lung epithelial A549 cell line. Cells were treated with different concentrations of varying size of CdSe QDs for 24 h. CdSe QDs induced significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent cytotoxicity and this was comparable to the sizes of particles. Smaller particles were more cytotoxic to the large particles. Fluorescence microscopic analysis revealed that QDs induced oxidative stress generating significant ROS level and consequently, induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Study suggested the cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs via ROS generation and DNA fragmentation depending upon particles size. PMID:27047318

  7. Optical enhancement of photoluminescence with colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Gabrielle; French, David A.; Bajwa, Pooja; Heyes, Colin D.; Herzog, Joseph B.

    2015-08-01

    This work investigates colloidal, semiconductor Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) QDs with optical spectroscopy measurements. A custom-built microscope has been used for photoluminescence spectroscopy and has collected images, videos, and spectra of samples to study the effects of substrates, sample density, uniformity, and QD aging with time. This set up will be used to detect single to a few molecules, shown by fluorescent intermittency, or QD blinking. Differences in the spectrum will be noted as related to the age of samples, the density of the quantum dots, and the concentration of samples. Further experiments include the potential plasmonic enhancement of QD photoluminescence by gold nanoparticles or nanostructures.

  8. Optical characterization of CdSe quantum dots with metal chalcogenide ligands in solutions and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Cao, X. A.

    2011-07-01

    The exchange of the original organic ligands of colloidal CdSe core and CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/multishell quantum dots (QDs) with inorganic metal chalcogenide ligands (SnS44-) resulted in carrier delocalization in solutions and enhanced inter-QD electronic coupling in solids, as inferred from peak redshift and broadening of the absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The SnS4-capped QDs retained strong excitonic absorption but suffered significant PL quenching. Mild thermal treatment below 350 °C transformed the SnS4 ligands into a more conductive phase, leading to stronger coupling yet complete PL quenching. These findings suggest that QD solids with metal chalcogenide ligands may have high quantum yields of photocurrent generation and can be used as functional blocks in thin-film solar cells for efficient solar energy conversion.

  9. CdTe and CdSe Quantum Dots Cytotoxicity: A Comparative Study on Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Suzete A.O.; Vieira, Cecilia Stahl; Almeida, Diogo B.; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Feder, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals of a few nanometers in diameter, being their size and shape controlled during the synthesis. They are synthesized from atoms of group II–VI or III–V of the periodic table, such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) or cadmium selenium (CdSe) forming nanoparticles with fluorescent characteristics superior to current fluorophores. The excellent optical characteristics of quantum dots make them applied widely in the field of life sciences. Cellular uptake of QDs, location and translocation as well as any biological consequence, such as cytotoxicity, stimulated a lot of scientific research in this area. Several studies pointed to the cytotoxic effect against micoorganisms. In this mini-review, we overviewed the synthesis and optical properties of QDs, and its advantages and bioapplications in the studies about microorganisms such as protozoa, bacteria, fungi and virus. PMID:22247686

  10. CdSe quantum dot internalization by Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloepfer, Jeremiah A.; Mielke, Randall E.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2004-01-01

    Biological labeling has been demonstrated with CdSe quantum dots in a variety of animal cells, but bacteria are harder to label because of their cell walls. We discuss the challenges of using minimally coated, bare CdSe quantum dots as luminescent internal labels for bacteria.

  11. Influence of Surfactants and Charges on CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Tretiak, Sergei; Ivanov, Sergei

    2011-07-11

    The chemistry between CdSe quantum dots and common surface capping ligands is invested using density functional theory. We will discuss the electronic structures and optical properties of CdSe QDs controlled by the size of particle, self-organization, capping ligands, and positive charges. Charges on quantum dots have profound effects on their structures, binding energies, and optical properties.

  12. A Safer, Easier, Faster Synthesis for CdSe Quantum Dot Nanocrystals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Elizabeth M.; Lisensky, George C.; Nordell, Karen J.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis for CdSe quantum dot nanocrystals that vary in color and are a visually engaging way to demonstrate quantum effects in chemistry is presented. CdSe nanocrystals are synthesized from CdO and elemental Se using a kinetic growth method where particle size depends on reaction time.

  13. Radial Electron Momentum Densities of Colloidal CdSe Nanocrystals Determined by Positron Beam Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, A B; Meulenberg, R; Eijt, S W H; Van Veen, A; Mijnarends, P E; Barbiellini, B; Bansil, A; Fischer, C; Weber, M H; Lynn, K G

    2003-07-31

    We present depth-resolved positron 2D angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2DACAR) experiments on CdSe quantum dots in the diameter range from 2.5 to 6 nm, deposited as micrometer thin layers. The average radial distribution of the valence electron momentum density (EMD) of CdSe quantum dots has been extracted, which reveals a systematic dependence upon particle size. The quantum confinement related changes and their size scaling observable at the Jones zone momentum of {approx}0.8 a.u. seem to agree with the previous coincidence Doppler study. In addition, the average radial EMD shows an increase in the low-momentum range (<0.6 a.u.) and a reduction in the high-momentum range (>1.6 a.u.) with respect to that measured on a bulk CdSe single crystal. Possible origins of these are described. First-principles calculations based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method were performed to gain a better insight.

  14. Magnetic polaron on dangling-bond spins in CdSe colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Biadala, Louis; Shornikova, Elena V; Rodina, Anna V; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Siebers, Benjamin; Aubert, Tangi; Nasilowski, Michel; Hens, Zeger; Dubertret, Benoit; Efros, Alexander L; Bayer, Manfred

    2017-03-13

    Non-magnetic colloidal nanostructures can demonstrate magnetic properties typical for diluted magnetic semiconductors because the spins of dangling bonds at their surface can act as the localized spins of magnetic ions. Here we report the observation of dangling-bond magnetic polarons (DBMPs) in 2.8-nm diameter CdSe colloidal nanocrystals (NCs). The DBMP binding energy of 7 meV is measured from the spectral shift of the emission lines under selective laser excitation. The polaron formation at low temperatures occurs by optical orientation of the dangling-bond spins (DBSs) that result from dangling-bond-assisted radiative recombination of spin-forbidden dark excitons. Modelling of the temperature dependence of the DBMP-binding energy and emission intensity shows that the DBMP is composed of a dark exciton and about 60 DBSs. The exchange integral of one DBS with the electron confined in the NC is ∼0.12 meV.

  15. Direct Patterning of CdSe Quantum Dots into Sub-100 nm Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, Meredith J.; Templeton, Joseph L.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2010-03-02

    Ordered, two-dimensional cadmium selenide (CdSe) arrays have been fabricated on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes using the pattern replication in nonwetting templates (PRINT) process. CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with an average diameter of 2.7 nm and a pyridine surface ligand were used for patterning. The PRINT technique utilizes a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) elastomeric mold that is tolerant of most organic solvents, thus allowing solutions of CdSe QDs in 4-picoline to be used for patterning without significant deformation of the mold. Nanometer-scale diffraction gratings have been successfully replicated with CdSe QDs.

  16. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  17. Characterization and polymerization of thienylphenyl and selenylphenyl amines and their interaction with CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lana-Villarreal, Teresa; Font-Sanchis, Enrique; Sastre-Santos, Angela; Fernández-Lázaro, Fernando; Gómez, Roberto

    2011-04-18

    Hybrid quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells show promising novel optoelectronic properties. An adequate design of such cells requires a deep understanding of the characteristics of each component, including their interactions. In this context, the electrochemical properties of two different hole-transporting materials (HTMs) and their chemical interactions with trioctylphosphine-capped CdSe quantum dots are investigated to evaluate their potential use in hybrid quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells. Tris[4-(thien-2-yl)phenyl]amine (TTPA) and tris[4-(selen-2-yl)phenyl]amine (TSePA) are studied in the solid state as thin films deposited on a conducting substrate. Spectroelectrochemical studies evidence both solid-state electropolymerization and doping. Upon addition of TSePA or partially polymerized TTPA to a colloidal solution of trioctylphosphine-capped CdSe quantum dots, the steady-state photoluminescence is quenched. This suggests that the quantum dots and the HTM strongly interact, probably through an excited-state charge-transfer mechanism. The combination of all these pieces of information indicates that polymerized TTPA and TSePA are potential candidates as HTMs for hybrid quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

  18. Non-blinking semiconductor colloidal quantum dots for biology, optoelectronics and quantum optics.

    PubMed

    Spinicelli, Piernicola; Mahler, Benoit; Buil, Stéphanie; Quélin, Xavier; Dubertret, Benoit; Hermier, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-14

    Twinkle, twinkle: The blinking of semiconductor colloidal nanocrystals is the main inconvenience of these bright nanoemitters. There are various approaches for obtaining non-blinking nanocrystals, one of which is to grow a thick coat of CdS on the CdSe core (see picture). Applications of this method in the fields of optoelectronic devices, biologic labelling and quantum information processing are discussed.The blinking of semiconductor colloidal nanocrystals is the main inconvenience of these bright nanoemitters. For some years, research on this phenomenon has demonstrated the possibility to progress beyond this problem by suppressing this fluorescence intermittency in various ways. After a brief overview on the microscopic mechanism of blinking, we review the various approaches used to obtain non-blinking nanocrystals and discuss the commitment of this crucial improvement to applications in the fields of optoelectronic devices, biologic labelling and quantum information processing.

  19. Characterization of defects in colloidal CdSe nanocrystals by the modified thermostimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect

    Katsaba, A. V. Fedyanin, V. V.; Ambrozevich, S. A.; Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Lobanov, A. N.; Selyukov, A. S.; Vasiliev, R. B.; Samatov, I. G.; Brunkov, P. N.

    2013-10-15

    The temperature dependencies of the luminescence spectra of 5-nm-diameter CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal-chemistry methods are investigated. The two bands observed in these spectra around 2.01 and 1.37 eV correspond to band-to-band transitions and luminescence of defect states, respectively. A model explaining the temperature behavior of the luminescence band intensities both upon cooling and heating is put forward. A new modification of spectrally resolved thermostimulated luminescence technique making it possible to determine the activation energies and the character of traps responsible for the temperature dependence of the luminescence intensities is suggested. This technique is used to obtain the activation energies of the emission and capture of electrons at traps (190 and 205 meV, respectively) and to determine the depth of the electron level (57 meV) responsible for luminescence in the 1.37-eV region.

  20. Intraband relaxation in CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe; Shim, Moonsub; Matranga, Chris; Hines, Margaret

    1999-07-01

    The relaxation of the 1P to 1S electronic states of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals is followed by infrared pump-probe spectroscopy. Fast (1 ps) and slow (>200 ps) components are observed. Using different capping molecules to control the hole states, we show how the intraband relaxation slows down as the hole is in a shallow trap, a deep trap, or a charge-separated complex, providing strong support for an electron-hole Auger coupling. The slow component corresponds to an energy relaxation rate orders of magnitude slower than in bulk systems. It may be the first indication of the phonon bottleneck effect long expected in strongly confined quantum dots.

  1. Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xi Tao; Hua Ni, Zhen Yan Nan, Hai; Hui Wang, Wen; Yan Liao, Chun; Zhang, Yan; Wei Zhao, Wei

    2013-11-11

    We studied systematically the fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on graphene and its multilayers, as well as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Raman intensity of QDs was used as a quantitatively measurement of its concentration in order to achieve a reliable quenching factor (QF). It was found that the QF of graphene (∼13.1) and its multilayers is much larger than rGO (∼4.4), while GO (∼1.5) has the lowest quenching efficiency, which suggests that the graphitic structure is an important factor for quenching the fluorescence of QDs. It was also revealed that the QF of graphene is not strongly dependent on its thicknesses.

  2. Quantum oscillations in magnetically doped colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Ochsenbein, Stefan T; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    Progress in the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots has recently provided access to entirely new forms of diluted magnetic semiconductors, some of which may find use in quantum computation. The usefulness of a spin qubit is defined by its Rabi frequency, which determines the operation time, and its coherence time, which sets the error correction window. However, the spin dynamics of magnetic impurity ions in colloidal doped quantum dots remain entirely unexplored. Here, we use pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to demonstrate long spin coherence times of ∼0.9 µs in colloidal ZnO quantum dots containing the paramagnetic dopant Mn(2+), as well as Rabi oscillations with frequencies ranging between 2 and 20 MHz depending on microwave power. We also observe electron spin echo envelope modulations of the Mn(2+) signal due to hyperfine coupling with protons outside the quantum dots, a situation unique to the colloidal form of quantum dots, and not observed to date.

  3. Photophysical Properties of Colloidal Mn(II)-Doped CdSe Nanoparticles: Exchange Fields, Exciton Storage, and Light-Induced Spontaneous Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulac, Remi

    2010-03-01

    An attractive approach to controlling spin effects in semiconductor nanostructures for applications in electronics is to use light to generate, manipulate, or read out spins. The main focus of this presentation will be on the recent demonstration of spontaneous photoinduced polarization of Mn(II) spins in doped colloidal CdSe quantum dots, an effect due to the formation of excitonic magnetic polarons. Photoexcitation generates large dopant-carrier exchange fields, enhanced by strong spatial confinement, that lead to giant Zeeman splittings of the semiconductor band structure in the absence of applied magnetic fields. These internal exchange fields allow spontaneous magnetic saturation of the Mn(II) spins to be achieved at zero external magnetic field up to ca. 50 K, and photomagnetic effects are observed all the way up to room temperature. The factors that allow this fascinating effect to be observed in colloidal Mn(II)-doped CdSe nanoparticles will be discussed. Relevant Publications: 1) Beaulac, Schneider, Archer, Bacher, and Gamelin. Science, 325, 973 (2009) 2) Beaulac, Archer, Ochsenbein, and Gamelin, Adv. Funct. Mat., 18, 3873 (2008)

  4. Tuning the emission of CdSe quantum dots by controlled trap enhancement.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Kamat, Prashant V

    2010-07-06

    Ligand exchange with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) has been successfully used to tune the emission intensity of trioctylphosphineoxide/dodecylamine-capped CdSe quantum dots. Addition of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to CdSe quantum dot suspension enhances the deep trap emission with concurrent quenching of the band edge emission. The smaller sized quantum dots, because of larger surface/volume ratio, create a brighter trap emission and are more easily tuned. An important observation is that the deep trap emission which is minimal after synthesis is brightened to have a quantum yield of 1-5% and can be tuned based on the concentration of MPA in solution with the quantum dots. Photoluminescence decay and transient absorption measurements reveal the role of surface bound MPA in altering the photophysical properties of CdSe quantum dots.

  5. High-conjugation-efficiency aqueous CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Au, Giang H T; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2013-11-12

    Quantum dots (QDs) are photoluminescent nanoparticles that can be directly or indirectly coupled with a receptor such as an antibody to specifically image a target biomolecule such as an antigen. Recent studies have shown that QDs can be directly made at room temperature and in an aqueous environment (AQDs) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the capping ligand without solvent and ligand exchange typically required by QDs made by the organic solvent routes (OQDs). In this study, we have synthesized CdSe AQDs and compared their conjugation efficiency and imaging efficacy with commercial carboxylated OQDs in HT29 colon cancer cells using a primary antibody-biotinylated secondary antibody-streptavidin (SA) sandwich. We showed that the best imaging condition for AQDs occurred when one AQD was bound with 3 ± 0.3 SA with a nominal SA/AQD ratio of 4 corresponding to an SA conjugation efficiency of 75 ± 7.5%. In comparison, for commercial CdSe-ZnS OQDs to achieve 2.7 ± 0.4 bound SAs per OQD for comparable imaging efficacy a nominal SA/OQD ratio of 80 was needed corresponding to an SA conjugation efficiency of 3.4 ± 0.5% for CdSe-ZnS OQDs. The more than 10 times better SA conjugation efficiency of the CdSe AQDs as compared to that of the CdSe-ZnS OQDs was attributed to more capping molecules on the AQD surface as a result of the direct aqueous synthesis. More capping molecules on the AQD surface also allowed the SA-AQD conjugate to be stable in cell culture medium for more than three days without losing their staining capability in a flowing cell culture medium. In contrast, SA-OQD conjugates aggregated in cell culture medium and in phosphate buffer saline solution over time.

  6. Ligand Induced Circular Dichroism and Circularly Polarized Luminescence in CdSe Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Tohgha, Urice; Deol, Kirandeep K.; Porter, Ashlin G.; Bartko, Samuel G.; Choi, Jung Kyu; Leonard, Brian M.; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Muller, Gilles; Balaz, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Chiral thiol capping ligands L- and D-cysteines induced modular chiroptical properties in achiral cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs). Cys-CdSe prepared from achiral oleic acid capped CdSe by post-synthetic ligand exchange displayed size-dependent electronic circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Opposite CPL signals were measured for the CdSe QDs capped with D- and L-cysteine. The CD profile and CD anisotropy varied with size of CdSe nanocrystals with largest anisotropy observed for CdSe nanoparticles of 4.4 nm. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR (MAS ssNMR) experiments suggested bidentate interaction between cysteine and the surface of CdSe. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations verified that attachment of L- and D-cysteine to the surface of model (CdSe)13 nanoclusters induces measurable opposite CD signals for the exitonic band of the nanocluster. The chirality was induced by the hybridization of highest occupied CdSe molecular orbitals with those of the chiral ligand. PMID:24200288

  7. CdSe quantum dots synthesized by laser ablation in water and their photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoz, Sabit; Lu, Liyou; Dai, Qilin; Chen, Jiajun; Yakami, Baichhabi; Pikal, J. M.; Wang, Wenyong; Tang, Jinke

    2012-11-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared by a facile and clean synthesis method--laser ablation in water. The structural and luminescent properties of the CdSe QDs have been investigated. The CdSe QDs of wurtzite crystal structure have an average particle size of about 5 nm. The QDs can be attached to ZnO nanowires making them ideal for applications in QD-sensitized nanowire solar cells. A uniqueness of the QDs attached to the ZnO nanowires by this laser ablation method is that they do not contain ligands, and the preparation avoids the complicated process of ligand exchange.

  8. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells Using CdSe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebreselassie, Haftom Mesfin; Sharma, R. B.; Chander, Nikhil

    2011-10-01

    Experimental and Simulation works of Nanostructured Solar Cells Using CdSe Quantum Dots have been analyzed and investigated. CdSe quantum dots have been synthesized from non coordinating and high boiling solvent Octadecene and a series of increasing CdSe particle sizes are produced. The synthesized CdSe quantum dots are highly examined under a Transmission Electron Microscope and four images of different sizes of CdSe quantum dots (5.8 nm, 6.4 nm, 7.0 nm and 7.7 nm) have been obtained. A 1.1×1.1 cm2 TiO2 electrode is prepared using indium tin oxide conducting glass and TiO2 nanoparticles. The Oleic acid terminated CdSe quantum dots are separated from the octadecene by using 100% ethanol and centrifuge machine of spin about 4000 rpm until the shaking gave no longer suspension. The CdSe quantum dot (5.8 nm) was adsorbed on TiO2 photoelectrode and used as sensitizer. The relationship of Bandgap energy, Emission wavelength with respect to quantum dot size have been simulated and investigated. In this paper work, a sandwich type cell configuration which is made up of TiO2 photoelectrode, graphite coated counter electrode, an electrolyte of iodine and potassium iodide have been used. This sandwich type cell has been exposed to sun light and we have achieved 0.32 V and 0.2 mA cm-2 of potential difference and current respectively.

  9. Aqueous synthesis and characterization of TGA-capped CdSe quantum dots at freezing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qizhuang; Fu, Shasha; Dong, Tingmei; Liu, Shuxian; Huang, Chaobiao

    2012-07-11

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) have traditionally been synthesized in organic phase and then transferred to aqueous solution by functionalizing their surface with silica, polymers, short-chain thiol ligands, or phospholipid micelles. However, a drastic increase in the hydrodynamic size and biotoxicity of QDs may hinder their biomedical applications. In this paper, the TGA-capped CdSe QDs are directly synthesized in aqueous phase at freezing temperature, and they prove to possess high QY (up to 14%).

  10. Growth and Excitonic Emission of CdSe Ultra-Thin Quantum Wells Without Thickness Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Martínez, Adrián; Hernández-Calderón, Isaac

    2007-04-01

    Due to the cation and anion surface reconstruction properties, one Cd-Se atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) cycle produces a coverage of 0.5 CdSe monolayers. In this work we demonstrate that even when an odd number of cycles are deposited to produce ultra-thin quantum wells, under the appropriate growth conditions, the photoluminescence spectrum indicates the absence of thickness fluctuations. A single excitonic peak is detected in the whole sample.

  11. White emission using mixtures of CdSe quantum dots and PMMA as a phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wonkeun; Park, Kwanhwi; Yu, Hong Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Chun, Byung-Hee; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2010-02-01

    White light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using an InGaN 460 nm blue emission LED chip as the excitation source and CdSe quantum dots dispersed in PMMA as the phosphor. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized by the wet chemical method using CdO and Selenium powder as precursors. The three different size, 2.9, 3.4 and 4.3 nm in diameter, of CdSe quantum dots obtained using this method exhibited emission peaks at 555, 580 and 625 nm, respectively with a quantum yield of 10-30%. Mixed phosphors containing different weight ratio of CdSe and PMMA (1:0.1, 1:1, 1:5 and 1:10 wt%) were deposited on the LED chip to investigate the effects of different weight ratios of CdSe and PMMA on the performance of the white LEDs. The fabricated white LEDs that contained CdSe and PMMA weight ratio at 1:10 showed the best performance and the CIE color coordinates varied less with different applied currents. The luminous efficiency of single phosphor (580 nm CdSe) white LEDs was 5.62 lm/W with a CRI of 15.7, whereas the luminous efficiency of dual phosphors (555, 625 nm CdSe) white LEDs was 3.79 lm/W with a CRI of 61.4 at 20 mA. The CIE coordinates of single and dual phosphors white LEDs varied from (0.33, 0.28) to (0.29, 0.26) and from (0.39, 0.33) to (0.39, 0.32), respectively, when the working current ranged from 5 to 80 mA.

  12. Continuous-flow synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: a size-tunable and scalable approach.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini Moghaddam, Mojtaba; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Sadeghpour, Amin; Glatter, Otto; Kappe, C Oliver

    2013-08-26

    In recent years, continuous-flow/microreactor processing for the preparation of colloidal nanocrystals has received considerable attention. The intrinsic advantages of microfluidic reactors have opened new opportunities for the size-controlled synthesis of nanocrystals either in the laboratory or on a large scale. Herein, an experimentally simple protocol for the size-tunable continuous-flow synthesis of rather monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is presented. CdSe QDs are manufactured by using cadmium oleate as cadmium source, selenium dioxide as selenium precursor, and 1-octadecene as solvent. Exploiting selenium dioxide as selenium source and 1-octadecene as solvent allows execution of the complete process in open air without any requirement for air-free manipulations using a glove box or Schlenk line. Continuous-flow processing is performed with a stainless steel coil of 1.0 mm inner diameter pumping the combined precursor solution through the reactor by applying a standard HPLC pump. The effect of different reaction parameters, such as temperature, residence time, and flow rate, on the properties of the resulting CdSe QDs was investigated. A temperature increase from 240 to 260 °C or an extension of the residence time from 2 to 20 min affords larger nanocrystals (range 3-6 nm) whereas the size distribution does not change significantly. Longer reaction times and higher temperatures result in QDs with lower quantum yields (range 11-28 %). The quality of the synthesized CdSe QDs was confirmed by UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the potential of this protocol for large-scale manufacturing was evaluated and by operating the continuous-flow process for 87 min it was possible to produce 167 mg of CdSe QDs (with a mean diameter of 4 nm) with a quantum yield of 28 %.

  13. Enchanced methods of hydrophilized CdSe quantum dots synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, D. V.; Zharkova, I. S.; Goryacheva, I. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots are bright and stable fluorescence signal sources, but for most of applications they need an additional hydrophilization step. Unfortunately, most of existing approaches lead to QD's fluorescence quenching, so there is a need for additional enhancing of hydrophilized QD's brightness like UV irradiation, which can be used both on water insoluble QD's with oleic acid ligands (in toluene) and on hydrophilized QD's covered with UV-stable polymer (in aqueous solution). For synthesis of bright water-soluble fluorescent labels CdSe/CdS/ZnS colloidal quantum dots were covered with PAMAM dendrimer and irradiated with UV lamp in quartz cuvettes for 3 hours at the room temperature and then compared with control sample.

  14. Sulforaphane Protects the Liver against CdSe Quantum Dot-Induced Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; He, Yan; Yu, Guodong; Li, Baolong; Sexton, Darren W.; Wileman, Thomas; Roberts, Alexandra A.; Hamilton, Chris J.; Liu, Ruoxi; Chao, Yimin; Shan, Yujuan; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The potential cytotoxicity of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) presents a barrier to their use in biomedical imaging or as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a chemoprotective compound derived from cruciferous vegetables which can up-regulate antioxidant enzymes and induce apoptosis and autophagy. This study reports the effects of SFN on CdSe QD-induced cytotoxicity in immortalised human hepatocytes and in the livers of mice. CdSe QDs induced dose-dependent cell death in hepatocytes with an IC50 = 20.4 μM. Pre-treatment with SFN (5 μM) increased cell viability in response to CdSe QDs (20 μM) from 49.5 to 89.3%. SFN induced a pro-oxidant effect characterized by depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione during short term exposure (3–6 h), followed by up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels at 24 h. SFN also caused Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus, up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. siRNA knockdown of Nrf2 suggests that the Nrf2 pathway plays a role in the protection against CdSe QD-induced cell death. Wortmannin inhibition of SFN-induced autophagy significantly suppressed the protective effect of SFN on CdSe QD-induced cell death. Moreover, the role of autophagy in SFN protection against CdSe QD-induced cell death was confirmed using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking ATG5. CdSe QDs caused significant liver damage in mice, and this was decreased by SFN treatment. In conclusion, SFN attenuated the cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs in both human hepatocytes and in the mouse liver, and this protection was associated with the induction of Nrf2 pathway and autophagy. PMID:26402917

  15. Sulforaphane Protects the Liver against CdSe Quantum Dot-Induced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; He, Yan; Yu, Guodong; Li, Baolong; Sexton, Darren W; Wileman, Thomas; Roberts, Alexandra A; Hamilton, Chris J; Liu, Ruoxi; Chao, Yimin; Shan, Yujuan; Bao, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The potential cytotoxicity of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) presents a barrier to their use in biomedical imaging or as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a chemoprotective compound derived from cruciferous vegetables which can up-regulate antioxidant enzymes and induce apoptosis and autophagy. This study reports the effects of SFN on CdSe QD-induced cytotoxicity in immortalised human hepatocytes and in the livers of mice. CdSe QDs induced dose-dependent cell death in hepatocytes with an IC50 = 20.4 μM. Pre-treatment with SFN (5 μM) increased cell viability in response to CdSe QDs (20 μM) from 49.5 to 89.3%. SFN induced a pro-oxidant effect characterized by depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione during short term exposure (3-6 h), followed by up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels at 24 h. SFN also caused Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus, up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. siRNA knockdown of Nrf2 suggests that the Nrf2 pathway plays a role in the protection against CdSe QD-induced cell death. Wortmannin inhibition of SFN-induced autophagy significantly suppressed the protective effect of SFN on CdSe QD-induced cell death. Moreover, the role of autophagy in SFN protection against CdSe QD-induced cell death was confirmed using mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking ATG5. CdSe QDs caused significant liver damage in mice, and this was decreased by SFN treatment. In conclusion, SFN attenuated the cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs in both human hepatocytes and in the mouse liver, and this protection was associated with the induction of Nrf2 pathway and autophagy.

  16. Tuning luminescence and reducing reabsorption of CdSe quantum disks for luminescent solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huichuan; Xie, Peng; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Baojun

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum disks (QDs) have been synthesized for application in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). Luminescence tuning and reabsorption reduction of the QDs were achieved by controlling their size using a hot injection method. The overlap of the absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared CdSe QDs was negligible. The as-prepared CdSe QDs were incorporated into polymethylmethacrylate without aggregation and luminescence quenching. The obtained highly transparent composites with non-affecting light-emitting properties were used as LSCs. The placement of a CdSe QDs doped LSC prototype (10 × 1 × 0.1 cm) on a Si-cell resulted in a 201% increase in the electrical power output of the Si-cell compared with that of the bare Si-cell.

  17. Functional Si and CdSe quantum dots: synthesis, conjugate formation, and photoluminescence quenching by surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, P K; Emrick, Todd

    2009-12-22

    Silicon quantum dots (QDs) were prepared with a corona of di-n-octyl phosphine oxides, by performing hydrosilylation chemistry on the surface of hydrogen-terminated Si QDs. These novel Si QDs proved well-suited to serve as "ligands" for other semiconductor QDs, such as CdSe, by interaction of the phosphine oxide corona with the CdSe surface. A pronounced photoluminescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots was observed upon introduction of the phosphine oxide functionalized Si QDs to a CdSe QD solution. Surface functionalization of the Si QDs proved critically important to observing these effects, as conventional (alkane-covered) Si QD samples gave no evidence of electronic interactions with TOPO-covered CdSe. In a comparative system, phosphine oxide terminated oligo(phenylene vinylene) molecules acting as CdSe QD ligands provide a similar fluorescence quenching, with exciton decay kinetics supporting the formation of an electronically interacting hybrid materials system.

  18. Microwave-assisted synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: can the electromagnetic field influence the formation and quality of the resulting nanocrystals?

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Mojtaba Mirhosseini; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Keilbach, Andreas; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-12-07

    Microwave-assisted syntheses of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs), in particular CdSe quantum dots (QDs), have gained considerable attention due to unique opportunities provided by microwave dielectric heating. The extensive use of microwave heating and the frequently suggested specific microwave effects, however, pose questions about the role of the electromagnetic field in both the formation and quality of the produced QDs. In this work a one-pot protocol for the tunable synthesis of monodisperse colloidal CdSe NCs using microwave dielectric heating under carefully controlled conditions is introduced. CdSe QDs are fabricated using selenium dioxide as a selenium precursor, 1-octadecene as a solvent and reducing agent, cadmium alkyl carboxylates or alkyl phosphonates as cadmium sources, 1,2-hexadecanediol to stabilize the cadmium complex and oleic acid to stabilize the resulting CdSe QDs. Utilizing the possibilities of microwave heating technology in combination with accurate online temperature control the influence of different reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, ramp and hold times, and the timing and duration of oleic acid addition have been carefully investigated. Optimum results were obtained by performing the reaction at 240 °C applying a 5 min ramp time, 2 min hold time before oleic acid addition, 90 s for oleic acid addition, and a 5 min hold time after oleic acid addition (8.5 min overall holding at 240 °C). By using different cadmium complexes in the microwave protocol CdSe QDs with a narrow size distribution can be obtained in different sizes ranging from 0.5-4 nm by simply changing the cadmium source. The QDs were characterized by TEM, HRTEM, UV-Vis, and photoluminescence methods and the size distribution was monitored by SAXS. Control experiments involving conventional conductive heating under otherwise identical conditions ensuring the same heating and cooling profiles, stirring rates, and reactor geometries demonstrate that the

  19. In-situ material state monitoring using embedded CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Cole D.; Frecker, Talitha M.; Njoroge, Ian; Shane, Dylan O.; Smudde, Christine M.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Jennings, G. Kane; Adams, Douglas E.

    2016-04-01

    The development of new, smart materials capable of intrinsically detecting and communicating the occurrence of external loads and resultant damage present in a material will be crucial in the advancement of future structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies. Traditionally, many SHM and NDE approaches have relied on the use of physical sensors to monitor a structure for damage, but are often hindered by their requirements for power consumption and large-scale data collection. In this work, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasmall, white-light emitting Cadmium Selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) as an alternative to providing in-situ material state monitoring capabilities, while also aiming to reduce reliance on data collection and power consumption to effectively monitor a material and structure for damage. To achieve this goal, CdSe QDs are embedded in an optically clear epoxy composite matrix and exposed to external mechanical loadings. Initial results show a corresponding relationship between the shifts in observed emission spectra and external load for samples containing CdSe QDs. The effectiveness of CdSe QDs as a surface strain gauge on aluminum and fiberglass are also investigated in this paper. By monitoring changes in the emission spectra for materials containing CdSe QDs before, during and after the application of external loads, the effectiveness of CdSe QDs for communicating the occurrence of external loads acting on a material and detecting changes in material state is evaluated.

  20. Direct observation of electron-to-hole energy transfer in CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hendry, E; Koeberg, M; Wang, F; Zhang, H; de Mello Donegá, C; Vanmaekelbergh, D; Bonn, M

    2006-02-10

    We independently determine the subpicosecond cooling rates for holes and electrons in CdSe quantum dots. Time-resolved luminescence and terahertz spectroscopy reveal that the rate of hole cooling, following photoexcitation of the quantum dots, depends critically on the electron excess energy. This constitutes the first direct, quantitative measurement of electron-to-hole energy transfer, the hypothesis behind the Auger cooling mechanism proposed in quantum dots, which is found to occur on a 1 +/- 0.15 ps time scale.

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of Mn doped CdSe quantum dots for improved solar cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Qilin; Wang, Wenyong E-mail: jtang2@uwyo.edu; Tang, Jinke E-mail: jtang2@uwyo.edu; Sabio, Erwin M.

    2014-05-05

    In this work, we demonstrate (1) a facile method to prepare Mn doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} photoanodes by pulsed laser deposition and (2) improved device performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells of the Mn doped QDs (CdSe:Mn) compared to the undoped QDs (CdSe). The band diagram of photoanode Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and sensitizer CdSe:Mn QD is proposed based on the incident-photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) data. Mn-modified band structure leads to absorption at longer wavelengths than the undoped CdSe QDs, which is due to the exchange splitting of the CdSe:Mn conduction band by the Mn dopant. Three-fold increase in the IPCE efficiency has also been observed for the Mn doped samples.

  2. Blue and green electroluminescence from CdSe nanocrystal quantum-dot-quantum-wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y. F.; Cao, X. A.

    2014-11-17

    CdS/CdSe/ZnS quantum dot quantum well (QDQW) nanocrystals were synthesized using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique, and their optical properties were tuned by bandgap and strain engineering. 3-monolayer (ML) CdSe QWs emitted blue photoluminescence at 467 nm with a spectral full-width-at-half-maximum of ∼30 nm. With a 3 ML ZnS cladding layer, which also acts as a passivating and strain-compensating layer, the QDQWs acquired a ∼35% quantum yield of the QW emission. Blue and green electroluminescence (EL) was obtained from QDQW light-emitting devices with 3–4.5 ML CdSe QWs. It was found that as the peak blueshifted, the overall EL was increasingly dominated by defect state emission due to poor hole injection into the QDQWs. The weak EL was also attributed to strong field-induced charge separation resulting from the unique QDQW geometry, weakening the oscillator strength of optical transitions.

  3. Improved solar cell based on ZnO nanowires and CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadarajah, Athavan; Word, Robert C.; Konenkamp, Rolf

    2010-03-01

    We report a solar cell nanostructure that incorporates CdSe quantum dots embedded in a ZnO nanowire film and a hole-conducting polymer layer. This arrangement allows for enhanced light absorption and efficient collection of the carriers. Microscopic studies show the conversion of CdSe quantum dots into an inter-connected and continuous polycrystalline thin film upon annealing in cadmium chloride ambient. This structural change of the quantum dot layer destroys the quantum confinement and improves the charge transport in the layer significantly. It also provides for improved charge transfer to the adjacent contacting layers. The optimized solar cell exhibits an external quantum efficiency of 65 percent and an energy conversion efficiency above 2 percent.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering by colloidal CdSe nanocrystal submonolayers fabricated by the Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    PubMed Central

    Sveshnikova, Larisa L; Duda, Tatyana A; Rodyakina, Ekaterina E; Dzhagan, Volodymyr M; Gordan, Ovidiu D; Veber, Sergey L; Himcinschi, Cameliu; Latyshev, Alexander V; Zahn, Dietrich R T

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present the results of an investigation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by optical phonons in colloidal CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) homogeneously deposited on both arrays of Au nanoclusters and Au dimers using the Langmuir–Blodgett technique. The coverage of the deposited NCs was less than one monolayer, as determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. SERS by optical phonons in CdSe nanocrystals showed a significant enhancement that depends resonantly on the Au nanocluster and dimer size, and thus on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) energy. The deposition of CdSe nanocrystals on the Au dimer nanocluster arrays enabled us to study the polarization dependence of SERS. The maximal SERS signal was observed for light polarization parallel to the dimer axis. The polarization ratio of the SERS signal parallel and perpendicular to the dimer axis was 20. The SERS signal intensity was also investigated as a function of the distance between nanoclusters in a dimer. Here the maximal SERS enhancement was observed for the minimal distance studied (about 10 nm), confirming the formation of SERS “hot spots”. PMID:26734529

  5. Application of CdSe quantum dots for the direct detection of TNT.

    PubMed

    Yi, Kui-Yu

    2016-02-01

    CdSe quantum dots were synthesized through a simple, green organic-phase method. Paraffin was used as the reaction solvent and a reducing agent, oleic acid was the reaction ligand, and oleyl amine was the stabilizer. Based on the phenomenon of TNT quenched oil-soluble CdSe quantum dot fluorescence, a simple, fast, and direct method of TNT detection was established. Under optimum conditions, the degree of fluorescence quenching of oil-soluble CdSe quantum dots had a good linear correlation with TNT concentration in the 1.0×10(-7)-5.0×10(-5) mol/L range, and the correlation coefficient was 0.9990. TNT detection limit was 2.1×10(-8)mol/L. The method was successfully used to determine TNT-explosion dust samples, results were satisfactory. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of oil-soluble CdSe quantum dots by TNT was also discussed.

  6. Luminescence blue-shift of CdSe nanowires beyond the quantum confinement regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yuan; Liao, Zhi-Min; Bie, Ya-Qing; Wu, Han-Chun; Zhou, Yang-Bo; Fu, Xue-Wen; Yu, Da-Peng

    2011-09-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of individual CdSe nanowires with diameters beyond the quantum confinement regime have been studied. A blue-shift in the PL spectra was observed with decreasing nanowire diameter. We attribute the blue-shift to band-filling effect. Carrier density induced by surface vacancy doping and laser excitation is found to be high enough to meet the criterion of the band-filling effect and increases with decreasing nanowire diameter. Temperature dependent PL analysis and characterizations of a single CdSe nanowire based field-effect transistor were also performed.

  7. An oleic acid-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing; Song, J. L.; Deng, W. Q.; Sun, X. W.; Jiang, C. Y.; Lei, W.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, R. S.

    2009-04-13

    In this letter, we report an oleic acid (OA)-capped CdSe quantum-dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with an improved performance. The TiO{sub 2}/OA-CdSe photoanode in a two-electrode device exhibited a photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 17.5% at 400 nm. At AM1.5G irradiation with 100 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity, the QDSSCs based on OA-capped CdSe showed a power conversion efficiency of about 1%. The function of OA was to increase QD loading, extend the absorption range and possibly suppress the surface recombination.

  8. Photosensitization of ZnO nanowires with CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Leschkies, Kurtis S; Divakar, Ramachandran; Basu, Joysurya; Enache-Pommer, Emil; Boercker, Janice E; Carter, C Barry; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Norris, David J; Aydil, Eray S

    2007-06-01

    We combine CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) and single-crystal ZnO nanowires to demonstrate a new type of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell. An array of ZnO nanowires was grown vertically from a fluorine-doped tin oxide conducting substrate. CdSe quantum dots, capped with mercaptopropionic acid, were attached to the surface of the nanowires. When illuminated with visible light, the excited CdSe quantum dots injected electrons across the quantum dot-nanowire interface. The morphology of the nanowires then provided the photoinjected electrons with a direct electrical pathway to the photoanode. With a liquid electrolyte as the hole transport medium, quantum-dot-sensitized nanowire solar cells exhibited short-circuit currents ranging from 1 to 2 mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltages of 0.5-0.6 V when illuminated with 100 mW/cm2 simulated AM1.5 spectrum. Internal quantum efficiencies as high as 50-60% were also obtained.

  9. Simple synthesis of luminescent CdSe quantum dots from ascorbic acid and selenium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Yu, Meihua; Yang, Kun; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Linqing

    2015-12-01

    A simple, low-cost and convenient method was developed for the synthesis of highly luminescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous medium. Compared with previous methods, this synthesis was carried out in one pot using ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) to replace NaBH4 or N2H4·H2O as a reductant, and selenium dioxide to replace selenium or its other hazardous, expensive and unstable compounds as a precursor. The mechanism of CdSe QDs formation was elucidated. The influence of various experimental variables, including refluxing time, Cd/MSA and Cd/Se molar ratios, on the luminescent properties of the QDs were systematically investigated. X-Ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy characterization indicated that the QDs had a pure cubic zinc-blended structure with a spherical shape.

  10. The direct observation of charge separation dynamics in CdSe quantum dots/cobaloxime hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.; Tang, Y.; Mulfort, Karen L.; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    2016-02-14

    In this work, we investigated photoinduced charge separation dynamics in a CdSe quantum dot/cobaloxime molecular catalyst hybrid using the combination of transient optical (OTA) and X-ray absorption (XTA) spectroscopy. We show that ultrafast charge separation occurs through electron transfer (ET) from CdSe QDs to cobaloxime. In addition to the enhanced 1S exciton bleach recovery in CdSe QDs due to the presence of cobaloxime, the direct evidence for ET process, i.e. the formation of the transient charge separated state, is captured by XTA. These results not only demonstrate the capability of XTA to capture the transient species during the photoinduced reactions in hybrid nanostructures but also enhance our understanding of charge separation dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystal/molecular catalyst hybrid

  11. Surface states and photovoltaic effects in CdSe quantum dot films

    SciTech Connect

    Kronik, L.; Ashkenasy, N.; Leibovitch, M.; Fefer, E.; Shapira, Y.; Gorer, S.; Hodes, G.

    1998-05-01

    Photovoltaic effects in CdSe quantum dot (QD) films have been studied using surface photovoltage spectroscopy and complementary methods. The results show that, contrary to previous studies, nonnegligible electric fields can exist in QD films. As a result, driftlike currents must be considered, in addition to the well-known diffusion like currents. However, it is found that the specific case of photovoltage sign reversal, observed after etching highly quantized CdSe QD films, is governed by diffusion like transport. The latter is highly influenced by preferential trapping of one type of charge carrier. The preferential trapping is shown to be surface localized and is strongly ambient dependent. It is shown that the photovoltaic properties of these CdSe QD films are dominated by their surface state distribution.

  12. Excitation enhancement of CdSe quantum dots by single metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yeechi; Munechika, Keiko; Jen-La Plante, Ilan; Munro, Andrea M.; Skrabalak, Sara E.; Xia, Younan; Ginger, David S.

    2008-08-01

    We study plasmon-enhanced fluorescence from CdSe /CdS/CdZnS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots near a variety of Ag and Au nanoparticles. The photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectrum of quantum dots closely follows the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering spectrum of the nanoparticles. We measure excitation enhancement factors of ˜3 to 10 for different shapes of single metal nanoparticles.

  13. The Optical Properties of CdSe Quantum Dots by Using Spray-Atomization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmani, C. H.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) is inorganic material by using spray-atomization method which is the novelty to find out the optical properties for the CdSe QDs. The Selenium (Se) precursor and Cadmium (Cd) precursor were prepared first. Se precursor by using sodium sulfite aqueous was mixed with selenium (Se) powder. For Cd precursor was used cadmium chloride (CdCI) as the Cd precursor. From previous research, CdSe QDs was obtained by using capping agent such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and trioctylphosphine (TOP). These capping agent are hazardous to environment and human. By using spray-atomization method it is more safe and economically. The photoluminescence (PL) was used to investigate the optical properties and to investigate the energy band gap from PL result. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to know the surface morphology of CdSe QDs. By PL result, the energy band gap was calculate and the comparison was investigate between the size of particle and the energy band gap. This important in this paper is to investigate the optical properties of CdSe QDs by using sprays-atomization method and to relate with the particle size.

  14. Van der Waals materials for the passivation of monolayer closed-packed films of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dennis Zi-Ren; Zhang, Datong; Creswell, Richard; Lu, Chenguang; Hu, Jiayang; Herman, Irving P.

    2015-03-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) materials are shown to protect CdSe quantum dots (QDs) from oxidization. Few-layer vdW materials, e.g. graphene and MoS2, were transferred onto a monolayer closed-packed CdSe quantum dots and were examined by photoluminescence (PL) after different time periods. By comparing the PL of CdSe QDs in uncovered areas and those covered by different numbers of layers of graphene and MoS2, we saw that vdW encapsulation slows down the aging of CdSe QDs dramatically. PL mapping results clearly showed better protection of the CdSe QDs under the central part of the vdW material compared to that at the edge; this can be explained by the diffusion of oxygen and water vapor from the edge of the vdW materials.

  15. Investigation of size dependent structural and optical properties of thin films of CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Madhulika; Sharma, A.B.; Mishra, N.; Pandey, R.K.

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} CdSe q-dots have been synthesized using simple chemical synthesis route. {yields} Thin film of CdSe quantum dots exhibited self-organized growth. {yields} Size dependent blue shift observed in the absorption edge of CdSe nanocrystallites. {yields} PL emission band corresponds to band edge luminescence and defect luminescence. {yields} Organized growth led to enhancement in luminescence yield of smaller size Q-dots. -- Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots were grown on indium tin oxide substrate using wet chemical technique for possible application as light emitting devices. The structural, morphological and luminescence properties of the as deposited thin films of CdSe Q-dot have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical and luminescence spectroscopy. The quantum dots have been shown to deposit in an organized array on ITO/glass substrate. The as grown Q-dots exhibited size dependent blue shift in the absorption edge. The effect of quantum confinement also manifested as a blue shift of photoluminescence emission. It is shown that the nanocrystalline CdSe exhibits intense photoluminescence as compared to the large grained polycrystalline CdSe films.

  16. Quantum confinement effect of CdSe induced by nanoscale solvothermal reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Im, Jeong-Hyuk; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-10-21

    We report a novel method, nanoscale solvothermal reaction (NSR), to induce the quantum confinement effect of CdSe on nanostructured TiO(2) by solvothermal route. The time-dependent growth of CdSe is observed in solution at room temperature, which is found to be accomplished instantly by heat-treatment in the presence of solvent at 1 atm. However, no crystal growth occurs upon heat-treatment in the absence of solvent. The nanoscale solvothermal growth of CdSe quantum dot is realized on the nanocrystalline oxide surface, where Cd(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O and Na(2)SeSO(3) solutions are sequentially spun on nanostructured TiO(2), followed by heat-treatment at temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 250 °C. Size of CdSe increases from 4.4 nm to 5.3 nm, 8.7 nm and 14.8 nm, which results in decrease in optical band gap from 2.19 eV to, 1.95 eV, 1.74 eV and 1.75 eV with increasing the NSR temperature from 100 °C to 150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C, respectively, which is indicative of the quantum confinement effect. Thermodynamic studies reveal that increase in the size of CdSe is related to increase in enthalpy, for instance, from 3.77 J mg(-1) for 100 °C to 8.66 J mg(-1) for 200 °C. Quantum confinement effect is further confirmed from the CdSe-sensitized solar cell, where onset wavelength in external quantum efficiency spectra is progressively shifted from 600 nm to 800 nm as the NSR temperature increases, which leads to a significant improvement of power conversion efficiency by a factor of more than four. A high photocurrent density of 13.7 mA cm(-2) is obtained based on CdSe quantum dot grown by NSR at 200 °C.

  17. Morphology of ultrathin CdSe quantum confinement layers in ZnSe matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, K. G.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Rosenauer, A.; Gerthsen, D.

    1999-06-01

    Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), digital analysis of lattice images (DALI), and correspondence analysis (CA) we present at near-atomic resolution the morphology of a nominal 2 monolayer (ML) cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum well (QW) between ZnSe barriers. We reveal the presence of ˜10 ML zinc cadmium selenide (Zn xCd 1- xSe) alloy insertion layer of varying composition in a ZnSe matrix. A spotty pattern in the plane of the layer indicates the presence of self-assembled clusters or islands similar to the structures commonly referred to as quantum dots. Further analysis indicates that these clusters, of less than 10 nm in lateral extent, themselves contain sites highly saturated with CdSe. Analysis of photoluminescence (PL) spectra suggests that the emission originates predominantly from excitons trapped in these islands.

  18. Direct growth of CdSe semiconductor quantum dots in glass matrix by femtosecond laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, G.; Filin, A. I.; Romanov, D. A.; Levis, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    Controllable, spatially inhomogeneous distributions of CdSe nanocrystals smaller than the exciton Bohr radius are grown in a glass matrix under combined action of sample heating (below the transformation temperature) and focused high-repetition femtosecond (fs) laser beam. Selective quantum dot precipitation is evidenced by position-dependent absorption and Raman spectra. The particle size is estimated as r = 2.1 ± 0.3 nm by comparing the measured absorption and Raman spectra with those obtained from the samples grown in glass by traditional heat-treatment procedure. Direct growth of CdSe quantum dots in glass is enabled by nonlinear excitation using a focused fs duration laser beam (as differentiated from other methods), and this opens an avenue for adjustable selective growth patterns.

  19. Size control by rate control in colloidal PbSe quantum dot synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čapek, Richard Karel; Yanover, Dianna; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2015-03-01

    A recently demonstrated approach to control the size of colloidal nanoparticles, ``size control by rate control'', which was validated on the examples of colloidal CdSe- and CdS-quantum dot (CQD) synthesis, appears to be a general strategy for designing technically applicable CQD-syntheses. The ``size control by rate control'' concept allows full-yield syntheses of ensembles of CQDs with different sizes by tuning the solute formation rate. In this work, we extended this strategy to dialkylphosphine enhanced hot-injection synthesis of PbSe-CQDs. Furthermore, we provide new insight into the reaction mechanism of dialkylphosphine enhancement in TOPSe based CQD-syntheses.A recently demonstrated approach to control the size of colloidal nanoparticles, ``size control by rate control'', which was validated on the examples of colloidal CdSe- and CdS-quantum dot (CQD) synthesis, appears to be a general strategy for designing technically applicable CQD-syntheses. The ``size control by rate control'' concept allows full-yield syntheses of ensembles of CQDs with different sizes by tuning the solute formation rate. In this work, we extended this strategy to dialkylphosphine enhanced hot-injection synthesis of PbSe-CQDs. Furthermore, we provide new insight into the reaction mechanism of dialkylphosphine enhancement in TOPSe based CQD-syntheses. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional data about the reaction and growth kinetics, NMR-data and exemplary TEM images of PbSe-CQDs prepared by the procedure described in this publication. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00028a

  20. CdTe and CdSe quantum dots: synthesis, characterizations and applications in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Nga Pham, Thu; Nghia Nguyen, Duc; Khang Dinh, Duy; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2012-12-01

    This paper highlights the results of the whole work including the synthesis of highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs), characterizations and testing applications of them in different kinds of sensors. Concretely, it presents: (i) the successful synthesis of colloidal CdTe and CdSe QDs, their core/shell structures with single- and/or double-shell made by CdS, ZnS or ZnSe/ZnS; (ii) morphology, structural and optical characterizations of the synthesized QDs; and (iii) testing examples of QDs as the fluorescence labels for agricultural-bio-medical objects (for tracing residual pesticide in agricultural products, residual clenbuterol in meat/milk and for detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus in breeding farms). Overall, the results show that the synthesized QDs have very good crystallinity, spherical shape and strongly emit at the desired wavelengths between ˜500 and 700 nm with the luminescence quantum yield (LQY) of 30-85%. These synthesized QDs were used in fabrication of the three testing fluorescence QD-based sensors for the detection of residual pesticides, clenbuterol and H5N1 avian influenza virus. The specific detection of parathion methyl (PM) pesticide at a content as low as 0.05 ppm has been realized with the biosensors made from CdTe/CdS and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS QDs and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanosensors using CdTe/CdS QDs conjugated with 2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid were fabricated that enable detection of diazotized clenbuterol at a content as low as 10 pg ml-1. For detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus, fluorescence biosensors using CdTe/CdS QDs bound on the surface of chromatophores extracted and purified from bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum were prepared and characterized. The specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus in the range of 3-50 ng μl-1 with a detection limit of 3 ng μL-1 has been performed based on the antibody-antigen recognition.

  1. Electrochemiluminescent detection of Pb2+ by graphene/gold nanoparticles and CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liping; Guo, Linqing; Li, Jiao; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemiluminescent detection method for lead ions (Pb(II)) was fabricated based on the distance-dependent quenching of the electrochemiluminescence from CdSe quantum dots by nanocomposites of graphene and gold nanoparticles. Graphene/gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode through the constant potential method. Thiol-labeled DNA was then assembled on the surface of the electrode via gold-sulfur bonding, following which the amino-labeled terminal of the DNA was linked to carboxylated CdSe quantum dots by the formation of amide bonds. The 27-base aptamer was designed with two different domains: the immobilization and detection sequences. The immobilization sequence was paired with 12 complementary bases and immobilized on the gold electrode; the single-stranded detection sequence, rich in G bases, formed a G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the presence of Pb2+. The formation of G4 shortens the distance between the CdSe quantum dots and the Au electrode, which decreases the electrochemiluminescent intensity in a linear fashion, proportional to the concentration of Pb(II). The linear range of the sensor was 10-10 to 10-8 mol/L (R = 0.9819) with a detection limit of 10-10 mol/L. This sensor detected Pb(II) in real water samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Templating growth of gold nanostructures with a CdSe quantum dot array.

    PubMed

    Paul, Neelima; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Yao, Yuan; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Yu, Shun; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Paul, Amitesh

    2015-06-07

    In optoelectronic devices based on quantum dot arrays, thin nanolayers of gold are preferred as stable metal contacts and for connecting recombination centers. The optimal morphology requirements are uniform arrays with precisely controlled positions and sizes over a large area with long range ordering since this strongly affects device performance. To understand the development of gold layer nanomorphology, the detailed mechanism of structure formation are probed with time-resolved grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) during gold sputter deposition. Gold is sputtered on a CdSe quantum dot array with a characteristic quantum dot spacing of ≈7 nm. In the initial stages of gold nanostructure growth, a preferential deposition of gold on top of quantum dots occurs. Thus, the quantum dots act as nucleation sites for gold growth. In later stages, the gold nanoparticles surrounding the quantum dots undergo a coarsening to form a complete layer comprised of gold-dot clusters. Next, growth proceeds dominantly via vertical growth of gold on these gold-dot clusters to form an gold capping layer. In this capping layer, a shift of the cluster boundaries due to ripening is found. Thus, a templating of gold on a CdSe quantum dot array is feasible at low gold coverage.

  3. Green synthesis of highly efficient CdSe quantum dots for quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Bing; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Mengya; Yuan, Shuanglong; Yang, Yunxia E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Chen, Guorong E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn; Zhang, Bo

    2014-05-21

    Green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for application in the quantum-dots-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is investigated in this work. The CdSe QDs were prepared with glycerol as the solvent, with sharp emission peak, full width at half maximum around 30 nm, and absorption peak from 475 nm to 510 nm. The reaction is environmental friendly and energy saving. What's more, the green synthesized CdSe QDs are coherence to the maximum remittance region of the solar spectrum and suitable as sensitizers to assemble onto TiO{sub 2} electrodes for cell devices application. What's more, the dynamic procedure of the carriers' excitation, transportation, and recombination in the QDSCs are discussed. Because the recombination of the electrons from the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}'s to the electrolyte affects the efficiency of the solar cells greatly, 3-Mercaptopropionic acid capped water-dispersible QDs were used to cover the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The resulting green synthesized CdSe QDSCs with Cu{sub 2}S as the electrode show a photovoltaic performance with a conversion efficiency of 3.39%.

  4. Optical properties of water soluble CdSe quantum dots modified by a novel biopolymer based on sodium alginate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade; Hooshyar, Zari

    2013-10-01

    Water soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were modified using a novel biopolymer based on the graft copolymerization of poly (acrylic acid) as a monomer onto sodium alginate as a backbone at room temperature. The obtained CdSe QDs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, thermo-gravimetry analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Optical properties of the prepared CdSe QDs were investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectra. It was found that the resultant QDs incredibly exhibited high fluorescence intensity and quantum yields. Lastly, the influence of the aging time on the fluorescence intensity of the modified CdSe QDs was studied by their fluorescence spectra. Due to the optical behavior of this modified QDs; it could be of potential interest in biological systems.

  5. Exploring size and state dynamics in CdSe quantum dots using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Caram, Justin R.; Zheng, Haibin; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Griffin, Graham B.; Engel, Gregory S.; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2014-02-28

    Development of optoelectronic technologies based on quantum dots depends on measuring, optimizing, and ultimately predicting charge carrier dynamics in the nanocrystal. In such systems, size inhomogeneity and the photoexcited population distribution among various excitonic states have distinct effects on electron and hole relaxation, which are difficult to distinguish spectroscopically. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can help to untangle these effects by resolving excitation energy and subsequent nonlinear response in a single experiment. Using a filament-generated continuum as a pump and probe source, we collect two-dimensional spectra with sufficient spectral bandwidth to follow dynamics upon excitation of the lowest three optical transitions in a polydisperse ensemble of colloidal CdSe quantum dots. We first compare to prior transient absorption studies to confirm excitation-state-dependent dynamics such as increased surface-trapping upon excitation of hot electrons. Second, we demonstrate fast band-edge electron-hole pair solvation by ligand and phonon modes, as the ensemble relaxes to the photoluminescent state on a sub-picosecond time-scale. Third, we find that static disorder due to size polydispersity dominates the nonlinear response upon excitation into the hot electron manifold; this broadening mechanism stands in contrast to that of the band-edge exciton. Finally, we demonstrate excitation-energy dependent hot-carrier relaxation rates, and we describe how two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can complement other transient nonlinear techniques.

  6. Exploring size and state dynamics in CdSe quantum dots using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Caram, Justin R.; Zheng, Haibin; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Griffin, Graham B.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Development of optoelectronic technologies based on quantum dots depends on measuring, optimizing, and ultimately predicting charge carrier dynamics in the nanocrystal. In such systems, size inhomogeneity and the photoexcited population distribution among various excitonic states have distinct effects on electron and hole relaxation, which are difficult to distinguish spectroscopically. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can help to untangle these effects by resolving excitation energy and subsequent nonlinear response in a single experiment. Using a filament-generated continuum as a pump and probe source, we collect two-dimensional spectra with sufficient spectral bandwidth to follow dynamics upon excitation of the lowest three optical transitions in a polydisperse ensemble of colloidal CdSe quantum dots. We first compare to prior transient absorption studies to confirm excitation-state-dependent dynamics such as increased surface-trapping upon excitation of hot electrons. Second, we demonstrate fast band-edge electron-hole pair solvation by ligand and phonon modes, as the ensemble relaxes to the photoluminescent state on a sub-picosecond time-scale. Third, we find that static disorder due to size polydispersity dominates the nonlinear response upon excitation into the hot electron manifold; this broadening mechanism stands in contrast to that of the band-edge exciton. Finally, we demonstrate excitation-energy dependent hot-carrier relaxation rates, and we describe how two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can complement other transient nonlinear techniques. PMID:24588185

  7. Exploring size and state dynamics in CdSe quantum dots using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caram, Justin R; Zheng, Haibin; Dahlberg, Peter D; Rolczynski, Brian S; Griffin, Graham B; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Talapin, Dmitri V; Engel, Gregory S

    2014-02-28

    Development of optoelectronic technologies based on quantum dots depends on measuring, optimizing, and ultimately predicting charge carrier dynamics in the nanocrystal. In such systems, size inhomogeneity and the photoexcited population distribution among various excitonic states have distinct effects on electron and hole relaxation, which are difficult to distinguish spectroscopically. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can help to untangle these effects by resolving excitation energy and subsequent nonlinear response in a single experiment. Using a filament-generated continuum as a pump and probe source, we collect two-dimensional spectra with sufficient spectral bandwidth to follow dynamics upon excitation of the lowest three optical transitions in a polydisperse ensemble of colloidal CdSe quantum dots. We first compare to prior transient absorption studies to confirm excitation-state-dependent dynamics such as increased surface-trapping upon excitation of hot electrons. Second, we demonstrate fast band-edge electron-hole pair solvation by ligand and phonon modes, as the ensemble relaxes to the photoluminescent state on a sub-picosecond time-scale. Third, we find that static disorder due to size polydispersity dominates the nonlinear response upon excitation into the hot electron manifold; this broadening mechanism stands in contrast to that of the band-edge exciton. Finally, we demonstrate excitation-energy dependent hot-carrier relaxation rates, and we describe how two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can complement other transient nonlinear techniques.

  8. Understanding the isothermal growth kinetics of cdse quantum dots through microfluidic reactor assisted combinatorial synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Basudev; Hong, Myung Hwan; Kang, Lee-Seung; Lee, Chan Gi

    2016-11-01

    With the use of a microfluidic-assisted combinatorial reactor, the synthesis of CdSe quantum dots was optimized by varying one parameter at a time, and the isothermal growth kinetics of CdSe quantum dots using various models was analyzed. To understand precisely the nucleation and growth characteristics of CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we synthesized the CdSe QDs using various experimental conditions. Different model equations, like acceleratory growth-time curves, sigmoidal growth-time curves or Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK), acceleratory growthtime curves based on diffusion, geometric model growth-time curves, and nth order growth-time curves were fitted. Among all growth models, the JMAK model with α = 1 - {e^{ - {{(kt)}^n}}}, and n = 1 was the best fitting model with the MATLAB interactive curve-fitting procedure were used. Errors associated with the best-fitting model and statistics for the goodness of fit were analyzed. Most of the models were not as good as the other than the proposed model. The errors associated with the proposed model were minimal, and the growth kinetics and other associated statistical factors are very similar, for all the variables investigated. The minimal error associated with the reproducibility and the similar data for growth kinetics for all studied parameters indicated that microfluidic-assisted combinatorial synthesis can be used in the industrial production of QDs. By using the proposed model to obtain an understanding of growth of QDs, their size and properties can be managed and simulated.

  9. Facile and green synthesis of CdSe quantum dots in protein matrix: tuning of morphology and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Guleria, A; Rath, M C; Singh, A K; Adhikari, S; Sarkar, S K

    2014-08-01

    Herein, we have demonstrated a facile and green approach for the synthesis of Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs). The process was mediated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and it was found that BSA plays the dual role of reducing agent as well as a stabilizing agent. The QDs exhibited sharp excitonic absorption features at ~500 nm and subsequently showed reasonably good photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. The PL is seen to be strongly dependent on the concentration of the precursors and hence, the luminescence of these QDs could be conveniently tuned across the visible spectrum simply by varying molar ratio of the precursors. It can be envisaged from the fact that a red-shift of about 100 nm in the PL peak position was observed when the molar ratio of the precursors ([Cd2+]:[Se2-], in mM) was varied from 10:5 to 10:40. Subsequently, the charge carrier relaxation dynamics associated with the different molar ratio of precursors has been investigated and very interesting information regarding the energy level structures of these QDs were revealed. Most importantly, in conjunction with the optical tuning, the nanomorphology of these nanoparticles was found to vary with the change in molar ratios of Se and Cd precursors. This aspect can provide a new direction of controlling the shape of CdSe nanoparticles. The possible mechanism of the formation as well as for the shape variation of these nanoparticles with the molar ratios of precursors has been proposed, taking into account the role of amino acid residues (present in BSA). Moreover, the QDs were water soluble and possessed fairly good colloidal stability therefore, can have potential applications in catalysis and bio-labeling. On the whole, the present methodology of protein assisted synthesis is relatively new especially for semiconducting nanomaterials and may provide some unique and interesting aspects to control and fine tune the morphology vis-à-vis, their optical properties.

  10. Reversed oxygen sensing using colloidal quantum wells towards highly emissive photoresponsive varnishes

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzon, Monica; Christodoulou, Sotirios; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Pedrini, Jacopo; Meinardi, Francesco; Moreels, Iwan; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum wells combine the advantages of size-tunable electronic properties with vast reactive surfaces that could allow one to realize highly emissive luminescent-sensing varnishes capable of detecting chemical agents through their reversible emission response, with great potential impact on life sciences, environmental monitoring, defence and aerospace engineering. Here we combine spectroelectrochemical measurements and spectroscopic studies in a controlled atmosphere to demonstrate the ‘reversed oxygen-sensing’ capability of CdSe colloidal quantum wells, that is, the exposure to oxygen reversibly increases their luminescence efficiency. Spectroelectrochemical experiments allow us to directly relate the sensing response to the occupancy of surface states. Magneto-optical measurements demonstrate that, under vacuum, heterostructured CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum wells stabilize in their negative trion state. The high starting emission efficiency provides a possible means to enhance the oxygen sensitivity by partially de-passivating the particle surfaces, thereby enhancing the density of unsaturated sites with a minimal cost in term of luminescence losses. PMID:25910499

  11. Investigation of biocompatible and protein sensitive highly luminescent quantum dots/nanocrystals of CdSe, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS.

    PubMed

    Ratnesh, R K; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2017-02-16

    The size and shape dependent semiconductor quantum dots (0D nanoparticles) with color tunability demonstrating significant influence in a biological system and considered as ideal probes. Here, a non-coordinated colloidal approach was used for the synthesis of CdSe, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4nm. The synthesized nanocrystals show a high crystallinity, examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). The core-shell semiconductor QDs exhibit stronger photoluminescence (PL) as compared to the core QDs. The strong PL with small full-width half maximum (FWHM) indicates that the prepared QDs have a nearly uniform size distribution and well dispersibility. The quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases due to the surface passivation. Further, the PL of BSA is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shell QDs and follows the well-known Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the PL lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among CdSe core, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS core-shell QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity and most biocompatibility. Thus, the prepared core-shell QDs are biocompatible and exhibit strong sensing ability.

  12. CdSe quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell with ∼100% internal quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Hoch, Laura B; Koposov, Alexey Y; Manner, Virginia W; Werder, Donald J; Fukui, Atsushi; Koide, Naoki; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sykora, Milan

    2010-11-23

    We have constructed and studied photoelectrochemical solar cells (PECs) consisting of a photoanode prepared by direct deposition of independently synthesized CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) onto a nanocrystalline TiO(2) film (NQD/TiO(2)), aqueous Na(2)S or Li(2)S electrolyte, and a Pt counter electrode. We show that light harvesting efficiency (LHE) of the NQD/TiO(2) photoanode is significantly enhanced when the NQD surface passivation is changed from tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) to 4-butylamine (BA). In the PEC the use of NQDs with a shorter passivating ligand, BA, leads to a significant enhancement in both the electron injection efficiency at the NQD/TiO(2) interface and charge collection efficiency at the NQD/electrolyte interface, with the latter attributed mostly to a more efficient diffusion of the electrolyte through the pores of the photoanode. We show that by utilizing BA-capped NQDs and aqueous Li(2)S as an electrolyte, it is possible to achieve ∼100% internal quantum efficiency of photon-to-electron conversion, matching the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  13. Multicolored silica coated CdSe core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goftman, Valentina V.; Markin, Alexey V.; De Saeger, Sarah; Goryacheva, Irina Y.

    2016-04-01

    Silanization is a convenient route to provide water-solubility to the quantum dots (QDs) with different structure. Green, orange and red emitting CdSe-based QDs were synthesized by varying of number and material of wider-band gap shells and fluorescent properties of QDs were characterized before and after silanization. It was shown that structure of the QD influences on the quantum yield of the silanized QDs: the better CdSe core is protected with wider-band gap semiconductor shells, the more fluorescence properties remain after silica coated QD possess. Hence silica coated QDs have a great perspectives for the multiplex analysis.

  14. Combining ligand-induced quantum-confined stark effect with type II heterojunction bilayer structure in CdTe and CdSe nanocrystal-based solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yaacobi-Gross, Nir; Garphunkin, Natalia; Solomeshch, Olga; Vaneski, Aleksandar; Susha, Andrei S; Rogach, Andrey L; Tessler, Nir

    2012-04-24

    We show that it is possible to combine several charge generation strategies in a single device structure, the performance of which benefits from all methods used. Exploiting the inherent type II heterojunction between layered structures of CdSe and CdTe colloidal quantum dots, we systematically study different ways of combining such nanocrystals of different size and surface chemistry and with different linking agents in a bilayer solar cell configuration. We demonstrate the beneficial use of two distinctly different sizes of NCs not only to improve the solar spectrum matching but also to reduce exciton binding energy, allowing their efficient dissociation at the interface. We further make use of the ligand-induced quantum-confined Stark effect in order to enhance charge generation and, hence, overall efficiency of nanocrystal-based solar cells.

  15. Atomistic Analysis of Room Temperature Quantum Coherence in Two-Dimensional CdSe Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sougata; Nijjar, Parmeet; Frauenheim, Thomas; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2017-03-02

    Recent experiments on CdSe nanoplatelets synthesized with precisely controlled thickness that eliminates ensemble disorder have allowed accurate measurement of quantum coherence at room temperature. Matching exactly the CdSe cores of the experimentally studied particles and considering several defects, we establish the atomistic origins of the loss of coherence between heavy and light hole excitations in two-dimensional CdSe and CdSe/CdZnS core/shell structures. The coherence times obtained using molecular dynamics based on tight-binding density functional theory are in excellent agreement with the measured values. We show that a long coherence time is a consequence of both small fluctuations in the energy gap between the excited state pair, which is much less than thermal energy, and a slow decay of correlation between the energies of the two states. Anionic defects at the core/shell interface have little effect on the coherence lifetime, while cationic defects strongly perturb the electronic structure, destroying the experimentally observed coherence. By coupling to the same phonon modes, the heavy and light holes synchronize their energy fluctuations, facilitating long-lived coherence. We further demonstrate that the electronic excitations are localized close to the surface of these narrow nanoscale systems, and therefore, they couple most strongly to surface acoustic phonons. The established features of electron-phonon coupling and the influence of defects, surfaces, and core/shell interfaces provide important insights into quantum coherence in nanoscale materials in general.

  16. Trion decay in colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Jha, Praket P; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2009-04-28

    Using charged films of colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots of approximately 3.5 to 4.5 nm core diameters and 0.6 to 1.2 nm thick CdS shells, the radiative and nonradiative decay of the negatively charged exciton, the trion T-, are measured. The T- radiative rate is faster than the exciton by a factor of 2.2 +/- 0.4 and estimated at approximately 10 ns. The T- lifetime is approximately 0.7-1.5 ns for the samples measured and is longer than the biexciton lifetime by a factor or 7.5 +/- 1.7.

  17. Bovine serum albumin-directed synthesis of biocompatible CdSe quantum dots and bacteria labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qisui; Ye, Fangyun; Fang, Tingting; Niu, Wenhan; Liu, Peng; Min, Xinmin; Li, Xi

    2011-03-01

    A simple method was developed for preparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using a common protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)) to sequester QD precursors (Cd(2+)) in situ. Fluorescence (FL) and absorption spectra showed that the chelating time between BSA and Cd(2+), the molar ratio of BSA/Cd(2+), temperature, and pH are the crucial factors for the quality of QDs. The average QD particle size was estimated to be about 5 nm, determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. With FL spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis, an interesting mechanism was discussed for the formation of the BSA-CdSe QDs. The results indicate that there might be conjugated bonds between CdSe QDs and -OH, -NH, and -SH groups in BSA. In addition, fluorescence imaging suggests that the QDs we designed can successfully label Escherichia coli cells, which gives us a great opportunity to develop biocompatible tools to label bacteria cells.

  18. Film formation of CdSe quantum dot embedded phosphate glass on an FTO glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Karam; Kim, Yoon Hwa; Im, Won Bin; Chung, Woon Jin

    2015-07-01

    A thick film with CdSe quantum dot (QD) embedded glass was formed on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Phosphate glasses with different CdO and ZnSe concentrations were synthesized, and the heat treatment conditions were varied to determine the appropriate QD and film formation conditions. Phosphate glass with 1 mol. % CdO and 1.5 mol. % ZnSe showed controlled crystallization of CdSe QDs when they were heat treated at 550℃ for 1 hr. Absorption spectra and Raman spectroscopy identified the QD formation. Precursor glass was ground into powder and pasted onto FTO only and TiO2/FTO glass substrates via the screen printing method. Glass film embedded with QDs was successfully formed after sintering, thus demonstrating its potential for film applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Ultrafast spectroscopy of quantum confined states in a single CdSe nanowire.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Thorsten; Giessen, Harald; Lippitz, Markus

    2013-04-10

    We measure for the first time transient absorption spectra of individual CdSe nanowires with about 10 nm diameter. Confinement of the carrier wave functions leads to discrete states which can be described by a six-band effective mass model. Combining transient absorption and luminescence spectroscopy allows us to track the excitation dynamics in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. About 10% of all absorbed photons lead to an excitation of the lowest energy state. Of these excitations, less than 1% lead to a photon in the optical far-field. Almost all emission is reabsorbed by other parts of the nanowire. These findings might explain the low overall quantum efficiency of CdSe nanowires.

  20. Colloidal Spherical Quantum Wells with Near-Unity Photoluminescence Quantum Yield and Suppressed Blinking.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byeong Guk; Park, Young-Shin; Chang, Jun Hyuk; Cho, Ikjun; Kim, Jai Kyeong; Kim, Heesuk; Char, Kookheon; Cho, Jinhan; Klimov, Victor I; Park, Philip; Lee, Doh C; Bae, Wan Ki

    2016-10-02

    Thick inorganic shell endows colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with enhanced photochemical stability and suppression of photoluminescence intermittency (also known as blinking). However, the progress of using thick-shell heterostructure NCs in applications has been limited, due to low photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY  60%) at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate thick-shell NCs with CdS/CdSe/CdS seed/spherical quantum well/shell (SQW) geometry that exhibit near-unity PL QY at room temperature and suppression of blinking. In SQW NCs, the lattice mismatch is diminished between the emissive CdSe layer and the surrounding CdS layers as a result of coherent strain, which suppresses the formation of misfit defects and consequently permits ~ 100% PL QY for SQW NCs with thick CdS shell (≥ 5 nm). High PL QY of thick-shell SQW NCs are preserved even in concentrated dispersion and in film under thermal stress, which makes them promising candidates for applications in solid-state lightings and luminescent solar concentrators.

  1. The use of heat transfer fluids in the synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots, core/shell quantum dots, and quantum rods.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Subashini; Krueger, Karl M; Alkhawaldeh, Ammar; Carreon, Alessandra R; Mu, Zuze; Colvin, Vicki L; Mantzaris, Nikos V; Wong, Michael S

    2005-10-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles, or quantum dots, have potential uses as an optical material, in which the optoelectronic properties can be tuned precisely by particle size. Advances in chemical synthesis have led to improvements in size and shape control, cost, and safety. A limiting step in large-scale production is identified to be the raw materials cost, in which a common synthesis solvent, octadecene, accounts for most of the materials cost for a batch of CdSe quantum dots. Thus, less expensive solvents are needed. In this paper, we identify heat transfer fluids, a class of organic liquids commonly used in chemical process industries to transport heat between unit operations, as alternative solvents for quantum dot synthesis. We specifically show that two heat transfer fluids can be used successfully in the synthesis of CdSe quantum dots with uniform particle sizes. We show that the synthesis chemistry for CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots and CdSe quantum rods can also be performed in heat transfer fluids. With the aid of a population balance model, we interpret the effect of different HT fluids on QD growth kinetics in terms of solvent effects, i.e., solvent viscosity, CdSe bulk solubility in the solvent, and surface free energy.

  2. Spin Selective Charge Transport through Cysteine Capped CdSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Brian P; Kiran, Vankayala; Varade, Vaibhav; Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H

    2016-07-13

    This work demonstrates that chiral imprinted CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can act as spin selective filters for charge transport. The spin filtering properties of chiral nanoparticles were investigated by magnetic conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (mCP-AFM) measurements and magnetoresistance measurements. The mCP-AFM measurements show that the chirality of the quantum dots and the magnetic orientation of the tip affect the current-voltage curves. Similarly, magnetoresistance measurements demonstrate that the electrical transport through films of chiral quantum dots correlates with the chiroptical properties of the QD. The spin filtering properties of chiral quantum dots may prove useful in future applications, for example, photovoltaics, spintronics, and other spin-driven devices.

  3. Green route synthesis of high quality CdSe quantum dots for applications in light emitting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Susnata; Singh, Shashi B.; Ray, S.K.

    2012-05-15

    Investigation was made on light emitting diodes fabricated using CdSe quantum dots. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Room temperature photoluminescence investigation showed sharp 1st excitonic emission peak at 568 nm. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting devices were fabricated by solution process. The electroluminescence study showed low turn on voltage ({approx}2.2 V) .The EL peak intensity was found to increase by increasing the operating current. - Graphical abstract: Light emitting diode was fabricated using CdSe quantum dots using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting device shows strong electroluminescence in the range 630-661 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdSe Quantum dots were synthesized using olive oil as the capping agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light emitting device was fabricated using CdSe QDs/P3HT polymer heterojunction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The I-V characteristics study showed low turn on voltage at {approx}2.2 V. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EL peak intensity increases with increasing the operating current.

  4. Interaction of the CdSe quantum dots with plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Djikanović, Daniela; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Jeremić, Milorad; Xu, Jianmin; Mićić, Miodrag; Whyte, Jeffrey D; Leblanc, Roger M; Radotić, Ksenija

    2012-03-01

    There is an increasing application of quantum dots (QDs) in plant science, as markers for the cells or their cell walls (CWs). In a plant cell the CW is a first target place for external agents. We studied interaction of CdSe QDs with CWs isolated from a conifer -Picea omorika (Panč) Purkynĕ branch. Binding of CdSe QDs was followed by using fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence and FT-IR spectroscopy. The aim of the study was to see whether the QDs induce structural changes in the CW, as well as to find out which kind of interactions between QDs and CWs occur and to which particular constituent polymers QDs preferably bind. The isolated CW is an appropriate object for study of the interactions with nanoparticles. The results show that in the CW, CdSe predominantly binds to cellulose, via OH groups and to lignin, via the conjugated CC/C-C chains. The differences in interaction of wet and dry CWs with QDs/chloroform were also studied. In the reaction of the dry CW sample with QDs/chloroform, hydrophobic interactions are dominant. When water was added after QDs/chloroform, hydrophilic interactions enable a partial reconstruction of the CC chains. The results have an implication on the use of the QDs in plant bio-imaging.

  5. Large stokes shift of Ag doped CdSe quantum dots via aqueous route.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Jiang, Yang; Duan, Hongyan; Liu, Chao; Mi, Longfei; Lan, Xinzheng; Zhou, Hongyang; Zhong, Honghai

    2013-10-01

    Monodispersed and luminescent Ag-doped CdSe semiconductor quantum dots (d-dots) were synthesized by an aqueous route assisted with electrochemical preparation of Se source with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as stabilizer. The silver dopants were incorporated into the host crystals via cation-exchange mechanism. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the as-synthesized CdSe:Ag d-dots were well retained in the zinc blende structure. The CdSe:Ag d-dots that exhibited uniform size distribution and good crystallnity could be observed by High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), with average diameter of 2.7 nm. Successful doping was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey spectra. The peculiar Ag-related photoluminescence showed strong intensity, and at the same time, intrinsic band-edge exciton emission of CdSe QDs was suppressed. The dopant emission exhibited larger Stockes shift of - 0.51 eV than that of the band-gap emission, and varied from 546 to 583 nm by changing electrolytic time. Possible radiative recombination mechanism of the aqueous Ag-doped CdSe d-dots was discussed. The results demonstrated that doping can be an effective way to manipulate the optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals.

  6. Cytotoxicity and fluorescence studies of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots for bioimaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vibin, Muthunayagam; Vinayakan, Ramachandran; John, Annie; Raji, Vijayamma; Rejiya, Chellappan S.; Vinesh, Naresh S.; Abraham, Annie

    2011-06-01

    The toxicological effects of silica-coated CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were investigated systematically on human cervical cancer cell line. Trioctylphosphine oxide capped CdSe QDs were synthesized and rendered water soluble by overcoating with silica, using aminopropyl silane as silica precursor. The cytotoxicity studies were conducted by exposing cells to freshly synthesized QDs as a function of time (0-72 h) and concentration up to micromolar level by Lactate dehydrogenase assay, MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] assay, Neutral red cell viability assay, Trypan blue dye exclusion method and morphological examination of cells using phase contrast microscope. The in vitro analysis results showed that the silica-coated CdSe QDs were nontoxic even at higher loadings. Subsequently the in vivo fluorescence was also demonstrated by intravenous administration of the QDs in Swiss albino mice. The fluorescence images in the cryosections of tissues depicted strong luminescence property of silica-coated QDs under biological conditions. These results confirmed the role of these luminescent materials in biological labeling and imaging applications.

  7. Charge-extraction strategies for colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xinzheng; Masala, Silvia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-03-01

    The solar-power conversion efficiencies of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have advanced from sub-1% reported in 2005 to a record value of 8.5% in 2013. Much focus has deservedly been placed on densifying, passivating and crosslinking the colloidal quantum dot solid. Here we review progress in improving charge extraction, achieved by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dot film. New classes of structured electrodes have been developed and integrated to form bulk heterojunction devices that enhance photocharge extraction. Control over band offsets, doping and interfacial trap state densities have been essential for achieving improved electrical communication with colloidal quantum dot solids. Quantum junction devices that not only tune the optical absorption spectrum, but also provide inherently matched bands across the interface between p- and n-materials, have proven that charge separation can occur efficiently across an all-quantum-tuned rectifying junction.

  8. Determination of the Exciton Binding Energy in CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R; Lee, J; Wolcott, A; Zhang, J; Terminello, L; van Buuren, T

    2009-10-27

    The exciton binding energy (EBE) in CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been determined using x-ray spectroscopy. Using x-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy, the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edge shifts as a function of particle size have been determined and combined to obtain the true band gap of the QDs (i.e. without and exciton). These values can be compared to the excitonic gap obtained using optical spectroscopy to determine the EBE. The experimental EBE results are compared with theoretical calculations on the EBE and show excellent agreement.

  9. Anisotropy of optical transitions in ordered ensemble of CdSe quantum rods.

    PubMed

    Mukhina, Maria V; Maslov, Vladimir G; Baranov, Alexander V; Artemyev, Mikhail V; Orlova, Anna O; Fedorov, Anatoly V

    2013-09-01

    We report on the observation of spectral dependence of absorption anisotropy in a CdSe quantum rod (QR) ensemble, which is aligned in a polymer film with a nanocrystal concentration of 2×10(-5) M. The experimental data on the polarization direction and anisotropy factor were obtained for the lowest excitonic transition and the second group of transitions in the QR. The nonzero constant value of anisotropy was investigated for the high-energy transitions, and is evidence of the one-dimensional confinement in the QR.

  10. Synthesis and Characterizations of Pb-modified CdSe Aqueous Quantum Dots and Their Applications in Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Hsin

    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with typical size ranges around 1-20 nm. They exhibit distinctive size-dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties due to the quantum confinement effect. QDs have great potentials in display, lighting, lasing, bioimaging, fluorescent label, sensor, photodetector, and photovoltaic applications, and have been widely studied in the past decades. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs have been synthesized using an environmentally friendly, aqueous method under low temperature. While traditional QDs synthesized by hot injection method using organic solvent generally exhibit edge-state emission with narrow peaks, aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) tend to have trap-state emissions with broad peaks. The objective of this thesis is to investigate how Pb modifications in CdSe AQDs synthesis can affect the optoelectronic properties of the QDs and how these modifications affect their corresponding photovoltaic performance in quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) applications. Lead (Pb) precursor has been introduced either during the synthesis or after the synthesis of CdSe AQDs forming either Pb-doped or Pb-coated CdSe QDs, respectively. Pb-doped CdSe QDs exhibit red-shift in both absorption and emission spectra while Pb-coated CdSe QDs exhibit blue-shift in both absorption and emission spectra along with the generation of more surface defects. Although blue-shifted absorption indicating a narrower absorption range and the surface defects providing undesired recombination pathways are detrimental to solar cell performance, however surprisingly, we found that QDSSCs made from Pb-coated CdSe QDs actually had better solar cell performance than that made from Pb-doped CdSe QDs. We attributed this finding to a protection/passivation layer formed in-situ when the coated Pb react with the iodide/triiodide electrolyte during solar cell operation resulting in QDSSCs with better charge injection and stability.

  11. Nanosecond colloidal quantum dot lasers for sensing.

    PubMed

    Guilhabert, B; Foucher, C; Haughey, A-M; Mutlugun, E; Gao, Y; Herrnsdorf, J; Sun, H D; Demir, H V; Dawson, M D; Laurand, N

    2014-03-24

    Low-threshold, gain switched colloidal quantum dot (CQD) distributed-feedback lasers operating in the nanosecond regime are reported and proposed for sensing applications for the first time to the authors' knowledge. The lasers are based on a mechanically-flexible polymeric, second order grating structure overcoated with a thin-film of CQD/PMMA composite. The threshold fluence of the resulting lasers is as low as 0.5 mJ/cm² for a 610 nm emission and the typical linewidth is below 0.3 nm. The emission wavelength of the lasers can be set at the design stage and laser operation between 605 nm and 616 nm, while using the exact same CQD gain material, is shown. In addition, the potential of such CQD lasers for refractive index sensing in solution is demonstrated by immersion in water.

  12. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using selenium dioxide as selenium source and its interaction with pepsin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Mo, Yunchuan; Zhou, Liya

    2011-09-01

    A novel method has been developed for the synthesis of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous medium when selenium dioxide worked as a selenium source and sodium borohydride acted as a reductant. The interaction between CdSe QDs and pepsin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of pepsin by CdSe QDs was mainly a result of the formation of CdSe-pepsin complex. Based on the fluorescence quenching results, the Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv), binding constant (KA) and binding sites (n) were calculated. According to the Foster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, the binding distance (r) between pepsin and CdSe QDs was obtained. The influence of CdSe QDs on the conformation of pepsin has been analyzed by synchronous fluorescence spectra, which provided that the secondary structure of pepsin has been changed by the interaction of CdSe QDs with pepsin.

  13. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots using selenium dioxide as selenium source and its interaction with pepsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yilin; Mo, Yunchuan; Zhou, Liya

    2011-09-01

    A novel method has been developed for the synthesis of thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in an aqueous medium when selenium dioxide worked as a selenium source and sodium borohydride acted as a reductant. The interaction between CdSe QDs and pepsin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of pepsin by CdSe QDs was mainly a result of the formation of CdSe-pepsin complex. Based on the fluorescence quenching results, the Stern-Volmer quenching constant ( Ksv), binding constant ( KA) and binding sites ( n) were calculated. According to the Foster's non-radiative energy transfer theory, the binding distance ( r) between pepsin and CdSe QDs was obtained. The influence of CdSe QDs on the conformation of pepsin has been analyzed by synchronous fluorescence spectra, which provided that the secondary structure of pepsin has been changed by the interaction of CdSe QDs with pepsin.

  14. CdSe quantum dot-fullerene hybrid nanocomposite for solar energy conversion: electron transfer and photoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jin Ho; Kamat, Prashant V

    2011-12-27

    The development of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite systems that enable efficient solar energy conversion has been important for applications in solar cell research. Nanostructured carbon-based systems, in particular C(60), offer attractive strategies to collect and transport electrons generated in a light harvesting assembly. We have assembled CdSe-C(60) nanocomposites by chemically linking CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with thiol-functionalized C(60). The photoinduced charge separation and collection of electrons in CdSe QD-C(60) nanocomposites have been evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. The rate constant for electron transfer between excited CdSe QD and C(60) increased with the decreasing size of the CdSe QD (7.9 × 10(9) s(-1) (4.5 nm), 1.7 × 10(10) s(-1) (3.2 nm), and 9.0 × 10(10) s(-1) (2.6 nm)). Slower hole transfer and faster charge recombination and transport events were found to dominate over the forward electron injection process, thus limiting the deliverance of maximum power in CdSe QD-C(60)-based solar cells. The photoinduced charge separation between CdSe QDs and C(60) opens up new design strategies for developing light harvesting assemblies.

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of CdSe Quantum dots on Zn2SnO4 nanowires and their photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qilin; Chen, Jiajun; Lu, Liyou; Tang, Jinke; Wang, Wenyong

    2012-08-08

    In this work we report a physical deposition-based, one-step quantum dot (QD) synthesis and assembly on ternary metal oxide nanowires for photovoltaic applications. Typical solution-based synthesis of colloidal QDs for QD sensitized solar cells involves nontrivial ligand exchange processing and toxic wet chemicals, and the effect of the ligands on carrier transport has not been fully understood. In this research using pulsed laser deposition, CdSe QDs were coated on Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowires without ligand molecules, and the coverage could be controlled by adjusting the laser fluence. Growth of QDs in dense nanowire network structures was also achieved, and photovoltaic cells fabricated using this method exhibited promising device performance. This approach could be further applied for the assembly of QDs where ligand exchange is difficult and could possibly lead to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  16. The Effect of Roughened Metallic Films on Colloidal Quantum Dot Energy Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Christopher; Ghosh, Somnath; Rich, Brent; Khine, Michelle; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2009-03-01

    We investigate self-organized, roughened metallic surfaces as a platform for enhanced energy transfer between colloidal Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QD). Pre-stressed thermoplastic substrates are sputter coated with gold palladium (AuPd) to create thin films. When heated, due to differing coefficients of thermal expansion of the plastic and metal, the AuPd film buckles to form micro- to nano-meter sized structures. QDs deposited on these self-organized metallic structures exhibit changes in their static and dynamic optical characteristics, which include spectral red-shift and multiple recombination decay rates. These observations can be attributed to a combination of enhanced electronic coupling between close-packed QDs and plasmonic coupling between the QD and metallic structures. We then leverage these properties to fabricate controlled, directional structures using this self-organized method which can be utilized as biochemical sensors.

  17. Controlled placement of colloidal quantum dots in sub-15 nm clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfrinato, Vitor R.; Wanger, Darcy D.; Strasfeld, David B.; Han, Hee-Sun; Marsili, Francesco; Arrieta, Jose P.; Mentzel, Tamar S.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Berggren, Karl K.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrated a technique to control the placement of 6 nm-diameter CdSe and 5 nm-diameter CdSe/CdZnS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) through electron-beam lithography. This QD-placement technique resulted in an average of three QDs in each cluster, and 87% of the templated sites were occupied by at least one QD. These QD clusters could be in close proximity to one another, with a minimum separation of 12 nm. Photoluminescence measurements of the fabricated QD clusters showed intermittent photoluminescence, which indicates that the QDs were optically active after the fabrication process. This optimized top-down lithographic process is a step towards the integration of individual QDs in optoelectronic and nano-optical systems.

  18. Controlled placement of colloidal quantum dots in sub-15 nm clusters.

    PubMed

    Manfrinato, Vitor R; Wanger, Darcy D; Strasfeld, David B; Han, Hee-Sun; Marsili, Francesco; Arrieta, Jose P; Mentzel, Tamar S; Bawendi, Moungi G; Berggren, Karl K

    2013-03-29

    We demonstrated a technique to control the placement of 6 nm-diameter CdSe and 5 nm-diameter CdSe/CdZnS colloidal quantum dots (QDs) through electron-beam lithography. This QD-placement technique resulted in an average of three QDs in each cluster, and 87% of the templated sites were occupied by at least one QD. These QD clusters could be in close proximity to one another, with a minimum separation of 12 nm. Photoluminescence measurements of the fabricated QD clusters showed intermittent photoluminescence, which indicates that the QDs were optically active after the fabrication process. This optimized top-down lithographic process is a step towards the integration of individual QDs in optoelectronic and nano-optical systems.

  19. Controlling the cytotoxicity of CdSe magic-sized quantum dots as a function of surface defect density.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anielle Christine Almeida; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa; da Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; Silva, Danielle Pereira; de Deus, Samantha Luara Vieira; Dantas, Noelio Oliveira

    2014-09-10

    Quantum dots are potentially very useful as fluorescent probes in biological systems. However, they are inherently cytotoxic because of their constituents. We controlled the cytotoxicity of CdSe magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs) as a function of surface defect density by altering selenium (Se) concentration during synthesis. Higher Se concentrations reduced the cytotoxicity of the CdSe MSQDs and diminished mRNA expression of methallothionein because of the low cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) concentration adsorbed on the surface of the MSQDs. These results agree with luminescence spectra, which show that higher Se concentrations decrease the density of surface defects. Therefore, our results describe for the first time a simple way of controlling the cytotoxicity of CdSe MSQDs and making them safer to use as fluorescence probes in biological systems.

  20. Reconfigurable Optical Elements Based on Single and Coupled Microdisk Resonators with Quantum Dot Active Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-31

    established above. One of the key components in this architecture is the integration of active waveguide consisting of colloidal quantum dots ( CdSe / ZnS ...microdisk resonators. In both configurations CdSe core-shell quantum dots were used as active gain media. Results of our theoretical efforts at understanding...microdisk resonators. In both configurations CdSe core-shell quantum dots (QDs) were used as active gain media. In Section 2, we discuss our

  1. Effect of Ligands on Characteristics of (CdSe)13 Quantum Dot

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Seung-gu; Xin, Minsi; Yang, Ping; Dai, Xing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    The widespread applications of quantum dots (QDs) have spurred an increasing interest in the study of their coating ligands, which can not only protect the electronic structures of the central QDs, but also control their permeability through biological membranes with both size and shape. In this work, we have used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the electronic structures of (CdSe)13 passivated by OPMe2(CH2)nMe ligands with different lengths and various numbers of branches (Me=methyl group, n = 0, 1-3). Our results show that the absorption peak in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra displays a clear blue-shift, on the scale of ~100 nm, upon the binding of ligands. Once the total number of ligands bound with (CdSe)13 reached a saturated number (9 or 10), no more blue-shift occurred in the absorption peak in the UV-vis spectra. On the other hand, the aliphatic chain length of ligands has a negligible effect on the optical properties of the QD core. Analyses of the bonding characteristics confirm that optical transitions are dominantly governed by the central QD core rather than the organic passivation. Interestingly, the density of states (DOS) share similar characteristics as vibrational spectra, even though there is no coordination vibration mode between the ligands and the central QD. These findings might provide insights on the material design for the passivation of quantum dots for biomedical applications.

  2. Photoluminescence enhancement of CdSe quantum dots: a case of organogel-nanoparticle symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wadhavane, Prashant D; Galian, Raquel E; Izquierdo, M Angeles; Aguilera-Sigalat, Jordi; Galindo, Francisco; Schmidt, Luciana; Burguete, M Isabel; Pérez-Prieto, Julia; Luis, Santiago V

    2012-12-19

    Highly fluorescent organogels (QD-organogel), prepared by combining a pseudopeptidic macrocycle and different types of CdSe quantum dots (QDs), have been characterized using a battery of optical and microscopic techniques. The results indicate that the presence of the QDs not only does not disrupt the supramolecular organization of the internal fibrillar network of the organogel to a significant extent, but it also decreases the critical concentration of gelator needed to form stable and thermoreversible organogels. Regarding the photophysical properties of the QDs, different trends were observed depending on the presence of a ZnS inorganic shell around the CdSe core. Thus, while the core-shell QDs preserve their photophysical properties in the organogel medium, a high to moderate increase of the fluorescence intensity (up to 528%) and the average lifetime (up to 1.7), respectively, was observed for the core QDs embedded in the organogel. The results are relevant for the development of luminescent organogels based on quantum dots, which have potential applications as advanced hybrid materials in different fields.

  3. Efficient intranuclear gene delivery by CdSe aqueous quantum dots electrostatically-coated with polyethyleneimine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Giang H. T.; Y Shih, Wan; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanoparticles with photoluminescence properties that do not photobleach. Due to these advantages, using QDs for non-viral gene delivery has the additional benefit of being able to track the delivery of the genes in real time as it happens. We investigate the efficacy of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) electrostatically complexed with branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) both as a non-viral gene delivery vector and as a fluorescent probe for tracking the delivery of genes into nuclei. The MPA-capped CdSe AQDs that were completely synthesized in water were the model AQDs. A nominal MPA:Cd:Se = 4:3:1 was chosen for optimal photoluminescence and zeta potential. The gene delivery study was carried out in vitro using a human colon cancer cell line, HT29 (ATCC). The model gene was a plasmid DNA (pDNA) that can express red fluorescent protein (RFP). Positively charged branched PEI was employed to provide a proton buffer to the AQDs to allow for endosomal escape. It is shown that by using a PEI-AQD complex with a PEI/AQD molar ratio of 300 and a nominal pDNA/PEI-AQD ratio of 6, we can achieve 75 ± 2.6% RFP expression efficiency with cell vitality remaining at 78 ± 4% of the control.

  4. Fundamental and applied aspects of luminescence of colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razumov, V. F.

    2017-03-01

    The spectral luminescent characteristics of colloidal quantum dots as a new class of luminophores are discussed and state-of-the-art investigations, problems, and prospects for their applications are considered.

  5. Colloidal quantum dot materials for infrared optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinze, Ebuka S.; Nyirjesy, Gabrielle; Cheng, Yan; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2015-09-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are an attractive material for optoelectronic applications because they combine flexible, low-cost solution-phase synthesis and processing with the potential for novel functionality arising from their nanostructure. Specifically, the bandgap of films composed of arrays of CQDs can be tuned via the quantum confinement effect for tailored spectral utilization. PbS-based CQDs can be tuned throughout the near and mid-infrared wavelengths and are a promising materials system for photovoltaic devices that harvest non-visible solar radiation. The performance of CQD solar cells is currently limited by an absorption-extraction compromise, whereby photon absorption lengths in the near infrared spectral regime exceed minority carrier diffusion lengths in the bulk films. Several light trapping strategies for overcoming this compromise and increasing the efficiency of infrared energy harvesting will be reviewed. A thin-film interference technique for creating multi-colored and transparent solar cells will be presented, and a discussion of designing plasmonic nanomaterials based on earth-abundant materials for integration into CQD solar cells is developed. The results indicate that it should be possible to achieve high absorption and color-tunability in a scalable nanomaterials system.

  6. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Wood, Vanessa; Bulović, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI). We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs) in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs - optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection - that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt). We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.

  7. Quantum-confined emission and fluorescence blinking of individual exciton complexes in CdSe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Franz, Dennis; Reich, Aina; Strelow, Christian; Wang, Zhe; Kornowski, Andreas; Kipp, Tobias; Mews, Alf

    2014-11-12

    One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures combine electron mobility in length direction with the possibility of tailoring the physical properties by confinement effects in radial direction. Here we show that thin CdSe quantum nanowires exhibit low-temperature fluorescence spectra with a specific universal structure of several sharp lines. The structure strongly resembles the pattern of bulk spectra but show a diameter-dependent shift due to confinement effects. Also the fluorescence shows a pronounced complex blinking behavior with very different blinking dynamics of different emission lines in one and the same spectrum. Time- and space-resolved optical spectroscopy are combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the very same quantum nanowires to establish a detailed structure-property relationship. Extensive numerical simulations strongly suggest that excitonic complexes involving donor and acceptor sites are the origin of the feature-rich spectra.

  8. Interaction of Globular Plasma Proteins with Water-Soluble CdSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Jyotsana; Rawat, Kamla; Sanwlani, Shilpa; Bohidar, H B

    2015-06-08

    The interactions between water-soluble semiconductor quantum dots [hydrophilic 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-coated CdSe] and three globular plasma proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and human serum albumin (HSA), are investigated. Acidic residues of protein molecules form electrostatic interactions with these quantum dots (QDs). To determine the stoichiometry of proteins bound to QDs, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential techniques. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments revealed energy transfer from tryptophan residues in the proteins to the QD particles. Quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of protein molecules was noticed during this binding process (hierarchy HSA<β-Lg

  9. Selective recognition of dysprosium(III) ions by enhanced chemiluminescence CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Morteza; Ganjali, Mohammad R; Vaezi, Zahra; Faridbod, Farnoush; Arabsorkhi, Batool; Sheikhha, Mohammad H

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of emitted light from CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-H2O2 is described as a novel chemiluminescence (CL) reaction for determination of dysprosium. This reaction is based on the catalytic effect of Dy(3+) ions, causing a significant increase in the light emission, as a result of the reaction of quantum dots (QDs) with hydrogen peroxide. In the optimum conditions, this method was satisfactorily described by linear calibration curve in the range of 8.3×10(-7)-5.0×10(-6)M, the detection limit of 6.0×10(-8)M, and the relative standard deviation for five determinations of 2.5×10(-6)M Dy(3+) 3.2%. The main experimental advantage of the proposed method is its selective to Dy(3+) ions compared with common coexisting cations, therefore, it was successfully applied for the determination of dysprosium ions in water samples.

  10. Synthesis and optical characterisation of triphenylamine-based hole extractor materials for CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Planells, Miquel; Reynolds, Luke X; Bansode, Umesh; Chhatre, Shraddha; Ogale, Satishchandra; Robertson, Neil; Haque, Saif A

    2013-05-28

    We report the synthesis and optical characterisation of different triphenylamine-based hole capture materials able to anchor to CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate that these materials exhibit reversible electrochemical behaviour. Photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy techniques are used to study interfacial charge transfer properties of the triphenylamine functionalized CdSe QDs. Specifically, we show that the functionalized QDs based on the most easily oxidised triphenylamine display efficient hole-extraction and long-lived charge separation. The present findings should help identify new strategies to control charge transfer QD-based optoelectronic devices.

  11. Evanescent wave excited luminescence from levitated quantum dot modified colloids.

    PubMed

    Everett, W Neil; Beckham, Richard E; Meissner, Kenith; Bevan, Michael A

    2007-08-14

    Evanescent wave excited luminescence of quantum dot modified polystyrene (QDPS) colloids is investigated to measure potential energy profiles of QDPS colloids electrostatically levitated above a planar glass surface. Luminescence is characterized for three different-sized PS colloids modified with three different-sized QDs using confocal microscopy, emission spectra, flow cytometry, and temporal measurements of levitated and deposited colloids. Colloid-surface potential energy profiles constructed from scattering and luminescence intensity data display excellent agreement with each other, theoretical predictions, and independently measured parameters. QDPS luminescence intensity is indirectly confirmed to have an exponential dependence on height similar to conventional colloidal evanescent wave scattering. Our findings indicate that evanescent wave excited QDPS luminescence could enable total internal reflection microscopy measurements of index-matched hard spheres, multiple specific biomolecular interactions via spectral multiplexing, enhanced morphology-dependent resonance modes, and integrated evanescent wave-video-confocal microscopy experiments not possible with scattering.

  12. Nanoscale patterning of colloidal quantum dots for surface plasmon generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yeonsang; Roh, Young-Geun; Kim, Un Jeong; Chung, Dae-Young; Suh, Hwansoo; Kim, Jineun; Cheon, Sangmo; Lee, Jaesoong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-03-01

    The patterning of colloidal quantum dots with nanometer resolution is essential for their application in photonics and plasmonics. Several patterning approaches, such as the use of polymer composites, molecular lock-and-key methods, inkjet printing, and microcontact printing of quantum dots, have limits in fabrication resolution, positioning and the variation of structural shapes. Herein, we present an adaptation of a conventional liftoff method for patterning colloidal quantum dots. This simple method is easy and requires no complicated processes. Using this method, we formed straight lines, rings, and dot patterns of colloidal quantum dots on metallic substrates. Notably, patterned lines approximately 10 nm wide were fabricated. The patterned structures display high resolution, accurate positioning, and well-defined sidewall profiles. To demonstrate the applicability of our method, we present a surface plasmon generator elaborated from quantum dots.

  13. Comparative behavior of CdS and CdSe quantum dots in poly(3-hexylthiophene) based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Sonar, Prashant . E-mail: sonar@mat.ethz.ch; Sreenivasan, K.P.; Madddanimath, Trupti; Vijayamohanan, K. . E-mail: viji@ems.ncl.res.in

    2006-01-05

    CdS and CdSe nanoparticles have been prepared using conducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix with an objective to understand the effect of nanoparticles on the polymer matrix using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The spectroscopic results reveal that the electronic structure of polymer is strongly influenced by the characteristics of embedded semiconducting nanoparticles. SEM and TEM images show the ordered morphology of the CdS and CdSe nanoparticles in presence of the polymer matrix. Cyclic voltammetry performed both in the presence and absence of light enables us to understand the redox changes in P3HT due to CdS and CdSe quantum dots such as the generation of free radical in the excited state and their electrochemical band gaps.

  14. Cellular uptake induced biotoxicity of surface-modified CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanwlani, Shilpa; Rawat, Kamla; Pal, Meena; Bohidar, Himadri B.; Verma, Anita Kamra

    2014-05-01

    Cellular uptake of quantum dots (QDs) by cells is of utmost importance for establishing QDs as biostable fluorescent markers that facilitate early diagnosis and detection of cancer. The surface states of QDs are critical to enhance the cellular uptake. Biocompatible CDSe QDs were synthesized using mercaptopropionic acid, amino-ethanethiol HCl, cyltrimethylammonium bromide, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), and sodium dodecyl sulfate were functionalized using ligand-exchange method. Cytocompatibility and cellular uptake of QDs were evaluated in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-29), and breast cancer cells (MCF-7) as reduced cytotoxicity is desirable for biological applications. Approximately, 60 % cytotoxicity was observed in all surface-coated QDs and QD100 in 72 h in both the cell lines, except TBAI that indicated 30 % cytotoxicity in 72 h, and only 10 % in 24 h. Glutathione, the detoxifying molecule, is detrimental for understanding the oxidative stress of the cell. The QDs showed enhanced Glutathione- S-transferase (GST) activity in the MCF-7 cell line. In HEK, CdSe per se was also able to induce a high level of GST. QDs toxicity may either be related to the induction of reactive oxygen species or the direct release of metal ions. Optimization of QDs in terms of quantification and DNA damage is imperative for realistic biological applications.

  15. Mn2+-Doped CdSe/CdS Core/Multishell Colloidal Quantum Wells Enabling Tunable Carrier-Dopant Exchange Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delikanli, Savas; Scrace, Thomas; Murphy, Joseph; Barman, Biblop; Tsai, Yutsung; Zhang, Peiyao; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Christodoulides, Joseph; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Petrou, Athos; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    We report the manifestations of carrier-dopant exchange interactions in colloidal Mn2+-doped CdSe/CdS core/multishell quantum wells. In our solution-processed quantum well heterostructures, Mn2+ was incorporated by growing a Cd0.985Mn0:015S monolayer shell on undoped CdSe nanoplatelets using the colloidal atomic layer deposition technique. The carrier-magnetic ion exchange interaction effects are tunable through wave function engineering. This is realized by controlling the spatial overlap between the carrier wave functions with the manganese ions through adjusting the location, composition, and number of the CdSe, Cd1-xMnxS, and CdS layers. Our colloidal quantum wells, which exhibit magneto-optical properties analogous to those of epitaxially grown quantum wells, offer new opportunities for solution-processed spin-based semiconductor devices. H.V.D. acknowledges support from EU-FP7 Nanophotonics4Energy NoE, TUBITAK, NRF-CRP-6-2010-02 and A*STAR of Singapore. Work at the University at Buffalo was supported by NSF DMR 1305770.

  16. Effect of surface passivating ligand on structural and optoelectronic properties of polymer : CdSe quantum dot composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Kusum; Kumar, Umesh; Sharma, Shailesh N.; Chand, Suresh; Kakkar, Rita; Vankar, V. D.; Kumar, Vikram

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate the effect of surface passivation of cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) (~5-7 nm) by tri-n-octylphosphene-oxide (TOPO) and oleic acid (OA) on the structural and optoelectronic properties of their respective polymer : CdSe composites by dispersing them in poly(2-methoxy-5(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylinevinylene) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymers. It has been found that OA passivated-QDs (~7 nm), as compared with TOPO passivated CdSe QDs (~5 nm), are of (i) high quality that provide better steric stability against coagulation, homogeneity and photostability to their respective polymer : CdSe composites, (ii) show low value of Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) calculated from photoluminescence quenching measurements. These effects have been attributed to (i) CdSe(OA) (~7 nm) particles having relatively smaller surface energies compared with CdSe(TOPO) (~5 nm) particles thus showing lesser quenching capabilities (ii) dominance of respective processes of photoinduced Förster energy transfer between host polymer (donors) and guest CdSe nanocrystals (acceptors) in polymer : CdSe(OA) composites and charge transfer in polymer : CdSe(TOPO) composites.

  17. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yan; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  18. Photocurrent enhancement of SiNW-FETs by integrating protein-shelled CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moh, Sang Hyun; Kulkarni, Atul; San, Boi Hoa; Lee, Jeong Hun; Kim, Doyoun; Park, Kwang Su; Lee, Min Ho; Kim, Taesung; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    We proposed a new strategy to increase the photoresponsivity of silicon NW field-effect transistors (FETs) by integrating CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using protein shells (PSs). CdSe QDs were synthesized using ClpP, a bacterial protease, as protein shells to control the size and stability of QD and to facilitate the mounting of QDs on SiNWs. The photocurrent of SiNW-FETs in response to light at a wavelength of 480 nm was enhanced by a factor of 6.5 after integrating CdSe QDs because of the coupling of the optical properties of SiNWs and QDs. As a result, the photoresponsivity to 480 nm light reached up to 3.1 × 106, the highest value compared to other SiNW-based devices in the visible light range.We proposed a new strategy to increase the photoresponsivity of silicon NW field-effect transistors (FETs) by integrating CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using protein shells (PSs). CdSe QDs were synthesized using ClpP, a bacterial protease, as protein shells to control the size and stability of QD and to facilitate the mounting of QDs on SiNWs. The photocurrent of SiNW-FETs in response to light at a wavelength of 480 nm was enhanced by a factor of 6.5 after integrating CdSe QDs because of the coupling of the optical properties of SiNWs and QDs. As a result, the photoresponsivity to 480 nm light reached up to 3.1 × 106, the highest value compared to other SiNW-based devices in the visible light range. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07901b

  19. CdSe white quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2016-09-01

    A white light emission CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be prepared by chemical route under 180°C. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to react with CdO to form Cd-OA complex. Hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-Octadecene (ODE) were used as co-surfactants. By controlling the reaction time, a white light emission CdSe QDs can be obtained after reacts for 3 to 10 min. The luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light ranges from 400 to 650 nm. Based on TEM measurement result, spherical morphologies with particle size 2.39+/-0.27 nm can be obtained. The quantum yields (QYs) of white CdSe QD are between 20 and 60 %, which depends on reaction time. A white CdSe QDs were mixed with UV cured gel (OPAS-226) with weight ratios 50.0 wt. %, and putted the mixture into reflective cup (3020, 13 mil) as convert type. The white LEDs have controllable CIE coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT). The luminous efficacy of the device is less than 3 lm/W, but the color rendering index (CRI) for all devices are higher than 80. Since the luminous efficacy of hybrid devices has a direct dependence on the external QY of the UV-LED as well, the luminous efficacy can be improved by well dispersion of CdSe QDs in UV gel matrix and using optimized LED chips. Therefore, in this study, we provide a new and simple method to prepare high QY of white CdSe QDs and its have a potential to applicate in solid-state lighting.

  20. A strategy to boost the cell performance of CdSexTe1-x quantum dot sensitized solar cells over 8% by introducing Mn modified CdSe coating layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoshuai; Wei, Huiyun; Luo, Yanhong; Wu, Huijue; Li, Dongmei; Zhong, Xinhua; Meng, Qingbo

    2016-01-01

    CdSexTe1-x alloyed colloidal quantum dots show great potential application on quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) due to its relatively wide light absorption range and high chemical stability. In this respect, a thin Mn modified CdSe layer is introduced into TiO2/CdSexTe1-x alloyed QDs surface via a simple chemical bath deposition method (CBD) in order to further improve the cell performance. The power conversion efficiency of CdSexTe1-x QDSCs has been improved to 8.14%. Detailed investigation on the influence of this modification toward the TiO2/CdSexTe1-x interface on the cell performance reveals that introduction of Mn into CdSe QDs is found to facilitate the Mn-doped CdSe deposition and improve the light absorption of the device. In the meantime, the existence of the (Mn-)CdSe layer can also work as a passivation layer to reduce charge recombination.

  1. Optical and Phonon Characterization of Ternary CdSe x S1- x Alloy Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, L. A.; Cong, N. D.; Dang, N. T.; Nghia, N. X.; Quang, V. X.

    2016-05-01

    Ternary CdSe x S1- x alloy quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a wet chemical method. Their morphology, particle size, structural, optical, and vibrational properties were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The optical and vibrational properties of the QDs can be controlled by adjusting the Se/S molar ratio. The absorption and emission peaks shift to a longer wavelength range when increasing the Se content. The presence of two CdSe-like and CdS-like longitudinal optical phonon modes was observed. The dependencies of the optical and phonon modes on the Se content are discussed in detail.

  2. Electronic structure of cobalt doped CdSe quantum dots using soft X-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua T. Wright; Su, Dong; van Buuren, Tony; Meulenberg, Robert W.

    2014-08-21

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of cobalt doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are studied using electron microscopy, soft X-ray spectroscopy, and magnetometry. Magnetometry measurements suggest these QDs are superparamagnetic, contrary to a spin-glass state observed in the bulk analogue. Moreover, the electron microscopy shows well formed QDs, but with cobalt existing as doped into the QD and as unreacted species not contained in the QD. X-ray absorption measurements at the Co L3-edge suggest that changes in spectra features as a function of particle size can be described considering combination of a cobalt ion in a tetrahedral crystal field and an octahedrally coordinated (impurity) phase. With decreasing particle sizes, the impurity phase increases, suggesting that small QDs can be difficult to dope.

  3. Silver nanowires-based signal amplification for CdSe quantum dots electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tingyu; Meng, Qingmin; Jie, Guifen

    2015-04-15

    A novel silver-cysteine hybrid nanowires (SCNWs) with many reactive carboxyl and amine groups were prepared, which enable them to be used as idea signal amplifying labels in bioassays. A large number of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were loaded on the SCNWs to develop amplified SCNWs-QDs electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal probe. The PAMAM dendrimer-SCNWs nanohybrids covered on the electrode constructed an effective antibody immobilization matrix and made the immobilized biomolecules hold high stability and bioactivity. Based on the specific sandwich immunoreaction strategy, the detection antibody (Ab2)-SCNWs-QDs ECL signal probe was applied to the sensitive signal-on ECL immunoassay of human IgG. The SCNWs-QDs ECL not only opens promising new ECL emitting species, but also promotes the development of novel ECL signal-transition platforms for biosensing devices.

  4. Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in CdSe /ZnS quantum dot monolayers: Influence of substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, Takafumi; Maenosono, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Yukio

    2006-07-01

    Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement (PFE) of CdSe /ZnS core/shell quantum dot (QD) films on SiOx substrates was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of the QD film on SiO1.9 was greatly enhanced by continuous irradiation in vacuum, while the same QD film on SiO0.6 showed a small enhancement of the fluorescence intensity. After irradiation, the rate of fluorescence decay of the QD film on SiO0.6 was smaller than that of the QD film on SiO1.9. Our results suggest that the origin of PFE derives from the photoejection of electrons into the substrate, and that the oxygen-excess-related defects work as trap sites for the electrons.

  5. Understanding the features in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Do, Thanh Nhut; Ong, Xuanwei; Chan, Yinthai; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2016-12-01

    We describe a model to explain the features of the ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectra of CdSe core type quantum dots (QDs). The measured TA spectrum consists of contributions by the ground state bleach (GSB), stimulated emission (SE) and excited state absorption (ESA) processes associated with the three lowest energy transition of the QDs. We model the shapes of the GSB, SE and ESA spectral components after fits to the linear absorption. The spectral positions of the ESA components take into account the biexcitonic binding energy. In order to obtain the correct weightage of the GSB, SE and ESA components to the TA spectrum, we enumerate the set of coherence transfer pathways associated with these processes. From our fits of the experimental TA spectra of 65 Å diameter QDs, biexcitonic binding energies for the three lowest energy transitions are obtained.

  6. Radiative rate modification in CdSe quantum dot-coated microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Veluthandath, Aneesh V.; Bisht, Prem B.

    2015-12-21

    Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of the microparticles with spherical or cylindrical symmetry have exceptionally high quality factors and small mode volume. Quantum dots (QDs) are zero dimensional systems with variable band gap as well as luminescent properties with applications in photonics. In this paper, the WGMs have been observed in the luminescence spectra of CdSe QD-coated single silica microspheres. Theoretical estimations of variation of resonance frequency, electric field, and Q-values have been done for a multilayer coating of QDs on silica microspheres. Observed WGMs have been identified for their mode number and polarization using Mie theory. Broadening of modes due to material absorption has been observed. Splitting of WGMs has also been observed due to coherent coupling of counter propagating waves in the microcavity due to the presence of QDs. At room temperature, the time-resolved study indicates the modification of the radiative rate due to coupling of WGMs of the microcavity-QD hybrid system.

  7. Ligand capping effect for dye solar cells with a CdSe quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanorod photoanode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Jing; Song, Jun Ling; Zhao, De Wei; Deng, Wei Qiao; Lei, Wei

    2010-01-18

    We report a quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) with a thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdSe quantum dot (QD) sensitized ZnO nanorod photoanode. As revealed by UV-Vis absorption spectrum and transmission electron microscopy, the quantum dots can be effectively adsorbed onto ZnO nanorods. By studying the emission decay, the quenching of the CdSe QDs by ZnO nanorod was verified, and an electron transfer (from QD to ZnO) rate constant of 1 x 10(8) s(-1) was obtained. The efficiency of the as-prepared QDSSC was 0.66% and an incident power conversion efficiency of 22% at 400 nm was achieved.

  8. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  9. Factors determining the photovoltaic performance of a CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell: the role of the linker molecule and of the counter electrode.

    PubMed

    Mora-Seró, Iván; Giménez, Sixto; Moehl, Thomas; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Lana-Villareal, Teresa; Gómez, Roberto; Bisquert, Juan

    2008-10-22

    Colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes, prepared by a solvothermal route, have been employed as sensitizers of nanostructured TiO(2) electrode based solar cells. Three different bifunctional linker molecules have been used to attach colloidal QDs to the TiO(2) surface: mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), thioglycolic acid (TGA), and cysteine. The linker molecule plays a determinant role in the solar cell performance, as illustrated by the fact that the incident photon to charge carrier generation efficiency (IPCE) could be improved by a factor of 5-6 by using cysteine with respect to MPA. The photovoltaic properties of QD sensitized electrodes have been characterized for both three-electrode and closed two-electrode solar cell configurations. For three-electrode measurement a maximum power conversion efficiency near 1% can be deduced, but this efficiency is halved in the closed cell configuration mainly due to the decrease of the fill factor (FF).

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe quantum dots dispersed in PVA matrix by chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zubair M. S. H.; Ganaie, Mohsin; Khan, Shamshad A.; Husain, M.; Zulfequar, M.

    2016-05-01

    CdSe quantum dots using polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent have been synthesized via a simple heat induced thermolysis technique. The structural analysis of CdSe/PVA thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction, which confirms crystalline nature of the prepared film. The surface morphology and particle size of the prepared sample was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The SEM studies of CdSe/PVA thin film shows the average size of particles in the form of clusters of several quantum dots in the range of 10-20 nm. The morphology of CdSe/PVA thin film was further examined by TEM. The TEM image shows the fringes of tiny dots with average sizes of 4-7 nm. The optical properties of CdSe/PVA thin film were studied by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The CdSe/PVA quantum dots follow the role of direct transition and the optical band gap is found to be 4.03 eV. From dc conductivity measurement, the observed value of activation energy was found to be 0.71 eV.

  11. Gradient-Doped Thermophotovoltaic Devices based on Colloidal Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayaz Movahed, Hamidreza

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted from hot objects represents a sizeable supply of energy; however, even for relatively hot bodies, its flux peaks in the short-wavelength infrared between 1 and 3 mum, standing in the way of its photovoltaic harvest using the most widely-available optoelectronic materials such as Si and CdTe. Colloidal quantum dots combine low-cost solution-processing with bandgap tunability in this spectral region, thereby offering a route to harnessing thermal power photovoltaically. Here we report thermophotovoltaic devices constructed using colloidal quantum dots that harvest infrared radiation from an 800°C blackbody source. Only by constructing a gradient-doped colloidal quantum dot thermophotovoltaic device were we able to achieve thermophotovoltaic power generation with a power conversion efficiency of 0.39%. The device showed stable operation at ambient temperatures above 100°C.

  12. Luminescence of CdSe quantum dots near a layer of silver nanoparticles ion-synthesized in sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galyametdinov, Yu. G.; Shamilov, R. R.; Nuzhdin, V. I.; Valeev, V. F.; Stepanov, A. L.

    2016-11-01

    We study the characteristics of the luminescence of composite films based on polymethyl methacrylate with CdSe quantum dots deposited from solution onto the surface of a sapphire substrate containing a preliminarily formed layer with ion-synthesized silver nanoparticles. The sapphire layer with silver nanoparticles exhibits selective plasmon absorption in the visible spectral range with a peak at 463 nm. Enhancement in the exciton luminescence intensity of quantum dots with a peak at 590 nm is observed upon excitation at wavelengths lying in the region of plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles, as well as luminescence quenching for quantum dots located in the vicinity of silver nanoparticles.

  13. Study of binary and ternary organic hybrid CdSe quantum dot photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramar, M.; Kajal, S.; Pal, Prabir; Srivastava, R.; Suman, C. K.

    2015-09-01

    The hybrid binary and ternary photodetectors (PDs) were fabricated from P3HT-PC71BM with CdSe quantum dot (QD) materials. The absorption spectra of P3HT:PC71BM (named as B1), P3HT:CdSe (B2) and P3HT:CdSe:PC71BM (T) active blended material were analyzed in the wavelength range from 350 to 800 nm. The current density-voltage characteristics of the device were measured in dark and under illumination for study of detector detectivities and the contact with electrode. The ratio at -0.5 V for PDs B1, B2 and T is 1.1 × 102, 1.9 × 102 and 1.8 × 103, respectively. The values of detectivity for B1, B2 and T are 1 × 1010, 2 × 1010 and 7 × 1011 Jones, respectively. The for PD T is ten times in comparison with B1 and B2 PDs. The linear dynamic range (LDR) value for ternary device is more than double to both binary PDs. The absorption by CdSe QD increases the photon efficiency in the ternary detector, and at the same time the ternary detectors have high detectivity in broad spectral range. The responsivity of current to the light intensity exponent θ for detector B1, B2 and T is ~0.55, 0.55 and 0.62, respectively, which represents a complex process of electron hole generation, recombination and trapping within active material.

  14. Computational insights into CdSe quantum dots' interactions with acetate ligands.

    PubMed

    Tamukong, Patrick K; Peiris, Wadumesthrige D N; Kilina, Svetlana

    2016-07-27

    Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT), we investigate the effects of carboxylate groups on the electronic and optical properties of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). We specifically focus on the mechanisms of the binding of the acetate anion to the QD surface with and without excess of Cd(2+) cations. Our calculations show that the most stable ligated conformations are those where an acetate is attached to extra Cd(2+) ion forming a [Cd(2+)(CH3COO(-))] at the QD's surface, while also accompanied by an acetate attached nearby at the surface balancing the overall neutral charge of the system. In contrast, formation of a neutral metal-acetate complex [Cd(2+)(CH3COO(-))2] at the QD surface is found to be the least energetically preferable. A strength of the QD-ligand interaction depends on the solvent, the facet of the QD to which the ligands are attached, and the binding mode - with the bridging mode found to be the most stable conformation for both acetate and cadmium acetate ligands. The cadmium acetate ligands introduce electron trap states at the edge of the conduction band - unoccupied orbitals predominately localized on Cd(2+) ion - that are extremely sensitive to the ligand position and the solvent polarity. Polar solvents like acetonitrile delocalize the electronic density over the entire system and, thus, eliminate trap states. As a result, mixed passivation of the CdSe QDs by pairs of cadmium acetate and acetate ligands provides optimal optical properties with minimal contributions of the ligand-related trap states and optically bright lowest energy transitions.

  15. Controlled synthesis of CdSe quantum dots by a microwave-enhanced process: a green approach for mass production.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Delele Worku; Chen, Hung-Ming; Su, Wei-Nien; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Liang-Yih; Chou, Hung-Lung; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2011-05-09

    A method that does not employ hot-injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and thus their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV/Vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot-injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. Possible applications of the CdSe QDs were assessed by deposition on TiO(2) films.

  16. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of tunable CdSe quantum dots and effect of pH

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-09-15

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (Q-dots) were prepared by using non-coordinating solvent octadecene instead of coordinating agent trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Reaction processes were carried out at various temperatures of 240°, 260°, 280° and 300° C under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared CdSe Q-dots which are highly stable show uniform size distribution and tunable optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL). The growth temperature significantly influenced the particle size; spectral behavior, energy band gap and PL intensity and the full width at half maxima (FWHM). Three different methods were employed to determine the particle size and the average particle size of the CdSe Q-dots is 3.2 - 4.3 nm, grown at different temperatures. In addition, stable and mono-dispersed water soluble CdSe Q-dots were prepared by the ligand exchange technique. Thus, the water soluble Q-dots, which are sensitive to the basic pH may be important for biological applications.

  17. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of tunable CdSe quantum dots and effect of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (Q-dots) were prepared by using non-coordinating solvent octadecene instead of coordinating agent trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). Reaction processes were carried out at various temperatures of 240°, 260°, 280° and 300° C under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared CdSe Q-dots which are highly stable show uniform size distribution and tunable optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL). The growth temperature significantly influenced the particle size; spectral behavior, energy band gap and PL intensity and the full width at half maxima (FWHM). Three different methods were employed to determine the particle size and the average particle size of the CdSe Q-dots is 3.2 - 4.3 nm, grown at different temperatures. In addition, stable and mono-dispersed water soluble CdSe Q-dots were prepared by the ligand exchange technique. Thus, the water soluble Q-dots, which are sensitive to the basic pH may be important for biological applications.

  18. Photonic Enhancement of Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labelle, Andre Jean-Romeo Richard

    Colloidal quantum dots, nanocrystal semiconductors that can be cross-linked and assembled into absorbing thin films, are an attractive material for third-generation photovoltaic applications due to low-cost fabrication and bandgap tunability. As a result of their limited charge transport, these solution-processed thin films suffer from a mismatch in absorption length and charge extraction length. Concepts based on the interdigitation of n- and p-doped layers, approaches that reduce the distance photogenerated carriers must travel before extraction, offer promise on overcoming this limitation. In this thesis, I explore and develop techniques to address the absorption-extraction compromise in CQD materials by implementing nano- and micro-structuring techniques to enhance light absorption in the active film. First, I focus on the development of nanomaterials for light guiding/scattering enhancement in CQD films. For this, I develop a nanostructured gold reflector that, when suitably designed, guides light and traps it within the active film. I show that this yields enhanced broadband absorption with more than 4-fold improvement at the most improved wavelength, which translated into a 34% improvement in photocurrent in a working solar cell. I also show that periodic nanostructures employed for absorption enhancement can lead to improvements in solar cell performance. Limitations in device architecture and film formation, however, prevented significant performance advances for these nano-scale approaches. Regardless, these early results pointed me to a new and more impactful strategy. I focus in on realizing micron-scale structured electrodes to enhance absorption, which I show to be considerably more useful in view of the need to extract charge carriers with high efficiency. I discover that conformal film formation atop these structured electrodes is an absolute prerequisite to enhancing performance. These devices, which I term micro-pyramid CQD cells, provide a 24

  19. Phosphine-free synthesis of CdSe quantum dots in a new co-capping ligand system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Zhongping; Li, Guohua; Chen, Lanlan; Jie, Jiansheng

    2009-08-01

    High-quality CdSe quantum dots with zinc blende structure were successfully synthesized via a new cheaper, greener phosphine-free route, using environmentally friendly N,N-dimethyl-oleoyl amide as the solvent of Se. The process eliminates trioctylphoshine from the synthesis, using oleic acid (OA) as a primary capping ligand and benzophenone (BP) as a secondary ligand in the noncoordinating solvent. It has been found that the addition of BP can improve the size distribution (below 10%) of as-synthesized CdSe quantum dots greatly, and the nucleation and growth process can also be well-separated. Moreover, a comprehensive examination on the control of particle size and size distribution was performed by systematically varying the BP/OA molar ratio. The phosphine-free route enables us to obtain high-quality CdSe quantum dots with sharp UV-vis absorption peak, size ranging from 2.8 to 6.8 nm, and narrow full width of half-maximum between 27 and 35 nm with purely band-edge luminescence, and without any post-synthesis processing.

  20. Nanocrystal Size-Dependent Efficiency of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells in the Strongly Coupled CdSe Nanocrystals/TiO2 System.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyeong Jin; Paik, Taejong; Diroll, Benjamin; Edley, Michael E; Baxter, Jason B; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-06-15

    Light absorption and electron injection are important criteria determining solar energy conversion efficiency. In this research, monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized with five different diameters, and the size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency of CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs) is investigated by employing the atomic inorganic ligand, S(2-). Absorbance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of the uniform CdSe QDs are 2.5, 3.2, 4.2, 6.4, and 7.8 nm. Larger CdSe QDs generate a larger amount of charge under the irradiation of long wavelength photons, as verified by the absorbance results and the measurements of the external quantum efficiencies. However, the smaller QDs exhibit faster electron injection kinetics from CdSe QDs to TiO2 because of the high energy level of CBCdSe, as verified by time-resolved photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency results. Importantly, the S(2-) ligand significantly enhances the electronic coupling between the CdSe QDs and TiO2, yielding an enhancement of the charge transfer rate at the interfacial region. As a result, the S(2-) ligand helps improve the new size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency, showing best performance with 4.2-nm CdSe QDs, whereas conventional ligand, mercaptopropionic acid, does not show any differences in efficiency according to the size of the CdSe QDs. The findings reported herein suggest that the atomic inorganic ligand reinforces the influence of quantum confinement on the solar energy conversion efficiency of QDSSCs.

  1. Electron hopping between Wurtzite CdSe Quantum Dots Linked by Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Iek-Heng; Radulaski, Marina; Vukmirovic, Nenad; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2011-03-01

    Recent experimental results show that the transport properties of quantum dot (QD) arrays will be tremendously improved after attached by cross-linking molecules. Here, we present an ab initio study on the electron hopping rates between wurtzite CdSe QDs connected by Sn 2 S6 molecules. The conduction band minima (CBM) transports among connected QDs are calculated. The charge patching method (CPM) is used to construct the charge density of the QDs and the connected systems. The folded spectrum method (FSM) was applied to find the band edge states and the electronic coupling between the neighboring QDs. Electron-phonon couplings are calculated to yield the reorganization energy. The electron hopping rate is then calculated by Marcus theory and its corresponding quantum treatments. Hopping rates for three different sizes of QDs, and two different types of molecular attachments are also presented here for comparison. Supported by DOE/BES-DE-FG02-02ER45995, DOE/BES-DE-AC02-05CH11231 and NSF/DMR-0804407, and computers from NERSC.

  2. The Magic-Size Nanocluster (CdSe)34 as a Low-Temperature Nucleant for Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystals; Room-Temperature Growth of Crystalline Quantum Platelets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Fudong; Giblin, Daryl E; Hoy, Jessica; Rohrs, Henry W; Loomis, Richard A; Buhro, William E

    2014-04-08

    Reaction of Cd(OAc)2·2H2O and selenourea in primary-amine/secondary-amine cosolvent mixtures affords crystalline CdSe quantum platelets at room temperature. Their crystallinity is established by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their sharp extinction and photoluminescence spectra. Reaction monitoring establishes the magic-size nanocluster (CdSe)34 to be a key intermediate in the growth process, which converts to CdSe quantum platelets by first-order kinetics with no induction period. The results are interpreted to indicate that the critical crystal-nucleus size for CdSe under these conditions is in the range of (CdSe)34 to (CdSe)68. The nanocluster is obtained in isolated form as [(CdSe)34(n-octylamine)16(di-n-pentylamine)2], which is proposed to function as crystal nuclei that may be stored in a bottle.

  3. CdSe magic-sized nuclei, magic-sized nanoclusters and regular nanocrystals: monomer effects on nucleation and growth.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kui

    2012-02-21

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been well appreciated for their potential in nanophotonics with an unprecedented impact in various areas, including light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells. There is an outstanding demand on the control of size and size distribution for the various applications, with rational design supported by fundamental understanding of nucleation and growth. This Research News introduces recent advances in the synthesis of colloidal CdSe magic-sized nuclei (MSN) exhibiting sharp bandgap emission, with a model proposed to illustrate the nature of monomers and their degree of supersaturation (DS) affecting the formation of various CdSe MSN, magic-sized nanoclusters (MSCs), and regular nanocrystals (RNCs). Also, this model addresses tuning the CdSe RNCs into the CdSe MSN with the presence of cadmium acetate (Cd(OAc)2) affecting the nature of the monomers.

  4. Optical and Surface Characterization Studies of CdSe Quantum Dots Undergoing Photooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Lauren C. J.

    Realization of the potential of Quantum Dots (QDs) for biological, energy-efficient lighting and energy harvesting applications requires that their long-term photostability be improved, especially with regards to protection from photooxidation. The overarching objective of this project was the determination of the chemical and physical mechanisms of photooxidation of CdSe QDs. Pittsburgh-based Crystalplex, Inc. provided CdSe QDs with different organic ligands for this research. Three integrated in situ and ex situ characterization techniques were used to observe changes in optical behavior, QD morphology, and surface chemistry during photooxidation conditions. Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy experiments were used to observe real-time changes in the photoluminescence (PL) behavior of single QDs with oleic and lauric acid ligands. The QDs are exposed to 1 atm of pure O2, dry Ar, Ar bubbled through DI water, or air in an environmental chamber and excited with a 488 nm light. Changes in PL intensities were analyzed with respect to the periods of exposure to controlled atmospheres and light. Samples illuminated continuously exhibited strong photoenhancement effects, while those kept in the dark showed atmospheric-dependent PL loss. Microstructural and chemical identification was performed with aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ex situ exposures of QD samples to air, dry O2, and dry Ar revealed changes in surface oxide growth with respect to exposure length, illumination, and column vacuum pressure. Samples exposed to air and light exhibited the most extensive photooxidation. Quantum dots with oleic acid ligands were treated with UV/ozone plasma, and extensive degradation of QDs was observed. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements at CMU were used to identify the chemical and bonding states of the surface species before and after photooxidation. Analysis of the acquired spectra showed that exposure to below-bandgap light

  5. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots with luminescence in the violet region of the solar spectrum.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Nisha; Nigra, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    We have designed a simple, one-step synthesis of CdSe quantum dots with photoluminescence frequencies ranging from the red through to the violet region of the solar spectrum. The photoluminescence peaks have FWHM of 30 nm indicating absorption over a narrow range of wavelengths. The effect of solvent type and solvent boiling point on the physical and photoluminescence properties of the quantum dots has been studied. High boiling point, non-polar solvents shift the photoluminescence peak to longer wavelengths and low boiling point, polar solvents shift the photoluminescence peak to shorter wavelengths.

  6. Thiolated DAB dendrimers and CdSe quantum dots nanocomposites for Cd(II) or Pb(II) sensing.

    PubMed

    Algarra, M; Campos, B B; Alonso, B; Miranda, M S; Martínez, A M; Casado, C M; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2012-01-15

    Four different generation of thiol-DAB dendrimers were synthesized, S-DAB-G(x) (x=1, 2, 3 and 5), and coupled with CdSe quantum dots, to obtain fluorescent nanocomposites as metal ions sensing. Cd(II) and Pb(II) showed the higher enhancement and quenching effects respectively towards the fluorescence of S-DAB-G(5)-CdSe nanocomposite. The fluorescence enhancement provoked by Cd(II) can be linearized using a Henderson-Hasselbalch type equation and the quenching provoked by Pb(II) can be linearized by a Stern-Volmer equation. The sensor responds to Cd(II) ion in the 0.05-0.7μM concentration range and to Pb(II) ion in the 0.01-0.15mM concentration range with a LOD of 0.06mM. The sensor has selectivity limitations but its dendrimer configuration has analytical advantages.

  7. Probing Interfacial Electronic States in CdSe Quantum Dots using Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Doughty, Benjamin L.; Ma, Yingzhong; Shaw, Robert W

    2015-01-07

    Understanding and rationally controlling the properties of nanomaterial surfaces is a rapidly expanding field of research due to the dramatic role they play on the optical and electronic properties vital to light harvesting, emitting and detection technologies. This information is essential to the continued development of synthetic approaches designed to tailor interfaces for optimal nanomaterial based device performance. In this work, closely spaced electronic excited states in model CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are resolved using second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy, and the corresponding contributions from surface species to these states are assessed. Two distinct spectral features are observed in themore » SHG spectra, which are not readily identified in linear absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectra. These features include a weak band at 395 6 nm, which coincides with transitions to the 2S1/2 1Se state, and a much more pronounced band at 423 4 nm arising from electronic transitions to the 1P3/2 1Pe state. Chemical modification of the QD surfaces through oxidation resulted in disappearance of the SHG band corresponding to the 1P3/2 1Pe state, indicating prominent surface contributions. Signatures of deep trap states localized on the surfaces of the QDs are also observed. We further find that the SHG signal intensities depend strongly on the electronic states being probed and their relative surface contributions, thereby offering additional insight into the surface specificity of SHG signals from QDs.« less

  8. Interaction of β-cyclodextrin-capped CdSe quantum dots with inorganic anions and cations.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhuo Bin; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Yu; Jin, Wei Jun

    2011-01-01

    A facile method was developed for the preparation of water soluble β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD)-modified CdSe quantum dots (QDs) (β-CD-QDs) by directly replacing the oleic acid ligands on the QDs surface with β-CD in an alkaline aqueous solution. The as-prepared QDs show good stability in aqueous solution for several months. Oxoanions, including phosphoric acid ion, sulphite acid ion and carbonic acid ion, affect the fluorescence of β-CD-QDs. Among them, H(2)PO(4)(-) exhibited the largest quenching effect. For the polyprotic acids (HO)(3)AO, the effect of acidic anions on the fluorescence of β-CD-QDs was in the order: monoanion (HO)(2)AO(2)(-) > dianion (HO)AO(3)(2-) > trianion AO(4)(3-). After photoactivation for several days in the presence of anions at alkaline pH, the β-CD-QDs exhibited strong fluorescence emission. The effect of various heavy and transition metal ions on the fluorescence properties of the β-CD-QDs was investigated further. It was found that Ag(+), Hg(2+) and Co(2+) have significant quenching effect on the fluorescence of the β-CD-QDs. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants increased in the order: Hg(2+) < Co(2+)

  9. Enhancement in the photorefractive performance of organic composites photosensitized with functionalized CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yichen; Wang, Wei; Moon, Jong-Sik; Winiarz, Jeffrey G.

    2016-08-01

    Enhancement in the photorefractive (PR) performance of organic composites photosensitized by CdSe quantum dots (QCdSe) passivated with the charge-transport ligands, sulfonated triphenyldiamine (STPD), is reported. This enhancement is primarily attributed to the ability of the passivating ligand, STPD, to facilitate the charge-transfer process between the QCdSe and the triphenyldiamine (TPD) charge-transport matrix. The PR composites exhibited a maximum photocharge-generation efficiency of 0.9% and two-beam coupling gain coefficient of 110 cm-1. These figures of merit represent a significant improvement over similar composites photosensitized with more conventional trioctylphosphine oxide-passivated QCdSe (TQCdSe). Moreover, composites photosensitized with SQCdSe had a faster response time of τ = 128 ms at an electric field of 60 V/μm compared with τ = 982 ms for those containing TQCdSe. Because of the molecular similarity between the STPD passivating groups and the TPD-based charge-transport matrix, concentrations of up to 1.4 wt% of SQCdSe are achieved in PR composites without any detectable phase separation, a considerable improvement over the 0.7 wt% for TQCdSe.

  10. Probing Interfacial Electronic States in CdSe Quantum Dots using Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Benjamin L.; Ma, Yingzhong; Shaw, Robert W

    2015-01-07

    Understanding and rationally controlling the properties of nanomaterial surfaces is a rapidly expanding field of research due to the dramatic role they play on the optical and electronic properties vital to light harvesting, emitting and detection technologies. This information is essential to the continued development of synthetic approaches designed to tailor interfaces for optimal nanomaterial based device performance. In this work, closely spaced electronic excited states in model CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are resolved using second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy, and the corresponding contributions from surface species to these states are assessed. Two distinct spectral features are observed in the SHG spectra, which are not readily identified in linear absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectra. These features include a weak band at 395 6 nm, which coincides with transitions to the 2S1/2 1Se state, and a much more pronounced band at 423 4 nm arising from electronic transitions to the 1P3/2 1Pe state. Chemical modification of the QD surfaces through oxidation resulted in disappearance of the SHG band corresponding to the 1P3/2 1Pe state, indicating prominent surface contributions. Signatures of deep trap states localized on the surfaces of the QDs are also observed. We further find that the SHG signal intensities depend strongly on the electronic states being probed and their relative surface contributions, thereby offering additional insight into the surface specificity of SHG signals from QDs.

  11. Directed energy transfer in films of CdSe quantum dots: beyond the point dipole approximation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kaibo; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Nan; Chábera, Pavel; Lenngren, Nils; Chi, Qijin; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2014-04-30

    Understanding of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in thin films composed of quantum dots (QDs) is of fundamental and technological significance in optimal design of QD based optoelectronic devices. The separation between QDs in the densely packed films is usually smaller than the size of QDs, so that the simple point-dipole approximation, widely used in the conventional approach, can no longer offer quantitative description of the FRET dynamics in such systems. Here, we report the investigations of the FRET dynamics in densely packed films composed of multisized CdSe QDs using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and theoretical modeling. Pairwise interdot transfer time was determined in the range of 1.5 to 2 ns by spectral analyses which enable separation of the FRET contribution from intrinsic exciton decay. A rational model is suggested by taking into account the distribution of the electronic transition densities in the dots and using the film morphology revealed by AFM images. The FRET dynamics predicted by the model are in good quantitative agreement with experimental observations without adjustable parameters. Finally, we use our theoretical model to calculate dynamics of directed energy transfer in ordered multilayer QD films, which we also observe experimentally. The Monte Carlo simulations reveal that three ideal QD monolayers can provide exciton funneling efficiency above 80% from the most distant layer. Thereby, utilization of directed energy transfer can significantly improve light harvesting efficiency of QD devices.

  12. Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Mengxia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-03-01

    Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally tuneable infrared bandgap, which enables use in multi-junction cells, as well as the benefit of generating and harvesting multiple charge carrier pairs per absorbed photon. Here we review recent progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, focusing on three fronts. First, we examine strategies to manage the abundant surfaces of quantum dots, strategies that have led to progress in the removal of electronic trap states. Second, we consider new device architectures that have improved device performance to certified efficiencies of 10.6%. Third, we focus on progress in solution-phase chemical processing, such as spray-coating and centrifugal casting, which has led to the demonstration of manufacturing-ready process technologies.

  13. A differential dielectric spectroscopy setup to measure the electric dipole moment and net charge of colloidal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kortschot, R. J.; Bakelaar, I. A.; Erné, B. H.; Kuipers, B. W. M.

    2014-03-15

    A sensitive dielectric spectroscopy setup is built to measure the response of nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid to an alternating electric field over a frequency range from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 7} Hz. The measured complex permittivity spectrum records both the rotational dynamics due to a permanent electric dipole moment and the translational dynamics due to net charges. The setup consists of a half-transparent capacitor connected in a bridge circuit, which is balanced on pure solvent only, using a software-controlled compensating voltage. In this way, the measured signal is dominated by the contributions of the nanoparticles rather than by the solvent. We demonstrate the performance of the setup with measurements on a dispersion of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in the apolar liquid decalin.

  14. Surface Passivation of CdSe Quantum Dots in All Inorganic Amorphous Solid by Forming Cd1−xZnxSe Shell

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Mengling; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Zhiyong; Wang, Jing; Lin, Changgui; Xu, Yinsheng; Heo, Jong; Dai, Shixun; Han, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2017-01-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) doped glasses have been widely investigated for optical filters, LED color converter and other optical emitters. Unlike CdSe QDs in solution, it is difficult to passivate the surface defects of CdSe QDs in glass matrix, which strongly suppress its intrinsic emission. In this study, surface passivation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by Cd1−xZnxSe shell in silicate glass was reported. An increase in the Se/Cd ratio can lead to the partial passivation of the surface states and appearance of the intrinsic emission of CdSe QDs. Optimizing the heat-treatment condition promotes the incorporation of Zn into CdSe QDs and results in the quenching of the defect emission. Formation of CdSe/Cd1−xZnxSe core/graded shell QDs is evidenced by the experimental results of TEM and Raman spectroscopy. Realization of the surface passivation and intrinsic emission of II-VI QDs may facilitate the wide applications of QDs doped all inorganic amorphous materials. PMID:28169376

  15. Surface Passivation of CdSe Quantum Dots in All Inorganic Amorphous Solid by Forming Cd1‑xZnxSe Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Mengling; Liu, Chao; Zhao, Zhiyong; Wang, Jing; Lin, Changgui; Xu, Yinsheng; Heo, Jong; Dai, Shixun; Han, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2017-02-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) doped glasses have been widely investigated for optical filters, LED color converter and other optical emitters. Unlike CdSe QDs in solution, it is difficult to passivate the surface defects of CdSe QDs in glass matrix, which strongly suppress its intrinsic emission. In this study, surface passivation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by Cd1‑xZnxSe shell in silicate glass was reported. An increase in the Se/Cd ratio can lead to the partial passivation of the surface states and appearance of the intrinsic emission of CdSe QDs. Optimizing the heat-treatment condition promotes the incorporation of Zn into CdSe QDs and results in the quenching of the defect emission. Formation of CdSe/Cd1‑xZnxSe core/graded shell QDs is evidenced by the experimental results of TEM and Raman spectroscopy. Realization of the surface passivation and intrinsic emission of II-VI QDs may facilitate the wide applications of QDs doped all inorganic amorphous materials.

  16. Comparative experiments of graphene covalently and physically binding CdSe quantum dots to enhance the electron transport in flexible photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mi-Hee; Chu, Moo-Jung

    2014-08-07

    In this research, we prepared composite films via covalent coupling of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to graphene through the direct binding of aryl radicals to the graphene surface. To compare the carrier transport with the CdSe aryl binding graphene film, we prepared CdSe pyridine capping graphene films through the pi-pi interactions of noncovalent bonds between the graphene and pyridine molecules. The photovoltaic devices were fabricated from the two hybrid films using the electrophoretic deposition method on flexible substrates. Even though the two hybrid films have the same amount of QDs and graphene, time-resolved fluorescence emission decay results show that the emission lifetime of the CdSe aryl group binding graphene film is significantly shorter than that of the pyridine capping CdSe-graphene. The quantum efficiency and photocurrent density of the device fabricated from CdSe aryl binding graphene were also higher than those of the device fabricated from pyridine capping CdSe-graphene. These results indicated that the carrier transport of the QD-graphene system is not related to the additive effect from the CdSe and graphene components but rather is a result of the unique interactions between the graphene and QDs. We could expect that these results can be useful in designing QD-graphene composite materials, which are applied in photovoltaic devices.

  17. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of CdSe Nanocrystals in the Gas Phase: A Direct Measure of the Evanescent Electron Wave Function of Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopy of CdSe Nanocrystals in the Gas Phase: A Direct Measure of the Evanescent Electron Wave Function of Quantum Dots Wei Xiong...the fraction of evanescent electron wave function that extends outside of the quantum dot . This work shows that gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy ...function. KEYWORDS: Quantum dots , ultrafast, electronic structure, aerodynamic lens, gas phase photoelectron spectroscopy , velocity map imaging Quantum

  18. Microsecond-sustained lasing from colloidal quantum dot solids

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Michael M.; Fan, Fengjia; Sellan, Daniel P.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Parrish, Kevin D.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Malen, Jonathan A.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots have grown in interest as materials for light amplification and lasing in view of their bright photoluminescence, convenient solution processing and size-controlled spectral tunability. To date, lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids has been limited to the nanosecond temporal regime, curtailing their application in systems that require more sustained emission. Here we find that the chief cause of nanosecond-only operation has been thermal runaway: the combination of rapid heat injection from the pump source, poor heat removal and a highly temperature-dependent threshold. We show microsecond-sustained lasing, achieved by placing ultra-compact colloidal quantum dot films on a thermally conductive substrate, the combination of which minimizes heat accumulation. Specifically, we employ inorganic-halide-capped quantum dots that exhibit high modal gain (1,200 cm−1) and an ultralow amplified spontaneous emission threshold (average peak power of ∼50 kW cm−2) and rely on an optical structure that dissipates heat while offering minimal modal loss. PMID:26493282

  19. Microsecond-sustained lasing from colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Michael M; Fan, Fengjia; Sellan, Daniel P; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Houtepen, Arjan J; Parrish, Kevin D; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Malen, Jonathan A; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-10-23

    Colloidal quantum dots have grown in interest as materials for light amplification and lasing in view of their bright photoluminescence, convenient solution processing and size-controlled spectral tunability. To date, lasing in colloidal quantum dot solids has been limited to the nanosecond temporal regime, curtailing their application in systems that require more sustained emission. Here we find that the chief cause of nanosecond-only operation has been thermal runaway: the combination of rapid heat injection from the pump source, poor heat removal and a highly temperature-dependent threshold. We show microsecond-sustained lasing, achieved by placing ultra-compact colloidal quantum dot films on a thermally conductive substrate, the combination of which minimizes heat accumulation. Specifically, we employ inorganic-halide-capped quantum dots that exhibit high modal gain (1,200 cm(-1)) and an ultralow amplified spontaneous emission threshold (average peak power of ∼50 kW cm(-2)) and rely on an optical structure that dissipates heat while offering minimal modal loss.

  20. Improving the sensitivity of indirect-type organic X-ray detector by blending with CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Lee, J.; Kang, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, The blending effect of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) dispersed in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) active layer was investigated to improve the sensitivity of indirect-type X-ray detectors. 3 different sizes of CdSe QDs (5, 7, and 9 nm) were blended in P3HT:PCBM (weight ratio of 1:1) layers. The 5 nm-QD blended condition showed relatively high short circuit current density (Jsc), power conversion efficiency (PCE), and sensitivity. The optimal amount of 5nm-QDs in the P3HT:PCBM layer was also investigated in the range of 0 to 4 mg. As the final outcome, the detector fabricated with 3 mg of 5 nm-QDs in the active layer showed the highest sensitivity of 220.08 nC/mR·cm2, which was 28% higher than the sensitivity of the pristine P3HT:PCBM detector. Through the addition of the optimal amount of CdSe QDs to the P3HT:PCBM layer, the sensitivity of the X-ray detector was enhanced due to the increment of photon-absorption and charge transport.

  1. A dry method to synthesize dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures utilizing CdSe quantum dots and Ag thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Xu, Tianning; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures are synthesized in a dry environment by UV irradiating the hybrids composed of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and silver (Ag). UV irradiation on CdSe QDs induces a photooxidation effect on the QD surface and leads to the formation of SeO2 components. Then SeO2 reacts with the Ag atoms in either Ag film or QD layer to produce the Ag2Se. The growth mechanism of Ag2Se dendrites on solid Ag films is explored and explained by a diffusion limited aggregation model in which the QD layer provides enough freedom for Ag2Se motion. Since the oxidation of the CdSe QDs is the critical step for the Ag2Se dendrites formation this dry chemical interaction between QDs and Ag film can be applied in the study of the QD surface chemical properties. With this dry synthesis method, the Ag2Se dendrites can also be facilely formed at the designed area on Ag substrates.

  2. Understanding the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot-fullerene (C60) hybrid nanostructure for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sunandan; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Sarkar, Pranab

    2014-09-01

    By using the density-functional tight binding method, we studied the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot(QD)-buckminsterfullerene (C60) hybrid systems as a function of both the size of the QD and concentration of the fullerene molecule. Our calculation reveals that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of the hybrid CdSeQD-C60 systems lies on the fullerene moiety, whereas the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level lies either on the QD or the fullerene depending on size of the CdSe QD. We explored the possibility of engineering the energy level alignment by varying the size of the CdSe QD. With increase in size of the QD, the HOMO level is shifted upward and crosses the HOMO level of the C60-thiol molecule resulting transition from the type-I to type-II band energy alignment. The density of states and charge density plot support these types of band gap engineering of the CdSe-C60 hybrid systems. This type II band alignment indicates the possibility of application of this nanohybrid for photovoltaic purpose.

  3. A dry method to synthesize dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures utilizing CdSe quantum dots and Ag thin films.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lian; Zhang, Bingpo; Xu, Tianning; Li, Ruifeng; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-09

    Dendritic Ag2Se nanostructures are synthesized in a dry environment by UV irradiating the hybrids composed of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and silver (Ag). UV irradiation on CdSe QDs induces a photooxidation effect on the QD surface and leads to the formation of SeO2 components. Then SeO2 reacts with the Ag atoms in either Ag film or QD layer to produce the Ag2Se. The growth mechanism of Ag2Se dendrites on solid Ag films is explored and explained by a diffusion limited aggregation model in which the QD layer provides enough freedom for Ag2Se motion. Since the oxidation of the CdSe QDs is the critical step for the Ag2Se dendrites formation this dry chemical interaction between QDs and Ag film can be applied in the study of the QD surface chemical properties. With this dry synthesis method, the Ag2Se dendrites can also be facilely formed at the designed area on Ag substrates.

  4. Bioinspired, direct synthesis of aqueous CdSe quantum dots for high-sensitive copper(II) ion detection.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming; He, Man; Chen, Zhenjie; Zhang, Tao

    2013-11-21

    Luminescent CdSe semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which are coated with a denatured bovine serum albumin (dBSA) shell, have been directly synthesized via a bioinspired approach. The dBSA coated CdSe QDs are ultrasmall (d < 2.0 nm) with a narrow size distribution and exhibit a strong green fluorescent emission at about 525 nm. They can be stored for months at room temperature and possess excellent stability against ultraviolet irradiation, high salt concentration, and a wide physiological range of pH. Systematic experimental investigations have shown the contribution of dBSA with free cysteine residues for both their effective ion chelating and surface passivating interactions during the formation and stabilization of CdSe QDs. The luminescent QDs are used for copper(II) ion detection due to their highly sensitive and selective fluorescence quenching response to Cu(2+). The concentration dependence of the quenching effect can be best described by the typical Stern-Volmer equation in a linearly proportional concentration of Cu(2+) ranging from 10 nM to 7.5 μM with a detection limit of 5 nM. As confirmed by various characterization results, a possible quenching mechanism is given: Cu(2+) ions are first reduced to Cu(+) by the dBSA shell and then chemical displacement between Cu(+) and Cd(2+) is performed at the surface of the ultrasmall metallic core to impact the fluorescence performance.

  5. Charge carrier resolved relaxation of the first excitonic state in CdSe quantum dots probed with near-infrared transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Eric A; Morris-Cohen, Adam J; Knowles, Kathryn E; Weiss, Emily A

    2010-11-18

    This manuscript describes a global regression analysis of near-infrared (NIR, 900-1300 nm) transient absorptions (TA) of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) photoexcited to their first (1S(e)1S(3/2)) excitonic state. Near-IR TA spectroscopy facilitates charge carrier-resolved analysis of excitonic decay of QDs because signals in the NIR are due exclusively to absorptions of photoexcited electrons and holes, as probe energies in this region are not high enough to induce absorptions across the optical bandgap that crowd the visible TA spectra. The response of each observed component of the excitonic decay to the presence of a hole-trapping ligand (1-octanethiol) and an electron-accepting ligand (1,4-benzoquinone), and comparison of time constants to those for recovery of the ground state bleaching feature in the visible TA spectrum, allow for the assignment of the components to (i) a 1.6 ps hole trapping process, (ii) 19 ps and 274 ps surface-mediated electron trapping processes, and (iii) a ∼5 ns recombination of untrapped electrons.

  6. Structure of Colloidal Quantum Dots from Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Piveteau, Laura; Ong, Ta-Chung; Rossini, Aaron J; Emsley, Lyndon; Copéret, Christophe; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-11-04

    Understanding the chemistry of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is primarily hampered by the lack of analytical methods to selectively and discriminately probe the QD core, QD surface and capping ligands. Here, we present a general concept for studying a broad range of QDs such as CdSe, CdTe, InP, PbSe, PbTe, CsPbBr3, etc., capped with both organic and inorganic surface capping ligands, through dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy. DNP can enhance NMR signals by factors of 10-100, thereby reducing the measurement times by 2-4 orders of magnitude. 1D DNP enhanced spectra acquired in this way are shown to clearly distinguish QD surface atoms from those of the QD core, and environmental effects such as oxidation. Furthermore, 2D NMR correlation experiments, which were previously inconceivable for QD surfaces, are demonstrated to be readily performed with DNP and provide the bonding motifs between the QD surfaces and the capping ligands.

  7. Metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots: Linear and nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. O.; My, R.; Tung, Y.; Ueda, A.; Zhu, J.; Collins, W. E.; Hall, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantion for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. In general the host material is typically a glass such as optical grade silica. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga and As. An emphasis is placed on host guest interactions between the matrix and the implanted ion and how the matrix effects and implantation parameters can be used to obtain designer level optical devices tailored for specific applications. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. In this part of the program, we are particularly interested in characterizing the thermodynamic and optical properties of these non-composite materials. We also address how phase diagram of the confined material is altered by the interfacial properties between the confined material and the pore wall.

  8. Subtle Chemistry of Colloidal, Quantum-Confined Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, B. K.; Luther, J. M.; Beard, M. C.

    2012-06-26

    Nanoscale colloidal semiconductor structures with at least one dimension small enough to experience quantum confinement effects have captured the imagination and attention of scientists interested in controlling various chemical and photophysical processes. Aside from having desirable quantum confinement properties, colloidal nanocrystals are attractive because they are often synthesized in low-temperature, low-cost, and potentially scalable manners using simple benchtop reaction baths. Considerable progress in producing a variety of shapes, compositions, and complex structures has been achieved. However, there are challenges to overcome in order for these novel materials to reach their full potential and become new drivers for commercial applications. The final shape, composition, nanocrystal-ligand structure, and size can depend on a delicate interplay of precursors, surface ligands, and other compounds that may or may not participate in the reaction. In this Perspective, we discuss current efforts toward better understanding how the reactivity of the reagents can be used to produce unique and complex nanostructures.

  9. Sonochemical synthesis of CdS and CdSe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Ping; Xu, Shu; Miao, Jian-Jun; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2006-08-01

    A convenient sonochemical route was developed to fabricate one-dimensional (1D) CdS or CdSe assemblies via a simple template method with two-steps: Firstly, the colloid one dimensional cadmium hydroxide particles were prepared as templates under sonication; then, the colloid particles were converted into 1D CdS or CdSe assemblies via a replacement reaction after the surface nucleation and crystal growth processes. The as-prepared CdS and CdSe nanowires were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, and UV-visible Spectroscopy. The effects of the ultrasonic irradiation were discussed. It is believed that the ultrasound irradiation played a positive role in both the assembly of the colloid cadmium hydroxide particles into the 1D structure and the growth of CdSe and CdS nanowires. The effects of pH on the morphologies of the cadmium hydroxide template were also discussed. The band gaps of the as-prepared 1D CdSe and CdS assemblies were calculated to be 3.1 eV and 4.9 eV, respectively, indicating the quantum size effect. The as-prepared products might have potential applications in nanodevices in future.

  10. Temperature and Wavelength Dependence of Energy Transfer Process Between Quantized States and Surface States in CdSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Qinfeng; Liu, Mingliang; Kong, Lingbin; Jiao, Mengmeng; Mu, Haifeng; Wang, Dehua; Wang, Honggang; Chen, Jiannong; Yang, Chuanlu

    2017-12-01

    Temperature and wavelength dependence of energy transfer (ET) process between quantized states and surface trap states of CdSe quantum dots was investigated, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the quantized states decreases with respect to the trap state emission, especially at lower temperatures. The observed ET process between quantized states and trap states which is influenced by the thermal population behavior. At the same temperature, the silver films can greatly enhance the energy transfer (ET) rate from the quantized states to trap states due to surface plasmonic coupling effect.

  11. Raman analysis of chemical substitution of Cd atoms by Hg in CdSe quantum dots and rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevkov, Sergei A.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Litvin, Alexander P.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Prudnikau, Anatol V.; Artemyev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate nanocrystals of ternary compounds CdXHg1-XSe with 0CdSe NCs used for Cd/Hg substitution, either zinc blende or wurtzite, strongly affects the structural properties of the resultant CdXHg1-XSe quantum dots and rods.

  12. Momentum Transfer Studies and Studies of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metal Colloids and Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Dyer, K.; George, M.; Henderson, D.; Morgan, S.; Mu, R.; Shi, D.; Conner, D; Thompson, E.; Collins, L.; Curry, L.; Mattox, S.; Williams, G.

    1996-01-01

    Phase 1 of this work involved design work on a momentum transfer device. The progress on design and testing will be presented. Phase 2 involved the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project sought to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. The surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be presented. Phase 3 involved metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots. One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantation for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga, and As. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb, and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. The results of some of this work will also be reported.

  13. Hybrid solar cells of micro/mesoporous Zn( and its graphite composites sensitized by CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, SM Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Shi, Lingyan; Ebrahim, Amani M.; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.; Alfano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Quantum efficiencies (QEs) of innovative hybrid solar cells fabricated using micro/mesoporous zinc (hydr)oxide and its graphite-based composites sensitized by semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) are reported. High absorption coefficient of CdSe SQDs and the wide band gap of zinc (hydr)oxide and its composites with graphite oxide (GO) are essential to achieve solar cells of higher QEs. Hybrid solar cells are fabricated from zinc (hydr)oxide and its composites (with 2 and 5 wt.% of graphite oxides, termed as, ZnGO-2 and ZnGO-5, respectively) while using potassium iodide or perovskite as an electrolyte. A two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging technique was used to determine the internal structure of the solar cell device. The photocurrent and current-voltage measurements were used to measure short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage to calculate the fill factor and QE of these solar cells. The highest QE (up to ˜10.62%) is realized for a ZnGO-2-based solar cell using potassium iodide as its electrolyte and the CdSe quantum dot as its sensitizer.

  14. Photoluminescence limiting of colloidal PbS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, B.; Xi, H.; Wang, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The exposure of colloidal 2 nm PbS quantum dots to growing continuous wave laser excitation at 532 nm increases the photoluminescence intensity with the square root of the optical stimulus. The results herein in conjunction with previous findings [B. Ullrich and H. Xi, Opt. Lett. 38, 4698 (2013)] advocate the square root trend to be the general limiting function for photo-carrier transport and emission of optically excited nano-sized materials. We further show that the excitation of one electron-hole pair per quantum dot defines the saturation threshold for photoluminescence intensity and dynamic band filling.

  15. Atomistic Model of Fluorescence Intermittency of Colloidal Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voznyy, O.; Sargent, E. H.

    2014-04-01

    Optoelectronic applications of colloidal quantum dots demand a high emission efficiency, stability in time, and narrow spectral bandwidth. Electronic trap states interfere with the above properties but understanding of their origin remains lacking, inhibiting the development of robust passivation techniques. Here we show that surface vacancies improve the fluorescence yield compared to vacancy-free surfaces, while dynamic vacancy aggregation can temporarily turn fluorescence off. We find that infilling with foreign cations can stabilize the vacancies, inhibiting intermittency and improving quantum yield, providing an explanation of recent experimental observations.

  16. Fast monolayer adsorption and slow energy transfer in CdSe quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kaibo; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed; Torbjörnsson, Magne; Chábera, Pavel; Shao, Shuyan; Zhang, Fengling; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2013-07-25

    A method for CdSe quantum dot (QD) sensitization of ZnO nanowires (NW) with fast adsorption rate is applied. Photoinduced excited state dynamics of the quantum dots in the case of more than monolayer coverage of the nanowires is studied. Transient absorption kinetics reveals an excitation depopulation process of indirectly attached quantum dots with a lifetime of ~4 ns. Photoluminescence and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency show that this process consists of both radiative e-h recombination and nonradiative excitation-to-charge conversion. We argue that the latter occurs via interdot energy transfer from the indirectly attached QDs to the dots with direct contact to the nanowires. From the latter, fast electron injection into ZnO occurs. The energy transfer time constant is found to be around 5 ns.

  17. Carrier cooling in colloidal quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Matthew; Ithurria, Sandrine; Schaller, Richard D; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2012-12-12

    It has recently become possible to chemically synthesize atomically flat semiconductor nanoplatelets with monolayer-precision control over the platelet thickness. It has been suggested that these platelets are quantum wells; that is, carriers in these platelets are confined in one dimension but are free to move in the other two dimensions. Here, we report time-resolved photoluminescence and transient-absorption measurements of carrier relaxation that confirm the quantum-well nature of these nanomaterials. Excitation of the nanoplatelets by an intense laser pulse results in the formation of a high-temperature carrier population that cools back down to ambient temperature on the time scale of several picoseconds. The rapid carrier cooling indicates that the platelets are well-suited for optoelectronic applications such as lasers and modulators.

  18. Quantum effect on parametric dispersion in presence of nonuniform size colloids in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanshpal, R.; Dubey, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2012-05-01

    Quantum effect on parametric dispersion characteristics in ion implanted semiconductors in presence of nonuniform size colloids is analytically investigated in the present report. Nonuniform size colloids are managed through polynomial distribution function in the analysis. Here the used quantum hydrodynamic model is described by a set of hydrodynamic equations (typically continuity and momentum transfer) that include quantum effects via Bohm potential. Bohm potential modified second order optical susceptibility is obtained through nonlinear induced current density in presence of electrons and negatively charged nonuniform size colloids. It is found that parametric dispersion characteristics are greatly influenced by the quantum modifications. The parametric dispersion of the generated signal mode reduces due to the presence of Bohm potential. The required pump intensity at which one achieves maximum dispersion shifts towards higher value in presence of quantum term. Moreover present study also establishes that quantum effect on colloids is inversely proportional to their size; smaller colloids induce more quantum modifications.

  19. Low temperature synthesis of ZnS and CdZnS shells on CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huiguang; Prakash, Arjun; Benoit, Denise N; Jones, Christopher J; Colvin, Vicki L

    2010-06-25

    Methods for synthesizing quantum dots generally rely on very high temperatures to both nucleate and grow core and core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals. In this work, we generate highly monodisperse ZnS and CdZnS shells on CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals at temperatures as low as 65 degrees C by enhancing the precursor solubility. Relatively small amounts of trioctylphosphine and trioctylphosphine oxide have marked effects on the solubility of the metal salts used to form shells; their inclusion in the precursor solutions, which use thiourea as a sulfur source, can lead to homogeneous and fully dissolved solutions. Upon addition to suspensions of quantum dot cores, these precursors deposit as uniform shells; the lowest temperature for shell growth (65 degrees C) yields the thinnest shells (d < 1 nm) while the same process at higher temperatures (180 degrees C) forms thicker shells (d approximately 1-2 nm). The growth of the shell structures, average particle size, size distribution, and shape were examined using optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmittance small angle x-ray scattering. The photoluminescence quantum yield (QY) of the as-prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots ranged from 26% to 46% as compared to 10% for the CdSe cores. This method was further generalized to CdZnS shells by mixing cadmium and zinc acetate precursors. The CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystals have a thicker shell and higher QY (40% versus 36%) as compared to the CdSe/ZnS prepared under similar conditions. These low temperature methods for shell growth are readily amenable to scale-up and can provide a route for economical and less energy intensive production of quantum dots.

  20. Low temperature synthesis of ZnS and CdZnS shells on CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiguang; Prakash, Arjun; Benoit, Denise N.; Jones, Christopher J.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2010-06-01

    Methods for synthesizing quantum dots generally rely on very high temperatures to both nucleate and grow core and core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals. In this work, we generate highly monodisperse ZnS and CdZnS shells on CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals at temperatures as low as 65 °C by enhancing the precursor solubility. Relatively small amounts of trioctylphosphine and trioctylphosphine oxide have marked effects on the solubility of the metal salts used to form shells; their inclusion in the precursor solutions, which use thiourea as a sulfur source, can lead to homogeneous and fully dissolved solutions. Upon addition to suspensions of quantum dot cores, these precursors deposit as uniform shells; the lowest temperature for shell growth (65 °C) yields the thinnest shells (d < 1 nm) while the same process at higher temperatures (180 °C) forms thicker shells (d ~ 1-2 nm). The growth of the shell structures, average particle size, size distribution, and shape were examined using optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmittance small angle x-ray scattering. The photoluminescence quantum yield (QY) of the as-prepared CdSe/ZnS quantum dots ranged from 26% to 46% as compared to 10% for the CdSe cores. This method was further generalized to CdZnS shells by mixing cadmium and zinc acetate precursors. The CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystals have a thicker shell and higher QY (40% versus 36%) as compared to the CdSe/ZnS prepared under similar conditions. These low temperature methods for shell growth are readily amenable to scale-up and can provide a route for economical and less energy intensive production of quantum dots.

  1. Parametric interactions in presence of different size colloids in semiconductor quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vanshpal, R. Sharma, Uttam; Dubey, Swati

    2015-07-31

    Present work is an attempt to investigate the effect of different size colloids on parametric interaction in semiconductor quantum plasma. Inclusion of quantum effect is being done in this analysis through quantum correction term in classical hydrodynamic model of homogeneous semiconductor plasma. The effect is associated with purely quantum origin using quantum Bohm potential and quantum statistics. Colloidal size and quantum correction term modify the parametric dispersion characteristics of ion implanted semiconductor plasma medium. It is found that quantum effect on colloids is inversely proportional to their size. Moreover critical size of implanted colloids for the effective quantum correction is determined which is found to be equal to the lattice spacing of the crystal.

  2. Study of optical nonlinearity of CdSe and CdSe@ZnO core-shell quantum dots in nanosecond regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepika; Dhar, Rakesh; Mohan, Devendra

    2015-12-01

    Thioglycolic acid capped cadmium selenide (CdSe) and CdSe@ZnO core-shell quantum dots have been synthesized in aqueous phase. The sample was characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, TEM and Z-scan technique. The nonlinear optical parameters viz. nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ3) of quantum dots have been estimated using second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser. The study predicts that CdSe@ZnO quantum dots exhibits strong nonlinearity as compared to core CdSe quantum dots. The nonlinearity in quantum dots is attributed to the presence of resonant excitation and free optical processes. The presence of RSA in these nanoparticles makes them a potential material for the development of optical limiter.

  3. Colloidal quantum dots for fluorescent labels of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, P.; Kouznetsov, V.; Martinez Bonilla, C.; Dezhurov, S.; Krilsky, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Morenkov, O.; Vrublevskaya, V.; Tsygankov, P.; Ibragimova, S.; Rybakova, A.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and their bioconjugates with proteins. Various QDs were obtained as well with synthesis method in an organic solvent followed by hydrophilization and functionalization or synthesis in aqueous phase provides obtaining hydrophilic QDs directly. Particular attention is paid to the synthesis of QDs as fluorescent tags in the near infrared where minimum absorption occurs and the fluorescence of biological tissue and synthetic materials used in analytical systems. A method for the QDs synthesis of type fluorescent core/shell CdTeSe/CdS/CdZnS-PolyT with mixed telluride, selenide cadmium core with a high quantum yield and high resistance to photoaging. It is shown that these quantum dots may be effectively used in the immunoassay.

  4. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of

  5. Photoinduced electron donor/acceptor processes in colloidal II-VI semiconductor quantum dots and nitroxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Poulami

    Electron transfer (ET) processes are one of the most researched topics for applications ranging from energy conversion to catalysis. An exciting variation is utilizing colloidal semiconductor nanostructures to explore such processes. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a novel class of light harvesting, emitting and charge-separation materials for applications such as solar energy conversion. Detailed knowledge of the quantitative dissociation of the photogenerated excitons and the interfacial charge- (electron/hole) transfer is essential for optimization of the overall efficiency of many such applications. Organic free radicals are the attractive counterparts for studying ET to/from QDs because these undergo single-electron transfer steps in reversible fashion. Nitroxides are an exciting class of stable organic free radicals, which have recently been demonstrated to be efficient as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells, making them even more interesting for the aforementioned studies. This dissertation investigates the interaction between nitroxide free radicals TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), 4-amino-TEMPO (4-amino- 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and II-VI semiconductor (CdSe and CdTe) QDs. The nature of interaction in these hybrids has been examined through ground-state UV-Vis absorbance, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transient absorbance, upconversion photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The detailed analysis of the PL quenching indicates that the intrinsic charge transfer is ultrafast however, the overall quenching is still limited by the lower binding capacities and slower diffusion related kinetics. Careful analysis of the time resolved PL decay kinetics reveal that the decay rate constants are distributed and that the trap states are involved in the overall quenching process. The ultrafast hole transfer from CdSe QDs to 4-Amino TEMPO observed

  6. The influence of sequential ligand exchange and elimination on the performance of P3HT: CdSe quantum dot hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donggu; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Myeongjin; Kim, Jun Young; Song, Jiyun; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lee, Seonghoon; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Changhee

    2015-11-20

    We report on a sequential ligand exchange and elimination process for the fast and easy surface modification of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in order to improve the electronic interaction between poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and CdSe QDs in P3HT:CdSe hybrid solar cells. We systematically investigated the influence of surface treatment on the insulating ligand shell of CdSe QDs using (1)H-NMR analysis, and correlated their influence on the photovoltaic properties of P3HT:CdSe hybrid solar cells. A decrease in the average thickness of the ligand shells directly improved carrier transport properties. Moreover, the presence of remnant 1-hexylamine ligands provided efficient surface trap passivation. As a result, overall solar cell performance (especially fill factor and power conversion efficiency) was enhanced and the recombination mechanism was dominated by monomolecular recombination due to enhanced carrier collection length (l(C0)).

  7. Enhancing the conversion efficiency of red emission by spin-coating CdSe quantum dots on the green nanorod light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Lee, Chia-Jung; Cheng, Chun-Mao

    2010-11-08

    A hybrid structure of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) (λ = 640 nm) spin-coated on the indium gallium nitride (InGaN) nanorod light-emitting diode (LED, λ = 525 nm) is successfully fabricated. Experimental results indicate that the randomness and the minuteness of nanorods scatter the upcoming green light into the surrounding CdSe QDs efficiently, subsequently alleviating the likelihood of the emitted photons of red emission being recaptured by the CdSe QDs (self-absorption effect), and that increases the coupling probability of emission lights and the overall conversion efficiency. Moreover, the revealed structure with high color stability provides an alternative solution for general lighting applications of next generation.

  8. Asymmetric tunneling rates for electrons and holes at CdSe quantum dot/carbon nanotube interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Jiang, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Decorating carbon nanotubes with CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is one potential approach for creating high efficiency photovoltaics. Our collaborators at Yale recently produced a ligand-free covalent attachment of CdSe QDs to carbon nanotubes through an organic ligand exchange mechanism. Our prior first principles work described the energetics of the various binding processes and rationalized the experimental growth methodology. After a brief review of the system, we will describe our intriguing finding that excited electrons and holes tunnel with different rates out of the QD and into the carbon nanotubes. The asymmetric tunneling rate itself can, in principle, boost the separation of photo-excited charge at the interface even if there are insufficient band energy differences across the interface. We describe our results for the tunneling rates computed using (i) a brute force approach with increasing simulation cell size to remove periodic effects, and (ii) a Green's function method that directly connects the QD to a thermodynamically large electron reservoir (e.g., a very long pristine nanotube). Supported by NSF SOLAR DMR 0934520.

  9. Mechanism for strong binding of CdSe quantum dots to multiwall carbon nanotubes for solar energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Azoz, Seyla; Jiang, Jie; Keskar, Gayatri; McEnally, Charles; Alkas, Alp; Ren, Fang; Marinkovic, Nebojsa; Haller, Gary L; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Pfefferle, Lisa D

    2013-08-07

    As hybrid nanomaterials have myriad of applications in modern technology, different functionalization strategies are being intensely sought for preparing nanocomposites with tunable properties and structures. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT)/CdSe Quantum Dot (QD) heterostructures serve as an important example for an active component of solar cells. The attachment mechanism of CdSe QDs and MWNTs is known to affect the charge transfer between them and consequently to alter the efficiency of solar cell devices. In this study, we present a novel method that enables the exchange of some of the organic capping agents on the QDs with carboxyl functionalized MWNTs upon ultrasonication. This produces a ligand-free covalent attachment of the QDs to the MWNTs. EXAFS characterization reveals direct bond formation between the CdSe QDs and the MWNTs. The amount of oleic acid exchanged is quantified by temperature-programmed decomposition; the results indicate that roughly half of the oleic acid is removed from the QDs upon functionalized MWNT addition. Additionally, we characterize the optical and structural properties of the QD-MWNT heterostructures and investigate how these properties are affected by the attachment. The steady state photoluminescence response of QDs is completely quenched. The lifetime of the PL of the QDs measured with time resolved photoluminescence shows a significant decrease after they are covalently bonded to functionalized MWNTs, suggesting a fast charge transfer between QDs and MWNTs. Our theoretical calculations are consistent with and support these experimental findings and provide microscopic models for the QD binding mechanisms.

  10. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of functionalized CdSe quantum dots prepared by plasma sputtering and wet chemistry.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Christophe; Dahi, Abdellatif; Dalstein, Laetitia; Busson, Bertrand; Lismont, Marjorie; Colson, Pierre; Dreesen, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    We develop an innovative manufacturing process, based on radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), to prepare neat CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on glass and silicon substrates and further chemically functionalize them. In order to validate the fabrication protocol, their optical properties are compared with those of QDs obtained from commercial solutions and deposited by wet chemistry on the substrates. Firstly, AFM measurements attest that nano-objects with a mean diameter around 13 nm are located on the substrate after RFMS treatment. Secondly, the UV-Vis absorption study of this deposited layer shows a specific optical absorption band, located at 550 nm, which is related to a discrete energy level of QDs. Thirdly, by using two-color sum-frequency generation (2C-SFG) nonlinear optical spectroscopy, we show experimentally the functionalization efficiency of the RFMS CdSe QDs layer with thiol derived molecules, which is not possible on the QDs layer prepared by wet chemistry due to the surfactant molecules from the native solution. Finally, 2C-SFG spectroscopy, performed at different visible wavelengths, highlights modifications of the vibration mode shape whatever the QDs deposition method, which is correlated to the discrete energy level of the QDs.

  11. Magnetic-field-dependent spin decoherence and dephasing in room-temperature CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumani, A. Khastehdel; Berezovsky, J.

    2013-10-01

    We perform and analyze a series of time-resolved Faraday rotation measurements of coherent spin dynamics in a room-temperature ensemble of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots (NCQDs) to study the decoherence and dephasing mechanisms that limit the transverse spin lifetime. Coherent spin lifetimes on the order of nanoseconds have been previously observed in CdSe NCQDs, but the presence of multiple components with distinct dynamics and strong inhomogeneous dephasing have made it difficult to study the relevant spin decay mechanisms quantitatively. Here, we obtain reliable fitting results by ensuring that cross-correlations between model parameters are minimized for the parameters of interest. Furthermore, we characterize the morphological inhomogeneity of the NCQD ensemble using transmission electron microscopy to constrain the model parameters that specify inhomogeneous dephasing. We find that g-factor inhomogeneity-induced dephasing (gID) is not sufficient to explain the magnetic-field-dependent decay of the spin signal. We propose an additional decoherence mechanism arising from rapid transitions between the fine structure states of the exciton referred to as fine-structure decoherence (FSD). By including both gID and FSD in the model, excellent fits are obtained to the data, including a prominent short-time-scale feature, which has typically been excluded from the fits in previous work.

  12. Effects of morphology, diameter and periodic distance of the Ag nanoparticle periodic arrays on the enhancement of the plasmonic field absorption in the CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnehpoushi, Saman; Eskandari, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Yousefirad, Mansooreh; Nabavi, Elham

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the numerical calculations of plasmonic field absorption of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) periodic arrays in the CdSe quantum dot (QD) film are investigated by the three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD). Diameter (D), periodic distance (P), and morphology effects of Ag NPs are investigated on the improvement of the plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film. Results show that plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film is enhanced with reduction of D of Ag NPs until 5 nm and reduces thereafter. It is observed that with raising D of Ag NPs, optimum plasmonic field absorption in CdSe QD film is shifted toward the higher P. Moreover, with varying morphology of Ag NPs from spherical to cylindrical, cubic, ringing and pyramid, the plasmonic field absorption is considerably enhanced in CdSe QD film and position of quadrupole plasmon mode (QPPM) is shifted toward further wavelength. For cylindrical Ag NPs, the QPPM intensity increased with raising height (H) until 15 nm and reduces thereafter.

  13. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Illan J.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Minor, James C.; Kopilovic, Damir; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-10-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods—such as spin-coating—that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  14. Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Supran, Geoffrey J.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulović, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Since their inception 18 years ago, electrically driven colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs) have increased in external quantum efficiency from less than 0.01% to around 18%. The high luminescence efficiency and uniquely size-tunable colour of solution-processable semiconducting colloidal QDs highlight the potential of QD-LEDs for use in energy-efficient, high-colour-quality thin-film display and solid-state lighting applications. Indeed, last year saw the first demonstrations of electrically driven full-colour QD-LED displays, which foreshadow QD technologies that will transcend the optically excited QD-enhanced lighting products already available today. We here discuss the key advantages of using QDs as luminophores in LEDs and outline the operating mechanisms of four types of QD-LED. State-of-the-art visible-wavelength LEDs and the promise of near-infrared and heavy-metal-free devices are also highlighted. As QD-LED efficiencies approach those of molecular organic LEDs, we identify the key scientific and technological challenges facing QD-LED commercialization and offer our outlook for on-going strategies to overcome these challenges.

  15. Insertion of CdSe quantum dots in ZnSe nanowires: MBE growth and microstructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hertog, M.; Elouneg-Jamroz, M.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bounouar, S.; Bougerol, C.; André, R.; Genuist, Y.; Poizat, J. P.; Kheng, K.; Tatarenko, S.

    2011-05-01

    ZnSe nanowire growth has been successfully achieved on ZnSe (1 0 0) and (1 1 1)B buffer layers deposited on GaAs substrates. Cubic [1 0 0] oriented ZnSe nanowires or [0 0 0 1] oriented hexagonal NWs are obtained on (1 0 0) substrates while [1 1 1] oriented cubic mixed with [0 0 0 1] oriented hexagonal regions are obtained on (1 1 1)B substrates. Most of the NWs are perpendicular to the surface in the last case. CdSe quantum dots were successfully incorporated in the ZnSe NWs as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, energy filtered TEM and high angle annular dark field scanning TEM measurements.

  16. Exciton-phonon coupling efficiency in CdSe quantum dots embedded in ZnSe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounouar, S.; Morchutt, C.; Elouneg-Jamroz, M.; Besombes, L.; André, R.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bougerol, C.; den Hertog, M.; Kheng, K.; Tatarenko, S.; Poizat, J. Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Exciton luminescence of a CdSe quantum dot (QD) inserted in a ZnSe nanowire is strongly influenced by the dark exciton states. Because of the small size of these QDs (2-5 nm), exchange interaction between hole and electron is highly enhanced and we measured large energy splitting between bright and dark exciton states (ΔE∈[4,9.2] meV) and large spin-flip rates between these states. Statistics on many QDs showed that this splitting depends on the QD size. Moreover, we measured an increase of the spin-flip rate to the dark states with increasing energy splitting. We explain this observation with a model, taking into account the fact that the exciton-phonon interaction depends on the bright to dark exciton energy splitting, as well as on the size and shape of the exciton wave function. It also has consequences on the exciton line intensity at high temperature.

  17. Non-volatile resistive memory device fabricated from CdSe quantum dot embedded in thermally grown In2O3 nanostructure by oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, V.; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Hyun-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report In2O3/CdSe quantum dot based non-volatile resistive memory device with ON/OFF ratio ∼1000. Indium nanostructures were grown by oblique angle deposition technique in a thermal evaporator. Indium oxide nanostructures had size ranging from 20 nm to 100 nm as observed from TEM and AFM methods. The facile device fabricated with a layer of CdSe quantum dot on indium oxide film exhibited excellent endurance characteristics over 100,000 switching cycles. Retention tests showed good stability for over 4000 s. Memory operating mechanism is proposed based on charge trapping/de-trapping in quantum dots with indium oxide acting as barrier leading to Coulomb blockade. The mechanism is supported by negative differential resistance (NDR) observed exclusively in the ON state.

  18. Colloidal GaAs quantum wires: solution-liquid-solid synthesis and quantum-confinement studies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Angang; Yu, Heng; Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2008-05-07

    Colloidal GaAs quantum wires with diameters of 5-11 nm and narrow diameter distributions (standard deviation = 12-21% of the mean diameter) are grown by two methods based on the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) mechanism. Resolved excitonic absorption features arising from GaAs quantum wires are detected, allowing extraction of the size-dependent effective band gaps of the wires. The results allow the first systematic comparison of the size dependences of the effective band gaps in corresponding sets of semiconductor quantum wires and quantum wells. The GaAs quantum wire and well band gaps scale according to the prediction of a simple effective-mass-approximation, particle-in-a-box (EMA-PIB) model, which estimates the kinetic confinement energies of electron-hole pairs in quantum nanostructures of different shapes and confinement dimensionalities.

  19. High performance of Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on the vertical ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Juan; Zhao, Haifeng; Huang, Fei; Jing, Qun; Cao, Haibin; Wu, Qiang; Peng, Shanglong; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-09-01

    Doping transition metal ions Mn2+ to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extremely interesting for the development of photovoltaic devices. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are able to show promising power conversion efficiencies (PCE) by employing Mn2+ doped QDs. Herein we achieve effective CdS/Mnsbnd CdSe/ZnS QDs co-sensitized vertical ZnO nanorod arrays film that provides an appreciable enhancement in photovoltaic performance. The measured PCE of the solar cells with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs is 4.14%, which is higher than the efficiency of 2.91% for the solar cells without Mn2+ or a ∼42% increase. The improvement in PCE is ascribed to a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc = 0.74 V) and a superior short-circuit current density (Jsc = 12.6 mA cm-2) with the introduction of Mn2+ into CdSe QDs. The enhancement seen with Mn2+ doped CdSe QDs are investigated and explained by the fact that the enhanced light absorption and reduced charge recombination by the formation of Mnsbnd CdSe passivation layer covering the QDs.

  20. Exciton fine structure and spin relaxation in semiconductor colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongho; Wong, Cathy Y; Scholes, Gregory D

    2009-08-18

    Quantum dots (QDs) have discrete quantum states isolated from the environment, making QDs well suited for quantum information processing. In semiconductor QDs, the electron spins can be coherently oriented by photoexcitation using circularly polarized light, creating optical orientation. The optically induced spin orientation could serve as a unit for data storage and processing. Carrier spin orientation is also envisioned to be a key component in a related, though parallel, field of semiconductor spintronics. However, the oriented spin population rapidly loses its coherence by interaction with the environment, thereby erasing the prepared information. Since long-lasting spin orientation is desirable in both areas of investigation, spin relaxation is the central focus of investigation for optimization of device performance. In this Account, we discuss a topic peripherally related to these emerging areas of investigation: exciton fine structure relaxation (EFSR). The radiationless transition occurring in the exciton fine structure not only highlights a novel aspect of QD exciton relaxation but also has implications for carrier spin relaxation in QDs. We focus on examining the EFSR in connection with optical spin orientation and subsequent ultrafast relaxation of electron and hole spin densities in the framework of the exciton fine structure basis. Despite its significance, the study of exciton fine structure in colloidal QDs has been hampered by the experimental challenge arising from inhomogeneous line broadening that obscures the details of closely spaced fine structure states in the frequency domain. In this Account, we show that spin relaxation occurring in the fine structure of CdSe QDs can be probed by a time-domain nonlinear polarization spectroscopy, circumventing the obstacles confronted in the frequency-domain spectroscopy. In particular, by combining polarization sequences of multiple optical pulses with the unique optical selection rules of

  1. Hot spot assisted blinking suppression of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liu; Tong, Xuan; Zhang, Xu; Ren, Naifei; Jiang, Bo; Lu, Haifei

    2016-05-01

    This work compares the blinking of CdSe QDs on glass, single silver nanowire, and double aligned nanowires. The corresponding on-time fractions of these three cases are 50%, 70% and 85% respectively, which indicates that aligned double nanowires shows more efficient suppression than that of single nanowire. This phenomenon is attributed to the higher concentration of hot electron from hot spot between nanowires. Occupation of the non-radiative recombination centers by hot electrons from silver nanowires can be explained for the suppressed blinking behavior. The result has provided a novel pathway of suppressing the blinking behavior of QDs through plasmonic hot spot.

  2. Air-stable n-type colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Pan, Jun; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adinolfi, Valerio; Xu, Jixian; Li, Min; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Sun, Jon-Paul; Minor, James; Kemp, Kyle W; Dong, Haopeng; Rollny, Lisa; Labelle, André; Carey, Graham; Sutherland, Brandon; Hill, Ian; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Huan; Tang, Jiang; Bakr, Osman M; Sargent, Edward H

    2014-08-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer promise in flexible electronics, light sensing and energy conversion. These applications rely on rectifying junctions that require the creation of high-quality CQD solids that are controllably n-type (electron-rich) or p-type (hole-rich). Unfortunately, n-type semiconductors made using soft matter are notoriously prone to oxidation within minutes of air exposure. Here we report high-performance, air-stable n-type CQD solids. Using density functional theory we identify inorganic passivants that bind strongly to the CQD surface and repel oxidative attack. A materials processing strategy that wards off strong protic attack by polar solvents enabled the synthesis of an air-stable n-type PbS CQD solid. This material was used to build an air-processed inverted quantum junction device, which shows the highest current density from any CQD solar cell and a solar power conversion efficiency as high as 8%. We also feature the n-type CQD solid in the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of atmospheric NO2. This work paves the way for new families of electronic devices that leverage air-stable quantum-tuned materials.

  3. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells exploiting hierarchical structuring.

    PubMed

    Labelle, André J; Thon, Susanna M; Masala, Silvia; Adachi, Michael M; Dong, Haopeng; Farahani, Maryam; Ip, Alexander H; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-02-11

    Extremely thin-absorber solar cells offer low materials utilization and simplified manufacture but require improved means to enhance photon absorption in the active layer. Here, we report enhanced-absorption colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells that feature transfer-stamped solution-processed pyramid-shaped electrodes employed in a hierarchically structured device. The pyramids increase, by up to a factor of 2, the external quantum efficiency of the device at absorption-limited wavelengths near the absorber band edge. We show that absorption enhancement can be optimized with increased pyramid angle with an appreciable net improvement in power conversion efficiency, that is, with the gain in current associated with improved absorption and extraction overcoming the smaller fractional decrease in open-circuit voltage associated with increased junction area. We show that the hierarchical combination of micron-scale structured electrodes with nanoscale films provides for an optimized enhancement at absorption-limited wavelengths. We fabricate 54.7° pyramid-patterned electrodes, conformally apply the quantum dot films, and report pyramid CQD solar cells that exhibit a 24% improvement in overall short-circuit current density with champion devices providing a power conversion efficiency of 9.2%.

  4. Colloidal quantum dots for low-cost MWIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciani, Anthony J.; Pimpinella, Richard E.; Grein, Christoph H.; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Monodisperse suspensions of HgTe colloidal quantum dots (CQD) are readily synthesized with infrared energy gaps between 3 and 12 microns. Infrared photodetection using dried films of these CQDs has been demonstrated up to a wavelength of 12 microns, and HgTe CQD single-elemnet devices with 3.6 micron cutoff have bee nreported nad show ogod absorption <(10^4 cm^-1), response time and detectivity (2*10^10 Jones) at at emperature of 175 K; with the potential fo uncooled imaging. The synthesis of CQDs and fabrication of detector devices employ bench-top chemistry techniques, leading to the potential for rapid, wafer-scale manufacture of MWIR imaging devices with low production costs and overhead. The photoconductive, photovoltaic and optical properties of HgTe CQD films will be discussed relative to infrared imaging, along with recent achievements in integrating CQD films with readout integrated circuits to produce CQD-based MWIR focal plane arrays.

  5. Absorption of light by colloidal semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokutnyi, Sergey I.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg V.; Kondratenko, Tamara S.

    2016-07-01

    UV-Vis absorption of colloidal cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by an aqueous synthesis in a gelatin matrix was investigated. Using the dipole approximation, taking into account the Coulomb interaction between the electron and hole in a QD and the polarization effects on the spherical boundary of QD and matrix, it was found the change of selection rules for optical transitions. It is shown that the optical absorption edge of QDs is formed by two optical transitions of electron between low-excited levels of size quantization of heavy hole (1S and 2S), located in QDs valence band and fundamental size-quantized states 1Se of conduction band. These transitions are identical in intensity. Estimations of average values of CdS QDs radius were realized using the developed formalism for UV-Vis absorption spectra. These data were compared with experimental values of this parameter, obtained using transmission electron microscope.

  6. Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cuong; Lee, Joonhee; Breen, Craig; Steckel, Jonathan S; Coe-Sullivan, Seth; Nurmikko, Arto

    2012-04-29

    Colloidal quantum dots exhibit efficient photoluminescence with widely tunable bandgaps as a result of quantum confinement effects. Such quantum dots are emerging as an appealing complement to epitaxial semiconductor laser materials, which are ubiquitous and technologically mature, but unable to cover the full visible spectrum (red, green and blue; RGB). However, the requirement for high colloidal-quantum-dot packing density, and losses due to non-radiative multiexcitonic Auger recombination, have hindered the development of lasers based on colloidal quantum dots. Here, we engineer CdSe/ZnCdS core/shell colloidal quantum dots with aromatic ligands, which form densely packed films exhibiting optical gain across the visible spectrum with less than one exciton per colloidal quantum dot on average. This single-exciton gain allows the films to reach the threshold of amplified spontaneous emission at very low optical pump energy densities of 90 µJ cm(-2), more than one order of magnitude better than previously reported values. We leverage the low-threshold gain of these nanocomposite films to produce the first colloidal-quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (CQD-VCSEL). Our results represent a significant step towards full-colour single-material lasers.

  7. Efficient CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells prepared by an improved successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyojoong; Wang, Mingkui; Chen, Peter; Gamelin, Daniel R; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Md K

    2009-12-01

    In pursuit of efficient quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cells based on mesoporous TiO(2) photoanodes, a new procedure for preparing selenide (Se(2-)) was developed and used for depositing CdSe QDs in situ over TiO(2) mesopores by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process in ethanol. The sizes and density of CdSe QDs over TiO(2) were controlled by the number of SILAR cycles applied. After some optimization of these QD-sensitized TiO(2) films in regenerative photoelectrochemical cells using a cobalt redox couple [Co(o-phen)(3)(2+/3+)], including addition of a final layer of CdTe, over 4% overall efficiencies were achieved at 100 W/m(2) with about 50% IPCE at its maximum. Light-harvesting properties and transient voltage decay/impedance measurements confirmed that CdTe-terminated CdSe QD cells gave better charge-collection efficiencies and kinetic parameters than corresponding CdSe QD cells. In a preliminary study, a CdSe(Te) QD-sensitized TiO(2) film was combined with an organic hole conductor, spiro-OMeTAD, and shown to exhibit a promising efficiency of 1.6% at 100 W/m(2) in inorganic/organic hybrid all-solid-state cells.

  8. Electronic structures in a CdSe spherical quantum dot in a magnetic field: Diagonalization method and variational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shudong; Wan, Li

    2012-03-01

    The electronic structures of a CdSe spherical quantum dot in a magnetic field are obtained by using an exact diagonalization method and a variational method within the effective-mass approximation. The dependences of the energies and wave functions of electron states, exciton binding energy, exciton transition energy, and exciton diamagnetic shift on the applied magnetic field are investigated theoretically in detail. It is observed that the degeneracy of magnetic quantum number m is removed due to the Zeeman effect when the magnetic field is present. For the states with m ≥ 0, the electron energies increase as the magnetic field increases. However, for the states with m < 0, the electron energies decrease to a minimum, and then increase with increasing the magnetic field. The energies and wave functions of electron states obtained from the variational method based on the variational functions we proposed are in excellent agreement with the results obtained from the exact diagonalization method we presented. A comparison between the results obtained from the variational functions proposed by us and Xiao is also verified.

  9. Chirality Inversion of CdSe and CdS Quantum Dots without Changing the Stereochemistry of the Capping Ligand.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Haynie, Benjamin E; Tohgha, Urice; Pap, Levente; Elliott, K Wade; Leonard, Brian M; Dzyuba, Sergei V; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Balaz, Milan

    2016-03-22

    L-cysteine derivatives induce and modulate the optical activity of achiral cadmium selenide (CdSe) and cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs). Remarkably, N-acetyl-L-cysteine-CdSe and L-homocysteine-CdSe as well as N-acetyl-L-cysteine-CdS and L-cysteine-CdS showed "mirror-image" circular dichroism (CD) spectra regardless of the diameter of the QDs. This is an example of the inversion of the CD signal of QDs by alteration of the ligand's structure, rather than inversion of the ligand's absolute configuration. Non-empirical quantum chemical simulations of the CD spectra were able to reproduce the experimentally observed sign patterns and demonstrate that the inversion of chirality originated from different binding arrangements of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and L-homocysteine-CdSe to the QD surface. These efforts may allow the prediction of the ligand-induced chiroptical activity of QDs by calculating the specific binding modes of the chiral capping ligands. Combined with the large pool of available chiral ligands, our work opens a robust approach to the rational design of chiral semiconducting nanomaterials.

  10. Solar cells based on inks of n-type colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Dong, Haopeng; Zhang, Qiong; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H

    2014-10-28

    New inorganic ligands including halide anions have significantly accelerated progress in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics in recent years. All such device reports to date have relied on halide treatment during solid-state ligand exchanges or on co-treatment of long-aliphatic-ligand-capped nanoparticles in the solution phase. Here we report solar cells based on a colloidal quantum dot ink that is capped using halide-based ligands alone. By judicious choice of solvents and ligands, we developed a CQD ink from which a homogeneous and thick colloidal quantum dot solid is applied in a single step. The resultant films display an n-type character, making it suitable as a key component in a solar-converting device. We demonstrate two types of quantum junction devices that exploit these iodide-ligand-based inks. We achieve solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% using this class of colloids.

  11. Generation of fluorescent CdSe nanocrystals by short-pulse laser fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zholudov, Yu. T.; Sajti, C. L.; Slipchenko, N. N.; Chichkov, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    A simple liquid-phase laser fragmentation approach, resulting in the rapid transformation of CdSe microcrystals into colloidal quantum dots (QDs), is presented. Laser fragmentation is achieved by irradiating a CdSe suspension in dimethylformamide with intense infrared, picosecond laser pulses followed by surface passivation with oleylamine or different types of phosphines. The generated QDs reveal perfect colloidal stability preventing agglomeration and precipitation, and show characteristic QD absorption and fluorescence characteristics, whereas their emission properties strongly depend on the surface states and applied capping ligands. These QDs show distinct photoemission under 405-nm single-photon and 800-nm multi-photon excitations in the 560- to 610-nm spectral region corresponding to the QDs size of about 1.5-2 nm in diameter which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Infrared colloidal quantum dots for photovoltaics: fundamentals and recent progress.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiang; Sargent, Edward H

    2011-01-04

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are solution-processed semiconductors of interest in low-cost photovoltaics. Tuning of the bandgap of CQD films via the quantum size effect enables customization of solar cells' absorption profile to match the sun's broad visible- and infrared-containing spectrum reaching the earth. Here we review recent progress in the realization of low-cost, efficient solar cells based on CQDs. We focus in particular on CQD materials and approaches that provide both infrared and visible-wavelength solar power conversion CQD photovoltaics now exceed 5% solar power conversion efficiency, achieved by the introduction of a new architecture, the depleted-heterojunction CQD solar cell, that jointly maximizes current, voltage, and fill factor. CQD solar cells have also seen major progress in materials processing for stability, recently achieving extended operating lifetimes in an air ambient. We summarize progress both in device operation and also in gaining new insights into materials properties and processing - including new electrical contact materials and deposition techniques, as well as CQD synthesis, surface treatments, film-forming technologies - that underpin these rapid advances.

  13. Vectorial electron transfer for improved hydrogen evolution by mercaptopropionic-acid-regulated CdSe quantum-dots-TiO2 -Ni(OH)2 assembly.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Li, Zhi-Jun; Fan, Xiang-Bing; Li, Jia-Xin; Zhan, Fei; Li, Xu-Bing; Tao, Ye; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2015-02-01

    A visible-light-induced hydrogen evolution system based on a CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-TiO2 -Ni(OH)2 ternary assembly has been constructed under an ambient environment, and a bifunctional molecular linker, mercaptopropionic acid, is used to facilitate the interaction between CdSe QDs and TiO2 . This hydrogen evolution system works effectively in a basic aqueous solution (pH 11.0) to achieve a hydrogen evolution rate of 10.1 mmol g(-1)  h(-1) for the assembly and a turnover frequency of 5140 h(-1) with respect to CdSe QDs (10 h); the latter is comparable with the highest value reported for QD systems in an acidic environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and control experiments demonstrate that Ni(OH)2 is an efficient hydrogen evolution catalyst. In addition, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and the emission decay of the assembly combined with the hydrogen evolution experiments show that TiO2 functions mainly as the electron mediator; the vectorial electron transfer from CdSe QDs to TiO2 and then from TiO2 to Ni(OH)2 enhances the efficiency for hydrogen evolution. The assembly comprises light antenna CdSe QDs, electron mediator TiO2 , and catalytic Ni(OH)2 , which mimics the strategy of photosynthesis exploited in nature and takes us a step further towards artificial photosynthesis.

  14. Synthesis of water-soluble CdSe quantum dots with various fluorescent properties and their application in immunoassay for determination of C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, V K

    2014-09-01

    Effects of various factors on synthesis and fluorescent properties of CdSe quantum dots were studied. It was shown that variation of pH, stabilizer and concentration of precursors brings to obtaining of quantum dots with various fluorescent properties. The nanoparticles prepared were conjugated with rabbit antibodies to C-Reactive protein and C-Reactive protein for competitive immunoassay for determination of CRP. It was shown that interaction of these dots as a result of antigen-antibody reaction brings to resonance energy transfer and these changes in fluorescence spectra correlate with concentration of CRP. This approach permits to determine CRP in range between 4-100 ng.

  15. Anisotropy of electron-phonon interaction in nanoscale CdSe platelets as seen via off-resonant and resonant Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Fedorov, A. V.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.; Baranov, A. V.

    2013-07-01

    The off-resonant and resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets (NPLs) with the thickness of 4, 5, and 6 CdSe monolayers are analyzed. These spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe whose frequencies are thickness independent in the off-resonant Raman but demonstrate evident thickness dependence similar to that observed for confined optical phonons in CdSe quantum dots in the resonant Raman. The results show that conventional optical phonons propagating along the NPL lateral planes contribute mainly to the off-resonant Raman while confined optical phonons propagating in the perpendicular direction dominate the Raman spectra excited in the resonance with confined exciton transitions of CdSe NPLs. An anisotropic electron-phonon interaction is proposed to be responsible for this effect in the CdSe NPLs. A formation of Cd-S monolayer on the surface of CdSe NPLs treated by thiol-containing ligands is also detected in Raman spectra.

  16. Coexpression of CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots in live cells using molecular hyperspectral imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Peng, Hui; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-11-01

    A direct spatial and spectral observation of CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) as probes in live cells is performed by using a custom molecular hyperspectral imaging (MHI) system. Water-soluble CdSe and CdSe/CdS QDs are synthesized in aqueous solution under the assistance of high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation and incubated with colon cancer cells for bioimaging. Unlike the traditional fluorescence microscopy methods, MHI technology can identify QD probes according to their spectral signatures and generate coexpression and stain titer maps by a clustering method. The experimental results show that the MHI method has potential to unmix biomarkers by their spectral information, which opens up a pathway of optical multiplexing with many different QD probes.

  17. Coexpression of CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots in live cells using molecular hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Peng, Hui; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-11-01

    A direct spatial and spectral observation of CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) as probes in live cells is performed by using a custom molecular hyperspectral imaging (MHI) system. Water-soluble CdSe and CdSe/CdS QDs are synthesized in aqueous solution under the assistance of high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation and incubated with colon cancer cells for bioimaging. Unlike the traditional fluorescence microscopy methods, MHI technology can identify QD probes according to their spectral signatures and generate coexpression and stain titer maps by a clustering method. The experimental results show that the MHI method has potential to unmix biomarkers by their spectral information, which opens up a pathway of optical multiplexing with many different QD probes.

  18. Double-sided CdS and CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized ZnO nanowire arrays for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongming; Yang, Xunyu; Qian, Fang; Zhang, Jin Z; Li, Yat

    2010-03-10

    We report the design and characterization of a novel double-sided CdS and CdSe quantum dot cosensitized ZnO nanowire arrayed photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation. The double-sided design represents a simple analogue of tandem cell structure, in which the dense ZnO nanowire arrays were grown on an indium-tin oxide substrate followed by respective sensitization of CdS and CdSe quantum dots on each side. As-fabricated photoanode exhibited strong absorption in nearly the entire visible spectrum up to 650 nm, with a high incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) of approximately 45% at 0 V vs Ag/AgCl. On the basis on a single white light illumination of 100 mW/cm(2), the photoanode yielded a significant photocurrent density of approximately 12 mA/cm(2) at 0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. The photocurrent and IPCE were enhanced compared to single quantum dot sensitized structures as a result of the band alignment of CdS and CdSe in electrolyte. Moreover, in comparison to single-sided cosensitized layered structures, this double-sided architecture that enables direct interaction between quantum dot and nanowire showed improved charge collection efficiency. Our result represents the first double-sided nanowire photoanode that integrates uniquely two semiconductor quantum dots of distinct band gaps for PEC hydrogen generation and can be possibly applied to other applications such as nanostructured tandem photovoltaic cells.

  19. Quantitative assessment of Tn antigen in breast tissue micro-arrays using CdSe aqueous quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Au, Giang H T; Mejias, Linette; Swami, Vanlila K; Brooks, Ari D; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we examined the use of CdSe aqueous quantum dots (AQDs) each conjugated to three streptavidin as a fluorescent label to image Tn antigen expression in various breast tissues via a sandwich staining procedure where the primary monoclonal anti-Tn antibody was bound to the Tn antigen on the tissue, a biotin-labeled secondary antibody was bound to the primary anti-Tn antibody, and finally the streptavidin-conjugated AQDs were bound to the biotin on the secondary antibody. We evaluated the AQD staining of Tn antigen on tissue microarrays consisting of 395 cores from 115 cases including three tumor cores and one normal-tissue core from each breast cancer case and three tumor cores from each benign case. The results indicated AQD-Tn staining was positive in more than 90% of the cells in the cancer cores but not the cells in the normal-tissue cores and the benign tumor cores. As a result, AQD-Tn staining exhibited 95% sensitivity and 90% specificity in differentiating breast cancer against normal breast tissues and benign breast conditions. These results were better than the 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity exhibited by the corresponding horse radish peroxidase (HRP) staining using the same antibodies on the same tissues and those of previous studies that used different fluorescent labels to image Tn antigen. In addition to sensitivity and specificity, the current AQD-Tn staining with a definitive threshold was quantitative.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of CdSe quantum dots on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Shu; Shiao, Nion-Heng; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-05-14

    Quantum dots (QDs) are useful novel luminescent markers, but their embryonic toxicity is yet to be fully established, particularly in oocyte maturation and sperm fertilization. Earlier experiments by our group show that CdSe-core QDs have cytotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts and are associated with defects in subsequent development. Here, we further investigate the influence of CdSe-core QDs on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and subsequent pre- and postimplantation development. CdSe-core QDs induced a significant reduction in the rates of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryo development, but not ZnS-coated CdSe QDs. Treatment of oocytes with 500 nM CdSe-core QDs during in vitro maturation (IVM) led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased placental and fetal weights. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the negative impact of CdSe-core QDs on mouse oocyte development. Moreover, surface modification of CdSe-core QDs with ZnS effectively prevented this cytotoxicity.

  1. Electron relaxation in the CdSe quantum dot - ZnO composite: prospects for photovoltaic applications

    PubMed Central

    Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD)-metal oxide composite forms a “heart” of the QD-sensitized solar cells. It maintains light absorption and electron-hole separation in the system and has been therefore extensively studied. The interest is largely driven by a vision of harvesting the hot carrier energy before it is lost via relaxation. Despite of importance of the process, very little is known about the carrier relaxation in the QD-metal oxide composites. In order to fill this gap of knowledge we carry out a systematic study of initial electron dynamics in different CdSe QD systems. Our data reveal that QD attachment to ZnO induces a speeding-up of transient absorption onset. Detailed analysis of the onset proves that the changes are caused by an additional relaxation channel dependent on the identity of the QD-ZnO linker molecule. The faster relaxation represents an important factor for hot carrier energy harvesting, whose efficiency can be influenced by almost 50%. PMID:25430684

  2. Size and Temperature Dependence of Electron Transfer between CdSe Quantum Dots and a TiO 2 Nanobelt

    DOE PAGES

    Tafen, De Nyago; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2015-02-24

    Understanding charge transfer reactions between quantum dots (QD) and metal oxides is fundamental for improving photocatalytic, photovoltaic and electronic devices. The complexity of these processes makes it difficult to find an optimum QD size with rapid charge injection and low recombination. We combine time-domain density functional theory with nonadiabatic molecular dynamics to investigate the size and temperature dependence of the experimentally studied electron transfer and charge recombination at CdSe QD-TiO2 nanobelt (NB) interfaces. The electron injection rate shows strong dependence on the QD size, increasing for small QDs. The rate exhibits Arrhenius temperature dependence, with the activation energy of themore » order of millielectronvolts. The charge recombination process occurs due to coupling of the electronic subsystem to vibrational modes of the TiO2 NB. Inelastic electron-phonon scattering happens on a picosecond time scale, with strong dependence on the QD size. Our simulations demonstrate that the electron-hole recombination rate decreases significantly as the QD size increases, in excellent agreement with experiments. The temperature dependence of the charge recombination rates can be successfully modeled within the framework of the Marcus theory through optimization of the electronic coupling and the reorganization energy. Our simulations indicate that by varying the QD size, one can modulate the photoinduced charge separation and charge recombination, fundamental aspects of the design principles for high efficiency devices.« less

  3. Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G; Kramer, Illan J; Barkhouse, Aaron R; Wang, Xihua; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Debnath, Ratan; Levina, Larissa; Raabe, Ines; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Grätzel, Michael; Sargent, Edward H

    2010-06-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processability with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Rapid recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to impressive 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Two distinct device architectures and operating mechanisms have been advanced. The first-the Schottky device-was optimized and explained in terms of a depletion region driving electron-hole pair separation on the semiconductor side of a junction between an opaque low-work-function metal and a p-type CQD film. The second-the excitonic device-employed a CQD layer atop a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and was explained in terms of diffusive exciton transport via energy transfer followed by exciton separation at the type-II heterointerface between the CQD film and the TCO. Here we fabricate CQD photovoltaic devices on TCOs and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation, and that they also exploit the large bandgap of the TCO to improve rectification and block undesired hole extraction. The resultant depleted-heterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS CQDs, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. We report the highest open-circuit voltages observed in solid-state CQD solar cells to date, as well as fill factors approaching 60%, through the combination of efficient hole blocking (heterojunction) and very small minority carrier density (depletion) in the large-bandgap moiety.

  4. Supersonically Spray-Coated Colloidal Quantum Dot Ink Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyekyoung; Lee, Jong-Gun; Mai, Xuan Dung; Beard, Matthew C; Yoon, Sam S; Jeong, Sohee

    2017-04-04

    Controlling the thickness of quantum dot (QD) films is difficult using existing film formation techniques, which employ pre-ligand-exchanged PbS QD inks, because of several issues: 1) poor colloidal stability, 2) use of high-boiling-point solvents for QD dispersion, and 3) limitations associated with one-step deposition. Herein, we suggest a new protocol for QD film deposition using electrical double-layered PbS QD inks, prepared by solution-phase ligand exchange using methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). The films are deposited by the supersonic spraying technique, which facilitates the rapid evaporation of the solvent and the subsequent deposition of the PbS QD ink without requiring a post-deposition annealing treatment for solvent removal. The film thickness could be readily controlled by varying the number of spraying sweeps made across the substrate. This spray deposition process yields high-quality n-type QD films quickly (within 1 min) while minimizing the amount of the PbS QD ink used to less than 5 mg for one device (300-nm-thick absorbing layer, 2.5 × 2.5 cm(2)). Further, the formation of an additional p-layer by treatment with mercaptopropionic acid allows for facile hole extraction from the QD films, resulting in a power conversion efficiency of 3.7% under 1.5 AM illumination.

  5. Colloidal Quantum Dot Red-Shifting on Textured Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Christopher; Grimes, Anthony; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2011-03-01

    We have studied the influence of textured metal surfaces on the emission of an ensemble of colloidal CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs). The texture was generated by sputter coating a thin film of Gold Paladium (AuPd) on a thermoplastic Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet. We used two separate protocols to generate two types of surfaces. We constrained some substrates such that they shrunk along only one planar dimension (uniaxial) while some were allowed to shrink along both planar directions (biaxial). The uniaxial substrates forced the metal to buckle along one dimension and the biaxial substrates buckled into a pseudorandom texture. We found that the QDs deposited on the biaxial substrates had a general red shift in the emission wavelength compared to their emission in solution, which also corresponded to a change in the temporal dynamics of the emission. The QDs on the uniaxial substrates showed a change in their temporal dynamics corresponding to plasmonic coupling, but no spectral shift. We hypothesize that the effects observed on the biaxial substrates are caused by the Franz-Keldysh effect. National Science Foundation.

  6. On the crystal structure of colloidally prepared CsPbBr3 quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Patrick; Brutchey, Richard L

    2016-04-18

    Colloidally synthesized quantum dots of CsPbBr3 are highly promising for light-emitting applications. Previous reports based on benchtop diffraction conflict as to the crystal structure of CsPbBr3 quantum dots. We present X-ray diffraction and PDF analysis of X-ray total scattering data that indicate that the crystal structure is unequivocally orthorhombic (Pnma).

  7. Rapid degradation of CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots exposed to gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Withers, Nathan J.; Sankar, Krishnaprasad; Akins, Brian A.; Memon, Tosifa A.; Gu Tingyi; Gu Jiangjiang; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Greenberg, Melisa R.; Osinski, Marek; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2008-10-27

    Effects of {sup 137}Cs gamma irradiation on photoluminescent properties of CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots are reported. Optical degradation is evaluated by tracking the dependence of photoluminescence intensity on irradiation dose. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots show poor radiation hardness, and severely degrade after less than 20 kR exposure to 662 keV gamma photons.

  8. Nanoscale connectivity in a TiO2/CdSe quantum dots/functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets/Au nanoparticles composite for enhanced photoelectrochemical solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Remya; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2012-01-14

    Electron transfer dynamics in a photoactive coating made of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs) tethered to a framework of ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide (FGO) nanosheets and mesoporous titania (TiO(2)) was studied. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses on TiO(2)/CdSe/FGO/Au not only revealed the linker mediated binding of CdSe QDs with TiO(2) but also, surprisingly, revealed a nanoscale connectivity between CdSe QDs, Au NPs and TiO(2) with FGO nanosheets, achieved by a simple solution processing method. Time resolved fluorescence decay experiments coupled with the systematic quenching of CdSe emission by Au NPs or FGO nanosheets or by a combination of the latter two provide concrete evidences favoring the most likely pathway of ultrafast decay of excited CdSe in the composite to be a relay mechanism. A balance between energetics and kinetics of the system is realized by alignment of conduction band edges, whereby, CdSe QDs inject photogenerated electrons into the conduction band of TiO(2), from where, electrons are promptly transferred to FGO nanosheets and then through Au NPs to the current collector. Conductive-atomic force microscopy also provided a direct correlation between the local nanostructure and the enhanced ability of composite to conduct electrons. Point contact I-V measurements and average photoconductivity results demonstrated the current distribution as well as the population of conducting domains to be uniform across the TiO(2)/CdSe/FGO/Au composite, thus validating the higher photocurrent generation. A six-fold enhancement in photocurrent and a 100 mV increment in photovoltage combined with an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of 27%, achieved in the composite, compared to the inferior performance of the TiO(2)/CdSe/Au composite imply that FGO nanosheets and Au NPs work in tandem to promote charge separation and furnish less impeded pathways for electron transfer and transport. Such a

  9. A CdSe thin film: a versatile buffer layer for improving the performance of TiO2 nanorod array:PbS quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Cao, Dawei; Liu, Kong; Jiang, Qiwei; Yang, Ying; Pang, Shan; Zhang, Weifeng; Lei, Yong; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-05-01

    To fully utilize the multiple exciton generation effects in quantum dots and improve the overall efficiency of the corresponding photovoltaic devices, nanostructuralizing the electron conducting layer turns out to be a feasible strategy. Herein, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated on the basis of morphologically optimized TiO2 nanorod arrays. By inserting a thin layer of CdSe quantum dots into the interface of TiO2 and PbS, a dramatic enhancement in the power conversion efficiency from 4.2% to 5.2% was realized and the resulting efficiency is one of the highest values for quantum dot solar cells based on nanostructuralized buffer layers. The constructed double heterojunction with a cascade type-II energy level alignment is beneficial for promoting photogenerated charge separation and reducing charge recombination, thereby responsible for the performance improvement, as revealed by steady-state analyses as well as ultra-fast photoluminescence and photovoltage decays. Thus this paper provides a good buffer layer to the community of quantum dot solar cells.To fully utilize the multiple exciton generation effects in quantum dots and improve the overall efficiency of the corresponding photovoltaic devices, nanostructuralizing the electron conducting layer turns out to be a feasible strategy. Herein, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated on the basis of morphologically optimized TiO2 nanorod arrays. By inserting a thin layer of CdSe quantum dots into the interface of TiO2 and PbS, a dramatic enhancement in the power conversion efficiency from 4.2% to 5.2% was realized and the resulting efficiency is one of the highest values for quantum dot solar cells based on nanostructuralized buffer layers. The constructed double heterojunction with a cascade type-II energy level alignment is beneficial for promoting photogenerated charge separation and reducing charge recombination, thereby responsible for the performance improvement, as revealed by steady

  10. CdSe magic-sized quantum dots incorporated in biomembrane models at the air-water interface composed of components of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells.

    PubMed

    Goto, Thiago E; Lopes, Carla C; Nader, Helena B; Silva, Anielle C A; Dantas, Noelio O; Siqueira, José R; Caseli, Luciano

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with stable luminescence that are feasible for biomedical applications, especially for in vivo and in vitro imaging of tumor cells. In this work, we investigated the specific interaction of CdSe MSQDs with tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells using Langmuir monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of lipids as membrane models for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) showed an intrinsic interaction between the quantum dots, inserted in the aqueous subphase, and Langmuir monolayers constituted either of selected lipids or of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cell extracts. The films were transferred to solid supports to obtain microscopic images, providing information on their morphology. Similarity between films with different compositions representing cell membranes, with or without the quantum dots, was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy. This study demonstrates that the affinity of quantum dots for models representing cancer cells permits the use of these systems as devices for cancer diagnosis.

  11. Study of optical and structural properties of CdSe quantum dot embedded in PVA polymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the properties and applicability of devices it is essential to incorporate semiconductor nanoparticles into polymer matrix. This introduces a new branch of science which includes device fabrications such as gas sensors, nonlinear optics, catalysis etc. Herein, we have synthesized CdSe/PVA nanocomposite (NC) material using wet chemical synthesis technique. The XRD studies revealed the formation of crystalline structure of CdSe nanoparticles (NP's) and PVA NC's with an average size of 100 nm and 5 nm respectively. Energy band gap is determined using UV-VIS Spectroscopy. A red shift in the absorption edge of CdSe/PVA NC is observed with respect to CdSe Np's, The photoluminescence spectra also show red shift for CdSe/PVA NC as compared to CdSe NP's Thus the use of CdSe/PVA for solar cell application would be more preferable than CdSe NP's.

  12. A facile method to synthesis high-quality CdSe quantum dots for large and tunable nonlinear absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yawan; Wang, Chong; Zhu, Baohua; Gu, Yuzong

    2017-04-01

    The CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by a hot injection method in the atmospheric environment without any protective gas. The size of CdSe NC was tuned by controlling the growth time and the NCs' high-quality was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A large third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption of CdSe NCs was obtained by using Z-scan technique with 30 ps excitation at 532 nm, which was tunable with variable size and the energy difference between the first exciton absorption peak and the laser wavelength. The NLO susceptibility of CdSe NCs can reach as high as 1.81 × 10-10 esu at the size of 3.3 nm and at resonance absorption peak.

  13. Anodic Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of Ru(bpy)32+ with CdSe Quantum Dots as Coreactant and Its Application in Quantitative Detection of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong-Ping; Gao, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can act as the coreactant of Ru(bpy)32+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) in neutral condition. Strong anodic ECL signal was observed at ~1.10 V at CdSe QDs modified glassy carbon electrode (CdSe/GCE), which might be mainly attributed to the apparent electrocatalytic effect of QDs on the oxidation of Ru(bpy)32+. Ru(bpy)32+ can be intercalated into the loop of hairpin DNA through the electrostatic interaction to fabricate a probe. When the probe was bound to the CdSe QDs modified on the GCE, the intense ECL signal was obtained. The more Ru(bpy)32+ can be intercalated when DNA loop has larger diameter and the stronger ECL signal can be observed. The loop of hairpin DNA can be opened in the presence of target DNA to release the immobilized Ru(bpy)32+, which can result in the decrease of ECL signal. The decreased ECL signal varied linearly with the concentration of target DNA, which showed the ECL biosensor can be used in the sensitive detection of DNA. The proposed ECL biosensor showed an excellent performance with high specificity, wide linear range and low detection limit. PMID:26472243

  14. Anodic Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of Ru(bpy)32+ with CdSe Quantum Dots as Coreactant and Its Application in Quantitative Detection of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yong-Ping; Gao, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    In the present paper, we report that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can act as the coreactant of Ru(bpy)32+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) in neutral condition. Strong anodic ECL signal was observed at ~1.10 V at CdSe QDs modified glassy carbon electrode (CdSe/GCE), which might be mainly attributed to the apparent electrocatalytic effect of QDs on the oxidation of Ru(bpy)32+. Ru(bpy)32+ can be intercalated into the loop of hairpin DNA through the electrostatic interaction to fabricate a probe. When the probe was bound to the CdSe QDs modified on the GCE, the intense ECL signal was obtained. The more Ru(bpy)32+ can be intercalated when DNA loop has larger diameter and the stronger ECL signal can be observed. The loop of hairpin DNA can be opened in the presence of target DNA to release the immobilized Ru(bpy)32+, which can result in the decrease of ECL signal. The decreased ECL signal varied linearly with the concentration of target DNA, which showed the ECL biosensor can be used in the sensitive detection of DNA. The proposed ECL biosensor showed an excellent performance with high specificity, wide linear range and low detection limit.

  15. Anodic Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of Ru(bpy)3(2+) with CdSe Quantum Dots as Coreactant and Its Application in Quantitative Detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Ping; Gao, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-10-16

    In the present paper, we report that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can act as the coreactant of Ru(bpy)3(2+) electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) in neutral condition. Strong anodic ECL signal was observed at ~1.10 V at CdSe QDs modified glassy carbon electrode (CdSe/GCE), which might be mainly attributed to the apparent electrocatalytic effect of QDs on the oxidation of Ru(bpy)3(2+). Ru(bpy)3(2+) can be intercalated into the loop of hairpin DNA through the electrostatic interaction to fabricate a probe. When the probe was bound to the CdSe QDs modified on the GCE, the intense ECL signal was obtained. The more Ru(bpy)3(2+) can be intercalated when DNA loop has larger diameter and the stronger ECL signal can be observed. The loop of hairpin DNA can be opened in the presence of target DNA to release the immobilized Ru(bpy)3(2+), which can result in the decrease of ECL signal. The decreased ECL signal varied linearly with the concentration of target DNA, which showed the ECL biosensor can be used in the sensitive detection of DNA. The proposed ECL biosensor showed an excellent performance with high specificity, wide linear range and low detection limit.

  16. Current matching using CdSe quantum dots to enhance the power conversion efficiency of InGaP/GaAs/Ge tandem solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yao, Yung-Chi; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Liu, An-Fan; Yang, Min-De; Lai, Jiun-Tsuen

    2013-11-04

    A III-V multi-junction tandem solar cell is the most efficient photovoltaic structure that offers an extremely high power conversion efficiency. Current mismatching between each subcell of the device, however, is a significant challenge that causes the experimental value of the power conversion efficiency to deviate from the theoretical value. In this work, we explore a promising strategy using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the photocurrent of the limited subcell to match with those of the other subcells and to enhance the power conversion efficiency of InGaP/GaAs/Ge tandem solar cells. The underlying mechanism of the enhancement can be attributed to the QD's unique capacity for photon conversion that tailors the incident spectrum of solar light; the enhanced efficiency of the device is therefore strongly dependent on the QD's dimensions. As a result, by appropriately selecting and spreading 7 mg/mL of CdSe QDs with diameters of 4.2 nm upon the InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell, the power conversion efficiency shows an enhancement of 10.39% compared to the cell's counterpart without integrating CdSe QDs.

  17. Understanding the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot-fullerene (C{sub 60}) hybrid nanostructure for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Sunandan; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Sarkar, Pranab

    2014-09-21

    By using the density-functional tight binding method, we studied the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot(QD)-buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}) hybrid systems as a function of both the size of the QD and concentration of the fullerene molecule. Our calculation reveals that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of the hybrid CdSeQD-C{sub 60} systems lies on the fullerene moiety, whereas the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level lies either on the QD or the fullerene depending on size of the CdSe QD. We explored the possibility of engineering the energy level alignment by varying the size of the CdSe QD. With increase in size of the QD, the HOMO level is shifted upward and crosses the HOMO level of the C{sub 60}-thiol molecule resulting transition from the type-I to type-II band energy alignment. The density of states and charge density plot support these types of band gap engineering of the CdSe-C{sub 60} hybrid systems. This type II band alignment indicates the possibility of application of this nanohybrid for photovoltaic purpose.

  18. Green biosynthesis of biocompatible CdSe quantum dots in living Escherichia coli cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Qian, Jing; Gu, Yueqing; Su, Yilong; Ai, Xiaoxia; Wu, Shengmei

    2014-03-01

    A green and efficient biosynthesis method to prepare fluorescence-tunable biocompatible cadmium selenide quantum dots using Escherichia coli cells as biological matrix was proposed. Decisive factors in biosynthesis of cadmium selenide quantum dots in a designed route in Escherichia coli cells were elaborately investigated, including the influence of the biological matrix growth stage, the working concentration of inorganic reactants, and the co-incubation duration of inorganic metals to biomatrix. Ultraviolet-visible, photoluminescence, and inverted fluorescence microscope analysis confirmed the unique optical properties of the biosynthesized cadmium selenide quantum dots. The size distribution of the nanocrystals extracted from cells and the location of nanocrystals foci in vivo were also detected seriously by transmission electron microscopy. A surface protein capping layer outside the nanocrystals was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, which were supposed to contribute to reducing cytotoxicity and maintain a high viability of cells when incubating with quantum dots at concentrations as high as 2 μM. Cell morphology observation indicated an effective labeling of living cells by the biosynthesized quantum dots after a 48 h co-incubation. The present work demonstrated an economical and environmentally friendly approach to fabricating highly fluorescent quantum dots which were expected to be an excellent fluorescent dye for broad bio-imaging and labeling.

  19. Near-unity quantum yields from chloride treated CdTe colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert C; Espinobarro-Velazquez, Daniel; Leontiadou, Marina A; Smith, Charles; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J; Li, Chen; Radtke, Hanna; Pengpad, Atip; Bondino, Federica; Magnano, Elena; Pis, Igor; Flavell, Wendy R; O'Brien, Paul; Binks, David J

    2015-04-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for novel light sources and solar energy conversion. However, trap states associated with the CQD surface can produce non-radiative charge recombination that significantly reduces device performance. Here a facile post-synthetic treatment of CdTe CQDs is demonstrated that uses chloride ions to achieve near-complete suppression of surface trapping, resulting in an increase of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) from ca. 5% to up to 97.2 ± 2.5%. The effect of the treatment is characterised by absorption and PL spectroscopy, PL decay, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This process also dramatically improves the air-stability of the CQDs: before treatment the PL is largely quenched after 1 hour of air-exposure, whilst the treated samples showed a PL QY of nearly 50% after more than 12 hours.

  20. Near-Unity Quantum Yields from Chloride Treated CdTe Colloidal Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Page, Robert C; Espinobarro-Velazquez, Daniel; Leontiadou, Marina A; Smith, Charles; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J; Li, Chen; Radtke, Hanna; Pengpad, Atip; Bondino, Federica; Magnano, Elena; Pis, Igor; Flavell, Wendy R; O'Brien, Paul; Binks, David J

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for novel light sources and solar energy conversion. However, trap states associated with the CQD surface can produce non-radiative charge recombination that significantly reduces device performance. Here a facile post-synthetic treatment of CdTe CQDs is demonstrated that uses chloride ions to achieve near-complete suppression of surface trapping, resulting in an increase of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) from ca. 5% to up to 97.2 ± 2.5%. The effect of the treatment is characterised by absorption and PL spectroscopy, PL decay, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This process also dramatically improves the air-stability of the CQDs: before treatment the PL is largely quenched after 1 hour of air-exposure, whilst the treated samples showed a PL QY of nearly 50% after more than 12 hours. PMID:25348200

  1. XANES: observation of quantum confinement in the conduction band of colloidal PbS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchenko, I. N.; Chernyshova, M.; He, X.; Minikayev, R.; Syryanyy, Y.; Derkachova, A.; Derkachov, G.; Stolte, W. C.; Piskorska-Hommel, E.; Reszka, A.; Liang, H.

    2013-04-01

    The presented investigations aimed at development of inexpensive method for synthesized materials suitable for utilization of solar energy. This important issue was addressed by focusing, mainly, on electronic local structure studies with supporting x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of colloidal galena nano-particles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using wet chemistry under microwave irradiation. Performed x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed an evidence of quantum confinement for the sample with QDs, where the bottom of the conduction band was shifted to higher energy. The QDs were found to be passivated with oxides at the surface. Existence of sulfate/sulfite and thiosulfate species in pure PbS and QDs, respectively, was identified.

  2. Photocatalytic H2 production using a hybrid assembly of an [FeFe]-hydrogenase model and CdSe quantum dot linked through a thiolato-functionalized cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Minglun; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Fengyuan; Yang, Yong; Wan, Boshun; Sun, Licheng

    2017-03-07

    It is a great challenge to develop iron-based highly-efficient and durable catalytic systems for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) by understanding and learning from [FeFe]-hydrogenases. Here we report photocatalytic H2 production by a hybrid assembly of a sulfonate-functionalized [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimic (1) and CdSe quantum dot (QD), which is denoted as 1/β-CD-6-S-CdSe (β-CD-6-SH = 6-mercapto-β-cyclodextrin). In this assembly, thiolato-functionalized β-CD acts not only as a stabilizing reagent of CdSe QDs but also as a host compound for the diiron catalyst, so as to confine CdSe QDs to the space near the site of diiron catalyst. In addition, another two reference systems comprising MAA-CdSe QDs (HMAA = mercaptoacetic acid) and 1 in the presence and absence of β-CD, denoted as 1/β-CD/MAA-CdSe and 1/MAA-CdSe, were studied for photocatalytic H2 evolution. The influences of β-CD and the stabilizing reagent β-CD-6-S(-) on the stability of diiron catalyst, the fluorescence lifetime of CdSe QDs, the apparent electron transfer rate, and the photocatalytic H2-evolving efficiency were explored by comparative studies of the three hybrid systems. The 1/β-CD-6-S-CdSe system displayed a faster apparent rate for electron transfer from CdSe QDs to the diiron catalyst compared to that observed for MAA-CdSe-based systems. The total TON for visible-light driven H2 evolution by the 1/β-CD-6-S-CdSe QDs in water at pH 4.5 is about 2370, corresponding to a TOF of 150 h(-1) in the initial 10 h of illumination, which is 2.7- and 6.6-fold more than the amount of H2 produced from the reference systems 1/β-CD/MAA-CdSe and 1/MAA-CdSe. Additionally, 1/β-CD-6-S-CdSe gave 2.4-5.1 fold enhancement in the apparent quantum yield and significantly improved the stability of the system for photocatalytic H2 evolution.

  3. Spontaneous emission enhancement and saturable absorption of colloidal quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shilpi; Waks, Edo

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement and saturable absorption of cadmium selenide colloidal quantum dots coupled to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity. We perform time-resolved lifetime measurements and observe an average enhancement of 4.6 for the spontaneous emission rate of quantum dots located at the cavity as compared to those located on an unpatterned surface. We also demonstrate that the cavity linewidth narrows with increasing pump intensity due to quantum dot saturable absorption.

  4. Photo- and electroluminescence from semiconductor colloidal quantum dots in organic matrices: QD-OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Vitukhnovskii, A. G. Vaschenko, A. A.; Bychkovskii, D. N.; Dirin, D. N.; Tananaev, P. N.; Vakshtein, M. S.; Korzhonov, D. A.

    2013-12-15

    The results are reported of an experimental study of samples of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with luminescent layers fabricated on the basis of two types of CdSe/CdS/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with average CdSe core diameters of 3.2 and 4.1 nm and the same overall diameters of 6.5 nm. The dependences of the LED efficiency on the applied voltage are determined. Assumptions are made about ways of optimizing the design of high-efficiency LEDs.

  5. Cd/Hg cationic substitution in magic-sized CdSe clusters: Optical characterization and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antanovich, Artsiom; Prudnikau, Anatol; Gurin, Valerij; Artemyev, Mikhail

    2015-07-01

    We examine conversion of magic-sized CdSe clusters (MSCs) into HgSe ones by means of Cd/Hg cation exchange. With this procedure Cd8Cd17- and Cd32-selenide clusters can be converted into corresponding Hg8-, Hg17- and Hg32-selenide ones. Upon cationic exchange MSCs behavior differs from that of bulkier counterparts - larger (2-3 nm) quantum dots. Unlike CdSe colloidal quantum dots, magic-sized clusters are converted in fast and complete manner without a formation of intermediate mixed CdxHg1-x compounds that was established on the basis of optical absorption spectroscopy and chemical composition analysis. These assumptions were supported by DFT quantum chemical calculations performed for Cd8-, Cd17- and Hg8-, Hg17-selenide model clusters. Energies of experimental and calculated optical transitions were compared in order to prove the isostructural character of cationic substitution in magic-sized clusters.

  6. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-07-13

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  7. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles—yet size–effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector. PMID:26165185

  8. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-07-01

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  9. Surface-plasmon-polariton assisted modification of spontaneous emission of colloidal quantum dots in metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Jayson L.; Jayasundara, Nadeepa; Cho, Sang-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) assisted photoluminescence (PL) of CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum dots (QDs). The quantum dots were encapsulated between a metallic nanostructure and a Bragg reflector to enhance the interaction of spontaneously emitted photons with a resonant electromagnetic surface wave. The measured PL spectrum of the fabricated sample exhibits spectral narrowing and a shift in peak wavelength of 22 nm and 7 nm, respectively. Furthermore, we tested the angular dependence of the signal to confirm the existence of EOT. This demonstration is a critical step towards realizing plasmonic colloidal QD based coherent emitters.

  10. Large ordered arrays of single photon sources based on II-VI semiconductor colloidal quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Dang, Cuong; Urabe, Hayato; Wang, Jing; Sun, Shouheng; Nurmikko, Arto

    2008-11-24

    In this paper, we developed a novel and efficient method of deterministically organizing colloidal particles on structured surfaces over macroscopic areas. Our approach utilizes integrated solution-based processes of dielectric encapsulation and electrostatic-force-mediated self-assembly, which allow precisely controlled placement of sub-10nm sized particles at single particle resolution. As a specific demonstration, motivated by application to single photon sources, highly ordered 2D arrays of single II-VI semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (QDs) were created by this method. Individually, the QDs display triggered single photon emission at room temperature with characteristic photon antibunching statistics, suggesting a pathway to scalable quantum optical radiative systems.

  11. Quantum funneling in blended multi-band gap core/shell colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Neo, Darren C. J.; Assender, Hazel E.; Watt, Andrew A. R.; Stranks, Samuel D.; Eperon, Giles E.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-09-07

    Multi-band gap heterojunction solar cells fabricated from a blend of 1.2 eV and 1.4 eV PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) show poor device performance due to non-radiative recombination. To overcome this, a CdS shell is epitaxially formed around the PbS core using cation exchange. From steady state and transient photoluminescence measurements, we understand the nature of charge transfer between these quantum dots. Photoluminescence decay lifetimes are much longer in the PbS/CdS core/shell blend compared to PbS only, explained by a reduction in non-radiative recombination resulting from CdS surface passivation. PbS/CdS heterojunction devices sustain a higher open-circuit voltage and lower reverse saturation current as compared to PbS-only devices, implying lower recombination rates. Further device performance enhancement is attained by modifying the composition profile of the CQD species in the absorbing layer resulting in a three dimensional quantum cascade structure.

  12. Utilizing Electrical Characteristics of Individual Nanotube Devices to Study the Charge Transfer between CdSe Quantum Dots and Double-Walled Nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Yuqi; Zhou, Ruiping; Wang, Lei; ...

    2017-03-02

    To study the charge transfer between cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) and double-walled nanotubes (DWNTs), various sizes of CdSe-ligand-DWNT structures are synthesized, and field-effect transistors (FETs) from individual functionalized DWNTs rather than networks of the same are fabricated. From the electrical measurements, two distinct electron transfer mechanisms from the QD system to the nanotube are identified. By the formation of the CdSe-ligand-DWNT heterostructure, an effectively n-doped nanotube is created due to the smaller work function of CdSe as compared with the nanotube. In addition, once the QD-DWNT system is exposed to laser light, further electron transfer from the QDmore » through the ligand, i.e. 4-mercaptophenol (MTH), to the nanotube occurs and a clear QD-size dependent tunneling process is observed. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of a large set of devices and the particular methodology employed here for the first time allowed for extracting a wavelength and quantum dot size dependent charge transfer efficiency – a quantity that is evaluated for the first time through electrical measurement.« less

  13. Extracellular bio-production and characterization of small monodispersed CdSe quantum dot nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Anil K

    2014-09-15

    Engineered nanoparticles of diverse forms are being profoundly used for various applications and demand ecologically benign synthesis processes. Conventional chemical methods employed for the syntheses of nanoparticles are environmentally unfriendly and energy intensive. Biologically inspired biofabrication approaches that utilize naturally existing microorganisms or plant extracts or biomaterials might overcome these issues. The present investigation for the first time shows the synthesis of small and monodispersed cadmium selenide nanoparticles utilizing the plant pathogenic fungus, Helminthosporum solani upon incubating with an aqueous solution of CdCl2 and SeCl4 under ambient conditions. Multiple physical characterizations involving ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the production, purity, optical and surface characteristics, crystalline nature, size and shape distributions, and elemental composition of the nanoparticles. Pluralities of the particles are monodisperse spheres with a mean diameter of 5.5±2 nm, are hydrophilic, highly stable with a broad photoluminescence and 1% quantum yield. This approach provides an alternative facile route for the biofabrication of quantum dot that is reliable, environmentally friendly, and lends itself directly for the creation of fluorescent biological labels.

  14. Extracellular bio-production and characterization of small monodispersed CdSe quantum dot nanocrystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Anil K.

    2014-09-01

    Engineered nanoparticles of diverse forms are being profoundly used for various applications and demand ecologically benign synthesis processes. Conventional chemical methods employed for the syntheses of nanoparticles are environmentally unfriendly and energy intensive. Biologically inspired biofabrication approaches that utilize naturally existing microorganisms or plant extracts or biomaterials might overcome these issues. The present investigation for the first time shows the synthesis of small and monodispersed cadmium selenide nanoparticles utilizing the plant pathogenic fungus, Helminthosporum solani upon incubating with an aqueous solution of CdCl2 and SeCl4 under ambient conditions. Multiple physical characterizations involving ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the production, purity, optical and surface characteristics, crystalline nature, size and shape distributions, and elemental composition of the nanoparticles. Pluralities of the particles are monodisperse spheres with a mean diameter of 5.5 ± 2 nm, are hydrophilic, highly stable with a broad photoluminescence and 1% quantum yield. This approach provides an alternative facile route for the biofabrication of quantum dot that is reliable, environmentally friendly, and lends itself directly for the creation of fluorescent biological labels.

  15. The in vivo biodistribution and fate of CdSe quantum dots in the murine model: a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Wang, TsingHai; Hsieh, HuiAn; Hsieh, YiKong; Chiang, ChiShiun; Sun, YuhChang; Wang, ChuFang

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the cytotoxicity of quantum dots strongly relies upon the development of new analytical techniques to gather information about various aspects of the system. In this study, we demonstrate the in vivo biodistribution and fate of CdSe quantum dots in the murine model by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). By comparing the hot zones of each element acquired from LA-ICP-MS with those in fluorescence images, together with hematoxylin and eosin-stained images, we are able to perceive the fate and in vivo interactions between quantum dots and rat tissues. One hour after intravenous injection, we found that all of the quantum dots had been concentrated inside the spleen, liver and kidneys, while no quantum dots were found in other tissues (i.e., muscle, brain, lung, etc.). In the spleen, cadmium-114 signals always appeared in conjunction with iron signals, indicating that the quantum dots had been filtered from main vessels and then accumulated inside splenic red pulp. In the liver, the overlapped hot zones of quantum dots and those of phosphorus, copper, and zinc showed that these quantum dots have been retained inside hepatic cells. Importantly, it was noted that in the kidneys, quantum dots went into the cortical areas of adrenal glands. At the same time, hot zones of copper appeared in proximal tubules of the cortex. This could be a sign that the uptake of quantum dots initiates certain immune responses. Interestingly, the intensity of the selenium signals was not proportional to that of cadmium in all tissues. This could be the result of the decomposition of the quantum dots or matrix interference. In conclusion, the advantage in spatial resolution of LA-ICP-MS is one of the most powerful tools to probe the fate, interactions and biodistribution of quantum dots in vivo.

  16. Highly luminescent (Zn,Cd)Te/CdSe colloidal heteronanowires with tunable electron-hole overlap.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, Esther; van Berkum, Susanne; van Schooneveld, Matti M; Gloter, Alexandre; Meeldijk, Johannes D; van den Heuvel, Dave J; Gerritsen, Hans C; de Mello Donega, Celso

    2012-02-08

    We report the synthesis of ultranarrow (Zn,Cd)Te/CdSe colloidal heteronanowires, using ZnTe magic size clusters as seeds. The wire formation starts with a partial Zn for Cd cation exchange, followed by self-organization into segmented heteronanowires. Further growth occurs by inclusion of CdSe. The heteronanowires emit in the 530 to 760 nm range with high quantum yields. The electron-hole overlap decreases with increasing CdSe volume fraction, allowing the optical properties to be controlled by adjusting the heteronanowire composition.

  17. CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell based hierarchical branched ZnO nanoarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Deng, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    The hierarchical branched ZnO nanoarrays (NAs) photoanode was prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method. Vertically aligned long ZnO NWs were first synthesized using as the backbone of hierarchical branched ZnO NAs structure and high quality ZnO NAs branches were grown on the surface of backbone ZnO NAs. The structured films enhance the optical path length through the light scatting effect of branched ZnO NAs and prove the larger internal surface area in NAs film to increase quantum dots (QDs) sensitizer loadings, so the light absorption has an optimization. Compared with the cell based conventional 1D ZnO NAs, the efficiency of the new cells has a great improvement due to the increase of the short circuit current density.

  18. Fluorescence modulation in single CdSe quantum dots by moderate applied electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, Sharonda J.; McClanahan, Mason R.; Moyer, Tully; Moyer, Patrick J.; Jones, Marcus

    2014-01-21

    Single molecule time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) under the influence of moderate applied electric fields reveals distributed emission from states which are neither fully on nor off and pronounced changes in the excited state decay. The data suggest that a 54 kV/cm applied electric field causes small perturbations to the QD surface charge distribution, effectively increasing the surface trapping probability and resulting in the appearance of gray states. We present simultaneous blinking and fluorescence decay results for two sets of QDs, with and without an applied electric field. Further kinetic modeling analysis suggests that a single trapped charged cannot be responsible for a blinking off event.

  19. PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Photodetectors operating in the near infrared

    PubMed Central

    De Iacovo, Andrea; Venettacci, Carlo; Colace, Lorenzo; Scopa, Leonardo; Foglia, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots have recently attracted lot of interest in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices due to their unique optical properties and their simple and low cost fabrication. PbS nanocrystals emerged as the most advanced colloidal material for near infrared photodetectors. In this work we report on the fabrication and characterization of PbS colloidal quantum dot photoconductors. In order to make devices suitable for the monolithic integration with silicon electronics, we propose a simple and low cost process for the fabrication of photodetectors and investigate their operation at very low voltage bias. Our photoconductors feature high responsivity and detectivity at 1.3 μm and 1 V bias with maximum values of 30 A/W and 2·1010 cmHz1/2W−1, respectively. Detectivity close to 1011 cmHz1/2W−1 has been obtained resorting to bridge sensor readout. PMID:27885269

  20. Synthesis and characterization of InP and InN colloidal quantum dots.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Osinski, Marek; Greenberg, Melisa; Bunge, Scott D.; Chen, Weiliang; Smolyakov, G. A.; Pulford, B. N.; Jiang, Ying-Bing

    2005-04-01

    InP quantum dots (QDs) with zinc blende structure and InN QDs with hexagonal structure were synthesized from appropriate organometallic precursors in a noncoordinating solvent using myristic acid as a ligand. The QDs were characterized by TEM, the associated energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron diffraction, and steady state UV-VIS optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. To our best knowledge, this paper reports synthesis of InN colloidal quantum dots for the first time.

  1. Background limited mid-infrared photodetection with photovoltaic HgTe colloidal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe Roberts, John Andris

    2015-12-21

    The photovoltaic response of thin films of HgTe colloidal quantum dots in the 3–5 μm range is observed. With no applied bias, internal quantum efficiency exceeding 40%, specific detectivity above 10{sup 10} Jones and microseconds response times are obtained at 140 K. The cooled devices detect the ambient thermal radiation. A detector with 5.25 μm cut-off achieves Background Limited Infrared Photodetection at 90 K.

  2. Red, green, and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films

    DOEpatents

    Nurmikko, Arto V.; Dang, Cuong

    2016-06-21

    The methods and materials described herein contemplate the use films of colloidal quantum dots as a gain medium in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser. The present disclosure demonstrates a laser with single-exciton gain in the red, green, and blue wavelengths. Leveraging this nanocomposite gain, the results realize a significant step toward full-color single-material lasers.

  3. Facile synthesis and optical properties of colloidal silica microspheres encapsulating a quantum dot layer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungje; Lim, Kipil; Woo, Kyoungja

    2010-08-14

    We present colloidal silica microspheres encapsulating a homogeneous quantum dot layer at radial equidistance from the centre by utilizing electrostatic interaction between surface-engineered silica microspheres and QDs. The microspheres show dramatically enhanced optical absorption and emission with an appropriate silica shell thickness.

  4. Incidence of the core composition on the stability, the ROS production and the toxicity of CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kauffer, Florence-Anaïs; Merlin, Christophe; Balan, Lavinia; Schneider, Raphaël

    2014-03-15

    Mercaptosuccinic acid-capped CdSe and alloyed CdSe(S) QDs were prepared in aqueous solution at 100 and 170°C, respectively. These dots were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The dots were found to be of similar size (ca. 2nm) but differ in their composition and surface chemistry. The photostability of the QDs was found to correlate with their ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon light activation. CdSe QDs produce hydroxyl radicals immediately after irradiation due to their modest photostability, while CdSe(S) QDs start to generate the hydroxyl radicals only once they start to be bleached (ca. 30min). Cytotoxicity experiments conducted on Escherichia coli cells revealed that CdSe QDs were the more toxic despite being the least loaded in cadmium. In addition, consistent with ROS assays, the cytotoxicity of the CdSe QDs appeared light-dependent and is in accordance with a light-dependent oxidative stress observed with an oxyR-based whole cell biosensor. Our results demonstrate the crucial role played by nanoparticles synthesis process on their PL properties, their stability and their toxicity.

  5. Study of optical and structural properties of CdSe quantum dot embedded in PVA polymer matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Chetna Sharma, Ambika

    2015-08-28

    To enhance the properties and applicability of devices it is essential to incorporate semiconductor nanoparticles into polymer matrix. This introduces a new branch of science which includes device fabrications such as gas sensors, nonlinear optics, catalysis etc. Herein, we have synthesized CdSe/PVA nanocomposite (NC) material using wet chemical synthesis technique. The XRD studies revealed the formation of crystalline structure of CdSe nanoparticles (NP’s) and PVA NC’s with an average size of 100 nm and 5 nm respectively. Energy band gap is determined using UV-VIS Spectroscopy. A red shift in the absorption edge of CdSe/PVA NC is observed with respect to CdSe Np’s, The photoluminescence spectra also show red shift for CdSe/PVA NC as compared to CdSe NP’s Thus the use of CdSe/PVA for solar cell application would be more preferable than CdSe NP’s.

  6. Interband optical transition energy and oscillator strength in a lead based CdSe quantum dot quantum well heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Saravanamoorthy, S. N.; Peter, A. John

    2015-06-24

    Binding energies of the exciton and the interband optical transition energies are studied in a CdSe/Pb{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Se/CdSe spherical quantum dot-quantum well nanostructure taking into account the geometrical confinement effect. The core and shell are taken as the same material. The initial and final states of energy and the overlap integrals of electron and hole wave functions are determined by the oscillator strength. The oscillator strength and the radiative transition life time with the dot radius are investigated for various Cd alloy content in the core and shell materials.

  7. Control of photoinduced fluorescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots using metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Wing, Waylin J.; Patty, Kira; Campbell, Quinn

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that irradiation of colloidal quantum dots can dramatically enhance their emission efficiencies, leading to so-called photoinduced fluorescence enhancement (PFE). This process is the result of the photochemical and photophysical properties of quantum dots and the way they interact with the environment in the presence of light. It has been shown that such properties can be changed significantly using metal oxides. Using spectroscopic techniques, in this paper we investigate emission of different types of quantum dots (with and without shell) in the presence of metal oxides with opposing effects. We observed significant increase of PFE when quantum dots are deposited on about one nanometer of aluminum oxide, suggesting such oxide can profoundly increase quantum yield of such quantum dots. On the other hand, copper oxide can lead to significant suppression of emission of quantum dots, making them nearly completely dark instantly.

  8. Role of ZnS shell on stability, cytotoxicity, and photocytotoxicity of water-soluble CdSe semiconductor quantum dots surface modified with glutathione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Salwa Ali; Ahmed, Wafaa; Youssef, Tareq

    2014-09-01

    Biomedical applications of quantum dots (QDs) have become a subject of a considerable concern in the past few decades. The present study examines the stability and cytotoxicity of two QDs systems in cell culture medium in the presence and absence of a thin layer of ZnS shell. The two systems were built from core, CdSe QDs, surface modified with glutathione (GSH), named CdSe˜GSH and CdSe/ZnS˜GSH. Our results demonstrated that 0.7 nm layer of ZnS shell played a significant role in the stability of CdSe/ZnS~GSH QDs in supplemented cell culture medium (RPMI). Also, a significant improvement in the physicochemical properties of the core CdSe QDs was shown by maintaining their spectroscopic characteristics in RPMI medium due to the wide band gap of ZnS shell. Both systems showed insignificant reduction in cell viability of HFB-4 or MCF-7 cell lines in the dark which was attributed to the effective GSH coating. Following photoirradiation with low laser power (irradiance 10 mW cm-2), CdSe~GSH QDs showed a significant decrease in cell viability after 60 min irradiation which may result from detachment of GSH molecules. Under the same irradiation condition, CdSe/ZnS~GSH QDs showed insignificant decrease in cell viability or after 2 h incubation from laser irradiation which was attributed to the strong binding between ZnS and GSH coatings. It can be concluded that the stability of CdSe core QDs was significantly improved in cell culture medium by encapsulation with a thin layer of ZnS shell whereas their cytotoxicity and photo-cytotoxicity are highly dependent on surface modification.

  9. Comparison of Toxicity of CdSe: ZnS Quantum Dots on Male Reproductive System in Different Stages of Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Gholamreza; Valipoor, Akram; Parivar, Kazem; Modaresi, Mehrdad; Noori, Ali; Gharamaleki, Hamideh; Taheri, Jafar; Kazemi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Quantum dots (QDs) are new types of fluorescent materials for biological labeling. QDs toxicity study is an essential requirement for future clinical applications. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate cytotoxic effects of CdSe: ZnS QDs on male reproductive system. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the different concentrations of CdSe: ZnS QDs (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) were injected to 32 male mice (adult group) and 24 pregnant mice (embryo group) on day 8 of gestation. The histological changes of testis and epididymis were studied by a light microscopy, and the number of seminiferous tubules between two groups was compared. One-way analysis of variance (one-way Anova) using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, SPSS Inc., USA) version 16 were performed for statistical analysis. Results In adult group, histological studies of testis tissues showed a high toxicity of CdSe: ZnS in 40 mg/kg dose followed by a decrease in lamina propria; destruction in interstitial tissue; deformation of seminiferous tubules; and a reduction in number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. However, there was an interesting result in fetal testis development, meaning there was no significant effect on morphology and structure of the seminiferous tubules and number of sperm stem cells. Also histological study of epididymis tissues in both groups (adult and embryo groups) showed no significant effect on morphology and structure of tubule and epithelial cells, but there was a considerable reduction in number of spermatozoa in the lumen of the epididymal duct in 40 mg/kg dose of adult group. Conclusion The toxicity of QDs on testicular tissue of the mice embryo and adult are different before and after puberty. Due to lack of research in this field, this study can be an introduction to evaluate the toxicity of QDs on male reproduction system in different stages of development. PMID:26985339

  10. Investigations into photo-excited state dynamics in colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gaurav

    Colloidal Quantum dots (QDs) have garnered considerable scientific and technological interest as a promising material for next generation solar cells, photo-detectors, lasers, bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and reliable biomarkers. However, for practical realization of these applications, it is crucial to understand the complex photo-physics of QDs that are very sensitive to surface chemistry and chemical surroundings. Depending on the excitation density, QDs can support single or multiple excitations. The first part of this talk addresses evolution of QD excited state dynamics in the regime of low excitation intensity. We use temperature-resolved time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to study exciton dynamics from picoseconds to microseconds and use kinetic modeling based on classical electron transfer to show the effect of surface trap states on dynamics of ground-state exciton manifold in core-shell CdSe/CdS QDs. We show that the thickness of CdS shell plays an important role in interaction of CdSe core exciton states with nanocrystal environment, and find that a thicker shell can minimize the mixing of QD exciton states with surface trap states. I will then present an investigation into the dynamics of multiply-excited states in QDs. One of the key challenges in QD spectroscopy is to reliably distinguish multi- from single-excited states that have similar lifetime components and spectroscopic signatures. I will describe the development of a novel multi-pulse fluorescence technique to selectively probe multi-excited states in ensemble QD samples and determine the nature of the multi-excited state contributing to the total fluorescence even in the limit of low fluorescent yields. We find that in our sample of CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs the multi-excited emission is dominated by emissive trion states rather than biexcitons. Next, I will discuss the application of this technique to probe exciton-plasmon coupling in layered hybrid films of QD/gold nanoparticles

  11. Mercaptoethanol capped CdSe quantum dots and CdSe/ZnS core/shell: synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Painuly, Diksha; Bhatt, Anugya; Krishnan, V Kalliyana

    2013-02-01

    CdSe Quantum dots (Q-dots) and CdSe/ZnS core/shell have been synthesized by wet chemical route using mercaptoethanol (ME) as cappant. The synthesized Q-dots and core/shell were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. The core/shell formation was confirmed by both XRD and TEM analysis. The luminescence was shown to be considerably enhanced in the core/shell sample. Effect of dialysis process on the optical properties of the Q-dots and core/shell has also been discussed. Cytotoxicity studies have been carried out for Q-dots and core/shell. CdSe/ZnS core/shell was found to be non-cytotoxic as compared to CdSe Q-dots up to a certain concentration range. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating enhances the non-cytotoxic nature of CdSe/ZnS core/shell when compared with bare core/shell.

  12. Differences in soil mobility and degradability between water-dispersible CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Divina A; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Watson, David F; Aga, Diana S

    2011-08-01

    The relative leaching potential and degradation of water-dispersible CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were evaluated using small-scale soil columns. The potential of QDs to release toxic Cd(2+) and/or Se(2-)/SeO(3)(2-) ions upon degradation is of environmental concern and warrants investigation. Both classes of QDs exhibited limited soil mobility in CaCl(2), with more than 70% of the total Cd and Se species from QDs retained in the top soil after passing 10 column volumes of solution through the soil column. However, mobilization of Cd- and Se-species was observed when EDTA was used as the leaching solution. Approximately 98% of the total Cd(2+) loaded leached out from the Cd(2+)-spiked soil, while only 30% and 60% leached out from the CdSe and CdSe/ZnS QD-spiked soils, respectively. Soil column profiles and analysis of leachates suggest that intact QDs leached through the soil. Longer incubation (15 days) in soil prior to leaching indicated some degradation and/or surface modification of both QDs. These results suggest that chelating agents in the environment can enhance the soil mobility of intact and degraded QDs. It is apparent that QDs in soil, including the polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS QDs that are generally assumed to possess a higher degree of environmental stability, can undergo chemical transformations, which subsequently dictate their overall mobility.

  13. Performances of some low-cost counter electrode materials in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Different counter electrode (CE) materials based on carbon and Cu2S were prepared for the application in CdS and CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The CEs were prepared using low-cost and facile methods. Platinum was used as the reference CE material to compare the performances of the other materials. While carbon-based materials produced the best solar cell performance in CdS QDSSCs, platinum and Cu2S were superior in CdSe QDSSCs. Different CE materials have different performance in the two types of QDSSCs employed due to the different type of sensitizers and composition of polysulfide electrolytes used. The poor performance of QDSSCs with some CE materials is largely due to the lower photocurrent density and open-circuit voltage. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy performed on the cells showed that the poor-performing QDSSCs had higher charge-transfer resistances and CPE values at their CE/electrolyte interfaces. PMID:24512605

  14. Self-diffraction at a dynamic photonic crystal formed in a colloidal solution of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. M.; Golinskaya, A. D.; Ezhova, K. V.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Dneprovskii, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    Self-diffraction at a one-dimensional dynamic photonic crystal formed in the colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots has been discovered. This self-diffraction appears simultaneously with self-diffraction at induced transparency channels at the resonant excitation of the main electron-hole (excitonic) transition of quantum dots by two laser beams with a Gaussian intensity distribution over the cross section. It is shown that a nonlinear change in the absorption of colloidal quantum dots results in the formation of a transparency channel and an induced amplitude diffraction grating, and a significant nonlinear change in the refractive index (Δ n ≈ 10-3) in the absorbing medium is responsible for the formation of the dynamic photonic crystal. Self-diffracted laser beams are revealed propagating not only in directions corresponding to self-diffraction at the induced diffraction grating but also in directions satisfying the Laue condition.

  15. Direct spectroscopic evidence of ultrafast electron transfer from a low band gap polymer to CdSe quantum dots in hybrid photovoltaic thin films.

    PubMed

    Couderc, Elsa; Greaney, Matthew J; Brutchey, Richard L; Bradforth, Stephen E

    2013-12-11

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is used to study charge transfer dynamics in hybrid films composed of the low band gap polymer PCPDTBT and CdSe quantum dots capped with tert-butylthiol ligands. By selectively exciting the polymer, a spectral signature for electrons on the quantum dots appears on ultrafast time scales (≲ 65 fs), which indicates ultrafast electron transfer. From this time scale, the coupling between the polymer chains and the quantum dots is estimated to be J ≳ 17 meV. The reduced quantum dot acceptors exhibit an unambiguous spectral bleach signature, whose amplitude allows for the first direct calculation of the absolute electron transfer yield in a hybrid solar cell (82 ± 5%). We also show that a limitation of the hybrid system is rapid and measurable geminate recombination due to the small separation of the initial charge pair. The fast recombination is consistent with the internal quantum efficiency of the corresponding solar cell. We therefore have identified and quantified a main loss mechanism in this type of third generation solar cell.

  16. Genotoxicity evaluation of nanomaterials: dna damage, micronuclei, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine induced by magnetic doped CdSe quantum dots in male mice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, W K B; Girgis, E; Emam, A N; Mohamed, M B; Rao, K V

    2011-05-16

    Quantum dots (QDs) are a novel class of inorganic fluorophores which are gaining widespread recognition as a result of their exceptional photophysical properties and their applications as a biomarker and in molecular biomedical imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo genotoxicity in mice exposed to CdSe quantum dots of average size 5.0 ± 0.2 nm and CdSe doped with 1% cobalt ions of similar size. The quantum dots are surface modified using mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) in order to be biocompatible and water-soluble. The MAA-QDs were given to the mice orally at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg by weight of MAA-QDs. Bone marrow and liver samples were collected after two and seven days of treatment. The results indicated that after two days of treatment, the high dose of doped MAA-QDs was significantly able to induce DNA damage, formation of micronuclei (MNs), and generation of DNA adduct (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG). However, increasing DNA damage and the frequency of MNs formation as well as the generation of DNA adducts were observed with both the undoped MAA-QDs (2000 mg/kg) and doped MAA-QDs (1000 and 2000 mg/kg) after seven days of treatment. The results of our study indicate that exposure to high doses of pure MAA-QDs or MAA-QDs doped with cobalt has the potential to cause indirect in vivo genetic damage, which may be attributed to free radical-induced oxidative stress in mice.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of on-chip silicon nitride microdisk integrated with colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weiqiang; Zhu, Yunpeng; Aubert, Tangi; Hens, Zeger; Brainis, Edouard; Van Thourhout, Dries

    2016-01-25

    We designed and fabricated free-standing, waveguide-coupled silicon nitride microdisks hybridly integrated with embedded colloidal quantum dots. An efficient coupling of quantum dot emission to resonant disk modes and eventually to the access waveguides is demonstrated. The amount of light coupled out to the access waveguide can be tuned by controlling its dimensions and offset with the disk edge. These devices open up new opportunities for both on-chip silicon nitride integrated photonics and novel optoelectronic devices with quantum dots.

  18. Enhancement of Luminescence of Colloidal Ag2S Quantum Dots by Thionine Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Grevtseva, I. G.; Kondratenko, T. S.; Smirnov, M. S.; Evtukhova, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of IR luminescence (1205 nm) of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) with an average size of 2.5 ± 0.3 nm was detected upon excitation in the absorption band of thionine dye molecules (530-610 nm). It is found that the observed effect occurs during a hybrid association of Ag2S QDs with monomers of the cationic thionine (Th + ) molecule. It is concluded that the photosensitization of IR luminescence of colloidal Ag2S QDs is realized due to a resonance nonradiative transfer of electronic excitation energy directly to the centers of radiative recombination from the excited Th + molecules.

  19. Polarization-sensitive nanowire photodetectors based on solution-synthesized CdSe quantum-wire solids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amol; Li, Xiangyang; Protasenko, Vladimir; Galantai, Gabor; Kuno, Masaru; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2007-10-01

    Polarization-sensitive photodetectors are demonstrated using solution-synthesized CdSe nanowire (NW) solids. Photocurrent action spectra taken with a tunable white light source match the solution linear absorption spectra of the NWs, showing that the NW network is responsible for the device photoconductivity. Temperature-dependent transport measurements reveal that carriers responsible for the dark current through the nanowire solids are thermally excited across CdSe band gap. The NWs are aligned using dielectrophoresis between prepatterned electrodes using conventional optical photolithography. The photocurrent through the NW solid is found to be polarization-sensitive, consistent with complementary absorption (emission) measurements of both single wires and their ensembles. The range of solution-processed semiconducting NW materials, their facile synthesis, ease of device fabrication, and compatibility with a variety of substrates make them attractive for potential nanoscale polarization-sensitive photodetectors.

  20. Porous networks of CdSe nanocrystal chains from ultrafine Cd(OH)2 nanowires and their composite materials.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sungwook; Kim, Jeong Won; Moon, Geon Dae; Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Won Bae; Jeong, Unyong

    2010-03-16

    Long ultrathin Cd(OH)(2) nanowires have been selectively grown on silica colloids in a basic aqueous condition. The Cd(OH)(2) nanowires could be detached from the surface of the silica colloids by simply applying ultrasonication and then transformed into isolated CdSe nanocrystal chains. When the transformation into CdSe was conducted without detaching the Cd(OH)(2) nanowires, nanoporous CdSe shells composed of wire-like nanocrystal chains were produced. The good solubility of the Cd(OH)(2) nanowires in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvents facilitated the formation of composites with quantum dots, magnetic particles, organic molecules, and polymers. Embedding premade quantum dots possessed broad light absorption range and enhanced photoluminescence. Large amount of superparamagnetic particles endowed a fast magnetic response in addition to the fluorescence. Composites of organic/nanocrystal chains were readily fabricated by employing the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged Cd(OH)(2) nanowires and negatively charged polymers or small molecules.

  1. Colloidal 3-mercaptopropionic acid Capped Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots in a Low Boiling Point Solvent.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Chase C; Johansson, Erik

    2017-04-10

    Colloidal 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) capped lead sulfide quantum dots were prepared in a variety of organic solvents stabilized with a quaternary ammonium halide salt. The stabilized colloids' optical properties were studied through optical absorption and emission spectroscopy and found to be dependent on both the concentration of new ligand and stabilizer, and sample age. Nanocrystal ligand chemistry was studied through a combination of (1)H-NMR and 2-dimensional Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy (NOESY) which revealed full displacement of the original oleate ligand to form a dynamically exchanging ligand shell. The colloids were studied optically and via NMR as they aged and revealed a quantitative conversion of monomeric 3-mercaptopropionic acid to its dimer, dithiodipropionic acid (dTdPA).

  2. Electrochemiluminescence sensors for scavengers of hydroxyl radical based on its annihilation in CdSe quantum dots film/peroxide system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Ju, Huangxian

    2007-09-01

    This work elucidated the detailed electrochemiluminescence (ECL) process of the thioglycolic acid-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) film/peroxide aqueous system. The QDs were first electrochemically reduced to form electrons-injected QDs approximately -1.1 V, which then reduced hydrogen peroxide to produce OH* radical. The intermediate OH* radical was a key species for producing holes-injected QDs. The ECL emission with a peak at -1.114 V was demonstrated to come from the 1Se-1Sh transition emission. Using thiol compounds as the model molecules to annihilate the OH* radical, their quenching effects on ECL emission were studied. This effect led to a novel strategy for ECL sensing of the scavengers of hydroxyl radical. The detection results of thiol compounds showed high sensitivity, good precision, and acceptable accuracy, suggesting the promising application of the proposed method for quick detection of both scavengers and generators of hydroxyl radical in different fields.

  3. Structural Disorder in Colloidal InAs and CdSe Nanocrystals Observed by X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamad, K.S.; Hamad, K.S.; Roth, R.; Roth, R.; Rockenberger, J.; Rockenberger, J.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Alivisatos, A.P.; van Buuren, T.

    1999-10-01

    We report the observation of size dependent structural disorder by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) in InAs and CdSe nanocrystals 17{endash}80thinspthinsp{Angstrom} in diameter. XANES of the In and Cd M{sub 4,5} edges yields features that are sharp for the bulk solid but broaden considerably as the size of the particle decreases. FEFF7 multiple-scattering simulations reproduce the size dependent broadening of the spectra if a bulklike surface reconstruction of a spherical nanocrystal model is included. This illustrates that XANES is sensitive to the structure of the entire nanocrystal including the surface. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  4. Highly fluorescent magnetic quantum dotprobe with superior colloidal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiruddin, Sk; Saha, Arindam; Sarkar, Rupa; Majumder, Moumita; Jana, Nikhil R.

    2010-12-01

    A magnetic quantum dot (MQD) based cellular nanoprobe, composed of a magnetic oxidenanoparticle component and a quantum dot component, has been synthesized and used for both imaging and separation. The successful synthesis is based on a reverse micelle based polyacrylate coating in the presence of component nanoparticles, followed by their functionalization viaconjugation chemistry.A magnetic quantum dot (MQD) based cellular nanoprobe, composed of a magnetic oxidenanoparticle component and a quantum dot component, has been synthesized and used for both imaging and separation. The successful synthesis is based on a reverse micelle based polyacrylate coating in the presence of component nanoparticles, followed by their functionalization viaconjugation chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental procedure, MQD characterization via magnetic measurements, EDX, TEM, FTIR, fluorescamine test and control celllabeling data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00501k

  5. Preparative size-exclusion chromatography for purification and characterization of colloidal quantum dots bound by chromophore-labeled polymers and low-molecular-weight chromophores.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingfeng; Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade; Kumar, Sandeep; Nitz, Mark; Scholes, Gregory D; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-06-19

    We explore the use of preparative size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to purify quantum dots (QDs) after surface modification. In one example, in which Bio-Beads (S-X1) were used as the packing material for the preparative SEC column, CdSe QDs treated with a functional coumarin dye could be separated from the excess free dye by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the mobile phase. This column was unable to separate polymer-coated QDs from free polymer (M approximately 8000) because of the relatively low cutoff mass of the column. Here a preparative HPLC column packed with TOYOPEARL gel allowed the effective separation of polymer-bound QDs from the excess free polymer by using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as the mobile phase. When other solvents such as absolute ethanol, acetonitrile, THF, and THF-triethylamine mixtures were used as the eluent, QDs stuck to the column. While NMP was an effective medium to remove excess free polymer from the QDs, it was difficult to transfer the purified QDs to more volatile solvents and maintain colloidal stability.

  6. Photoluminescence quantum yield of PbS nanocrystals in colloidal suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Greben, M.; Fucikova, A.; Valenta, J.

    2015-04-14

    The absolute photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of oleic acid-capped colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) in toluene is thoroughly investigated as function of QD size, concentration, excitation photon energy, and conditions of storage. We observed anomalous decrease of QY with decreasing concentration for highly diluted suspensions. The ligand desorption and QD-oxidation are demonstrated to be responsible for this phenomenon. Excess of oleic acid in suspensions makes the QY values concentration-independent over the entire reabsorption-free range. The PL emission is shown to be dominated by surface-related recombinations with some contribution from QD-core transitions. We demonstrate that QD colloidal suspension stability improves with increasing the concentration and size of PbS QDs.

  7. CdSe quantum dot-functionalized TiO2 nanohybrids as a visible light induced photoelectrochemical platform for the detection of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xuehui; Pan, Jihong; Wang, Lin; Ren, Wei; Gao, Picheng; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin

    2015-09-15

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 (PCSK6) plays a major role in promoting the progression of rheumatoid arthritis to a higher aggressive status. A novel highly sensitive photoelectrochemical platform was developed for the detection of PCSK6 by using CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) nanohybrids (TiO2@CdSe) as the photo-to-electron conversion medium. TiO2@CdSe showed excellent visible-light absorbency, and much higher photoelectrochemical activity than both CdSe QDs and TiO2 NPs. The 5' and 3' primers of PCSK6 ssDNA acted as capture probes to realize the detection of PCSK6 ssDNA by the specific recognition. The capture probes can be fixed by poly-l-lysine (PLL) through positively strong electrostatic attraction and the carboxyl group of TiO2@CdSe nanohybrids. PLL was electropolymerized on ITO electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Simultaneously, the amino group of PLL can interact with the carboxyl group of TiO2@CdSe nanohybrids to enhance the stability of the photoelectrochemical signal. The fabricated aptsensor exhibited excellent performance towards PCSK6 with a wide linear range (0.5 pg/mL to 80.0 ng/mL) and a detection limit of 0.1 fg/mL. This work opens up a new detection platform for PCSK6 with good sensitivity, reproducibility and stability.

  8. Infrared detection with colloidal quantum dots based on interband and intraband transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    While much research on colloidal quantum dots is focused on their potential as visible emitter or light harvester, this talk will cover our investigations of the mercury chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots in the thermal mid-infrared ranges of 3-5 microns and 8-12 microns where the atmosphere is transparent. HgTe is a zero-gap semiconductor. As a result, colloidal quantum dots (CQD) of sizes between 10 and 20 nm readily lead to infrared gaps tuning between 3 and 12 microns respectively. It is also very promising that infrared photodetection using dried films of these CQDs has now been demonstrated up to 12 microns. Further improvement through chemistry are likely and will be required to raise the detectivity to the level required to transform thermal infrared detection technology. In contrast to HgTe CQDs which tend to be intrinsic, beta-HgS and HgSe CQDs are naturally n-doped, in the first such instance with CQDs. Furthermore, the doping is modulated by modifying the surface composition, and this effect is attributed to the tuning of the energy level with respect to the environment, via the surface electrostatics. With controlled doping, both HgSe and HgS CQDs have now led to the first operation of mid-infrared CQD photodetector based on the intraband absorption. This is a breakthrough in the field of colloidal quantum dots where interband transitions had been exclusively used for the past 30 years. One challenge with both interband and intraband infrared CQDs will be to reduce the nonradiative recombination, which will improve the detectivity as well as allow to use their infrared luminescence.

  9. Lamellar assembly of cadmium selenide nanoclusters into quantum belts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gibbons, Patrick C; Buhro, William E

    2011-10-26

    Here, we elucidate a double-lamellar-template pathway for the formation of CdSe quantum belts. The lamellar templates form initially by dissolution of the CdX(2) precursors in the n-octylamine solvent. Exposure of the precursor templates to selenourea at room temperature ultimately affords (CdSe)(13) nanoclusters entrained within the double-lamellar templates. Upon heating, the nanoclusters are transformed to CdSe quantum belts having widths, lengths, and thicknesses that are predetermined by the dimensions within the templates. This template synthesis is responsible for the excellent optical properties exhibited by the quantum belts. We propose that the templated-growth pathway is responsible for the formation of the various flat, colloidal nanocrystals recently discovered, including nanoribbons, nanoplatelets, nanosheets, and nanodisks.

  10. Spectroscopy of colloidal semiconductor core/shell nanoplatelets with high quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Tessier, M D; Mahler, B; Nadal, B; Heuclin, H; Pedetti, S; Dubertret, B

    2013-07-10

    Free standing two-dimensional materials appear as a novel class of structures. Recently, the first colloidal two-dimensional heterostructures have been synthesized. These core/shell nanoplatelets are the first step toward colloidal quantum wells. Here, we study in detail the spectroscopic properties of this novel generation of colloidal nanoparticles. We show that core/shell CdSe/CdZnS nanoplatelets with 80% quantum yield can be obtained. The emission time trace of single core/shell nanoplatelets exhibits reduced blinking compared to core nanoplatelets with a two level emission time trace. At cryogenic temperatures, these nanoplatelets have a quantum yield close to 100% and a stable emission time trace. A solution of core/shell nanoplatelets has emission spectra with a full width half-maximum close to 20 nm, a value much lower than corresponding spherical or rod-shaped heterostructures. Using single particle spectroscopy, we show that the broadening of the emission spectra upon the shell deposition is not due to dispersity between particles but is related to an intrinsic increased exciton-phonon coupling in the shell. We also demonstrate that optical spectroscopy is a relevant tool to investigate the presence of traps induced by shell deposition. The spectroscopic properties of the core/shell nanoplatelets presented here strongly suggest that this new generation of objects will be an interesting alternative to spherical or rod-shaped nanocrystals.

  11. Colloidal Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes Employing Phosphorescent Small Organic Molecules as Efficient Exciton Harvesters.

    PubMed

    Mutlugun, Evren; Guzelturk, Burak; Abiyasa, Agus Putu; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Xiao Wei; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-08-21

    Nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) is an alternative excitation mechanism in colloidal quantum dot (QD) based electroluminescent devices (QLEDs). Here, we develop hybrid highly spectrally pure QLEDs that facilitate energy transfer pumping via NRET from a phosphorescent small organic molecule-codoped charge transport layer to the adjacent QDs. A partially codoped exciton funnelling electron transport layer is proposed and optimized for enhanced QLED performance while exhibiting very high color purity of 99%. These energy transfer pumped hybrid QLEDs demonstrate a 6-fold enhancement factor in the external quantum efficiency over the conventional QLED structure, in which energy transfer pumping is intrinsically weak.

  12. Mid-IR colloidal quantum dot detectors enhanced by optical nano-antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yifat, Yuval; Ackerman, Matthew; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a colloidal quantum dot based photodetector designed for the 3-5 μm mid infrared wavelength range incorporated with optical nano-antenna arrays to enhance the photocurrent. The fabricated arrays exhibit a resonant behavior dependent on the length of the nano-antenna rods, in good agreement with numerical simulation. The device exhibits a three-fold increase in the spectral photoresponse compared to a photodetector device without antennas, and the resonance is polarized parallel to the antenna orientation. We numerically estimate the device quantum efficiency and investigate its bias dependence.

  13. 25th anniversary article: Colloidal quantum dot materials and devices: a quarter-century of advances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H

    2013-09-25

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) optoelectronics offers a compelling combination of low-cost, large-area solution processing, and spectral tunability through the quantum size effect. Since early reports of size-tunable light emission from solution-synthesized CQDs over 25 years ago, tremendous progress has been made in synthesis and assembly, optical and electrical properties, materials processing, and optoelectronic applications of these materials. Here some of the major developments in this field are reviewed, touching on key milestones as well as future opportunities.

  14. Multi-photon microscopy based on resonant four-wave mixing of colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masia, F.; Langbein, W.; Borri, P.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate a novel multi-photon imaging modality based on the detection of four-wave mixing (FWM) from colloidal nanoparticles. Four-wave mixing is a third-order signal which can be excited and detected in resonance with the ground-state excitonic transition of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The coherent FWM signal is detected interferometrically to reject incoherent backgrounds for improved image contrast compared to fluorescence methods. We measure transversal and axial resolutions of 140nm and 590nm respectively, significantly beating the one-photon diffraction limit. We also demonstrate optical imaging of quantum-dot-labeled Golgi structures of HepG2 cells.

  15. A highly efficient hybrid GaAs solar cell based on colloidal-quantum-dot-sensitization.

    PubMed

    Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen

    2014-07-18

    This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current.

  16. A Highly Efficient Hybrid GaAs Solar Cell Based on Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Sensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current.

  17. Near-field light design with colloidal quantum dots for photonics and plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Kress, Stephan J P; Richner, Patrizia; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Galliker, Patrick; Kim, David K; Poulikakos, Dimos; Norris, David J

    2014-10-08

    Colloidal quantum-dots are bright, tunable emitters that are ideal for studying near-field quantum-optical interactions. However, their colloidal nature has hindered their facile and precise placement at desired near-field positions, particularly on the structured substrates prevalent in plasmonics. Here, we use high-resolution electro-hydrodynamic printing (<100 nm feature size) to deposit countable numbers of quantum dots on both flat and structured substrates with a few nanometer precision. We also demonstrate that the autofocusing capability of the printing method enables placement of quantum dots preferentially at plasmonic hot spots. We exploit this control and design diffraction-limited photonic and plasmonic sources with arbitrary wavelength, shape, and intensity. We show that simple far-field illumination can excite these near-field sources and generate fundamental plasmonic wave-patterns (plane and spherical waves). The ability to tailor subdiffraction sources of plasmons with quantum dots provides a complementary technique to traditional scattering approaches, offering new capabilities for nanophotonics.

  18. A Highly Efficient Hybrid GaAs Solar Cell Based on Colloidal-Quantum-Dot-Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hau-Vei; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Yeh, Yun-Ling; Lin, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Yu, Peichen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid design, featuring a traditional GaAs-based solar cell combined with various colloidal quantum dots. This hybrid design effectively boosts photon harvesting at long wavelengths while enhancing the collection of photogenerated carriers in the ultraviolet region. The merits of using highly efficient semiconductor solar cells and colloidal quantum dots were seamlessly combined to increase overall power conversion efficiency. Several photovoltaic parameters, including short-circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and external quantum efficiency, were measured and analyzed to investigate the performance of this hybrid device. Offering antireflective features at long wavelengths and luminescent downshifting for high-energy photons, the quantum dots effectively enhanced overall power conversion efficiency by as high as 24.65% compared with traditional GaAs-based devices. The evolution of weighted reflectance as a function of the dilution factor of QDs was investigated. Further analysis of the quantum efficiency response showed that the luminescent downshifting effect can be as much as 6.6% of the entire enhancement of photogenerated current. PMID:25034623

  19. Integrating an electrically active colloidal quantum dot photodiode with a graphene phototransistor

    PubMed Central

    Nikitskiy, Ivan; Goossens, Stijn; Kufer, Dominik; Lasanta, Tania; Navickaite, Gabriele; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2016-01-01

    The realization of low-cost photodetectors with high sensitivity, high quantum efficiency, high gain and fast photoresponse in the visible and short-wave infrared remains one of the challenges in optoelectronics. Two classes of photodetectors that have been developed are photodiodes and phototransistors, each of them with specific drawbacks. Here we merge both types into a hybrid photodetector device by integrating a colloidal quantum dot photodiode atop a graphene phototransistor. Our hybrid detector overcomes the limitations of a phototransistor in terms of speed, quantum efficiency and linear dynamic range. We report quantum efficiencies in excess of 70%, gain of 105 and linear dynamic range of 110 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 1.5 kHz. This constitutes a demonstration of an optoelectronically active device integrated directly atop graphene and paves the way towards a generation of flexible highly performing hybrid two-dimensional (2D)/0D optoelectronics. PMID:27311710

  20. Colloidal CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals: Luminescence beyond Traditional Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Swarnkar, Abhishek; Chulliyil, Ramya; Ravi, Vikash Kumar; Irfanullah, Mir; Chowdhury, Arindam; Nag, Angshuman

    2015-12-14

    Traditional CdSe-based colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have interesting photoluminescence (PL) properties. Herein we highlight the advantages in both ensemble and single-nanocrystal PL of colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs) over the traditional cQDs. An ensemble of colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs (11 nm) exhibits ca. 90 % PL quantum yield with narrow (FWHM=86 meV) spectral width. Interestingly, the spectral width of a single-NC and an ensemble are almost identical, ruling out the problem of size-distribution in PL broadening. Eliminating this problem leads to a negligible influence of self-absorption and Förster resonance energy transfer, along with batch-to-batch reproducibility of NCs exhibiting PL peaks within ±1 nm. Also, PL peak positions do not alter with measurement temperature in the range of 25 to 100 °C. Importantly, CsPbBr3 NCs exhibit suppressed PL blinking with ca. 90 % of the individual NCs remain mostly emissive (on-time >85 %), without much influence of excitation power.

  1. PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Photodetectors operating in the near infrared.

    PubMed

    De Iacovo, Andrea; Venettacci, Carlo; Colace, Lorenzo; Scopa, Leonardo; Foglia, Sabrina

    2016-11-25

    Colloidal quantum dots have recently attracted lot of interest in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices due to their unique optical properties and their simple and low cost fabrication. PbS nanocrystals emerged as the most advanced colloidal material for near infrared photodetectors. In this work we report on the fabrication and characterization of PbS colloidal quantum dot photoconductors. In order to make devices suitable for the monolithic integration with silicon electronics, we propose a simple and low cost process for the fabrication of photodetectors and investigate their operation at very low voltage bias. Our photoconductors feature high responsivity and detectivity at 1.3 μm and 1 V bias with maximum values of 30 A/W and 2·10(10) cmHz(1/2)W(-1), respectively. Detectivity close to 10(11) cmHz(1/2)W(-1) has been obtained resorting to bridge sensor readout.

  2. Direct Patterning of Colloidal Quantum-Dot Thin Films for Enhanced and Spectrally Selective Out-Coupling of Emission

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We report on a template-stripping method for the direct surface patterning of colloidal quantum-dot thin films to produce highly luminescent structures with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Through the careful design of high quality bull’s-eye gratings we can produce strong directional beaming (10° divergence) with up to 6-fold out-coupling enhancement of spontaneous emission in the surface-normal direction. A transition to narrow single-mode lasing is observed in these same structures at thresholds as low as 120 μJ/cm2. In addition, we demonstrate that these structures can be fabricated on flexible substrates. Finally, making use of the size-tunable character of colloidal quantum dots, we demonstrate spectrally selective out-coupling of light from mixed quantum-dot films. Our results provide a straightforward route toward significantly improved optical properties of colloidal quantum-dot assemblies.

  3. Direct Patterning of Colloidal Quantum-Dot Thin Films for Enhanced and Spectrally Selective Out-Coupling of Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, Ferry; Kim, David K.; Cui, Jian; De Leo, Eva; Spiegel, Leo L.; McPeak, Kevin M.; Norris, David J.

    2017-03-01

    We report on a template-stripping method for the direct surface patterning of colloidal quantum-dot thin films to produce highly luminescent structures with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Through the careful design of high quality bulls-eye gratings we can produce strong directional beaming (10{\\deg} divergence) with up to six-fold out-coupling enhancement of spontaneous emission in the surface-normal direction. A transition to narrow single-mode lasing is observed in these same structures at thresholds as low as 120 {\\mu}J/cm2. Furthermore, making use of the size-tunable character of colloidal quantum dots, we demonstrate spectrally selective out-coupling of light from mixed quantum-dot films. Our results provide a straightforward route towards significantly improved optical properties of colloidal quantum-dot assemblies.

  4. InAs Colloidal Quantum Dots Synthesis via Aminopnictogen Precursor Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Grigel, Valeriia; Dupont, Dorian; De Nolf, Kim; Hens, Zeger; Tessier, Mickael D

    2016-10-05

    Despite their various potential applications, InAs colloidal quantum dots have attracted considerably less attention than more classical II-VI materials because of their complex syntheses that require hazardous precursors. Recently, amino-phosphine has been introduced as a cheap, easy-to-use and efficient phosphorus precursor to synthesize InP quantum dots. Here, we use aminopnictogen precursors to implement a similar approach for synthesizing InAs quantum dots. We develop a two-step method based on the combination of aminoarsine as the arsenic precursor and aminophosphine as the reducing agent. This results in state-of-the-art InAs quantum dots with respect to the size dispersion and band-gap range. Moreover, we present shell coating procedures that lead to the formation of InAs/ZnS(e) core/shell quantum dots that emit in the infrared region. This innovative synthesis approach can greatly facilitate the research on InAs quantum dots and may lead to synthesis protocols for a wide range of III-V quantum dots.

  5. Photoinduced band filling in strongly confined colloidal PbS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, B.; Xi, H.; Wang, J. S.

    2014-06-21

    Increase in continuous wave laser excitation (6 W/cm{sup 2} to 120 W/cm{sup 2}) of colloidal PbS quantum dots in the strongly quantized regime (diameters 2.0 nm and 4.7 nm) deposited on semi-insulating GaAs and glass causes a clear blue shift (0.019 eV and 0.080 eV) of the emission spectra. Proof of the applicability of a dynamic three-dimensional band filling model is the significance of the presented results and demonstrates the effective electronic coupling in quantum dot arrays similar to superlattices. The work also reveals the influence of quantum dot sizes on photo-doping effects.

  6. Picosecond Lifetimes with High Quantum Yields from Single-Photon-Emitting Colloidal Nanostructures at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Bidault, Sébastien; Devilez, Alexis; Maillard, Vincent; Lermusiaux, Laurent; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Bonod, Nicolas; Wenger, Jérôme

    2016-04-26

    Minimizing the luminescence lifetime while maintaining a high emission quantum yield is paramount in optimizing the excitation cross-section, radiative decay rate, and brightness of quantum solid-state light sources, particularly at room temperature, where nonradiative processes can dominate. We demonstrate here that DNA-templated 60 and 80 nm diameter gold nanoparticle dimers, featuring one fluorescent molecule, provide single-photon emission with lifetimes that can fall below 10 ps and typical quantum yields in a 45-70% range. Since these colloidal nanostructures are obtained as a purified aqueous suspension, fluorescence spectroscopy can be performed on both fixed and freely diffusing nanostructures to quantitatively estimate the distributions of decay rate and fluorescence intensity enhancements. These data are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations and demonstrate that millions of bright fluorescent nanostructures, with radiative lifetimes below 100 ps, can be produced in parallel.

  7. Photoinduced band filling in strongly confined colloidal PbS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, B.; Xi, H.; Wang, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    Increase in continuous wave laser excitation (6 W/cm2 to 120 W/cm2) of colloidal PbS quantum dots in the strongly quantized regime (diameters 2.0 nm and 4.7 nm) deposited on semi-insulating GaAs and glass causes a clear blue shift (0.019 eV and 0.080 eV) of the emission spectra. Proof of the applicability of a dynamic three-dimensional band filling model is the significance of the presented results and demonstrates the effective electronic coupling in quantum dot arrays similar to superlattices. The work also reveals the influence of quantum dot sizes on photo-doping effects.

  8. Determination of carrier lifetime and mobility in colloidal quantum dot films via impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Arup K.; Lasanta, Tania; Bernechea, Maria; Diedenhofen, Silke L.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2014-02-10

    Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) proves to be a powerful tool for the determination of carrier lifetime and majority carrier mobility in colloidal quantum dot films. We employ IS to determine the carrier lifetime in PbS quantum dot Schottky solar cells with Al and we verify the validity of the technique via transient photovoltage. We also present a simple approach based on an RC model that allows the determination of carrier mobility in PbS quantum dot films and we corroborate the results via comparison with space charge limited measurements. In summary, we demonstrate the potential of IS to characterize key-to-photovoltaics optoelectronic properties, carrier lifetime, and mobility, in a facile way.

  9. Optical power limiting in ensembles of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Smirnov, M. S.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Shatskikh, T. S.; Shapiro, B. I.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of power limiting for optical radiation at a wavelength of 660 nm with a pulse duration of 10 ms and operation threshold of 2.2 - 3.1 mJ cm-2 is observed in ensembles of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots (QDs). Using the z-scanning method in an open-aperture scheme it is found that the power is limited mainly due to reverse saturable absorption caused by two-photon optical transitions that involve energy levels of Ag2S photoluminescence centres, related to structural impurity defects in colloidal Ag2S QDs. At the same time, the z-scanning in a closed-aperture scheme demonstrates the formation of a thermal dynamic lens.

  10. Sensitization of photoprocesses in colloidal Ag2S quantum dots by dye molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Oleg V.; Kondratenko, Tamara S.; Grevtseva, Irina G.; Smirnov, Mikhail S.; Pokutnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of photosensitization of IR luminescence excitation (1205 nm) of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) with average size of 2.5±0.6 nm in gelatin at 600 to 660 nm by molecules of 3,3'-di-(γ-sulfopropyl)-4,4',5,5'-dibenzo-9-ethylthiacarbocyanine betaine pyridinium salt (Dye1) and thionine dye (Dye2) was registered. Cis-J-aggregates of Dye1 and cations monomer of Dye2 conjugated with Ag2S QDs take part in this process. The photosensitization of luminescence excitation of colloidal Ag2S QDs was interpreted by resonance nonradiation transfer of electronic excitation energy from cis-J-aggregates of Dye1 and cations of Dye2 to centers of recombination luminescence of Ag2S QDs.

  11. In vivo biodegradation of colloidal quantum dots by a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongwook; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Chansik; Park, Jaehong; Choi, Kyungho; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2012-06-15

    Impacts of planktonic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, on the speciation of colloidal quantum dots (QD) were investigated using fluorescence spectromicroscopic technique. Well-dispersed (GA/TOPO)QD were prepared by forming a supramolecular assembly of hydrophobic (TOPO)QD with biomacromolecules (i.e., Gum Arabic, GA). Biological degradation of this nanomaterial was monitored by fluorescence spectromicroscopic methods. Our study confirmed the major uptake pathway of manufactured nanomaterials and in vivo biodegradation processes in a well-known toxicity test organism, D. magna. In addition, we also found that D. magna can induce significant deterioration of aquatic media by releasing fragments of partially degraded QD colloids. These biological processes may significantly change the predicted toxicities of nanomaterials in aquatic environments. Thus, we propose that the impacts of aquatic living organisms on the environmental fate of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) should be carefully taken into account when assessing the risk of MNs to the environment and human health.

  12. Charge-tunable quantum plasmons in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Alina M; Thakkar, Niket; Gunthardt, Carolyn E; Masiello, David J; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2014-01-28

    Nanomaterials exhibiting plasmonic optical responses are impacting sensing, information processing, catalysis, solar, and photonics technologies. Recent advances have expanded the portfolio of plasmonic nanostructures into doped semiconductor nanocrystals, which allow dynamic manipulation of carrier densities. Once interpreted as intraband single-electron transitions, the infrared absorption of doped semiconductor nanocrystals is now commonly attributed to localized surface plasmon resonances and analyzed using the classical Drude model to determine carrier densities. Here, we show that the experimental plasmon resonance energies of photodoped ZnO nanocrystals with controlled sizes and carrier densities diverge from classical Drude model predictions at small sizes, revealing quantum plasmons in these nanocrystals. A Lorentz oscillator model more adequately describes the data and illustrates a closer link between plasmon resonances and single-electron transitions in semiconductors than in metals, highlighting a fundamental contrast between these two classes of plasmonic materials.

  13. Quantum confined colloidal nanorod heterostructures for solar-to-fuel conversion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaifeng; Lian, Tianquan

    2016-07-11

    Solar energy conversion, particularly solar-driven chemical fuel formation, has been intensely studied in the past decades as a potential approach for renewable energy generation. Efficient solar-to-fuel conversion requires artificial photosynthetic systems with strong light absorption, long-lived charge separation and efficient catalysis. Colloidal quantum confined nanoheterostructures have emerged as promising materials for this application because of the ability to tailor their properties through size, shape and composition. In particular, colloidal one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanorods (NRs) offer the opportunity to simultaneously maintain quantum confinement in radial dimensions for tunable light absorptions and bulk like carrier transport in the axial direction for long-distance charge separations. In addition, the versatile chemistry of colloidal NRs enables the formation of semiconductor heterojunctions (such as CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod NRs) to separate photogenerated electron-hole pairs and deposition of metallic domains to accept charges and catalyze redox reactions. In this review, we summarize research progress on colloidal NR heterostructures and their applications for solar energy conversion, emphasizing mechanistic insights into the working principle of these systems gained from spectroscopic studies. Following a brief overview of synthesis of various NRs and heterostructures, we introduce their electronic structures and dynamics of exciton and carrier transport and interfacial transfer. We discuss how these exciton and carrier dynamics are controlled by their structures and provide key mechanistic understanding on their photocatalytic performance, including the photo-reduction of a redox mediator (methyl viologen) and light driven H2 generation. We discuss the solar-driven H2 generation mechanism, key efficiency limiting steps, and potential approaches for rational improvement in semiconductor NR/metal heterostructures (such as Pt tipped Cd

  14. Shell deposition of CdSe nano dots and rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Chen, Hsueh Shin; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Ruixia; Wang, Junpeng; Che, Quande

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the shell deposited kinetics, CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanorods (NRs) with a maximum length of 17 nm were fabricated via organic synthesis routes. CdSe with a hexagonal crystal structure (wurtzite) favors epitaxial growth on the {002} surfaces when well-controlled conditions were used. The morphologies and sizes of CdSe samples depended strongly on chemicals and temperature. In the case of 320 °C, CdSe NRs with adjusted length of 7-17 nm were obtained from trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and tetradecylphosphonic acid (TDPA). In contrast, short CdSe NRs (less than 10 nm) were created from octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) and trioctylamine (TOA). Spherical CdSe QDs were further fabricated using stearic acid (SA) and TOPO at 300 °C. CdSe cores were coated with Cd0.5Zn0.5S and CdTe shells. Anisotropic growth occurred during shell deposition because CdS shells grown preferentially on the {001} facet of the CdSe core. In the case of CdSe core prepared from TOPO and TDPA, CdSe/Cd0.5Zn0.5S core/shell samples prepared from long CdSe NRs (more than 10 nm) revealed a peanut morphology while the core/shell samples created from short ones (less than 10 nm) exhibited a spherical morphology. All of the CdSe/Cd0.5Zn0.5S core/shell samples revealed a similar length to that of the CdSe cores. This phenomenon was also observed for the core/shell samples fabricated using CdSe NRs prepared by ODPA and TOA. This is ascribed to the well-developed crystal structure of CdSe NRs fabricated using an organic synthesis at high temperature. In contrast, this anisotropic growth did not occur when spherical CdSe QDs prepared from SA and TOPO and the shell (Cd0.5Zn0.5S) coating carried out using SA and TOA. To indicate the shell depositing process, CdSe NRs fabricated using TDPA and TOPO were coated with a CdTe shell. CdTe monomers were deposited on the middle and tip parts of the CdSe NRs to form a tetrapod-like morphology at 220 °C. This is ascribed to the large difference of

  15. Quantum-Confined and Enhanced Optical Absorption of Colloidal PbS Quantum Dots at Wavelengths with Expected Bulk Behavior.

    PubMed

    Debellis, Doriana; Gigli, Giuseppe; Ten Brinck, Stephanie; Infante, Ivan; Giansante, Carlo

    2017-02-08

    Nowadays it is well-accepted to attribute bulk-like optical absorption properties to colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) at wavelengths above 400 nm. This assumption permits to describe PbS QD light absorption by using bulk optical constants and to determine QD concentration in colloidal solutions from simple spectrophotometric measurements. Here we demonstrate that PbS QDs experience the quantum confinement regime across the entire near UV-vis-NIR spectral range, therefore also between 350 and 400 nm already proposed to be sufficiently far above the band gap to suppress quantum confinement. This effect is particularly relevant for small PbS QDs (with diameter of ≤4 nm) leading to absorption coefficients that largely differ from bulk values (up to ∼40% less). As a result of the broadband quantum confinement and of the high surface-to-volume ratio peculiar of nanocrystals, suitable surface chemical modification of PbS QDs is exploited to achieve a marked, size-dependent enhancement of the absorption coefficients compared to bulk values (up to ∼250%). We provide empirical relations to determine the absorption coefficients at 400 nm of as-synthesized and ligand-exchanged PbS QDs, accounting for the broadband quantum confinement and suggesting a heuristic approach to qualitatively predict the ligand effects on the optical absorption properties of PbS QDs. Our findings go beyond formalisms derived from Maxwell Garnett effective medium theory to describe QD optical properties and permit to spectrophotometrically calculate the concentration of PbS QD solutions avoiding underestimation due to deviations from the bulk. In perspective, we envisage the use of extended π-conjugated ligands bearing electronically active substituents to enhance light-harvesting in QD solids and suggest the inadequacy of the representation of ligands at the QD surface as mere electric dipoles.

  16. Quantum yield regeneration: influence of neutral ligand binding on photophysical properties in colloidal core/shell quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Tan, Rui; Gee, Megan Y; Greytak, Andrew B

    2015-03-24

    This article describes an experiment designed to identify the role of specific molecular ligands in maintaining the high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) observed in as-synthesized CdSe/CdZnS and CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs). Although it has been possible for many years to prepare core/shell quantum dots with near-unity quantum yield through high-temperature colloidal synthesis, purification of such colloidal particles is frequently accompanied by a reduction in quantum yield. Here, a recently established gel permeation chromatography (GPC) technique is used to remove weakly associated ligands without a change in solvent: a decrease in ensemble QY and average PL lifetime is observed. Minor components of the initial mixture that were removed by GPC are then added separately to purified QD samples to determine whether reintroduction of these components can restore the photophysical properties of the initial sample. We show that among these putative ligands trioctylphosphine and cadmium oleate can regenerate the initial high QY of all samples, but only the "L-type" ligands (trioctyphosphine and oleylamine) can restore the QY without changing the shapes of the optical spectra. On the basis of the PL decay analysis, we confirm that quenching in GPC-purified samples and regeneration in ligand-introduced samples are associated chiefly with changes in the relative population fraction of QDs with different decay rates. The reversibility of the QY regeneration process has also been studied; the introduction and removal of trioctylphosphine and oleylamine tend to be reversible, while cadmium oleate is not. Finally, isothermal titration calorimetry has been used to study the relationship between the binding strength of the neutral ligands to the surface and photophysical property changes in QD samples to which they are added.

  17. Bias-induced photoluminescence quenching of single colloidal quantum dots embedded in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Dorn, August; Nair, Gautham P; Bulović, Vladimir; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate reversible quenching of the photoluminescence from single CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots embedded in thin films of the molecular organic semiconductor N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (TPD) in a layered device structure. Our analysis, based on current and charge carrier density, points toward field ionization as the dominant photoluminescence quenching mechanism. Blinking traces from individual quantum dots reveal that the photoluminescence amplitude decreases continuously as a function of increasing forward bias even at the single quantum dot level. In addition, we show that quantum dot photoluminescence is quenched by aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) in chloroform solutions as well as in thin solid films of Alq3 whereas TPD has little effect. This highlights the importance of chemical compatibility between semiconductor nanocrystals and surrounding organic semiconductors. Our study helps elucidate elementary interactions between quantum dots and organic semiconductors, knowledge needed for designing efficient quantum dot organic optoelectronic devices.

  18. A Surface Chemistry Approach to Enhancing Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Graham Hamilton

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices have improved rapidly over the past decade of research. By taking advantage of the quantum confinement effect, solar cells constructed using films of infrared-bandgap nanoparticles are able to capture previously untapped ranges of the solar energy spectrum. Additionally, films are fabricated using simple, cheap, reproducible solution processing techniques, enabling the creation of low-cost, flexible photovoltaic devices. A key factor limiting the creation of high efficiency CQD solar cells is the short charge carrier diffusion length in films. Driven by a combination of limited carrier mobility, poor nanoparticle surface passivation, and the presence of unexamined electrically active impurities throughout the film, the poor diffusion length limits the active layer thickness in CQD solar cells, leading to lower-than-desired light absorption, and curtailing the photocurrent generated by such devices. This thesis seeks to address poor diffusion length by addressing each of the limiting factors in turn. Electrical transport in quantum dot solids is examined in the context of improved quantum dot packing; methods are developed to improve packing by using actively densifying components, or by dramatically lowering the volume change required between quantum dots in solution and in solid state. Quantum dot surface passivation is improved by introducing a crucial secondary, small halide ligand source, and by surveying the impact of the processing environment on the final quality of the quantum dot surface. A heretofore unidentified impurity present in quantum dot solids is identified, characterized, and chemically eliminated. Finally, lessons learned through these experiments are combined into a single, novel materials system, leading to quantum dot devices with a significantly improved diffusion length (enhanced from 70 to 230 nm). This enabled thick, high current density (30 mA cm -2, compared to typical values in the 20

  19. Numerical Study of Complementary Nanostructures for Light Trapping in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jue; Xiong, Qiuyang; Mahpeykar, Seyed Milad; Wang, Xihua

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated two complementary nanostructures, nanocavity and nanopillar arrays, for light absorption enhancement in depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells. A facile complementary fabrication process is demonstrated for patterning these nanostructures over the large area required for light trapping in photovoltaic devices. The simulation results show that both proposed periodic nanostructures can effectively increase the light absorption in CQD layer of the solar cell throughout the near-infrared region where CQD solar cells typically exhibit weak light absorption. The complementary fabrication process for implementation of these nanostructures can pave the way for large-area, inexpensive light trapping implementation in nanostructured solar cells. PMID:28335183

  20. Nonlinear optical characterization of colloidal solutions containing dye and Ag2S quantum dot associates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltaev, G. S.; Sobirov, B.; Reyimbaev, S.; Sherniyozov, H.; Usmanov, T.; Smirnov, M. S.; Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Grevtseva, I. G.; Kondratenko, T. S.; Shihaliev, H. S.; Ganeev, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed the nonlinear absorption and refraction in the dyes and silver sulfide quantum dot (QD) associates. The nonlinear refractive indices, nonlinear absorption coefficients, and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of the Ag2S QDs associated with various dyes (xanthenes, thiazines, carbocyanines, quinolines) were measured. The influence of dyes nonlinearities on the whole pattern of the z-scans of colloidal QD solutions, as well as the application of different molar fractions of dyes and intensities of probe radiation (40 ps, 1064 nm and 532 nm), were analyzed and discussed in the contest of the influence of various nonlinear absorption processes.

  1. Secondary treatment of films of colloidal quantum dots for optoelectronics and devices produced thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Semonin, Octavi Escala; Luther, Joseph M; Beard, Matthew C; Chen, Hsiang-Yu

    2014-04-01

    A method of forming an optoelectronic device. The method includes providing a deposition surface and contacting the deposition surface with a ligand exchange chemical and contacting the deposition surface with a quantum dot (QD) colloid. This initial process is repeated over one or more cycles to form an initial QD film on the deposition surface. The method further includes subsequently contacting the QD film with a secondary treatment chemical and optionally contacting the surface with additional QDs to form an enhanced QD layer exhibiting multiple exciton generation (MEG) upon absorption of high energy photons by the QD active layer. Devices having an enhanced QD active layer as described above are also disclosed.

  2. Colloidal quantum dot lasers built on a passive two-dimensional photonic crystal backbone.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hojun; Min, Kyungtaek; Lee, Myungjae; Kang, Minsu; Park, Yeonsang; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Roh, Young-Geun; Hwang, Sung Woo; Jeon, Heonsu

    2016-03-28

    We report the room-temperature lasing action from two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) structures composed of a passive Si3N4 backbone with an over-coat of CdSe/CdS/ZnS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) for optical gain. When optically excited, devices lased in dual PC band-edge modes, with the modal dominance governed by the thickness of the CQD over-layer. The demonstrated laser platform should have an impact on future photonic integrated circuits as the on-chip coupling between active and passive components is readily achievable.

  3. Three-dimensional dynamic photonic crystal creation by four laser beams interference in colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. M.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Ezhova, K. V.; Tikhonov, I. V.; Dneprovskii, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a simple way to create dynamic photonic crystals with different lattice symmetry by interference of four non-coplanar laser beams in colloidal solution of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The formation of dynamic photonic crystal was confirmed by the observed diffraction of the beams that have excited photonic crystal at the angles equal to that calculated for the corresponding three-dimensional lattice (self-diffraction regime). Self-diffraction from an induced 3D transient photonic crystal has been discovered in the case of resonant excitation of the excitons (electron - hole transitions) in CdSe/ZnS QDs (highly absorbing colloidal solution) by powerful beams of mode-locked laser with picosecond pulse duration. Self-diffraction arises for four laser beams intersecting in the cell with colloidal CdSe/ZnS QDs due to the induced 3D dynamic photonic crystal. The physical processes that arise in CdSe/ZnS QDs and are responsible for the observed self-action effects are discussed.

  4. Rapid and One-Pot Synthesis of Self-Assembled CdSe Quantum Dots Functionalized with β-Cyclodextrin: Reduced Cytotoxicity and Band Gap Engineering.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Apurav; Rath, Madhab C; Singh, Ajay K; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2015-12-01

    We report a simple, rapid and one step method for the synthesis and in situ functionalization of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in aqueous solution via electron beam (EB) irradiation technique. A probable mechanism has been elucidated for the formation of the QDs using pulse radiolysis technique. The average size of the QDs was found to be in the range of 2-3 nm with a size distribution of -14%. XPS measurements indicate that the -OH groups of the β-CD molecules binds predominantly with the Cd atoms present on the surface of the QDs. These QDs displayed broad photoluminescence (PL) with two emission peaks at 525 nm and 600 nm, which could be tuned by varying the experimental parameters. The broad PL spectrum has been attributed to the polydispersity in the density and the distribution of trap/defects states. Time resolved PL decay measurements further substantiated the domination of surface state originated carrier relaxation processes in the overall PL decay dynamics of QDs synthesized at higher doses and dose rates. The present study reveals that β-CD passivate the QDs by a non-inclusion complex, induces the self-assembling process into a networking architecture and simultaneously reduces their cytotoxicity as compared to the bare nanoparticles. The methodology described in this article may provide unique and interesting aspects to regulate and fine tune the formation of superstructures of nanomaterials vis-à-vis their optoelectronic properties.

  5. Gamma-radiation synthesis of silk fibroin coated CdSe quantum dots and their biocompatibility and photostability in living cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Quan; Dai, Yao-Dong; Kang, Bin; Han, Wei; Chen, Da

    2009-10-01

    Silk fibroin coated CdSe quantum dots (SF-CdSe QDs) were successfully synthesized via a one-step gamma-radiation route in an aqueous system at room temperature. The as prepared products were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersion spectrum (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and photoluminescence spectrum (PL). The SF-CdSe QDs were about 5 nm in diameter and exhibited excellent water-solubility and photoluminescence properties. The cellular distribution, photostability and cytotoxicity of SF-CdSe QDs with different amount of SF coatings were also investigated by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and MTT assays in human pancreatic carcinoma (PANC-1) cells. All the results reveal that these QDs could be easily internalized by cells and localized in cytoplasm around nuclei. Moreover, SF-CdSe QDs were proved to be low cytotoxicity (the concentration of QDs < 5 microg mL(-1)) and high photostability (the illumination energy density < 2 x 10(-5) W microm(-2)) within PANC-1 cells, which was mainly due to the biocompatible silk fibroin. The resulted SF-CdSe QDs might have many potential applications in tumor imaging and therapy. And the synthesis strategy could be easily extended to fabrication of other nanoparticles coated with silk fibroin.

  6. Synthesis of 2-Mercaptonicotinic Acid-Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and its Application to Spectrofluorometric Determination of Cr(VI) in Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid; Khorashahi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Navid

    2016-05-01

    The CdSe quantum dots (QDs) capped with 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (H2MN) were prepared through a controllable process at 80 °C. The prepared QDs were characterized by XRD, TEM, IR, UV-Vis and fluorescence (FL) techniques. It was found that the QDs were nearly mono-disperse with the diameters in the range of 8-10 nm. These QDs are capable to exhibit strong FL even in concentrated acidic media. They exhibit an enhanced fluorescence in the presence of Cr(VI), which was used for the determination of Cr(VI) in water samples. The linear range was found to be 1 × 10(-7)-6.0 × 10(-6) M with the RSD and DL of 0.92 % and 5 × 10(-8) M, respectively. Except that Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) which can be eliminated through a simple precipitation process, the other co-existent ions present in natural water were not interfered. The recoveries obtained for the added amounts of Cr(VI) were in the range of 96.9-103.2 %, which denote on application of the method, satisfactorily.

  7. Size and Temperature Dependence of Electron Transfer between CdSe Quantum Dots and a TiO 2 Nanobelt

    SciTech Connect

    Tafen, De Nyago; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2015-02-24

    Understanding charge transfer reactions between quantum dots (QD) and metal oxides is fundamental for improving photocatalytic, photovoltaic and electronic devices. The complexity of these processes makes it difficult to find an optimum QD size with rapid charge injection and low recombination. We combine time-domain density functional theory with nonadiabatic molecular dynamics to investigate the size and temperature dependence of the experimentally studied electron transfer and charge recombination at CdSe QD-TiO2 nanobelt (NB) interfaces. The electron injection rate shows strong dependence on the QD size, increasing for small QDs. The rate exhibits Arrhenius temperature dependence, with the activation energy of the order of millielectronvolts. The charge recombination process occurs due to coupling of the electronic subsystem to vibrational modes of the TiO2 NB. Inelastic electron-phonon scattering happens on a picosecond time scale, with strong dependence on the QD size. Our simulations demonstrate that the electron-hole recombination rate decreases significantly as the QD size increases, in excellent agreement with experiments. The temperature dependence of the charge recombination rates can be successfully modeled within the framework of the Marcus theory through optimization of the electronic coupling and the reorganization energy. Our simulations indicate that by varying the QD size, one can modulate the photoinduced charge separation and charge recombination, fundamental aspects of the design principles for high efficiency devices.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of surface-modified colloidal CdTe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Rajh, T. ); Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J. )

    1993-11-18

    The controlled synthesis of quantized colloidal CdTe nanocrystals (in aqueous solutions) with narrow size distributions and stabilized against rapid oxidation was achieved by capping the quantum dot particles with 3-mercapto-1,2-propanediol. Nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots) with mean diameters of 20, 25, 35, and 40 A were produced. Optical absorption spectra showed strong excitonic peaks at the smallest size; the absorption coefficient was shown to follow an inverse cube dependence on particle diameter, while the extinction coefficient per particle remained constant. The quantum yield for photoluminescence increased with decreasing particle size and reached 20% at 20 A. The valence band edges of the CdTe quantum dots were determined by pulse radiolysis experiments (hole injection from oxidizing radicals); the bandgaps were estimated from pulse radiolysis data (redox potentials of hole and electron injecting radicals) and from the optical spectra. The dependence of the CdTe bandgap on quantum dot size was found to be much weaker than predicted by the effective mass approximation; this result is consistent with recently published theoretical calculations by several groups. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ag colloids and arrays for plasmonic non-radiative energy transfer from quantum dots to a quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Graham P.; Gough, John J.; Higgins, Luke J.; Karanikolas, Vasilios D.; Wilson, Keith M.; Garcia Coindreau, Jorge A.; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Parbrook, Peter J.; Bradley, A. Louise

    2017-03-01

    Non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) can be an efficient process of benefit to many applications including photovoltaics, sensors, light emitting diodes and photodetectors. Combining the remarkable optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) with the electrical properties of quantum wells (QWs) allows for the formation of hybrid devices which can utilize NRET as a means of transferring absorbed optical energy from the QDs to the QW. Here we report on plasmon-enhanced NRET from semiconductor nanocrystal QDs to a QW. Ag nanoparticles in the form of colloids and ordered arrays are used to demonstrate plasmon-mediated NRET from QDs to QWs with varying top barrier thicknesses. Plasmon-mediated energy transfer (ET) efficiencies of up to ∼25% are observed with the Ag colloids. The distance dependence of the plasmon-mediated ET is found to follow the same d ‑4 dependence as the direct QD to QW ET. There is also evidence for an increase in the characteristic distance of the interaction, thus indicating that it follows a Förster-like model with the Ag nanoparticle-QD acting as an enhanced donor dipole. Ordered Ag nanoparticle arrays display plasmon-mediated ET efficiencies up to ∼21%. To explore the tunability of the array system, two arrays with different geometries are presented. It is demonstrated that changing the geometry of the array allows a transition from overall quenching of the acceptor QW emission to enhancement, as well as control of the competition between the QD donor quenching and ET rates.

  10. Modeling photovoltaic performance in periodic patterned colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yulan; Dinku, Abay G; Hara, Yukihiro; Miller, Christopher W; Vrouwenvelder, Kristina T; Lopez, Rene

    2015-07-27

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have attracted tremendous attention mostly due to their wide absorption spectrum window and potentially low processability cost. The ultimate efficiency of CQD solar cells is highly limited by their high trap state density. Here we show that the overall device power conversion efficiency could be improved by employing photonic structures that enhance both charge generation and collection efficiencies. By employing a two-dimensional numerical model, we have calculated the characteristics of patterned CQD solar cells based of a simple grating structure. Our calculation predicts a power conversion efficiency as high as 11.2%, with a short circuit current density of 35.2 mA/cm2, a value nearly 1.5 times larger than the conventional flat design, showing the great potential value of patterned quantum dot solar cells.

  11. Aqueous Synthesis of PEGylated Quantum Dots with Increased Colloidal Stability and Reduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Mehriban; Jonczyk, Rebecca; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Springer, Sergej; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Green, Mark; Scheper, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Ligands used on the surface of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have a significant impact on physiochemical properties of NPs and their interaction in biological environments. In this study, we report a one-pot aqueous synthesis of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-functionalized CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) in the presence of thiol-terminated methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules as a surface coordinating ligand. The resulting mPEG-Qdots were characterized by using ζ potential, FTIR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and microscale thermophoresis (MST) studies. We investigated the effect of mPEG molecules and their grafting density on the Qdots photophysical properties, colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, and in vitro cellular toxicity. Moreover, cellular binding features of the resulting Qdots were examined by using three-dimensional (3D) tumor-like spheroids, and the results were discussed in detail. Promisingly, mPEG ligands were found to increase colloidal stability of Qdots, reduce adsorption of proteins to the Qdot surface, and mitigate Qdot-induced side effects to a great extent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that PEGylated Qdots exhibited distinctive cellular interactions with respect to their mPEG grafting density. As a result, mPEG molecules demonstrated a minimal effect on the ZnS shell deposition and the Qdot fluorescence efficiency at a low mPEG density, whereas they showed pronounced effect on Qdot colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, cytotoxicity, and nonspecific binding at a higher mPEG grafting amount.

  12. All-Optical Wavelength Conversion by Picosecond Burst Absorption in Colloidal PbS Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Geiregat, Pieter; Houtepen, Arjan J; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger

    2016-01-26

    All-optical approaches to change the wavelength of a data signal are considered more energy- and cost-effective than current wavelength conversion schemes that rely on back and forth switching between the electrical and optical domains. However, the lack of cost-effective materials with sufficiently adequate optoelectronic properties hampers the development of this so-called all-optical wavelength conversion. Here, we show that the interplay between intraband and band gap absorption in colloidal quantum dots leads to a very strong and ultrafast modulation of the light absorption after photoexcitation in which slow components linked to exciton recombination are eliminated. This approach enables all-optical wavelength conversion at rates matching state-of-the-art convertors in speed, yet with cost-effective solution-processable materials. Moreover, the stronger light-matter interaction allows for implementation in small-footprint devices with low switching energies. Being a generic property, the demonstrated effect opens a pathway toward low-power integrated photonics based on colloidal quantum dots as the enabling material.

  13. Self-organized colloidal quantum dots and metal nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced intermediate-band solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Manuel J; Hernández, Estela; López, Esther; García-Linares, Pablo; Ramiro, Iñigo; Artacho, Irene; Antolín, Elisa; Tobías, Ignacio; Martí, Antonio; Luque, Antonio

    2013-08-30

    A colloidal deposition technique is presented to construct long-range ordered hybrid arrays of self-assembled quantum dots and metal nanoparticles. Quantum dots are promising for novel opto-electronic devices but, in most cases, their optical transitions of interest lack sufficient light absorption to provide a significant impact in their implementation. A potential solution is to couple the dots with localized plasmons in metal nanoparticles. The extreme confinement of light in the near-field produced by the nanoparticles can potentially boost the absorption in the quantum dots by up to two orders of magnitude.In this work, light extinction measurements are employed to probe the plasmon resonance of spherical gold nanoparticles in lead sulfide colloidal quantum dots and amorphous silicon thin-films. Mie theory computations are used to analyze the experimental results and determine the absorption enhancement that can be generated by the highly intense near-field produced in the vicinity of the gold nanoparticles at their surface plasmon resonance.The results presented here are of interest for the development of plasmon-enhanced colloidal nanostructured photovoltaic materials, such as colloidal quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells.

  14. Self-organized colloidal quantum dots and metal nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced intermediate-band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Manuel J.; Hernández, Estela; López, Esther; García-Linares, Pablo; Ramiro, Iñigo; Artacho, Irene; Antolín, Elisa; Tobías, Ignacio; Martí, Antonio; Luque, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    A colloidal deposition technique is presented to construct long-range ordered hybrid arrays of self-assembled quantum dots and metal nanoparticles. Quantum dots are promising for novel opto-electronic devices but, in most cases, their optical transitions of interest lack sufficient light absorption to provide a significant impact in their implementation. A potential solution is to couple the dots with localized plasmons in metal nanoparticles. The extreme confinement of light in the near-field produced by the nanoparticles can potentially boost the absorption in the quantum dots by up to two orders of magnitude. In this work, light extinction measurements are employed to probe the plasmon resonance of spherical gold nanoparticles in lead sulfide colloidal quantum dots and amorphous silicon thin-films. Mie theory computations are used to analyze the experimental results and determine the absorption enhancement that can be generated by the highly intense near-field produced in the vicinity of the gold nanoparticles at their surface plasmon resonance. The results presented here are of interest for the development of plasmon-enhanced colloidal nanostructured photovoltaic materials, such as colloidal quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells.

  15. Electron beam induced and microemulsion templated synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: tunable broadband emission and charge carrier recombination dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K.; Rath, Madhab C.; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2015-04-01

    CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a rapid and one step templated approach inside the water pool of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) based water-in-oil microemulsions (MEs) via electron beam (EB) irradiation technique with high dose rate, which favours high nucleation rate. The interplay of different experimental parameters such as precursor concentration, absorbed dose and {{W}0} values (aqueous phase to surfactant molar ratio) of MEs were found to have interesting consequences on the morphology, photoluminescence (PL), surface composition and carrier recombination dynamics of as-grown QDs. For instance, highly stable ultrasmall (∼1.7 nm) bluish-white light emitting QDs were obtained with quantum efficiency (η) of ∼9%. Furthermore, QDs were found to exhibit tunable broadband light emission extending from 450 to 750 nm (maximum FWHM ∼180 nm). This could be realized from the CIE (Commission Internationale d’Eclairage) chromaticity co-ordinates, which varied across the blue region to the orange region thereby, conferring their potential application in white light emitting diodes. Additionally, the average PL lifetime ≤ft( ≤ft< τ \\right> \\right) values could be varied from 18 ns to as high as 74 ns, which reflect the role of surface states in terms of their density and distribution. Another interesting revelation was the self-assembling of the initially formed QDs into nanorods with high aspect ratios ranging from 7 to 20, in correspondence with the {{W}0} values. Besides, the fundamental roles of the chemical nature of water pool and the interfacial fluidity of AOT MEs in influencing the photophysical properties of QDs were investigated by carrying out a similar study in CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; cationic surfactant) based MEs. Surprisingly, very profound and contrasting results were observed wherein ≤ft< τ \\right> and η of the QDs in case of CTAB MEs were found to be at least three times lower as compared to

  16. Seed-mediated synthesis, properties and application of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CdSe magnetic quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alex W.H.; Ang, Chung Yen; Patra, Pranab K.; Han Yu; Gu Hongwei; Le Breton, Jean-Marie; Juraszek, Jean; Chiron, Hubert; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian; Ying, Jackie Y.

    2011-08-15

    Seed-mediated growth of fluorescent CdSe quantum dots (QDs) around {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnetic cores was performed at high temperature (300 deg. C) in the presence of organic surfactants. Bi-functional magnetic quantum dots (MQDs) with tunable emission properties were successfully prepared. The as-synthesized MQDs were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), which confirmed the assembly of heterodimers. When a longer growth period was employed, a homogeneous dispersion of QDs around a magnetic nanoparticle was obtained. The magnetic properties of these nanocomposites were examined. The MQDs were superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 0.40 emu/g and a coercivity of 138 Oe at 5 K. To demonstrate their potential application in bio-labeling, these MQDs were coated with a thin silica shell, and functionalized with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative. The functionalized MQDs were effectively used for the labeling of live cell membranes of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. - Graphical abstract: (a) HRTEM image of oleic acid capped MPs. The size of MPs ranges from 8 to 10 nm. (b) XRD pattern of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} MPs. Highlights: > The fabrication of MQDs through a seed-mediated approach has been demonstrated. > The formation and assembly of these bi-functional nanocomposites have been elucidated. > The MQDs exhibit superparamagnetism and tunable emissions characteristic of the components. > MQDs with thin silica coating were successfully employed in the labeling of cancer cell membranes.

  17. Effect of metal oxide morphology on electron injection from CdSe quantum dots to ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kaibo; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed; Chábera, Pavel; Abd El-sadek, Mahmoud S.; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2013-04-01

    Performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells relies on a rapid electron injection from quantum dot to metal oxide. We studied the injection process in CdSe-ZnO system by ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy for two types of acceptor morphologies—nanowires and nanoparticles' films. Based on comparison between experimental data and Marcus theory, we demonstrate that the acceptor morphology has a significant impact on electron injection due to (i) change in material permittivity and (ii) different density of the band-edge states. The results open a reference to improve injection efficiency in quantum dot-metal oxide system by selection of the acceptor morphology.

  18. Towards bulk based preconditioning for quantum dotcomputations

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, Jack; Langou, Julien; Tomov, Stanimire; Channing,Andrew; Marques, Osni; Vomel, Christof; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-05-25

    This article describes how to accelerate the convergence of Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) type eigensolvers for the computation of several states around the band gap of colloidal quantum dots. Our new approach uses the Hamiltonian from the bulk materials constituent for the quantum dot to design an efficient preconditioner for the folded spectrum PCG method. The technique described shows promising results when applied to CdSe quantum dot model problems. We show a decrease in the number of iteration steps by at least a factor of 4 compared to the previously used diagonal preconditioner.

  19. Control of photophysical and photochemistry of colloidal quantum dots via metal and metal-oxide coated substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. M.; Nejat, A.

    2013-03-01

    We studied how deposition of a very thin layer of gold or chromium oxide on glass substrates can modify the way irradiation changes the fluorescence of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. We found that the gold layer tends to shield the quantum dots from the substrate, preventing photoinduced fluorescence enhancement caused by the Coulomb blockage. In this case the emission of the quantum dots did not show also any broadening but rather a slight red shift, independent of the irradiation time. In the case of the chromium-oxide coated substrates we observed significant broadening and blue shift, indicating such oxide could enhance photo-oxidation of colloidal quantum dots significantly.

  20. Silanization of plasma-grown silicon quantum dots for production of a tunable, stable, colloidal solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ingrid E.; Shircliff, Rebecca A.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Simonds, Brian; Agarwal, Sumit; Stradins, Paul; Collins, Reuben T.

    2011-09-01

    Nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize photovoltaics with the promise of new physics, novel architectures and low cost synthesis. Silicon quantum dots, relative to their II-VI counterparts, are understudied due to the difficulty of solution synthesis and chemical passivation. However, silicon is still an attractive solar cell material, providing an optimal band gap, low toxicity, and a very solid body of physical understanding of bulk silicon to draw from. We have synthesized silicon quantum dots with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and have developed a method for chemical passivation of these silicon quantum dots that can be used on particles created in a variety of ways. This versatile method utilizes oxidation via wet chemical etch and subsequent siloxane bond formation. The attachment of a silane to the SiOx shell leads to stability of the silicon core for over a month in air, and individual particles can be seen with TEM; thus a stable, colloidal suspension is formed. The future for this technique, including increasing quantum yield of the particles by changing the nature of the oxide, will be discussed.

  1. A study of specific features of the electronic spectrum of quantum dots in CdSe semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. I.; Kabanov, V. F.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Glukhovskoi, E. G.

    2016-08-01

    Monolayers of CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) formed on the aqueous subphase and transferred to solid substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett method have been studied. The samples obtained were examined by transmission electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and scanning tunnel microscopy. The structure of the QD monolayer obtained on the substrate was analyzed. Specific features of the electronic spectrum of the quantum objects formed in the samples under study were determined.

  2. Nanoscale Interfaces in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells: Physical Insights and Materials Engineering Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kyle Wayne

    With growing global energy demand there will be an increased need for sources of renewable energy such as solar cells. To make these photovoltaic technologies more competitive with conventional energy sources such as coal and natural gas requires further reduction in manufacturing costs that can be realized by solution processing and roll-to-roll printing. Colloidal quantum dots are a bandgap tunable, solution processible, semiconductor material which may offer a path forward to efficient, inexpensive photovoltaics. Despite impressive progress in performance with these materials, there remain limitations in photocarrier collection that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on the characterization of charge recombination and transport in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, and the application of this knowledge to the development of new and better materials. Core-shell, PbS-CdS, quantum dots were investigated in an attempt to achieve better surface passivation and reduce electronic defects which can limit performance. Optimization of this material led to improved open circuit voltage, exceeding 0.6 V for the first time, and record published performance of 6% efficiency. Using temperature-dependent and transient photovoltage measurements we explored the significance of interface recombination on the operation of these devices. Careful engineering of the electrode using atomic layer deposition of ZnO helped lead to better TiO2 substrate materials and allowed us to realize a nearly two-fold reduction in recombination rate and an enhancement upwards of 50 mV in open circuit voltage. Carrier extraction efficiency was studied in these devices using intensity dependent current-voltage data of an operational solar cell. By developing an analytical model to describe recombination loss within the active layer of the device we were able to accurately determine transport lengths ranging up to 90 nm. Transient absorption and photoconductivity techniques were used to study

  3. Infrared Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Coupling Enhancement and Agglomeration Suppression.

    PubMed

    Ip, Alexander H; Kiani, Amirreza; Kramer, Illan J; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Movahed, Hamidreza F; Levina, Larissa; Adachi, Michael M; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-09-22

    Materials optimized for single-junction solar spectral harvesting, such as silicon, perovskites, and large-band-gap colloidal quantum dot solids, fail to absorb the considerable infrared spectral energy that lies below their respective band gap. Here we explore through modeling and experiment the potential for colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) to augment the performance of solar cells by harnessing transmitted light in the infrared. Through detailed balance modeling, we identify the CQD band gap that is best able to augment wafer-based, thin-film, and also solution-processed photovoltaic (PV) materials. The required quantum dots, with an excitonic peak at 1.3 μm, have not previously been studied in depth for solar performance. Using computational studies we find that a new ligand scheme distinct from that employed in better-explored 0.95 μm band gap PbS CQDs is necessary; only via the solution-phase application of a short bromothiol can we prevent dot fusion during ensuing solid-state film treatments and simultaneously offer a high valence band-edge density of states to enhance hole transport. Photoluminescence spectra and transient studies confirm the desired narrowed emission peaks and reduced surface-trap-associated decay. Electronic characterization reveals that only through the use of the bromothiol ligands is strong hole transport retained. The films, when used to make PV devices, achieve the highest AM1.5 power conversion efficiency yet reported in a solution-processed material having a sub-1 eV band gap.

  4. On the origin of stretched exponential (Kohlrausch) relaxation kinetics in the room temperature luminescence decay of colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodunov, E. N.; Antonov, Yu. A.; Simões Gamboa, A. L.

    2017-03-01

    The non-exponential room temperature luminescence decay of colloidal quantum dots is often well described by a stretched exponential function. However, the physical meaning of the parameters of the function is not clear in the majority of cases reported in the literature. In this work, the room temperature stretched exponential luminescence decay of colloidal quantum dots is investigated theoretically in an attempt to identify the underlying physical mechanisms associated with the parameters of the function. Three classes of non-radiative transition processes between the excited and ground states of colloidal quantum dots are discussed: long-range resonance energy transfer, multiphonon relaxation, and contact quenching without diffusion. It is shown that multiphonon relaxation cannot explain a stretched exponential functional form of the luminescence decay while such dynamics of relaxation can be understood in terms of long-range resonance energy transfer to acceptors (molecules, quantum dots, or anharmonic molecular vibrations) in the environment of the quantum dots acting as energy-donors or by contact quenching by acceptors (surface traps or molecules) distributed statistically on the surface of the quantum dots. These non-radiative transition processes are assigned to different ranges of the stretching parameter β.

  5. On the origin of stretched exponential (Kohlrausch) relaxation kinetics in the room temperature luminescence decay of colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bodunov, E N; Antonov, Yu A; Simões Gamboa, A L

    2017-03-21

    The non-exponential room temperature luminescence decay of colloidal quantum dots is often well described by a stretched exponential function. However, the physical meaning of the parameters of the function is not clear in the majority of cases reported in the literature. In this work, the room temperature stretched exponential luminescence decay of colloidal quantum dots is investigated theoretically in an attempt to identify the underlying physical mechanisms associated with the parameters of the function. Three classes of non-radiative transition processes between the excited and ground states of colloidal quantum dots are discussed: long-range resonance energy transfer, multiphonon relaxation, and contact quenching without diffusion. It is shown that multiphonon relaxation cannot explain a stretched exponential functional form of the luminescence decay while such dynamics of relaxation can be understood in terms of long-range resonance energy transfer to acceptors (molecules, quantum dots, or anharmonic molecular vibrations) in the environment of the quantum dots acting as energy-donors or by contact quenching by acceptors (surface traps or molecules) distributed statistically on the surface of the quantum dots. These non-radiative transition processes are assigned to different ranges of the stretching parameter β.

  6. Ag colloids and arrays for plasmonic non-radiative energy transfer from quantum dots to a quantum well.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Graham P; Gough, John J; Higgins, Luke J; Karanikolas, Vasilios D; Wilson, Keith M; Garcia Coindreau, Jorge A; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z; Parbrook, Peter J; Bradley, A Louise

    2017-03-17

    Non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) can be an efficient process of benefit to many applications including photovoltaics, sensors, light emitting diodes and photodetectors. Combining the remarkable optical properties of quantum dots (QDs) with the electrical properties of quantum wells (QWs) allows for the formation of hybrid devices which can utilize NRET as a means of transferring absorbed optical energy from the QDs to the QW. Here we report on plasmon-enhanced NRET from semiconductor nanocrystal QDs to a QW. Ag nanoparticles in the form of colloids and ordered arrays are used to demonstrate plasmon-mediated NRET from QDs to QWs with varying top barrier thicknesses. Plasmon-mediated energy transfer (ET) efficiencies of up to ∼25% are observed with the Ag colloids. The distance dependence of the plasmon-mediated ET is found to follow the same d (-4) dependence as the direct QD to QW ET. There is also evidence for an increase in the characteristic distance of the interaction, thus indicating that it follows a Förster-like model with the Ag nanoparticle-QD acting as an enhanced donor dipole. Ordered Ag nanoparticle arrays display plasmon-mediated ET efficiencies up to ∼21%. To explore the tunability of the array system, two arrays with different geometries are presented. It is demonstrated that changing the geometry of the array allows a transition from overall quenching of the acceptor QW emission to enhancement, as well as control of the competition between the QD donor quenching and ET rates.

  7. White/blue-emitting, water-dispersible CdSe quantum dots prepared by counter ion-induced polymer collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Goh, Jane Betty; Goh, M. Cynthia; Giri, Neeraj Kumar; Paige, Matthew F.

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis and characterization of water-dispersible, luminescent CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots that exhibit nominal "white" fluorescence emission and have potential applications in solid-state lighting is described. The nanomaterials, prepared through counter ion-induced collapse and UV cross-linking of high-molecular weight polyacrylic acid in the presence of appropriate aqueous inorganic ions, were of ∼2-3 nm diameter and could be prepared in gram quantities. The quantum dots exhibited strong luminescence emission in two bands, the first in the blue-region (band edge) of the optical spectrum and the second, a broad emission in the red-region (attributed to deep trap states) of the optical spectrum. Because of the relative strength of emission of the band edge and deep trap state luminescence, it was possible to achieve visible white luminescence from the quantum dots in aqueous solution and in dried, solid films. The optical spectroscopic properties of the nanomaterials, including ensemble and single-molecule spectroscopy, was performed, with results compared to other white-emitting quantum dot systems described previously in the literature.

  8. A High Power, Frequency Tunable Colloidal Quantum Dot (CdSe/ZnS) Laser.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saradh; AlHesseny, Hanan Saleh; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Devaraj, Durairaj; Masilamai, Vadivel

    2017-01-30

    Tunable lasers are essential for medical, engineering and basic science research studies. Most conventional solid-state lasers are capable of producing a few million laser shots, but limited to specific wavelengths, which are bulky and very expensive. Dye lasers are continuously tunable, but exhibit very poor chemical stability. As new tunable, efficient lasers are always in demand, one such laser is designed with various sized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. They were used as a colloid in tetrahydrofuran to produce a fluorescent broadband emission from 520 nm to 630 nm. The second (532 nm) and/or third harmonic (355 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser (10 ns, 10 Hz) were used together as the pump source. In this study, different sized quantum dots were independently optically pumped to produce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with 4 nm to 7 nm of full width at half-maximum (FWHM), when the pump power and focusing were carefully optimized. The beam was directional with a 7 mrad divergence. Subsequently, these quantum dots were combined together, and the solution was placed in a resonator cavity to obtain a laser with a spectral width of 1 nm and tunable from 510 to 630 nm, with a conversion efficiency of about 0.1%.

  9. A High Power, Frequency Tunable Colloidal Quantum Dot (CdSe/ZnS) Laser

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Saradh; Saleh AlHesseny, Hanan; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Devaraj, Durairaj; Masilamai, Vadivel

    2017-01-01

    Tunable lasers are essential for medical, engineering and basic science research studies. Most conventional solid-state lasers are capable of producing a few million laser shots, but limited to specific wavelengths, which are bulky and very expensive. Dye lasers are continuously tunable, but exhibit very poor chemical stability. As new tunable, efficient lasers are always in demand, one such laser is designed with various sized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. They were used as a colloid in tetrahydrofuran to produce a fluorescent broadband emission from 520 nm to 630 nm. The second (532 nm) and/or third harmonic (355 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser (10 ns, 10 Hz) were used together as the pump source. In this study, different sized quantum dots were independently optically pumped to produce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with 4 nm to 7 nm of full width at half-maximum (FWHM), when the pump power and focusing were carefully optimized. The beam was directional with a 7 mrad divergence. Subsequently, these quantum dots were combined together, and the solution was placed in a resonator cavity to obtain a laser with a spectral width of 1 nm and tunable from 510 to 630 nm, with a conversion efficiency of about 0.1%. PMID:28336863

  10. Statistical interpretation of transient current power-law decay in colloidal quantum dot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibatov, R. T.

    2011-08-01

    A new statistical model of the charge transport in colloidal quantum dot arrays is proposed. It takes into account Coulomb blockade forbidding multiple occupancy of nanocrystals and the influence of energetic disorder of interdot space. The model explains power-law current transients and the presence of the memory effect. The fractional differential analogue of the Ohm law is found phenomenologically for nanocrystal arrays. The model combines ideas that were considered as conflicting by other authors: the Scher-Montroll idea about the power-law distribution of waiting times in localized states for disordered semiconductors is applied taking into account Coulomb blockade; Novikov's condition about the asymptotic power-law distribution of time intervals between successful current pulses in conduction channels is fulfilled; and the carrier injection blocking predicted by Ginger and Greenham (2000 J. Appl. Phys. 87 1361) takes place.

  11. Macrocrystals of Colloidal Quantum Dots in Anthracene: Exciton Transfer and Polarized Emission.

    PubMed

    Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Erdem, Talha; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Akgul, Mehmet Zafer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-05-07

    In this work, centimeter-scale macrocrystals of nonpolar colloidal quantum dots (QDs) incorporated into anthracene were grown for the first time. The exciton transfer from the anthracene host to acceptor QDs was systematically investigated, and anisotropic emission from the isotropic QDs in the anthracene macrocrystals was discovered. Results showed a decreasing photoluminescence lifetime of the donor anthracene, indicating a strengthening energy transfer with increasing QD concentration in the macrocrystals. With the anisotropy study, QDs inside the anthracene host acquired a polarization ratio of ~1.5 at 0° collection angle, and this increases to ~2.5 at the collection angle of 60°. A proof-of-concept application of these excitonic macrocrystals as tunable color converters on light-emitting diodes was also demonstrated.

  12. Nanoimprint-Transfer-Patterned Solids Enhance Light Absorption in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Bicanic, Kristopher; Tan, Hairen; Ouellette, Olivier; Sutherland, Brandon R; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Jo, Jea Woong; Liu, Mengxia; Sun, Bin; Liu, Min; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2017-04-12

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) materials are of interest in thin-film solar cells due to their size-tunable bandgap and low-cost solution-processing. However, CQD solar cells suffer from inefficient charge extraction over the film thicknesses required for complete absorption of solar light. Here we show a new strategy to enhance light absorption in CQD solar cells by nanostructuring the CQD film itself at the back interface. We use two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations to study quantitatively the light absorption enhancement in nanostructured back interfaces in CQD solar cells. We implement this experimentally by demonstrating a nanoimprint-transfer-patterning (NTP) process for the fabrication of nanostructured CQD solids with highly ordered patterns. We show that this approach enables a boost in the power conversion efficiency in CQD solar cells primarily due to an increase in short-circuit current density as a result of enhanced absorption through light-trapping.

  13. Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, C.; Guilhabert, B.; Laurand, N.; Dawson, M. D.

    2014-04-07

    A mechanically flexible and wavelength-tunable laser with an ultra-thin glass membrane as substrate is demonstrated. The optically pumped hybrid device has a distributed feedback cavity that combines a colloidal quantum dot gain film with a grating-patterned polymeric underlayer, all on a 30-μm thick glass sheet. The total thickness of the structure is only 75 μm. The hybrid laser has an average threshold fluence of 450 ± 80 μJ/cm{sup 2} (for 5-ns excitation pulses) at an emitting wavelength of 607 nm. Mechanically bending the thin-glass substrate enables continuous tuning of the laser emission wavelength over an 18-nm range, from 600 nm to 618 nm. The correlation between the wavelength tunability and the mechanical properties of the thin laser structure is verified theoretically and experimentally.

  14. Resonance-induced absorption enhancement in colloidal quantum dot solar cells using nanostructured electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mahpeykar, Seyed Milad; Xiong, Qiuyang; Wang, Xihua

    2014-10-20

    The application of nanostructured indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as diffraction gratings for light absorption enhancement in colloidal quantum dot solar cells is numerically investigated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. Resonant coupling of the incident diffracted light with supported waveguide modes in light absorbing layer at particular wavelengths predicted by grating far-field projection analysis is shown to provide superior near-infrared light trapping for nanostructured devices as compared to the planar structure. Among various technologically feasible nanostructures, the two-dimensional nano-branch array is demonstrated as the most promising polarization-independent structure and proved to be able to maintain its performance despite structural imperfections common in fabrication.

  15. Solution-processed high-performance colloidal quantum dot tandem photodetectors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zhenyu; You, Guanjun; Wang, Li; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian; Hu, Wenjia; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-28

    We report a high-performance colloidal quantum dot (CQD)-based near-infrared tandem photodetector fabricated on flexible substrates via solution-processed method. The tandem photodetector on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates exhibited low dark current and high detectivities over ∼8.8 × 10{sup 11} Jones at near infrared range at −0.5 V bias and over ∼10{sup 13} Jones near 0 bias. The critical bend radii of ∼8 mm and ∼3 mm have been demonstrated for tensile and compressive bending, respectively. The performance of photodetectors remains stable under mechanical stress, making PbSe CQD material a promise candidate for flexible infrared sensing applications.

  16. Lasing and magnetic microbeads loaded with colloidal quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Minxu; You, Guanjun; Wang, Andrew Y; Hu, Wenjia; Wang, Jingkang; Sun, Fengqing; Zhu, Yiming; Henderson, Ron; Xu, Jian

    2013-10-21

    This study investigates the feasibility of loading nanostructured lasing medium and magnetic nanocrystals in the same microbead for potential applications in bio- and chemical sensing. A sequential infiltration process is proposed and tested for the preparation of magnetic and lasing microbeads by incorporating, respectively, iron oxide nanocrystals in the inner cores and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in the periphery regions of mesoporous silica microbeads. The co-doped bead structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The lasing action of the CQD gain medium in the mesoporous beads was characterized with micro-photoluminescence, revealing sharp whispering gallery mode lasing signatures, whereas the distinguishing superparamagnetic property was measured from the co-doped microbeads with vibrating sample magnetometry.

  17. Surface-emitting red, green, and blue colloidal quantum dot distributed feedback lasers.

    PubMed

    Roh, Kwangdong; Dang, Cuong; Lee, Joonhee; Chen, Songtao; Steckel, Jonathan S; Coe-Sullivan, Seth; Nurmikko, Arto

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate surface emitting distributed feedback (DFB) lasers across the red, green, and blue from densely packed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films. The solid CQD films were deposited on periodic grating patterns to enable 2nd-order DFB lasing action at mere 120, 280, and 330 μJ/cm2 of optical pumping energy densities for red, green, and blue DFB lasers, respectively. The lasers operated in single mode operation with less than 1 nm of full-width-half-maximum. We measured far-field patterns showing high degree of spatial beam coherence. Specifically, by taking advantage of single exciton optical gain regime from our engineered CQDs, we can significantly suppress the Auger recombination to reduce lasing threshold and achieve quasi-steady state, optically pumped operation.

  18. 10.6% Certified Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Solvent-Polarity-Engineered Halide Passivation.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Liu, Mengxia; Xu, Jixian; Proppe, Andrew H; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Tan, Hairen; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-07-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are solution-processed photovoltaics with broad spectral absorption tunability. Major advances in their efficiency have been made via improved CQD surface passivation and device architectures with enhanced charge carrier collection. Herein, we demonstrate a new strategy to improve further the passivation of CQDs starting from the solution phase. A cosolvent system is employed to tune the solvent polarity in order to achieve the solvation of methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the dispersion of hydrophobic PbS CQDs simultaneously in a homogeneous phase, otherwise not achieved in a single solvent. This process enables MAI to access the CQDs to confer improved passivation. This, in turn, allows for efficient charge extraction from a thicker photoactive layer device, leading to a certified solar cell power conversion efficiency of 10.6%, a new certified record in CQD photovoltaics.

  19. Discrimination between FRET and non-FRET quenching in a photochromic CdSe quantum dot/dithienylethene dye system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dworak, Lars; Reuss, Andreas J.; Zastrow, Marc; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2014-11-01

    A photochromic Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was employed to disentangle the fluorescence quenching mechanisms in quantum dot/photochromic dye hybrids. In the off-state of the dye the main quenching mechanism is FRET whereas the moderate quenching in the on-state is due to non-FRET pathways opened up upon assembly.A photochromic Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was employed to disentangle the fluorescence quenching mechanisms in quantum dot/photochromic dye hybrids. In the off-state of the dye the main quenching mechanism is FRET whereas the moderate quenching in the on-state is due to non-FRET pathways opened up upon assembly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: QD and DTE synthesis, preparation of the DTE/QD coupled system, TEM image of the nanocrystals and experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05144k

  20. Light quenching and dark states in colloidal solutions of semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, V. V.; Panfutova, A. S.; Shilov, V. B.; Belousova, I. M.; Ermolaeva, G. M.; Khrebtov, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The photodynamics of optical limiting in colloidal solutions of different-size CdSe/ZnS quantum dots is studied. The behavior of the dependences points to a multistage process that includes the bleaching and optical limiting stages. The limiting photodynamics is compared with luminescence dynamics of quantum dots under conditions of high-power excitation. It is shown that the optical limiting efficiency in such media is determined by the position of exciting radiation with respect to the main exciton absorption band of the quantum dot. The roles played by so-called dark states and light quenching in limiting photodynamics are discussed.

  1. Organic/inorganic hybrid pn-junction between copper phthalocyanine and CdSe quantum dot layers as solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Guchhait, Asim; Pal, Amlan J.

    2012-08-01

    We have introduced an organic/inorganic hybrid pn-junction for solar cell applications. Layers of II-VI quantum dots and a metal-phthalocyanine in sequence have been used as n- and p-type materials, respectively, to form a junction. The film of quantum dots has been formed through a layer-by-layer process by replacing the long-chain ligands of the nanoparticles in each ultrathin layer or a monolayer with short-chain ones so that interparticle distance becomes small leading to a decrease in resistance of the quantum dot layer. With indium tin oxide and Au as electrodes, we have formed an inverted sandwiched structure. These electrodes formed ohmic contacts with the neighboring materials. From the current-voltage characteristics of the hybrid heterostructure, we have inferred formation of a depletion region at the pn-junction that played a key role in charge separation and correspondingly a photocurrent in the external circuit. For comparison, we have also formed and characterized Schottky devices based on components of the pn-junction keeping the electrode combination same. From capacitance-voltage characteristics, we have observed that the depletion region of the hybrid pn-junction was much wider as compared to that in Schottky devices based on components of the junction.

  2. Directional charge transfer mediated by mid-gap states: A transient absorption spectroscopy study of CdSe quantum dot/β-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Milleville, Christopher C.; Pelcher, Kate E.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; ...

    2016-02-15

    For solar energy conversion, not only must a semiconductor absorb incident solar radiation efficiently but also its photoexcited electron—hole pairs must further be separated and transported across interfaces. Charge transfer across interfaces requires consideration of both thermodynamic driving forces as well as the competing kinetics of multiple possible transfer, cooling, and recombination pathways. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for extracting holes from photoexcited CdSe quantum dots (QDs) based on interfacing with β-Pb0.33V2O5 nanowires that have strategically positioned midgap states derived from the intercalating Pb2+ ions. Unlike midgap states derived from defects or dopants, the states utilized heremore » are derived from the intrinsic crystal structure and are thus homogeneously distributed across the material. CdSe/β-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures were assembled using two distinct methods: successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and linker-assisted assembly (LAA). Transient absorption spectroscopy measurements indicate that, for both types of heterostructures, photoexcitation of CdSe QDs was followed by the transfer of electrons to the conduction band of β-Pb0.33V2O5 nanowires and holes to the midgap states of β-Pb0.33V2O5 nanowires. Holes were transferred on time scales less than 1 ps, whereas electrons were transferred more slowly on time scales of ~2 ps. In contrast, for analogous heterostructures consisting of CdSe QDs interfaced with V2O5 nanowires (wherein midgap states are absent), only electron transfer was observed. Interestingly, electron transfer was readily achieved for CdSe QDs interfaced with V2O5 nanowires by the SILAR method; however, for interfaces incorporating molecular linkers, electron transfer was observed only upon excitation at energies substantially greater than the bandgap absorption threshold of CdSe. Furthermore, transient absorbance decay traces reveal longer excited-state lifetimes (1–3

  3. Electro-optical and dielectric properties of CdSe quantum dots and 6CHBT liquid crystals composites

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, U. B.; Pandey, M. B.; Dhar, R; Pandey, A. S.; Kumar, S.; Dabrowski, R.

    2014-11-15

    We have prepared the composites of a room temperature nematic liquid crystal namely 4-(trans-4-n-hexylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzoate (6CHBT) and Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (CdSe-QDs) and investigated their electro-optical and dielectric properties. Effect of dispersion of CdSe-QDs on various electro-optical and display parameters of host liquid crystalline material have been studied. Physical parameters, such as switching threshold voltage and splay elastic constant have been altered drastically for composites. Dispersion of QDs in a liquid crystals medium destabilizes nematic ordering of the host and decreases the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature.

  4. Electro-optical and dielectric properties of CdSe quantum dots and 6CHBT liquid crystals composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, U. B.; Dhar, R.; Pandey, A. S.; Kumar, S.; Dabrowski, R.; Pandey, M. B.

    2014-11-01

    We have prepared the composites of a room temperature nematic liquid crystal namely 4-(trans-4-n-hexylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzoate (6CHBT) and Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (CdSe-QDs) and investigated their electro-optical and dielectric properties. Effect of dispersion of CdSe-QDs on various electro-optical and display parameters of host liquid crystalline material have been studied. Physical parameters, such as switching threshold voltage and splay elastic constant have been altered drastically for composites. Dispersion of QDs in a liquid crystals medium destabilizes nematic ordering of the host and decreases the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature.

  5. Structural and optical characterization of electrodeposited CdSe in mesoporous anatase TiO2 for regenerative quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Frédéric; Davoisne, Carine; Philippe, Laetitia; Elias, Jamil

    2012-10-05

    We investigated CdSe-sensitized TiO(2) solar cells by means of electrodeposition under galvanostatic control. The electrodeposition of CdSe within the mesoporous film of TiO(2) gives rise to a uniform, thickness controlled, conformal layer of nanostructured CdSe particles intimately wrapping the anatase TiO(2) nanoparticles. This technique has the advantage of providing not only a fast method for sensitization ( < 5 min) but also being easily scalable to the sensitization of large-area panels. XRD together with SAED analysis highlight that the deposit of CdSe is exclusively constituted of the hexagonal polymorph. In addition, hierarchical growth has also been shown, starting from the formation of a TiO(2)-CdSe core-shell structure followed by the growth of an assembly of CdSe nanoparticles resembling cauliflowers. This assembly exhibits at its core a mosaic texture with crystallites of about 3 nm in size, in contrast to a shell composed of well-crystallized single crystals between 5 and 10 nm in size. Preliminary results on the photovoltaic performance of such a nanostructured composite of TiO(2) and CdSe show 0.8% power conversion efficiency under A.M.1.5 G conditions-100 mW cm(-2) in association with a new regenerative redox couple based on cobalt(+III/+II) polypyridil complex (V(oc ) = 485 mV, J(sc ) = 4.26 mA cm (-2), ff=0.37).

  6. Infrared emitting and photoconducting colloidal silver chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots from a silylamide-promoted synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Maksym; Pichler, Stefan; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Seyrkammer, Robert; Lechner, Rainer T; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Jarzab, Dorota; Szendrei, Krisztina; Resel, Roland; Korovyanko, Oleksandra; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Paris, Oskar; Hesser, Günter; Heiss, Wolfgang

    2011-05-24

    Here, we present a hot injection synthesis of colloidal Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals (Ag(2)Se, Ag(2)Te, and Ag(2)S) that resulted in exceptionally small nanocrystal sizes in the range between 2 and 4 nm. Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals exhibit band gap energies within the near-infrared spectral region, making these materials promising as environmentally benign alternatives to established infrared active nanocrystals containing toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb. We present Ag(2)Se nanocrystals in detail, giving size-tunable luminescence with quantum yields above 1.7%. The luminescence, with a decay time on the order of 130 ns, was shown to improve due to the growth of a monolayer thick ZnSe shell. Photoconductivity with a quantum efficiency of 27% was achieved by blending the Ag(2)Se nanocrystals with a soluble fullerene derivative. The co-injection of lithium silylamide was found to be crucial to the synthesis of Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals, which drastically increased their nucleation rate even at relatively low growth temperatures. Because the same observation was made for the nucleation of Cd chalcogenide nanocrystals, we conclude that the addition of lithium silylamide might generally promote wet-chemical synthesis of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals, including in as-yet unexplored materials.

  7. Novel Colloidal MoS2 Quantum Dot Heterojunctions on Silicon Platforms for Multifunctional Optoelectronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Subhrajit; Maiti, Rishi; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Das, Soumen; Ray, Samit K.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon compatible wafer scale MoS2 heterojunctions are reported for the first time using colloidal quantum dots. Size dependent direct band gap emission of MoS2 dots are presented at room temperature. The temporal stability and decay dynamics of excited charge carriers in MoS2 quantum dots have been studied using time correlated single photon counting spectroscopy technique. Fabricated n-MoS2/p-Si 0D/3D heterojunctions exhibiting excellent rectification behavior have been studied for light emission in the forward bias and photodetection in the reverse bias. The electroluminescences with white light emission spectra in the range of 450–800 nm are found to be stable in the temperature range of 10–350 K. Size dependent spectral responsivity and detectivity of the heterojunction devices have been studied. The peak responsivity and detectivity of the fabricated heterojunction detector are estimated to be ~0.85 A/W and ~8 × 1011 Jones, respectively at an applied bias of −2 V for MoS2 QDs of 2 nm mean diameter. The above values are found to be superior to the reported results on large area photodetector devices fabricated using two dimensional materials. PMID:27357596

  8. Dry-Deposited Transparent Carbon Nanotube Film as Front Electrode in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Aitola, Kerttu; Hägglund, Carl; Kaskela, Antti; Johansson, Malin B; Sveinbjörnsson, Kári; Kauppinen, Esko I; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-01-20

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show great potential as an alternative material for front electrodes in photovoltaic applications, especially for flexible devices. In this work, a press-transferred transparent SWCNT film was utilized as front electrode for colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). The solar cells were fabricated on both glass and flexible substrates, and maximum power conversion efficiencies of 5.5 and 5.6 %, respectively, were achieved, which corresponds to 90 and 92 % of an indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)-based device (6.1 %). The SWCNTs are therefore a very good alternative to the ITO-based electrodes especially for flexible solar cells. The optical electric field distribution and optical losses within the devices were simulated theoretically and the results agree with the experimental results. With the optical simulations that were performed it may also be possible to enhance the photovoltaic performance of SWCNT-based solar cells even further by optimizing the device configuration or by using additional optical active layers, thus reducing light reflection of the device and increasing light absorption in the quantum dot layer.

  9. High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gi-Hwan; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Yoon, Yung Jin; Lan, Xinzheng; Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Abbas, Abdullah Saud; Yang, Zhenyu; Fan, Fengjia; Ip, Alexander H; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Kim, Jin Young; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-11-11

    The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.

  10. Counterion-Mediated Ligand Exchange for PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Superlattices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the past years, halide capping became one of the most promising strategies to passivate the surface of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in thin films to be used for electronic and optoelectronic device fabrication. This is due to the convenient processing, strong n-type characteristics, and ambient stability of the devices. Here, we investigate the effect of three counterions (ammonium, methylammonium, and tetrabutylammonium) in iodide salts used for treating CQD thin films and shed light on the mechanism of the ligand exchange. We obtain two- and three-dimensional square-packed PbS CQD superlattices with epitaxial merging of nearest neighbor CQDs as a direct outcome of the ligand-exchange reaction and show that the order in the layer can be controlled by the nature of the counterion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the acidity of the environment plays an important role in the substitution of the carboxylates by iodide ions at the surface of lead chalcogenide quantum dots. Tetrabutylammonium iodide shows lower reactivity compared to methylammonium and ammonium iodide due to the nonacidity of the cation, which eventually leads to higher order but also poorer carrier transport due to incomplete removal of the pristine ligands in the QD thin film. Finally, we show that single-step blade-coating and immersion in a ligand exchange solution such as the one containing methylammonium iodide can be used to fabricate well performing bottom-gate/bottom-contact PbS CQD field effect transistors with record subthreshold swing. PMID:26512884

  11. Conformal fabrication of colloidal quantum dot solids for optically enhanced photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Labelle, André J; Thon, Susanna M; Kim, Jin Young; Lan, Xinzheng; Zhitomirsky, David; Kemp, Kyle W; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-05-26

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQD) are an attractive thin-film material for photovoltaic applications due to low material costs, ease of fabrication, and size-tunable band gap. Unfortunately, today they suffer from a compromise between light absorption and photocarrier extraction, a fact that currently prevents the complete harvest of incoming above-band-gap solar photons. We have investigated the use of structured substrates and/or electrodes to increase the effective light path through the active material and found that these designs require highly conformal application of the light-absorbing films to achieve the greatest enhancement. This conformality requirement derives from the need for maximal absorption enhancement combined with shortest-distance charge transport. Here we report on a means of processing highly conformal layer-by-layer deposited CQD absorber films onto microstructured, light-recycling electrodes. Specifically, we engineer surface hydrophilicity to achieve conformal deposition of upper layers atop underlying ones. We show that only with the application of conformal coating can we achieve optimal quantum efficiency and enhanced power conversion efficiency in structured-electrode CQD cells.

  12. Single-step colloidal quantum dot films for infrared solar harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Amirreza; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Kim, Younghoon; Ouellette, Olivier; Levina, Larissa; Walters, Grant; Dinh, Cao-Thang; Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Lan, Xinzheng; Labelle, Andre J.; Ip, Alexander H.; Proppe, Andrew; Ahmed, Ghada H.; Mohammed, Omar F.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-10-01

    Semiconductors with bandgaps in the near- to mid-infrared can harvest solar light that is otherwise wasted by conventional single-junction solar cell architectures. In particular, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials since they are cost-effective, processed from solution, and have a bandgap that can be tuned into the infrared (IR) via the quantum size effect. These characteristics enable them to harvest the infrared portion of the solar spectrum to which silicon is transparent. To date, IR CQD solar cells have been made using a wasteful and complex sequential layer-by-layer process. Here, we demonstrate ˜1 eV bandgap solar-harvesting CQD films deposited in a single step. By engineering a fast-drying solvent mixture for metal iodide-capped CQDs, we deposited active layers greater than 200 nm in thickness having a mean roughness less than 1 nm. We integrated these films into infrared solar cells that are stable in air and exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 3.5% under illumination by the full solar spectrum, and 0.4% through a simulated silicon solar cell filter.

  13. Correlated blinking via time dependent energy transfer in single CdSe quantum dot-dye nanoassemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, Frank; Täuber, Daniela; von Borczyskowski, Christian

    2013-05-01

    Optical confocal spectroscopy on self-assembled single nanoassemblies from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QD) and perylene diimide dye molecules demonstrates efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Intramolecular dynamics of the flexible dye molecule change the FRET efficiency in course of the detection period of several minutes. This can be followed by correlated observations of luminescence intensities and related spectral shifts of both constituents. Contrary to several experiments on similar assemblies, the FRET efficiencies are by almost one order of magnitude larger in the non-polar liquid solvent TEHOS as compared e.g. to toluene. Experimental and theoretically expected efficiencies are in close agreement with each other.

  14. Process-Dependent Properties in Colloidally Synthesized “Giant” Core/Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Dennis, Allison M.; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Park, Young-Shin; Kundu, Janardan; Htoon, Han

    2012-06-07

    Due to their characteristic bright and stable photoluminescence, semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) have attracted much interest as efficient light emitters for applications from single-particle tracking to solid-state lighting. Despite their numerous enabling traits, however, NQD optical properties are frustratingly sensitive to their chemical environment, exhibit fluorescence intermittency ('blinking'), and are susceptible to Auger recombination, an efficient nonradiative decay process. Previously, we showed for the first time that colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) comprising ultrathick shells (number of shell monolayers, n, > 10) grown by protracted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) leads to remarkable photostability and significantly suppressed blinking behavior as a function of increasing shell thickness. We have also shown that these so-called 'giant' NQDs (g-NQDs) afford nearly complete suppression of non-radiative Auger recombination, revealed in our studies as long biexciton lifetimes and efficient multiexciton emission. The unique behavior of this core/shell system prompted us to assess correlations between specific physicochemical properties - beyond shell thickness - and functionality. Here, we demonstrate the ability of particle shape/faceting, crystalline phase, and core size to determine ensemble and single-particle optical properties (quantum yield/brightness, blinking, radiative lifetimes). Significantly, we show how reaction process parameters (surface-stabilizing ligands, ligand:NQD ratio, choice of 'inert' solvent, and modifications to the SILAR method itself) can be tuned to modify these function-dictating NQD physical properties, ultimately leading to an optimized synthetic approach that results in the complete suppression of blinking. We find that the resulting 'guiding principles' can be applied to other NQD compositions, allowing us to achieve non-blinking behavior in the near

  15. Charge trapping dynamics in PbS colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Bakulin, Artem A; Neutzner, Stefanie; Bakker, Huib J; Ottaviani, Laurent; Barakel, Damien; Chen, Zhuoying

    2013-10-22

    The efficiency of solution-processed colloidal quantum dot (QD) based solar cells is limited by poor charge transport in the active layer of the device, which originates from multiple trapping sites provided by QD surface defects. We apply a recently developed ultrafast electro-optical technique, pump-push photocurrent spectroscopy, to elucidate the charge trapping dynamics in PbS colloidal-QD photovoltaic devices at working conditions. We show that IR photoinduced absorption of QD in the 0.2-0.5 eV region is partly associated with immobile charges, which can be optically detrapped in our experiment. Using this absorption as a probe, we observe that the early trapping dynamics strongly depend on the nature of the ligands used for QD passivation, while it depends only slightly on the nature of the electron-accepting layer. We find that weakly bound states, with a photon-activation energy of 0.2 eV, are populated instantaneously upon photoexcitation. This indicates that the photogenerated states show an intrinsically bound-state character, arguably similar to charge-transfer states formation in organic photovoltaic materials. Sequential population of deeper traps (activation energy 0.3-0.5 eV) is observed on the ~0.1-10 ns time scales, indicating that most of carrier trapping occurs only after substantial charge relaxation/transport. The reported study disentangles fundamentally different contributions to charge trapping dynamics in the nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices and can serve as a useful tool for QD solar cell development.

  16. The Colloidal Stabilization of Quantum Dots: Towards Manufacturable, Efficient Solution-Processed Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollny, Lisa

    Understanding colloidal stabilization can influence the design of optoelectronic devices and enable improvements to their performance and stability. For photovoltaics, important characteristics of the active layer material are high conductivity along with a minimum of recombination centers. In order to capitalize on the benefits of solution-processed materials, it is important to minimize the number of processing steps: ideally, to achieve a low-cost solution, materials would be deposited using a single process step compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing. Prior to this work, the highest-performing colloidal quantum dots (CQD) solar cells have relied on several deposition steps that are repeated in a layer-by-layer (LBL) fashion. The purpose of these process steps has been to remove the long insulating ligands used in synthesis and replace them with short ligands that allow electrical conduction. The large number of steps combined, typically implemented via spin coating, leads to inefficient materials utilization and fails to show a path to a manufacturable solution. In this work, the first CQD solar cells were designed, built, and characterized combining state-of-art performance with scalable manufacture. Firstly, I report the first automated CQD synthesis to result in CQDs that form high-performance CQD solar cells. I analyze the CQD synthesis and by separating it into two phases---nucleation and growth phase---my insights are used to create higher-quality CQDs exhibiting enhanced monodispersity. I then proceed to develop a CQD ink: a CQD solution ready for direct deposition to form a semiconducting film exhibiting low trap state density. In early trials the CQD ink showed only limited power conversion efficiencies of 2%. I designed a new ink strategy, which I term cleavable hemiketal ligands. This novel two-component ligand strategy enables the combination of colloidal stabilization (via this longer two-component ligand) and cleavability (enabling excellent

  17. Tuning Hole and Electron Transfer from Photo-excited CdSe Quantum Dot to Phenol Derivatives: Effect of Electron Donating and Withdrawing Moiety.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Hirendra Nath; Debnath, Tushar; Sebastian, Deepa; Maiti, Sourav

    2017-03-27

    Charge transfer processes from photo-excited CdSe QDs to phenol derivatives with electron donating (4-methoxy) and electron withdrawing (4-nitro) moiety have been demonstrated by using steady state and time-resolved emission and femto-second transient absorption spectroscopy. Steady state and time-resolved emission studies suggest that in presence of both 4-nitro phenol (4NP) and 4-methoxy phenol (4MP) CdSe QDs luminescence gets quenched. Stern-Volmer analysis suggests both static and dynamic mechanisms are active for both the QD/phenol composites. Cyclic volatmetric analysis recommends that photo-excited CdSe QDs can donate electron to 4NP and hole to 4MP. To reconfirm both electron and hole transfer mechanism CdSe/CdS quasi type-II and CdSe/CdTe type-II core-shell NC were synthesized and the photoluminescence quenching were monitored in absence and in presence of both 4NP and 4MP where systematically hole and electron transfer were restricted. Our studies suggest that indeed electron and hole transfer take place from photo-excited CdSe to 4NP and 4MP respectively. To monitor the charge transfer dynamics in both the systems in early time scale, we have employed femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopic techniques. Both electron and hole transfer and charge recombination dynamics have been discussed and effect of electron donating and withdrawing group has been demonstrated.

  18. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: from preparation to the modification of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for bio-applications.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoyu; Lowe, Stuart B; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2014-04-21

    Concerns over possible toxicities of conventional metal-containing quantum dots have inspired growing research interests in colloidal silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs), or silicon quantum dots (SiQDs). This is related to their potential applications in a number of fields such as solar cells, optoelectronic devices and fluorescent bio-labelling agents. The past decade has seen significant progress in the understanding of fundamental physics and surface properties of silicon nanocrystals. Such understanding is based on the advances in the preparation and characterization of surface passivated colloidal silicon nanocrystals. In this critical review, we summarize recent advances in the methods of preparing high quality silicon nanocrystals and strategies for forming self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), with a focus on their bio-applications. We highlight some of the major challenges that remain, as well as lessons learnt when working with silicon nanocrystals (239 references).

  19. Optical and structural properties of ensembles of colloidal Ag{sub 2}S quantum dots in gelatin

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, O. V. Smirnov, M. S.; Shapiro, B. I.; Shatskikh, T. S.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Korolev, N. V.

    2015-03-15

    The size dependences of the absorption and luminescence spectra of ensembles of hydrophilic colloidal Ag{sub 2}S quantum dots produced by the sol-gel method and dispersed in gelatin are analyzed. By X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the formation of core/shell nanoparticles is detected. The characteristic feature of the nanoparticles is the formation of crystalline cores, 1.5–2.0 nm in dimensions, and shells of gelatin and its complexes with the components of synthesis. The observed slight size dependence of the position of infrared photoluminescence bands (in the range 1000–1400 nm) in the ensembles of hydrophilic colloidal Ag{sub 2}S quantum dots is explained within the context of the model of the radiative recombination of electrons localized at structural and impurity defects with free holes.

  20. Composition-dependent trap distributions in CdSe and InP quantum dots probed using photoluminescence blinking dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heejae; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Koh, Weon-Kyu; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jiwon

    2016-07-21

    Although Group II-VI quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications in QD-based devices, the presence of toxic ions in II-VI QDs raises environmental concerns. To fulfill the demands of nontoxic QDs, synthetic routes for III-V QDs have been developed. However, only a few comparative analyses on optical properties of III-V QDs have been performed. In this study, the composition-related energetic trap distributions have been explored by using three different types of core/multishell QDs: CdSe-CdS (CdSe/CdS/ZnS), InP-ZnSe (InP/ZnSe/ZnS), and InP-GaP (InP/GaP/ZnS). It was shown that CdSe-CdS QDs have much larger trap densities than InP-shell QDs at higher energy states (at least 1Eg (band gap energy) above the lowest conduction band edge) based on probability density plots and Auger ionization efficiencies which are determined by analyses of photoluminescence blinking dynamics. This result suggests that the composition of encapsulated QDs is closely associated with the charge trapping processes, and also provides an insight into the development of more environmentally friendly QD-based devices.

  1. Light-emitting structures based on colloidal quantum dots of cadmium sulphide having a high color rendering index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. M.; Tadtaev, P. O.; Vatalev, O. S.; Mikhailov, I. I.; Tarasov, S. A.; Solomonov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum dots created by colloidal synthesis (CQDs) were investigated. The paper shows how by changing the size and concentration of CQDs the emission spectrum of the structure with a color rendering index greater than 90 was achieved. Creation of the light- emitting structures involved spin-coating of CdS CQDs onto the glass substrate and consequent high-vacuum annealing. Methods allowing the increase of the emission intensity to achieve better approximation of the radiation spectra shape of white LEDs’ spectra.

  2. Remote trap passivation in colloidal quantum dot bulk nano-heterojunctions and its effect in solution-processed solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rath, Arup K; Pelayo Garcia de Arquer, F; Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Lasanta, Tania; Bernechea, Maria; Diedenhofen, Silke L; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2014-07-16

    More-efficient charge collection and suppressed trap recombination in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells is achieved by means of a bulk nano-heterojunction (BNH) structure, in which p-type and n-type materials are blended on the nanometer scale. The improved performance of the BNH devices, compared with that of bilayer devices, is displayed in higher photocurrents and higher open-circuit voltages (resulting from a trap passivation mechanism).

  3. Synthesis of quantum dot nanocrystals and plasmonic nanoparticles using a segmented flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbwahnche, R. C.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Ryzhov, O. A.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an automated method of synthesizing quantum dot nanocrystals and plasmonic nanoparticles using segmented flow rector synthesis as a new alternative to the batch method of synthesizing nanoparticles. A reactor was successfully applied to the synthesis of colloidal solutions of semiconductor (CdSe) and metal (Ag) nanoparticles. This instrument is applicable in both material science laboratories and industry.

  4. Composition-dependent trap distributions in CdSe and InP quantum dots probed using photoluminescence blinking dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Heejae; Cho, Kyung-Sang; Koh, Weon-Kyu; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jiwon

    2016-07-01

    Although Group II-VI quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications in QD-based devices, the presence of toxic ions in II-VI QDs raises environmental concerns. To fulfill the demands of nontoxic QDs, synthetic routes for III-V QDs have been developed. However, only a few comparative analyses on optical properties of III-V QDs have been performed. In this study, the composition-related energetic trap distributions have been explored by using three different types of core/multishell QDs: CdSe-CdS (CdSe/CdS/ZnS), InP-ZnSe (InP/ZnSe/ZnS), and InP-GaP (InP/GaP/ZnS). It was shown that CdSe-CdS QDs have much larger trap densities than InP-shell QDs at higher energy states (at least 1Eg (band gap energy) above the lowest conduction band edge) based on probability density plots and Auger ionization efficiencies which are determined by analyses of photoluminescence blinking dynamics. This result suggests that the composition of encapsulated QDs is closely associated with the charge trapping processes, and also provides an insight into the development of more environmentally friendly QD-based devices.Although Group II-VI quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention due to their wide range of applications in QD-based devices, the presence of toxic ions in II-VI QDs raises environmental concerns. To fulfill the demands of nontoxic QDs, synthetic routes for III-V QDs have been developed. However, only a few comparative analyses on optical properties of III-V QDs have been performed. In this study, the composition-related energetic trap distributions have been explored by using three different types of core/multishell QDs: CdSe-CdS (CdSe/CdS/ZnS), InP-ZnSe (InP/ZnSe/ZnS), and InP-GaP (InP/GaP/ZnS). It was shown that CdSe-CdS QDs have much larger trap densities than InP-shell QDs at higher energy states (at least 1Eg (band gap energy) above the lowest conduction band edge) based on probability density plots and Auger ionization

  5. Ameliorating effects of extracellular polymeric substances excreted by Thalassiosira pseudonana on algal toxicity of CdSe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Saijin; Jiang, Yuelu; Chen, Chi-Shuo; Creeley, Danielle; Schwehr, Kathleen A; Quigg, Antonietta; Chin, Wei-Chun; Santschi, Peter H

    2013-01-15

    Quantum dots (QDs) are engineered nanoparticles (ENs) that have found increasing applications and shown great potential in drug delivery, biological imaging and industrial products. Knowledge of their stability, fate and transport in the aquatic environment is still lacking, including details of how these nanomaterials interact with marine phytoplankton. Here, we examined the toxicity of functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs (amine- and carboxyl-) by exposing them for five days to Thalassiosira pseudonana (marine diatom) grown under different nutrient-conditions (enriched versus nitrogen-limited media). The released polysaccharides and proteins, the major components of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), were measured to assess their potential effects on the interactions between QDs and T. pseudonana. The partitioning of QDs was analyzed by monitoring the concentration of Cd in different size fractions of the cultures (i.e., filtrate, <0.22 μm and permeate, <3 kDa). We found that the Cd release of QDs in the T. pseudonana culture was dependent on the nutrient conditions and nature of QDs' surface coating. Both amine- and carboxyl-functionalized QDs exhibited higher rates of Cd release in N-limited cultures than in nutrient enriched cultures. The results also showed that amine-functionalized QDs aggregate with minimal Cd release, independent of nutrient conditions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images confirmed that aggregates are composed of QDs and the culture matrix (EPS). In addition, both types of QDs showed limited toxicity to T. pseudonana. The increasing production of proteins induced by QDs suggests that extracellular proteins might be involved in the detoxification of QDs to T. pseudonana via the Cd release of QDs. Our results here demonstrated that EPS can play an ameliorating role in QD toxicity, fate and transport in the aquatic environment.

  6. Directional charge transfer mediated by mid-gap states: A transient absorption spectroscopy study of CdSe quantum dot/β-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Milleville, Christopher C.; Pelcher, Kate E.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Watson, David F.

    2016-02-15

    For solar energy conversion, not only must a semiconductor absorb incident solar radiation efficiently but also its photoexcited electron—hole pairs must further be separated and transported across interfaces. Charge transfer across interfaces requires consideration of both thermodynamic driving forces as well as the competing kinetics of multiple possible transfer, cooling, and recombination pathways. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for extracting holes from photoexcited CdSe quantum dots (QDs) based on interfacing with β-Pb0.33V2O5 nanowires that have strategically positioned midgap states derived from the intercalating Pb2+ ions. Unlike midgap states derived from defects or dopants, the states utilized here are derived from the intrinsic crystal structure and are thus homogeneously distributed across the material. CdSe/β-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures were assembled using two distinct methods: successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and linker-assisted assembly (LAA). Transient absorption spectroscopy measurements indicate that, for both types of heterostructures, photoexcitation of CdSe QDs was followed by the transfer of electrons to the conduction band of β-Pb0.33V2O5 nanowires and holes to the midgap states of β-Pb0.33V2O5 nanowires. Holes were transferred on time scales less than 1 ps, whereas electrons were transferred more slowly on time scales of ~2 ps. In contrast, for analogous heterostructures consisting of CdSe QDs interfaced with V2O5 nanowires (wherein midgap states are absent), only electron transfer was observed. Interestingly, electron transfer was readily achieved for CdSe QDs interfaced with V2O5 nanowires by the SILAR method; however, for interfaces incorporating molecular linkers, electron transfer was observed only upon

  7. Model-free transformation kinetics for ZnS quantum dots synthesized via colloidal reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Sh. A.; Al-Kotb, M. S.; Kotkata, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by a simple non-toxic colloidal reaction of zinc acetate dehydrate and sodium sulfate in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) acting as an anionic coordinated capping material. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements for the synthesized ZnS QDs were carried out at various heating rates. The recorded DSC curves exhibit overlapped exothermic peaks accomplishing several nano-sizes groups of the synthesized single-compositional ZnS cubic phase. The temperature at maximum rate of transformation for the main exothermic peak exhibits a monotonic shift to higher temperatures (324-388 °C) as the heating rate increased from 5 °C/min to 30 °C/min, suggesting that the growth process has a kinetic effect. The kinetics of such non-isothermal growth process was studied by applying a model-free isoconversional approach. The obtained values of the activation energy and reaction mode were used to identify the growth mechanism.

  8. Detecting trap states in planar PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhiwen; Wang, Aiji; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yinshu; Wang, Jizheng

    2016-01-01

    The recently developed planar architecture (ITO/ZnO/PbS-TBAI/PbS-EDT/Au) has greatly improved the power conversion efficiency of colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics (QDPVs). However, the performance is still far below the theoretical expectations and trap states in the PbS-TBAI film are believed to be the major origin, characterization and understanding of the traps are highly demanded to develop strategies for continued performance improvement. Here employing impedance spectroscopy we detect trap states in the planar PbS QDPVs. We determined a trap state of about 0.34 eV below the conduction band with a density of around 3.2 × 1016 cm−3 eV−1. Temperature dependent open-circuit voltage analysis, temperature dependent diode property analysis and temperature dependent build-in potential analysis consistently denotes an below-bandgap activation energy of about 1.17–1.20 eV. PMID:27845392

  9. Crystal symmetry breaking and vacancies in colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, Federica; Dirin, Dmitry N; Ibáñez, Maria; Krumeich, Frank; Cervellino, Antonio; Frison, Ruggero; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Guagliardi, Antonietta; Masciocchi, Norberto

    2016-09-01

    Size and shape tunability and low-cost solution processability make colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) an emerging class of building blocks for innovative photovoltaic, thermoelectric and optoelectronic devices. Lead chalcogenide QDs are known to crystallize in the rock-salt structure, although with very different atomic order and stoichiometry in the core and surface regions; however, there exists no convincing prior identification of how extreme downsizing and surface-induced ligand effects influence structural distortion. Using forefront X-ray scattering techniques and density functional theory calculations, here we have identified that, at sizes below 8 nm, PbS and PbSe QDs undergo a lattice distortion with displacement of the Pb sublattice, driven by ligand-induced tensile strain. The resulting permanent electric dipoles may have implications on the oriented attachment of these QDs. Evidence is found for a Pb-deficient core and, in the as-synthesized QDs, for a rhombic dodecahedral shape with nonpolar {110} facets. On varying the nature of the surface ligands, differences in lattice strains are found.

  10. Detecting trap states in planar PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhiwen; Wang, Aiji; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yinshu; Wang, Jizheng

    2016-11-01

    The recently developed planar architecture (ITO/ZnO/PbS-TBAI/PbS-EDT/Au) has greatly improved the power conversion efficiency of colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics (QDPVs). However, the performance is still far below the theoretical expectations and trap states in the PbS-TBAI film are believed to be the major origin, characterization and understanding of the traps are highly demanded to develop strategies for continued performance improvement. Here employing impedance spectroscopy we detect trap states in the planar PbS QDPVs. We determined a trap state of about 0.34 eV below the conduction band with a density of around 3.2 × 1016 cm-3 eV-1. Temperature dependent open-circuit voltage analysis, temperature dependent diode property analysis and temperature dependent build-in potential analysis consistently denotes an below-bandgap activation energy of about 1.17-1.20 eV.

  11. Continuous Purification of Colloidal Quantum Dots in Large-Scale Using Porous Electrodes in Flow Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hosub; Woo, Ju Young; Lee, Doh C.; Lee, Jinkee; Jeong, Sohee; Kim, Duckjong

    2017-02-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) afford huge potential in numerous applications owing to their excellent optical and electronic properties. After the synthesis of QDs, separating QDs from unreacted impurities in large scale is one of the biggest issues to achieve scalable and high performance optoelectronic applications. Thus far, however, continuous purification method, which is essential for mass production, has rarely been reported. In this study, we developed a new continuous purification process that is suitable to the mass production of high-quality QDs. As-synthesized QDs are driven by electrophoresis in a flow channel and captured by porous electrodes and finally separated from the unreacted impurities. Nuclear magnetic resonance and ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared absorption spectroscopic data clearly showed that the impurities were efficiently removed from QDs with the purification yield, defined as the ratio of the mass of purified QDs to that of QDs in the crude solution, up to 87%. Also, we could successfully predict the purification yield depending on purification conditions with a simple theoretical model. The proposed large-scale purification process could be an important cornerstone for the mass production and industrial use of high-quality QDs.

  12. Enhanced trion emission from colloidal quantum dots with photonic crystals by two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingsheng

    2013-11-15

    For colloidal quantum dots, the ongoing biggest problem is their fluorescence blinking. Until now, there is no generally accepted model for this fluorescence blinking. Here, two-photon excited fluorescence from CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals on silicon nitride photonic crystals is studied using a femtosecond laser. From analysis of the spectra and decay processes, most of the relative trion efficiency is larger than 10%, and the largest relative trion efficiency reaches 46.7%. The photonic crystals enhance the trion emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals, where the enhancement is due to the coupling of the trion emission to the leaky mode of the photonic crystal slab. Moreover, the photonic crystals enhance the Auger-assisted trapping efficiency of electrons/holes to surface states, and then enhance the efficiency of the generations of charge separation and DC electric field, which modifies the trion spectrum. Therefore, a model is present for explaining the mechanism of fluorescence blinking including the effect of the environment.

  13. Photoluminescence Intermittency and Photo-Bleaching of Single Colloidal Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Qin, Haiyan; Meng, Renyang; Wang, Na; Peng, Xiaogang

    2017-03-03

    Photoluminescence (PL) blinking of single colloidal quantum dot (QD)-PL intensity switching between different brightness states under constant excitation-and photo-bleaching are roadblocks for most applications of QDs. This progress report shall treat PL blinking and photo-bleaching both as photochemical events, namely, PL blinking as reversible and photo-bleaching being irreversible ones. Most studies on single-molecule spectroscopy of QDs in literature are related to PL blinking, which invites us to concentrate our discussions on the PL blinking, including its brief history in 20 years, analysis methods, competitive mechanisms and different strategies to battle it. In terms of suppression of the PL blinking, wavefunction confinement-confining photo-generated electron and hole within the core and inner portion of the shell of a core/shell QD-demonstrates significant advantages. This strategy yields nearly non-blinking QDs with their emission peaks covering most part of the visible window. As expected, the resulting QDs from this new strategy also show substantially improved anti-bleaching features.

  14. Continuous Purification of Colloidal Quantum Dots in Large-Scale Using Porous Electrodes in Flow Channel

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hosub; Woo, Ju Young; Lee, Doh C.; Lee, Jinkee; Jeong, Sohee; Kim, Duckjong

    2017-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) afford huge potential in numerous applications owing to their excellent optical and electronic properties. After the synthesis of QDs, separating QDs from unreacted impurities in large scale is one of the biggest issues to achieve scalable and high performance optoelectronic applications. Thus far, however, continuous purification method, which is essential for mass production, has rarely been reported. In this study, we developed a new continuous purification process that is suitable to the mass production of high-quality QDs. As-synthesized QDs are driven by electrophoresis in a flow channel and captured by porous electrodes and finally separated from the unreacted impurities. Nuclear magnetic resonance and ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared absorption spectroscopic data clearly showed that the impurities were efficiently removed from QDs with the purification yield, defined as the ratio of the mass of purified QDs to that of QDs in the crude solution, up to 87%. Also, we could successfully predict the purification yield depending on purification conditions with a simple theoretical model. The proposed large-scale purification process could be an important cornerstone for the mass production and industrial use of high-quality QDs. PMID:28240242

  15. Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sabatini, Randy; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Munir, Rahim; Balawi, Ahmed Hesham; Lan, Xinzheng; Fan, Fengjia; Walters, Grant; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Laquai, Frédéric; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H

    2017-02-01

    Bandtail states in disordered semiconductor materials result in losses in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and inhibit carrier transport in photovoltaics. For colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films that promise low-cost, large-area, air-stable photovoltaics, bandtails are determined by CQD synthetic polydispersity and inhomogeneous aggregation during the ligand-exchange process. Here we introduce a new method for the synthesis of solution-phase ligand-exchanged CQD inks that enable a flat energy landscape and an advantageously high packing density. In the solid state, these materials exhibit a sharper bandtail and reduced energy funnelling compared with the previous best CQD thin films for photovoltaics. Consequently, we demonstrate solar cells with higher Voc and more efficient charge injection into the electron acceptor, allowing the use of a closer-to-optimum bandgap to absorb more light. These enable the fabrication of CQD solar cells made via a solution-phase ligand exchange, with a certified power conversion efficiency of 11.28%. The devices are stable when stored in air, unencapsulated, for over 1,000 h.

  16. Crystal symmetry breaking and vacancies in colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Federica; Dirin, Dmitry N.; Ibáñez, Maria; Krumeich, Frank; Cervellino, Antonio; Frison, Ruggero; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Guagliardi, Antonietta; Masciocchi, Norberto

    2016-09-01

    Size and shape tunability and low-cost solution processability make colloidal lead chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) an emerging class of building blocks for innovative photovoltaic, thermoelectric and optoelectronic devices. Lead chalcogenide QDs are known to crystallize in the rock-salt structure, although with very different atomic order and stoichiometry in the core and surface regions; however, there exists no convincing prior identification of how extreme downsizing and surface-induced ligand effects influence structural distortion. Using forefront X-ray scattering techniques and density functional theory calculations, here we have identified that, at sizes below 8 nm, PbS and PbSe QDs undergo a lattice distortion with displacement of the Pb sublattice, driven by ligand-induced tensile strain. The resulting permanent electric dipoles may have implications on the oriented attachment of these QDs. Evidence is found for a Pb-deficient core and, in the as-synthesized QDs, for a rhombic dodecahedral shape with nonpolar {110} facets. On varying the nature of the surface ligands, differences in lattice strains are found.

  17. Continuous Purification of Colloidal Quantum Dots in Large-Scale Using Porous Electrodes in Flow Channel.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hosub; Woo, Ju Young; Lee, Doh C; Lee, Jinkee; Jeong, Sohee; Kim, Duckjong

    2017-02-27

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) afford huge potential in numerous applications owing to their excellent optical and electronic properties. After the synthesis of QDs, separating QDs from unreacted impurities in large scale is one of the biggest issues to achieve scalable and high performance optoelectronic applications. Thus far, however, continuous purification method, which is essential for mass production, has rarely been reported. In this study, we developed a new continuous purification process that is suitable to the mass production of high-quality QDs. As-synthesized QDs are driven by electrophoresis in a flow channel and captured by porous electrodes and finally separated from the unreacted impurities. Nuclear magnetic resonance and ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared absorption spectroscopic data clearly showed that the impurities were efficiently removed from QDs with the purification yield, defined as the ratio of the mass of purified QDs to that of QDs in the crude solution, up to 87%. Also, we could successfully predict the purification yield depending on purification conditions with a simple theoretical model. The proposed large-scale purification process could be an important cornerstone for the mass production and industrial use of high-quality QDs.

  18. Hybrid organic-inorganic inks flatten the energy landscape in colloidal quantum dot solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengxia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sabatini, Randy; García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Munir, Rahim; Balawi, Ahmed Hesham; Lan, Xinzheng; Fan, Fengjia; Walters, Grant; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Laquai, Frédéric; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-11-01

    Bandtail states in disordered semiconductor materials result in losses in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and inhibit carrier transport in photovoltaics. For colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films that promise low-cost, large-area, air-stable photovoltaics, bandtails are determined by CQD synthetic polydispersity and inhomogeneous aggregation during the ligand-exchange process. Here we introduce a new method for the synthesis of solution-phase ligand-exchanged CQD inks that enable a flat energy landscape and an advantageously high packing density. In the solid state, these materials exhibit a sharper bandtail and reduced energy funnelling compared with the previous best CQD thin films for photovoltaics. Consequently, we demonstrate solar cells with higher Voc and more efficient charge injection into the electron acceptor, allowing the use of a closer-to-optimum bandgap to absorb more light. These enable the fabrication of CQD solar cells made via a solution-phase ligand exchange, with a certified power conversion efficiency of 11.28%. The devices are stable when stored in air, unencapsulated, for over 1,000 h.

  19. Saturation behaviour of colloidal PbSe quantum dot exciton emission coupled into silicon photonic circuits.

    PubMed

    Foell, Charles A; Schelew, Ellen; Qiao, Haijun; Abel, Keith A; Hughes, Stephen; van Veggel, Frank C J M; Young, Jeff F

    2012-05-07

    We report coupling of the excitonic photon emission from photoexcited PbSe colloidal quantum dots (QDs) into an optical circuit that was fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator wafer using a CMOS-compatible process. The coupling between excitons and sub-μm sized silicon channel waveguides was mediated by a photonic crystal microcavity. The intensity of the coupled light saturates rapidly with the optical excitation power. The saturation behaviour was quantitatively studied using an isolated photonic crystal cavity with PbSe QDs site-selectively located at the cavity mode antinode position. Saturation occurs when a few μW of continuous wave HeNe pump power excites the QDs with a Gaussian spot size of 2 μm. By comparing the results with a master equation analysis that rigorously accounts for the complex dielectric environment of the QD excitons, the saturation is attributed to ground state depletion due to a non-radiative exciton decay channel with a trap state lifetime ~ 3 μs.

  20. Near-infrared-emitting colloidal Ag2S quantum dots exhibiting upconversion luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Jiang, Danyu; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dandan; Zheng, Huiping; Du, Yuansheng; Li, Xi; Li, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) coated with thioglycolic acid (Ag2S QDs-TGA) have been synthesized in an organic solvent via a stepwise addition of reagents. When excited by a 980 nm laser, the near-infrared-emitting colloidal Ag2S QDs-TGA exhibit upconversion luminescence (UCL). The observed photoluminescence (PL) was attributed to the presence of ligand-modified Ag2S on the QD surfaces. Hence, upon dilution of the solution, the PL intensity initially increased before subsequently decreasing, accompanied by a blue shift in the PL spectra. The PL phenomena can be attributed to the increase in the amount of ligand-modified Ag2S on the QD surfaces upon dilution, which in turn affected the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and re-emission of the surface energy level. The relations between the emission intensity of Ag2S QDs-TGA and the excitation power are investigated, and the results confirm that the UCL in Ag2S QDs-TGA can be ascribed to a two-photon-assisted absorption process via a real energy state.

  1. Color-tuned and transparent colloidal quantum dot solar cells via optimized multilayer interference.

    PubMed

    Arinze, Ebuka S; Qiu, Botong; Palmquist, Nathan; Cheng, Yan; Lin, Yida; Nyirjesy, Gabrielle; Qian, Gary; Thon, Susanna M

    2017-02-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), are a promising candidate material for realizing colored and semitransparent solar cells, due to their band gap tunability, near infrared responsivity and solution-based processing flexibility. CQD solar cells are typically comprised of several optically thin active and electrode layers that are optimized for their electrical properties; however, their spectral tunability beyond the absorption onset of the CQD layer itself has been relatively unexplored. In this study, we design, optimize and fabricate multicolored and transparent CQD devices by means of thin film interference engineering. We develop an optimization algorithm to produce devices with controlled color characteristics. We quantify the tradeoffs between attainable color or transparency and available photocurrent, calculate the effects of non-ideal interference patterns on apparent device color, and apply our optimization method to tandem solar cell design. Experimentally, we fabricate blue, green, yellow, red and semitransparent devices and achieve photocurrents ranging from 10 to 15.2 mA/cm2 for the colored devices. We demonstrate semitransparent devices with average visible transparencies ranging from 27% to 32%, which match our design simulation results. We discuss how our optimization method provides a general platform for custom-design of optoelectronic devices with arbitrary spectral profiles.

  2. High-Power Genuine Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Based On Colloidal Nanocrystal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jeonghun; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Myeongjin; Lee, Seonghoon; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Changhee

    2015-06-10

    Thin-film ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission wavelengths below 400 nm are emerging as promising light sources for various purposes, from our daily lives to industrial applications. However, current thin-film UV-emitting devices radiate not only UV light but also visible light. Here, we introduce genuine UV-emitting colloidal nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) LEDs (QLEDs) using precisely controlled NQDs consisting of a 2.5-nm-sized CdZnS ternary core and a ZnS shell. The effective core size is further reduced during the shell growth via the atomic diffusion of interior Cd atoms to the exterior ZnS shell, compensating for the photoluminescence red shift. This design enables us to develop CdZnS@ZnS UV QLEDs with pure UV emission and minimal parasitic peaks. The irradiance is as high as 2.0-13.9 mW cm(-2) at the peak wavelengths of 377-390 nm, several orders of magnitude higher than that of other thin-film UV LEDs.

  3. Robust Whispering-Gallery-Mode Microbubble Lasers from Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Ta, Van Duong; Leck, Kheng Swee; Tan, Beng Hau Ian; Wang, Zeng; He, Tingchao; Ohl, Claus-Dieter; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2017-03-21

    Microlasers hold great promise for the development of photonics and optoelectronics. Among the discovered optical gain materials, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have been recognized as the most appealing candidate due to the facile emission tunability and solution processability. However, to date, it is still challenging to develop CQD-based microlasers with low cost yet high performance. Moreover, the poor long-term stability of CQDs remains to be the most critical issue, which may block their laser aspirations. Herein, we developed a unique but generic approach to forming a novel type of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microbubble laser from the hybrid CQD/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The formation mechanism of the microbubbles was unraveled by recording the drying process of the nanocomposite droplets. Interestingly, these microbubbles naturally serve as the high-quality WGM laser resonators. By simply changing the CQDs, the lasing emission can be tuned across the whole visible spectral range. Importantly, these microbubble lasers exhibit unprecedented long-term stability (over one year), sufficient for practical applications. As a proof-of-concept, the potential of water vapor sensing was demonstrated. Our results represent a significant advance in microlasers based on the advantageous CQDs and may offer new possibilities for photonics and optoelectronics.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation of colloidal CdS quantum dots-methylene blue hybrid associates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Oleg V.; Smirnov, Michail S.; Shatskikh, Tamara S.; Khokhlov, Vladimir Yu.; Shapiro, Boris I.; Vitukhnovsky, Alexey G.; Ambrozevich, Sergey A.

    2014-03-01

    Spectral properties of hydrophilic associates of colloidal CdS quantum dots (QDs) with methylene blue molecules (MB) prepared by sol-gel method have been studied. The two basic types of hybrid associates were found using FTIR spectra technique. The first-type associates are characterized by planar location of MB heterocycle on QDs spherical interface. In this case MB dimerization is not observed. Both nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms and double =N+-(CH3)2 bonds of MB are participants of association which causes to conformation of MB heterocycle and π-conjugation length decrease. In UV-Vis absorption and luminescence spectra blue shift of MB peaks for QD-MB associates in comparison with MB spectra in solutions and gelatin was found. The second type of association mostly involves MB nitrogen heteroatoms and CdS QDs interface atoms. At the same time, peaks of UV-Vis and luminescence spectra are red shifted. In this case, dimerization manifestation of MB in QD-MB associates was found. Using the time correlated single photon counting technique resonance electronic excitation energy transfer from recombination luminescence center of CdS QDs to MB molecules was found. Its efficiency is in the range of 0.36-0.51.

  5. The Influence of Doping on the Optoelectronic Properties of PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids

    PubMed Central

    Papagiorgis, P.; Stavrinadis, A.; Othonos, A.; Konstantatos, G.; Itskos, G.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an extensive spectroscopic investigation of the impact of substitutional doping on the optoelectronic properties of PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solids. N-doping is provided by Bi incorporation during CQD synthesis as well as post-synthetically via cation exchange reactions. The spectroscopic data indicate a systematic quenching of the excitonic absorption and luminescence and the appearance of two dopant-induced contributions at lower energies to the CQD free exciton. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence indicates the presence of temperature-activated detrapping and trapping processes of photoexcitations for the films doped during and after synthesis, respectively. The data are consistent with a preferential incorporation of the dopants at the QDs surface in the case of the cation-exchange treated films versus a more uniform doping profile in the case of in-situ Bi incorporation during synthesis. Time-resolved experiments indicate the presence of fast dopant- and excitation-dependent recombination channels attributed to Auger recombination of negatively charged excitons, formed due to excess of dopant electrons. The data indicate that apart from dopant compensation and filling of dopant induced trap states, a fraction of the Bi ionized electrons feeds the QD core states resulting in n-doping of the semiconductor, confirming reported work on devices based on such doped CQD material. PMID:26743934

  6. High performance PbSe colloidal quantum dot vertical field effect phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiting; Zhang, Yating; Song, Xiaoxian; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Yang, Junbo; Dai, Haitao; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-10-01

    Here, vertical field effect phototransistors (VFEPTs) based on lead selenide colloidal quantum dots (PbSe CQDs) for infrared photo detection were investigated, using Au/Ag nanowires as the source transparent electrode. VFEPTs have the advantage of easy fabrication of ultrashort channel length devices, as the channel length is simply determined here by the PbSe CQDs active layer’s thickness (260 nm). In ultrashort channels, photo-excited carriers quickly (in nanoseconds) transfer to the drain. As soon as a hole (electron) reaches the drain, a hole (electron) is replenished from the source. Accordingly, multiple holes circulate in the ultrashort channel following a single electron-hole photo generation. As a result, the device exhibits superior photoconductive properties over the lateral structure. PbSe CQD VFEPTs show ambipolar operation under low voltage down to one volt at room temperature. Moreover, high photo responsivity and high specific detectivity of 2 × 104 A W-1 and 7 × 1012 Jones are also achieved in the devices under 808 nm laser illumination. The transparent electrode-based near infrared VFEPTs prepared through this self-assembly solution process show promise for applications in electronics and photoelectronics.

  7. Temperature and magnetic-field dependence of radiative decay in colloidal germanium quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Robel, István; Shabaev, Andrew; Lee, Doh C; Schaller, Richard D; Pietryga, Jeffrey M; Crooker, Scott A; L Efros, Alexander; Klimov, Victor I

    2015-04-08

    We conduct spectroscopic and theoretical studies of photoluminescence (PL) from Ge quantum dots (QDs) fabricated via colloidal synthesis. The dynamics of late-time PL exhibit a pronounced dependence on temperature and applied magnetic field, which can be explained by radiative decay involving two closely spaced, slowly emitting exciton states. In 3.5 nm QDs, these states are separated by ∼1 meV and are characterized by ∼82 μs and ∼18 μs lifetimes. By using a four-band formalism, we calculate the fine structure of the indirect band-edge exciton arising from the electron-hole exchange interaction and the Coulomb interaction of the Γ-point hole with the anisotropic charge density of the L-point electron. The calculations suggest that the observed PL dynamics can be explained by phonon-assisted recombination of excitons thermally distributed between the lower-energy "dark" state with the momentum projection J = ± 2 and a higher energy "bright" state with J = ± 1. A fairly small difference between lifetimes of these states is due to their mixing induced by the exchange term unique to crystals with a highly symmetric cubic lattice such as Ge.

  8. Colloidal graphene quantum dots incorporated with a Cobalt electrolyte in a dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyuna

    The utilization of sun light as a renewable energy source has been pursued for a long time, but the ultimate goal of developing inexpensive and highly efficient photovoltaic devices remains elusive. To address this problem, colloidal graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were synthesized and used as a new sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Not only do the GQDs have a well-defined structure, but their large absorptivity, tunable bandgap, and size- and functional group-dependent redox potentials make them promising candidates for photovoltaic applications. Because volatile organic solvents in electrolyte solutions hinder long-term use and mass production of DSC devices, imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated. Cobalt-bipyridine complexes were successfully synthesized and characterized for use as new redox shuttles in DSCs. In the tested DSCs, J-V (current density-voltage) curves illustrate that the short circuit current and fill factor decrease significantly as the active area in the TiO2 photo anode increases. Dark current measurement indicated that the diode factor is bigger than one, which is different from the conventional p-n junction type solar cells, due to the high efficiency of photoelectron injection. The variation of the diode factor in dark and in light would show various types of recombination behaviors in DSCs. The performance of the DSC stained by GQDs incorporated with the cobalt redox couple was tested, but further study to improve the efficiency and to understand photochemical reaction in the DSCs is needed.

  9. Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe ZnS heteronanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Mutlugun, Evren; Ozel, Tuncay; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    We present white light generation controlled and tuned by multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters made of onion-like CdSe/ZnS/CdSe core/shell/shell heteronanocrystals integrated on InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We demonstrate hybrid white LEDs with (x, y) tristimulus coordinates tuned from (0.26, 0.33) to (0.37, 0.36) and correlated color temperatures from 27 413 to 4192 K by controlling the number of their integrated red-green-emitting heteronanocrystals. We investigate the modification of in-film emission from these multi-layered heteronanocrystals with respect to their in-solution emission, which plays a significant role in hybrid LED applications. Our proof-of-principle experiments indicate that these complex heteronanocrystals hold promise for use as nanoluminophors in future hybrid white LEDs.

  10. Probing the structural dependency of photoinduced properties of colloidal quantum dots using metal-oxide photo-active substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Patty, Kira; Campbell, Quinn; Hamilton, Nathan; West, Robert G.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Mao, Chuanbin

    2014-09-21

    We used photoactive substrates consisting of about 1 nm coating of a metal oxide on glass substrates to investigate the impact of the structures of colloidal quantum dots on their photophysical and photochemical properties. We showed during irradiation these substrates can interact uniquely with such quantum dots, inducing distinct forms of photo-induced processes when they have different cores, shells, or ligands. In particular, our results showed that for certain types of core-shell quantum dot structures an ultrathin layer of a metal oxide can reduce suppression of quantum efficiency of the quantum dots happening when they undergo extensive photo-oxidation. This suggests the possibility of shrinking the sizes of quantum dots without significant enhancement of their non-radiative decay rates. We show that such quantum dots are not influenced significantly by Coulomb blockade or photoionization, while those without a shell can undergo a large amount of photo-induced fluorescence enhancement via such blockade when they are in touch with the metal oxide.

  11. Probing the structural dependency of photoinduced properties of colloidal quantum dots using metal-oxide photo-active substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patty, Kira; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Campbell, Quinn; Hamilton, Nathan; West, Robert G.; Mao, Chuanbin

    2014-09-01

    We used photoactive substrates consisting of about 1 nm coating of a metal oxide on glass substrates to investigate the impact of the structures of colloidal quantum dots on their photophysical and photochemical properties. We showed during irradiation these substrates can interact uniquely with such quantum dots, inducing distinct forms of photo-induced processes when they have different cores, shells, or ligands. In particular, our results showed that for certain types of core-shell quantum dot structures an ultrathin layer of a metal oxide can reduce suppression of quantum efficiency of the quantum dots happening when they undergo extensive photo-oxidation. This suggests the possibility of shrinking the sizes of quantum dots without significant enhancement of their non-radiative decay rates. We show that such quantum dots are not influenced significantly by Coulomb blockade or photoionization, while those without a shell can undergo a large amount of photo-induced fluorescence enhancement via such blockade when they are in touch with the metal oxide.

  12. Lasing in self-assembled microcavities of CdSe/CdS core/shell colloidal quantum rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Lupo, Maria Grazia; Krahne, Roman; Manna, Liberato; Lanzani, Guglielmo

    2010-06-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum rods have demonstrated many advantageous properties as light emitters such as high quantum yield, tunable emission wavelength, and polarized emission. This makes them an interesting optical gain material for laser applications. We report room-temperature gain lifetimes in core/shell CdSe/CdS quantum rods exceeding 300 ps, and show that the long gain lifetimes result from the significant reduction of Auger recombination in our quantum rods, even though the electrons are delocalized over the rod volume. We also fabricate devices by deposition of small droplets of quantum rod solution onto flat substrates. The evaporation dynamics of the droplets are governed by the coffee stain effect which leads to the formation of well defined micron-size stripes. These stripes consist of densely packed, laterally aligned quantum rods and provide optical feedback originating from the abrupt changes of refractive index at the stripe borders. We exploit the optical gain and the coffee stain mediated self-assembly and show that we can fabricate novel microlasers solely by deposition of droplets of quantum rod solutions on flat substrates.

  13. The use of bulk states to accelerate the band edge statecalculation of a semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Vomel, Christof; Tomov, Stanimire Z.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Marques,Osni A.; Dongarra, Jack J.

    2006-05-10

    We present a new technique to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method in empirical pseudopotential band edge state calculations for colloidal quantum dots. We use bulk band states of the materials constituent of the quantum dot to construct initial vectors and a preconditioner. We apply these to accelerate the convergence of the folded spectrum method for the interior states at the top of the valence and the bottom of the conduction band. For large CdSe quantum dots, the number of iteration steps until convergence decreases by about a factor of 4 compared to previous calculations.

  14. Examination of the stability of hydrophobic (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in the digestive tract of rats.

    PubMed

    Karabanovas, Vitalijus; Zakarevicius, Eugenijus; Sukackaite, Angele; Streckyte, Giedre; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2008-06-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots show promise as alternatives to organic dyes for biological labelling because of their bright and stable photoluminescence. The typical quantum dots is CdSe because colloidal synthesis for nanocrystals of this semiconductor is well established. CdSe is usually passivated with zinc sulfide. While the cytotoxicity of bulk CdSe is well documented, questions about (CdSe)ZnS potential toxicity and behaviour in vivo remain unanswered. The distribution and stability of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in Wistar line rats' digestive tract were investigated. Hydrophobic quantum dots were mixed with fat or sonificated in water and administered orally. The distribution and stability of quantum dots moving through the digestive system of rats was followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. In both ways prepared quantum dots were degraded in the digestive tract of animals. Quantum dots mixed with fat were more stable and degraded more slowly than quantum dots sonificated in water. The data obtained suggest possible toxicity of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots due to the liberation of Cd(2+).

  15. Origins of photoluminescence decay kinetics in CdTe colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Califano, Marco

    2015-03-24

    Recent experimental studies have identified at least two nonradiative components in the fluorescence decay of solutions of CdTe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). The lifetimes reported by different groups, however, differed by orders of magnitude, raising the question of whether different types of traps were at play in the different samples and experimental conditions and even whether different types of charge carriers were involved in the different trapping processes. Considering that the use of these nanomaterials in biology, optoelectronics, photonics, and photovoltaics is becoming widespread, such a gap in our understanding of carrier dynamics in these systems needs addressing. This is what we do here. Using the state-of-the-art atomistic semiempirical pseudopotential method, we calculate trapping times and nonradiative population decay curves for different CQD sizes considering up to 268 surface traps. We show that the seemingly discrepant experimental results are consistent with the trapping of the hole at unsaturated Te bonds on the dot surface in the presence of different dielectric environments. In particular, the observed increase in the trapping times following air exposure is attributed to the formation of an oxide shell on the dot surface, which increases the dielectric constant of the dot environment. Two types of traps are identified, depending on whether the unsaturated bond is single (type I) or part of a pair of dangling bonds on the same Te atom (type II). The energy landscape relative to transitions to these traps is found to be markedly different in the two cases. As a consequence, the trapping times associated with the different types of traps exhibit a strikingly contrasting sensitivity to variations in the dot environment. Based on these characteristics, we predict the presence of a sub-nanosecond component in all photoluminescence decay curves of CdTe CQDs in the size range considered here if both trap types are present. The absence of such a

  16. Highly efficient large-area colourless luminescent solar concentrators using heavy-metal-free colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Meinardi, Francesco; McDaniel, Hunter; Carulli, Francesco; Colombo, Annalisa; Velizhanin, Kirill A; Makarov, Nikolay S; Simonutti, Roberto; Klimov, Victor I; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators serving as semitransparent photovoltaic windows could become an important element in net zero energy consumption buildings of the future. Colloidal quantum dots are promising materials for luminescent solar concentrators as they can be engineered to provide the large Stokes shift necessary for suppressing reabsorption losses in large-area devices. Existing Stokes-shift-engineered quantum dots allow for only partial coverage of the solar spectrum, which limits their light-harvesting ability and leads to colouring of the luminescent solar concentrators, complicating their use in architecture. Here, we use quantum dots of ternary I-III-VI2 semiconductors to realize the first large-area quantum dot-luminescent solar concentrators free of toxic elements, with reduced reabsorption and extended coverage of the solar spectrum. By incorporating CuInSexS2-x quantum dots into photo-polymerized poly(lauryl methacrylate), we obtain freestanding, colourless slabs that introduce no distortion to perceived colours and are thus well suited for the realization of photovoltaic windows. Thanks to the suppressed reabsorption and high emission efficiencies of the quantum dots, we achieve an optical power efficiency of 3.2%. Ultrafast spectroscopy studies suggest that the Stokes-shifted emission involves a conduction-band electron and a hole residing in an intragap state associated with a native defect.

  17. Highly efficient large-area colourless luminescent solar concentrators using heavy-metal-free colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinardi, Francesco; McDaniel, Hunter; Carulli, Francesco; Colombo, Annalisa; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Simonutti, Roberto; Klimov, Victor I.; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators serving as semitransparent photovoltaic windows could become an important element in net zero energy consumption buildings of the future. Colloidal quantum dots are promising materials for luminescent solar concentrators as they can be engineered to provide the large Stokes shift necessary for suppressing reabsorption losses in large-area devices. Existing Stokes-shift-engineered quantum dots allow for only partial coverage of the solar spectrum, which limits their light-harvesting ability and leads to colouring of the luminescent solar concentrators, complicating their use in architecture. Here, we use quantum dots of ternary I-III-VI2 semiconductors to realize the first large-area quantum dot-luminescent solar concentrators free of toxic elements, with reduced reabsorption and extended coverage of the solar spectrum. By incorporating CuInSexS2-x quantum dots into photo-polymerized poly(lauryl methacrylate), we obtain freestanding, colourless slabs that introduce no distortion to perceived colours and are thus well suited for the realization of photovoltaic windows. Thanks to the suppressed reabsorption and high emission efficiencies of the quantum dots, we achieve an optical power efficiency of 3.2%. Ultrafast spectroscopy studies suggest that the Stokes-shifted emission involves a conduction-band electron and a hole residing in an intragap state associated with a native defect.

  18. An easy shortcut synthesis of size-controlled bismuth nanoparticles and their use in the SLS growth of high-quality colloidal cadmium selenide quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2010-02-22

    An easy shortcut synthesis of thermally stable, near-monodisperse Bi nanoparticles from BiCl(3) and Na[N(SiMe(3))(2)] is described. The diameters of the Bi nanoparticles are controlled in the range of 4-29 nm by varying the amounts of BiCl(3) and Na[N(SiMe(3))(2)] employed. Standard deviations in their diameter distributions are 5-15% of the mean diameters, consistent with near monodispersity. These Bi nanoparticles are shown to be the best currently available catalysts for the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth of high-quality CdSe quantum wires.

  19. Optical systems modeling and experimental realization of pump and probe technique: investigation of nonlinear absorption in colloidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A.; Golinskaya, A.; Ezhova, K.; Kozlova, M.; Dneprovskii, V.

    2016-04-01

    Two optical systems modeling of laser and broadband radiation focusing, that is necessary for realization of the pump and probe method, was carried out in this work. Modeling was utilized to construct experimental setup for transmission spectra measuring of studied sample by probe nanosecond broadband radiation (coumarin photoluminescence) depending on the intensity of the nanosecond laser pump pulses. The saturation effect of absorption and the induced charge Stark-effect coexistence and predominate issue of these effects are determined by power of optical excitation. In dependence of tuning of excitation radiation frequency from basic exciton transition frequency nonlinear effects in colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots has been investigated.

  20. Suppression of dark current through barrier engineer for solution-processed colloidal quantum-dots infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zhenyu E-mail: jianxu@engr.psu.edu; Liu, Yan; Mo, Chen; Wang, Li; Atalla, Mahmoud R. M.; Liu, Jie; Kurhade, Kandhar K.; Xu, Jian E-mail: jianxu@engr.psu.edu; Hu, Wenjia; Zhang, Wenjun; You, Guanjun; Zhang, Yu

    2015-08-31

    In an attempt to suppress the dark current, the barrier layer engineer for solution-processed PbSe colloidal quantum-dot (CQD) photodetectors has been investigated in the present study. It was found that the dark current can be significantly suppressed by implementing two types of carrier blocking layers, namely, hole blocking layer and electron blocking layer, sandwiched in between two active PbSe CQD layers. Meanwhile no adverse impact has been observed for the photo current. Our study suggests that this improvement resides on the transport pathway created via carrier recombination at intermediate layer, which provides wide implications for the suppression of dark current for infrared photodetectors.

  1. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, André J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

  2. Organic molecules as tools to control the growth, surface structure, and redox activity of colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Emily A

    2013-11-19

    In order to achieve efficient and reliable technology that can harness solar energy, the behavior of electrons and energy at interfaces between different types or phases of materials must be understood. Conversion of light to chemical or electrical potential in condensed phase systems requires gradients in free energy that allow the movement of energy or charge carriers and facilitate redox reactions and dissociation of photoexcited states (excitons) into free charge carriers. Such free energy gradients are present at interfaces between solid and liquid phases or between inorganic and organic materials. Nanostructured materials have a higher density of these interfaces than bulk materials. Nanostructured materials, however, have a structural and chemical complexity that does not exist in bulk materials, which presents a difficult challenge: to lower or eliminate energy barriers to electron and energy flux that inevitably result from forcing different materials to meet in a spatial region of atomic dimensions. Chemical functionalization of nanostructured materials is perhaps the most versatile and powerful strategy for controlling the potential energy landscape of their interfaces and for minimizing losses in energy conversion efficiency due to interfacial structural and electronic defects. Colloidal quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with wet-chemical methods and coated in organic molecules. Chemists can use these model systems to study the effects of chemical functionalization of nanoscale organic/inorganic interfaces on the optical and electronic properties of a nanostructured material, and the behavior of electrons and energy at interfaces. The optical and electronic properties of colloidal quantum dots have an intense sensitivity to their surface chemistry, and their organic adlayers make them dispersible in solvent. This allows researchers to use high signal-to-noise solution-phase spectroscopy to study processes at interfaces. In this

  3. Preparation of SnS2 colloidal quantum dots and their application in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dispersive SnS2 colloidal quantum dots have been synthesized via hot-injection method. Hybrid photovoltaic devices based on blends of a conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3",7"dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) as electron donor and crystalline SnS2 quantum dots as electron acceptor have been studied. Photoluminescence measurement has been performed to study the surfactant effect on the excitons splitting process. The photocurrent of solar cells with the hybrid depends greatly on the ligands exchange as well as the device heat treatment. AFM characterization has demonstrated morphology changes happening upon surfactant replacement and annealing, which can explain the performance variation of hybrid solar cells. PMID:21711811

  4. Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement in colloidal CdSeTe /ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, C. T.; Chou, W. C.; Chuu, D. S.; Chen, Y. N.; Lin, C. A.; Chang, W. H.

    2008-05-01

    Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement (PFE) in colloidal CdSeTe /ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) was investigated by monitoring ensemble fluorescence and single-QD fluorescence blinking behavior upon illumination. Ensemble fluorescence was increased in air and in vacuum with different enhanced factors. At the single-QD levels, fluorescence was also enhanced for some individual QDs. Relatively long on times, high quantum yields within the on times, and multilevel on states were found in fluorescence time traces. We suggest that the PFE origin from single-QD viewpoint is attributed to the contributions of surface passivation by photoinduced charged carriers and the formation of neutral core/charged shell QD states.

  5. "Darker-than-black" PbS quantum dots: enhancing optical absorption of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals via short conjugated ligands.

    PubMed

    Giansante, Carlo; Infante, Ivan; Fabiano, Eduardo; Grisorio, Roberto; Suranna, Gian Paolo; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2015-02-11

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) stand among the most attractive light-harvesting materials to be exploited for solution-processed optoelectronic applications. To this aim, quantitative replacement of the bulky electrically insulating ligands at the QD surface coming from the synthetic procedure is mandatory. Here we present a conceptually novel approach to design light-harvesting nanomaterials demonstrating that QD surface modification with suitable short conjugated organic molecules permits us to drastically enhance light absorption of QDs, while preserving good long-term colloidal stability. Indeed, rational design of the pendant and anchoring moieties, which constitute the replacing ligand framework leads to a broadband increase of the optical absorbance larger than 300% for colloidal PbS QDs also at high energies (>3.1 eV), which could not be predicted by using formalisms derived from effective medium theory. We attribute such a drastic absorbance increase to ground-state ligand/QD orbital mixing, as inferred by density functional theory calculations; in addition, our findings suggest that the optical band gap reduction commonly observed for PbS QD solids treated with thiol-terminating ligands can be prevalently ascribed to 3p orbitals localized on anchoring sulfur atoms, which mix with the highest occupied states of the QDs. More broadly, we provide evidence that organic ligands and inorganic cores are inherently electronically coupled materials thus yielding peculiar chemical species (the colloidal QDs themselves), which display arising (opto)electronic properties that cannot be merely described as the sum of those of the ligand and core components.

  6. Picosecond Dynamics of Excitonic Magnetic Polarons in Colloidal Diffusion-Doped Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Heidi D; Bradshaw, Liam R; Barrows, Charles J; Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2015-11-24

    Spontaneous magnetization is observed at zero magnetic field in photoexcited colloidal Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se (x = 0.13) quantum dots (QDs) prepared by diffusion doping, reflecting strong Mn(2+)-exciton exchange coupling. The picosecond dynamics of this phenomenon, known as an excitonic magnetic polaron (EMP), are examined using a combination of time-resolved photoluminescence, magneto-photoluminescence, and Faraday rotation (TRFR) spectroscopies, in conjunction with continuous-wave absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and magnetic circularly polarized photoluminescence (MCPL) spectroscopies. The data indicate that EMPs form with random magnetization orientations at zero external field, but their formation can be directed by an external magnetic field. After formation, however, external magnetic fields are unable to reorient the EMPs within the luminescence lifetime, implicating anisotropy in the EMP potential-energy surfaces. TRFR measurements in a transverse magnetic field reveal rapid (<5 ps) spin transfer from excitons to Mn(2+) followed by coherent EMP precession at the Mn(2+) Larmor frequency for over a nanosecond. A dynamical TRFR phase inversion is observed during EMP formation attributed to the large shifts in excitonic absorption energies during spontaneous magnetization. Partial optical orientation of the EMPs by resonant circularly polarized photoexcitation is also demonstrated. Collectively, these results highlight the extraordinary physical properties of colloidal diffusion-doped Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se QDs that result from their unique combination of strong quantum confinement, large Mn(2+) concentrations, and relatively narrow size distributions. The insights gained from these measurements advance our understanding of spin dynamics and magnetic exchange in colloidal doped semiconductor nanostructures, with potential ramifications for future spin-based information technologies.

  7. Measuring Ligand-Dependent Transport in Nanopatterned PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Arrays Using Charge Sensing.

    PubMed

    Ray, Nirat; Staley, Neal E; Grinolds, Darcy D W; Bawendi, Moungi G; Kastner, Marc A

    2015-07-08

    Colloidal quantum dot arrays with long organic ligands have better packing order than those with short ligands but are highly resistive, making low-bias conductance measurements impossible with conventional two-probe techniques. We use an integrated charge sensor to study transport in weakly coupled arrays in the low-bias regime, and we nanopattern the arrays to minimize packing disorder. We present the temperature and field dependence of the resistance for nanopatterned oleic-acid and n-butylamine-capped PbS arrays, measuring resistances as high as 10(18) Ω. We find that the conduction mechanism changes from nearest neighbor hopping in oleic-acid-capped PbS dots to Mott's variable range hopping in n-butylamine capped PbS dots. Our results can be understood in terms of a change in the interdot coupling strength or a change in density of trap states and highlight the importance of the capping ligand on charge transport through colloidal quantum dot arrays.

  8. Synthesis of highly luminescent mercaptosuccinic acid-coated CdSe nanocrystals under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meiting; Xu, Jingyi; Liu, Shuxian; Zhou, Ying; Huang, Chaobiao

    2014-11-01

    Here we report a facile one-pot method for the preparation of high-quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in aqueous solution under an air atmosphere. Compared with the traditional use of NaHSe or H2 Se, the more stable sodium selenite is utilized as the Se source for preparing highly luminescent CdSe nanocrystals. By using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as the capping agent and borate-citrate acid as the buffering solution, CdSe nanocrystals with high quantum yield (up to 70%) have been synthesized conveniently. The influence of different experimental parameters, such as the pH of the precursor solution, the molar ratio of Cd(2+) to Na2 SeO3 and Cd(2+) to MSA on the CdSe nanocrystals, has been systematically investigated. The prepared CdSe NCs were spherical with a size of ~ 5 nm.

  9. Low-cost photovoltaics: Luminescent solar concentrators and colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Shin Woei

    /emission spectra of an organic luminescent dye (LR305), the transmission coefficient and refractive index of acrylic as parameters that describe the system. Simulations suggest that for LR305, 8-10cm of luminescent material surrounding the PV cell yields the highest increase in power gain per unit area of LSC added, thereby determining the ideal spacing between PV cells in the panel. The model also predicts that for different PV cell dimensions, there exists an optimum waveguide thickness which efficiently transports photon collected by the waveguide to the PV cell with minimal loss, and maintains an even distribution of photons across the cell surface. For the case of the 12.5 by 1cm rectangular cells used in this work, the calculated waveguide thickness is 3mm. For larger cells, every 1cm increment in PV cell width should be accompanied by a 0.75mm increase in waveguide thickness to preserve peak performance. In line with the goal of pushing for cost competitive photovoltaics, the last part of this work shifts to the study of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A combination of low temperature, highly scalable fabrication process and reduced material usage for thin films offers us a means to produce flexible and cheap solar cells. Tagging on to existing work already performed on germanium quantum dot solar cells, additional work was carried out to further characterize the material. The effect of film thickness, nano-particle surface conditions and thermal anneal were investigated. There is evidence to suggest that the quantum dot devices contain high levels of parasitic resistances. Short circuit current densities increase by up to two times with two spin-cast layers compared to four, leading to the conjecture that charge carrier life time is low with high levels of recombination. Annealing to improve carrier mobility produces devices with current densities up to 301microA, a fourfold increase, but output voltages saw a sharp decrease from 0.12V to 0.015V. In tandem with the work

  10. Ultrafast emission from colloidal nanocrystals under pulsed X-ray excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtos, R. M.; Gundacker, S.; Polovitsyn, A.; Christodoulou, S.; Salomoni, M.; Auffray, E.; Moreels, I.; Lecoq, P.; Grim, J. Q.

    2016-10-01

    Fast timing has emerged as a critical requirement for radiation detection in medical and high energy physics, motivating the search for scintillator materials with high light yield and fast time response. However, light emission rates from conventional scintillation mechanisms fundamentally limit the achievable time resolution, which is presently at least one order of magnitude slower than required for next-generation detectors. One solution to this challenge is to generate an intense prompt signal in response to ionizing radiation. In this paper, we present colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) as promising prompt photon sources. We investigate two classes of NCs: two-dimensional CdSe nanoplatelets (NPLs) and spherical CdSe/CdS core/giant shell quantum dots (GS QDs). We demonstrate that the emission rates of these NCs under pulsed X-ray excitation are much faster than traditional mechanisms in bulk scintillators, i.e. 5d-4f transitions. CdSe NPLs have a sub-100 ps effective decay time of 77 ps and CdSe/CdS GS QDs exhibit a sub-ns value of 849 ps. Further, the respective CdSe NPL and CdSe/CdS GS QD X-ray excited photoluminescence have the emission characteristics of excitons (X) and multiexcitons (MX), with the MXs providing additional prospects for fast timing with substantially shorter lifetimes.

  11. Cobalt-doped cadmium selenide colloidal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Du, Ai Jun; Sun, Qiao; Aljada, Muhsen; Cheng, Li Na; Riley, Mark J; Zhu, Zhong Hua; Cheng, Zhen Xiang; Wang, Xiao Lin; Hall, Jeremy; Krausz, Elmars; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Smith, Sean C; Lu, Gao Qing Max

    2011-11-21

    Co(2+)-doped CdSe colloidal nanowires with tunable size and dopant concentration have been prepared by a solution-liquid-solid (SLS) approach for the first time. These doped nanowires exhibit anomalous photoluminescence temperature dependence in comparison with undoped nanowires.

  12. Purification non-aqueous solution of quantum dots CdSe- CdS-ZnS from excess organic substance-stabilizer by use PE- HD membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosolapova, K.; Al-Alwani, A.; Gorbachev, I.; Glukhovskoy, E.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, a new simple method for the purification of CdSe-CdS-ZnS quantum dots by using membrane filtration, the filtration process, successfully separated the oleic acid from quantum dots through membranes purification after synthesis; purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of post synthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. We explore the possibilities of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique to make such layers, using quantum dots as a model system. The Langmuir monolayer of quantum dots were then investigated the surface pressure-area isotherm. From isotherm, we found the surface pressure monolayer changed with time.

  13. Spectroscopic identification of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) impurities and elucidation of their roles in cadmium selenide quantum-wire growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fudong; Tang, Rui; Kao, Jeff L-F; Dingman, Sean D; Buhro, William E

    2009-04-08

    Tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is the most commonly used solvent for the synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals. Here we show that the use of different batches of commercially obtained TOPO solvent introduces significant variability into the outcomes of CdSe quantum-wire syntheses. This irreproducibility is attributed to varying amounts of phosphorus-containing impurities in the different TOPO batches. We employ (31)P NMR to identify 10 of the common TOPO impurities. Their beneficial, harmful, or negligible effects on quantum-wire growth are determined. The impurity di-n-octylphosphinic acid (DOPA) is found to be the important beneficial TOPO impurity for the reproducible growth of high-quality CdSe quantum wires. DOPA is shown to beneficially modify precursor reactivity through ligand substitution. The other significant TOPO impurities are ranked according to their abilities to similarly influence precursor reactivity. The results are likely of general relevance to most nanocrystal syntheses conducted in TOPO.

  14. One-step colloidal synthesis of biocompatible water-soluble ZnS quantum dot/chitosan nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanery, Fábio P.; Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals with great prospective for use in biomedical and environmental applications. Nonetheless, eliminating the potential cytotoxicity of the QDs made with heavy metals is still a challenge facing the research community. Thus, the aim of this work was to develop a novel facile route for synthesising biocompatible QDs employing carbohydrate ligands in aqueous colloidal chemistry with optical properties tuned by pH. The synthesis of ZnS QDs capped by chitosan was performed using a single-step aqueous colloidal process at room temperature. The nanobioconjugates were extensively characterised by several techniques, and the results demonstrated that the average size of ZnS nanocrystals and their fluorescent properties were influenced by the pH during the synthesis. Hence, novel 'cadmium-free' biofunctionalised systems based on ZnS QDs capped by chitosan were successfully developed exhibiting luminescent activity that may be used in a large number of possible applications, such as probes in biology, medicine and pharmacy.

  15. High reduction of interfacial charge recombination in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by metal oxide surface passivation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin; Kuga, Yuki; Mora-Seró, Iván; Toyoda, Taro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Bisquert, Juan; Shen, Qing

    2015-03-12

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on colloidal QDs and metal oxide nanowires (NWs) possess unique and outstanding advantages in enhancing light harvesting and charge collection in comparison to planar architectures. However, the high surface area of the NW structure often brings about a large amount of recombination (especially interfacial recombination) and limits the open-circuit voltage in BHJ solar cells. This problem is solved here by passivating the surface of the metal oxide component in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). By coating thin TiO2 layers onto ZnO-NW surfaces, the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency have been improved by over 40% in PbS CQDSCs. Characterization by transient photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy indicated that the interfacial recombination was significantly reduced by the surface passivation strategy. An efficiency as high as 6.13% was achieved through the passivation approach and optimization for the length of the ZnO-NW arrays (device active area: 16 mm2). All solar cells were tested in air, and exhibited excellent air storage stability (without any performance decline over more than 130 days). This work highlights the significance of metal oxide passivation in achieving high performance BHJ solar cells. The charge recombination mechanism uncovered in this work could shed light on the further improvement of PbS CQDSCs and/or other types of solar cells.

  16. Relationship between structural and optical properties of colloidal CdxZn1-xS quantum dots in gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyuev, Viktor G.; Volykhin, Denis V.; Ovchinnikov, Oleg V.; Pokutnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-07-01

    Aqueous synthesis of mixed cadmium and zinc sulfides colloidal quantum dots (QDs) has been successfully realized. Colloidal CdxZn1-xS QDs are formed in a cubic crystal lattice with particle size of ˜2 nm. The blueshift of optical absorption spectra from 420 to 295 nm and recombination photoluminescence from 646 to 483 nm with increasing zinc content in QDs was observed. Optimum photoluminescence intensity occurs for QDs with Cd0.3Zn0.7S composition. With increasing zinc content up to Cd0.3Zn0.7S, luminescence intensity increases and decreases when zinc content is larger than 0.7. The increase in photoluminescence intensity is explained by the increase in the number of point defects, such as complexes of interstitial metal atoms-metal vacancies [Mei-VMe]. Such complexes occur due to displacement of the metal atom at the center of the elementary tetrahedron due to substitution of one of the four sulfur atoms by an impurity atom, such as an oxygen atom.

  17. Brightly Luminescent and Color-Tunable Colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) Quantum Dots: Potential Alternatives for Display Technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Haizheng; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Xian-gang; Hu, Xiangmin; Huang, Hailong; Han, Junbo; Zou, Bingsuo; Dong, Yuping

    2015-04-28

    Organometal halide perovskites are inexpensive materials with desirable characteristics of color-tunable and narrow-band emissions for lighting and display technology, but they suffer from low photoluminescence quantum yields at low excitation fluencies. Here we developed a ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy to fabricate brightly luminescent and color-tunable colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) quantum dots with absolute quantum yield up to 70% at room temperature and low excitation fluencies. To illustrate the photoluminescence enhancements in these quantum dots, we conducted comprehensive composition and surface characterizations and determined the time- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra. Comparisons between small-sized CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots (average diameter 3.3 nm) and corresponding micrometer-sized bulk particles (2-8 μm) suggest that the intense increased photoluminescence quantum yield originates from the increase of exciton binding energy due to size reduction as well as proper chemical passivations of the Br-rich surface. We further demonstrated wide-color gamut white-light-emitting diodes using green emissive CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots and red emissive K2SiF6:Mn(4+) as color converters, providing enhanced color quality for display technology. Moreover, colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 quantum dots are expected to exhibit interesting nanoscale excitonic properties and also have other potential applications in lasers, electroluminescence devices, and optical sensors.

  18. Dynamics of electronic excitations relaxation in hydrophilic colloidal CdS quantum dots in gelatin with involvement of localized states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, M. S.; Buganov, O. V.; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, E. V.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Matsukovich, A. S.; Katsaba, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Dynamics of the 1Se-1S3/2 exciton in colloidal CdS quantum dots with diameter of 3.1 ÷ 4.5 nm in gelatin with involvement of localized states was studied by means of femtosecond photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (pump-probe), thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) observed under permanently excited luminescence. It was found that the bleaching band occurs in the energy region of exciton ground state under excitation by femtosecond laser pulses. The complex dynamics of bleaching recovery is caused by the capture of electron on localized states, found using TSL. The stochastic model describing the dynamics of bleaching recovery is discussed. It is shown that the low efficiency of exciton luminescence is caused by the rapid capture of holes by luminescence centers.

  19. Influence of high-pressure treatment on charge carrier transport in PbS colloidal quantum dot solids.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seung Jin; Yoon, Seokhyun; Oh, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Doo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-01-21

    We investigated the effects of high-pressure treatment on charge carrier transport in PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solids. We applied high pressure to PbS CQD solids using nitrogen gas to reduce the inter-dot distance. Using this simple process, we obtained conductive PbS CQD solids. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was used to study charge carrier transport as a function of pressure. We found that the minimum pressure needed to increase the dielectric constant, conductivity, and carrier mobility was 4 MPa. All properties dramatically improved at 5 MPa; for example, the mobility increased from 0.13 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 0.1 MPa to 0.91 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 5 MPa. We propose this simple process as a nondestructive approach for making conductive PbS CQD solids that are free of chemical and physical defects.

  20. Incorporation of CdS nanoparticles from colloidal solution into optically clear ureasilicate matrix with preservation of quantum size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boev, Victor I.; Soloviev, Alexei; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Gomes, Maria J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposite materials based on an organic-inorganic ureasilicate matrix with embedded CdS nanoparticles were produced and characterized by optical (UV/Vis), FTIR, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma optical emission and steady-state photoluminescence measurements. The ureasilicate precursor was obtained by the reaction between silicon alkoxyde modified by isocyanate groups and polyethylene glycol oligomers with amine terminal groups. The final nanocomposites were prepared by introducing a colloidal solution of CdS nanoparticles with various sizes into the ureasilicate precursor followed by gelation of the mixture in the presence of ammonia/water vapours. The reliable preservation of the quantum-size effect of nanoparticles after their incorporation into the ureasilicate matrix was observed in all samples. The obtained materials were optically transparent at visible range, exhibiting high flexibility and long-term stability.

  1. Efficient cw lasing in a Cr{sup 2+}:CdSe crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Akimov, V A; Kozlovskii, V I; Korostelin, Yu V; Landman, A I; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Skasyrsky, Ya K; Frolov, M P

    2007-11-30

    Continuous wave lasing in a Cr{sup 2+}:CdSe crystal is obtained for the first time. The Cr{sup 2+}:CdSe crystal pumped by a 1.908-{mu}m thulium fibre laser generated 1.07 W at 2.623 {mu}m with the quantum slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed power equal to 60%. (letters)

  2. Effective improvement in optical properties of colloidal CdTe@ZnS quantum dots synthesized from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongbo; Si, Boni; Lu, Siwu; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Enzhou; Fan, Jun; Li, Xinghua; Hu, Xiaoyun

    2016-09-01

    Efficient synthesis of high-quality quantum dots (QDs) with excellent optical properties by aqueous synthesis is still of great significance for extended optical applications. Herein we highlight the advantages in optical properties of colloidal CdTe@ZnS QDs prepared by a facile and highly effective aqueous synthesis method. These achievements were realized by delicate manipulation of the conditions involved in nucleation and the growth process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated the QDs were uniform size and well dispersible. The emission peaks of the as-prepared QDs could shift from 496 to 698 nm with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM), and the corresponding fluorescent color changed from green to red. Moreover, the emission could even reach to the near-infrared (NIR) region (706-796 nm) by extending the reaction time. The highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of the QDs could reach to 60%, and the average of FWHM was about 55 nm. To address the problem of wide size-distribution in PL QY decrease and FWHM broadening, the colloids of QDs prepared at long reaction time (above 3 h) were centrifuged (12 000 r min-1). In addition, the assessment of QD cytotoxicity indicated the CdTe@ZnS QDs were much less cytotoxic and showed good biocompatibility. Compared with organic synthesis, our aqueous synthesis of QDs could be carried out efficiently on a large scale and showed good batch-to-batch reproducibility. The as-prepared CdTe@ZnS QDs exhibited excellent optical properties and hold a good potential to be applied in optoelectronic and biological applications.

  3. Uniform Thin Films of CdSe and CdSe(ZnS) Core(shell) Quantum Dots by Sol-Gel Assembly: Enabling Photoelectrochemical Characterization and Electronic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Korala, Lasantha; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Yi; Maldonado, Stephen; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronic properties of quantum dot (QD) films are limited by (1) poor interfacial chemistry and (2) non-radiative recombination due to surface traps. To address these performance issues, sol-gel methods are applied to fabricate thin films of CdSe and core(shell) CdSe(ZnS) QDs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging with chemical analysis confirms that the surface of the QDs in the sol-gel thin films are chalcogen-rich, consistent with an oxidative-induced gelation mechanism in which connectivity is achieved by formation of dichalcogenide covalent linkages between particles. The ligand removal and assembly process is probed by thermogravimetric, spectroscopic and microscopic studies. Further enhancement of inter-particle coupling via mild thermal annealing, which removes residual ligands and reinforces QD connectivity, results in QD sol-gel thin films with superior charge transport properties, as shown by a dramatic enhancement of electrochemical photocurrent under white light illumination relative to thin films composed of ligand-capped QDs. A more than 2-fold enhancement in photocurrent, and a further increase in photovoltage can be achieved by passivation of surface defects via overcoating with a thin ZnS shell. The ability to tune interfacial and surface characteristics for the optimization of photophysical properties suggests that the sol-gel approach may enable formation of QD thin films suitable for a range of optoelectronic applications. PMID:23350924

  4. Intracellular Biosynthesis of Fluorescent CdSe Quantum Dots in Bacillus subtilis: A Strategy to Construct Signaling Bacterial Probes for Visually Detecting Interaction Between Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Ai, Xiao-Xia; Su, Yi-Long; Liu, Xin-Ying; Shan, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Mei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells' surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior.

  5. Optical properties of colloidal CdS and ZnS quantum dots nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Afiqah Shafify; Shamsudin, Siti Aisyah

    2016-11-01

    CdS and ZnS nanoparticles are luminescent semiconductors with great properties to be used in biosensors. Both semiconducting nanoparticles were synthesized in distilled water by using the simple colloidal method. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) was used as a stabilizer and Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used as a surface modifier. The chemical composition and optical properties of the CdS and ZnS nanoparticles were investigated using Ultra Violet (UV) lamp, UV Spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) Spectroscopy.

  6. Controllable in situ photo-assisted chemical deposition of CdSe quantum dots on ZnO/CdS nanorod arrays and its photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Hong; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-02-01

    Compound semiconductors have been widely applied in the energy field as light-harvesting materials, conducting substrates and other functional parts. Nevertheless, to effectively grow them in various forms toward objective applications, limitations have often been met to achieving high growth rate, simplicity of method and controllability of growing processes simultaneously. In this work, we have grown a uniform CdSe layer on ZnO/CdS nanorod arrays by a novel in situ photo-assisted chemical deposition method. The morphology and quality of the as-formed material could be significantly influenced by tuning the optical parameters of the injected light. Due to the effect of injected light on the key reactions during the growth, a modified natural light with removal of the UV and IR components seems to be more suitable than monochromic light. An efficiency of 3.59% was achieved without any additional treatment, significantly higher than the efficiency of 2.88% of the sample by conventional CBD method under similar conditions with growth rate one order of magnitude higher. In general, the result has suggested its potential importance for other compound materials and opto-electronic devices.

  7. The higher excited electronic states and spin-orbit splitting of the valence band in three-dimensional assemblies of close-packed ZnSe and CdSe quantum dots in thin film form

    SciTech Connect

    Pejova, Biljana

    2008-08-15

    Optical properties of as-deposited and annealed thin films composed of three-dimensional arrays of sphalerite-type ZnSe and CdSe quantum dots (QDs), synthesized by chemical deposition, were investigated. Neglecting the S-D mixing of hole states, the lowest 'band to band' transitions in very small nanoclusters and in bulk-like clusters may be assigned as 1S{yields}1S and 1S{sub {delta}}{yields}1S, and are split by spin-orbit (SO) splitting energy of the bulk material-{delta}. The splitting energy between these transitions was found to be insensitive to QD size variations, which could be explained assuming that 1S hole states arising from valence band {gamma}{sub 7} and {gamma}{sub 8} components do not mix with higher angular momentum states and shift together to higher energies coupled via the isotropic hole mass. This implies significant difference between the SO splitting energies in the two semiconductors. Accounting for S-D mixing of hole states, the observed transitions may be attributed to the fundamental ground state-(1S{sub 3/2}, 1S{sub e}) and the ground state-(1S{sub 1/2}, 1S{sub e}) ones. The observed 'splittings' thus do not correspond exactly to SO splitting energy in both semiconductors, but are complex functions of it, as exact position of each hole energy level depends, besides on {delta}, also on other material-characteristic parameters. - Graphical abstract: Accounting for S-D mixing of hole states, the observed optical transitions in very small sphalerite-type ZnSe and CdSe nanoclusters are attributed to the ground state-(1S{sub 3/2}, 1S{sub e}) and the ground state-(1S{sub 1/2}, 1S{sub e}). The 'splittings' do not correspond to SO splitting energy, but are complex functions of it.

  8. Passively Q-switched Er3+-doped fiber lasers using colloidal PbS quantum dot saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yin-Wen; Chen, Chien-Ming; Huang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shih-Ken; Jiang, Jhang-Rong

    2016-05-16

    We report on the demonstration of a passively Q-switched 1.55 µm fiber laser utilizing a colloidal PbS quantum dot (QD) thin film as a saturable absorber. Colloidal PbS QD films have several features that are advantageous in passively Q-switched fiber laser operation, including a large operation wavelength range, cost-effectiveness, and a low saturable absorption intensity. We conducted thorough material and optical studies to verify the advantages of PbS QDs in Q-switched laser operation and successfully generated 801 nJ pulses with a 24.2 kHz repetition rate. To the best of our knowledge, the developed Q-switched fiber laser is the first based on colloidal PbS QDs.

  9. Absorption and Magnetic Circular Dichroism Analyses of Giant Zeeman Splittings in Diffusion-Doped Colloidal Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Charles J; Vlaskin, Vladimir A; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2015-08-06

    Impurity ions can transform the electronic, magnetic, or optical properties of colloidal quantum dots. Magnetic impurities introduce strong dopant-carrier exchange coupling that generates giant Zeeman splittings (ΔEZ) of excitonic excited states. To date, ΔEZ in colloidal doped quantum dots has primarily been quantified by analysis of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) intensities and absorption line widths (σ). Here, we report ΔEZ values detected directly by absorption spectroscopy for the first time in such materials, using colloidal Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Se quantum dots prepared by diffusion doping. A convenient method for decomposing MCD and absorption data into circularly polarized absorption spectra is presented. These data confirm the widely applied MCD analysis in the low-field, high-temperature regime, but also reveal a breakdown at low temperatures and high fields when ΔEZ/σ approaches unity, a situation not previously encountered in doped quantum dots. This breakdown is apparent for the first time here because of the extraordinarily large ΔEZ and small σ achieved by nanocrystal diffusion doping.

  10. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measured by spatial photon migration in CdSe-ZnS quantum dots colloidal systems as a function of concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, G.; Monte, A. F. G.; Reis, A. F.; Messias, D. N.

    2014-11-17

    The study of the spatial photon migration as a function of the concentration brings into attention the problem of the energy transfer in quantum dot embedded systems. By measuring the photon propagation and its spatial dependence, it is possible to understand the whole dynamics in a quantum dot system, and also improve their concentration dependence to maximize energy propagation due to radiative and non-radiative processes. In this work, a confocal microscope was adapted to scan the spatial distribution of photoluminescence from CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots in colloidal solutions. The energy migration between the quantum dots was monitored by the direct measurement of the photon diffusion length, according to the diffusion theory. We observed that the photon migration length decreases by increasing the quantum dot concentration, this kind of behavior has been regarded as a signature of Förster resonance energy transfer in the system.

  11. Singlet oxygen luminescence detecting in presence of hybrid associates of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots with methylene blue molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Kondratenko, T. S.; Smirnov, M. S.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Grevtseva, I. G.; Vinokur, Y. A.; Aslanov, S. V.; Matsukovich, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    In our work we demonstrate some spectroscopic investigation of colloidal Ag2S QDs associates with methylene blue. The photosensitizing of singlet oxygen by associates of colloidal Ag2S QDs with methylene blue was found.

  12. Electric field and image charge effects on impurity-bound polarons in a CdS colloidal quantum dot embedded in organic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asatryan, A. L.; Vartanian, A. L.; Kirakosyan, A. A.; Vardanyan, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    An adiabatic variational approach is used to study the ground and first excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity bound polaron in a colloidal quantum dot (QD) under an external electric field, including image charge effect (ICE). The binding energy (BE) of donor impurity is calculated by taking into account the interaction of an electron with both bulk-type longitudinal optical (LO) phonons and interface optical phonons. Calculations have been carried out for CdS colloidal quantum dots embedded in thiophenol and oleic acid. Both parabolic confinement and electric field effects on the binding energy and its polaronic shift for 1s and 2s hydrogen-like states with and without ICE are investigated in detail.

  13. Surface structure of CdSe Nanorods revealed by combined X-rayabsorption fine structure measurements and ab-initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Aruguete, Deborah A.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Li, Liang-shi; Williamson, Andrew; Fakra, Sirine; Gygi, Francois; Galli, Giulia; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-27

    We report orientation-specific, surface-sensitive structural characterization of colloidal CdSe nanorods with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional theory calculations. Our measurements of crystallographically-aligned CdSe nanorods show that they have reconstructed Cd-rich surfaces. They exhibit orientation-dependent changes in interatomic distances which are qualitatively reproduced by our calculations. These calculations reveal that the measured interatomic distance anisotropy originates from the nanorod surface.

  14. Plasmonic emission enhancement of colloidal quantum dots in the presence of bimetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, S. M.; Hatef, A.; Meunier, M.; Nejat, A.; Campbell, Q.

    2014-04-07

    We studied plasmonic features of bimetallic nanostructures consisting of gold nanoisland cores semi-coated with a chromium layer and explored how they influence emission of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. We showed that, compared with chromium-covered glass substrates without the gold cores, the bimetallic nanostructures could significantly enhance the emission of the quantum dots. We studied the impact of the excitation intensity and thickness of the chromium layer on this process and utilized numerical means to identify the mechanisms behind it. Our results suggest that when the chromium layer is thin, the enhancement process is the result of the bimetallic plasmonic features of the nanostructures. As the chromium layer becomes thick, the impact of the gold cores is screened and the enhancement mostly happens mostly via the field enhancement of chromium nanoparticles in the absence of significant energy transfer from the quantum dots to these nanoparticles.

  15. Hybrid light sensor based on ultrathin Si nanomembranes sensitized with CdSe/ZnS colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weina; Sampat, Siddharth; Rupich, Sara M.; Anand, Benoy; Nguyen, Hue Minh; Taylor, David; Beardon, Brandon E.; Gartstein, Yuri N.; Chabal, Yves J.; Malko, Anton V.

    2015-04-01

    We report the observation of a large enhancement of the wavelength-dependent photocurrent in ultrathin silicon nanomembranes (SiNM) decorated with colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). Back-gated, field-effect transistor structures based on 75 nm-thick SiNMs are functionalized with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) preventing surface oxidation and minimizing the surface defect densities. NQDs are drop cast on the active region of the device and the photocurrent is measured as a function of the excitation wavelength across the NQD absorption region. Photocurrent enhancement on the order of several hundred nA's is observed for NQD/SAM/SiNM devices compared to reference SAM/SiNM structures, with the device peak response closely correlated to the NQD absorption peak. We propose light-induced gating of the surface electrostatic potential and forward self-biasing of the FET channel as the two key mechanisms leading to the large photocurrent increase. Our findings open the possibility of employing silicon-nanocrystal hybrid structures for light sensing applications.We report the observation of a large enhancement of the wavelength-dependent photocurrent in ultrathin silicon nanomembranes (SiNM) decorated with colloidal CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). Back-gated, field-effect transistor structures based on 75 nm-thick SiNMs are functionalized with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) preventing surface oxidation and minimizing the surface defect densities. NQDs are drop cast on the active region of the device and the photocurrent is measured as a function of the excitation wavelength across the NQD absorption region. Photocurrent enhancement on the order of several hundred nA's is observed for NQD/SAM/SiNM devices compared to reference SAM/SiNM structures, with the device peak response closely correlated to the NQD absorption peak. We propose light-induced gating of the surface electrostatic potential and forward self-biasing of the FET channel as the

  16. Enhancement of the Purcell effect for colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots coupled to silver nanowires by a metallic tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Yuan, C. T.; Kuo, M. Y.; Wu, M. C.; Tang, Jau; Shih, M. H.

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the Purcell effect for CdSe/ZnS quantum dots emission coupled to a silver nanowire cavity was investigated. We manipulated the interaction between colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and an Ag NW in the presence of a metallic tip. When a metal tip approaches the Ag NW, the Ag surface plasmon mode could be lifted away from the metallic NW so that a low optical loss could still be obtained. This work demonstrates enhancement of the spatial coupling between the plasmonic mode and light sources and reduction in metal Ohmic losses, resulting in an enhanced Purcell effect and coupling efficiency accompanied with increased fluorescence intensity.

  17. The initial pump-probe polarization anisotropy of colloidal PbS quantum dots

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Samuel; Baranov, Dmitry; Ryu, Jisu; ...

    2016-07-20

    Pump-probe polarization anisotropy measurements with 15 fs pulses are employed to investigate the electronic structure of PbS quantum dots. Here, the initial anisotropy at the bandgap is anomalously low (<0.1) and suggests large electronic couplings.

  18. Preparation of cadmium selenide colloidal quantum dots in non-coordinating solvent octadecene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazing, D. S.; Brovko, A. M.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly monodisperse cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized in non-coordinating solvent octadecene through phosphine-free method using oleic acid as surfactant. Selenium powder suspension in octadecene obtained by ultrasound processing was used as one of precursor solutions. Influence of multiple selenium precursor injections on nanocrystal growth process was investigated. Nanoparticles were characterized by means of absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies.

  19. Multiple exciton generation in colloidal silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Beard, Matthew C; Knutsen, Kelly P; Yu, Pingrong; Luther, Joseph M; Song, Qing; Metzger, Wyatt K; Ellingson, Randy J; Nozik, Arthur J

    2007-08-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a process whereby multiple electron-hole pairs, or excitons, are produced upon absorption of a single photon in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) and represents a promising route to increased solar conversion efficiencies in single-junction photovoltaic cells. We report for the first time MEG yields in colloidal Si NCs using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. We find the threshold photon energy for MEG in 9.5 nm diameter Si NCs (effective band gap identical with Eg = 1.20 eV) to be 2.4 +/- 0.1Eg and find an exciton-production quantum yield of 2.6 +/- 0.2 excitons per absorbed photon at 3.4Eg. While MEG has been previously reported in direct-gap semiconductor NCs of PbSe, PbS, PbTe, CdSe, and InAs, this represents the first report of MEG within indirect-gap semiconductor NCs. Furthermore, MEG is found in relatively large Si NCs (diameter equal to about twice the Bohr radius) such that the confinement energy is not large enough to produce a large blue-shift of the band gap (only 80 meV), but the Coulomb interaction is sufficiently enhanced to produce efficient MEG. Our findings are of particular importance because Si dominates the photovoltaic solar cell industry, presents no problems regarding abundance and accessibility within the Earth's crust, and poses no significant environmental problems regarding toxicity.

  20. Photosensitized electron transfer processes in SiO2 colloids and sodium lauryl sulfate micellar systems: Correlation of quantum yields with interfacial surface potentials

    PubMed Central

    Laane, Colja; Willner, Itamar; Otvos, John W.; Calvin, Melvin

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of negatively charged colloidal SiO2 particles in controlling photosensitized electron transfer reactions has been studied and compared with that of the negatively charged sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLauSO4) micellar system. In particular, the photosensitized reduction of the zwitterionic electron acceptor propylviologen sulfonate (PVS0) with tris(2,2′-bipyridinium)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bipy)32+] as the sensitizer and triethanolamine as the electron donor is found to have a quantum yield of 0.033 for formation of the radical anion (PVS[unk]) in the SiO2 colloid compared with 0.005 in the homogeneous system and 0.0086 in a NaLauSO4 micellar solution. The higher quantum yields obtained with the SiO2 colloidal system are attributed to substantial stabilization against back reaction of the intermediate photoproducts—i.e., Ru(bipy)33+ and PVS[unk]—by electrostatic repulsion of the reduced electron acceptor from the negatively charged particle surface. The binding properties of the SiO2 particles and NaLauSO4 micelles were investigated by flow dialysis. The results show that the sensitizer binds to both interfaces and that the SiO2 interface is characterized by a much higher surface potential than the micellar interface (≈-170 mV vs. -85 mV). The effect of ionic strength on the surface potential was estimated from the Gouy-Chapman theory, and the measured quantum yields of photosensitized electron transfer were correlated with surface potential at different ionic strengths. This correlation shows that the quantum yield is not affected by surface potentials smaller than ≈-40 mV. At larger potentials, the quantum yield increases rapidly. The quantum yield obtained in the micellar system at different strengths fits nicely on the correlation curve for the colloid SiO2 system. These results indicate that the surface potential is the dominant factor in the quantum yield improvement for PVS0 reduction. PMID:16593095