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Sample records for cdwo4 scintillating bolometer

  1. Improvement of radiopurity level of enriched 116CdWO4 and ZnWO4 crystal scintillators by recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Borovlev, Yu. A.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Polischuk, O. G.; Safonova, O. E.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Tupitsyna, I. A.; Umatov, V. I.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2016-10-01

    As low as possible radioactive contamination of a detector plays a crucial role to improve sensitivity of a double beta decay experiment. The radioactive contamination of a sample of 116CdWO4 crystal scintillator by thorium was reduced by a factor ≈10, down to the level 0.01 mBq/kg (228Th), by exploiting the recrystallization procedure. The total alpha activity of uranium and thorium daughters was reduced by a factor ≈3, down to 1.6 mBq/kg. No change in the specific activity (the total α activity and 228Th) was observed in a sample of ZnWO4 crystal produced by recrystallization after removing ≈0.4 mm surface layer of the crystal.

  2. Search for double beta decay of 116Cd with enriched 116CdWO4 crystal scintillators (Aurora experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danevich, F. A.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Chernyak, D. M.; d'Angelo, S.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Konovalov, S. I.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Shlegel, V. N.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The Aurora experiment to investigate double beta decay of 116 Cd with the help of 1.162 kg cadmium tungstate crystal scintillators enriched in 116 Cd to 82% is in progress at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The half-life of 116 Cd relatively to the two neutrino double beta decay is measured with the highest up-to-date accuracy T1/2 = (2.62 ± 0.14) × 1019 yr. The sensitivity of the experiment to the neutrinoless double beta decay of 116 Cd to the ground state of 116 Sn is estimated as T1/2 ≥ 1.9 × 1023 yr at 90% CL, which corresponds to the effective Majorana neutrino mass limit (mv) ≤ (1.2 — 1.8) eV. New limits are obtained for the double beta decay of 116 Cd to the excited levels of 116 Sn, and for the neutrinoless double beta decay with emission of majorons.

  3. Scintillating Bolometer Monte Carlo for Rare Particle Event Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    This study uses the Geant4 physics simulation toolkit to characterize various scintillating bolometer constructions for potential experimental commissioning. Emphasis is placed on detector sensitivity to neutrinoless double-beta decay. Constructions minimally include a scintillating source material for the decay and an absorber material. Tellurium, Selenium, Germanium and other candidate isotopes are studied as source materials. Various background discrimination techniques are analyzed including reflective housings and anti-reflective coatings upon the source material. Different geometric optimizations are considered. Ability to discriminate incident alpha and beta radiation, as well as photon detection efficiency for each construction is presented.

  4. Characterization of a SrF2 Scintillating Bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginestra, C.; Coron, N.; García, E.; de Marcillac, P.; Martínez, M.; Ortigoza, Y.; Redon, T.; Torres, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present the analysis of the data obtained with a 53 g SrF2 scintillating bolometer operated at 20 mK. We have analyzed its heat and light response (time constants, linearity and energy resolution) and measured its scintillation relative efficiency factor for different particles (alpha, beta/gamma and neutrons). We have studied the spatial uniformity of the light output profiting from its internal contamination. The light amplitude of alphas from the delayed coincidence 224Ra→220Rn→216Po (emitted from the same crystal position) shows a positive correlation, evidence of a non-uniformity that worsens the light signal energy resolution by more than 50%.

  5. Scintillating Bolometer Monte Carlo for Rare Particle Event Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study uses the Geant4 physics simulation toolkit to characterize various scintillating bolometer constructions for potential experimental commissioning. Emphasis is placed on detector sensitivity to neutrinoless double-beta decay. Constructions minimally include a scintillating source material for the decay and an absorber material. Tellurium, Selenium, Germanium and other candidate isotopes are studied as source materials. Various background discrimination techniques are analyzed including reflective housings and anti-reflective coatings upon the source material. Different geometric optimizations are considered. Ability to discriminate incident alpha and beta radiation, as well as photon detection efficiency for each construction is presented.

  6. LUCIFER: scintillating bolometers for neutrinoless double-beta decay searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattavina, Luca

    2014-09-01

    In the field of fundamental particle physics, the nature of the neutrino, if it is a Dirac or a Majorana particle, plays a crucial role not only in neutrino physics, but also in the overall framework of fundamental particle interactions and in cosmology. Neutrinoless double-beta decay (0vDBD) is the key tool for the investigation of this nature. Experimental techniques based on the calorimetric approach with cryogenic particle detectors have demonstrated suitability for the investigation of rare nuclear processes, profiting from excellent energy resolution and scalability to large masses. Unfortunately, the most relevant issue is related to background suppression. In fact, bolometers being fully-active detectors struggle to reach extremely low background level. The LUCIFER project aims to deploy the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers. Thanks to the double read-out - heat and scintillation light produced by scintillating bolometers - a highly efficient background identification and rejection is guaranteed, leading to a background-free experiment. We show the potential of such technology in ZnMoO4 and ZnSe prototypes. We describe the current status of the project, including results of the recent R&D activity.

  7. Scintillating bolometers: A key for determining WIMP parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, D. G.; Marcos, C.; Peiró, M.; Fornasa, M.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Ortigoza, Y.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade direct detection Dark Matter (DM) experiments have increased enormously their sensitivity and ton-scale setups have been proposed, especially using germanium and xenon targets with double readout and background discrimination capabilities. In light of this situation, we study the prospects for determining the parameters of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) DM (mass, spin-dependent (SD) and spin-independent (SI) cross-section off nucleons) by combining the results of such experiments in the case of a hypothetical detection. In general, the degeneracy between the SD and SI components of the scattering cross-section can only be removed using targets with different sensitivities to these components. Scintillating bolometers, with particle discrimination capability, very good energy resolution and threshold and a wide choice of target materials, are an excellent tool for a multitarget complementary DM search. We investigate how the simultaneous use of scintillating targets with different SD-SI sensitivities and/or light isotopes (as the case of CaF2 and NaI) significantly improves the determination of the WIMP parameters. In order to make the analysis more realistic we include the effect of uncertainties in the halo model and in the spin-dependent nuclear structure functions, as well as the effect of a thermal quenching different from 1.

  8. Band tail absorption saturation in CdWO4 with 100 fs laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Laasner, R; Fedorov, N; Grigonis, R; Guizard, S; Kirm, M; Makhov, V; Markov, S; Nagirnyi, V; Sirutkaitis, V; Vasil'ev, A; Vielhauer, S; Tupitsyna, I A

    2013-06-19

    The decay kinetics of the excitonic emission of CdWO4 scintillators was studied under excitation by powerful 100 fs laser pulses in the band tail (Urbach) absorption region. A special imaging technique possessing both spatial and temporal resolution provided a unique insight into the Förster dipole-dipole interaction of self-trapped excitons, which is the main cause of the nonlinear quenching of luminescence in this material. In addition, the saturation of phonon-assisted excitonic absorption due to extremely short excitation pulses was discovered. A model describing the evolution of electronic excitations in the conditions of absorption saturation was developed and an earlier model of decay kinetics based on the Förster interaction was extended to include the saturation effect. Compared to the previous studies, a more accurate calculation yields 3.7 nm as the Förster interaction radius. It was shown that exciton-exciton interaction is the main source of scintillation nonproportionality in CdWO4. A quantitative description using a new model of nonproportionality was presented, making use of the corrected value of the Förster radius.

  9. Radiopure ZnMoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU double-beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, D. V.; Chernyak, D. M.; Armengaud, E.; Boissière, T. de; Fourches, N.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Hervé, S.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X-F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Arnaud, Q.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Cazes, A.; Censier, B.; Charlieux, F.; De Jesus, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS and others

    2015-08-17

    The results of R&D of radiopure zinc molybdate (ZnMoO{sub 4}) based scintillating bolometers for the LUMINEU (Luminescent Underground Molybdenum Investigation for NEUtrino mass and nature) double-beta decay experiment are presented. A dedicated two-stage molybdenum purification technique (sublimation in vacuum and recrystallization from aqueous solutions) and an advanced directional solidification method (the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique) were utilized to produce high optical quality large mass (∼1 kg) ZnMoO{sub 4} crystal boules and first {sup 100}Mo (99.5%) enriched Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} crystal scintillator (mass of ∼0.2 kg). Scintillating bolometers based on ZnMoO{sub 4} (≈ 0.33 kg) and Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} (≈ 0.06 kg) scintillation elements and high purity Ge wafers were tested in the EDELWEISS set-up at the Modane Underground Laboratory (France). Long term low temperature tests demonstrate excellent detectors’ performance and effectiveness of the purification and solidification procedures for the achievement of high radiopurity of the material, in particular with a bulk activity of {sup 228}Th and {sup 226}Ra below 4 µBq/kg. The adopted protocol was used to produce for the first time a large volume Zn{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} crystal scintillator (mass of ∼1.4 kg, {sup 100}Mo enrichment is 99.5%) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 100}Mo in the framework of the LUMINEU project.

  10. Quenching factor for alpha particles in ZnSe scintillating bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorny, S.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Pagnanini, L.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Schaeffner, K.

    2017-02-01

    In the framework of the CUPID-0 experiment, a numbers of ZnSe single crystals were produced and subjected to different thermal treatments, and later tested as cryogenic scintillating bolometers. We have found that a specific thermal treatment (24 hours under argon atmosphere at 900 °C) has a strong impact on some properties of ZnSe crystals (amplitude of signal, light yield, specific resistivity) and most interestingly, changes the quenching factor for alpha particles from values > 1 to values < 1. Thus such thermal treatment opens the possibility to modify this experimental parameter for a various applications.

  11. Development of a Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometer for low background physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Nagorny, S.; Pattavina, L.; Piperno, G.; Barinova, O. P.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Danevich, F. A.; Di Domizio, S.; Gironi, L.; Kirsanova, S. V.; Orio, F.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Rusconi, C.; Tomei, C.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vignati, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present the performance of a 33 g Li2MoO4 crystal working as a scintillating bolometer. The crystal was tested for more than 400 h in a dilution refrigerator installed in the underground laboratory of Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). This compound shows promising features in the frame of neutron detection, dark matter search (solar axions) and neutrinoless double-beta decay physics. Low temperature scintillating properties were investigated by means of different α, β/γ and neutron sources, and for the first time the Light Yield for different types of interacting particle is estimated. The detector shows great ability of tagging fast neutron interactions and high intrinsic radiopurity levels ( < 90 μBq/kg for 238U and < 110 μBq/kg for 232Th).

  12. Preparation and optimization of CdWO4-polymer nano-composite film as an alpha particle counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziluei, Hossein; Azimirad, Rouhollah; Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid; Ziaie, Farhoud

    2017-04-01

    In this research work, CdWO4/polymer composite films with different thicknesses were prepared using Poly-methyl acrylate polymer and synthesized CdWO4 powder. The CdWO4 powder was synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method in the laboratory. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that the CdWO4 powder was successfully prepared. Moreover, photoluminescence analysis showed that adding polymer does not change the emission peak of CdWO4. Also, the responses of all samples were measured using an 241Am alpha source with 1860 Bq activity. Results showed that the sample having thickness of 177 mg/cm2 has the best counting efficiency (over 2π geometry) among the others. The efficiency measurement was further evaluated using a 230Th source whose activity is 190.7 Bq. It revealed that the counting efficiency of this sample for both 241Am and 230Th was nearly equal.

  13. [Growth of codoped CdWO4 crystals by Bridgman method and their optical spectra].

    PubMed

    Yu, Can; Xia, Hai-Ping; Wang, Dong-Jie; Chen, Hong-Bing

    2011-09-01

    The CdWO4 crystals with good quality in the size of Phi25 mm x 120 mm, doped with Co in 0.5% molar fraction in the raw composition, were grown by the Bridgman method by taking -70 degrees C x cm(-1) of solid-liquid interface and -0.50 mm x h(-1) growth rate. The crystal presents transparence and deep blue. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the crystals. Three absorption peaks at 518, 564 and 655 nm respectively, which are attributed to the overlapping of 4 T1 (4F) --> 4A2 (4F) and 4 T1 (4F) --> 4 T1 (4P) of Co2+ octahedrons, and a wide band centered at 1 863 nm, which is attributed to 4Ti (4F) --> 4 T2 (4F), was observed. The absorption results indicated that the Co ions presented +2 valence in crystal and located within the distorted oxygen octahedrons. The crystal-field parameter D(q) and the Racah parameter B were estimated to be 990 and 726.3 cm(-1) respectively based on the absorption spectra. A fluorescence emission at 778 nm (4T1 (4P) --> 4 T1 (4F)) for codoped CdWO4 crystals was observed under excitation by 520 nm light. It can be deduced from the changes in absorption and emission intensity of different parts of crystal that the concentration of Co2+ ion in crystal increased along growing direction and the effective distribution coefficient of Co2+ ion in CdWO4 crystal is less than 1.

  14. LUMINEU: a search for neutrinoless double beta decay based on ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armengaud, E.; Arnaud, Q.; Augier, C.; Benoît, A.; Benoît, A.; Boiko, L. Bergé S.; Bergmann, T.; Blümer, J.; Broniatowski, A.; Brudanin, V.; Camus, P.; Cazes, A.; Chapellier, M.; Charlieux, F.; Chernyak, D. M.; Coron, N.; Coulter, P.; Danevich, F. A.; de Boissiére, T.; Decourt, R.; De Jesus, M.; Devoyon, L.; Drillien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Enss, C.; Filosofov, D.; Fleischmann, A.; Foerster, N.; Fourches, N.; Gascon, J.; Gastaldo, L.; Gerbier, G.; Giuliani, A.; Gray, D.; Gros, M.; Hehn, L.; Henry, S.; Hervé, S.; Heuermann, G.; Humbert, V.; Ivanov, I. M.; Juillard, A.; Kéfélian, C.; Kleifges, M.; Kluck, H.; Kobychev, V. V.; Koskas, F.; Kozlov, V.; Kraus, H.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Le Sueur, H.; Loidl, M.; Magnier, P.; Makarov, E. P.; Mancuso, M.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Menshikov, A.; Nasonov, S. G.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Pessina, G.; Piro, M. C.; Plantevin, O.; Poda, D. V.; Redon, T.; Robinson, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Schmidt, B.; Scorza, S.; Shlegel, V. N.; Siebenborn, B.; Strazzer, O.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tenconi, M.; Torres, L.; Tretyak, V. I.; Vagneron, L.; Vasiliev, Ya V.; Velazquez, M.; Viraphong, O.; Walker, R. J.; Weber, M.; Yakushev, E.; Zhang, X.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    The LUMINEU is designed to investigate the possibility to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 100 Mo by means of a large array of scintillating bolometers based on ZnMoO4 crystals enriched in 100 Mo. High energy resolution and relatively fast detectors, which are able to measure both the light and the heat generated upon the interaction of a particle in a crystal, are very promising for the recognition and rejection of background events. We present the LUMINEU concepts and the experimental results achieved aboveground and underground with large-mass natural and enriched crystals. The measured energy resolution, the α/β discrimination power and the radioactive internal contamination are all within the specifications for the projected final LUMINEU sensitivity. Simulations and preliminary results confirm that the LUMINEU technology can reach zero background in the region of interest (around 3 MeV) with exposures of the order of hundreds kgxyears, setting the bases for a next generation 0v2β decay experiment capable to explore the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern.

  15. Mixed-calcination synthesis of CdWO4/g-C3N4 heterojunction with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Na; Huang, Hongwei; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-12-01

    CdWO4/g-C3N4 composite photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized by a simple mixed-calcination method for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) were carried out to analyze the crystal structure, morphology and optical property of the as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic experiments on rhodamine B (RhB) degradation showed that the 1:10 CdWO4/g-C3N4 photocatalyst exhibited the highest efficiency for degradation of RhB under visible light (λ > 420 nm), which was almost 1.6 and 54.6 times as high as those of the pure g-C3N4 and CdWO4, respectively. This enhancement in visible-light photocatalytic activity of CdWO4/g-C3N4 composite should be attributed to the matchable band structures and interfacial interaction between CdWO4 and g-C3N4, resulting in the efficient separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers. It was corroborated by the photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and active species trapping experiments.

  16. Exploratory growth in the Li2MoO4-MoO3 system for the next crystal generation of heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Matias; Veber, Philippe; Moutatouia, Meryem; de Marcillac, Pierre; Giuliani, Andrea; Loaiza, Pia; Denux, Dominique; Decourt, Rodolphe; El Hafid, Hassan; Laubenstein, Matthias; Marnieros, Stefanos; Nones, Claudia; Novati, Valentina; Olivieri, Emiliano; Poda, Denys V.; Zolotarova, Anastasiia S.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we report on the Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crystals up to 230 g for heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers likely to be used in astroparticle physics and neutron spectroscopy. Their transmission properties, radiopurity levels and detector behavior characterizations were carried out in order to validate the crystal growth process. The melting characteristics, the partition coefficients of a broad range of impurities, the thermal expansion (lattice parameters and dilatometry) and specific heat properties of the crystals were measured, over a broad temperature range for the last two, providing new data likely to be used in crystal growth process numerical simulations. We also investigated the crystal growth of Li4Mo5O17 and determined its melting behavior and specific heat. The physical properties directly relevant to heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers of Li2MoO4 and Li4Mo5O17 are discussed in the context of the current materials developed for such applications.

  17. Rejection of randomly coinciding events in Li_2^{100}MoO_4 scintillating bolometers using light detectors based on the Neganov-Luke effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, D. M.; Danevich, F. A.; Dumoulin, L.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Random coincidences of nuclear events can be one of the main background sources in low-temperature calorimetric experiments looking for neutrinoless double-beta decay, especially in those searches based on scintillating bolometers embedding the promising double-beta candidate ^{100} Mo, because of the relatively short half-life of the two-neutrino double-beta decay of this nucleus. We show in this work that randomly coinciding events of the two-neutrino double-beta decay of ^{100} Mo in enriched Li_2^{100} MoO_4 detectors can be effectively discriminated by pulse-shape analysis in the light channel if the scintillating bolometer is provided with a Neganov-Luke light detector, which can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by a large factor, assumed here at the level of {˜ }750 on the basis of preliminary experimental results obtained with these devices. The achieved pile-up rejection efficiency results in a very low contribution, of the order of {˜ }6× 10^{-5} counts/(keV\\cdot kg\\cdot y), to the background counting rate in the region of interest for a large volume ({˜ }90 cm^3) Li_2^{100} MoO_4 detector. This background level is very encouraging in view of a possible use of the Li_2^{100} MoO_4 solution for a bolometric tonne-scale next-generation experiment as that proposed in the CUPID project.

  18. Status of LUMINEU program to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo with cryogenic ZnMoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A. Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Bergé, L.; Chapellier, M.; Drillien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Humbert, V.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Olivieri, E.; Plantevin, O.; Tenconi, M.; Devoyon, L.; Koskas, F.; and others

    2015-10-28

    The LUMTNEU program aims at performing a pilot experiment on 0ν2β decay of {sup 100}Mo using radiopure ZnMoO{sub 4} crystals enriched in {sup 100}Mo operated as cryogenic scintillating bolometers. Large volume ZnMoO{sub 4} crystal scintillators (∼ 0.3 kg) were developed and tested showing high performance in terms of radiopurity, energy resolution and α/β particle discrimination capability. Zinc molybdate crystal scintillators enriched in {sup 100}Mo were grown for the first time by the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique with a high crystal yield and an acceptable level of enriched molybdenum irrecoverable losses. A background level of ∼ 0.5 counts/(yr keV ton) in the region of interest can be reached in a large detector array thanks to the excellent detectors radiopurity and particle discrimination capability, suppression of randomly coinciding events by pulse-shape analysis, and anticoincidence cut. These results pave the way to future sensitive searches based on the LUMTNEU technology, capable of approachingand exploring the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern.

  19. Synthesis of CdWO4 films via sol-gel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennstrom, Kirk; Limmer, Steven J.; Cao, Guozhong

    2002-11-01

    Cadmium Tungstate is a complex oxide which gains considerable attention as a scintillator material. The material has high radiation hardness and in crystalline form is highly efficient. It is also non-hydroscopic, unlike the more efficient thallium doped NaI crystal. A processing technique utilizing sol gel technology has been successfully applied to this system for the first time to allow for more precise stoichiometry control, as well as to produce thin films more easily and cheaply than other methods. The as-produced material consists of single phase, stoichiometric nano-crystallites of cadmium tungstate and shows photoluminescence at 480nm. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM and PL analysis.

  20. Electronic structure and optical properties of the single crystal and two-dimensional structure of CdWO4 from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babamoradi, Mohsen; Liyai, Mohammad Reza; Azimirad, Rouhollah; Salehi, Hamdollah

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the electronic structure and optical properties of the single crystal and two-dimensional (2D) structure of cadmium tungstate (CdWO4). This investigation includes calculation of the density of states (DOS), dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity. All the calculations have been done by full potential augmented plane waves plus local orbitals (FP-APW+lo) with Wien2k code. The calculated band gaps for the single crystal and 2D structure along [010] direction are 4.2 and 5.02 eV, respectively. The results show that in the 2D structure of CdWO4, the electron density of the surface oxygen atoms is much more than the electron density of the inside oxygen atoms. This difference in the density has the main role in the optical properties. The results of the dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity for the single crystal are in good agreement with the experimental values. The results of the dielectric tensor elements and reflectivity for the 2D structure in comparison with the single crystal have shown that the intensity and place of the calculated peaks reduced and shifted, respectively. These results can be related to the surface oxygen atoms and thickness of the 2D structure.

  1. Bright Lu2O3:Eu thin-film scintillators for high-resolution radioluminescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Debanti; Miller, Stuart; Marton, Zsolt; Chin, Frederick; Nagarkar, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the performance of a new thin-film Lu2O3:Eu scintillator for single-cell radionuclide imaging. Imaging the metabolic properties of heterogeneous cell populations in real time is an important challenge with clinical implications. We have developed an innovative technique called radioluminescence microscopy, to quantitatively and sensitively measure radionuclide uptake in single cells. The most important component of this technique is the scintillator, which converts the energy released during radioactive decay into luminescent signals. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of the imaging system depend critically on the characteristics of the scintillator, i.e. the material used and its geometrical configuration. Scintillators fabricated using conventional methods are relatively thick, and therefore do not provide optimal spatial resolution. We compare a thin-film Lu2O3:Eu scintillator to a conventional 500 μm thick CdWO4 scintillator for radioluminescence imaging. Despite its thinness, the unique scintillation properties of the Lu2O3:Eu scintillator allow us to capture single positron decays with over fourfold higher sensitivity, a significant achievement. The thin-film Lu2O3:Eu scintillators also yield radioluminescence images where individual cells appear smaller and better resolved on average than with the CdWO4 scintillators. Coupled with the thin-film scintillator technology, radioluminescence microscopy can yield valuable and clinically relevant data on the metabolism of single cells. PMID:26183115

  2. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and scintillating bolometer vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Modified Zinc Molybdate Bolometers are used to produce scintillation light when stimulated by alpha background. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. Results are used to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications on bolometer searches.

  3. Imaging bolometer

    DOEpatents

    Wurden, Glen A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas.

  4. Imaging bolometer

    DOEpatents

    Wurden, G.A.

    1999-01-19

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer is disclosed. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas. 2 figs.

  5. The First Tests of a Large-Area Light Detector Equipped with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Scintillating Bolometers for the LUMINEU Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, D.; Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Hassel, C.; Hengstler, D.; Kempf, S.; Loidl, M.; Navick, X. F.; Rodrigues, M.

    2016-08-01

    Future rare-event searches using scintillating crystals need very low background levels for high sensitivity; however, unresolved pile-up can limit this. We present the design and fabrication of large-area photon detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), optimized for fast rise times to resolve close pile-up. The first prototypes have been characterized using Fe-55 X-rays and ZnMoO4 crystal scintillation light. A fast intrinsic rise time of 25-30 \\upmu s has been measured and has been compared to the 250 \\upmu s scintillation light pulse rise time constant. The difference indicates that the scintillation process limits the light pulse rise time. The fast rise time allows for a reduction of background due to close pile-up events as well as the study of the inherent crystal scintillation process. MMC-based photon detectors are shown to be a promising tool for scintillating crystal based rare event searches.

  6. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deporzio, Nicholas; Cuore Collaboration

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and Cherenkov radiation vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Quantum dot based liquid scintillator is similarly bombarded to produce a background induced scintillation light. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. These findings are extrapolated to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications to bolometer searches. Effects of these techniques on experiment duration and signal-background ratio are discussed.

  7. Femtosecond laser ablation of cadmium tungstate for scintillator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, S.; Baker, M. A.; Wilson, M. D.; Lohstroh, A.; Seller, P.

    2016-08-01

    Ultrafast pulsed laser ablation has been investigated as a technique to machine CdWO4 single crystal scintillator and segment it into small blocks with the aim of fabricating a 2D high energy X-ray imaging array. Cadmium tungstate (CdWO4) is a brittle transparent scintillator used for the detection of high energy X-rays and γ-rays. A 6 W Yb:KGW Pharos-SP pulsed laser of wavelength 1028 nm was used with a tuneable pulse duration of 10 ps to 190 fs, repetition rate of up to 600 kHz and pulse energies of up to 1 mJ was employed. The effect of varying the pulse duration, pulse energy, pulse overlap and scan pattern on the laser induced damage to the crystals was investigated. A pulse duration of ≥500 fs was found to induce substantial cracking in the material. The laser induced damage was minimised using the following operating parameters: a pulse duration of 190 fs, fluence of 15.3 J cm-2 and employing a serpentine scan pattern with a normalised pulse overlap of 0.8. The surface of the ablated surfaces was studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ablation products were found to contain cadmium tungstate together with different cadmium and tungsten oxides. These laser ablation products could be removed using an ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  8. Sound and light from fractures in scintillators.

    PubMed

    Tantot, A; Santucci, S; Ramos, O; Deschanel, S; Verdier, M-A; Mony, E; Wei, Y; Ciliberto, S; Vanel, L; Di Stefano, P C F

    2013-10-11

    Prompted by intriguing events observed in certain particle-physics searches for rare events, we study light and acoustic emission simultaneously in some inorganic scintillators subject to mechanical stress. We observe mechanoluminescence in Bi4Ge3O12, CdWO4, and ZnWO4, in various mechanical configurations at room temperature and ambient pressure. We analyze the temporal and amplitude correlations between the light emission and the acoustic emission during fracture. A novel application of the precise energy calibration of Bi4Ge3O12 provided by radioactive sources allows us to deduce that the fraction of elastic energy converted to light is at least 3×10(-5).

  9. Wedge immersed thermistor bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyfus, M. G. (Inventor)

    1964-01-01

    An immersed thermistor bolometer for the detection of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation is described. Two types of immersed bolometers are discussed. The immersion of thermistor flakes in a lens, or half immersed by optical contact on a lens, is examined. Lens materials are evaluated for optimum immersion including fused aluminum oxide, beryllium oxide, and germanium. The application of the bolometer to instruments in which the entrance pupil of the immersion optics has a high aspect ratio is considered.

  10. Precision bolometer bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    Prototype precision bolometer calibration bridge is manually balanced device for indicating dc bias and balance with either dc or ac power. An external galvanometer is used with the bridge for null indication, and the circuitry monitors voltage and current simultaneously without adapters in testing 100 and 200 ohm thin film bolometers.

  11. Bolometer Simulation Using SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis H.; Aslam, Shahid; Lakew, Brook

    2004-01-01

    A general model is presented that assimilates the thermal and electrical properties of the bolometer - this block model demonstrates the Electro-Thermal Feedback (ETF) effect on the bolometers performance. This methodology is used to construct a SPICE model that by way of analogy combines the thermal and electrical phenomena into one simulation session. The resulting circuit diagram is presented and discussed.

  12. Pulse excitation of bolometer bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusk, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    Driving bolometer bridge by appropriately phased excitation pulses increases signal-to-noise ratio of bolometer sensor which operates on a chopped light beam. Method allows higher applied voltage than is possible by conventional ac or dc excitation.

  13. Superconducting Bolometer Array Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Wollack, Ed; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The next generation of far-infrared and submillimeter instruments require large arrays of detectors containing thousands of elements. These arrays will necessarily be multiplexed, and superconducting bolometer arrays are the most promising present prospect for these detectors. We discuss our current research into superconducting bolometer array technologies, which has recently resulted in the first multiplexed detections of submillimeter light and the first multiplexed astronomical observations. Prototype arrays containing 512 pixels are in production using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) architecture, which can be extended easily to 1000 pixel arrays. Planar arrays of close-packed bolometers are being developed for the GBT (Green Bank Telescope) and for future space missions. For certain applications, such as a slewed far-infrared sky survey, feedhorncoupling of a large sparsely-filled array of bolometers is desirable, and is being developed using photolithographic feedhorn arrays. Individual detectors have achieved a Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) of -10(exp 17) W/square root of Hz at 300mK, but several orders of magnitude improvement are required and can be reached with existing technology. The testing of such ultralow-background detectors will prove difficult, as this requires optical loading of below IfW. Antenna-coupled bolometer designs have advantages for large format array designs at low powers due to their mode selectivity.

  14. Ideal Integrating Bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; DiPirro, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new "ideal integrator" bolometer as a prototype for a new generation of sensitive, flexible far-IR detectors suitable for use in large arrays. The combination of a non-dissipative sensor coupled with a fast heat switch provides breakthrough capabilities in both sensitivity and operation. The bolometer temperature varies linearly with the integrated infrared power incident on the detector, and may be sampled intermittently without loss of information between samples. The sample speed and consequent dynamic range depend only on the heat switch reset cycle and can be selected in software. Between samples, the device acts as an ideal integrator with noise significantly lower than resistive bolometers. Since there is no loss of information between samples, the device is well-suited for large arrays. A single SQUID readout could process an entire column of detectors, greatly reducing the complexity, power requirements, and cost of readout electronics for large pixel arrays.

  15. Considerations on thermal effects in doped scintillators for dark matter and other rare events searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapellier, M.

    2009-08-01

    The scintillation properties of luminescent crystals are well known at room temperature. It is only recently, for the sake of dark matter and rare events searches that the studies have been extended to very low temperatures in the millikelvin range. Some little-known facts on the behaviour of bolometers , and more specifically on scintillating ones, are recalled in a simple manner. A few experiments to better understand them are proposed. The term bolometer is used here for calorimeter. Normally a bolometer will measure a flux of energy whereas a calorimeter measures a deposited energy. The tendency is to use bolometer for both types of measurement. A germanium bolometer does not measure the total energy received, part of it is transformed in ionization energy. The same is true for scintillating bolometer.

  16. Monolithic silicon bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, P. M.; Jeffries, A. D.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Bachner, F. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Lindley, W. T.; Mountain, R. W.; Silversmith, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    A new type of bolometer detector for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral range is described. The bolometer is constructed of silicon using integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Ion implantation is used to give controlled resistance vs temperature properties as well as extremely low 1/f noise contacts. The devices have been tested between 4.2 and 0.3 K. The best electrical NEP measured is 4 x 10 to the -16th W/Hz to the 1/2 at 0.35 K between 1- and 10-Hz modulation frequency. This device had a detecting area of 0.25 sq cm and a time constant of 20 msec at a bath temperature of 0.35 K.

  17. Bolometers as particle spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroke, H. H.; Artzner, G.; Coron, N.; Dambier, G.; Hansen, P. G.

    1986-02-01

    A spectrometer based on low-temperature calorimetry has been under development since 1983. The present detector, capable of recording individual alpha and beta particles and X-ray photons, is based on a composite diamond-germanium bolometer. The advantage of a composite bolometer is that it separates the absorption and detection functions. Diamond, as an absorber, is of particular advantage because of its low heat capacity and high thermal diffusivity. The goal is a theoretical energy resolution of a few eV at 0.1 K. Initial experiments at 1.3 K and 0.9 K, which give resolutions in the keV range, are still noise-limited. High-resolution applications, such as in X-ray astronomy and nuclear physics (in particular, neutron mass measurements) are foreseen.

  18. HFI Bolometer Detectors Programmatic CDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Andrew E.

    2002-01-01

    Programmatic Critical Design Review (CDR) of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) Bolometer Detector on the Planck Surveyor is presented. The topics include: 1) Scientific Requirements and Goals; 2) Silicon Nitride Micromesh 'Spider-Web' Bolometers; 3) Sub-Orbital Heritage: BOOMERANG; 4) Noise stability demonstrated in BOOMERANG; 5) Instrument Partners; 6) Bolometer Environment on Planck/HFI; 7) Bolometer Modules; and 8) Mechanical Interface. Also included are the status of the receivables and delivery plans with Europe. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  19. Silicon Hot-Electron Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Mitchell, Robert R.; Isenberg, Hal D.; Stahle, Carl M.; Cao, Nga T.; Schneider, Gideon; Travers, Douglas E.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a new type of direct detector, a silicon hot-electron bolometer, for measurements in the far-infrared and submillimeter spectral ranges. High performance bolometers can be made using the electron-phonon conductance in heavily doped silicon to provide thermal isolation from the cryogenic bath. Noise performance is expected to be near thermodynamic limits, allowing background limited performance for many far infrared and submillimeter photometric and spectroscopic applications.

  20. The GISMO-2 Bolometer Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Sharp, Elemer H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera) which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISM0-2 will operate Simultaneously in the 1 mm and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 x 40 TES-based Backshort Under Grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 x 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISM0-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera which is successfully operating at the 30m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

  1. First array of enriched Zn^{82}Se bolometers to search for double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artusa, D. R.; Balzoni, A.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Camacho, A.; Capelli, S.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; Keppel, G.; Maino, M.; Mancuso, M.; Martinez, M.; Morganti, S.; Nagorny, S.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Pagnanini, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Puiu, A.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.; Zolotarova, A.

    2016-07-01

    The R&D activity performed during the last years proved the potential of ZnSe scintillating bolometers to the search for neutrino-less double beta decay, motivating the realization of the first large-mass experiment based on this technology: CUPID-0. The isotopic enrichment in ^{82}Se, the Zn^{82}Se crystals growth, as well as the light detectors production have been accomplished, and the experiment is now in construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). In this paper we present the results obtained testing the first three Zn^{82}Se crystals operated as scintillating bolometers, and we prove that their performance in terms of energy resolution, background rejection capability and intrinsic radio-purity complies with the requirements of CUPID-0.

  2. Antenna-Coupled Bolometer Arrays for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James

    Bolometers offer the best sensitivity in the far-infrared to millimeter-wave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We are developing arrays of feedhorn-coupled bolometers for the ESA/NASA Planck Surveyor and Herschel Space Observatory. Advances in the format and sensitivity of bolometric focal plane array enables future astrophysics mission opportunities, such as CMB polarimetry and far-infrared/submillimeter spectral line surveys. Compared to bolometers with extended area radiation absorbers, antenna-coupled bolometers offer active volumes that are orders of magnitude smaller. Coupled to lithographed micro-strip filters and antennas, antenna-coupled bolometer arrays allow flexible focal plane architectures specialized for imaging, polarimetry, and spectroscopy. These architectures greatly reduce the mass of sub-Kelvin bolometer focal planes that drive the design of bolometric instrumentation.

  3. Infrared-Bolometer Arrays with Reflective Backshorts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Abrahams, John; Allen, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated circuits that incorporate square arrays of superconducting-transition- edge bolometers with optically reflective backshorts are being developed for use in image sensors in the spectral range from far infrared to millimeter wavelengths. To maximize the optical efficiency (and, thus, sensitivity) of such a sensor at a specific wavelength, resonant optical structures are created by placing the backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometer plane. The bolometer and backshort arrays are fabricated separately, then integrated to form a single unit denoted a backshort-under-grid (BUG) bolometer array. In a subsequent fabrication step, the BUG bolometer array is connected, by use of single-sided indium bump bonding, to a readout device that comprises mostly a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer circuit. The resulting sensor unit comprising the BUG bolometer array and the readout device is operated at a temperature below 1 K. The concept of increasing optical efficiency by use of backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometers is not new. Instead, the novelty of the present development lies mainly in several features of the design of the BUG bolometer array and the fabrication sequence used to implement the design. Prior to joining with the backshort array, the bolometer array comprises, more specifically, a square grid of free-standing molybdenum/gold superconducting-transition-edge bolometer elements on a 1.4- m-thick top layer of silicon that is part of a silicon support frame made from a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The backshort array is fabricated separately as a frame structure that includes support beams and contains a correspond - ing grid of optically reflective patches on a single-crystal silicon substrate. The process used to fabricate the bolometer array includes standard patterning and etching steps that result in the formation of deep notches in the silicon support frame. These notches are designed to

  4. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  5. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  6. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  7. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  8. Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, A. E.; Mcbride, S. E.; Richards, P. L.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Ion implantation and sputter metallization are used to produce ohmic electrical contacts to Ge:Ga chips. The method is shown to give a high yield of small monolithic bolometers with very little low-frequency noise. It is noted that when one of the chips is used as the thermometric element of a composite bolometer it must be bonded to a dielectric substrate. The thermal resistance of the conventional epoxy bond is measured and found to be undesirably large. A procedure for soldering the chip to a metallized portion of the substrate in such a way as to reduce this resistance is outlined. An evaluation is made of the contribution of the metal film absorber to the heat capacity of a composite bolometer. It is found that the heat capacity of a NiCr absorber at 1.3 K can dominate the bolometer performance. A Bi absorber possesses significantly lower heat capacity. A low-temperature blackbody calibrator is built to measure the optical responsivity of bolometers. A composite bolometer system with a throughput of approximately 0.1 sr sq cm is constructed using the new techniques. The noise in this bolometer is white above 2.5 Hz and is slightly below the value predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium theory.

  9. Resonator-bolometer theory, microwave read out, and kinetic inductance bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeman, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    Kinetic inductance bolometers and calorimeters, each consisting of a kinetic inductance device suspended on a membrane and embedded in a resonant circuit, are being developed for applications such as planetary science, climate science, and X-ray spectroscopy. Arrays of these resonator-bolometers, each with a unique resonance frequency, are coupled to a single feedline, allowing many bolometers or calorimeters to be multiplexed using microwave read out. We derive coupled linear differential equations describing resonator-bolometers and means for calculating responses to signal and noise sources. By employing the bolometer matrix formalism, the model compactly describes the effects of demodulation, detuning, electrothermal feedback, resonator to feedline coupling, and bolometer sensitivity to changes in temperature and bias current. Based on this theory, estimates for the bolometer response to phonon noise, Johnson noise, and microwave bias quasiparticle generation noise are derived. The model is represented in terms of accessible parameters, most of which are measurable using a network analyzer. It is applicable to other types of devices such as dielectric bolometers or alternating current biased transition edge sensors and is readily extendible to more complex bolometers or to unsuspended kinetic inductance devices.

  10. Scintillation Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Zane W.

    Scintillators find wide use in radiation detection as the detecting medium for gamma/X-rays, and charged and neutral particles. Since the first notice in 1895 by Roentgen of the production of light by X-rays on a barium platinocyanide screen, and Thomas Edison's work over the following 2 years resulting in the discovery of calcium tungstate as a superior fluoroscopy screen, much research and experimentation have been undertaken to discover and elucidate the properties of new scintillators. Scintillators with high density and high atomic number are prized for the detection of gamma rays above 1 MeV; lower atomic number, lower-density materials find use for detecting beta particles and heavy charged particles; hydrogenous scintillators find use in fast-neutron detection; and boron-, lithium-, and gadolinium-containing scintillators are used for slow-neutron detection. This chapter provides the practitioner with an overview of the general characteristics of scintillators, including the variation of probability of interaction with density and atomic number, the characteristics of the light pulse, a list and characteristics of commonly available scintillators and their approximate cost, and recommendations regarding the choice of material for a few specific applications. This chapter does not pretend to present an exhaustive list of scintillators and applications.

  11. High Performance Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Bolometers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-21

    REPORT High performance multiwall carbon nanotube bolometers 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: High infrared bolometric photoresponse has...been observed in multiwall carbon nanotube MWCNT films at room temperature. The observed detectivity D in exceeding 3.3 106 cm Hz1/2 /W on MWCNT film...U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS carbon nanotube, infrared detector, bolometer

  12. A novel carbon coating technique for foil bolometers.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, U A; Duval, B P; Labit, B; Nespoli, F

    2016-11-01

    Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma. Preliminary results showed 13%-15% more incident power was measured by the coated bolometers and this is expected to be much higher in future TCV detached divertor experiments.

  13. A novel carbon coating technique for foil bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, U. A.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Nespoli, F.

    2016-11-01

    Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma. Preliminary results showed 13%-15% more incident power was measured by the coated bolometers and this is expected to be much higher in future TCV detached divertor experiments.

  14. Semiconductor Bolometers Give Background-Limited Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John; McMurray, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor bolometers that are capable of detecting electromagnetic radiation over most or all of the infrared spectrum and that give background-limited performance at operating temperatures from 20 to 300 K have been invented. The term background-limited performance as applied to a bolometer, thermopile, or other infrared detector signifies that the ability to detect infrared signals that originate outside the detector is limited primarily by thermal noise attributable to the background radiation generated external to the bolometer. The signal-to-noise ratios and detectivities of the bolometers and thermopiles available prior to this invention have been lower than those needed for background-limited performance by factors of about 100 and 10, respectively. Like other electrically resistive bolometers, a device according to the invention exhibits an increase in electrical resistance when heated by infrared radiation. Depending on whether the device is operated under the customary constant- current or constant-voltage bias, the increase in electrical resistance can be measured in terms of an increase in voltage across the device or a decrease in current through the device, respectively. In the case of a semiconductor bolometer, it is necessary to filter out visible and shorter-wavelength light that could induce photoconductivity and thereby counteract all or part of the desired infrared- induced increase in resistance. The basic semiconductor material of a bolometer according to the invention is preferably silicon doped with one or more of a number of elements, each of which confers a different variable temperature coefficient of resistance. Suitable dopants include In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, As, P, and Sb. The concentration of dopant preferably lies in the range between 0.1 and 1,000 parts per billion.

  15. Multimode bolometer development for the PIXIE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Peter C.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Denis, Kevin L.; Devasia, Archana M.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Manos, George; Porter, Scott; Stevenson, Thomas R.

    2016-07-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is an Explorer-class mission concept designed to measure the polar- ization and absolute intensity of the cosmic microwave background. In the following, we report on the design, fabrication, and performance of the multimode polarization-sensitive bolometers for PIXIE, which are based on silicon thermistors. In particular we focus on several recent advances in the detector design, including the implementation of a scheme to greatly raise the frequencies of the internal vibrational modes of the large-area, low-mass optical absorber structure consisting of a grid of micromachined, ion-implanted silicon wires. With ˜ 30 times the absorbing area of the spider-web bolometers used by Planck, the tensioning scheme enables the PIXIE bolometers to be robust in the vibrational and acoustic environment at launch of the space mission. More generally, it could be used to reduce microphonic sensitivity in other types of low temperature detectors. We also report on the performance of the PIXIE bolometers in a dark cryogenic environment.

  16. Multimode Bolometer Development for the PIXIE Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, Peter C.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Denis, Kevin L.; Devasia, Archana M.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Manos, George; Porter, Scott; Stevenson, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is an Explorer-class mission concept designed to measure the polarization and absolute intensity of the cosmic microwave background. In the following, we report on the design, fabrication, and performance of the multimode polarization-sensitive bolometers for PIXIE, which are based on silicon thermistors. In particular we focus on several recent advances in the detector design, including the implementation of a scheme to greatly raise the frequencies of the internal vibrational modes of the large-area, low-mass optical absorber structure consisting of a grid of micromachined, ion-implanted silicon wires. With approximately 30 times the absorbing area of the spider-web bolometers used by Planck, the tensioning scheme enables the PIXIE bolometers to be robust in the vibrational and acoustic environment at launch of the space mission. More generally, it could be used to reduce microphonic sensitivity in other types of low temperature detectors. We also report on the performance of the PIXIE bolometers in a dark cryogenic environment.

  17. Wedge immersed thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyfus, M. G.

    1965-01-01

    Wedge immersed-thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation in the atmosphere. The thermistor flakes are immersed by optical contact on a wedge-shaped germanium lens whose narrow dimension is clamped between two complementary wedge-shaped germanium blocks bonded with a suitable adhesive.

  18. SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

    1960-06-21

    A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

  19. Plastic scintillation dosimetry: Optimal selection of scintillating fibers and scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, Louis; Arsenault, Jean; Gingras, Luc; Sam Beddar, A.; Roy, Rene; Beaulieu, Luc

    2005-07-15

    Scintillation dosimetry is a promising avenue for evaluating dose patterns delivered by intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans or for the small fields involved in stereotactic radiosurgery. However, the increase in signal has been the goal for many authors. In this paper, a comparison is made between plastic scintillating fibers and plastic scintillator. The collection of scintillation light was measured experimentally for four commercial models of scintillating fibers (BCF-12, BCF-60, SCSF-78, SCSF-3HF) and two models of plastic scintillators (BC-400, BC-408). The emission spectra of all six scintillators were obtained by using an optical spectrum analyzer and they were compared with theoretical behavior. For scintillation in the blue region, the signal intensity of a singly clad scintillating fiber (BCF-12) was 120% of that of the plastic scintillator (BC-400). For the multiclad fiber (SCSF-78), the signal reached 144% of that of the plastic scintillator. The intensity of the green scintillating fibers was lower than that of the plastic scintillator: 47% for the singly clad fiber (BCF-60) and 77% for the multiclad fiber (SCSF-3HF). The collected light was studied as a function of the scintillator length and radius for a cylindrical probe. We found that symmetric detectors with nearly the same spatial resolution in each direction (2 mm in diameter by 3 mm in length) could be made with a signal equivalent to those of the more commonly used asymmetric scintillators. With augmentation of the signal-to-noise ratio in consideration, this paper presents a series of comparisons that should provide insight into selection of a scintillator type and volume for development of a medical dosimeter.

  20. The large APEX bolometer camera LABOCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringo, Giorgio; Kreysa, Ernst; Kovacs, Attila; Schuller, Frederic; Weiß, Axel; Esch, Walter; Gemünd, Hans-Peter; Jethava, Nikhil; Lundershausen, Gundula; Güsten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.; Beelen, Alexandre; Bertoldi, Frank; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Haller, Eugene E.; Colin, Angel

    2008-07-01

    A new facility instrument, the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA), developed by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR, Bonn, Germany), has been commissioned in May 2007 for operation on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope (APEX), a 12 m submillimeter radio telescope located at 5100 m altitude on Llano de Chajnantor in northern Chile. For mapping, this 295-bolometer camera for the 870 micron atmospheric window operates in total power mode without wobbling the secondary mirror. One LABOCA beam is 19 arcsec FWHM and the field of view of the complete array covers 100 square arcmin. Combined with the high efficiency of APEX and the excellent atmospheric transmission at the site, LABOCA offers unprecedented capability in large scale mapping of submillimeter continuum emission. Details of design and operation are presented.

  1. A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.

  2. Bolometer array developments in the DCMB collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, C.; Bélier, B.; Benoit, A.; Bideau, A.; Camus, Ph.; Collin, S.; Dumoulin, L.; Jin, Y.; Marnieros, S.; Monfardini, A.; Swenson, L. J.; Dcmb Collaboration

    In the framework of the DCMB (Développement Concerté de Matrices de Bolomètres) collaboration we develop low temperature bolometer arrays for large field, high resolution imaging in astrophysics. DCMB is a R&D effort funded by CNES and CNRS involving a number of French laboratories. Two parallel developments have been made in this collaboration based on the NbSi alloy either semi-conducting or superconducting depending on the Nb concentration. Multiplexing schemes have been developed and demonstrated for these two options. Here we focus on high impedance bolometers and present two examples of array developments in progress: first, a 23 pixels array for the balloon-borne instrument OLIMPO and, second, 204 pixels for ground based observations with the 30m IRAM telescope.

  3. Illumination analysis of LAPAN's IR micro bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustanul, A.; Irwan, P.; Andi M., T.

    2016-10-01

    We have since 2 years ago been doing a research in term of an IR Micrometer Bolometer which aims to fulfill our office, LAPAN, desire to put it as one of payloads into LAPAN's next micro satellite project, either at LAPAN A4 or at LAPAN A5. Due to the lack of experience on the subject, everything had been initiated by spectral radiance analysis adjusted by catastrophes sources in Indonesia, mainly wild fire (forest fire) and active volcano. Based on the result of the appropriate spectral radiance wavelength, 3.8 - 4 μm, and field of view (FOV), we, then, went through the further analysis, optical analysis. Focusing in illumination matter, the process was done by using Zemax software. Optical pass Interference and Stray light were two things that become our concern throughout the work. They could also be an evaluation of the performance optimization of illumination analysis of our optical design. The results, graphs, show that our design performance is close diffraction limited and the image blur of the geometrical produced by Lapan's IR Micro Bolometer lenses is in the pixel area range. Therefore, our optical design performance is relatively good and will produce image with high quality. In this paper, the Illumination analysis and process of LAPAN's Infra Red (IR) Micro Bolometer is presented.

  4. Testing of 100 mK bolometers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, A. G.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bhatia, R. S.; Griffin, M. J.; Maffei, B.; Nartallo, R.; Beeman, J. W.; Bock, J.; Lange, A.; DelCastillo, H.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical performance data are presented for a prototype 100 mK spider-web bolometer operating under very low photon backgrounds. These data are compared with the bolometer theory and are used to estimate the expected sensitivity of such a detector used for low background space astronomy. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity and speed of response requirements of the bolometer instruments proposed for these missions can be met by 100 mK spider-web bolometers using neutron transmutation doped germanium as the temperature sensitive element.

  5. Approaches on calibration of bolometer and establishment of bolometer calibration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ming; Gao, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun'an; Xia, Junwen; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng; Zhang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Bolometer is mainly used for measuring thermal radiation in the field of public places, labor hygiene, heating and ventilation and building energy conservation. The working principle of bolometer is under the exposure of thermal radiation, temperature of black absorbing layer of detector rise after absorption of thermal radiation, which makes the electromotive force produced by thermoelectric. The white light reflective layer of detector does not absorb thermal radiation, so the electromotive force produced by thermoelectric is almost zero. A comparison of electromotive force produced by thermoelectric of black absorbing layer and white reflective layer can eliminate the influence of electric potential produced by the basal background temperature change. After the electromotive force which produced by thermal radiation is processed by the signal processing unit, the indication displays through the indication display unit. The measurement unit of thermal radiation intensity is usually W/m2 or kW/m2. Its accurate and reliable value has important significance for high temperature operation, labor safety and hygiene grading management. Bolometer calibration device is mainly composed of absolute radiometer, the reference light source, electric measuring instrument. Absolute radiometer is a self-calibration type radiometer. Its working principle is using the electric power which can be accurately measured replaces radiation power to absolutely measure the radiation power. Absolute radiometer is the standard apparatus of laser low power standard device, the measurement traceability is guaranteed. Using the calibration method of comparison, the absolute radiometer and bolometer measure the reference light source in the same position alternately which can get correction factor of irradiance indication. This paper is mainly about the design and calibration method of the bolometer calibration device. The uncertainty of the calibration result is also evaluated.

  6. Rejection of Alpha Surface Background in Non-scintillating Bolometric Detectors: The ABSuRD Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; di Vacri, M. L.; Gorla, P.; Pavan, M.; Yeh, M.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their excellent energy resolution values and the vast choice of possible materials, bolometric detectors are currently widely used in the physics of rare events. A limiting aspect for bolometers rises from their inability to discriminate among radiation types or surface from bulk events. It has been demonstrated that the main limitation to sensitivity for purely bolometric detectors is represented by surface alpha contaminations, causing a continuous background that cannot be discriminated. A new scintillation-based technique for the rejection of surface alpha background in non-scintillating bolometric experiments is proposed in this work. The idea is to combine a scintillating and a high sensitivity photon detector with a non-scintillating absorber. We present results showing the possibility to reject events due to alpha decay at or nearby the surface of the crystal.

  7. Rejection of Alpha Surface Background in Non-scintillating Bolometric Detectors: The ABSuRD Project

    SciTech Connect

    Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; di Vacri, M. L.; Gorla, P.; Pavan, M.; Yeh, M.

    2016-01-14

    Due to their excellent energy resolution values and the vast choice of possible materials, bolometric detectors are currently widely used in the physics of rare events. A limiting aspect for bolometers rises from their inability to discriminate among radiation types or surface from bulk events. It has been demonstrated that the main limitation to sensitivity for purely bolometric detectors is represented by surface alpha contaminations, causing a continuous background that cannot be discriminated. A new scintillation based technique for the rejection of surface alpha background in non- scintillating bolometric experiments is proposed in this work. The idea is to combine a scintillating and a high sensitivity photon detector with a non- scintillating absorber. Finally, we present results showing the possibility to reject events due to alpha decay at or nearby the surface of the crystal.

  8. Rejection of Alpha Surface Background in Non-scintillating Bolometric Detectors: The ABSuRD Project

    DOE PAGES

    Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Due to their excellent energy resolution values and the vast choice of possible materials, bolometric detectors are currently widely used in the physics of rare events. A limiting aspect for bolometers rises from their inability to discriminate among radiation types or surface from bulk events. It has been demonstrated that the main limitation to sensitivity for purely bolometric detectors is represented by surface alpha contaminations, causing a continuous background that cannot be discriminated. A new scintillation based technique for the rejection of surface alpha background in non- scintillating bolometric experiments is proposed in this work. The idea is to combinemore » a scintillating and a high sensitivity photon detector with a non- scintillating absorber. Finally, we present results showing the possibility to reject events due to alpha decay at or nearby the surface of the crystal.« less

  9. Investigation of electrical noise in selenium-immersed thermistor bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarpley, J. L.; Sarmiento, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    The selenium immersed, thermistor bolometer, IR detector failed due to spurious and escalating electrical noise outburst as a function of time at elevated temperatures during routine ground based testing in a space simulated environment. Spectrographic analysis of failed bolometers revealed selenium pure zones in the insulating selenium arsenic (Se-As) glass film which surrounds the active sintered Mn, Ni, Co oxide flake. The selenium pure film was identified as a potentially serious failure mechanism. Significant changes were instituted in the manufacturing techniques along with more stringent process controls which eliminated the selenium pure film and successfully produced 22study bolometers.

  10. BoA: a versatile software for bolometer data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuller, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Together with the development of the Large APEX Bolometer Camera (LABOCA) for the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), a new data reduction package has been written. This software naturally interfaces with the telescope control system, and provides all functionalities for the reduction, analysis and visualization of bolometer data. It is used at APEX for real time processing of observations performed with LABOCA and other bolometer arrays, providing feedback to the observer. Written in an easy-to-script language, BoA is also used offline to reduce APEX continuum data. In this paper, the general structure of this software is presented, and its online and offline capabilities are described.

  11. Antenna-coupled arrays of voltage-biased superconducting bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Michael J.; Lee, Adrian T.; Richards, P.L.; Schwan, D.; Skidmore, J.T.; Smith, A.D.; Spieler, H.; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2001-07-23

    We report on the development of antenna-coupled Voltage-biased Superconducting Bolometers (VSBs) which use Transition-edge Sensors (TES). Antenna coupling can greatly simplify the fabrication of large multi-frequency bolometer arrays compared to horn-coupled techniques. This simplification can make it practical to implement 1000+ element arrays that fill the focal plane of mm/sub-mm wave telescopes. We have designed a prototype device with a double-slot dipole antenna, integrated band-defining filters, and a membrane-suspended bolometer. A test chip has been constructed and will be tested shortly.

  12. Scintillators and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard T.

    2015-09-01

    Scintillators of various constructions and methods of making and using the same are provided. In some embodiments, a scintillator comprises at least one radiation absorption region and at least one spatially discrete radiative exciton recombination region.

  13. Scintillators and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard T.

    2014-07-15

    Scintillators of various constructions and methods of making and using the same are provided. In some embodiments, a scintillator comprises at least one radiation absorption region and at least one spatially discrete radiative exciton recombination region.

  14. Scintillator materials for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Requirements for fast, dense scintillator materials for calorimetry in high energy physics and approaches to satisfying these requirements are reviewed with respect to possible hosts and luminescent species. Special attention is given to cerium-activated crystals, core-valence luminescence, and glass scintillators. The present state of the art, limitations, and suggestions for possible new scintillator materials are presented.

  15. Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    1998-08-01

    A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

  16. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  17. Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Turner, A. D.; DelCastillo, H. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Lange, A. E.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitive far infrared and millimeter wave bolometers fabricated from a freestanding membrane of low stress silicon nitride are reported. The absorber, consisting of a metallized silicon nitride micromesh thermally isolated by radial legs of silicon nitride, is placed in an integrating cavity to efficiently couple to single mode or multiple mode infrared radiation. This structure provides low heat capacity, low thermal conduction and minimal cross section to energetic particles. A neutron transmutation doped Ge thermister is bump bonded to the center of the device and read out with evaporated Cr-Au leads. The limiting performance of the micromesh absorber is discussed and the recent results obtained from a 300 mK cold stage are summarized.

  18. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La2-xSrxCuO4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV ˜γI3, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ /dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area ge -ph≈1 W/K cm2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Bolometer for Absolute FTIR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Solomon; Neira, Jorge; Tomlin, Nathan; Lehman, John

    We have developed and calibrated planar electrical-substitution bolometers which employ absorbers made from vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The nearly complete absorption of light by the carbon nanotubes from the visible range to the far-infrared can be exploited to enable a device with read-out in native units equivalent to optical power. Operated at cryogenic temperatures near 4 K, these infrared detectors are designed to have time constant near 10 ms and a noise floor of about 10 pW. Built upon a micro-machined silicon platform, each device has an integrated heater and thermometer, either a carbon nanotube thermistor or superconducting transition edge sensor, for temperature control. We are optimizing temperature-controlled measurement techniques to enable high resolution spectral calibrations using these devices with a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  20. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-25

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI{sup 3}, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g{sub e−ph}≈1 W/K cm{sup 2} at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  1. Dual-gated bilayer graphene hot-electron bolometer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Kim, M-H; Elle, J A; Sushkov, A B; Jenkins, G S; Milchberg, H M; Fuhrer, M S; Drew, H D

    2012-06-03

    Graphene is an attractive material for use in optical detectors because it absorbs light from mid-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths with nearly equal strength. Graphene is particularly well suited for bolometers-devices that detect temperature-induced changes in electrical conductivity caused by the absorption of light-because its small electron heat capacity and weak electron-phonon coupling lead to large light-induced changes in electron temperature. Here, we demonstrate a hot-electron bolometer made of bilayer graphene that is dual-gated to create a tunable bandgap and electron-temperature-dependent conductivity. The bolometer exhibits a noise-equivalent power (33 fW Hz(-1/2) at 5 K) that is several times lower, and intrinsic speed (>1 GHz at 10 K) three to five orders of magnitude higher than commercial silicon bolometers and superconducting transition-edge sensors at similar temperatures.

  2. Focal Plane Arrays of Voltage-Biased Superconducting Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Michael J.; Clarke, John; Gildemeister, J. M.; Lee, Adrian T.; Richards, P. L.; Schwan, Dan; Skidmore, J. T.; Spieler, Helmuth; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2001-01-01

    The 200-micrometer to 3-mm wavelength range has great astronomical and cosmological significance. Science goals include characterization of the cosmic microwave background, measurement of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in galaxy clusters, and observations of forming galaxies. Cryogenic bolometers are the most sensitive broadband detectors in this frequency range. Because single bolometer pixels are reaching the photon noise limit for many observations, the development of large arrays will be critical for future science progress. Voltage-biased superconducting bolometers (VSBs) have several advantages compared to other cryogenic bolometers. Their strong negative electrothermal feedback enhances their linearity, speed, and stability. The large noise margin of the SQUID readout enables multiplexed readout schemes, which are necessary for developing large arrays. In this paper, we discuss the development of a large absorber-coupled array, a frequency-domain SQUID readout multiplexer, and an antenna-coupled VSB design.

  3. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  4. Antenna-coupled bolometer arrays using transition-edgesensors

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Michael J.; Ade, Peter; Engargiola, Greg; Holzapfel,William; Lee,Adrian T.; O'Brient, Roger; Richards, Paul L.; Smith, Andy; Spieler, Helmuth; Tran, Huan

    2004-06-08

    We describe the development of an antenna-coupled bolometer array for use in a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. Prototype single pixels using double-slot dipole antennas and integrated microstrip band defining filters have been built and tested. Preliminary results of optical testing and simulations are presented. A bolometer array design based on this pixel will also be shown and future plans for application of the technology will be discussed.

  5. Progress on ANL/KICP bolometers for SPTpol.

    SciTech Connect

    Crites, A. T.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Datesman, A.; Divan, R.; George, E. M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Lee, A.; Lieker, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J; Meyer, S. S.; Montroy, T.; Natoli, T.; Novosad, V.; Pearson, J.; Ruhl, J.; Sayre, J.; Shirokoff, E.; Story, K.; Wang, G.; Yefremenko, V.; Young, E. Y.

    2011-06-01

    We present progress on Argonne/KICP TES bolometers fabricated at Argonne National Labs. These detectors will be used to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation with SPTpol. The sensors are bolometers consisting of a Mo/Au transition edge sensors (TES) suspended on silicon nitride with a gold bar absorber to couple radiation to the device. We present optical measurements and thermal characterizations of prototype devices.

  6. The resistive bolometer for radiated power measurement on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Y. M.; Hu, L. Q.; Mao, S. T.; Chen, K. Y.; Lin, S. Y.; Collaboration: EAST Diagnostics Team

    2012-09-15

    The resistive bolometer system has been successfully employed on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for the first time to measure the radiated power of plasma. The bolometer detectors are based on 4 {mu}m thick Pt absorbers deposited on 1.5 {mu}m thick SiN membranes. The system consists of 3 cameras with a total of 48 channels. The detector and the system setup are described in detail. The detector calibration and typical measurement results are presented as well.

  7. UEDGE code comparisons with DIII-D bolometer data

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the work done to develop a bolometer post processor that converts volumetric radiated power values taken from a UEDGE solution, to a line integrated radiated power along chords of the bolometers in the DIII-D tokamak. The UEDGE code calculates plasma physics quantities, such as plasma density, radiated power, or electron temperature, and compares them to actual diagnostic measurements taken from the scrape off layer (SOL) and divertor regions of the DIII-D tokamak. Bolometers are devices measuring radiated power within the tokamak. The bolometer interceptors are made up of two complete arrays, an upper array with a vertical view and a lower array with a horizontal view, so that a two dimensional profile of the radiated power may be obtained. The bolometer post processor stores line integrated values taken from UEDGE solutions into a file in tabular format. Experimental data is then put into tabular form and placed in another file. Comparisons can be made between the UEDGE solutions and actual bolometer data. Analysis has been done to determine the accuracy of the plasma physics involved in producing UEDGE simulations.

  8. A Two-Dimensional, Semiconducting Bolometer Array for HAWC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, Schidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Dowell, C. Darren; Dotson, Jessie; Harper, D. Al; Moseley, Harvey; Rennick, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy's (SOFIA's) High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) will use an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC Pop-Up Detectors (PUDs) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 x 32 element closepacked array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95%. The HAWC detector uses a resistive metal film on silicon to provide frequency independent, approx. 50% absorption over the 40 - 300 micron band. The silicon bolometers are manufactured in 32-element rows within silicon frames using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) silicon etching techniques. The frames are then cut, "folded", and glued onto a metallized, ceramic, thermal bus "bar". Optical alignment using micrometer jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked side-by-side to create the final 12 x 32 element array. A kinematic Kevlar suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometer cold stage from the rest of the 4K detector housing. GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) preamplifiers for all the signal channels operate at 120 K, yet they are electrically connected and located in close proximity to the bolometers. The JFET module design provides sufficient thermal isolation and heat sinking for these, so that their heat is not detected by the bolometers. Preliminary engineering results from the flight detector dark test run are expected to be available in July 2004. This paper describes the array assembly and mechanical and thermal design of the HAWC detector and the JFET module.

  9. A two-dimensional semiconducting bolometer array for HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Dowell, Charles D.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Harper, Doyle A.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Rennick, Timothy; Shirron, Peter J.; Smith, W. W.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy's (SOFIA's) High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) will use an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC Pop-Up Detectors (PUDs) use a unique "folding" technique to enable a 12 x 32 element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95%. The HAWC detector uses a resistive metal film on silicon to provide frequency independent, ~50% absorption over the 40 - 300 micron band. The silicon bolometers are manufactured in 32-element rows within silicon frames using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) silicon etching techniques. The frames are then cut, "folded", and glued onto a metallized, ceramic, thermal bus "bar". Optical alignment using micrometer jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked side-by-side to create the final 12 x 32 element array. A kinematic Kevlar suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometer cold stage from the rest of the 4K detector housing. GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) preamplifiers for all the signal channels operate at 120 K, yet they are electrically connected and located in close proximity to the bolometers. The JFET module design provides sufficient thermal isolation and heat sinking for these, so that their heat is not detected by the bolometers. Preliminary engineering results from the flight detector dark test run are expected to be available in July 2004. This paper describes the array assembly and mechanical and thermal design of the HAWC detector and the JFET module.

  10. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  11. Early development of a test-bed to measure fractoluminescence in scintillators & simulation of a 24Na source for the SNO+ experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mony, Emilie

    This thesis consists of two parts; the first part pertains to fractoluminescence as a potential background in crystal scintillator detectors, and the second part bears on the simulation of a 24Na source to be used during the liquid scintillator phase of the SNO+ experiment. I participated in early work to develop a test-bed to study fractoluminescence in scintillators, and report here on preliminary results I obtained before I shifted my focus to SNO+. Full results obtained by the group have since been reported in PRL 111 154301. This project follows the discovery that mechanical stress on a dark matter detector's crystals was causing a background signal. The response of inorganic crystal scintillators (Bi4Ge3O 12, ZnWO4, CdWO4) compressed to the point of rupture was studied. The double cleavage drilled compression geometry was used to create controlled cracks in 20x5x3 mm3 samples. A correlation between a sudden drop of the force, a burst of photonic and of acoustic emissions was discovered and a lower bound was set on the conversion efficiency from strain energy to light energy. SNO+ is a large underground experiment that aims primarily to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The SNO+ detector consists of an acrylic vessel of liquid scintillator surrounded by light detectors. A tagged 24Na source was proposed as one of several radioactive sources to be deployed within the vessel to calibrate the detector. To achieve this an activated NaI(Tl) crystal would be coupled to a photomultiplier tube and lowered into the center of the vessel. The second half of this thesis explores options for implementing this plan and presents the detector response to a 24Na source as simulated by the Monte Carlo software developed by SNO+. The size of the crystal influences the type of information that can be gleaned from using this source so four different crystal sizes are presented for comparison. The simulations show that the source can be used to test the linearity of the

  12. Study of equatorial scintillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomalaza, J.; Woodman, R.; Tisnado, G.; Nakasone, E.

    1972-01-01

    Observations of the amplitude scintillations produced by the F-region in equatorial areas are presented. The equipment used for conducting the observations is described. The use of transmissions from the ATS-1, ATS-3, and ATS-5 for obtaining data is described. The two principal subjects discussed are: (1) correlation between satellite and incoherent radar observations of scintillations and (2) simultaneous observations of scintillations at 136 MHz and 1550 MHz.

  13. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  14. Epitaxial graphene quantum dots for high-performance terahertz bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fatimy, Abdel; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Boyd, Anthony K.; Daniels, Kevin M.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Barbara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Light absorption in graphene causes a large change in electron temperature due to the low electronic heat capacity and weak electron-phonon coupling. This property makes graphene a very attractive material for hot-electron bolometers in the terahertz frequency range. Unfortunately, the weak variation of electrical resistance with temperature results in limited responsivity for absorbed power. Here, we show that, due to quantum confinement, quantum dots of epitaxial graphene on SiC exhibit an extraordinarily high variation of resistance with temperature (higher than 430 MΩ K-1 below 6 K), leading to responsivities of 1 × 1010 V W-1, a figure that is five orders of magnitude higher than other types of graphene hot-electron bolometer. The high responsivity, combined with an extremely low electrical noise-equivalent power (˜2 × 10-16 W Hz-1/2 at 2.5 K), already places our bolometers well above commercial cooled bolometers. Additionally, we show that these quantum dot bolometers demonstrate good performance at temperature as high as 77 K.

  15. Ultralow-Background Large-Format Bolometer Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Moseley, S. Harvey; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the coming decade, work will commence in earnest on large cryogenic far-infrared telescopes and interferometers. All such observatories - for example, SAFIR, SPIRIT, and SPECS - require large format, two dimensional arrays of close-packed detectors capable of reaching the fundamental limits imposed by the very low photon backgrounds present in deep space. In the near term, bolometer array architectures which permit 1000 pixels - perhaps sufficient for the next generation of space-based instruments - can be arrayed efficiently. Demonstrating the necessary performance, with Noise Equivalent Powers (NEPs) of order 10-20 W/square root of Hz, will be a hurdle in the coming years. Superconducting bolometer arrays are a promising technology for providing both the performance and the array size necessary. We discuss the requirements for future detector arrays in the far-infrared and submillimeter, describe the parameters of superconducting bolometer arrays able to meet these requirements, and detail the present and near future technology of superconducting bolometer arrays. Of particular note is the coming development of large format planar arrays with absorber-coupled and antenna-coupled bolometers.

  16. First Astronomical Use of Multiplexed Transition Edge Sensor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Ames, T. A.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Grossman, E. N.; Irwin, K. D.; Khan, S. A.; Maffei, B.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present performance results based on the first astronomical use of multiplexed superconducting bolometers. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE) is a broadband submillimeter spectrometer that achieved first light in June 2001 at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). FIBRE's detectors are superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out by a SQUID multiplexer. The Fabry-Perot uses a low resolution grating to order sort the incoming light. A linear bolometer array consisting of 16 elements detects this dispersed light, capturing 5 orders simultaneously from one position on the sky. With tuning of the Fabry-Perot over one free spectral range, a spectrum covering Delta lambda/lambda = 1/7 at a resolution of delta lambda/lambda approx. 1/1200 can be acquired. This spectral resolution is sufficient to resolve Doppler-broadened line emission from external galaxies. FIBRE operates in the 350 m and 450 m bands. These bands cover line emission from the important star formation tracers neutral carbon (CI) and carbon monoxide (CO). We have verified that the multiplexed bolometers are photon noise limited even with the low power present in moderate resolution spectrometry.

  17. First Astronomical Use Of Multiplexed Transition Edge Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Grossman, E. N.; Irwin, K. D.; DeKotwara, S. A.; Maffei, B.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Phillips, T. G.; Reintsema, C. D.

    2001-01-01

    We present performance results based on the first astronomical use of multiplexed superconducting bolometers. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE) is a broadband submillimeter spectrometer that achieved first light in June 2001 at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). FIBRE's detectors are superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out by a SQUID multiplexer. The Fabry-Perot uses a low resolution grating to order sort the incoming light. A linear bolometer array consisting of 16 elements detects this dispersed light, capturing five orders simultaneously from one position on the sky. With tuning of the Fabry-Perot over one free spectral range, a spectrum covering delta-lamda/lamda = 1/7 at a resolution of delta-lamda/lamda = 1/1200 can be acquired. This spectral resolution is sufficient to resolve doppler broadened line emission from external galaxies. FIBRE operates in the 350 micrometer and 450 micrometer bands. These bands cover line emission from the important PDR tracers neutral carbon [CI] and carbon monoxide (CO). We have verified that the multiplexed bolometers are photon noise limited even with the low power present in moderate resolution spectrometry.

  18. Scintillating bolometric technique for the neutrino-less double beta decay search: The LUCIFER/CUPID-0 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, N.; Artusa, D. R.; Bellini, F.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Capelli, S.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Domizio, S. Di; Vacri, M. L. di; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Keppel, G.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Morganti, S.; Nagorny, S.; Orlandi, D.; Pagnanini, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Pozzi, S.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Puiu, A.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2017-02-01

    CUPID is a proposed future tonne-scale bolometric neutrino-less double beta decay (0 νββ) experiment to probe the Majorana nature of neutrinos and discover lepton number violation in the so-called inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass. In order to improve the sensitivity with respect to the current bolometric experiments, the source mass must be increased and the backgrounds in the region of interest must be dramatically reduced. The background suppression can be achieved discriminating β / γ against α events by means of the different light yield produced in the interactions within a scintillating bolometer. The increase in the number of 0 νββ emitters demands for crystals grown with enriched material. LUCIFER/CUPID-0, the first demonstrator of CUPID, aims at running the first array of enriched scintillating Zn82Se bolometers (total mass of about 7 kg of 82Se) with a background level as low as 10-3 counts/(keV kg y) in the energy region of interest. We present the results of the first measurement performed on three Zn82Se enriched scintillating bolometers operated deep underground in the Hall C of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso.

  19. Multiplexed Readout of Thermal Bolometers with Superconducting Transition Edge Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Allen, Christine A.; Chervenak, James A.; Freund, Mino M.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Grossman, Erich N.; Hilton, Gene C.

    2001-01-01

    History shows that in astronomy, more is better. In the near future, direct detector arrays for the far-infrared and submillimeter will contain hundreds to thousands of elements. A multiplexed readout is necessary for practical implementation of such arrays, and has been developed using SQUIDs. The technology permits a 32 x 32 array of bolometers to be read out using approximately 100 wires rather than the >2000 needed with direct wiring. These bolometer arrays are made by micromachining techniques, using superconducting transition edge sensors as the thermistors. We describe the development of this multiplexed superconducting bolometer array architecture as a step toward bringing about the first astronomically useful arrays of this design. This technology will be used in the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) instrument on Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), and is a candidate for a wide variety of other spectroscopic and photometric instruments.

  20. First results of the resistive bolometers on KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Dongcheol; Peterson, B. J.; Lee, Seung Hun

    2010-10-15

    The resistive bolometers have been successfully installed in the midplane of L-port in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. The spatial and temporal resolutions, 4.5 cm and {approx}1 kHz, respectively, enable us to measure the radial profile of the total radiated power from magnetically confined plasma at a high temperature through radiation and neutral particles. The radiated power was measured at all shots. Even at low plasma current, the bolometer signal was detectable. The electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) has been used in tokamak for ECH assisted start-up and plasma control by local heating and current drive. The detectors of resistive bolometer, near the antenna of ECH, are affected by electron cyclotron wave. The tomographic reconstruction, using the Phillips-Tikhonov regularization method, will be carried out for a major radial profile of the radiation emissivity of the circular cross-section plasma.

  1. Sensitivity and Noise of Cold-Electron Bolometer Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhin, A. S.; Gordeeva, A. V.; Revin, L. S.; Abashin, A. E.; Shishov, A. A.; Pankratov, A. L.; Mahashabde, S.; Kuzmin, L. S.

    2017-01-01

    We perform experimental and theoretical studies of the series-parallel arrays of the cold-electron bolometers integrated into a cross-slot antenna and composed with an immersion silicon lens. This work is aimed at determining the efficiency of radiation absorption by bolometers, their volt-watt sensitivity, and equivalent noise power. The absorbed power was found using two independent methods, which ensured a better reliability of the results. The first method is based on comparing the experimental current-voltage characteristics of bolometers with the model based on the heat-balance equation. The second approach involves simulation of the electromagnetic properties of the system including the antenna, the lens, the bandpass filters, and the radiation source. The discrepancy among the results obtained using various methods does not exceed 30%. Optimization of the experimental setup is proposed to reach the photon-noise detection regime.

  2. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Reinke, M L; Han, M; Liu, G; van Eden, G G; Evenblij, R; Haverdings, M; Stratton, B C

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity when broadband light, λo ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ∼150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m(2) when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m(2) in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m(2) or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  3. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, M. L.; Han, M.; Liu, G.; van Eden, G. G.; Evenblij, R.; Haverdings, M.; Stratton, B. C.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry-Pérot cavity when broadband light, λo ˜ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ˜150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m2 when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m2 in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m2 or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  4. Infrared technology for satellite power conversion. [antenna arrays and bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. P.; Gouker, M. A.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Successful fabrication of bismuth bolometers led to the observation of antenna action rom array elements. Fabrication of the best antennas arrays was made more facile with finding that increased argon flow during the dc sputtering produced more uniform bismuth films and bonding to antennas must be done with the substrate temperaure below 100 C. Higher temperatures damaged the bolometers. During the testing of the antennas, it was found that the use of a quasi-optical system provided a uniform radiation field. Groups of antennas were bonded in series and in parallel with the parallel configuration showing the greater response.

  5. A progress report on using bolometers cooled by adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesyna, L.; Roellig, T.; Savage, M.; Werner, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    For sensitive detection of astronomical continuum radiation in the 200 micron to 3 mm wavelength range, bolometers are presently the detectors of choice. In order to approach the limits imposed by photon noise in a cryogenically cooled telescope in space, bolometers must be operated at temperatures near 0.1 K. Researchers report progress in building and using bolometers that operate at these temperatures. The most sensitive bolometer had an estimated noise equivalent power (NEP) of 7 x 10(exp 017) W Hz(exp -1/2). Researchers also briefly discuss the durability of paramagnetic salts used to cool the bolometers.

  6. Multimode Bolometer Development for the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, Peter C.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Denis, Kevin L.; Devasia, Archana M.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Manos, George; Porter, Scott; Stevenson, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is an Explorer-class mission concept designed to measure the polarization and absolute intensity of the cosmic microwave background [1]. In this work, we report on the design, fabrication, and performance of the multimode polarization-sensitive bolometers for PIXIE, which are based on silicon thermistors. In particular we focus on several recent advances in the detector design, including the implementation of a tensioning scheme to greatly raise the frequencies of the internal vibrational modes of the large-area, low-mass optical absorber structure consisting of a grid of micromachined, ion-implanted silicon wires. With 30 times the absorbing area of the spider-web bolometers used by Planck, the tensioning scheme enables the PIXIE bolometers to be robust in the vibrational and acoustic environment at launch of the space mission. More generally, it could be used to reduce microphonic sensitivity in other types of low temperature detectors. We also report on the performance of the PIXIE bolometers in a dark cryogenic environment.

  7. Scintillating pad detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, B.; Borcherding, F.

    1996-12-31

    We have been investigating the performance of scintillating pad detectors, individual small tiles of scintillator that are read out with wavelength-shifting fibers and visible light photon counters, for application in high luminosity colliding beam experiments such as the D0 Upgrade. Such structures could provide {open_quotes}pixel{close_quotes} type readout over large fiducial volumes for tracking, preshower detection and triggering.

  8. Scintillator Measurements for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptanoglu, Tanner; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    SNO+ is a neutrino detector located 2km underground in the SNOLAB facility with the primary goal of searching for neutrinoless double beta decay. The detector will be filled with a liquid scintillator target primarily composed of linear alkyl benzene (LAB). As charged particles travel through the detector the LAB produces scintillation light which is detected by almost ten thousand PMTs. The LAB is loaded with Te130, an isotope known to undergo double beta decay. Additionally, the LAB is mixed with an additional fluor and wavelength shifter to improve the light output and shift the light to a wavelength regime in which the PMTs are maximally efficient. The precise scintillator optics drastically affect the ultimate sensitivity of SNO+. I will present work being done to measure the optical properties of the SNO+ scintillator cocktail. The measured properties are used as input to a scintillation model that allows us to extrapolate to the SNO+ scale and ultimately predict the sensitivity of the experiment. Additionally, I will present measurements done to characterize the R5912 PMT, a candidate PMT for the second phase of SNO+ that provides better light collection, improved charge resolution, and a narrower spread in timing.

  9. An Antenna-coupled bolometer with an integrated microstripbandpass filter

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Michael J.; Holzapfel, William; Lee, Adrian T.; O'Brient,Roger; Richards, P.L.; Tran, Huan T.; Ade, Peter; Engargiola, Greg; Smith, Andy; Spieler, Helmuth

    2004-09-17

    We describe the fabrication and testing of antenna-coupled superconducting transition-edge bolometers for use at millimeter wavelengths. The design uses a double-slot dipole antenna connected to superconducting niobium microstrip. Band defining filters are implemented in the microstrip, which is then terminated with a load resistor. The power dissipated in the load resistor is measured by a superconducting transition-edge sensor TES. The load resistor and TES are thermally well connected and are supported by a silicon nitride substrate. The substrate is suspended by four narrow silicon nitride legs for thermal isolation. The bolometers have been optically characterized and the spectral response is presented. This detector is a prototype element for use in an array designed for studies of the cosmic microwave background polarization.

  10. Development of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometer material

    SciTech Connect

    Palaio, N.P.

    1983-08-01

    The behavior of lattice defects generated as a result of the neutron-transmutation-doping of germanium was studied as a function of annealing conditions using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and mobility measurements. DLTS and variable temperature Hall effect were also used to measure the activation of dopant impurities formed during the transmutation process. In additioon, a semi-automated method of attaching wires on to small chips of germanium (< 1 mm/sup 3/) for the fabrication of infrared detecting bolometers was developed. Finally, several different types of junction field effect transistors were tested for noise at room and low temperature (approx. 80 K) in order to find the optimum device available for first stage electronics in the bolometer signal amplification circuit.

  11. A progress report on bolometers operating at 0.1 K using adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T.; Lesyna, L.; Werner, M.; Kittel, P.

    1986-01-01

    Bolometers are still the detectors of choice for low background infrared observations at wavelengths longer than 200 microns. In the low background limit, bolometers become more sensitive as their operating temperature decreases, due to fundamental thermodynamic laws. The adiabatic demagnetization technique was evaluated by building a bolometer detection system operating at a wavelength of 1 millimeter for use at a ground based telescope. The system was fit checked at the telescope and is expected to take its first data in November, 1985.

  12. Dark matter search with a low temperature sapphire bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bellefon, A.; Berkes, I.; Bobin, C.; Broszkiewicz, D.; Chambon, B.; Chapellier, M.; Chardin, G.; Charvin, P.; Chazal, V.; Coron, N.; De Jésus, M.; Drain, D.; Dumoulin, L.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Goldbach, C.; Guerier, G.; Hadjout, J. P.; Leblanc, J.; Marchand, D.; Massaq, M.; Messous, Y.; Navick, X.; Nollez, G.; Pari, P.; Pastor, C.; Perillo-Isaac, M. C.; Prostakov, I.; Yvon, D.

    1996-12-01

    A dark matter detection experiment using a low temperature 24 g sapphire bolometer is presented. The low radioactive background cryogenic facility, installed in a deep underground site, is described, as well as the low-noise read-out electronics and the data analysis. From the energy spectrum, measured down to 4 keV, exclusion plots are derived for WIMPs having coherent vector coupling or axial coupling to ordinary matter.

  13. Monolayer graphene bolometer as a sensitive far-IR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; McKitterick, Christopher B.; Prober, Daniel E.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we give a detailed analysis of the expected sensitivity and operating conditions in the power detection mode of a hot-electron bolometer (HEB) made from a few μm2 of monolayer graphene (MLG) flake which can be embedded into either a planar antenna or waveguide circuit via NbN (or NbTiN) superconducting contacts with critical temperature ~ 14 K. Recent data on the strength of the electron-phonon coupling are used in the present analysis and the contribution of the readout noise to the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) is explicitly computed. The readout scheme utilizes Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) allowing for Frequency-Domain Multiplexing (FDM) using narrowband filter coupling of the HEBs. In general, the filter bandwidth and the summing amplifier noise have a significant effect on the overall system sensitivity. The analysis shows that the readout contribution can be reduced to that of the bolometer phonon noise if the detector device is operated at 0.05 K and the JNT signal is read at about 10 GHz where the Johnson noise emitted in equilibrium is substantially reduced. Beside the high sensitivity (NEP < 10-20 W/Hz1/2), this bolometer does not have any hard saturation limit and thus can be used for far-IR sky imaging with arbitrary contrast. By changing the operating temperature of the bolometer the sensitivity can be fine tuned to accommodate the background photon flux in a particular application. By using a broadband low-noise kinetic inductance parametric amplifier, ~100s of graphene HEBs can be read simultaneously without saturation of the system output.

  14. Thermistor bolometer radiometer signal contamination due to parasitic heat diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priestley, Kory J.; Mahan, J. R.; Haeffelin, Martial P.; Savransky, Maxim; Nguyen, Tai K.

    1995-12-01

    Current efforts are directed at creating a high-level end-to-end numerical model of scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers of the type used in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and planned for the clouds and the earth's radiative energy system (CERES) platforms. The first-principle model accurately represents the physical processes relating the electrical signal output to the radiative flux incident to the instrument aperture as well as to the instrument thermal environment. Such models are useful for the optimal design of calibration procedures, data reduction strategies, and the instruments themselves. The modeled thermistor bolometer detectors are approximately 40 micrometers thick and consist of an absorber layer, the thermistor layer, and a thermal impedance layer bonded to a thick aluminum substrate which acts as a heat sink. Thermal and electrical diffusion in the thermistor bolometer detectors is represented by a several-hundred-node- finite-difference formulation, and the temperature field within the aluminum substrate is computed using the finite-element method. The detectors are electrically connected in adjacent arms of a two-active-arm bridge circuit so that the effects of common mode thermal noise are minimized. However, because of a combination of thermistor self heating, loading of the bridge by the bridge amplifier, and the nonlinear thermistor resistance-temperature relationship, bridge deflections can still be provoked by substrate temperature changes, even when the change is uniform across the substrate. Of course, transient temperature gradients which may occur in the substrate between the two detectors will be falsely interpreted as a radiation input. The paper represents the results of an investigation to define the degree of vulnerability of thermistor bolometer radiometers to false signals provoked by uncontrolled temperature fluctuations in the substrate.

  15. Development of NTD Ge Sensors for Superconducting Bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, A.; Mathimalar, S.; Singh, V.; Dokania, N.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Shrivastava, A.; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Thakare, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Neutron transmutation-doped (NTD) Ge sensors have been prepared by irradiating device-grade Ge with thermal neutrons at Dhruva reactor, BARC, Mumbai. These sensors are intended to be used for the study of neutrinoless double beta decay in ^{124}Sn with a superconducting Tin bolometer. Resistance measurements are performed on NTD Ge sensors in the temperature range 100-350 mK. The observed temperature dependence is found to be consistent with the variable-range hopping mechanism.

  16. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin.

  17. A 90GHz Bolometer Camera Detector System for the Green

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Allen, Christine A.; Buchanan, Ernest; Chen, Tina C.; Chervenak, James A.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Forgione, Joshua B.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a close-packed, two-dimensional imaging detector system for operation at 90GHz (3.3 mm) for the 100m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This system will provide high sensitivity (less than 1mJy in 1s) rapid imaging (15'x15' to 150 micron Jy in 1 hr) at the world's largest steerable aperture. The heart of this camera is an 8x8 close-packed, Nyquist-sampled array of superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers. We have designed and are producing a functional superconducting bolometer array system using a monolithic planar architecture and high-speed multiplexed readout electronics. With an NEP of approximately 2 x 10(exp -17) W/square root of Hz, the TES bolometers will provide fast, linear, sensitive response for high performance imaging. The detectors are read out by an 8x8 time domain SQUID multiplexer. A digital/analog electronics system has been designed to enable read out by SQUID multiplexers. First light for this instrument on the GBT is expected within a year.

  18. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, Jeremy S.; Dally, Adam; Davis, Christopher J.; Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel; Lim, Kyungeun E.; Heeger, Karsten M.; Maruyama, Reina H.; Nucciotti, Angelo; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Wise, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  19. A monolithic Si bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ning; Hunter, T. R.; Benford, D. J.; Serabyn, E.; Phillips, T. G.; Moseley, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a submillimeter continuum camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) located on Mauna Kea. The camera will employ a monolithic Si bolometer array which was developed by Moseley et al. at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The camera will be cooled to a temperature of about 300 mK in a He-3 cryostat, and will operate primarily at wavelengths of 350 and 450 micrometers. We plan to use a bolometer array with 1x24 directly illuminated pixels, each pixel of dimension 1x2 sq mm, which is about half of the F/4 beam size at these wavelengths. Each pixel is 10 to 12 micrometers thick and is supported only by four thin Si legs formed by wet chemical etch. The pixels are doped n-type by phosphorus implantation, compensated by boron implantation. Signals from the bolometer pixels are first amplified by cryogenically cooled FET's. The signals are further amplified by room-temperature amplifiers and then separately digitized by 16 bit A/D converters with differential inputs. The outputs of the A/D converters are fed into a digital signal processing board via fiber-optic cables. The electronics and data acquisition system were designed by the Goddard group. We will report the status of this effort.

  20. The 0.1K bolometers cooled by adiabatic demagnetization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T.; Lesyna, L.; Kittel, P.; Werner, M.

    1983-01-01

    The most straightforward way of reducing the noise equivalent power of bolometers is to lower their operating temperature. We have been exploring the possibility of using conventionally constructed bolometers at ultra-low temperatures to achieve NEP's suitable to the background environment of cooled space telescopes. We have chosen the technique of adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt as a gravity independent, compact, and low power way to achieve temperatures below pumped He-3 (0.3 K). The demagnetization cryostat we used was capable of reaching temperatures below 0.08 K using Chromium Potassium Alum as a salt from a starting temperature of 1.5 K and a starting magnetic field of 30,000 gauss. Computer control of the magnetic field decay allowed a temperature of 0.2 K to be maintained to within 0.5 mK over a time period exceeding 14 hours. The refrigerator duty cycle was over 90 percent at this temperature. The success of these tests has motivated us to construct a more compact portable adiabatic demagnetization cryostat capable of bolometer optical tests and use at the 5m Hale telescope at 1mm wavelengths.

  1. SPICE modeling of resistive, diode, and pyroelectric bolometer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Holger

    2006-05-01

    Thermal IR imagers (bolometer arrays with resistive, ferroelectric or diode detector elements) require sophisticated circuitry to extract the signal out of the noisy background. Suitable models for circuit optimization with simulation tools like SPICE or SPECTRE are therefore inevitable. SPICE has the capability to model electrical and thermal circuits in the same model description. The models described here have a common thermal section, but differ in their electrical description. The thermal SPICE model uses a capacitor to model the thermal capacity of the sensing element, resistors for heat conductance due to radiation and along the supporting legs. The incoming radiation injects a current, as does the power dissipated in the sensor layer, resulting in a temperature rise of the sensor. Electrically the bolometer resistor is modeled via a non-linear dependent current source, changing with temperature, and emitting heat during readout. Noise is injected via dependant noise current sources, including white resistive and 1/f excess noise of the detector resistor and band limited thermal conductance noise of the detector. In the diode bolometer a non-linear temperature controlled diode model replaces the resistor. Shot and flicker noise sources are added. The pyroelectric detector is described by a non linear temperature dependant capacitor and a parallel resistor caused by dielectric losses. A chopper modulating the incoming radiation is required for signal detection.

  2. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder; Paul L.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  3. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    1999-09-01

    Scintillating materials are used in a variety of medical imaging devices. This paper presents a description of four medical imaging modalities that make extensive use of scintillators: planar x-ray imaging, x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography). The discussion concentrates on a description of the underlying physical principles by which the four modalities operate. The scintillator requirements for these systems are enumerated and the compromises that are made in order to maximize imaging performance utilizing existing scintillating materials are discussed, as is the potential for improving imaging performance by improving scintillator properties.

  4. SCINTILLATION EXPOSURE RATE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spears, W.G.

    1960-11-01

    A radiation detector for gamma and x rays is described. The detector comprises a scintillation crystal disposed between a tantalum shield and the input of a photomultiplier tube, the crystal and the shield cooperating so that their combined response to a given quantity of radiation at various energy levels is substantially constant.

  5. Boron loaded scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Zane William; Brown, Gilbert Morris; Maya, Leon; Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor; Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor

    2009-10-20

    A scintillating composition for detecting neutrons and other radiation comprises a phenyl containing silicone rubber with carborane units and at least one phosphor molecule. The carbonate units can either be a carborane molecule dispersed in the rubber with the aid of a compatibilization agent or can be covalently bound to the silicone.

  6. Polysiloxane scintillator composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J.K.

    1992-05-05

    A plastic scintillator useful for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a matrix which comprises an optically transparent polysiloxane having incorporated therein at least one ionizing radiation-hard fluor capable of converting electromagnetic energy produced in the polysiloxane upon absorption of ionizing radiation to detectable light.

  7. Polysiloxane scintillator composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, James K.

    1992-01-01

    A plastic scintillator useful for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a matrix which comprises an optically transparent polysiloxane having incorporated therein at least one ionizing radiation-hard fluor capable of converting electromagnetic energy produced in the polysiloxane upon absorption of ionizing radiation to detectable light.

  8. Quenching equation for scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takahisa

    1980-06-01

    A mathematical expression is postulated showing the relationship between counting rate and quenching agent concentration in a liquid scintillation solution. The expression is more suited to a wider range of quenching agent concentrations than the Stern-Volmer equation. An estimation of the quenched correction is demonstrated using the expression.

  9. Infrared detection with high-[Tc] bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Verghese, S.

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature [Tc] make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus][delta

  10. Investigating the Anisotropic Scintillation Response in Organic Crystal Scintillator Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Patricia Frances

    This dissertation presents several studies that experimentally characterize the scintillation anisotropy in organic crystal scintillators. These include measurements of neutron, gamma-ray and cosmic muon interactions in anthracene, a historical benchmark among organic scintillator materials, to confirm and extend measurements previously available in the literature. The gamma-ray and muon measurements provide new experimental confirmation that no scintillation anisotropy is present in their interactions. Observations from these measurements have updated the hypothesis for the physical mechanism that is responsible for the scintillation anisotropy concluding that a relatively high dE/dx is required in order to produce a scintillation anisotropy. The directional dependence of the scintillation output in liquid and plastic materials was measured to experimentally confirm that no scintillation anisotropy correlated to detector orientation exists in amorphous materials. These observations confirm that the scintillation anisotropy is not due to an external effect on the measurement system, and that a fixed, repeating structure is required for a scintillation anisotropy. The directional dependence of the scintillation output in response to neutron interactions was measured in four stilbene crystals of various sizes and growth-methods. The scintillation anisotropy in these materials was approximately uniform, indicating that the crystal size, geometry, and growth method do not significantly impact the effect. Measurements of three additional pure crystals and two mixed crystals were made. These measurements showed that 1) the magnitude of the effect varies with energy and material, 2) the relationship between the light output and pulse shape anisotropy varies across materials, and 3) the effect in mixed materials is very complex. These measurements have informed the hypothesis of the mechanism that produces the directional dependence. By comparing the various relationships

  11. Voltage-biased high-{Tc} superconducting infrared bolometers with strong electrothermal feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.T.; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lee, Shih-Fu; Richards, P.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the current generation of high-{Tc} bolometers the thermal conductance is often chosen for a short time-constant rather than for optimal sensitivity. We describe a novel bolometer bias and readout scheme that promises to relax this constraint. Voltage bias of the superconductor results in strong negative electrothermal feedback that greatly reduces the time-constant of the bolometer. We estimate that a decrease of more than one order of magnitude in time-constant should be possible with existing high-Tc thermometers. We give theoretical estimates of the performance gain with voltage bias for several bolometers that have been reported in the literature. We find cases where the sensitivity can be greatly improved (by changing the thermal conductance) while holding the time constant fixed and others where the bolometer can be made much faster while maintaining the sensitivity.

  12. Arrays of Bolometers for Far-infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Allen, C. A.; Babu, S.; Casey, S.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. D.; Jhabvala, M.; Harper, D. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.

    2004-01-01

    We describe 12 x 32 arrays of semiconducting cryogenic bolometers designed for use in far-infrared and submillimeter cameras. These 12 x 32 arrays are constructed from 1 x 32 monolithic pop-up detectors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The pop-up technology allows the construction of large arrays with high filling factors that provide efficient use of space in the focal planes of far-infrared and submillimeter astronomical instruments. This directly leads to a significant decrease in observing time. The prototype array is currently operating in SHARC II, a facility instrument in use at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The elements of this array employ a bismuth absorber coating and quarter wave backshort to optimize the bolometer absorption for a passband centered at 350 microns. However, this resonant structure also provides good bolometer performance at 450 and 850 microns, the two additional SHARC II passbands. A second array is to be installed in the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera (HAWC), a far-infrared imaging camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This array is currently in the final stage of construction, and its completion is expected in early 2004. HAWC is scheduled for commissioning in 2005. The HAWC array employs titanium-gold absorbers and is optimized for uniform absorption from 40 to 300 microns to accommodate all four of its far-infrared passbands. We describe the details of the array construction including the mechanical design and electrical characterization of the constituent linear arrays, comparing the SHARC II and HAWC cases. We also summarize the overall characteristics of the final two-dimensional arrays. Finally, we show examples of array performance in the form of images obtained with SHARC II.

  13. Submillimeter video imaging with a superconducting bolometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Daniel Thomas

    Millimeter wavelength radiation holds promise for detection of security threats at a distance, including suicide bombers and maritime threats in poor weather. The high sensitivity of superconducting Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers makes them ideal for passive imaging of thermal signals at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. I have built a 350 GHz video-rate imaging system using an array of feedhorn-coupled TES bolometers. The system operates at standoff distances of 16 m to 28 m with a measured spatial resolution of 1.4 cm (at 17 m). It currently contains one 251-detector sub-array, and can be expanded to contain four sub-arrays for a total of 1004 detectors. The system has been used to take video images that reveal the presence of weapons concealed beneath a shirt in an indoor setting. This dissertation describes the design, implementation and characterization of this system. It presents an overview of the challenges associated with standoff passive imaging and how these problems can be overcome through the use of large-format TES bolometer arrays. I describe the design of the system and cover the results of detector and optical characterization. I explain the procedure used to generate video images using the system, and present a noise analysis of those images. This analysis indicates that the Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of the video images is currently limited by artifacts of the scanning process. More sophisticated image processing algorithms can eliminate these artifacts and reduce the NETD to 100 mK, which is the target value for the most demanding passive imaging scenarios. I finish with an overview of future directions for this system.

  14. Diffusion-Cooled Tantalum Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry

    2004-01-01

    A batch of experimental diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), suitable for use as mixers having input frequencies in the terahertz range and output frequencies up to about a gigahertz, exploit the superconducting/normal-conducting transition in a thin strip of tantalum. The design and operation of these HEB mixers are based on mostly the same principles as those of a prior HEB mixer that exploited the superconducting/normal- conducting transition in a thin strip of niobium and that was described elsewhere.

  15. Trapped electron cloud bolometer relying on frequency shift.

    PubMed Central

    Dehmelt, H

    1994-01-01

    An improved electron cloud bolometer is analyzed. In this device the cloud temperature is read out not via thermal noise induced by the electrons in a coupled LC circuit but via shift in their axial oscillation frequency in the Penning trap confining them. This shift occurs because as the electron cloud expands with increasing temperature, the average restoring force in the slightly anharmonic trap does change perceptibly. The scheme will be useful in exploring the microwave mode structure of the trap cavity and in locating magnetic field values for which the cavity-induced shift in the measured electron g factor disappears. PMID:11607480

  16. Trapped electron cloud bolometer relying on frequency shift.

    PubMed

    Dehmelt, H

    1994-07-05

    An improved electron cloud bolometer is analyzed. In this device the cloud temperature is read out not via thermal noise induced by the electrons in a coupled LC circuit but via shift in their axial oscillation frequency in the Penning trap confining them. This shift occurs because as the electron cloud expands with increasing temperature, the average restoring force in the slightly anharmonic trap does change perceptibly. The scheme will be useful in exploring the microwave mode structure of the trap cavity and in locating magnetic field values for which the cavity-induced shift in the measured electron g factor disappears.

  17. Composite scintillator screen

    DOEpatents

    Zeman, Herbert D.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator screen for an X-ray system includes a substrate of low-Z material and bodies of a high-Z material embedded within the substrate. By preselecting the size of the bodies embedded within the substrate, the spacial separation of the bodies and the thickness of the screen, the sensitivity of the screen to X-rays within a predetermined energy range can be predicted.

  18. Bolometer detection of magnetic resonances in nanoscaled objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, Irina; Meckenstock, Ralf; Zähres, Horst; Derricks, Christian; Mushenok, Fedor; Reckers, Nathalie; Kijamnajsuk, Puchong; Wiedwald, Ulf; Farle, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We report on a nanoscaled thermocouple (ThC) as a temperature sensor of a highly sensitive bolometer for probing the dissipative damping of spin dynamics in nanosized Permalloy (Py) stripes. The Au-Pd ThC based device is fabricated by standard electron beam lithography on a 200 nm silicon nitride membrane to minimize heat dissipation through the substrate. We show that this thermal sensor allows not only measurements of the temperature change on the order of a few mK due to the uniform resonant microwave (MW) absorption by the Py stripe but also detection of standing spin waves of different mode numbers. Using a 3D finite element method, we estimate the absorbed MW power by the stripe in resonance and prove the necessity of using substrates with an extremely low heat dissipation like a silicon nitride membrane for successful thermal detection. The voltage responsivity and the noise equivalent power for the ThC-based bolometer are equal to 15 V W-1 and 3 nW Hz-1/2, respectively. The ThC device offers a magnetic resonance response of 1 nV/(μB W) corresponding to a sensitivity of 109 spins and a temperature resolution of 300 μK under vacuum conditions.

  19. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, J. M.; Prasad, M. K.; Snyderman, N. J.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators was modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.

  20. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Prasad, M. K.; Snyderman, N. J.

    2015-09-01

    A method is proposed to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators was modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.

  1. Scintillation properties of Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} down to 3 K under {gamma} rays

    SciTech Connect

    Verdier, M.-A.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Dujardin, C.

    2011-12-01

    Bismuth germanate (BGO) has been widely used as a room-temperature scintillator in many applications for decades. Interest in it has recently increased as a low-temperature scintillator to be used in bolometers for rare-event detection. We present our time-resolved-scintillation studies of BGO down to 3 K under {gamma}-ray excitation. Our multiple-photon-counting-coincidence-based setup allows clear identification of {gamma}-line energies at least as low as 122 keV down to base temperature and the measurement of the light yield and decay-time constants as a function of temperature. We also discuss the time structure of the pulses and report a previously unappreciated but significant, very slow component assigned to afterglow. Finally, we demonstrate that nonlinearity of the light yield as a function of energy persists at low temperatures.

  2. Design of high-T{sub c} superconducting bolometers for a far infrared imaging array

    SciTech Connect

    Verghese, S.; Richards, P.L.; Fork, D.K.; Char, K.; Geballe, T.H.

    1992-08-01

    The design of high-{Tc} superconducting bolometers for use in a far infrared imaging array from wavelengths 30--100{mu}m is discussed. Measurements of the voltage noise in thin films of YBa{sub 2}CU{sub 3}O{sub 7-{var_sigma}} on yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers on silicon substrates are used to make performance estimates. Useful opportunities exist for imaging and spectroscopy with bolometer arrays made on micro-machined silicon membranes. A circuit on each pixel which performs some signal integration can improve the sensitivity of large two-dimensional arrays of bolometers which use multiplexed readout amplifiers.

  3. Arrays of membrane isolated yttrium-barium-copper-oxide kinetic inductance bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeman, M. A.; Bonetti, J. A.; Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; Holmes, W. A.; Kleinsasser, A. W.

    2014-06-01

    We are developing of arrays of membrane isolated resonator-bolometers, each with a kinetic inductance device (KID) to measure the temperature of the membrane. The KIDs are fabricated out of the high temperature superconductor YBCO to allow operation at relatively high temperatures. The bolometers are designed to offer higher sensitivity than sensors operating at 300 K, but they require less expensive and lighter weight cooling than even more sensitive conventional superconducting detectors operating at lower temperatures. The bolometer arrays are applicable as focal planes in infrared imaging spectrometers, such as for planetary science missions or earth observing satellites. We describe the devices and present measurements of their sensitivity.

  4. Arrays of membrane isolated yttrium-barium-copper-oxide kinetic inductance bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeman, M. A. Bonetti, J. A.; Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; Holmes, W. A.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Eom, B. H.

    2014-06-21

    We are developing of arrays of membrane isolated resonator-bolometers, each with a kinetic inductance device (KID) to measure the temperature of the membrane. The KIDs are fabricated out of the high temperature superconductor YBCO to allow operation at relatively high temperatures. The bolometers are designed to offer higher sensitivity than sensors operating at 300 K, but they require less expensive and lighter weight cooling than even more sensitive conventional superconducting detectors operating at lower temperatures. The bolometer arrays are applicable as focal planes in infrared imaging spectrometers, such as for planetary science missions or earth observing satellites. We describe the devices and present measurements of their sensitivity.

  5. GPS Scintillation Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. GPS COMPARISON WITH ALL-SKY IMAGES OVER AGUA VERDE...Depletions from 1 October 1994 2 3. GPS data from Agua Verde, Chile on the night of 1 October 1994 3 4. PL-SCINDA display of GPS ionospheric...comparison of GPS measurements with GOES8 L-band scintillation data, are discussed. 2. GPS COMPARISON WITH ALL-SKY IMAGES OVER AGUA VERDE, CHILE As

  6. Scintillation detector for carbon-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, G. F.; Rogers, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Detector consists of plastic, cylindrical double-wall scintillation cell, which is filled with gas to be analyzed. Thin, inner cell wall is isolated optically from outer (guard) scintillator wall by evaporated-aluminum coating. Bonding technique provides mechanical support to cell wall when device is exposed to high temperatures.

  7. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.; Davidson, M.; Keller, J.; Foster, G.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Harmon, J.; Biagtan, E.; Schueneman, G.; Senchishin, V.; Gustfason, H.; Rivard, M.

    1993-11-01

    The authors have demonstrated that the radiation stability of scintillators made from styrene polymer is very much improved by compounding with pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (DC 705 vacuum pump oil). The resulting scintillators are softer than desired, so they decided to make the scintillators directly from monomer where the base resin could be easily crosslinked to improve the mechanical properties. They can now demonstrate that scintillators made directly from the monomer, using both styrene and 4-methyl styrene, are also much more radiation resistant when modified with DC705 oil. In fact, they retain from 92% to 95% of their original light output after gamma irradiation to 10 Mrads in nitrogen with air annealing. When these scintillators made directly from monomer are compared with scintillators of the same composition made from polymer the latter have much higher light outputs. They commonly reach 83% while those made form monomer give only 50% to 60% relative to the reference, BC408. When oil modified scintillators using both p-terphenyl and tetraphenylbutadiene are compared with identical scintillators except that they use 3 hydroxy-flavone as the only luminophore the radiation stability is the same. However the 3HF system gives only 30% as much light as BC408 instead of 83% when both are measured with a green extended Phillips XP2081B phototube.

  8. Hybrid scintillators for neutron discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Patrick L; Cordaro, Joseph G; Anstey, Mitchell R; Morales, Alfredo M

    2015-05-12

    A composition capable of producing a unique scintillation response to neutrons and gamma rays, comprising (i) at least one surfactant; (ii) a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent; and (iii) at least one luminophore. A method including combining at least one surfactant, a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent and at least one luminophore in a scintillation cell under vacuum or an inert atmosphere.

  9. Extruding plastic scintillator at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Pla-Dalmau; Alan D. Bross; Victor V. Rykalin

    2003-10-31

    An understanding of the costs involved in the production of plastic scintillators and the development of a less expensive material have become necessary with the prospects of building very large plastic scintillation detectors. Several factors contribute to the high cost of plastic scintillating sheets, but the principal reason is the labor-intensive nature of the manufacturing process. In order to significantly lower the costs, the current casting procedures had to be abandoned. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. This concept was tested and high quality extruded plastic scintillator was produced. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. This paper will discuss the characteristics of extruded plastic scintillator and its raw materials, the different manufacturing techniques and the current R&D program at Fermilab.

  10. Development of intrinsic IPT scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.D.

    1989-07-31

    We report on the development of a new polystyrene based plastic scintillator. Optical absorption, fluorescence and light output measurements are presented. Preliminary results of radiation damage effects are also given and compared to the effects on a commercial plastic scintillator, NE 110. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Monolayer Graphene Bolometer as a Sensitive Far-IR Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; McKitterick, Christopher B.; Prober, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give a detailed analysis of the expected sensitivity and operating conditions in the power detection mode of a hot-electron bolometer (HEB) made from a few micro m(sup 2) of monolayer graphene (MLG) flake which can be embedded into either a planar antenna or waveguide circuit via NbN (or NbTiN) superconducting contacts with critical temperature approx. 14 K. Recent data on the strength of the electron-phonon coupling are used in the present analysis and the contribution of the readout noise to the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) is explicitly computed. The readout scheme utilizes Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) allowing for Frequency-Domain Multiplexing (FDM) using narrowband filter coupling of the HEBs. In general, the filter bandwidth and the summing amplifier noise have a significant effect on the overall system sensitivity.

  12. A 100 micro Kelvin bolometer system for SIRTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, G. M.; Timbie, P. T.; Richards, P. L.

    1989-10-01

    Progress toward a prototype of 100 mK bolometric detection system for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is described. Two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR's) were constructed and used to investigate the capabilities necessary for orbital operation. The first, a laboratory ADR, demonstrated a hold time at 0.1 K of over 12 hours, with temperature stability approx. 3 micro-K RMS achieved by controlling the magnetic field. A durable salt pill and an efficient support system have been demonstrated. A second ADR, the SIRTF flight prototype, has been built and will be flown on a balloon. Techniques for magnetic shielding, low heat leak current leads, and a mechanical heat switch are being developed in this ADR. Plans for construction of 100 mK bolometers are discussed. Three important cosmological investigations which will be carried out by these longest wavelength SIRTF detectors are described.

  13. A 100 micro Kelvin bolometer system for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, G. M.; Timbie, P. T.; Richards, P. L.

    1989-01-01

    Progress toward a prototype of 100 mK bolometric detection system for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is described. Two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR's) were constructed and used to investigate the capabilities necessary for orbital operation. The first, a laboratory ADR, demonstrated a hold time at 0.1 K of over 12 hours, with temperature stability approx. 3 micro-K RMS achieved by controlling the magnetic field. A durable salt pill and an efficient support system have been demonstrated. A second ADR, the SIRTF flight prototype, has been built and will be flown on a balloon. Techniques for magnetic shielding, low heat leak current leads, and a mechanical heat switch are being developed in this ADR. Plans for construction of 100 mK bolometers are discussed. Three important cosmological investigations which will be carried out by these longest wavelength SIRTF detectors are described.

  14. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  15. A strained silicon cold electron bolometer using Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brien, T. L. R. Ade, P. A. R.; Barry, P. S.; Dunscombe, C.; Morozov, D. V.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Parker, E. H. C.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E.; Prunnila, M.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    2014-07-28

    We describe optical characterisation of a strained silicon cold electron bolometer (CEB), operating on a 350 mK stage, designed for absorption of millimetre-wave radiation. The silicon cold electron bolometer utilises Schottky contacts between a superconductor and an n{sup ++} doped silicon island to detect changes in the temperature of the charge carriers in the silicon, due to variations in absorbed radiation. By using strained silicon as the absorber, we decrease the electron-phonon coupling in the device and increase the responsivity to incoming power. The strained silicon absorber is coupled to a planar aluminium twin-slot antenna designed to couple to 160 GHz and that serves as the superconducting contacts. From the measured optical responsivity and spectral response, we calculate a maximum optical efficiency of 50% for radiation coupled into the device by the planar antenna and an overall noise equivalent power, referred to absorbed optical power, of 1.1×10{sup −16} W Hz{sup −1/2} when the detector is observing a 300 K source through a 4 K throughput limiting aperture. Even though this optical system is not optimized, we measure a system noise equivalent temperature difference of 6 mK Hz{sup −1/2}. We measure the noise of the device using a cross-correlation of time stream data, measured simultaneously with two junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, with a base correlated noise level of 300 pV Hz{sup −1/2} and find that the total noise is consistent with a combination of photon noise, current shot noise, and electron-phonon thermal noise.

  16. A free-standing thin foil bolometer for measuring soft x-ray fluence.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingyuan; Ning, Jiamin; Ye, Fan; Meng, Shijian; Xu, Rongkun; Yang, Jianlun; Chu, Yanyun; Qin, Yi; Fu, Yuecheng; Chen, Faxin; Xu, Zeping

    2016-10-01

    A free-standing thin foil bolometer for measuring soft x-ray fluence in z-pinch experiments is developed. For the first time, we present the determination of its sensitivity by different methods. The results showed great consistency for the different methods, which confirms the validity of the sensitivity and provides confidence for its application in z-pinch experiments. It should be highlighted that the sensitivity of a free-standing foil bolometer could be calibrated directly using Joule heating without any corrections that will be necessary for a foil bolometer with substrate because of heat loss. The difference of the waveforms between the free-standing foil bolometer and that with substrate is obvious. It reveals that the heat loss to the substrate should be considered for the latter in despite of the short x-ray pulse when the peak value is used to deduce the total deposited energy. The quantitative influence is analyzed through a detailed simulation.

  17. Fabrication of an infrared bolometer with a high T sub c superconducting thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vergjese, S.; Richards, P.L. . Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Char, K.; Sachtjen, S.A. )

    1990-09-01

    A sensitive high {Tc} superconducting bolometer has been fabricated on a 20 {mu}m thick sapphire substrate with a YBCO thin film transition edge thermometer. Optical measurements with a He-Ne laser gave a noise equivalent power of 2.4{center dot}10{sup {minus}11} W/Hz{sup 1/2} at 10 Hz and a responsivity of 17 V/W in good agreement with electrical bolometer measurements. Gold black smoke was then deposited on the back side of the assembled bolometer as an absorber. Spectral measurements on a Fourier transform spectrometer show that the bolometer has useful sensitivity from visible wavelengths to beyond {approximately}100 {mu}m. This performance is clearly superior to that of a commercial room temperature pyroelectric detector. Some improvement appears possible. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Preliminary performance measurements of bolometers for the planck high frequency instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, W.; Bock, J.; Ganga, K.; Hristov, V. V.; Hustead, L.; Koch, T.; Lange, A. E.; Paine, C.; Yun, M.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the characterization of bolometers fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) of the joint ESA/NASA Herschel/Planck mission to be launched in 2007.

  19. Long-Running-Time (T{=}0.45 K) Germanium Bolometer for Far Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Naoki; Tanaka, Yasumoto; Nagasaka, Keigo

    1990-01-01

    A long-running-time (T{=}0.45 K) germanium bolometer which has a compact charcoal adsorption pump with a novel 3He gas condenser has been constructed. The refrigerator provides continuous cooling of the bolometer element at 0.45 K for 24-hour measurements of spectra in the range 2 to 40 cm-1. Utilizing this bolometer system, transmission spectroscopy has been carried out successively, maintaining the temperature of the sample below 40 K and that of the bolometer element below 1.5 K without a thermal cycle. This experimental setup is essential for obtaining a reproducible spectrum of MEM(TCNQ)2. Thus, each resultant spectrum has good reproducibility even after one-week-long experiments.

  20. A free-standing thin foil bolometer for measuring soft x-ray fluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qingyuan; Ning, Jiamin; Ye, Fan; Meng, Shijian; Xu, Rongkun; Yang, Jianlun; Chu, Yanyun; Qin, Yi; Fu, Yuecheng; Chen, Faxin; Xu, Zeping

    2016-10-01

    A free-standing thin foil bolometer for measuring soft x-ray fluence in z-pinch experiments is developed. For the first time, we present the determination of its sensitivity by different methods. The results showed great consistency for the different methods, which confirms the validity of the sensitivity and provides confidence for its application in z-pinch experiments. It should be highlighted that the sensitivity of a free-standing foil bolometer could be calibrated directly using Joule heating without any corrections that will be necessary for a foil bolometer with substrate because of heat loss. The difference of the waveforms between the free-standing foil bolometer and that with substrate is obvious. It reveals that the heat loss to the substrate should be considered for the latter in despite of the short x-ray pulse when the peak value is used to deduce the total deposited energy. The quantitative influence is analyzed through a detailed simulation.

  1. Heat Capacity Setup for Superconducting Bolometer Absorbers below 400 mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Mathimalar, S.; Dokania, N.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2014-05-01

    A calorimeter set up with very low heat capacity (20 nJ/K at 100 mK) has been designed using commercial Carbon based resistors. This calorimeter is used to determine the heat capacity of small samples of superconducting bolometer absorbers. In particular, we present heat capacity studies of Tin, a bolometer candidate for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Sn, in the temperature range of 60-400 mK.

  2. Development of Cryogenic Bolometer for 0νββ in 124Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vivek; Yashwant, G.; Mathimalar, S.; Dokania, Neha; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Datar, V. M.

    2011-11-01

    Cryogenic bolometer detectors, with their high resolution spectroscopy capability, are ideal for neutrino mass experiments as well as for search of rare processes like neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) and dark matter. A feasibility study for investigation of 0νββ in 124Sn at the upcoming underground facility of India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) has been initiated. This paper describes endeavors towards cryogenic tin bolometer development.

  3. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Seagraves, David T.

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  4. Design and fabrication of two-dimensional semiconducting bolometer arrays for HAWC and SHARC-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. D.; Harper, D. A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rennick, Timothy; Shirron, Peter J.; Smith, W. W.; Staguhn, Johannes G.

    2003-02-01

    The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC II) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC "Pop-Up" Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 × 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 × 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.

  5. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, M A; Lueker, M; Aird, K A; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Clarke, J; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Flanigan, D I; de Haan, T; George, E M; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Johnson, B R; Joseph, J; Keisler, R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Richards, P L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vu, C; Westbrook, B; Williamson, R

    2012-07-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelength receivers. In this system, the detector array is divided into modules of seven detectors, and each bolometer within the module is biased with a unique ∼MHz sinusoidal carrier such that the individual bolometer signals are well separated in frequency space. The currents from all bolometers in a module are summed together and pre-amplified with superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4 K. Room temperature electronics demodulate the carriers to recover the bolometer signals, which are digitized separately and stored to disk. This readout system contributes little noise relative to the detectors themselves, is remarkably insensitive to unwanted microphonic excitations, and provides a technology pathway to multiplexing larger numbers of sensors.

  6. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; Calderon, J.; Barbaro, P. De; Eno, S. C.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hirschauer, J.; Jeng, G. Y.; Pastika, N. J.; Pedro, K.; Rumerio, Paolo; Samuel, J.; Sharp, E.; Shin, Y. H.; Tiras, E.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Wetzel, J.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Youn, S. W.

    2016-11-28

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. Also, the light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity, and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.

  7. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; Calderon, J.; De Barbaro, P.; Eno, S. C.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hirschauer, J.; Jeng, G. Y.; Pastika, N. J.; Pedro, K.; Rumerio, Paolo; Samuel, J.; Sharp, E.; Shin, Y. H.; Tiras, E.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Wetzel, J.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Youn, S. W.

    2016-11-01

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. The light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity, and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.

  8. Scintillator materials containing lanthanum fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved radiation detector containing a crystalline mixture of LaF.sub.3 and CeF.sub.3 as the scintillator element is disclosed. Scintillators made with from 25% to 99.5% LaF.sub.3 and the remainder CeF.sub.3 have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is equal to or superior to other known scintillator materials, and which may be processed from natural starting materials containing both rare earth elements. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in positron emission tomography.

  9. High energy resolution plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Feng, Patrick; Markosyan, Gary; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Doty, Patrick; Shah, Kanai S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present results on a novel tin-loaded plastic scintillator. We will show that this particular plastic scintillator has a light output similar to that of BGO, a fast scintillation decay (< 10 ns), exhibits good neutron/gamma PSD with a Figure-of-Merit of 1.3 at 2.5 MeVee cut-off energy, and excellent energy resolution of about 12% (FWHM) at 662 keV. Under X-ray excitation, the radioluminescence spectrum exhibits a broad band between 350 and 500 nm peaking at 420 nm which is well-matched to bialkali photomultiplier tubes and UV-enhanced photodiodes.

  10. Ionospheric scintillation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rino, C. L.; Freemouw, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The diffracted field of a monochromatic plane wave was characterized by two complex correlation functions. For a Gaussian complex field, these quantities suffice to completely define the statistics of the field. Thus, one can in principle calculate the statistics of any measurable quantity in terms of the model parameters. The best data fits were achieved for intensity statistics derived under the Gaussian statistics hypothesis. The signal structure that achieved the best fit was nearly invariant with scintillation level and irregularity source (ionosphere or solar wind). It was characterized by the fact that more than 80% of the scattered signal power is in phase quadrature with the undeviated or coherent signal component. Thus, the Gaussian-statistics hypothesis is both convenient and accurate for channel modeling work.

  11. Properties of scintillator solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Fluornoy, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  12. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

    1994-03-29

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

  13. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    DOE PAGES

    Verbeke, J. M.; Prasad, M. K.; Snyderman, N. J.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators wasmore » modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.« less

  14. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, Tom; Spector, Garry B.

    1994-01-01

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected.

  15. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  16. Extruded plastic scintillator including inorganic powders

    DOEpatents

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-06-27

    A method for producing a plastic scintillator is disclosed. A plurality of nano-sized particles and one or more dopants can be combined with a plastic material for the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof. The nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material can be combined within the dry inert atmosphere of an extruder to produce a reaction that results in the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof and the deposition of energy within the plastic scintillator, such that the plastic scintillator produces light signifying the detection of a radiative element. The nano-sized particles can be treated with an inert gas prior to processing the nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material utilizing the extruder. The plastic scintillator can be a neutron-sensitive scintillator, x-ray sensitive scintillator and/or a scintillator for the detection of minimum ionizing particles.

  17. Superconducting bolometers: high-Tc and low-Tc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Paul L.

    1991-07-01

    A description is given of recent work at Berkeley on superconducting detectors and mixers for infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The first report is a review article which summarizes the status of development of superconducting components for infrared and millimeter wave receivers. Next, a report is given on measurements and theoretical modeling of the absorptivity (surface resistance) of high quality epitaxial films of the high-Tc superconductor YBCO from 750 GHz to 21 THz. The next report describes measurements of the thermal boundary resistance between YBCO films and various substrates. This resistance is much larger than expected from the acoustic impedance mismatch model and gives a thermal time constant in the nanosecond range for typical YBCO films. Reports are also included on the design and experimental performance of two different types of high-Tc bolometric detectors. One is a conventional bolometer with a gold-black absorber. The other is an antenna coupled microbolometer. The properties of a low-Tc microbolometer are also described. The last reports describe accurate measurements and also theoretical modeling of an SIS quasi-particle waveguide mixer for W-band which uses very high quality Ta junctions. The best mixer noise is only 1.3 times the quantum limit. Both the mixer gain and the noise are in quantitative agreement with the quantum theory.

  18. Characterization of MgB2 Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnane, D.; Kawamura, J. H.; Wolak, M. A.; Acharya, N.; Tan, T.; Xi, X. X.; Karasik, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers have proven to be the best tool for high-resolution spectroscopy at the Terahertz frequencies. However, the current state of the art NbN mixers suffer from a small intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth as well as a low operating temperature. MgB2 is a promising material for HEB mixer technology in view of its high critical temperature and fast thermal relaxation allowing for a large IF bandwidth. In this work, we have fabricated and characterized thin-film (approximately 15 nanometers) MgB2-based spiral antenna-coupled HEB mixers on SiC substrate. We achieved the IF bandwidth greater than 8 gigahertz at 25 degrees Kelvin and the device noise temperature less than 4000 degrees Kelvin at 9 degrees Kelvin using a 600 gigahertz source. Using temperature dependencies of the radiation power dissipated in the device we have identified the optical loss in the integrated microantenna responsible as a cause of the limited sensitivity of the current mixer devices. From the analysis of the current-voltage (IV) characteristics, we have derived the effective thermal conductance of the mixer device and estimated the required local oscillator power in an optimized device to be approximately 1 microwatts.

  19. TES development for a frequency selective bolometer camera.

    SciTech Connect

    Datesman, A. M.; Downes, T. P.; Perera, T. A.; Wang, G.; Yefremenko, V. G.; Pearson, J. E.; Novosad, V.; Divan, R.; Chang, C. L.; Logan, D. W.; Meyer, S. S.; Wilson , G. W.; Bleem, L. E.; Crites, A. T.; McMahon, J. J.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Materials Science Division; Kavli Inst. Cosmological Phys.; Univ. of Massachusetts

    2009-06-01

    We discuss the development, at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), of a four-pixel camera with four spectral channels centered at 150, 220, 270, and 360 GHz. The scientific motivation involves photometry of distant dusty galaxies located by Spitzer and SCUBA, as well as the study of other millimeter-wave sources such as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in clusters, and galactic dust. The camera incorporates Frequency Selective Bolometer (FSB) and superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) technology. The current generation of TES devices we examine utilizes proximity effect superconducting bilayers of Mo/Au, Ti, or Ti/Au as TESs, located along with frequency selective absorbing structures on silicon nitride membranes. The detector incorporates lithographically patterned structures designed to address both TES device stability and detector thermal transport concerns. The membrane is not perforated, resulting in a detector which is comparatively robust mechanically. In this paper, we report on the development of the superconducting bilayer TES technology, the design and testing of the detector thermal transport and device stability control structures, optical and thermal test results, and the use of new materials.

  20. Dual Transition Edge Sensor Bolometer for Enhanced Dynamic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    Broadband surveys at the millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths will require bolometers that can reach new limits of sensitivity and also operate under high background conditions. To address this need, we present results on a dual transition edge sensor (TES) device with two operating modes: one for low background, ultrasensitive detection and one for high background, enhanced dynamic range detection. The device consists of a detector element with two transition temperatures (T(sub c)) of 0.25 and 0.51 K located on the same micromachined, thermally isolated membrane structure. It can be biased on either transition, and features phonon-limited noise performance at the lower T(sub c). We measure noise performance on the lower transition 7 x 10(exp -18) W/rt(Hz) and the bias power on the upper transition of 12.5 pW, giving a factor of 10 enhancement of the dynamic range for the device. We discuss the biasable range of this type of device and present a design concept to optimize utility of the device.

  1. New designs for antenna-coupled superconducting bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Mees, J.; Nahum, M.; Richards, P.L. )

    1991-10-28

    We propose a novel antenna-coupled low {ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconducting bolometer which makes use of the thermal boundary resistance and the trapping of quasiparticles at metal-superconducting interfaces. A thin strip of superconductor, whose temperature is regulated at the midpoint of its resistive transition, serves both as a resistive load to thermalize the infrared current from the antenna and as a thermometer to measure the resulting temperature rise. Calculations give a noise equivalent power (NEP){approx}7{times}10{sup {minus}16} {ital T}{sup 5/2} WHz{sup {minus}1/2} and a time constant {tau}{approx}10{sup {minus}8} {ital T}{sup {minus}2} s for a 2{times}2 {mu}m{sup 2} thermometer area at temperature {ital T} (K). Designs for efficient on-chip rf matching and filter networks with well-defined bandpasses are presented. These detectors can be used to make frequency-multiplexed array receivers for astronomical observations at near millimeter wavelengths.

  2. The initial design of LAPAN's IR micro bolometer using mission analysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustanul, A.; Irwan, P.; M. T., Andi; Firman, B.

    2016-11-01

    As new player in Infra Red (IR) sector, uncooled, small, and lightweight IR Micro Bolometer has been chosen as one of payloads for LAPAN's next micro satellite project. Driven the desire to create our own IR Micro Bolometer, mission analysis design procedure has been applied. After tracing all possible missions, the Planck's and Wien's Law for black body, Temperature Responsivity (TR), and sub-pixel response had been utilized in order to determine the appropriate spectral radiance. The 3.8 - 4 μm wavelength were available to detect wild fire (forest fire) and active volcanoes, two major problems faced by Indonesia. In order to strengthen and broaden the result, iteration process had been used throughout the process. The analysis, then, were continued by calculating Ground pixel size, IFOV pixel, swath width, and focus length. Meanwhile, regarding of resolution, at least it is 400 m. The further procedure covered the integrated of optical design, wherein we combined among optical design software, Zemax, with mechanical analysis software (structure and thermal analysis), such as Nastran and Thermal Desktop / Sinda Fluint. The integration process was intended to produce high performance optical system of our IR Micro Bolometer that can be used under extreme environment. The results of all those analysis, either in graphs or in measurement, show that the initial design of LAPAN'S IR Micro Bolometer meets the determined requirement. However, it needs the further evaluation (iteration). This paper describes the initial design of LAPAN's IR Micro Bolometer using mission analysis process

  3. Large Area Superconducting TES Spiderweb Bolometer for Multi-mode Cavity Microwave Detect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasotti, M.; Bagliani, D.; Corsini, D.; De Bernardis, P.; Gatti, F.; Gualtieri, R.; Lamagna, L.; Masi, S.; Pizzigoni, G.; Schillaci, A.

    2014-05-01

    For the cosmic microwave background, the increase of the sensitivity of present superconducting TES Spiderweb Bolometers can be done coupling them to a large set of modes of the EM radiation inside the cavity. This will require a proper shaping of the horn-cavity assembly for the focal plane of the microwave telescope and the use of large area bolometers. Large area spiderweb bolometers of 8 mm diameter and a mesh size of 250 μm are fabricated in order to couple with approximately the first 20 modes of the cavity at about 140 GHz. These bolometers are fabricated with micro machining techniques from silicon wafer covered with SiO2 - Si3N4 CVD thick films, 0.3 μm and 1 μm respectively. The sensor is a Ti/Au/Ti 3 layer TES sensor with Tc tuned in the 330-380 mK and 2 mK transition width. The TES is electronically coupled to the EM gold absorber that is grown on to the spiderweb mesh in order to sense the temperature of the electron gas heated by the EM radiation. The gold absorber mesh has 5 um beam size over a Si3N4 10 μm beam size supporting mesh. The Si3N4 mesh is then fully suspended by means of DRIE back etching of the Si substrate. Here we present the first results of these large area bolometers.

  4. Molecular origins of scintillation in organic scintillators (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Patrick; Mengesha, Wondwosen; Myllenbeck, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Organic-based scintillators are indispensable materials for radiation detection owing to their high sensitivity to fast neutrons, low cost, and tailorable properties. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in organic scintillators due to exciting discoveries related to neutron discrimination and gamma-ray spectroscopy, which represent capabilities previously thought not possible in these materials. I will discuss our development of crystalline and polymer-based scintillators for these applications. Structure-property relationships related to intermolecular interactions and host-guest electronic exchange will be discussed in the context of energy-transfer pathways relevant to scintillation. An emphasis will be placed on the rational design of these materials, as guided by first principles and DFT calculations. Two related topics will be discussed: 1) Incorporation of organometallic triplet-harvesting additives to plastic scintillator matrices to confer a 'two-state' (singlet and triplet) luminescence signature to different types of ionizing radiation. This approach relies upon energetic and spatial overlap between the donor and acceptor excited states for efficient electronic exchange. Key considerations also include synthetic modification of the luminescence spectra and kinetics, as well as the addition of secondary additives to increase the recombination efficiency. 2) Design of organotin-containing plastic scintillators as a route towards gamma-ray spectroscopy. Organometallic compounds were selected on the basis of distance-dependent quenching relationships, phase compatibility with the polymer matrix, and the gamma-ray cross sections. This approach is guided by molecular modeling and radiation transport modeling to achieve the highest possible detection sensitivity luminescence intensity.

  5. FNAL-NICADD extruded scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Bross, A.; Dyshkant, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Rykalin, V.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2005-09-01

    The possibility to produce a scintillator that satisfies the demands of physicists from different science areas has emerged with the installation of an extrusion line at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The extruder is the product of the fruitful collaboration between FNAL and Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development (NICADD) at Northern Illinois University (NIU). The results from the light output, light attenuation length and mechanical tolerance indicate that FNAL-NICADD scintillator is of high quality. Improvements in the extrusion die will yield better scintillator profiles and decrease the time needed for initial tuning. This paper will present the characteristics of the FNAL-NICADD scintillator based on the measurements performed. They include the response to MIPs from cosmic rays for individual extruded strips and irradiation studies where extruded samples were irradiated up to 1 Mrad. We will also discuss the results achieved with a new die design. The attractive perspective of using the extruded scintillator with MRS (Metal Resistive Semiconductor) photodetector readout will also be shown.

  6. Radiopure metal-loaded liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-08-17

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  7. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  8. Advances in scintillators for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2014-09-01

    A review is presented of some recent work in the field of inorganic scintillator research for medical imaging applications, in particular scintillation detectors for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

  9. A millisecond-risetime sub-millimeter light source for lab and in flight bolometer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbon, Ph.; Delbart, A.; Fesquet, M.; Magneville, C.; Mazeau, B.; Pansart, J.-P.; Yvon, D.; Dumoulin, L.; Marnieros, S.; Camus, Ph.; Durand, T.; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2007-06-01

    The Olimpo balloon project will use a 120 bolometer camera to observe the sky at four frequencies (143, 217, 385 and 600 GHz) with a resolution of 3 to 2 arc-minute. This paper presents the sub-millimeter calibration "lamp" developed for ground testing and in-flight secondary calibration of bolometric detectors. By design, main features of the device are reproducibility and stability of light flux and millisecond rise time. The radiative device will be placed inside the bolometer camera and will illuminate the bolometer array through a hole in the last 2 K mirror. Operation, readout, and monitoring of the device is ensured by warm electronics. Light output flux and duration is programmable, triggered and monitored from a simple computer RS232 interface. It was tested to be reliable in ballooning temperature conditions from -80 to 50C. Design and test's results are explained.

  10. Performances Of Herschel/PACS Bolometer Arrays And Future Developments At CEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Billot, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Okumura, K.; Sauvage, M.; Agnese, P.

    2009-01-01

    The PACS Photometer of the Herschel Space Observatory is equipped with filled bolometer arrays developed by CEA/LETI and CEA/SAp. These innovative detectors allow to dispense with bulky light concentrators and to instantaneously sample the field of view without altering the optical coupling of the detectors to the telescope beam. CEA/LETI opted for an all-silicon design to allow for the collective manufacturing of 16x16 bolometer arrays. Being 3-side buttable these arrays are now the building blocks for making large focal planes necessary for the next generation of wide-field sub-mm cameras. We present the unique architecture of CEA filled bolometer arrays and we report on the latest performance measurements of the Herschel/PACS Photometer. We also present current and future developments at CEA for ground-based, balloon borne and space telescopes.

  11. Scintillating glass fiber neutron senors

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, K.H.; Arthur, R.J.; Bliss, M.

    1994-04-01

    Cerium-doped lithium-silicate glass fibers have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for use as thermal neutron detectors. By using highly-enriched {sup 6} Li , these fibers efficiently capture thermal neutrons and produce scintillation light that can be detected at the ends of the fibers. Advantages of scintillating fibers over {sup 3}He or BF{sub 3} proportional tubes include flexibility in geometric configuration, ruggedness in high-vibration environments, and less detector weight for the same neutron sensitivity. This paper describes the performance of these scintillating fibers with regard to count rates, pulse height spectra, absolute efficiencies, and neutron/gamma discrimination. Fibers with light transmission lengths (1/e) of greater than 2 m have been produced at PNL. Neutron sensors in fiber form allow development of a variety of neutron detectors packaged in previously unavailable configurations. Brief descriptions of some of the devices already produced are included to illustrate these possibilities.

  12. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  13. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    DOE PAGES

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; ...

    2016-11-28

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. Also, the light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity,more » and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.« less

  14. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, Stephanie A.; Chiles, Marion M.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

  15. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.

    1994-05-31

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. 10 figs.

  16. Fracture-resistant lanthanide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2011-01-04

    Lanthanide halide alloys have recently enabled scintillating gamma ray spectrometers comparable to room temperature semiconductors (<3% FWHM energy resolutions at 662 keV). However brittle fracture of these materials upon cooling hinders the growth of large volume crystals. Efforts to improve the strength through non-lanthanide alloy substitution, while preserving scintillation, have been demonstrated. Isovalent alloys having nominal compositions of comprising Al, Ga, Sc, Y, and In dopants as well as aliovalent alloys comprising Ca, Sr, Zr, Hf, Zn, and Pb dopants were prepared. All of these alloys exhibit bright fluorescence under UV excitation, with varying shifts in the spectral peaks and intensities relative to pure CeBr.sub.3. Further, these alloys scintillate when coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and exposed to .sup.137Cs gamma rays.

  17. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. ); Blackburn, R. )

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

  18. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOEpatents

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  19. Operation of a tangential bolometer on the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.F.; Fonck, R.J.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1987-04-01

    A compact 15-channel bolometer array that views plasma emission tangentially across the midplane has been installed on the PBX tokamak to supplement a 19-channel poloidal array which views the plasma perpendicular to the toroidal direction. By comparing measurements from these arrays, poloidal asymmetries in the emission profile can be assessed. The detector array consists of 15 discrete 2-mm x 2-mm Thinistors, a mixed semiconductor material whose temperature coefficient of resistance is relatively high. The accumulated heat incident on a detector gives rise to a change in the resistance in each active element. Operated in tandem with an identical blind detector, the resistance in each pair is compared in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The variation in voltage resulting from the change in resistance is amplified, stored on a CAMAC transient recorder during the plasma discharge, and transferred to a VAX data acquisition computer. The instantaneous power is obtained by digitally smoothing and differentiating the signals in time, with suitable compensation for the cooling of the detector over the course of a plasma discharge. The detectors are ''free standing,'' i.e., they are supported only by their electrical leads. Having no substrate in contact with the detector reduces the response time and increases the time it takes for the detector to dissipate its accumulated heat, reducing the compensation for cooling required in the data analysis. The detectors were absolutely calibrated with a tungsten-halogen filament lamp and were found to vary by +-3%. The irradiance profiles are inverted to reveal the radially resolved emitted power density from the plasma, which is typically in the 0.1 to 0.5 W/cm/sup 3/ range.

  20. Building the analytical response in frequency domain of AC biased bolometers. Application to Planck/HFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvé, Alexandre; Montier, Ludovic

    2016-12-01

    Context: Bolometers are high sensitivity detector commonly used in Infrared astronomy. The HFI instrument of the Planck satellite makes extensive use of them, but after the satellite launch two electronic related problems revealed critical. First an unexpected excess response of detectors at low optical excitation frequency for ν < 1 Hz, and secondly the Analog To digital Converter (ADC) component had been insufficiently characterized on-ground. These two problems require an exquisite knowledge of detector response. However bolometers have highly nonlinear characteristics, coming from their electrical and thermal coupling making them very difficult to model. Goal: We present a method to build the analytical transfer function in frequency domain which describe the voltage response of an Alternative Current (AC) biased bolometer to optical excitation, based on the standard bolometer model. This model is built using the setup of the Planck/HFI instrument and offers the major improvement of being based on a physical model rather than the currently in use had-hoc model based on Direct Current (DC) bolometer theory. Method: The analytical transfer function expression will be presented in matrix form. For this purpose, we build linearized versions of the bolometer electro thermal equilibrium. A custom description of signals in frequency is used to solve the problem with linear algebra. The model performances is validated using time domain simulations. Results: The provided expression is suitable for calibration and data processing. It can also be used to provide constraints for fitting optical transfer function using real data from steady state electronic response and optical response. The accurate description of electronic response can also be used to improve the ADC nonlinearity correction for quickly varying optical signals.

  1. Hygroscopicity Evaluation of Halide Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, M; Stand, L; Wei, H; Hobbs, C. L.; Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Burger, Arnold; Rowe, E; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E; Melcher, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    A collaborative study of relative hygroscopicity of anhydrous halide scintillators grown at various laboratories is presented. We have developed a technique to evaluate moisture sensitivity of both raw materials and grown crystals, in which the moisture absorption rate is measured using a gravimetric analysis. Degradation of the scintillation performance was investigated by recording gamma-ray spectra and monitoring the photopeak position, count rate and energy resolution. The accompanying physical degradation of the samples exposed to ambient atmosphere was photographically recorded as well. The results were compared with ben

  2. Characteristics of High Latitude Ionosphere Scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.

    2012-12-01

    As we enter a new solar maximum period, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers, especially the ones operating in high latitude and equatorial regions, are facing an increasing threat from ionosphere scintillations. The increased solar activities, however, also offer a great opportunity to collect scintillation data to characterize scintillation signal parameters and ionosphere irregularities. While there are numerous GPS receivers deployed around the globe to monitor ionosphere scintillations, most of them are commercial receivers whose signal processing mechanisms are not designed to operate under ionosphere scintillation. As a result, they may distort scintillation signal parameters or lose lock of satellite signals under strong scintillations. Since 2008, we have established and continuously improved a unique GNSS receiver array at HAARP, Alaska. The array contains high ends commercial receivers and custom RF front ends which can be automatically triggered to collect high quality GPS and GLONASS satellite signals during controlled heating experiments and natural scintillation events. Custom designed receiver signal tracking algorithms aim to preserve true scintillation signatures are used to process the raw RF samples. Signal strength, carrier phase, and relative TEC measurements generated by the receiver array since its inception have been analyzed to characterize high latitude scintillation phenomena. Daily, seasonal, and solar events dependency of scintillation occurrence, spectral contents of scintillation activities, and plasma drifts derived from these measurements will be presented. These interesting results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our experimental data collection system in providing insightful details of ionosphere responses to active perturbations and natural disturbances.

  3. Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-28

    Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

  4. Photonic crystal scintillators and methods of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Ricardo D.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Cortes-Concepcion, Jose

    2015-08-11

    Photonic crystal scintillators and their methods of manufacture are provided. Exemplary methods of manufacture include using a highly-ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a pattern transfer mask for either the etching of underlying material or for the deposition of additional material onto the surface of a scintillator. Exemplary detectors utilizing such photonic crystal scintillators are also provided.

  5. Operation of bolometer system using Pt foil on SiN substrate detector for EAST tokamak.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y M; Mao, S T; Hu, L Q; Xu, P; Xu, L Q; Zhang, J Z; Lin, S Y

    2016-11-01

    The foil resistive bolometer diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak has been upgraded partly with a new generation of detectors. The new detectors have faster response time. However, the microwave interference is still a serious issue for the bolometer system. The system response to microwave is tested, and the test results show that the closed Wheatstone bridge circuit in the detector is the most sensitive component to high power microwave field. Simulation results of microwave transmission by the high frequency structure simulator software and shielding design are also presented.

  6. A Planar Two-Dimensional Superconducting Bolometer Array for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Chervenak, James A.; Chen, Tina C.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Supanich, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In order to provide high sensitivity rapid imaging at 3.3mm (90GHz) for the Green Bank Telescope - the world's largest steerable aperture - a camera is being built by the University of Pennsylvania, NASA/GSFC, and NRAO. The heart of this camera is an 8x8 close-packed, Nyquist-sampled detector array. We have designed and are fabricating a functional superconducting bolometer array system using a monolithic planar architecture. Read out by SQUID multiplexers, the superconducting transition edge sensors will provide fast, linear, sensitive response for high performance imaging. This will provide the first ever superconducting bolometer array on a facility instrument.

  7. A planar two-dimensional superconducting bolometer array for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Wollack, Edward J.; Supanich, Mark P.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Irwin, Kent D.; Devlin, Mark J.; Chervenak, James A.; Chen, Tina C.

    2004-10-01

    In order to provide high sensitivity rapid imaging at 3.3 mm (90 GHz) for the Green Bank Telescope - the world's largest steerable aperture - a camera is being built by the University of Pennsylvania, NASA/GSFC, and NRAO. The heart of this camera is an 8x8 close-packed, Nyquist-sampled detector array. We have designed and are fabricating a functional superconducting bolometer array system using a monolithic planar architecture. Read out by SQUID multiplexers, the superconducting transition edge sensors will provide fast, linear, sensitive response for high performance imaging. This will provide the first ever superconducting bolometer array on a facility instrument.

  8. Enhanced performance of VOx-based bolometer using patterned gold black absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Evan M.; Panjwani, Deep; Ginn, James; Warren, Andrew; Long, Christopher; Figuieredo, Pedro; Smith, Christian; Perlstein, Joshua; Walter, Nick; Hirschmugl, Carol; Peale, Robert E.; Shelton, David J.

    2015-06-01

    Patterned highly absorbing gold black film has been selectively deposited on the active surfaces of a vanadium-oxide-based infrared bolometer array. Patterning by metal lift-off relies on protection of the fragile gold black with an evaporated oxide, which preserves gold black's near unity absorption. This patterned gold black also survives the dry-etch removal of the sacrificial polyimide used to fabricate the air-bridge bolometers. Infrared responsivity is substantially improved by the gold black coating without significantly increasing noise. The increase in the time constant caused by the additional mass of gold black is a modest 14%.

  9. A highly linear superconducting bolometer for quantitative THz Fourier transform spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kehrt, Mathias; Monte, Christian; Beyer, Jörn; Hollandt, Jörg

    2015-05-04

    A superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer operating in the spectral range from 0.1 THz to 3 THz was designed. It is especially intended for Fourier transform spectroscopy and features a higher dynamic range and a highly linear response at a similar response compared to commercially available silicon composite bolometers. The design is based on a thin film metal mesh absorber, a superconducting thermistor and Si3N4 membrane technology. A prototype was set up, characterized and successfully used in first applications.

  10. Synthesis of plastic scintillation microspheres: Evaluation of scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, L. M.; Bagán, H.; Tarancón, A.; Garcia, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm) appear to be an alternative to liquid scintillation for the quantification of alpha and beta emitters because it does not generate mixed wastes after the measurement (organic and radioactive). In addition to routine radionuclide determinations, PSm can be used for further applications, e.g. for usage in a continuous monitoring equipment, for measurements of samples with a high salt concentration and for an extractive scintillation support which permits the separation, pre-concentration and measurement of the radionuclides without additional steps of elution and sample preparation. However, only a few manufacturers provide PSm, and the low number of regular suppliers reduces its availability and restricts the compositions and sizes available. In this article, a synthesis method based on the extraction/evaporation methodology has been developed and successfully used for the synthesis of plastic scintillation microspheres. Seven different compositions of plastic scintillation microspheres have been synthesised; PSm1 with polystyrene, PSm2 with 2,5-Diphenyloxazol(PPO), PSm3 with p-terphenyl (pT), PSm4 with PPO and 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl) (POPOP), PSm5 pT and (1,4-bis [2-methylstyryl] benzene) (Bis-MSB), PSm6 with PPO, POPOP and naphthalene and PSm7 with pT, Bis-MSB and naphthalene. The synthesised plastic scintillation microspheres have been characterised in terms of their morphology, detection capabilities and alpha/beta separation capacity. The microspheres had a median diameter of approximately 130 μm. Maximum detection efficiency values were obtained for the PSm4 composition as follows 1.18% for 3H, 51.2% for 14C, 180.6% for 90Sr/90Y and 76.7% for 241Am. Values of the SQP(E) parameter were approximately 790 for PSm4 and PSm5. These values show that the synthesised PSm exhibit good scintillation properties and that the spectra are at channel numbers higher than in commercial PSm. Finally, the addition of

  11. Extruded plastic scintillator for MINERvA

    SciTech Connect

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; Rykalin, Victor V.; Wood, Brian M.; /NICADD, DeKalb

    2005-11-01

    An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. A new experiment at Fermilab is pursuing the use of extruded plastic scintillator. A new plastic scintillator strip is being tested and its properties characterized. The initial results are presented here.

  12. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, R.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.

    2011-04-27

    We describe the R and D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O{sub 2}, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed ''natural'' radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  13. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  14. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  15. Toward 17µm pitch heterogeneously integrated Si/SiGe quantum well bolometer focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericsson, Per; Fischer, Andreas C.; Forsberg, Fredrik; Roxhed, Niclas; Samel, Björn; Savage, Susan; Stemme, Göran; Wissmar, Stanley; Öberg, Olof; Niklaus, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Most of today's commercial solutions for un-cooled IR imaging sensors are based on resistive bolometers using either Vanadium oxide (VOx) or amorphous Silicon (a-Si) as the thermistor material. Despite the long history for both concepts, market penetration outside high-end applications is still limited. By allowing actors in adjacent fields, such as those from the MEMS industry, to enter the market, this situation could change. This requires, however, that technologies fitting their tools and processes are developed. Heterogeneous integration of Si/SiGe quantum well bolometers on standard CMOS read out circuits is one approach that could easily be adopted by the MEMS industry. Due to its mono crystalline nature, the Si/SiGe thermistor material has excellent noise properties that result in a state-ofthe- art signal-to-noise ratio. The material is also stable at temperatures well above 450°C which offers great flexibility for both sensor integration and novel vacuum packaging concepts. We have previously reported on heterogeneous integration of Si/SiGe quantum well bolometers with pitches of 40μm x 40μm and 25μm x 25μm. The technology scales well to smaller pixel pitches and in this paper, we will report on our work on developing heterogeneous integration for Si/SiGe QW bolometers with a pixel pitch of 17μm x 17μm.

  16. Investigation of the Neutral Gas Pressure Effect on the Metal Resistive Bolometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Giannone, L.; Piechotka, M.; Windisch, T.; Klinger, T.; Grulke, O.; Stark, A.

    2008-03-19

    The bolometer system planned for W7-X consists mainly of metal (Au) resistive detector arrays. All the detectors are exposed to neutral gas environment. The thin bolometer foil used for detecting the radiated power loss may be sensitive to the neutral gas pressure due to the strain gauge effect. Recently, a prototype of this kind of bolometer camera consisting of 12 channels has been installed on the cylindrical plasma device VINETA in order to investigate the influences of the neutral gas pressure on the bolometer signals. Experiments are carried out for Ar-discharges under different gas pressure conditions. It is found that the pressure effect of the neutral gas can make considerable contributions, thus inducing non-negligible errors of the results in most of the investigated cases. Using the VINETA plasmas (Ar, T{sub e}<10 eV, n{sub e}<10{sup -19} m{sup -3}) as examples, the paper demonstrates and discusses how to minimize the neutral gas effects, especially in the data analysis process. The radiated power and the radiation intensity profile obtained in helicon discharges are presented.

  17. Superconducting Cold-Electron Bolometers with JFET Readout for OLIMPO Balloon Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Leonid; Mauskopf, Phillip; Golubev, Dmitry

    2006-06-01

    The OLIMPO experiment is a 2.6 m balloon-borne telescope, aimed at measuring the Sunyaev- Zeldovich effect in clusters of Galaxies. OLIMPO will carry out surveys in four frequency bands centered at 140, 220, 410 and 540 GHz. The detector system consists of four bolometer arrays and incorporates new detector technologies that are potential candidates for future space missions. One of these technologies is the Capacitively Coupled Cold-Electron Bolometer (CEB) with JFET readout. The JFET readout coupled to semiconductor-based high-impedence bolometers has been developed already for the BOOMERanG and Planck-HFI experiments. The CEB is a planar antenna-coupled superconductong detector with high sensitivity and high dynamic range. Here, we discuss a scheme to match the relatively moderate dynamic resistance of CEB (~1kOhm) to the high noise equivalent resistance of JFET (1 MΩ). To achieve noise matching with JFET, a Cold-Electron Bolometer with a weak Superconducting Absorber (SCEB) has been proposed. In voltage-biased mode with voltage higher than (Delta 1-Delta 2) the IV of SIS' junctions has considerably increased dynamic resistance up to the level of Rj = 1000*Rn. Electron cooling will be still very effective for the incoming power. Simulations show that photon noise level can be achieved at 300 mK for a structure with Ti absorber and Al/Ti tunnel junctions for all frequency ranges with the estimated in-flight optical power load for OLIMPO.

  18. Design of high-T[sub c] superconducting bolometers for a far infrared imaging array

    SciTech Connect

    Verghese, S.; Richards, P.L. ); Fork, D.K. ); Char, K. ); Geballe, T.H. . Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1992-08-01

    The design of high-[Tc] superconducting bolometers for use in a far infrared imaging array from wavelengths 30--100[mu]m is discussed. Measurements of the voltage noise in thin films of YBa[sub 2]CU[sub 3]O[sub 7-[var sigma

  19. Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Paul, S; Ince-Cushmann, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2007-11-07

    This tutorial gives a brief introduction into passive spectroscopy and describes the working principles of bolometers, a high-resolution grating spectrometer, and a novel X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which is of particular interest for profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity on ITER and future burning plasma experiments.

  20. Broadband Direct Detection Submillimeter Spectrometer with Multiplexed Superconducting Transition Edge Thermometer Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Ames, T. A.; Chervenak, J. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Staguhn, J. G.; Voellmer, G. M.; Pajot, F.; Rioux, C.; Phillips, T. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present performance results based on the first astronomical use of multiplexed superconducting bolometers as direct detectors (i.e., with cold electrons) for spectroscopy. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE) is a broadband submillimeter spectrometer for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). FIBRE's detectors are superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out by a SQUID multiplexer. The Fabry-Perot uses a low resolution grating to order sort the incoming light. A linear bolometer array consisting of 16 elements detects this dispersed light, capturing 5 orders simultaneously from one position on the sky. With tuning of the Fabry-Perot over one free spectral range, a spectrum covering Delta lambda/lambda = 1/7 at a resolution of delta lambda/lambda = 1/1200 can be acquired. This spectral resolution is sufficient to resolve Doppler-broadened line emission from external galaxies. FIBRE has been operated in the 350 Am (850 GHz) band. These bands cover line emission from the important star formation tracers neutral carbon [CI] and carbon monoxide (CO).

  1. Characterization of the scintillation anisotropy in crystalline stilbene scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.; Brubaker, E.

    2016-11-23

    This study reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline melt-grown and solution-grown trans-stilbene to incident DT and DD neutrons. These measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature for melt-grown stilbene and providing the first measurements for solution-grown stilbene. In similar measurements of liquid and plastic detectors, no directional dependence was observed, confirming the hypothesis that the anisotropy in stilbene and other organic crystal scintillators is a result of internal effects due to the molecular or crystal structure and not an external effect on the measurement system.

  2. Characterization of the scintillation anisotropy in crystalline stilbene scintillator detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Schuster, P.; Brubaker, E.

    2016-11-23

    This study reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline melt-grown and solution-grown trans-stilbene to incident DT and DD neutrons. These measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature for melt-grown stilbene and providing the first measurements for solution-grown stilbene. In similar measurements of liquid and plastic detectors, no directional dependence was observed, confirming the hypothesis that the anisotropy in stilbene and other organic crystal scintillators is a result of internal effects duemore » to the molecular or crystal structure and not an external effect on the measurement system.« less

  3. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  4. Scintillation Monitoring Using Asymmetry Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mubasshir; Mahrous, Ayman; Abdallah, Amr; Notarpietro, Riccardo

    Variation in electron density can have significant effect on GNSS signals in terms of propagation delay. Ionospheric scintillation can be caused by rapid change of such delay, specifically, when they last for a longer period of time. Ionospheric irregularities that account for scintillation may vary significantly in spatial range and drift with the background plasma at speeds of 45 to 130 m/sec. These patchy irregularities may occur several times during night, e.g. in equatorial region, with the patches move through the ray paths of the GNSS satellite signals. These irregularities are often characterized as either ‘large scale’ (which can be as large as several hundred km in East-West direction and many times that in the North-South direction) or ‘small scale’ (which can be as small as 1m). These small scale irregularities are regarded as the main cause of scintillation [1,2]. In normal solar activity conditions, the mid-latitude ionosphere is not much disturbed. However, during severe magnetic storms, the aurora oval extends towards the equator and the equator anomaly region may stretched towards poles extending the scintillation phenomena more typically associated with those regions into mid-latitudes. In such stormy conditions, the predicted TEC may deviate largely from the true value of the TEC both at low and mid-latitudes due to which GNSS applications may be strongly degraded. This work is an attempt to analyze ionospheric scintillation (S4 index) using ionospheric asymmetry index [3]. The asymmetry index is based on trans-ionospheric propagation between GPS and LEO satellites in a radio occultation (RO) scenario, using background ionospheric data provided by MIDAS [4]. We attempted to simulate one of the recent geomagnetic storms (NOAA scale G4) occurred over low/mid-latitudes. The storm started on 26 September 2011 at UT 18:00 and lasted until early hours of 27 September 2011. The scintillation data for the storm was taken from an ionospheric

  5. Detecting scintillations in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, P. R.; McKinsey, D. N.

    2013-09-01

    We review our work in developing a tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB)-based detection system for a measurement of the neutron lifetime using magnetically confined ultracold neutrons (UCN). As part of the development of the detection system for this experiment, we studied the scintillation properties of liquid helium itself, characterized the fluorescent efficiencies of different fluors, and built and tested three detector geometries. We provide an overview of the results from these studies as well as references for additional information.

  6. Scintillation Forecasting Using NPOESS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, B.; Retterer, J.; Demajistre, R.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Scro, K.

    2005-12-01

    We have conducted a theoretical study of the use of NPOESS data for the forecasting of equatorial radio scintillation using knowledge of the equatorial Appleton anomaly, e.g., the peak-to-valley ratio of TEC (Total Electron Content) between the anomaly crests and the magnetic equator. The peak-to-valley ratio can be obtained from the UV (ultraviolet) imagery of the anomaly region that will be provided by the NPOESS sensors. The post-sunset enhancement of the upward drift velocity of the equatorial plasma has been shown, both theoretically and observationally, to be an important determinant of both the onset of scintillation and the strength of the anomaly. The technical approach is to run PBMOD, the AFRL low-latitude ionosphere model, with a range of post-sunset vertical drift velocities to determine the quantitative relationship between the peak-to-valley ratio and the maximum value of the pot-sunset upward drift velocity of equatorial plasma. Once the relationship is validated, it will be used to estimate the maximum value of the drift velocity from the peak-to-valley ratio, which is derived from the UV imagery data provided by NPOESS-like sensor, such as GUVI on TIMED satellite. The drift velocity will then be used in PBMOD to simulate the formation and evolution of equatorial plasma `bubbles' and calculate the distribution of the amplitude scintillation index S4. Results of the study will be discussed.

  7. A Review of Ionospheric Scintillation Models.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, S

    This is a general review of the existing climatological models of ionospheric radio scintillation for high and equatorial latitudes. Trans-ionospheric communication of radio waves from transmitter to user is affected by the ionosphere which is highly variable and dynamic in both time and space. Scintillation is the term given to irregular amplitude and phase fluctuations of the received signals and related to the electron density irregularities in the ionosphere. Key sources of ionospheric irregularities are plasma instabilities; every irregularities model is based on the theory of radio wave propagation in random media. It is important to understand scintillation phenomena and the approach of different theories. Therefore, we have briefly discussed the theories that are used to interpret ionospheric scintillation data. The global morphology of ionospheric scintillation is also discussed briefly. The most important (in our opinion) analytical and physical models of scintillation are reviewed here.

  8. Recording of relativistic particles in thin scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstukhin, I A.; Somov, Alexander S.; Somov, S. V.; Bolozdynya, A. I.

    2014-11-01

    Results of investigating an assembly of thin scintillators and silicon photomultipliers for registering relativistic particles with the minimum ionization are presented. A high efficiency of registering relativistic particles using an Ej-212 plastic scintillator, BSF-91A wavelength-shifting fiber (Saint-Gobain), and a silicon photomultiplier (Hamamtsu) is shown. The measurement results are used for creating a scintillation hodoscope of the magnetic spectrometer for registering γ quanta in the GlueX experiment.

  9. Scintillator tiles read out with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooth, O.; Radermacher, T.; Weingarten, S.; Weinstock, L.

    2015-10-01

    A detector prototype based on a fast plastic scintillator read out with silicon photomultipliers is presented. All studies have been done with cosmic muons and focus on parameter optimization such as coupling the SiPM to the scintillator or wrapping the scintillator with reflective material. The prototype shows excellent results regarding the light-yield and offers a detection efficiency of 99.5% with a signal purity of 99.9% for cosmic muons.

  10. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of

  11. New Scintillators for Photosensitive Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpak, G.; Peskov, V.; Scigocki, D.; Valbis, J.

    A new family of scintillators are presented. Their properties are similar to those of barium fluoride, and the spectrum of the scintillation emission is between 140 and 300 nm. Our latest efficiency measurements of ethyl ferrocene and triethylamine liquid or caesium iodide solid photocathodes, in parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPACs) at high electric field, are also presented. We discuss the revolutionary consequences of the combination of the new scintillators with PPACs with semitransparent photocathodes deposited on the crystals, such as high speed, high resistance to radiation damage, compacity, high gamma efficiency, and applications to tracking devices with scintillation optical fibres.

  12. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  13. Waveshifters and Scintillators for Ionizing Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    B.Baumgaugh; J.Bishop; D.Karmgard; J.Marchant; M.McKenna; R.Ruchti; M.Vigneault; L.Hernandez; C.Hurlbut

    2007-12-11

    Scintillation and waveshifter materials have been developed for the detection of ionizing radiation in an STTR program between Ludlum Measurements, Inc. and the University of Notre Dame. Several new waveshifter materials have been developed which are comparable in efficiency and faster in fluorescence decay than the standard material Y11 (K27) used in particle physics for several decades. Additionally, new scintillation materials useful for fiber tracking have been developed which have been compared to 3HF. Lastly, work was done on developing liquid scintillators and paint-on scintillators and waveshifters for high radiation environments.

  14. Radio wave scintillations at equatorial regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poularikas, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Radio waves, passing through the atmosphere, experience amplitude and phase fluctuations know as scintillations. A characterization of equatorial scintillation, which has resulted from studies of data recorded primarily in South America and equatorial Africa, is presented. Equatorial scintillation phenomena are complex because they appear to vary with time of day (pre-and postmidnight), season (equinoxes), and magnetic activity. A wider and more systematic geographical coverage is needed for both scientific and engineering purposes; therefore, it is recommended that more observations should be made at earth stations (at low-geomagnetic latitudes) to record equatorial scintillation phenomena.

  15. Infrared detection with high-{Tc} bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Verghese, S.

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature {Tc} make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} thermometers on sapphire substrates which have higher sensitivity than competing thermal detectors which operate at temperatures above 77 K. A 1 x 1 mm bolometer with gold black serving as the radiation absorber has useful sensitivity for wavelengths 20--100 {mu}m. A 3 x 3 mm bolometer with a bismuth film as the absorber operates from 20--100 {mu}m. High-{Tc} bolometers which are fabricated with micromachining techniques on membranes of Si or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} have potential application to large-format arrays which are used for infrared imaging. A nonisothermal high-{Tc} bolometer can be fabricated on a membrane of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is in thermal contact with the heat sink along the perimeter of the membrane. A thermal analysis indicates that the YSZ membrane bolometer can have improved sensitivity compared to the sapphire bolometer for spectrometer applications. The quasiparticle tunneling current in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction is highly nonlinear in the applied voltage. The authors have made the first measurement of the linear response of the quasiparticle current in a Nb/AlO{sub x}/Nb junction over a broad bandwidth from 75--200 GHz. Nonlinear measurements made with these pulses may provide information about the quasiparticle lifetime. Preliminary data from such measurements are presented.

  16. Focal plane array detectors with micro-bolometer structure and its application in IR and THz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Mou, Wenchao; Gou, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector has characteristics of low cost, operating at room temperature, compatibility with the silicon CMOS technology, and high detecting performance, therefore it becomes a hot spot in infrared (IR) or terahertz (THz) detect field recently. However, the tradition structure of micro-bolometer has the conflict of the pixel size and thermal performance. In order to improve the detecting performance of small pixel size bolometer, high fill factor and low thermal conductance design should be considered. In IR detecting, double layers structure is an efficient method to improve the absorption of micro-bolometer and reduce thermal conductance. The three-dimension model of small size micro-bolometer was built in this article. The thermal and mechanical characters of those models were simulated and optimized, and finally the double layer structure micro-bolometer was fabricated with multifarious semiconductor recipes on the readout integrated chip wafer. For THz detecting, to improve the detecting performance, different dimension THz detectors based on micro-bridge structure were designed and fabricated to get optimizing micro-bolometer parameters from the test results of membrane deformation. A nanostructured titanium thin film absorber is integrated in the micro-bridge structure of the VOx micro-bolometer to enhance the absorption of THz radiation. Continuous-wave THz detection and imaging are demonstrated with a 2.52 THz far infrared CO2 laser and fabricated 320×240 vanadium oxide micro-bolometer focal plane array with optimized cell structure. With this detecting system, THz imaging of metal concealed in wiping cloth and envelope is demonstrated.

  17. Design, realization, and characteristics of a transition edge bolometer for sub-millimeter wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Torsten; Zakosarenko, Vyatcheslav; Kreysa, Ernst; Esch, Walter; Anders, Solveig; Gemuend, Hans-Peter; Heinz, Erik; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2012-11-01

    The large array bolometer camera is scheduled to succeed its semiconducting predecessor at the Atacama pathfinder experiment. It shall be an array of 300 transition edge sensors operated at a temperature of about 0.25 K, provided by a 3He evaporation cooler and a pulse tube refrigerator. The instrument will be read out by a superconducting quantum interference device time domain multiplexer. The design and realization of a suitable detector for this instrument is described. Based on sensitivity demands derived from the background limit, the thermal and electrical designs for a spider-web bolometer are deduced. The theoretical predictions are compared to experimental results. The pixel design yields a background-limited performance for background loads corresponding to blackbody sources between 77 K and 300 K and a partially effective anti-aliasing filter for the intended multiplexed readout.

  18. Uncooled bolometer-type Terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki

    2010-08-01

    Real-time Terahertz (THz) imaging technologies which make use of uncooled bolometer-type infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) will be reviewed. A description of how THz focal plane array and THz imagers have been developed on the basis of infrared technologies, especially the improvement in both THz sensitivity of bolometer-type FPA and THz transmittance of materials for lens and vacuum package window will be given. Characteristics of 320×240 THz-FPA, such as relation of noise equivalent power (NEP) to wavelength and real-time THz imageries will be presented. One of the imageries indicates that THz technology is promising for label-free detection of reaction of small molecules with proteins.

  19. BIG MAC: A bolometer array for mid-infrared astronomy, Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, C. M.; Decher, R.; Baugher, C.

    1985-01-01

    The infrared array referred to as Big Mac (for Marshall Array Camera), was designed for ground based astronomical observations in the wavelength range 5 to 35 microns. It contains 20 discrete gallium-doped germanium bolometer detectors at a temperature of 1.4K. Each bolometer is irradiated by a square field mirror constituting a single pixel of the array. The mirrors are arranged contiguously in four columns and five rows, thus defining the array configuration. Big Mac utilized cold reimaging optics and an up looking dewar. The total Big Mac system also contains a telescope interface tube for mounting the dewar and a computer for data acquisition and processing. Initial astronomical observations at a major infrared observatory indicate that Big Mac performance is excellent, having achieved the design specifications and making this instrument an outstanding tool for astrophysics.

  20. An FPGA-based bolometer for the MAST-U Super-X divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Jack; Naylor, Graham; Field, Anthony; Drewelow, Peter; Sharples, Ray

    2016-11-01

    A new resistive bolometer system has been developed for MAST-Upgrade. It will measure radiated power in the new Super-X divertor, with millisecond time resolution, along 16 vertical and 16 horizontal lines of sight. The system uses a Xilinx Zynq-7000 series Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in the D-TACQ ACQ2106 carrier to perform real time data acquisition and signal processing. The FPGA enables AC-synchronous detection using high performance digital filtering to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio and will be able to output processed data in real time with millisecond latency. The system has been installed on 8 previously unused channels of the JET vertical bolometer system. Initial results suggest good agreement with data from existing vertical channels but with higher bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. A bolometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, D. S.; Boldyrev, N. Yu.; Iakovlev, V. Ya.; Gladush, Yu. G.; Nasibulin, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    We have designed a bolometric IR detector based on freestanding aerosol synthesised carbon nanotubes and hybrid graphene materials deposited on a film suspended over a hole in the substrate. In this case, graphene serves as an absorber. The effect of the amount of the deposited absorber on the spectral characteristics, voltage sensitivity, response time and noise of the bolometer is investigated. The best response time is observed for the samples of pristine carbon nanotubes, whereas the hybrid sample with the largest amount of graphene demonstrates the highest sensitivity to radiation. Moreover, we have measured and analysed the bolometer parameters as functions of the ambient pressure and temperature, which has allowed us to determine the optimum operating conditions for the device.

  2. An FPGA-based bolometer for the MAST-U Super-X divertor.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Jack; Naylor, Graham; Field, Anthony; Drewelow, Peter; Sharples, Ray

    2016-11-01

    A new resistive bolometer system has been developed for MAST-Upgrade. It will measure radiated power in the new Super-X divertor, with millisecond time resolution, along 16 vertical and 16 horizontal lines of sight. The system uses a Xilinx Zynq-7000 series Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in the D-TACQ ACQ2106 carrier to perform real time data acquisition and signal processing. The FPGA enables AC-synchronous detection using high performance digital filtering to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio and will be able to output processed data in real time with millisecond latency. The system has been installed on 8 previously unused channels of the JET vertical bolometer system. Initial results suggest good agreement with data from existing vertical channels but with higher bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Nonequilibrium theory of a hot-electron bolometer with normal metal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, Dmitri; Kuzmin, Leonid

    2001-06-01

    The operation of the hot-electron bolometer with normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junction as a temperature sensor is analyzed theoretically. The responsivity and the noise equivalent power (NEP) of the bolometer are obtained numerically for typical experimental parameters. Relatively simple approximate analytical expressions for these values are derived. The time constant of the device is also found. We demonstrate that the effect of the electron cooling by the NIS junction, which serves as a thermometer, can improve the sensitivity. This effect is also useful in the presence of the finite background power load. We discuss the effect of the correlation of the shot noise and the heat flow noise in the NIS junction. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrates for Terahertz Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, Anders; Stern, Jeffrey; Bumble, Bruce; Maiwald, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A terahertz Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixer design using device substrates based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology is described. This substrate technology allows very thin chips (6 pm) with almost arbitrary shape to be manufactured, so that they can be tightly fitted into a waveguide structure and operated at very high frequencies with only low risk for power leakages and resonance modes. The NbTiN-based bolometers are contacted by gold beam-leads, while other beamleads are used to hold the chip in place in the waveguide test fixture. The initial tests yielded an equivalent receiver noise temperature of 3460 K double-sideband at a local oscillator frequency of 1.462 THz and an intermediate frequency of 1.4 GHz.

  5. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

  6. Accelerated discovery of elpasolite scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F. Patrick; Yang, Pin; Zhou, Xiaowang

    2014-12-01

    Elpasolite scintillators are a large family of halides which includes compounds reported to meet the NA22 program goals of <3% energy resolution at 662 keV1. This work investigated the potential to produce quality elpasolite compounds and alloys of useful sizes at reasonable cost, through systematic experimental and computational investigation of crystal structure and properties across the composition space. Discovery was accelerated by computational methods and models developed previously to efficiently identify cubic members of the elpasolite halides, and to evaluate stability of anion and cation exchange alloys.

  7. Photodetectors for Scintillator Proportionality Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, J.D.

    2010-10-18

    We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.

  8. Current status on plastic scintillators modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, Matthieu; Bertrand, Guillaume H.V.; Carrel, Frederick; Coulon, Romain; Dumazert, Jonathan; Montbarbon, Eva; Sguerra, Fabien

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments of plastic scintillators are reviewed, from 2000 to March 2015. All examples are distributed into the main purpose, i.e. the nature of the radionuclide provided with the scope of detection of various radiation particles. The main characteristics of these newly created scintillators and their detection properties are given. (authors)

  9. Binderless composite scintillator for neutron detection

    DOEpatents

    Hodges, Jason P [Knoxville, TN; Crow, Jr; Lowell, M [Oak Ridge, TN; Cooper, Ronald G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-03-10

    Composite scintillator material consisting of a binderless sintered mixture of a Lithium (Li) compound containing .sup.6Li as the neutron converter and Y.sub.2SiO.sub.5:Ce as the scintillation phosphor, and the use of this material as a method for neutron detection. Other embodiments of the invention include various other Li compounds.

  10. Epoxy resins produce improved plastic scintillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Plastic scintillator produced by the substitution of epoxy resins for the commonly used polystyrene is easy to cast, stable at room temperature, and has the desirable properties of a thermoset or cross-linked system. Such scintillators can be immersed directly in strong solvents, an advantage in many chemical and biological experiments.

  11. Scintillator handbook with emphasis on cesium iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidd, J. L.; Dabbs, J. R.; Levine, N.

    1973-01-01

    This report provides a background of reasonable depth and reference material on scintillators in general. Particular attention is paid to the cesium iodide scintillators as used in the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) experiments. It is intended especially for use by persons such as laboratory test personnel who need to obtain a working knowledge of these materials and their characteristics in a short time.

  12. Multichroic bandpass seashell antenna with cold-electron bolometers for CMB measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Leonid S.; Chiginev, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    novel type of the multichroic "seashell" resonant antenna is developed for CMB measurements. The polarized slot antennas are arranged in the compact form of a seashell with individual slots for each frequency and each polarization. Such an arrangement gives unique opportunity for independent adjusting individual parameters of slots with microstrip lines (MSL) and bolometers. For each frequency band the seashell antenna contains two pairs of orthogonal slots for each polarization connected by microstrip lines (MSL) with a bolometer in the middle for in-phase operation. To fit slots in λ/2 area for the best beam shape, lumped capacitances in the form of H-slot were introduced. Ellipticity of a beam was improved to the level of better than 1%. The seashell antenna gives a unique opportunity to select needed bandwidth by resonant properties of slots themselves. Slots are phased by MSLs connecting two opposite slots with a resistive Cold-Electron Bolometer (CEB) placed just in middle of two MSLs. MSLs and CEBs are placed just in the area of the seashell antenna. The resonant seashell antenna with CEBs avoids long MSLs bringing signal outside the antenna to large external filters as in the case of sinuous antenna. This innovation avoids losses in long MSLs and increases frequency range.

  13. Predicted dynamic electrothermal performance of thermistor bolometer radiometers for Earth radiation budget applications.

    PubMed

    Haeffelin, M P; Mahan, J R; Priestley, K J

    1997-10-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) rely on scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers of a similar design for accomplishing their mission. High-level dynamic electrothermal models of these instruments have been developed on the basis of the Monte Carlo ray-trace, finite-difference, and finite-element methods. The models are capable of simulating the end-to-end response of the ERBE and the CERES instruments to simulated sequences of Earth scenes. Such models will prove useful in the design of future generations of similar instruments, in defining ground-based and in-flight calibration and data-reduction strategies, in the interpretation of flight data, and in understanding data anomalies that might arise after the instruments have been placed in orbit. Two modules that make up the end-to-end model are presented: the optical-thermal radiative module and the thermistor bolometer dynamic electrothermal module. The optics module is used to determine the point-spread function of the optics, which establishes that the instrument has sharply defined footprints on the Earth. Results obtained with the thermistor bolometer dynamic electrothermal module provide valuable insights into the details of channel operation and establish its high level of equivalence. The combination of the two modules allows the point-spread function of the instrument to be determined and reveals the potential of this tool for scanning realistic Earth scenes.

  14. A 90GHz Bolometer Camera Detector System for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Allen, Christine A.; Buchanan, Ernest D.; Chen, Tina C.; Chervenak, James A.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Forgione, Joshua B.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a close-packed, two-dimensional imaging detector system for operation at 90GHz (3.3mm) for the 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) This system will provide high sensitivity (<1mjy in 1s rapid imaging (15'x15' to 250 microJy in 1 hr) at the world's largest steerable aperture. The heart of this camera is an 8x8 close packed, Nyquist-sampled array of superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers. We have designed and are producing a functional superconducting bolometer array system using a monolithic planar architecture and high-speed multiplexed readout electronics. With an NEP of approx. 2.10(exp 17) W/square root Hz, the TES bolometers will provide fast linear sensitive response for high performance imaging. The detectors are read out by and 8x8 time domain SQUID multiplexer. A digital/analog electronics system has been designed to enable read out by SQUID multiplexers. First light for this instrument on the GBT is expected within a year.

  15. Design and Fabrication of a Two-Dimensional Superconducting Pop-up Bolometer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Chervenak, James A.; Allen, Christine A.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Irwin, Kent D.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Page, Lyman A.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing an architecture for producing large format, two dimensional arrays of close-packed bolometers, which will enable submillimeter cameras and spectrometers to obtain images and spectra orders of magnitude faster than present instruments. The low backgrounds achieved in these instruments require very sensitive detectors with NEPs of order 5 x 10(exp -18) W/square root of Hz. Superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers can be close-packed using the Pop-up Detector (PUD) format, and SQUID multiplexers operating at the detector base temperature can be intimately coupled to them. The array unit cell is 8 x 32 pixels, using 32- element detector and multiplexer components. We have fabricated an engineering model array with this technology which features a very compact, modular approach for large format arrays. We report on the production of the 32-element components for the arrays. Planned instruments using this array architecture include the Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory, the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) for the AST/RO observatory, the Millimeter Bolometer Camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (MBC/ACT), and the Redshift (Z) Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS j.

  16. Fabrication and Test of Large Area Spider-Web Bolometers for CMB Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasotti, M.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Orlando, A.; Pizzigoni, G.

    2016-08-01

    Detecting the primordial 'B-mode' polarization of the cosmic microwave background is one of the major challenges of modern observational cosmology. Microwave telescopes need sensitive cryogenic bolometers with an overall equivalent noise temperature in the nK range. In this paper, we present the development status of large area (about 1 cm2) spider-web bolometer, which imply additional fabrication challenges. The spider-web is a suspended Si3N4 1 \\upmu m-thick and 8-mm diameter with mesh size of 250 \\upmu m. The thermal sensitive element is a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) at the center of the bolometer. The first prototype is a Ti-Au TES with transition temperature tuned around 350 mK, new devices will be a Mo-Au bilayer tuned to have a transition temperature of 500 mK. We present the fabrication process with micro-machining techniques from silicon wafer covered with SiO2 - Si3N4 CVD films, 0.3 and 1 \\upmu m- thick, respectively, and preliminary tests.

  17. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 145 mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bolometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  18. Development of a prototype infrared imaging bolometer for NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eden, G. G.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Gray, T. K.; Jaworski, M. A.; Morgan, T. W.; Peterson, B. J.; Reinke, M. L.; Sano, R.; Mukai, K.; Differ/Pppl Collaboration; Nifs/Pppl Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of the radiated power in fusion reactors are of high importance for studying detachment and the overall power balance. A prototype Infrared Video Bolometer (IRVB) is being developed for NSTX-U complementing resistive bolometer and AXUV diode diagnostics. The IRVB has proven to be a powerful tool on LHD and JT-60U for its 2D imaging quality and reactor environment compatibility. For NSTX-U, a poloidal view of the lower center stack and lower divertor are envisaged for the 2016 run campaign. The IRVB concept images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick 9 x 7 cm2 calibrated Pt foil and monitors its temperature evolution using an IR camera (SB focal plane, 2-12 μm, 128x128 pixels, 1.6 kHz). The power incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D +time heat diffusion equation. Benchtop characterization is presented, demonstrating a sensitivity of approximately 20 mK and a noise equivalent power density of 71.5 μW cm-2 for 4x20 bolometer super-pixels and a 50 Hz time response. The hardware design, optimization of camera and detector settings as well as first results of both synthetic and experimental origin are discussed.

  19. Kilopixel Pop-Up Bolometer Arrays for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Wollack, E.; Henry, R.; Moseley, S. H.; Niemack, M.; Staggs, S.; Page, L.; Doriese, R.; Hilton, G. c.; Irwin, K. D.

    2007-01-01

    The recently deployed Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) anticipates first light on its kilopixel array of close-packed transition-edge-sensor bolometers in November of 2007. The instrument will represent a full implementation of the next-generation, large format arrays for millimeter wave astronomy that use superconducting electronics and detectors. Achieving the practical construction of such an array is a significant step toward producing advanced detector arrays for future SOFIA instruments. We review the design considerations for the detector array produced for the ACT instrument. The first light imager consists of 32 separately instrumented 32-channel pop-up bolometer arrays (to create a 32x32 filled array of mm-wave sensors). Each array is instrumented with a 32-channel bias resistor array, Nyquist filter array, and time-division SQUID multiplexer. Each component needed to be produced in relatively large quantities with suitable uniformity to meet tolerances for array operation. An optical design was chosen to maximize absorption at the focal plane while mitigating reflections and stray light. The pop-up geometry (previously implemented with semiconducting detectors and readout on the SHARC II and HAWC instruments) enabled straightforward interface of the superconducting bias and readout circuit with the 2D array of superconducting bolometers. The array construction program balanced fabrication challenges with assembly challenges to deliver the instrument in a timely fashion. We present some of the results of the array build and characterization of its performance.

  20. Progress on Background-Limited Membrane-Isolated TES Bolometers for Far-IR/Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, M.; Day, P. K.; Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Leduc, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the lowest attainable phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) for membrane-isolation bolometers, we fabricated and measured the thermal conductance of suspended Si3N4 beams with different geometries via a noise thermometry technique. We measured beam cross-sectional areas ranging from 0.35 x 0.5 (micro)m(sup 2) to 135 x 1.0 (micro)m(sup 2) and beam lengths ranging from (micro)m to 8300 (micro)m. The measurements directly imply that membrane-isolation bolometers are capable of reaching a phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4 x 10(sup -20)W/Hz(sup 1)/O . This NEP adequate for the Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph (BLISS) proposed for the Japanese SPICA observatory, and adequate for NASA's SAFIR observatory, a 10-meter, 4 K telescope to be deployed at L2. Further, we measured the heat capacity of a suspended Si3N4 membrane and show how this result implies that one can make membrane-isolation bolometers with a response time which is fast enough for BLISS.

  1. Thermal response of large area high temperature superconducting YBaCuO infrared bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, Ali E.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal analysis of large area high temperature superconducting infrared detector operating in the equilibrium mode (bolometer) was performed. An expression for the temperature coefficient beta = 1/R(dR/dT) in terms of the thermal conductance and the thermal time constant of the detector were derived. A superconducting transition edge bolometer is a thermistor consisting of a thin film superconducting YBaCuO evaporated into a suitable thermally isolated substrate. The operating temperature of the bolometer is maintained close to the midpoint of the superconducting transition region where the resistance R has a maximum dynamic range. A detector with a strip configuration was analyzed and an expression for the temperature rise (delta T) above the ambient due to a uniform illumination with a source of power density was calculated. An expression for the thermal responsibility depends upon the spatial modulation frequency and the angular frequency of the incoming radiation. The problem of the thermal cross talk between different detector elements was addressed. In the case of monolithic HTS detector array with a row of square elements of dimensions 2a and CCD or CID readout electronics the thermal spread function was derived for different spacing between elements.

  2. Design and Fabrication Highlights Enabling a 2 mm, 128 Element Bolometer Array for GISMO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christine; Benford, Dominic; Miller, Timothy; Staguhn, Johannes; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Harvey

    2007-01-01

    The Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) superconducting bolometer array architecture is intended to be highly versatile, operating in a large range of wavelengths and background conditions. We have undertaken a three-year program to develop key technologies and processes required to build kilopixel arrays. To validate the basic array design and to demonstrate its applicability for future kilopixel arrays, we have chosen to demonstrate a 128 element bolometer array optimized for 2 mm wavelength using a newly built Goddard instrument, GISMO (Goddard /RAM Superconducting 2-millimeter Observer). The arrays are fabricated using batch wafer processing developed and optimized for high pixel yield, low noise, and high uniformity. The molybdenum-gold superconducting transition edge sensors are fabricated using batch sputter deposition and are patterned using dry etch techniques developed at Goddard. With a detector pitch of 2 mm 8x16 array for GISMO occupies nearly one half of the processing area of a 100 mm silicon-on-insulator starting wafer. Two such arrays are produced from a single wafer along with witness samples for process characterization. To provide thermal isolation for the detector elements, at the end of the process over 90% of the silicon must be removed using deep reactive ion etching techniques. The electrical connections for each bolometer element are patterned on the top edge of the square grid supporting the array. The design considerations unique to GISMO, key fabrication challenges, and laboratory experimental results will be presented.

  3. Terahertz real-time imaging uncooled array based on antenna- and cavity-coupled bolometers.

    PubMed

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme

    2014-03-28

    The development of terahertz (THz) applications is slowed down by the availability of affordable, easy-to-use and highly sensitive detectors. CEA-Leti took up this challenge by tailoring the mature infrared (IR) bolometer technology for optimized THz sensing. The key feature of these detectors relies on the separation between electromagnetic absorption and the thermometer. For each pixel, specific structures of antennas and a resonant quarter-wavelength cavity couple efficiently the THz radiation on a broadband range, while a central silicon microbridge bolometer resistance is read out by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit. 320×240 pixel arrays have been designed and manufactured: a better than 30 pW power direct detection threshold per pixel has been demonstrated in the 2-4 THz range. Such performance is expected on the whole THz range by proper tailoring of the antennas while keeping the technological stack largely unchanged. This paper gives an overview of the developed bolometer-based technology. First, it describes the technology and reports the latest performance characterizations. Then imaging demonstrations are presented, such as real-time reflectance imaging of a large surface of hidden objects and THz time-domain spectroscopy beam two-dimensional profiling. Finally, perspectives of camera integration for scientific and industrial applications are discussed.

  4. Design of an imaging bolometer system for the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurden, G. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Sudo, Shigeru

    1997-01-01

    We describe a radical design for a bolometer system employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry, which we will prototype and demonstrate on the large helical device (LHD).1 LHD will be operational in early 1998, with an l=2 superconducting winding, a major radius of 3.9 m, a minor radius of 0.5-0.65 m, and input powers ranging from 3 MW (steady state) to 30 MW (pulsed). The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils making up the detection matrix using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. This design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with modest (60 Hz) time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data is measured via a 12-bit, ±0.025 °C resolution, 3-5 μm band, 256×256 pixel IR camera. The spatial data will be used to tomographically invert the profile of the highly shaped stellarator main plasma and divertor radiation, in conjunction with more conventional fanned arrays of traditional bolometers.

  5. Extruded scintillator for the calorimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Rykalin, V.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Beznosko, D.; /SUNY, Stony Brook

    2006-08-01

    An extrusion line has been installed and successfully operated at FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new Facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Recently progress has been made in producing co-extruded plastic scintillator, thus increasing the potential HEP applications of this Facility. The current R&D work with extruded and co-extruded plastic scintillator for a potential ALICE upgrade, the ILC calorimetry program and the MINERvA experiment show the attractiveness of the chosen strategy for future experiments and calorimetry. We extensively discuss extruded and co-extruded plastic scintillator in calorimetry in synergy with new Solid State Photomultipliers. The characteristics of extruded and co-extruded plastic scintillator will be presented here as well as results with non-traditional photo read-out.

  6. Extruded scintillator for the Calorimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyshkant, A.; Rykalin, V.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Beznosko, D.

    2006-10-01

    An extrusion line has been installed and successfully operated at FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new Facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Recently progress has been made in producing co-extruded plastic scintillator, thus increasing the potential HEP applications of this Facility. The current R&D work with extruded and co-extruded plastic scintillator for a potential ALICE upgrade, the ILC calorimetry program and the MINERvA experiment show the attractiveness of the chosen strategy for future experiments and calorimetry. We extensively discuss extruded and co-extruded plastic scintillator in calorimetry in synergy with new Solid State Photomultipliers. The characteristics of extruded and co-extruded plastic scintillator will be presented here as well as results with non-traditional photo read-out.

  7. Scintillation Effects on Space Shuttle GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Kramer, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    Irregularities in ionospheric electron density result in variation in amplitude and phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, or scintillation. GPS receivers tracking scintillated signals may lose carrier phase or frequency lock in the case of phase sc intillation. Amplitude scintillation can cause "enhancement" or "fading" of GPS signals and result in loss of lock. Scintillation can occur over the equatorial and polar regions and is a function of location, time of day, season, and solar and geomagnetic activity. Mid latitude regions are affected only very rarely, resulting from highly disturbed auroral events. In the spring of 1998, due to increasing concern about scintillation of GPS signals during the upcoming solar maximum, the Space Shuttle Program began to assess the impact of scintillation on Collins Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR) units that are to replace Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN) units on the Space Shuttle orbiters. The Shuttle Program must determine if scintillation effects pose a threat to safety of flight and mission success or require procedural and flight rule changes. Flight controllers in Mission Control must understand scintillation effects on GPS to properly diagnose "off nominal" GPS receiver performance. GPS data from recent Space Shuttle missions indicate that the signals tracked by the Shuttle MAGR manifest scintillation. Scintillation is observed as anomalous noise in velocity measurements lasting for up to 20 minutes on Shuttle orbit passes and are not accounted for in the error budget of the MAGR accuracy parameters. These events are typically coincident with latitude and local time occurrence of previously identified equatorial spread F within about 20 degrees of the magnetic equator. The geographic and seasonal history of these events from ground-based observations and a simple theoretical model, which have potential for predicting events for operational purposes, are reviewed.

  8. Simulation of optical interstellar scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, F.; Moniez, M.; Ansari, R.; Rahvar, S.

    2013-04-01

    Aims: Stars twinkle because their light propagates through the atmosphere. The same phenomenon is expected on a longer time scale when the light of remote stars crosses an interstellar turbulent molecular cloud, but it has never been observed at optical wavelengths. The aim of the study described in this paper is to fully simulate the scintillation process, starting from the molecular cloud description as a fractal object, ending with the simulations of fluctuating stellar light curves. Methods: Fast Fourier transforms are first used to simulate fractal clouds. Then, the illumination pattern resulting from the crossing of background star light through these refractive clouds is calculated from a Fresnel integral that also uses fast Fourier transform techniques. Regularisation procedure and computing limitations are discussed, along with the effect of spatial and temporal coherency (source size and wavelength passband). Results: We quantify the expected modulation index of stellar light curves as a function of the turbulence strength - characterised by the diffraction radius Rdiff - and the projected source size, introduce the timing aspects, and establish connections between the light curve observables and the refractive cloud. We extend our discussion to clouds with different structure functions from Kolmogorov-type turbulence. Conclusions: Our study confirms that current telescopes of ~4 m with fast-readout, wide-field detectors have the capability of discovering the first interstellar optical scintillation effects. We also show that this effect should be unambiguously distinguished from any other type of variability through the observation of desynchronised light curves, simultaneously measured by two distant telescopes.

  9. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    DOE PAGES

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; ...

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % andmore » 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.« less

  10. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % and 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.

  11. Search for long-lived superheavy eka-tungsten with radiopure ZnWO4 crystal scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Denisov, V. Yu; d'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Poda, D. V.; Polischuk, O. G.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    The data collected with a radioactively pure ZnWO4 crystal scintillator (699 g) in low background measurements during 2130 h at the underground (3600 m w.e.) Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (INFN, Italy) were used to set a limit on possible concentration of superheavy eka-W (seaborgium Sg, Z = 106) in the crystal. Assuming that one of the daughters in a chain of decays of the initial Sg nucleus decays with emission of high energy α particle ({{Q}α }\\gt 8 MeV) and analyzing the high energy part of the measured α spectrum, the limit N(Sg)/N(W) \\lt 5.5× {{10}-14} atoms/atom at 90% C.L. was obtained (for Sg half-life of 109 yr). In addition, a limit on the concentration of eka-Bi was set by analysing the data collected with a large BGO scintillation bolometer in an experiment performed by another group (Cardani et al 2012 JINST 7 P10022): N(eka-Bi)/N(Bi) \\lt 1.1× {{10}-13} atoms/atom with 90% C.L. Both the limits are comparable with those obtained in recent experiments which instead look for spontaneous fission of superheavy elements or use the accelerator mass spectrometry.

  12. Scintillation Breakdowns in Chip Tantalum Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Scintillations in solid tantalum capacitors are momentarily local breakdowns terminated by a self-healing or conversion to a high-resistive state of the manganese oxide cathode. This conversion effectively caps the defective area of the tantalum pentoxide dielectric and prevents short-circuit failures. Typically, this type of breakdown has no immediate catastrophic consequences and is often considered as nuisance rather than a failure. Scintillation breakdowns likely do not affect failures of parts under surge current conditions, and so-called "proofing" of tantalum chip capacitors, which is a controllable exposure of the part after soldering to voltages slightly higher than the operating voltage to verify that possible scintillations are self-healed, has been shown to improve the quality of the parts. However, no in-depth studies of the effect of scintillations on reliability of tantalum capacitors have been performed so far. KEMET is using scintillation breakdown testing as a tool for assessing process improvements and to compare quality of different manufacturing lots. Nevertheless, the relationship between failures and scintillation breakdowns is not clear, and this test is not considered as suitable for lot acceptance testing. In this work, scintillation breakdowns in different military-graded and commercial tantalum capacitors were characterized and related to the rated voltages and to life test failures. A model for assessment of times to failure, based on distributions of breakdown voltages, and accelerating factors of life testing are discussed.

  13. Estimation of Fano factor in inorganic scintillators

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H.; Fastje, David; Clarkson, Eric; Furenlid, Lars; Bousselham, Abdelkader; Shah, Kanai S.; Glodo, Jarek

    2015-01-01

    The Fano factor of an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Correlation between the outputs of two photomultiplier tubes on opposite faces of a scintillation crystal was used to estimate the Fano factor of photoelectrons and scintillation photons. Correlations between the integrals of the detector outputs were used to estimate the photoelectron and photon Fano factor for YAP:Ce, SrI2:Eu and CsI:Na scintillator crystals. At 662 keV, SrI2:Eu was found to be sub-Poisson, while CsI:Na and YAP:Ce were found to be super-Poisson. An experiment setup inspired from the Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment was used to measure the correlations as a function of time between the outputs of two photomultiplier tubes looking at the same scintillation event. A model of the scintillation and the detection processes was used to generate simulated detector outputs as a function of time for different values of Fano factor. The simulated outputs from the model for different Fano factors was compared to the experimentally measured detector outputs to estimate the Fano factor of the scintillation photons for YAP:Ce, LaBr3:Ce scintillator crystals. At 662 keV, LaBr3:Ce was found to be sub-Poisson, while YAP:Ce was found to be close to Poisson. PMID:26644631

  14. Equatorial scintillations: advances since ISEA-6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Our understanding of the morphology of equatorial scintillations has advanced due to more intensive observations at the equatorial anomaly locations in the different longitude zones. The unmistakable effect of the sunspot cycle in controlling irregularity belt width and electron concentration responsible for strong scintillation in the controlling the magnitude of scintillations has been recognized by interpreting scintillation observations inthe light of realistic models of total electron content at various longitudes. A hypothesis based on the alignment of the solar terminator with the geomagnetic flux tubes as an indicator of enhanced scintillation occurrence and another based on the influence of a transequatorial thermospheric neutral wind have been postulated to describe the observed longitudinal variation. A distinct class of equatorial irregularities known as the bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) type was identified. These irregularities occur in very large patches, sometimes in excess of several thousand kilometers in the E-W direction and are associated with frequency spread on ionograms. Scintillations caused by such irregularities exist only in the VHF band, exhibit Fresnel oscillations in intensity spectra and are found to give rise to extremely long durations (approx. several hours) of uninterrrupted scintillations.

  15. First implementation of TES bolometer arrays with SQUID-based multiplexed readout on a balloon-borne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, François; Aboobaker, Asad M.; Ade, Peter; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grainger, Will; Hanany, Shaul; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hyland, Peter; Hillbrand, Seth; Jaffe, Andrew; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Terry; Kisner, Theodore; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Leach, Sam; Lee, Adrian; Limon, Michele; MacDermid, Kevin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Meng, Xiaofan; Miller, Amber; Milligan, Michael; Polsgrove, Daniel; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Raach, Kate; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme; Tran, Huan; Tucker, Gregory S.; Vinokurov, Yury; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zilic, Kyle

    2010-07-01

    EBEX (the E and B EXperiment) is a balloon-borne telescope designed to measure the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. During a two week long duration science flight over Antarctica, EBEX will operate 768, 384 and 280 spider-web transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers at 150, 250 and 410 GHz, respectively. The 10-hour EBEX engineering flight in June 2009 over New Mexico and Arizona provided the first usage of both a large array of TES bolometers and a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) based multiplexed readout in a space-like environment. This successful demonstration increases the technology readiness level of these bolometers and the associated readout system for future space missions. A total of 82, 49 and 82 TES detectors were operated during the engineering flight at 150, 250 and 410 GHz. The sensors were read out with a new SQUID-based digital frequency domain multiplexed readout system that was designed to meet the low power consumption and robust autonomous operation requirements presented by a balloon experiment. Here we describe the system and the remote, automated tuning of the bolometers and SQUIDs. We compare results from tuning at float to ground, and discuss bolometer performance during flight.

  16. Voltage-biased superconducting transition-edge bolometer with strong electrothermal feedback operated at 370 mK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Gildemeister, J.M.; Holmes, W.; Lee, A.T.; Richards, P.L.

    1998-06-01

    We present an experimental study of a composite voltage-biased superconducting bolometer (VSB). The tested VSB consists of a Ti-film superconducting thermometer ( T{sub c}{approximately}375 mK) on a Si substrate suspended by NbTi superconducting leads. A resistor attached to the substrate provides calibrated heat input into the bolometer. The current through the bolometer is measured with a superconducting quantum interference device ammeter. Strong negative electrothermal feedback fixes the bolometer temperature at T{sub c} and reduces the measured response time from 2.6 s to 13 ms. As predicted, the measured current responsivity of the bolometer is equal to the inverse of the bias voltage. A noise equivalent power of 5{times}10{sup {minus}17} W/{radical}()Hz was measured for a thermal conductance G{approximately}4.7{times}10{sup {minus}10} W/K, which is consistent with the expected thermal noise. Excess noise was observed for bias conditions for which the electrothermal feedback strength was close to maximum. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  17. Scintillation counter with WLS fiber readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukin, D. A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Serednyakov, S. I.

    1997-02-01

    The parameters of a cylindrical scintillation counter of 126 mm in diameter and 370 mm in length with wavelength shifter (WLS) fiber readout are presented. The fibers are glued into machined grooves along the scintillator. Light from both ends of the WLS fibers is transmitted to separate photomultipliers by 1 m long clear optical fibers. The average total signal, collected from both sides of the counter is equivalent to 8 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle. The described cylindrical scintillation counter is a part of inner system of collider detector SND.

  18. Scintillating Track Image Camera-SCITIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akira; Asai, Jyunkichi; Ieiri, Masaharu; Iwata, Soma; Kadowaki, Tetsuhito; Kurosawa, Maki; Nagae, Tomohumi; Nakai, Kozi

    2004-04-01

    A new type of track detector, scintillating track image camera (SCITIC) has been developed. Scintillating track images of particles in a scintillator are focused by an optical lens system on a photocathode on image intesifier tube (IIT). The image signals are amplified by an IIT-cascade and stored by a CCD camera. The performance of the detector has been tested with cosmic-ray muons and with pion- and proton-beams from the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron. Data of the test experiments have shown promising features of SCITIC as a triggerable track detector with a variety of possibilities.

  19. Measurement of light emission in scintillation vials

    SciTech Connect

    Duran Ramiro, M. Teresa; Garcia-Torano, Eduardo

    2005-09-15

    The efficiency and energy resolution of liquid scintillation counting (LSC) systems are strongly dependent on the optical characteristics of scintillators, vials, and reflectors. This article presents the results of measurements of the light-emission profile of scintillation vials. Two measurement techniques, autoradiographs and direct measurements with a photomultiplier tube, have been used to obtain light-emission distribution for standard vials of glass, etched glass and polyethylene. Results obtained with both techniques are in good agreement. For the first time, the effect of the meniscus in terms of light contribution has been numerically estimated. These results can help design LSC systems that are more efficient in terms of light collection.

  20. Advanced plastic scintillators for fast neutron discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Patrick L; Anstey, Mitchell; Doty, F. Patrick; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2014-09-01

    The present work addresses the need for solid-state, fast neutron discriminating scintillators that possess higher light yields and faster decay kinetics than existing organic scintillators. These respective attributes are of critical importance for improving the gamma-rejection capabilities and increasing the neutron discrimination performance under high-rate conditions. Two key applications that will benefit from these improvements include large-volume passive detection scenarios as well as active interrogation search for special nuclear materials. Molecular design principles were employed throughout this work, resulting in synthetically tailored materials that possess the targeted scintillation properties.

  1. Large volume flow-through scintillating detector

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russ E.; Fowler, Malcolm M.

    1995-01-01

    A large volume flow through radiation detector for use in large air flow situations such as incinerator stacks or building air systems comprises a plurality of flat plates made of a scintillating material arranged parallel to the air flow. Each scintillating plate has a light guide attached which transfers light generated inside the scintillating plate to an associated photomultiplier tube. The output of the photomultiplier tubes are connected to electronics which can record any radiation and provide an alarm if appropriate for the application.

  2. Inversion of infrared imaging bolometer based on one-dimensional and three-dimensional modeling in HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J. M. Liu, Y.; Li, W.; Cui, Z. Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Lu, J.; Xia, Z. W.; Yi, P.; Yang, Q. W.

    2014-04-15

    Linear regularization has been applied to the HL-2A infrared imaging bolometer to reconstruct local plasma emission with one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling under the assumption of toroidal symmetry. In the 3D modeling, a new method to calculate the detector point response function is introduced. This method can be adapted to an arbitrarily shaped pinhole. With the full 3D treatment of the detector geometry, up to 50% of the mean-squared error is reduced compared with the 1D modeling. This is attributed to the effects of finite detector size being taken into account in the 3D modeling. Meanwhile, the number of the bolometer pixels has been optimized to 20 × 20 by making a trade-off between the number of bolometer pixels and the sensitivity of the system. The plasma radiated power density distributions have been calculated as a demonstration using 1D modeling and 3D modeling, respectively.

  3. The performance of the bolometer array and readout system during the 2012/2013 flight of the E and B experiment (EBEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDermid, Kevin; Aboobaker, Asad M.; Ade, Peter; Aubin, François; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bandura, Kevin; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grain, Julien; Grainger, William; Hanany, Shaul; Helson, Kyle; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Hannes; Irwin, Kent; Johnson, Bradley; Jaffe, Andrew; Jones, Terry; Kisner, Ted; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; Miller, Amber; Milligan, Michael; Pascale, Enzo; Raach, Katherine; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Reintsema, Carl; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme; Stompor, Radek; Tristram, Matthieu; Tucker, Greg; Westbrook, Ben; Zilic, Kyle

    2014-07-01

    EBEX is a balloon-borne telescope designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. During its eleven day science flight in the Austral Summer of 2012, it operated 955 spider-web transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers separated into bands at 150, 250 and 410 GHz. This is the first time that an array of TES bolometers has been used on a balloon platform to conduct science observations. Polarization sensitivity was provided by a wire grid and continuously rotating half-wave plate. The balloon implementation of the bolometer array and readout electronics presented unique development requirements. Here we present an outline of the readout system, the remote tuning of the bolometers and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) amplifiers, and preliminary current noise of the bolometer array and readout system.

  4. A comparative study of 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance in multiwall and single-wall carbon nanotube bolometers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rongtao; Kamal, Rayyan; Wu, Judy Z

    2011-07-01

    The 1/f noise and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) are investigated in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film bolometers since both affect the bolometer detectivity directly. A comparison is made between the MWCNT film bolometers and their single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) counterparts. The intrinsic noise level in the former has been found at least two orders of magnitude lower than that in the latter, which outweighs the moderately lower TCR absolute values in the former and results in higher bolometer detectivity in MWCNT bolometers. Interestingly, reduced noise and enhanced TCR can be obtained by improving the inter-tube coupling using thermal annealing in both SWCNT and MWCNT films, suggesting much higher detectivity may be achieved via engineering the inter-tube coupling.

  5. Studies of the Cosmos Using Spiderweb Absorber Transition Edge Sensor Bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Benjamin G.

    Transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer technology has been at the core of advancements in experimental cosmic microwave background (CMB) science for the past few decades. Theoretical and experimental work has built a robust model of the universe. Despite tremendous progress, there are several key pieces of experimental evidence missing to complete our understanding of the universe. This dissertation covers the work done by Benjamin Grey Westbrook at the University of California Berkeley between 2007 and 2014. It is centered around the use of spider-web absorber transition edge sensor (SWATES) bolometers to study the cosmos by the Atcama Pathnder Experiment - Sunyaev Zel'dolvich (APEX-SZ) and the E and B Experiment (EBEX). Both of which help complete our model of the universe in complimentary ways. APEX-SZ is a ground-based experiment that made observations of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Eect from the Chajnantor Plateau in Northern Chile from 2005 to 2010. It observed galaxy clusters at 150 GHz with 300 SWATES detectors with a resolution of 10. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the present day universe and are excellent for studying the properties of the universe. The primary goal of APEX-SZ was to understand the complex physics of galaxy clusters. By understanding their composition, number density, and evolution we can better our understanding of the evolution of the universe into its present state. EBEX is a balloon-borne experiment that made observations of the CMB and cosmic foreground during a science ight from the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) facility outside of McMurdo Station, Antarctica over the 2012-2013 austral summer. It made observations of 6000 square degrees of sky using 872, 436, and 256 SWATES bolometers at 150, 250, and 410 GHz detectors (respectively) with 80 resolution.

  6. Investigation of semiconducting YBaCuO thin films: A new room temperature bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, P. C.; ćelik-Butler, Z.; Butler, D. P.; Jahanzeb, A.; Travers, C. M.; Kula, W.; Sobolewski, Roman

    1996-12-01

    We explore the application of the semiconducting phases of YBaCuO thin films as a bolometer for uncooled infrared detection. For this study, four different structures were built with different types of buffer layers: YBaCuO on a Si substrate with and without a MgO buffer layer, and on an oxidized Si substrate with and without a MgO buffer layer. These films were all amorphous without a detectable long range order. For comparison, crystalline tetragonal YBa2Cu3O6.5 and YBa2Cu3O6.3 thin films on a LaAlO3 substrate were included into the study. All six films exhibited semiconducting resistance versus temperature characteristics. The bolometer figures of merit, responsivity, and detectivity were calculated from the measured temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the inherent noise characteristics of the temperature sensing element. The room temperature TCRs for all four amorphous films were greater than 2.5% K-1. The highest TCR of 4.02% K-1 was observed on the amorphous YBaCuO thin film deposited on MgO/Si without a SiO2 layer. The TCR of the tetragonal films, on the other hand, remained 2% K-1 or less in the same temperature range. Noise measurements performed in the 1-100 Hz frequency range revealed a quadratic dependence on the bias current as would be expected from ohmic electrical characteristics. The Johnson and 1/f regions were clearly identified in the noise spectrum. From TCR and noise measurements, we estimated the amorphous semiconducting YBaCuO bolometers would have a responsivity as high as 3.8×105 V/W and a detectivity as high as 1.6×109 cm Hz1/2/W for 1 μA bias current and frame frequency of 30 Hz if integrated with a typical air-gap thermal isolation structure.

  7. Modeling multimode feed-horn coupled bolometers for millimeter-wave and terahertz astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinauskaite, Eimante; Murphy, Anthony; McAuley, Ian; Trappe, Neil A.; Bracken, Colm P.; McCarthy, Darragh N.; Doherty, Stephen; Gradziel, Marcin L.; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Maffei, Bruno; Lamarre, Jean-Michel A.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Savini, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Multimode horn antennas can be utilized as high efficiency feeds for bolometric detectors, providing increased throughput and sensitivity over single mode feeds, while also ensuring good control of beam pattern characteristics. Multimode horns were employed in the highest frequency channels of the European Space Agency Planck Telescope, and have been proposed for future terahertz instrumentation, such as SAFARI for SPICA. The radiation pattern of a multimode horn is affected by the details of the coupling of the higher order waveguide modes to the bolometer making the modeling more complicated than in the case of a single mode system. A typical cavity coupled bolometer system can be most efficiently simulated using mode matching, typically with smooth walled waveguide modes as the basis and computing an overall scattering matrix for the horn-waveguide-cavity system that includes the power absorption by the absorber. In this paper we present how to include a cavity coupled bolometer, modelled as a thin absorbing film with particular interest in investigating the cavity configuration for optimizing power absorption. As an example, the possible improvements from offsetting the axis of a cylindrically symmetric absorbing cavity from that of a circular waveguide feeding it (thus trapping more power in the cavity) are discussed. Another issue is the effect on the optical efficiency of the detectors of the presence of any gaps, through which power can escape. To model these effects required that existing in-house mode matching software, which calculates the scattering matrices for axially symmetric waveguide structures, be extended to be able to handle offset junctions and free space gaps. As part of this process the complete software code 'PySCATTER' was developed in Python. The approach can be applied to proposed terahertz systems, such as SPICASAFARI.

  8. Numerical optimization of integrating cavities for diffraction-limited millimeter-wave bolometer arrays.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jason; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Edgington, Samantha F; Lange, Andrew E; Bock, James J; Mauskopf, Philip D; Lee, Adrian T

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared to millimeter-wave bolometers designed to make astronomical observations are typically encased in integrating cavities at the termination of feedhorns or Winston cones. This photometer combination maximizes absorption of radiation, enables the absorber area to be minimized, and controls the directivity of absorption, thereby reducing susceptibility to stray light. In the next decade, arrays of hundreds of silicon nitride micromesh bolometers with planar architectures will be used in ground-based, suborbital, and orbital platforms for astronomy. The optimization of integrating cavity designs is required for achieving the highest possible sensitivity for these arrays. We report numerical simulations of the electromagnetic fields in integrating cavities with an infinite plane-parallel geometry formed by a solid reflecting backshort and the back surface of a feedhorn array block. Performance of this architecture for the bolometer array camera (Bolocam) for cosmology at a frequency of 214 GHz is investigated. We explore the sensitivity of absorption efficiency to absorber impedance and backshort location and the magnitude of leakage from cavities. The simulations are compared with experimental data from a room-temperature scale model and with the performance of Bolocam at a temperature of 300 mK. The main results of the simulations for Bolocam-type cavities are that (1) monochromatic absorptions as high as 95% are achievable with <1% cross talk between neighboring cavities, (2) the optimum absorber impedances are 400 ohms/sq, but with a broad maximum from approximately 150 to approximately 700 ohms/sq, and (3) maximum absorption is achieved with absorber diameters > or = 1.5 lambda. Good general agreement between the simulations and the experiments was found.

  9. Research and Development of Scintillation fiber Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, A.; ITO, H.; Kawai, H.; Kodama, S.; Kaneko, N.; Han, S.

    2015-07-01

    We are developing the scintillation fiber trackers. This detector is consist of 0.5 mm diameter scintillation fibers and PPDs. This detector has the doughnut shape with outer diameter of 50 cm and inner diameter of 10 cm and thickness of 2 mm. The position resolution is 70 μm. There are no ineffective area. And the cost is several million yen. (authors)

  10. Liquid scintillators for optical fiber applications

    DOEpatents

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.

    1982-01-01

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 1, 2, 4, 5, 3H, 6H, 1 OH, tetrahydro-8-trifluoromethyl (1) benzopyrano (9, 9a, 1-gh) quinolizin-10-one (Coumarin) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol or pseudo-cumene. The use of BIBUQ as an additional or primary solute is also disclosed.

  11. Liquid scintillators for optical fiber applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, L.A.; Lutz, S.S.

    1982-11-16

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 1, 2 , 4, 5, 3H, 6H, 1 OH, tetrahydro-8-trifluoromethyl (1) benzopyrano (9, 9a, 1-gh) quinolizin-10-one (Coumarin) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol or pseudocumene. The use of bibuq as an additional or primary solute is also disclosed.

  12. Ternary liquid scintillator for optical fiber applications

    DOEpatents

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.

    1982-01-01

    A multicomponent liquid scintillator solution for use as a radiation-to-light converter in conjunction with a fiber optic transmission system. The scintillator includes a quantity of 5-amino-9-diethylaminobenz (a) phenoxazonium nitrate (Nile Blue Nitrate) as a solute in a fluor solvent such as benzyl alcohol. The use of PPD as an additional solute is also disclosed. The system is controllable by addition of a suitable quenching agent, such as phenol.

  13. Current status on plastic scintillators modifications.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Guillaume H V; Hamel, Matthieu; Sguerra, Fabien

    2014-11-24

    Recent developments of plastic scintillators are reviewed, from 2000 to March 2014, distributed in two different chapters. First chapter deals with the chemical modifications of the polymer backbone, whereas modifications of the fluorescent probe are presented in the second chapter. All examples are provided with the scope of detection of various radiation particles. The main characteristics of these newly created scintillators and their detection properties are given.

  14. Real-time volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddar, S.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this brief review is to review the current status of real-time 3D scintillation dosimetry and what has been done so far in this area. The basic concept is to use a large volume of a scintillator material (liquid or solid) to measure or image the dose distributions from external radiation therapy (RT) beams in three dimensions. In this configuration, the scintillator material fulfills the dual role of being the detector and the phantom material in which the measurements are being performed. In this case, dose perturbations caused by the introduction of a detector within a phantom will not be at issue. All the detector configurations that have been conceived to date used a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera to measure the light produced within the scintillator. In order to accurately measure the scintillation light, one must correct for various optical artefacts that arise as the light propagates from the scintillating centers through the optical chain to the CCD chip. Quenching, defined in its simplest form as a nonlinear response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles, is one of the disadvantages when such systems are used to measure the absorbed dose from high-LET particles such protons. However, correction methods that restore the linear dose response through the whole proton range have been proven to be effective for both liquid and plastic scintillators. Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution and accurate 3D imaging of RT dose distributions. Further research is warranted to optimize the necessary image reconstruction methods and optical corrections needed to achieve its full potential.

  15. Multi-GNSS for Ionospheric Scintillation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.

    2015-12-01

    GNSS have been widely used for ionospheric monitoring. We anticipate over 160 GNSS satellites broadcasting 400 signals by 2023, nearly double the number today. With their well-defined signal structures, high spatial density and spectral diversity, GNSS offers low cost and distributed passive sensing of ionosphere effects. There are, however, many challenges to utilize GNSS resources to characterize and forecast ionospheric scintillation. Originally intended for navigation purposes, GNSS receivers are designed to filter out nuisance effects due to ionosphere effects. GNSS measurements are plagued with errors from multipath, oscillator jitters, processing artifacts, and neutral atmosphere effects. Strong scintillation events are often characterized by turbulent structures in ionosphere, causing simultaneous deep amplitude fading and abrupt carrier phase changes. The combined weak signal and high carrier dynamics imposes conflicting requirements for GNSS receiver design. Therefore, GNSS receivers often experience cycle slips and loss of lock of signals during strong scintillation events. High quality, raw GNSS signals bearing space weather signatures and robust receiver algorithms designed to capture these signatures are needed in order for GNSS to be a reliable and useful agent for scintillation monitoring and forecasting. Our event-driven, reconfigurable data collection system is designed to achieve this purpose. To date, our global network has collected ~150TB of raw GNSS data during space weather events. A suite of novel receiver processing algorithms has been developed by exploitating GNSS spatial, frequency, temporal, and constellation diversity to process signals experiencing challenging scintillation impact. The algorithms and data have advanced our understanding of scintillation impact on GNSS, lead to more robust receiver technologies, and enabled high spatial and temporal resolution depiction of ionosphere responses to solar and geomagnetic conditions. This

  16. In situ calibration of an infrared imaging video bolometer in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, K. Peterson, B. J.; Pandya, S. N.; Sano, R.

    2014-11-15

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful diagnostic to measure multi-dimensional radiation profiles in plasma fusion devices. In the Large Helical Device (LHD), four IRVBs have been installed with different fields of view to reconstruct three-dimensional profiles using a tomography technique. For the application of the measurement to plasma experiments using deuterium gas in LHD in the near future, the long-term effect of the neutron irradiation on the heat characteristics of an IRVB foil should be taken into account by regular in situ calibration measurements. Therefore, in this study, an in situ calibration system was designed.

  17. Hot-Electron Gallium Nitride Two Dimensional Electron Gas Nano-bolometers For Advanced THz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Rahul

    Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in semiconductor heterostructures was identified as a promising medium for hot-electron bolometers (HEB) in the early 90s. Up until now all research based on 2DEG HEBs is done using high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. These systems have demonstrated very good performance, but only in the sub terahertz (THz) range. However, above ˜0.5 THz the performance of AlGaAs/GaAs detectors drastically deteriorates. It is currently understood, that detectors fabricated from standard AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures do not allow for reasonable coupling to THz radiation while maintaining high conversion efficiency. In this work we have developed 2DEG HEBs based on disordered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor, that operate at frequencies beyond 1THz at room temperature. We observe strong free carrier absorption at THz frequencies in our disordered 2DEG film due to Drude absorption. We show the design and fabrication procedures of novel micro-bolometers having ultra-low heat capacities. In this work the mechanism of 2DEG response to THz radiation is clearly identified as bolometric effect through our direct detection measurements. With optimal doping and detector geometry, impedances of 10--100 O have been achieved, which allow integration of these devices with standard THz antennas. We also demonstrate performance of the antennas used in this work in effectively coupling THz radiation to the micro-bolometers through polarization dependence and far field measurements. Finally heterodyne mixing due to hot electrons in the 2DEG micro-bolometer has been performed at sub terahertz frequencies and a mixing bandwidth greater than 3GHz has been achieved. This indicates that the characteristic cooling time in our detectors is fast, less than 50ps. Due to the ultra-low heat capacity; these detectors can be used in a heterodyne system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a local oscillator (LO) which typically provides output powers in the micro

  18. Cold-electron bolometers for future mm and sub-mm sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salatino, Maria; de Bernardis, Paolo; Mahashabde, Sumedh; Kuzmin, Leonid S.; Masi, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Future sky surveys in the mm/sub-mm range, like the forthcoming balloon-borne missions LSPE, OLIMPO, SPIDER etc., will need detectors insensitive to cosmic rays (CRs) and with a NEP of the order of 10-17 ¥ 10-18 W/sqrt(Hz). The Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEBs) technology is promising, having the required proper- ties, since the absorber volume is extremely small and the electron system of the absorber is thermally insulated from the phonon system. We have developed an experimental setup to test the optical performance and the CRs insensitivity of CEBs, with the target of integrating them in the OLIMPO and LSPE focal planes.

  19. Neutron transmutation doped (Ntd) germanium thermistors for sub-Mm bolometer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E. |; Itoh, K.M.; Beeman, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    The authors report on recent advances in the development of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from germanium of natural and controlled isotopic composition. The near ideal doping uniformity which can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor (FET) preamplifiers have led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in many radiotelescopes operating on the ground, on high altitude aircraft and on spaceborne satellites. These features also have made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays which are beginning to produce exciting results.

  20. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the Indium hybridization of the large format TES bolometer arrays. We are developing a key technology to enable the next generation of detectors. That is the Hybridization of Large Format Arrays using Indium bonded detector arrays containing 32x40 elements which conforms to the NIST multiplexer readout architecture of 1135 micron pitch. We have fabricated and hybridized mechanical models with the detector chips bonded after being fully back-etched. The mechanical support consists of 30 micron walls between elements Demonstrated electrical continuity for each element. The goal is to hybridize fully functional array of TES detectors to NIST readout.

  1. Multi-mode TES Bolometer Optimization for the LSPE-SWIPE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualtieri, R.; Battistelli, E. S.; Cruciani, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Lamagna, L.; Masi, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of using transition edge sensor (TES) detectors in multi-mode configuration in the focal plane of the Short Wavelength Instrument for the Polarization Explorer (SWIPE) of the balloon-borne polarimeter Large-Scale Polarization Explorer (LSPE) for the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization. This study is motivated by the fact that maximizing the sensitivity of TES bolometers, under the augmented background due to the multi-mode design, requires a non-trivial choice of detector parameters. We evaluate the best parameter combination taking into account scanning strategy, noise constraints, saturation power, and operating temperature of the cryostat during the flight.

  2. Large area TES spiderweb bolometer for multi-mode cavity microwave detect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasotti, M.; Bagliani, D.; Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; De Bernardis, P.; Gatti, F.; Gualtieri, R.; Lamagna, L.; Masi, S.; Pizzigoni, G.; Schillaci, A.

    2014-07-01

    Large area spiderweb bolometers of 8 mm diameter and a mesh size of 250 μm are fabricated in order to couple with approximately the first 20 modes of a multimode EM cavity at about 140 GHz. The sensor is a Ti/Au/Ti 3 layer TES with Tc tuned in the 330-380 mK and 2 mK transition width. We describe the detector design and the fabrication process, early TES electro-thermal measurements. We also report optical coupling measurement and show the multimode coupling.

  3. Feedhorn-Coupled Transition-Edge Superconducting Bolometer Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubmayr, J.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J.; Becker, D.; Cho, H.-M.; Datta, R.; Duff, S. M.; Grace, E.; Halverson, N.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Ho, S. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Niemack, M. D.; Pappas, C.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Van Lanen, J.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    NIST produces large-format, dual-polarization-sensitive detector arrays for a broad range of frequencies (30-1400 GHz). Such arrays enable a host of astrophysical measurements. Detectors optimized for cosmic microwave background observations are monolithic, polarization-sensitive arrays based on feedhorn and planar Nb antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting (TES) bolometers. Recent designs achieve multiband, polarimetric sensing within each spatial pixel. In this proceeding, we describe our multichroic, feedhorn-coupled design; demonstrate performance at 70-380 GHz; and comment on current developments for implementation of these detector arrays in the advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope receiver

  4. Bloch oscillating transistor as the readout element for hot electron bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassel, Juha; Seppä, Heikki; Lindell, Rene; Hakonen, Pertti

    2004-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the properties of the Bloch oscillating transistor as a preamplifier in cryogenic devices. We consider here especially the readout of hot electron bolometers (HEBs) based on Normal-Superconductor-Insulator tunnel junctions, but the results also apply more generally. We show that one can get an equivalent noise voltage below 1 nV/√Hz with a single BOT. By using N BOTs in a parallel array configuration, a further reduction by factor √N may be achieved.

  5. Development of Novel Polycrystalline Ceramic Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewska, Monika; Boatner, Lynn A; Neal, John S; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; North, Andrea L; Wisniewski, Monica; Payzant, E Andrew; Howe, Jane Y; Lempicki, Aleksander; Brecher, Charlie; Glodo, J.

    2008-01-01

    For several decades most of the efforts to develop new scintillator materials have concentrated on high-light-yield inorganic single-crystals while polycrystalline ceramic scintillators, since their inception in the early 1980 s, have received relatively little attention. Nevertheless, transparent ceramics offer a promising approach to the fabrication of relatively inexpensive scintillators via a simple mechanical compaction and annealing process that eliminates single-crystal growth. Until recently, commonly accepted concepts restricted the polycrystalline ceramic approach to materials exhibiting a cubic crystal structure. Here, we report our results on the development of two novel ceramic scintillators based on the non-cubic crystalline materials: Lu SiO:Ce (LSO:Ce) and LaBr:Ce. While no evidence for texturing has been found in their ceramic microstructures, our LSO:Ce ceramics exhibit a surprisingly high level of transparency/ translucency and very good scintillation characteristics. The LSO:Ce ceramic scintillation reaches a light yield level of about 86% of that of a good LSO:Ce single crystal, and its decay time is even faster than in single crystals. Research on LaBr:Ce shows that translucent ceramics of the high-light-yield rare-earth halides can also be synthesized. Our LaBr:Ce ceramics have light yields above 42 000 photons/MeV (i.e., 70%of the single-crystal light yield).

  6. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of strontium iodide scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    van Loef, Edgar; Wilson, Cody; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Steven; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Shah, Kanai

    2009-06-01

    Single crystals of SrI{sub 2}:Eu and SrI{sub 2}:Ce/Na were grown from anhydrous iodides by the vertical Bridgman technique in evacuated silica ampoules. Growth rates were of the order of 5-30 mm/day. Radioluminescence spectra of SrI{sub 2}:Eu and SrI{sub 2}:Ce/Na exhibit a broad band due to Eu{sup 2+} and Ce{sup 3+} emission, respectively. The maximum in the luminescence spectrum of SrI{sub 2}:Eu is found at 435 nm. The spectrum of SrI{sub 2}:Ce/Na exhibits a doublet peaking at 404 and 435 nm attributed to Ce{sup 3+} emission, while additional impurity - or defected - related emission is present at approximately 525 nm. The strontium iodide scintillators show very high light yields of up to 120,000 photons/MeV, have energy resolutions down to 3% at 662 keV (Full Width Half Maximum) and exhibit excellent light yield proportionality with a standard deviation of less than 5% between 6 and 460 keV.

  7. Validating the use of scintillation proxies to study ionospheric scintillation over the Ugandan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we compare the standard scintillation indices (S4 and σΦ) from a SCINDA receiver with scintillation proxies (S4p and | sDPR |) derived from two IGS GPS receivers. Amplitude (S4) and phase (σΦ) scintillation data were obtained from the SCINDA installed at Makerere University (0.34°N, 32.57°E). The corresponding amplitude (S4p) and phase (| sDPR |) scintillation proxies were derived from data archived by IGS GPS receivers installed at Entebbe (0.04°N, 32.44°E) and Mbarara (0.60°S, 30.74°E). The results show that for most of the cases analysed in this study, σΦ and | sDPR | are in agreement. Amplitude scintillation occurrence estimated using the S4p are fairly consistent with the standard S4, mainly between 17:00 UT and 21:00 UT, despite a few cases of over and under estimation of scintillation levels by S4p. Correlation coefficients between σΦ and the | sDPR | proxy revealed positive correlation. Generally, S4p and S4 exhibits both moderate and strong positive correlation. TEC depletions associated with equatorial plasma bubbles are proposed as the cause of the observed scintillation over the region. These equatorial plasma bubbles were evident along the ray paths to satellites with PRN 2, 15, 27 and 11 as observed from MBAR and EBBE. In addition to equatorial plasma bubbles, atmospheric gravity waves with periods similar to those of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances were also observed as one of the mechanisms for scintillation occurrence. The outcome of this study implies that GPS derived scintillation proxies can be used to quantify scintillation levels in the absence of standard scintillation data in the equatorial regions.

  8. The 12x32 Pop-Up Bolometer Array for the SHARC II Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Groseth, Jeffrey E.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Allen, Christine A.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Moseley, S. Harvey, Jr.; Voellmer, George M.

    2002-01-01

    SHARC II is a 350 micron facility camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) expected to come on-line in 2002. The key component of SHARC II is a 12x32 array of doped silicon 'pop-up' bolometers developed at NASA/Goddard and delivered to Caltech in March 2002. Each pixel is 1 mm x 1 mm, coated with a 400 Omega/square bismuth film, and located lambda/4 above a reflective backshort to maximize radiation absorption. The pixels cover the focal plane with greater than 95% filling factor. Each doped thermistor occupies nearly the full area of the pixel to minimize 1/f noise. We report some results from the first cold measurements of this array. The bolometers were located inside a dark cover, and 4x32 pixels were read simultaneously. In the best 25% of winter nights on Mauna Kea, SHARC II is expected to have an NEFD at 350 microns of 1 Jy s(sup 1/2) or better.

  9. Electromagnetic Considerations for Planar Bolometer Arrays in the Single Mode Limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.; Chuss, David T.; Moseley, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Filled arrays of planar bolometers are finding astronomical applications at wavelengths as long as several millimeters. In an effort to keep focal planes to a reasonable size while maintaining large numbers of detectors, a common strategy is to push these arrays to operate close to or at the single mode limit. Doing so introduces several new challenges that are not experienced in the multi-mode case of far-infrared detectors having similar pixel sizes. First, diffractive effects of the pixels themselves are no longer insignificant and will ultimately contribute to the resolution limit of the optical system in which they reside. We use the method of Withlngton et al. (2003) to model the polarized diffraction in this limit. Second, it is necessary to re-examine the coupling between the radiation and the absorbing element that is thermally connected to the bolometers. The small f-numbers that are often employed to make use of large focal planes makes backshort construction problematic. We introduce a new strategy to increase detector efficiency that uses an antireflective layer on the front side of the detector array. In addition, typical methods for stray light control that rely on multiple reflections in a lossy medium fail due to physical size constraints. For this application, we find that resonant absorbers are a more effective strategy that can be implemented in the space available.

  10. Tantalum hot-electron bolometers for low-noise heterodyne receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, A.; McGrath, W.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2002-01-01

    We describe superconducting diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers that were fabricated fromtantalum films grown on a thin niobium seed layer. The seed layer promotes single-phase growth of the Ta films, resulting in high-quality bolometers with transition temperatures up to 2.35 K and transition widths of less than 0.2 K. An S-parameter measurement set-up in a He-3 cryostat was used to measure device impedance versus frequency of a 400 nm long device at a temperature of 400 mK. It is shown that a 3 dB roll-off frequency of about 1 GHz can be achieved when the device resistance matches the impedance of the embedding network (no electrothermal feedback). This would lead to a prediction of 16 GHz for a 100 nm device, and indicates that a heterodyne mixer using a Ta HEB should be able to operate at several GHz even with a significant amount of electrothermal feedback.

  11. Design and Fabrication of a Two-Dimensional Superconducting Bolometer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Voellmer, George M.; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Rick; Stacey, Gordon; Staguhn, J.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large format, two dimensional arrays of close-packed bolometers will enable submillimeter cameras and spectrometers to obtain images and spectra orders of magnitude faster than present instruments. The South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) for the AST/RO observatory and the Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory will employ a large-format, two-dimensional, closepacked bolometer arrays. Both these instruments are imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometers operating at wavelengths between 100 micron and 700 micron. The array format is 16x32 pixels, using a 32-element multiplexer developed in part for this purpose. The low backgrounds achieved in spectroscopy require very sensitive detectors with NEPs of order 5x10(exp 18) W/square root of Hz. Superconducting detectors can be close-packed using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) format, and SQUID multiplexers operating at the detector bas temperature can be intimately coupled to them. We have fabricated an engineering model array with this technology which features a very compact, modular approach for large format arrays.

  12. Superconducting and semiconducting YBaCuO thin film bolometer investigations for future THz imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Vishal S.; Dégardin, Annick F.; Longhin, Mattia; Aurino, Mario; Kreisler, Alain J.

    2008-10-01

    There is a strong need for wideband and sensitive THz receivers for radio astronomy and remote sensing applications, for which superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers are very competitive. Besides, new THz applications have arisen because of interesting interaction with various media, for which room temperature detectors are highly attractive. We have used YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO) oxides to fabricate bolometers, either of high-Tc superconducting HEB type (high oxygen content, δ < 0.3) or semiconducting type (low oxygen content, δ > 0.5). Firstly, we fabricated HEBs made from superconducting YBCO ultrathin films (15 to 40 nm thick) etched to form submicrometer constrictions. In order to investigate the feasibility of highly sensitive HEB linear arrays for passive THz imaging applications, extensive technological runs were performed to prevent ageing effects on both the pixel electrical and optical characteristics. Secondly, we designed YBCO semiconducting bolometric pixels for room temperature operation. Due to the reduced sensitivity and bandwidth with respect to superconducting HEBs, we considered the feasibility of 2D arrays for active THz imaging. As a first experimental step, pixel responsivity and thermal crosstalk between pixels were studied in the 1 Hz to 100 kHz modulation frequency range, so to evaluate the adequate frame refreshing rate.

  13. Migrating from superconducting to semiconducting YBCO thin film bolometers as future far-infrared imaging pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Vishal S.; Longhin, Mattia; Kulsreshath, Mukesh K.; Kreisler, Alain J.; Dégardin, Annick F.

    2010-04-01

    YBa2Cu3O6+x compounds are well known to exhibit superconducting properties for x > 0.5 and semiconducting properties for lower oxygen content. Superconducting YBCO was obtained commercially; the semiconducting material was deposited by sputtering at room temperature. In order to migrate from superconducting to uncooled semiconducting far-infrared bolometer technologies, we have first realized and compared the performance of 2 × 2 pixel arrays made from both materials deposited on MgO substrates. Pixels were in the shape of meanders, embedded in an area of about 1 mm2. Pixel detectivity and thermal crosstalk were studied in the 1 Hz to 100 kHz modulation frequency range by using a 850 nm solid state laser. Secondly we have improved the geometry of semiconducting YBCO bolometers fabricated on silicon substrates, in order to match their impedance with the impedance of the antenna required for working in the THz range. First optical results are also presented, where both regular bolometric and pyroelectric responses are exhibited.

  14. A Planar Two-Dimensional Superconducting Bolometer Array for Millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Irwin, K. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Reintsema, C. D.; Staguhn, J. G.; Wollack, E. J.

    2005-12-01

    In order to provide high sensitivity rapid imaging at 3.3 mm (90 GHz) for the Penn Array Receiver (PAR) on the Green Bank Telescope the world's largest steerable aperture, a fully-sampled, sensitive, fast detector array with many pixels is required. We have fabricated as the heart of this camera an 8× 8 close-packed, Nyquist-sampled array of superconducting bolometers using a monolithic planar architecture. The detector system includes readout by SQUID multiplexers, controlled by a set of custom electronics and software. The superconducting transition edge sensors provide fast, linear, sensitive response for high performance imaging. We present the design and perfomance of the detectors in this array system, including thermal performance and noise measurements near the theoretical limit. This detector will provide the first superconducting bolometer array on a facility instrument. With its combination of near-background-limited sensitivity and 32'' square field of view at 3.3 mm wavelength, this camera will be a powerful instrument for obtaining flux density measurements of highly redshifted sources. For example, the well-known quasar APM 08279+5255 will be detectable in dust continuum emission in one second.

  15. AC Read-Out Circuits for Single Pixel Characterization of TES Microcalorimeters and Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottardi, L.; van de Kuur, J.; Bandler, S.; Bruijn, M.; de Korte, P.; Gao, J. R.; den Hartog, R.; Hijmering, R. A.; Hoevers, H.; Koshropanah, P.; Kilbourne, C.; Lindemann, M. A.; Parra Borderias, M.; Ridder, M.

    2011-01-01

    SRON is developing Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) for the read-out of transition edge sensor (TES) soft x-ray microcalorimeters for the XMS instrument of the International X-ray Observatory and far-infrared bolometers for the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese mission SPICA. In FDM the TESs are AC voltage biased at frequencies from 0.5 to 6 MHz in a superconducting LC resonant circuit and the signal is read-out by low noise and high dynamic range SQUIDs amplifiers. The TES works as an amplitude modulator. We report on several AC bias experiments performed on different detectors. In particular, we discuss the results on the characterization of Goddard Space Flight Center x-ray pixels and SRON bolometers. The paper focuses on the analysis of different read-out configurations developed to optimize the noise and the impedance matching between the detectors and the SQUID amplifier. A novel feedback network electronics has been developed to keep the SQUID in flux locked loop, when coupled to superconducting high Q circuits, and to optimally tune the resonant bias circuit. The achieved detector performances are discussed in view of the instrument requirement for the two space missions.

  16. A Low-Noise NbTiN Hot Electron Bolometer Mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. Edward; Stern, Jeffrey; Megerian, Krikor; LeDuc, Henry; Sridharan, T. K.; Gibson, Hugh; Blundell, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer elements, based on niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) thin film technology, have been fabricated on crystalline quartz substrates over a 20 nm thick AlN buffer layer. The film was patterned by optical lithography, yielding bolometer elements that measure about 1 micrometer long and between 2 and 12 micrometers wide. These mixer chips were mounted in a fixed-tuned waveguide mixer block, and tested in the 600 and 800 GHz frequency range. The 3-dB output bandwidth of these mixers was determined to be about 2.5 GHz and we measured a receiver noise temperature of 270 K at 630 GHz using an intermediate frequency of 1.5 GHz. The receiver has excellent amplitude stability and the noise temperature measurements are highly repeatable. An 800 GHz receiver incorporating one of these mixer chips has recently been installed at the Sub-Millimeter Telescope in Arizona for field test and for astronomical observations.

  17. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  18. Measurements of the Optical Performance of Prototype TES Bolometers for SAFARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.; Ranjan, M.; Gao, J.-R.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M. L.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Morozov, D.; Doherty, S.; Trappe, N.; Withington, S.

    2014-09-01

    We have measured the optical response of prototype detectors for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays, coupled with a Fourier transform spectrometer, will provide images of a 2'×2' field of view with spectral information over the wavelength range 34-210 μm. Each horn-coupled bolometer consists of a transition edge sensor (TES), with a transition temperature close to 100 mK, and a thin-film Ta absorber on a thermally-isolated silicon nitride membrane. SAFARI requires extremely sensitive detectors ( NEP˜2×10-19 W/), with correspondingly low saturation powers (˜5 fW), to take advantage of SPICA's cooled optics. To meet the challenge of testing such sensitive detectors we have constructed an ultra-low background test facility based on a cryogen-free high-capacity dilution refrigerator, paying careful attention to stray-light exclusion, shielding, and vibration isolation. For optical measurements the system contains internal cold (3-30 K) and hot (˜300 K) black-body calibration sources, as well as a light pipe for external illumination. We discuss our measurements of high optical efficiency in prototype SAFARI detectors and describe recent improvements to the test facility that will enable us to test the full SAFARI focal-plane arrays.

  19. Single SQUID multiplexer for arrays of voltage-biased superconducting bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jongsoo; Clarke, John; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, M.J.; Richards, P.L.; Skidmore, J.T.; Spieler, H.G.

    2001-08-20

    We describe a frequency domain superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer which monitors a row of low-temperature sensors simultaneously with a single SQUID. Each sensor is ac biased with a unique frequency and all the sensor currents are added in a superconducting summing loop. A single SQUID measures the current in the summing loop, and the individual signals are lock-in detected after the room temperature SQUID electronics. The current in the summing loop is nulled by feedback to eliminate direct crosstalk. In order to avoid the accumulation of Johnson noise in the summing loop, a tuned bandpass filter is inserted in series with each sensor. For a 32-channel multiplexer for Voltage-biased Superconducting Bolometer (VSB) with a time constant {approx}1msec, we estimate that bias frequencies in the range from {approx}500kHz to {approx}600kHz are practical. The major limitation of our multiplexing scheme is in the slew rate of a readout SQUID. We discuss a ''carrier nulling'' technique which could be used to increase the number of sensors in a row or to multiplex faster bolometers by reducing the required slew rate for a readout SQUID.

  20. Bayesian Gaussian Process Tomography of W7-X bolometers using the Minerva framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jakob; Zhang, Daihong

    2016-10-01

    We develop a new Bayesian tomographic method based on Gaussian processes (Gaussian Process Tomography, GPT) where the model complexity is adjusted automatically, varying between 1D flux surface constancy and full 2D using a Bayesian Occam's razor criteria. The GPT method for non-flux surface constrained tomography has been prevously developed and used for soft x-ray, bolometer, interferometer and current tomography problems. In this paper we present an extension of this method which allows for a probabilistic flux surface constraint, that finds the most probable underlying complexity of the emission distribution. The distribution is defined in 2D flux coordinates, where the poloidal coordinate is described by a periodic Gaussian process. As with the standard GPT method, this method also gives uncertainties of the tomographic reconstruction that includes uncertainties both from measurements and from intrinsic ambiguities of the ill-posed tomography problem. The method has been applied to the bolometer system for the first experimental phase of W7-X and results will be shown here. The model has been implemented in the Minerva Bayesian modeling framework, which is used for a number of W7-X diagnostics.

  1. GISMO, a 2 mm Bolometer Camera Optimized for the Study of High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2mm spectral range provides a unique terrestrial window enabling ground based observations of the earliest active dusty galaxies in the universe and thereby allowing a better constraint on the star formation rate in these objects. We present a progress report for our bolometer camera GISMO (the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer), which will obtain large and sensitive sky maps at this wavelength. The instrument will be used at the IRAM 30 m telescope and we expect to install it at the telescope in 2007. The camera uses an 8 x 16 planar array of multiplexed TES bolometers, which incorporates our recently designed Backshort Under Grid (BUG) architecture. GISMO will be very efficient at detecting sources serendipitously in large sky surveys. With the background limited performance of the detectors, the camera provides significantly greater imaging sensitivity and mapping speed at this wavelength than has previously been possible. The major scientific driver for the instrument is to provide the IRAM 30 m telescope with the capability to rapidly observe galactic and extragalactic dust emission, in particular from high-zeta ULI RGs and quasar s, even in the summer season. The instrument will fill in the SEDs of high redshift galaxies at the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust emission spectrum, even at the highest redshifts. Our source count models predict that GISMO will serendipitously detect one galaxy every four hours on the blank sky, and that one quarter of these galaxies will be at a redshift of zeta 6.5.

  2. Mercuric iodide photodetectors for scintillation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Markakis, J.; Dabrowski, A.; Iwanczyk, J.; Ortale, C.; Schnepple, W.

    1985-02-01

    We have measured the responses to /sup 137/Cs (662 keV) of both a 1-inch-diam by 2-inch-thick NaI(Tl) scintillator optically coupled to a 1-inch-diam by 800-..mu..mthick mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) photodetector, and a 1-cmdiam by 1-cm-thick CaWO/sub 4/ scintillator coupled to a 1.3-cm-diam by 600-..mu..m-thick HgI/sub 2/ photodetector. Best spectral resolution to /sup 137/Cs was 7.8% FWHM for the NaI(Tl)-HgI/sub 2/ and 12.5% FWHM for the CaWO/sub 4/-HgI/sub 2/ detectors; peak-to-valley ratios were 26:1 and 16:1, respectively. HgI/sub 2/ detectors operate at room temperature and their use in scintillation spectroscopy presents the ultimate miniaturization of scintillation detectors, limited mainly by the size of the scintillation crystal.

  3. Mercuric iodide photodetectors for scintillation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Markakis, J.; Ortale, C.; Schnepple, W.; Iwanczyk, J.; Dabrowski, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the responses to /sup 137/Cs (662 keV) of both a 1-inch-diam by 2-inch-thick NaI(Tl) scintillator optically coupled to a 1-inch-diam by 800-..mu..m-thick mercuric iodide (HgI/sub 2/) photodetector, and a 1-cm-diam by 1-cm-thick CaWO/sub 4/ scintillator coupled to a 1.3-cm-diam by 600-..mu..m-thick HgI/sub 2/ photodetector. Best spectral resolution to /sup 137/Cs was 7.8% FWHM for the NaI(Tl)-HgI/sub 2/ and 12.5% FWHM for the CaWO/sub 4/-HgI/sub 2/ detectors; peak-to-valley ratios were 26:1 and 16:1, respectively. HgI/sub 2/ detectors operate at room temperature and their use in scintillation spectroscopy presents the ultimate miniaturization of scintillation detectors, limited mainly by the size of the scintillation crystal.

  4. Very large scale heterogeneous integration (VLSHI) and wafer-level vacuum packaging for infrared bolometer focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Fredrik; Roxhed, Niclas; Fischer, Andreas C.; Samel, Björn; Ericsson, Per; Hoivik, Nils; Lapadatu, Adriana; Bring, Martin; Kittilsland, Gjermund; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Imaging in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm is an extremely useful tool for non-contact measurement and imaging of temperature in many industrial, automotive and security applications. However, the cost of the infrared (IR) imaging components has to be significantly reduced to make IR imaging a viable technology for many cost-sensitive applications. This paper demonstrates new and improved fabrication and packaging technologies for next-generation IR imaging detectors based on uncooled IR bolometer focal plane arrays. The proposed technologies include very large scale heterogeneous integration for combining high-performance, SiGe quantum-well bolometers with electronic integrated read-out circuits and CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packing. The fabrication and characterization of bolometers with a pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm that are arranged on read-out-wafers in arrays with 320 × 240 pixels are presented. The bolometers contain a multi-layer quantum well SiGe thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistance of -3.0%/K. The proposed CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packaging technology uses Cu-Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The presented technologies are suitable for implementation in cost-efficient fabless business models with the potential to bring about the cost reduction needed to enable low-cost IR imaging products for industrial, security and automotive applications.

  5. A 1.5 THz hot-electron bolometer mixer operated by a planar diode based local oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. Y. E.; Meledin, D.; Blundell, R.; Erickson, N.; Mehdi, I.; Goltsman, G.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a 1.5 THz superconducting NbN Hot-Electron Bolometer mixer. It is oprated by an all-solid-state Local Oscillator comprising of a cascade of 4 planar doublers following an MMIC based W-band power amplifier.

  6. Isotopic response with small scintillator based gamma-ray spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Norman W [Sparks, NV; Goulding, Frederick S [Lafayette, CA; Asztalos, Stephen J [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-24

    The intrinsic background of a gamma ray spectrometer is significantly reduced by surrounding the scintillator with a second scintillator. This second (external) scintillator surrounds the first scintillator and has an opening of approximately the same diameter as the smaller central scintillator in the forward direction. The second scintillator is selected to have a higher atomic number, and thus has a larger probability for a Compton scattering interaction than within the inner region. Scattering events that are essentially simultaneous in coincidence to the first and second scintillators, from an electronics perspective, are precluded electronically from the data stream. Thus, only gamma-rays that are wholly contained in the smaller central scintillator are used for analytic purposes.

  7. Scintillating-glass-fiber neutron sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, K. H.; Arthur, R. J.; Bliss, M.; Brite, D. W.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Craig, R. A.; Geelhood, B. D.; Goldman, D. S.; Griffin, J. W.; Perkins, R. W.; Reeder, P. L.; Richey, W. R.; Stahl, K. A.; Sunberg, D. S.; Warner, R. A.; Wogman, N. A.; Weber, M. J.

    1994-12-01

    Cerium-doped lithium-silicate glass fibers have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for use as thermal neutron detectors. By using highly-enriched 6Li, these fibers efficiently capture thermal neutrons and produce scintillation light that can be detected at the ends of the fibers. Advantages of scintillating fibers over 3He or BF 3 proportional tubes include flexibility in geometric configuration, ruggedness in high-vibration environments, and less detector weight for the same neutron sensitivity. This paper describes the performance of these scintillating fibers with regard to count rates, pulse height spectra, absolute efficiencies, and neutron/gamma discrimination. Fibers with light transmission lengths ( {1}/{e}) of greater than 2 m have been produced at PNL. Neutron sensors in fiber form allow development of a variety of neutron detectors packaged in previously unavailable configurations. Brief descriptions of some of the devices already produced are included to illustrate these possibilities.

  8. Purification of large liquid scintillators for Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Benziger, J.B.; Calaprice, F.P.; Vogelaar, R.B.

    1993-10-01

    Distillation extraction and crystallization have been used on scintillator mixtures for solar neutrino physics to remove cosmo- genically produced impurities ({sup 7}Be) and naturally occurring impurities ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K), and to improve the optical transmission. Distillation was effective at removing {sup 7}Be and other impurities from aromatic solvents (p-xylene and pseudocumene) used as scintillator solvents. Distillation also provided the greatest improvement in the optical clarity of the solvents. Commercially available fluors (PPO and PMP) have high levels of potassium, far in excess of those tolerable for Borexino. Extraction techniques have been found to be effective at removing radioactive impurities, particularly potassium, from the fluors. An overall strategy for on-line purification of the scintillator for Borexino will be presented.

  9. Current trends in scintillator detectors and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    2001-10-23

    The last decade has seen a renaissance in inorganic scintillator development for gamma ray detection. Lead tungstate (PbWO4) has been developed for high energy physics experiments, and possesses exceptionally high density and radiation hardness, albeit with low luminous efficiency. Lutetium orthosilicate or LSO (Lu2SiO5:Ce) possesses a unique combination of high luminous efficiency, high density, and reasonably short decay time, and is now incorporated in commercial positron emission tomography (PET) cameras. There have been advances in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that limit energy resolution, and several recently discovered materials (such as LaBr3:Ce) possess energy resolution that approaches that of direct solid state detectors. Finally, there are indications that a neglected class of scintillator materials that exhibit near band-edge fluorescence could provide scintillators with sub-nanosecond decay times and high luminescent efficiency.

  10. On the scintillation efficiency of carborane-loaded liquid scintillators for thermal neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Okoye, Nkemakonam C.; Urffer, Matthew J.; Green, Alexander D.; Childs, Kyle E.; Miller, Laurence F.

    2015-01-01

    The scintillation efficiency in response to thermal neutrons was studied by loading different concentrations of carborane (0-8.5 wt%) and naphthalene (0 and 100 g/L) in five liquid organic scintillators. The sample was characterized in Pb and Cd shields under the irradiation of the thermal neutrons from a 252Cf source. A method was developed to extract the net neutron response from the pulse-height spectra. It was found that the order of scintillation efficiencies for both γ-rays and thermal neutrons is as follows: diisopropylnaphthalene>toluene (concentrated solutes)>toluene~pseudocumene~m-xylene. The quench constants, obtained by fitting the Stern-Volmer model to the plots of light output versus carborane concentration, are in the range of 0.35-1.4 M-1 for all the scintillators. The Birks factors, estimated using the specific energy loss profiles of the incident particles, are in the range of 9.3-14 mg cm-2 MeV-1 for all the samples. The light outputs are in the range of 63-86 keV electron equivalents (keVee) in response to thermal neutrons. Loading naphthalene generally promotes the scintillation efficiency of the scintillator with a benzene derivative solvent. Among all the scintillators tested, the diisopropylnaphthalene-based scintillator shows the highest scintillation efficiency, lowest Birks factor, and smallest quench constants. These properties are primarily attributed to the double fused benzene-ring structure of the solvent, which is more efficient to populate to the excited singlet state under ionizing radiation and to transfer the excitation energy to the fluorescent solutes.

  11. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  12. The design of the TASD (totally active scintillator detector) prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Mefodiev, A. V. Kudenko, Yu. G.

    2015-12-15

    Totally active and magnetic segmented scintillation neutrino detectors are developed for the nextgeneration accelerator neutrino experiments. Such detectors will incorporate scintillation modules with scintillation counters that form X and Y planes. A single counter is a 7 × 10 × 90 mm{sup 3} scintillation bar with gluedin wavelength-shifting fibers and micropixel avalanche photodiodes. The results of measurements of the parameters of these detectors are presented.

  13. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The advance of new detector technologies combined with enhanced fabrication methods has resulted in an increase in development of large format arrays. The next generation of scientific instruments will utilize detectors containing hundreds to thousands of elements providing a more efficient means to conduct large area sky surveys. Some notable detectors include a 32x32 x-ray microcalorimeter for Constellation-X, an infrared bolometer called SAFIRE to fly on the airborne observatory SOFIA, and the sub-millimeter bolometer SCUBA-2 to be deployed at the JCMT which will use more than 10,000 elements for two colors, each color using four 32x40 arrays. Of these detectors, SCUBA-2 is farthest along in development and uses indium hybridization to multiplexers for readout of the large number of elements, a technology that will be required to enable the next generation of large format arrays. Our current efforts in working toward large format arrays have produced GISMO, the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter observer. GISMO is a far infrared instrument to be field tested later this year at the IRAM 30 meter telescope in Spain. GISMO utilizes transition edge sensor (TES) technology in an 8x16 filled array format that allows for typical fan-out wiring and wire-bonding to four 1x32 NIST multiplexers. GISMO'S electrical wiring is routed along the tops of 30 micron walls which also serve as the mechanical framework for the array. This architecture works well for the 128 element array, but is approaching the limit for routing the necessary wires along the surface while maintaining a high fill factor. Larger format arrays will benefit greatly from making electrical connections through the wafer to the backside, where they can be hybridized to a read-out substrate tailored to handling the wiring scheme. The next generation array we are developing is a 32x40 element array on a pitch of 1135 microns that conforms to the NIST multiplexer, already developed for the SCUBA-2

  14. Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1994-02-01

    A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

  15. Plastic scintillator centrality detector for BRAHMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. K.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J. H.; Ito, Hironori; Sanders, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    An array of 40 tiles of thin plastic scintillators is used to construct the outer layer of the charged particle multiplicity detector for the BRAHMS experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Each tile is a square with 12 cm long sides and 5 mm thickness. The light from each of the scintillators is collected by wavelength shifting fibers embedded on the periphery. The light collection is uniform within 5% over the tile with the edge effect limited to 4 mm along the edge. The response is found to be linear in the high-multiplicity environment at RHIC with Au+Au beams at s NN of 200 GeV.

  16. Quality study of the purified liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Kibe, Y.

    2008-07-01

    We have been distilling the KamLAND liquid scintillator (LS) for the low energy solar neutrino observation. The distillation removes radioactive impurities from LS efficiently. We developed two types of high sensitivity radon detectors to monitor 222Rn contamination which causes a primary background source 210Pb. Their required sensitivity is several mBq/m3. The features and the measurement results of these detectors are presented. We also report the study of liquid scintillator properties after the distillation: attenuation length, light output and PPO density.

  17. Effects of radiation on scintillating fiber performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, M.L.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Onopienko, D.; Savin, S.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.; Young, K.G.; Carey, R.; Rothman, M.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Parr, H.

    1992-12-31

    Continued rapid improvements in formulations for scintillating fibers require the ability to parameterize and predict effects of radiation on detector performance. Experimental techniques necessary to obtain needed information and calculational procedures used in performing predications for hadron scintillating fiber calorimetry in the Superconducting Supercollider environment are described. The experimental techniques involve control of the testing environment, consideration of dose rate effects, and other factors. These calculations involve the behavior of particle showers in the detector, expected levels of radiation, and parameterization of the radiation effects. A summary of significant work is also presented.

  18. Effects of radiation on scintillating fiber performance

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Onopienko, D.; Savin, S.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E. ); Carey, R.; Rothman, M.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W. ); Paar, H. )

    1993-08-01

    Continued rapid improvements in formulations for scintillating fibers require the ability to parameterize and predict effects of radiation on detector performance. Experimental techniques necessary to obtain desired information and calculational procedures used in performing predictions for hadron scintillating fiber calorimetry in the Superconducting Supercollider environment are described. The experimental techniques involve control of the testing environment, consideration of dose rate effects, and other factors. The calculations involve the behavior of particle showers in the detector, expected levels of radiation, and parameterization of the radiation effects. A summary of significant work is also presented.

  19. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, T.; Escobar, C. O.; Lippincott, W. H.; Rubinov, P.

    2016-03-03

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7 $\\mu$m < $\\lambda$; < 1.5$\\mu$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.

  20. The homestake surface-underground scintillations: Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E. J.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    Two new detectors are currently under construction at the Homestake Gold Mine a 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) with an upper surface area of 130 square meters, a geometry factor (for an isotropic flux) of 1200 square meters, sr, and a depth of 4200 m.w.e.; and a surface air shower array consisting of 100 scintillator elements, each 3 square meters, spanning an area of approximately square kilometers. Underground, half of the LASD is currently running and collecting muon data; on the surface, the first section of the air shower array will begin operation in the spring of 1985. The detectors and their capabilities are described.

  1. Plastic scintillators modifications for a selective radiation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, Matthieu; Bertrand, Guillaume H.V.; Carrel, Frederick; Coulon, Romain; Dumazert, Jonathan; Montbarbon, Eva; Sguerra, Fabien

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments of plastic scintillators are reviewed, from January 2000 to June 2015. All examples are distributed into the main application, i.e. how the plastic scintillator was modified to enhance the detection towards a given radiation particle. The main characteristics of these newly created scintillators and their detection properties are given. (authors)

  2. New liquid scintillators for fiber-optic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, S.S.; Franks, L.A.; Flournoy, J.M.; Lyons, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    New long-wavelength-emitting, high-speed, liquid scintillators have been developed and tailored specifically for plasma diagnostic experiments employing fiber optics. These scintillators offer significant advantages over commercially available plastic scintillators in terms of sensitivity and bandwidth. FWHM response times as fast as 350 ps have been measured. Emission spectra, time response data, and relative sensitivity information are presented.

  3. Upconverting nanoparticles for optimizing scintillator based detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kross, Brian; McKisson, John E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zom, Carl

    2013-09-17

    An upconverting device for a scintillation detection system is provided. The detection system comprises a scintillator material, a sensor, a light transmission path between the scintillator material and the sensor, and a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles particles positioned in the light transmission path.

  4. Assessment of scintillation proxy maps for a scintillation study during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions over Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this paper is demonstrate the validity and usefulness of scintillation proxies derived from IGS data, through its comparison with data from dedicated scintillation monitors and its application to GNSS scintillation patterns. The paper presents scintillation patterns developed by using data from the dedicated scintillation monitors of the scintillation network decision aid (SCINDA) network, and proxy maps derived from IGS GPS data for 2011 and 2012 over low latitude stations in Uganda. The amplitude and phase scintillation indicies (S4 and σΦ) were obtained from the Novatel GSV4004B ionospheric scintillation and total electron content (TEC) monitor managed by SCINDA at Makerere (0.340N, 32.570E). The corresponding IGS GPS proxy data were obtained from the receivers at Entebbe (0.040N, 32.440E) and Mbarara (0.600S, 30.740E). The derived amplitude (S4p) and phase (sDPR) scintillation proxy maps were compared with maps of S4 and σΦ during geomagnetic storms (moderate and strong) and geomagnetically quiet conditions. The scintillation patterns using S4 and σΦ and their respective proxies revealed similar diurnal and seasonal patterns of strong scintillation occurrence. The peaks of scintillation occurrence with mean values in the range 0.3 < (S4p , sDPR) ≤ 0.6 were observed during nighttime (17:00-22:00 UT) and in the months of March-April and September-October. The results also indicate that high level scintillations occur during geomagnetically disturbed (moderate and strong) and quiet conditions over the Ugandan region. The results show that SCINDA and IGS based scintillation patterns reveal the same nighttime and seasonal occurrence of irregularities over Uganda irrespective of the geomagnetic conditions. Therefore, the amplitude and phase scintillation proxies presented here can be used to fill gaps in low-latitude data where there are no data available from dedicated scintillation receivers, irrespective of the geomagnetic conditions.

  5. Development of new Polysiloxane Based Liquid Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Dalla Palma, M.; Quaranta, A.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Carturan, S.; Collazuol, G.; Checchia, C.; Degerlier, M.

    2015-07-01

    In the last decade, attention toward neutron detection has been growing in the scientific community, driven by new requirements in different fields of application ranging from homeland security to medical and material analysis, from research physics, to nuclear energy production. So far neutron detection, with particular attention to fast neutrons, has been mainly based on organic liquid scintillators, owing to their good efficiency and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capability. Most of these liquids have however some main drawbacks given by toxicity, flammability, volatility and sensitivity to dissolved oxygen that limits the duration and the quality of their performances with worse handiness and increased costs. Phenyl-substituted polysiloxanes could address most of these issues, being characterized by low toxicity, low volatility and low flammability. Their optical properties can be tailored by changing the phenyl distribution and concentration thus allowing to increase the solubility of organic dyes, to modify the fluorescence spectra and to vary the refractive index of the medium. Furthermore, polysiloxanes have been recently exploited for the production of plastic scintillators with very good chemical and thermal stability and very good radiation hardness and the development of polysiloxane liquid scintillators could allow to combine these interesting properties with the supremacy of liquid scintillators as regarding PSD over plastics. For these reasons, the properties of several phenyl-substituted polysiloxane with different phenyl amounts and different viscosities have been investigated, with particular attention to the scintillation response and the pulse shape discrimination capability, and the results of the investigation are reported in this work. More in details, the scintillation light yield towards gamma rays ({sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs) of several polysiloxane liquids has been analyzed and compared with the light yield of a commercial non

  6. Robust GPS carrier tracking under ionospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susi, M.; Andreotti, M.; Aquino, M. H.; Dodson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Small scale irregularities present in the ionosphere can induce fast and unpredictable fluctuations of Radio Frequency (RF) signal phase and amplitude. This phenomenon, known as scintillation, can degrade the performance of a GPS receiver leading to cycle slips, increasing the tracking error and also producing a complete loss of lock. In the most severe scenarios, if the tracking of multiple satellites links is prevented, outages in the GPS service can also occur. In order to render a GPS receiver more robust under scintillation, particular attention should be dedicated to the design of the carrier tracking stage, that is the receiver's part most sensitive to these types of phenomenon. This paper exploits the reconfigurability and flexibility of a GPS software receiver to develop a tracking algorithm that is more robust under ionospheric scintillation. For this purpose, first of all, the scintillation level is monitored in real time. Indeed the carrier phase and the post correlation terms obtained by the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) are used to estimate phi60 and S4 [1], the scintillation indices traditionally used to quantify the level of phase and amplitude scintillations, as well as p and T, the spectral parameters of the fluctuations PSD. The effectiveness of the scintillation parameter computation is confirmed by comparing the values obtained by the software receiver and the ones provided by a commercial scintillation monitoring, i.e. the Septentrio PolarxS receiver [2]. Then the above scintillation parameters and the signal carrier to noise density are exploited to tune the carrier tracking algorithm. In case of very weak signals the FLL (Frequency Locked Loop) scheme is selected in order to maintain the signal lock. Otherwise an adaptive bandwidth Phase Locked Loop (PLL) scheme is adopted. The optimum bandwidth for the specific scintillation scenario is evaluated in real time by exploiting the Conker formula [1] for the tracking jitter estimation. The performance

  7. Preliminary design of a tangentially viewing imaging bolometer for NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B. J.; Sano, R.; Reinke, M. L.; Canik, J. M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Lore, J. D.; Mukai, K.; Gray, T. K.; van Eden, G. G.; Jaworski, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) measures plasma radiated power images using a thin metal foil. Two different designs with a tangential view of NSTX-U are made assuming a 640 × 480 (1280 × 1024) pixel, 30 (105) fps, 50 (20) mK, IR camera imaging the 9 cm × 9 cm × 2 μm Pt foil. The foil is divided into 40 × 40 (64 × 64) IRVB channels. This gives a spatial resolution of 3.4 (2.2) cm on the machine mid-plane. The noise equivalent power density of the IRVB is given as 113 (46) μW/cm2 for a time resolution of 33 (20) ms. Synthetic images derived from Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulation data using the IRVB geometry show peak signal levels ranging from ˜0.8 to ˜80 (˜0.36 to ˜26) mW/cm2.

  8. Highly sensitive hBN/graphene hot electron bolometers with a Johnson noise readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efetov, Dmitri; Gao, Yuanda; Walsh, Evan; Shiue, Ren-Jye; Grosso, Gabriele; Peng, Cheng; Hone, James; Fong, Kin Chun; Englund, Dirk

    Graphene has remarkable opto-electronic and thermo-electric properties that make it an exciting functional material for various photo-detection applications. In particular, owed to graphenes unique combination of an exceedingly low electronic heat capacity and a strongly suppressed electron-phonon thermal conductivity Gth, the electronic and phononic temperatures are highly decoupled allowing an operation principle as a hot electron bolometer (HEB). Here we demonstrate highly sensitive HEBs made of high quality hBN/graphene/hBN stacks and employ a direct electronic temperature read out scheme via Johnson noise thermometry (JNT). We perform combined pump-probe and JNT measurements to demonstrate strongly damped Ce and Gth in the ultra-low impurity σi = 109 cm-2 hBN/G/hBN stacks, which result in unprecedented photo-detection sensitivity and noise equivalent power for graphene HEBs.

  9. Frequency-Domain Analysis of Diffusion-Cooled Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skalare, A.; McGrath, W. R.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

    1998-01-01

    A new theoretical model is introduced to describe heterodyne mixer conversion efficiency and noise (from thermal fluctuation effects) in diffusion-cooled superconducting hot-electron bolometers. The model takes into account the non-uniform internal electron temperature distribution generated by Wiedemann-Franz heat conduction, and accepts for input an arbitrary (analytical or experimental) superconducting resistance-versus- temperature curve. A non-linear large-signal solution is solved iteratively to calculate the temperature distribution, and a linear frequency-domain small-signal formulation is used to calculate conversion efficiency and noise. In the small-signal solution the device is discretized into segments, and matrix algebra is used to relate the heating modulation in the segments to temperature and resistance modulations. Matrix expressions are derived that allow single-sideband mixer conversion efficiency and coupled noise power to be directly calculated. The model accounts for self-heating and electrothermal feedback from the surrounding bias circuit.

  10. Fabrication of high-Tc superconducting hot electron bolometers for terahertz mixer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegier, Jean-Claude; Degardin, Annick F.; Guillet, Bruno; Houze, Frederic; Kreisler, Alain J.; Chaubet, Michel

    2005-03-01

    Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixers are a competitive alternative to Schottky diode mixers or other conventional superconducting receiver technologies in the terahertz frequency range because of their ultrawide bandwidth (from millimeter waves to the visible), high conversion gain, and low intrinsic noise level, even at 77 K. A new technological process has been developed to realize HEB mixers based on high temperature superconducting materials, using 15 to 40 nm thick layers of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO), sputtered on MgO (100) substrates by hollow cathode magnetron sputtering. Critical temperature values of YBCO films were found in the 85 to 91 K range. Sub-micron HEB bridges (0.8 μm x 0.8 μm) were obtained by combining electronic and UV lithography followed by selective etching techniques. Realization of YBCO HEB coupling to planar integrated gold antennas was also considered.

  11. Broadband MgB2 Hot-Electron Bolometer THz Mixers Operating up to 20 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Evgenii; Cherednichenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    We discuss performance of submicron size hot-electron bolometer mixers made from thin MgB2 superconducting films. With a superconducting transition temperature of ∼30 K, such terahertz (THz) mixers can operate with high sensitivity at temperatures up to 20 K. Due to very small dimensions local oscillator power requirements are rather low. In the intermediate frequency band of 1-3 GHz, the double sideband receiver noise temperature is 1600 K at 10 K operation temperature, 2000 K at 15 K, 2500-3000 K at 20 K. The gain bandwidth of such devices is 6 GHz and the noise bandwidth is estimated to be 6-8 GHz.

  12. Minimum Fisher regularization of image reconstruction for infrared imaging bolometer on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Li, W.; Lu, J.; Dong, Y. B.; Xia, Z. W.; Yi, P.; Yang, Q. W.

    2013-09-15

    An infrared imaging bolometer diagnostic has been developed recently for the HL-2A tokamak to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of plasma radiation. The three-dimensional tomography, reduced to a two-dimensional problem by the assumption of plasma radiation toroidal symmetry, has been performed. A three-dimensional geometry matrix is calculated with the one-dimensional pencil beam approximation. The solid angles viewed by the detector elements are taken into account in defining the chord brightness. And the local plasma emission is obtained by inverting the measured brightness with the minimum Fisher regularization method. A typical HL-2A plasma radiation model was chosen to optimize a regularization parameter on the criterion of generalized cross validation. Finally, this method was applied to HL-2A experiments, demonstrating the plasma radiated power density distribution in limiter and divertor discharges.

  13. Appropriate microwave frequency selection for biasing superconducting hot electron bolometers as terahertz direct detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, S. L.; Li, X. F.; Jia, X. Q.; Kang, L.; Jin, B. B.; Xu, W. W.; Chen, J.; Wu, P. H.

    2017-04-01

    Terahertz (THz) direct detectors based on superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) hot electron bolometers (HEBs) and biased by a simple microwave (MW) source have been studied. The frequency and power of the MW are selected by measuring the MW responses of the current–voltage (I–V) curves and resistance–temperature (R–T) curves of the NbN HEBs. The non-uniform absorption theory is used to explain the current jumps in the I–V curves and the resistance jumps in the R–T curves. Compared to the thermal biasing, the MW biasing method can improve the sensitivity, make the readout system much easier and consumes less liquid helium, which is important for long lasting experiments. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of 1.6 pW Hz‑1/2 and the response time of 86 ps are obtained for the detectors working at 4.2 K and 0.65 THz.

  14. Improved calibration technique of the infrared imaging bolometer using ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Drapiko, E; Peterson, B; Alekseev, A; Seo, D C

    2010-10-01

    The technique used until recently utilizing the Ne-He laser for imaging bolometer foils calibration [B. J. Peterson et al., J. Plasma Fusion Res. 2, S1018 (2007)] has showed several issues. The method was based on irradiation of 1 cm spaced set of points on a foil by the laser beam moved by set of mirrors. Issues were the nonuniformity of laser power due to the vacuum window transmission nonuniformity and high reflection coefficient for the laser. Also, due to the limited infrared (IR) window size, it was very time consuming. The new methodology uses a compact ultraviolet (uv) light-emitting diodes installed inside the vacuum chamber in a fixed position and the foil itself will be moved in the XY directions by two vacuum feedthroughs. These will help to avoid the above mentioned issues due to lack of a vacuum window, fixed emitters, higher uv power absorption, and a fixed IR camera position.

  15. Optical Response of Strained- and Unstrained-Silicon Cold-Electron Bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brien, T. L. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Barry, P. S.; Dunscombe, C. J.; Leadley, D. R.; Morozov, D. V.; Myronov, M.; Parker, E. H. C.; Prest, M. J.; Prunnila, M.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Whall, T. E.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the optical characterisation of two silicon cold-electron bolometers each consisting of a small (32 × 14 mathrm {\\upmu m}) island of degenerately doped silicon with superconducting aluminium contacts. Radiation is coupled into the silicon absorber with a twin-slot antenna designed to couple to 160-GHz radiation through a silicon lens. The first device has a highly doped silicon absorber, the second has a highly doped strained-silicon absorber. Using a novel method of cross-correlating the outputs from two parallel amplifiers, we measure noise-equivalent powers of 3.0 × 10^{-16} and 6.6 × 10^{-17} mathrm {W Hz^{{-1}/{2}}} for the control and strained device, respectively, when observing radiation from a 77-K source. In the case of the strained device, the noise-equivalent power is limited by the photon noise.

  16. High sensitive THz superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers and transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Miao, W.; Zhou, K. M.; Guo, X. H.; Zhong, J. Q.; Shi, S. C.

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz band, which is roughly defined as 0.1 THz to 10 THz, is an interesting frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum to be fully explored in astronomy. THz observations play key roles in astrophysics and cosmology. High sensitive heterodyne and direct detectors are the main tools for the detection of molecular spectral lines and fine atomic structure spectral lines, which are very important tracers for probing the physical and chemical properties and dynamic processes of objects such as star and planetary systems. China is planning to build an THz telescope at Dome A, Antarctica, a unique site for ground-based THz observations. We are developing THz superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers and transition edge sensors (TES), which are quantum limited and back-ground limited detectors, respectively. Here we first introduce the working principles of superconducting HEB and TES, and then mainly present the results achieved at Purple mountain Observatory.

  17. Design and construction of high-sensitivity, infrared bolometers for operation at 300 mK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsop, D. C.; Inman, C.; Lange, A. E.; Wibanks, T.

    1992-01-01

    The design and construction of 300-mK composite bolometers developed for millimeter-wave astronomical observations are described. Graphite fibers are used as the electrical leads for the thermistor to reduce the thermal conductance and heat capacity associated with the leads. A mechanical suspension made of Nylon fibers provides the required thermal conductance. Electrical noise equivalent powers below 1 x 10 exp -16 W/sq rt Hz have been achieved for detectors with thermal time constants of 11 ms. The detectors were installed in a millimeter-wave photometer and used to perform observations of the cosmic microwave background from a balloonborne platform. The flight performance was consistent with the measured laboratory properties.

  18. Attojoule energy resolution of direct detector based on hot electron bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, S. V.; Rusova, A. A.; Kaurova, N. S.; Voronov, B. M.; Goltsman, G. N.

    2016-08-01

    We characterize superconducting antenna-coupled NbN hot-electron bolometer (HEB) for direct detection of THz radiation operating at a temperature of 9.0 K. At signal frequency of 2.5 THz, the measured value of the optical noise equivalent power is 2.0×10-13 W-Hz-0.5. The estimated value of the energy resolution is about 1.5 aJ. This value was confirmed in the experiment with pulsed 1.55-μm laser employed as a radiation source. The directly measured detector energy resolution is 2 aJ. The obtained risetime of pulses from the detector is 130 ps. This value was determined by the properties of the RF line. These characteristics make our detector a device-of-choice for a number of practical applications associated with detection of short THz pulses.

  19. High T(sub c) Superconducting Bolometer on Chemically Etched 7 Micrometer Thick Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Brasunas, J. C.; Pique, A.; Fettig, R.; Mott, B.; Babu, S.; Cushman, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    A transition-edge IR detector, using a YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) thin film deposited on a chemically etched, 7 micrometer thick sapphire substrate has been built. To our knowledge it is the first such high T(sub c) superconducting (HTS) bolometer on chemically thinned sapphire. The peak optical detectivity obtained is l.2 x 10(exp 10) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W near 4Hz. Result shows that it is possible to obtain high detectivity with thin films on etched sapphire with no processing after the deposition of the YBCO film. We discuss the etching process and its potential for micro-machining sapphire and fabricating 2-dimensional detector arrays with suspended sapphire membranes. A 30 micrometer thick layer of gold black provided IR absorption. Comparison is made with the current state of the art on silicon substrates.

  20. Parameter Comparison for Low-Noise MoAu TES Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J. G.; Allen, C. A.; Chervenak, J. A.; Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a comparative investigation of the parameters of MoAu-bilayer Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers designed for infrared detectors. A set of devices with variations in geometry were fabricated at the NASA/GSFC detector development facility. These detectors have different bilayer aspect ratios (providing differing normal state resistances and current densities), and have varieties of normal metal regions to study the effects of geometry on noise. These normal metal regions are oriented either parallel to or transverse to the direction of current flow, or both. The lowest noise detectors are found to have normal metal regions oriented transversely. For about a dozen different devices, we have measured a large set of parameters by means of a suite of tests. These include complex impedance measurements to derive time constants; IV curves to determine resistance and power; thermal conductance measurements; noise measurements as a function of device resistance; and &rect resistance vs. temperature measurements .

  1. YBa2Cu3O7 thin films on nanocrystalline diamond films for HTSC bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, G.; Beetz, C. P., Jr.; Boerstler, R.; Steinbeck, J.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been fabricated. A composite buffer layer system consisting of diamond/Si3N4/YSZ/YBCO was explored for this purpose. The as-deposited YBCO films were superconducting with Tc of about 84 K and a relatively narrow transition width of about 8 K. SEM cross sections of the films showed very sharp interfaces between diamond/Si3N4 and between Si3N4/YSZ. The deposited YBCO film had a surface roughness of about 1000 A, which is suitable for high-temperature superconductive (HTSC) bolometer fabrication. It was also found that preannealing of the nanocrystalline diamond thin films at high temperature was very important for obtaining high-quality YBCO films.

  2. Nondestructive test of brazed cooling tubes of prototype bolometer camera housing using active infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Tahiliani, Kumudni; Pandya, Santosh P; Pandya, Shwetang; Jha, Ratneshwar; Govindarajan, J

    2011-01-01

    The active infrared thermography technique is used for assessing the brazing quality of an actively cooled bolometer camera housing developed for steady state superconducting tokamak. The housing is a circular pipe, which has circular tubes vacuum brazed on the periphery. A unique method was adopted to monitor the temperature distribution on the internal surface of the pipe. A stainless steel mirror was placed inside the pipe and the reflected IR radiations were viewed using an IR camera. The heat stimulus was given by passing hot water through the tubes and the temperature distribution was monitored during the transient phase. The thermographs showed a significant nonuniformity in the brazing with a contact area of around 51%. The thermography results were compared with the x-ray radiographs and a good match between the two was observed. Benefits of thermography over x-ray radiography testing are emphasized.

  3. Scintillating fiber detector performance, detector geometries, trigger, and electronics issues for scintillating fiber tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1994-06-01

    Scintillating Fiber tracking technology has made great advances and has demonstrated great potential for high speed charged particle tracking and triggering. The small detector sizes and fast scintillation fluors available make them very promising for use at high luminosity experiments at today`s and tomorrow`s colliding and fixed target experiments where high rate capability is essential. This talk will discuss the current state of Scintillating fiber performance and current Visual Light Photon Counter (VLPC) characteristics. The primary topic will be some of the system design and integration issues which should be considered by anyone attempting to design a scintillating fiber tracking system which includes a high speed tracking trigger. Design. constraints placed upon the detector system by the electronics and mechanical sub-systems will be discussed. Seemingly simple and unrelated decisions can have far reaching effects on overall system performance. SDC and DO example system designs will be discussed.

  4. The SNO+ Scintillator Purification Plant and Projected Sensitivity to Solar Neutrinos in the Pure Scintillator Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershing, Teal; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The SNO+ detector is a neutrino and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment utilizing the renovated SNO detector. In the second phase of operation, the SNO+ detector will contain 780 tons of organic liquid scintillator composed of 2 g/L 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). In this phase, SNO+ will strive to detect solar neutrinos in the sub-MeV range, including CNO production neutrinos and pp production neutrinos. To achieve the necessary detector sensitivity, a four-part scintillator purification plant has been constructed in SNOLAB for the removal of ionic and radioactive impurities. We present an overview of the SNO+ scintillator purification plant stages, including distillation, water extraction, gas stripping, and metal scavenger columns. We also give the projected SNO+ sensitivities to various solar-produced neutrinos based on the scintillator plant's projected purification efficiency.

  5. Characterizing Scintillation and Cherenkov Light in Water-Based Liquid Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Benjamin; Caravaca, Javier; Descamps, Freija; Orebi Gann, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    The recent development of Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS) has made it possible to produce scintillating materials with highly tunable light yields and excellent optical clarity. This allows for a straightforward combination of the directional properties of Cherenkov light with the greater energy resolution afforded by the typically brighter scintillation light which lends itself well to a broad program of neutrino physics. Here we explore the light yields and time profiles of WbLS materials in development for Theia (formerly ASDC) as measured in CheSS: our bench-top Cherenkov and scintillation separation R&D project at Berkeley Lab. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  6. Development of scintillator plates with high energy resolution for alpha particles made of GPS scintillator grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Izaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio; Nishiyama, Shusuke

    2014-01-01

    A scintillator plate with high energy resolution was developed to produce an alpha particle monitor used in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel plants. Grains of a Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator of several 10 to 550 μm were fixed on a glass substrate and were then mechanically polished. By increasing the size of scintillator grains and removing fine powders, the collected light yield and energy resolution for alpha particles were drastically improved. Energy resolution of 9.3% was achieved using average grain size of 91 μm. Furthermore, the ratios between counts in a peak and total counts were improved by more than 60% by the further increase of grain size and adoption of mechanically polished surfaces on both sides. Beta and gamma ray influences were suppressed sufficiently by the thin 100 μm scintillator plates.

  7. SCUBA-2 instrument: an application of large-format superconducting bolometer arrays for submillimetre astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollister, Matthew Ian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns technical aspects related to the design and operation of the submillimetre common-user bolometer array 2 (SCUBA-2) instrument, a new wide-field camera for submillimetre astronomy currently undergoing commissioning on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Offering unprecedented sensitivity and mapping capabilities, SCUBA-2 is expected to make a major impact in surveys of the sky at submillimetre wavelengths, a largely unexplored part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and provide better understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, stars and planets by providing large, unbiased samples of such objects. SCUBA-2 uses large arrays of bolometers, with superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs) as the temperature-sensitive element. TES devices are a relatively new technology, utilising the sharp resistance change between the normal and superconducting states to make a sensitive thermistor. Kilopixel arrays of such devices are multiplexed using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). This thesis derives the key detector performance parameters, and presents analysis of engineering data to confirm the detector performance on array scales. A key issue for bolometric instruments for far infrared and submillimetre astronomy is the need to operate at extremely low temperatures in the sub-kelvin and millikelvin ranges to achieve the necessary detector sensitivity. This work describes the design, testing and performance of the liquid cryogen-free millikelvin cryostat, the first such instrument to be deployed for astronomy. Subsequent chapters detail the design and testing of a magnetic shielding scheme for the instrument, an important aspect of the operation of superconducting devices. Based on experience with the construction and testing of this instrument, a number of potential improvements for future instruments are presented and discussed.

  8. Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eden, G. G.; Reinke, M. L.; Peterson, B. J.; Gray, T. K.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Jaworski, M. A.; Lore, J.; Mukai, K.; Sano, R.; Pandya, S. N.; Morgan, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm2 Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil's calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-U lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. The optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.

  9. Development of a Large Format Fully Sampled Bolometer Camera for 2 mm Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Allen, Christine A.; Ames, Troy J.; Buchanan, Ernest D.; Maher, Stephen F.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Sharp, Elmer H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    The 2 mm (150 GHz) atmospheric window enables unparalleled ground-based observations of the earliest active dusty galaxies in the universe. We have undertaken the development of a bolometer camera, GISMO (the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer), which will obtain large and sensitive sky maps at this wavelength. The instrument will be used at the IRAM 30 m telescope, where we hope to have a trial observing run in Summer 2007. The innovative element in this camera is its 8×16 fully sampled planar array of multiplexed superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers. This array is based on our recently demonstrated Backshort Under Grid architecture, designed to be scaled to kilopixel arrays with high sensitivity (of around 4×10^-17 W/√Hz at TC~450 mK). A compact cryogenic optical system provides a wide field of view of almost 2'×4', enabling GISMO to be very efficient at detecting sources serendipitously in large sky surveys, while retaining diffraction-limited imaging performance. GISMO will provide significantly greater imaging sensitivity and mapping speed at this wavelength than has previously been possible. The major scientific driver for the instrument is to detect dust emission from high-z ULIRGs and quasars. The instrument provides an important portion of the spectrum of high redshift galaxies at the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the dust emission spectrum, even at the highest redshifts. Models of galaxy evolution predict that GISMO will serendipitously detect one galaxy in every four hours of observing blank sky, and that one quarter of these galaxies will be at a redshift of z > 6.5.

  10. Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U.

    PubMed

    van Eden, G G; Reinke, M L; Peterson, B J; Gray, T K; Delgado-Aparicio, L F; Jaworski, M A; Lore, J; Mukai, K; Sano, R; Pandya, S N; Morgan, T W

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm(2) Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil's calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-U lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. The optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.

  11. Liquid Scintillator Production for the NOvA Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Mufson, S.; Baugh, B.; Bower, C.; ...

    2015-04-15

    The NOvA collaboration blended and delivered 8.8 kt (2.72M gal) of liquid scintillator as the active detector medium to its near and far detectors. The composition of this scintillator was specifically developed to satisfy NOvA's performance requirements. A rigorous set of quality control procedures was put in place to verify that the incoming components and the blended scintillator met these requirements. The scintillator was blended commercially in Hammond, IN. The scintillator was shipped to the NOvA detectors using dedicated stainless steel tanker trailers cleaned to food grade.

  12. Liquid scintillator production for the NOvA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufson, S.; Baugh, B.; Bower, C.; Coan, T. E.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Karty, J. A.; Mason, P.; Messier, M. D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Proudfoot, M.

    2015-11-01

    The NOvA collaboration blended and delivered 8.8 kt (2.72M gal) of liquid scintillator as the active detector medium to its near and far detectors. The composition of this scintillator was specifically developed to satisfy NOvA's performance requirements. A rigorous set of quality control procedures was put in place to verify that the incoming components and the blended scintillator met these requirements. The scintillator was blended commercially in Hammond, IN. The scintillator was shipped to the NOvA detectors using dedicated stainless steel tanker trailers cleaned to food grade.

  13. Light propagation and fluorescence quantum yields in liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C.; Gramlich, B.; Wagner, S.

    2015-09-01

    For the simulation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light propagation in large liquid scintillator detectors a detailed knowledge about the absorption and emission spectra of the scintillator molecules is mandatory. Furthermore reemission probabilities and quantum yields of the scintillator components influence the light propagation inside the liquid. Absorption and emission properties are presented for liquid scintillators using 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 4-bis-(2-Methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB) as primary and secondary wavelength shifter. New measurements of the quantum yields for various aromatic molecules are shown.

  14. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  15. Fluorescent compounds for plastic scintillation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Bross, A.D.

    1994-04-01

    Several 2-(2{prime}-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole, -benzoxazole, and -benzimidazole derivatives have been prepared. Transmittance, fluorescence, light yield, and decay time characteristics of these compounds have been studied in a polystyrene matrix and evaluated for use in plastic scintillation detectors. Radiation damage studies utilizing a {sup 60}C source have also been performed.

  16. Scintillator Development for the PROSPECT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Minfang

    2014-03-01

    Doped scintillator is the target material of choice for antineutrino detection as it utilizes the time-delayed coincidence signature of the positron annihilation and neutron capture resulting from the Inverse Beta Decay (IBD) interaction. Additionally, the multiple gamma rays or heavy ions emitted after neutron capture on either Gd or 6Li respectively provide a distinct signal for the identification of antineutrino events and therefore significantly enhance accidental background reduction. The choice of scintillator and dopant depends on the detector requirements and scintillator performance criteria. Both Gd and 6Li doped scintillators have been used in past reactor antineutrino experiments such as Double Chooz, Daya Bay, RENO, and Bugey3 and are currently under investigation by the PROSPECT collaboration. Their properties in terms of light yield, optical transparency, chemical stability and background rejection efficiency using Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) will be reported. Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics and Office of High Energy Physics, under contract with Brookhaven National Laboratory-Brookhaven Science Associates.

  17. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  18. Optimization of Shielded Scintillator for Neutron Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belancourt, Patrick; Morrison, John; Akli, Kramer; Freeman, Richard; High Energy Density Physics Team

    2011-10-01

    The High Energy Density Physics group is interested in the basic science of creating a neutron and gamma ray source. The neutrons and gamma rays are produced by accelerating ions via a laser into a target and creating fusion neutrons and gamma rays. A scintillator and photomultiplier tube will be used to detect these neutrons. Neutrons and photons produce ionizing radiation in the scintillator which then activates metastable states. These metastable states have both short and long decay rates. The initial photon count is orders of magnitude higher than the neutron count and poses problems for accurately detecting the neutrons due to the long decay state that is activated by the photons. The effects of adding lead shielding on the temporal response and signal level of the neutron detector will be studied in an effort to minimize the photon count without significant reduction to the temporal resolution of the detector. MCNP5 will be used to find the temporal response and energy deposition into the scintillator by adding lead shielding. Results from the simulations will be shown. Optimization of our scintillator neutron detection system is needed to resolve the neutron energies and neutron count of a novel neutron and gamma ray source.

  19. Equitorial Scintillations: Advances Since ISEA-6.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    thermospheric neutral wind have been postulated to describe the observe l longitudinal variation._--.-, A distinct class of equatorial irregularities...Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE associated with frequency spread on ionograms . Scintillations caused by such irregularities exist only...another based on the influence of a transequatorial thermospheric neutral wind have been postu- lated to describe the observed longitudinal variation. A

  20. Outward atmospheric scintillation effects and inward atmospheric scintillation effects comparisons for direct detection ladar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youmans, Douglas G.

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric turbulence produces intensity modulation or "scintillation" effects on both on the outward laser-mode path and on the return backscattered radiation path. These both degrade laser radar (ladar) target acquisition, ranging, imaging, and feature estimation. However, the finite sized objects create scintillation averaging on the outgoing path and the finite sized telescope apertures produce scintillation averaging on the return path. We expand on previous papers going to moderate to strong turbulence cases by starting from a 20kft altitude platform and propagating at 0° elevation (with respect to the local vertical) for 100km range to a 1 m diameter diffuse sphere. The outward scintillation and inward scintillation effects, as measured at the focal plane detector array of the receiving aperture, will be compared. To eliminate hard-body surface speckle effects in order to study scintillation, Goodman's M-parameter is set to 106 in the analytical equations and the non-coherent imaging algorithm is employed in Monte Carlo realizations. The analytical equations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRp), or mean squared signal over a variance, for a given focal plane array pixel window of interest will be summarized and compared to Monte Carlo realizations of a 1m diffuse sphere.

  1. Systematic study of particle quenching in organic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, L. M.; Bagán, H.; Tarancón, A.; Rauret, G.; Garcia, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Among the different factors that affect measurements by organic scintillators, the majority of attention has been focused on those related to the scintillator (i.e., ionization, chemical, color and optical quenching), and less attention has been paid to the loss of energy before the particle (i.e., alpha or beta) arrives at the scintillator (i.e., particle quenching). This study evaluates the effect of particle quenching in different scintillation methods (i.e., using two plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm1 and PSm2), liquid scintillator and gel scintillator) by measuring solutions that contain increasing concentrations of NaCl, BaCl2 and glycerin. The results show the importance of particle quenching in PSm measurements because detection efficiency decreases with increasing concentrations of the quenching component, although the spectrum position and external standard parameter remain constant. The results have shown evidence of particle quenching, although at a lower magnitude, in the liquid scintillation or gel scintillation measurements. Moreover, the use of two PSm with different diameters and salty compound that alters the equilibrium of the liquid and gel emulsions also exemplified the importance of the transmission of optical photons through different scintillation media (i.e., optical quenching). Improvement and deterioration of the optical conditions on the scintillation media is manifested as a movement of the spectrum to higher and lower energies, respectively. The results obtained with PSm were confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Non-Carbon Dyes For Platic Scintillators- Report

    SciTech Connect

    Teprovich, J.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Gaillard, J.; Sexton, L.; Washington, A.; Ward, P.; Velten, J.

    2015-10-19

    Scintillation based detectors are desirable for many radiation detection applications (portal and border monitoring, safeguards verification, contamination detection and monitoring). The development of next generation scintillators will require improved detection sensitivity for weak gamma ray sources, and fast and thermal neutron quantification. Radiation detection of gamma and neutron sources can be accomplished with organic scintillators, however, the single crystals are difficult to grow for large area detectors and subject to cracking. Alternatives to single crystal organic scintillators are plastic scintillators (PS) which offer the ability to be shaped and scaled up to produce large sized detectors. PS is also more robust than the typical organic scintillator and are ideally suited for deployment in harsh real-world environments. PS contain a mixture of dyes to down-convert incident radiation into visible light that can be detected by a PMT. This project will evaluate the potential use of nano-carbon dyes in plastic scintillators.

  3. Terahertz Real-Time Imaging Uncooled Arrays Based on Antenna-Coupled Bolometers or FET Developed at CEA-Leti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme; Nicolas, Jean-Alain

    2015-10-01

    Sensitive and large-format terahertz focal plane arrays (FPAs) integrated in compact and hand-held cameras that deliver real-time terahertz (THz) imaging are required for many application fields, such as non-destructive testing (NDT), security, quality control of food, and agricultural products industry. Two technologies of uncooled THz arrays that are being studied at CEA-Leti, i.e., bolometer and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors (FET), are able to meet these requirements. This paper reminds the followed technological approaches and focuses on the latest modeling and performance analysis. The capabilities of application of these arrays to NDT and security are then demonstrated with experimental tests. In particular, high technological maturity of the THz bolometer camera is illustrated with fast scanning of large field of view of opaque scenes achieved in a complete body scanner prototype.

  4. Real-time Scintillation Monitoring in Alaska from a Longitudinal Chain of ASTRA's SM-211 GPS TEC and Scintillation Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Reynolds, A.; Santana, J.; Hampton, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Amplitude and phase scintillation can cause serious difficulties for GPS receivers. Intense scintillation can cause loss of lock. High latitude studies generally show that phase scintillation can be severe, but the amplitude scintillation tends to be small. The reason for this is not yet understood. Furthermore, the actual causes of the ionospheric irregularities that produce high latitude scintillation are not well understood. While the gradient drift instability is thought to be important in the F-region, there may be other structures present in either the E- or F-regions. The role of particle precipitation is also not well understood. Four of ASTRA's CASES GPS receivers were deployed in Alaska to demonstrate our ability to map scintillation in realtime, to provide space weather services to GPS users, and to initiate a detailed investigation of these effects. These dual-frequency GPS receivers measure total electron content (TEC) and scintillation. The scintillation monitors were deployed in a longitudinal chain at sites in Kaktovic, Fort Yukon, Poker Flat, and Gakona. Scintillation statistics show phase scintillations to be largest at Kaktovic and smallest at Gakona. We present GPS phase scintillation and auroral emission results from the Alaska chain to characterize the correspondence between scintillation and auroral features, and to investigate the role of high latitude auroral features in driving the phase scintillations. We will also present data showing how phase scintillation can cause other GPS receivers to lose lock. The data and results are particularly valuable because they illustrate some of the challenges of using GPS systems for positioning and navigation in an auroral region like Alaska. These challenges for snowplough drivers were recently highlighted, along with the CASES SM-211 space weather monitor, in a special video in which ASTRA and three other small businesses were presented with an entrepreneurial award from William Shatner (http://youtu.be/bIVKEQH_YPk).

  5. Nonproportionality of Scintillator Detectors: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Stephen; Cherepy, Nerine; Hull, Giulia; Valentine, John; Moses, William; Choong, Woon-Seng

    2009-08-17

    On the basis of nonproportionality data obtained for several scintillators, we have developed a theory to describe the carrier dynamics to fit the light yield versus electron energy. The theory of Onsager was adapted to explain how the carriers form excitons or sequentially arrive at the activators to promote the ion to an excited state, and the theory of Birks was employed to allow for exciton-exciton annihilation. We then developed a second theory to deduce the degradation in resolution that results from nonproportionality by evoking Landau fluctuations, which are essentially variations in the deposited energy density that occur as the high energy electron travels along its trajectory. In general there is good agreement with the data, in terms of fitting the nonproportionality curves and reproducing the literature values of nonproportionality's contribution to the scintillator resolution. With the resurgence of interest in developing scintillator detectors that have good energy resolution, an improved understanding of nonproportionality has become a crucial matter since it presents the fundamental limit to the achievable resolution. In order to hasten an improved understanding of scintillator nonproportionality, we have constructed an instrument referred to as SLYNCI (Scintillator Light Yield Nonproportionality Compton Instrument). This is a second-generation instrument to the original device developed by Valentine and coworkers, wherein several new principles of operation have served to increase the data rate by an order of magnitude as discussed in detail in References. In the present article, the focus is on a theory to describe the measured electron response, which is the light yield as a function of the electron energy. To do this, we account for transport of carriers and excitons, in terms of how they transfer their energy to the activators with competition from nonradiative decay pathways. This work builds on the original work of Murray and coworkers, and

  6. Neutron spectroscopy with scintillation detectors using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Jessica

    The purpose of this research was to study neutron spectroscopy using the EJ-299-33A plastic scintillator. This scintillator material provided a novel means of detection for fast neutrons, without the disadvantages of traditional liquid scintillation materials. EJ-299-33A provided a more durable option to these materials, making it less likely to be damaged during handling. Unlike liquid scintillators, this plastic scintillator was manufactured from a non-toxic material, making it safer to use, as well as easier to design detectors. The material was also manufactured with inherent pulse shape discrimination abilities, making it suitable for use in neutron detection. The neutron spectral unfolding technique was developed in two stages. Initial detector response function modeling was carried out through the use of the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The response functions were developed for a monoenergetic neutron flux. Wavelets were then applied to smooth the response function. The spectral unfolding technique was applied through polynomial fitting and optimization techniques in MATLAB. Verification of the unfolding technique was carried out through the use of experimentally determined response functions. These were measured on the neutron source based on the Van de Graff accelerator at the University of Kentucky. This machine provided a range of monoenergetic neutron beams between 0.1 MeV and 24 MeV, making it possible to measure the set of response functions of the EJ-299-33A plastic scintillator detector to neutrons of specific energies. The response of a plutonium-beryllium (PuBe) source was measured using the source available at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The neutron spectrum reconstruction was carried out using the experimentally measured response functions. Experimental data was collected in the list mode of the waveform digitizer. Post processing of this data focused on the pulse shape discrimination analysis of the recorded response functions to remove the

  7. Monitoring and Forecasting Ionospheric Scintillation at High Latitudes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, P.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Chadwick, R.; Kelly, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric scintillation (rapid signal amplitude fading and phase fluctuation) poses a threat to reliable and safe operation of modern technology that relies on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Ionospheric scintillation of GNSS signal severely degrades positional accuracy, causes cycle slips leading to loss of lock that affects performance of radio communication and navigation systems. At high latitudes, the scintillation is caused by ionospheric irregularities produced through coupling between solar wind plasma and the magnetosphere. Climatology of GPS scintillation at high latitudes in both hemispheres shows that phase scintillation occurs predominantly on the dayside in the cusp and in the nightside auroral oval. Solar wind disturbances, in particular the co-rotating interaction regions (CIR) on the leading edge of high-speed streams (HSS) and interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME), have been closely correlated with the occurrence of scintillation at high latitudes. These results demonstrated a technique of probabilistic forecast of high-latitude phase scintillation occurrence relative to arrival times of HSS and ICME. The Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) has been monitoring GPS ionospheric scintillation and total electron content (TEC) since November 2007. One-minute amplitude and phase scintillation indices from L1 GPS signals and TEC from L1 and L2 GPS signals are computed from amplitude and phase data sampled at 50 Hz. Since 2012, significant expansion of CHAIN has begun with installation of new receivers, each capable of tracking up to 30 satellites including GLONASS and Galileo. The receivers log the raw phase and amplitude of the signal up to a 100-Hz rate for scintillation measurements. We briefly review observations of ionospheric scintillation and highlight new results from CHAIN, including the climatology of scintillation occurrence, collocation with aurora and HF radar backscatter, correlation with CIRs and ICMEs

  8. Fabrication of Cryogenic Manganite Bolometers to Measure the Total Energy at the LCLS Free Electron X-ray Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, O B; Yong, G J; Kolagani, R M; Liang, Y; Gardner, C; Ables, E; Fong, K W; Bionta, R M; Friedrich, S

    2008-06-14

    We are developing cryogenic bolometers to measure the total energy of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser that is currently being built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. LCLS will produce ultrashort {approx}200 fs X-ray laser pulses with {approx}10{sup 13} photons at 0.8 keV up to {approx}10{sup 12} photons at 8 keV per pulse at a repeat interval as short as 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. Our bolometer consists of a 375 {micro}m thick Si absorber and a Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} sensor operated at its metal-insulator transition. It will measure the total energy of each pulse with a precision of <1%, and is designed to meet the conflicting requirements of radiation hardness, sensitivity, linearity over a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude, and readout speed compatible with the LCLS pulse rate. Here we discuss bolometer design and fabrication, and the photoresponse of prototype devices to pulsed optical lasers.

  9. Automated SQUID tuning procedure for kilo-pixel arrays of TES bolometers on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, E. S.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Dünner, R.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Irwin, K. D.; Kaul, M.; Klein, J.; Knotek, S.; Lau, J. M.; Limon, M.; Marriage, T. A.; Niemack, M. D.; Page, L.; Reintsema, C. D.; Staggs, S. T.; Swetz, D. S.; Switzer, E. R.; Thornton, R. J.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope observes the Cosmic Microwave Background with arcminute resolution from the Atacama desert in Chile. For the first observing season one array of 32 x 32 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers was installed in the primary ACT receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC). In the next season, three independent arrays working at 145, 220 and 280 GHz will be installed in MBAC. The three bolometer arrays are each coupled to a time-domain multiplexer developed at the National Institute of Standard and Technology, Boulder, which comprises three stages of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The arrays and multiplexers are read-out and controlled by the Multi Channel Electronics (MCE) developed at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. A number of experiments plan to use the MCE as read-out electronics and thus the procedure for tuning the three stage SQUID system is of general interest. Here we describe the automated array tuning procedures and algorithms we have developed. During array tuning, the SQUIDs are biased near their critical currents. SQUID feedback currents and lock points are selected to maximize linearity, dynamic range, and gain of the SQUID response curves. Our automatic array characterization optimizes the tuning of all three stages of SQUIDs by selecting over 1100 parameters per array during the first observing season and over 2100 parameters during the second observing season. We discuss the timing, performance, and reliability of this array tuning procedure as well as planned and recently implemented improvements.

  10. Divalent europium doped and un-doped calcium iodide scintillators: Scintillator characterization and single crystal growth

    DOE PAGES

    Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; ...

    2015-02-21

    Initially, the alkaline-earth scintillator, CaI2:Eu2+, was discovered around 1964 by Hofstadter, Odell, and Schmidt. Serious practical problems quickly arose, however, that were associated with the growth of large monolithic single crystals of this material due to its lamellar, mica-like structure. As a result of its theoretically higher light yield, CaI2:Eu2+ has the potential to exceed the excellent scintillation performance of SrI2:Eu2+. In fact, theoretical predictions for the light yield of CaI2:Eu2+ scintillators suggested that an energy resolution approaching 2% at 662 keV could be achievable. Like the early SrI2:Eu2+ scintillator, the performance of CaI2:Eu2+ scintillators has traditionally suffered due, atmore » least in part, to outdated materials synthesis, component stoichiometry/purity, and single-crystal-growth techniques. Based on our recent work on SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators in single-crystal form, we have developed new techniques that are applied here to CaI2:Eu2+ and pure CaI2 with the goal of growing large un-cracked crystals and, potentially, realizing the theoretically predicted performance of the CaI2:Eu2+ form of this material. Calcium iodide does not adhere to modern glassy carbon Bridgman crucibles - so there should be no differential thermal-contraction-induced crystal/crucible stresses on cooling that would result in crystal cracking of the lamellar structure of CaI2. Here we apply glassy carbon crucible Bridgman growth, high-purity growth-charge compounds, our molten salt processing/filtration technique, and extended vacuum-melt-pumping methods to the growth of both CaI2:Eu2+ and un-doped CaI2. Moreover, large scintillating single crystals were obtained, and detailed characterization studies of the scintillation properties of CaI2:Eu2+ and pure CaI2 single crystals are presented that include studies of the effects of plastic deformation of the crystals on the scintillator performance.« less

  11. Divalent europium doped and un-doped calcium iodide scintillators: Scintillator characterization and single crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Neal, John S.

    2015-02-21

    Initially, the alkaline-earth scintillator, CaI2:Eu2+, was discovered around 1964 by Hofstadter, Odell, and Schmidt. Serious practical problems quickly arose, however, that were associated with the growth of large monolithic single crystals of this material due to its lamellar, mica-like structure. As a result of its theoretically higher light yield, CaI2:Eu2+ has the potential to exceed the excellent scintillation performance of SrI2:Eu2+. In fact, theoretical predictions for the light yield of CaI2:Eu2+ scintillators suggested that an energy resolution approaching 2% at 662 keV could be achievable. Like the early SrI2:Eu2+ scintillator, the performance of CaI2:Eu2+ scintillators has traditionally suffered due, at least in part, to outdated materials synthesis, component stoichiometry/purity, and single-crystal-growth techniques. Based on our recent work on SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators in single-crystal form, we have developed new techniques that are applied here to CaI2:Eu2+ and pure CaI2 with the goal of growing large un-cracked crystals and, potentially, realizing the theoretically predicted performance of the CaI2:Eu2+ form of this material. Calcium iodide does not adhere to modern glassy carbon Bridgman crucibles - so there should be no differential thermal-contraction-induced crystal/crucible stresses on cooling that would result in crystal cracking of the lamellar structure of CaI2. Here we apply glassy carbon crucible Bridgman growth, high-purity growth-charge compounds, our molten salt processing/filtration technique, and extended vacuum-melt-pumping methods to the growth of both CaI2:Eu2+ and un-doped CaI2. Moreover, large scintillating single crystals were obtained, and detailed characterization studies of the

  12. Development of Ultrathin Niobium Nitride and Niobium Titanium Nitride Films for THz Hot-Electron Bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedorf, Sven Holger

    2005-12-01

    The GREAT (German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies) aboard of SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) requires superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB) as heterodyne mixers for 1.9 THz and 2.7 THz. Within this research work, ultrathin (< 5 nm) niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) and niobium nitride (NbN) films have been developed and successfully implemented in the mixers for GREAT. The main focus of this work is the development of ultrathin NbN and NbTiN films. A reproducible and reliable deposition process for ultrathin NbN and NbTiN films for the use in phonon-cooled HEB devices was established. The ultrathin films were deposited on silicon (Si) substrates and on 2 μm Si3N4 membranes by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. A method for the precise control of the nitrogen partial pressure by monitoring the target voltage has been introduced to deposit high quality, ultrathin NbN (3-4 nm, Tc=8.5 K) and NbTiN (4-5 nm, Tc=8 K) films. Substrate heating of at least 600C during the deposition is essential for the fabrication of ultrathin NbN and NbTiN films on Si substrates and Si3N4 membranes. The fabrication process required for HEB devices to be used in a quasi-optical mixer was developed. The ultrathin film was patterned by electron beam lithography (EBL), resulting in bolometer devices that measure areas of about 0.4 μm × 4 μm. The nature of the contact determines the interface transparency between the bolometer and the contact structure. Different cleaning processes have been performed and the influence on the contact resistance have been instigated. A better interface transparency gives less RF losses and could improve the HEB sensitivity and local oscillator (LO) requirement. A better control of the interface transparency also leads to a better reproducibility in values of the normal state resistance of the HEB devices. Heterodyne measurements were performed at 0.8 THz and 1.6 THz. For the NbTiN HEB devices, the double sideband

  13. Simulation of scintillation light output in LYSO scintillators through a full factorial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loignon-Houle, Francis; Bergeron, Mélanie; Pepin, Catherine M.; Charlebois, Serge A.; Lecomte, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Individually coupled scintillation detectors used in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging suffer from important signal losses due to the suboptimal light collection from crystals. As only a fraction of the light is generally extracted from long and thin scintillators, it is important to identify and understand the predominant causes of signal loss in order to eventually recover it. This simulation study investigates the multiple factors affecting the light transport in high-aspect ratio LYSO scintillators wrapped in specular reflectors through a full factorial design. By exploring various combinations of crystal geometry, readout conditions and wrapping conditions, it was found that an optimum light output can only be achieved through a careful selection of highly reflective material along with high-transmittance optical adhesive used to bond the reflector. Decreasing the adhesive thickness was also found to have a positive outcome in most explored configurations, however to a much lesser extent. Suboptimal reflectivity and adhesive transmittance also lead to an asymmetric light output distribution dependent on the depth of interaction of the radiation, potentially degrading energy resolution. By identifying the factors causing the most significant scintillation light losses through a factorial design, the most promising detector configurations have been identified in the quest for optimal light collection from scintillators.

  14. Codoped direct-gap semiconductor scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Weber, Marvin J.; Klintenberg, Mattias K.

    2006-05-23

    Fast, bright inorganic scintillators at room temperature are based on radiative electron-hole recombination in direct-gap semiconductors, e.g. CdS and ZnO. The direct-gap semiconductor is codoped with two different impurity atoms to convert the semiconductor to a fast, high luminosity scintillator. The codopant scheme is based on dopant band to dopant trap recombination. One dopant provides a significant concentration of carriers of one type (electrons or holes) and the other dopant traps carriers of the other type. Examples include CdS:In,Te; CdS:In,Ag; CdS:In,Na; ZnO:Ga,P; ZnO:Ga,N; ZnO:Ga,S; and GaN:Ge,Mg.

  15. Plastic scintillator detector for pulsed flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplun, A. A.; Taraskin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A neutron detector, providing charged particle detection capability, has been designed. The main purpose of the detector is to measure pulsed fluxes of both charged particles and neutrons during scientific experiments. The detector consists of commonly used neutron-sensitive ZnS(Ag) / 6LiF scintillator screens wrapping a layer of polystyrene based scintillator (BC-454, EJ-254 or equivalent boron loaded plastic). This type of detector design is able to log a spatial distribution of events and may be scaled to any size. Different variations of the design were considered and modelled in specialized toolkits. The article presents a review of the detector design features as well as simulation results.

  16. Transparent Ceramic Scintillator Fabrication, Properties and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N J; Kuntz, J D; Roberts, J J; Hurst, T A; Drury, O B; Sanner, R D; Tillotson, T M; Payne, S A

    2008-08-24

    Transparent ceramics offer an alternative to single crystals for scintillator applications such as gamma ray spectroscopy and radiography. We have developed a versatile, scaleable fabrication method, using Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) to produce feedstock which is readily converted into phase-pure transparent ceramics. We measure integral light yields in excess of 80,000 Ph/MeV with Cerium-doped Garnets, and excellent optical quality. Avalanche photodiode readout of Garnets provides resolution near 6%. For radiography applications, Lutetium Oxide offers a high performance metric and is formable by ceramics processing. Scatter in transparent ceramics due to secondary phases is the principal limitation to optical quality, and afterglow issues that affect the scintillation performance are presently being addressed.

  17. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  18. Reflectance of polytetrafluoroethylene for xenon scintillation light

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, C.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.; Lopes, M. I.; Solovov, V.; Neves, F.

    2010-03-15

    Gaseous and liquid xenon particle detectors are being used in a number of applications including dark matter search and neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is often used in these detectors both as electrical insulator and as a light reflector to improve the efficiency of detection of scintillation photons. However, xenon emits in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region ({lambda}{approx_equal}175 nm) where the reflecting properties of PTFE are not sufficiently known. In this work, we report on measurements of PTFE reflectance, including its angular distribution, for the xenon scintillation light. Various samples of PTFE, manufactured by different processes (extruded, expanded, skived, and pressed) have been studied. The data were interpreted with a physical model comprising both specular and diffuse reflections. The reflectance obtained for these samples ranges from about 47% to 66% for VUV light. Other fluoropolymers, namely, ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), and perfluoro-alkoxyalkane (PFA) were also measured.

  19. Plastic fiber scintillator response to fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Danly, C. R.; Sjue, S.; Wilde, C. H.; Merrill, F. E.; Haight, R. C.

    2014-11-15

    The Neutron Imaging System at NIF uses an array of plastic scintillator fibers in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to form an image of the neutron emission from the imploded capsule. By gating on neutrons that have scattered from the 14.1 MeV DT energy to lower energy ranges, an image of the dense, cold fuel around the hotspot is also obtained. An unmoderated spallation neutron beamline at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos was used in conjunction with a time-gated imaging system to measure the yield of a scintillating fiber array over several energy bands ranging from 1 to 15 MeV. The results and comparison to simulation are presented.

  20. Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2009-07-15

    Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

  1. Codoped direct-gap semiconductor scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen Edward; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Weber, Marvin J.; Klintenberg, Mattias K.

    2008-07-29

    Fast, bright inorganic scintillators at room temperature are based on radiative electron-hole recombination in direct-gap semiconductors, e.g. CdS and ZnO. The direct-gap semiconductor is codoped with two different impurity atoms to convert the semiconductor to a fast, high luminosity scintillator. The codopant scheme is based on dopant band to dopant trap recombination. One dopant provides a significant concentration of carriers of one type (electrons or holes) and the other dopant traps carriers of the other type. Examples include CdS:In,Te; CdS:In,Ag; CdS:In,Na; ZnO:Ga,P; ZnO:Ga,N; ZnO:Ga,S; and GaN:Ge,Mg.

  2. Development of High-Resolution Scintillator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larry A. Franks; Warnick J. Kernan

    2007-09-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) is a well known material for the direct detection of gamma-rays; however, the largest volume achievable is limited by the thickness of the detector which needs to be a small fraction of the average trapping length for electrons. We report results of using HgI2 crystals to fabricate photocells used in the readout of scintillators. The optical spectral response and efficiency of these photocells were measured and will be reported. Nuclear response from an HgI2 photocell that was optically matched to a cerium-activated scintillator is presented and discussed. Further improvements can be expected by optimizing the transparent contact technology.

  3. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  4. Sorohalide scintillators, phosphors, and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pin; Deng, Haoran; Doty, F. Patrick; Zhou, Xiaowang

    2016-05-10

    The present invention relates to sorohalide compounds having formula A.sub.3B.sub.2X.sub.9, where A is an alkali metal, B is a rare earth metal, and X is a halogen. Optionally, the sorohalide includes a dopant D. Such undoped and doped sorohalides are useful as scintillation materials or phosphors for any number of uses, including for radiation detectors, solid-state light sources, gamma-ray spectroscopy, medical imaging, and drilling applications.

  5. Characteristics of Yerevan High Transparency Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, Carl; Asryan, Gegham; Egiyan, Kim; Tarverdyan, M.; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Demirchyan, Raphael; Stepanyan, Stepan; Burkert, Volker; Sharabian, Youri

    1992-08-01

    Optical transmission, light output and time characteristics are given for long scintillator strips fabricated at the Yerevan Physics Institute using the extrusion method. It is shown that at 45% relative (to anthracene) light output, good transmission (2.5/2.9 m attenuation length with photomultiplier direct readout and 3/3.5 m attenuation length fiber readout) and time characteristics (average decay time 2.8 nsec) were obtained.

  6. Simulating Silicon Photomultiplier Response to Scintillation Light.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; van Dam, Herman T; Kupinski, Matthew A; Clarkson, Eric

    2013-02-01

    The response of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) to optical signals is affected by many factors including photon-detection efficiency, recovery time, gain, optical crosstalk, afterpulsing, dark count, and detector dead time. Many of these parameters vary with overvoltage and temperature. When used to detect scintillation light, there is a complicated non-linear relationship between the incident light and the response of the SiPM. In this paper, we propose a combined discrete-time discrete-event Monte Carlo (MC) model to simulate SiPM response to scintillation light pulses. Our MC model accounts for all relevant aspects of the SiPM response, some of which were not accounted for in the previous models. We also derive and validate analytic expressions for the single-photoelectron response of the SiPM and the voltage drop across the quenching resistance in the SiPM microcell. These analytic expressions consider the effect of all the circuit elements in the SiPM and accurately simulate the time-variation in overvoltage across the microcells of the SiPM. Consequently, our MC model is able to incorporate the variation of the different SiPM parameters with varying overvoltage. The MC model is compared with measurements on SiPM-based scintillation detectors and with some cases for which the response is known a priori. The model is also used to study the variation in SiPM behavior with SiPM-circuit parameter variations and to predict the response of a SiPM-based detector to various scintillators.

  7. a Subminiature Scintillation Detector for Catheter Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafè, R.; Montani, L.; Burgio, N.; Iurlaro, G.; Santagata, A.; Ciavola, C.; Alonge, G.

    2006-04-01

    The feasibility of a subminiature scintillation detector to be inserted in a catheter for lesion localization in nuclear medicine SPECT has been studied. Measurements on a simple laboratory setup have been performed and compared with Monte Carlo results. Further simulations, at 30keV and 140keV, concerning a configuration reproducing severe clinical conditions have shown poor lesion detectability. Several factors affecting the response have to be investigated to improve the capability of lesion localization characterizing such detector.

  8. Improved Neutron Scintillators Based on Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Friesel, PhD

    2008-06-30

    The development work conducted in this SBIR has so far not supported the premise that using nano-particles in LiFZnS:Ag foils improves their transparency to 420 (or other frequency) light. This conclusion is based solely on the light absorption properties of LiFZnS foils fabricated from nano- and from micro-particles. Furthermore, even for the case of the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} foils, the transmission of 420 nm light gained by using nano-particles all but disappears as the foil thickness is increased beyond about 0.2 mm, a practical scintillator thickness. This was not immediately apparent from the preliminary study since no foils thicker than about 0.04 mm were produced. Initially it was believed that the failure to see an improvement by using nano-particles for the LiFZnS foils was caused by the clumping of the particles in Toluene due to the polarity of the ZnS particles. However, we found, much to our surprise, that nano-particle ZnS alone in polystyrene, and in Epoxy, had worse light transmission properties than the micro-particle foils for equivalent thickness and density foils. The neutron detection measurements, while disappointing, are attributable to our inability to procure or fabricate Bulk Doped ZnS nanoparticles. The cause for the failure of nano-particles to improve the scintillation light, and hence improved neutron detection efficiency, is a fundamental one of light scattering within the scintillator. A consequence of PartTec's documentation of this is that several concepts for the fabrication of improved {sup 6}LiFZnS scintillators were formulated that will be the subject of a future SBIR submission.

  9. Studies of NICADD Extruded Scintillator Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dychkant, Alexandre; et al.

    2005-03-01

    About four hundred one meter long, 10 cm wide and 5 mm thick extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. The results of measurements strip responses to a radioactive source {sup 90}Sr are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. This work was essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  10. Boron-Loaded Silicone Rubber Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.W.; Maya, L.; Brown, G.M.; Sloop, F.V.Jr

    2003-05-12

    Silicone rubber received attention as an alternative to polyvinyltoluene in applications in which the scintillator is exposed to high doses because of the increased resistance of the rubber to the formation of blue-absorbing color centers. Work by Bowen, et al., and Harmon, et al., demonstrated their properties under gamma/x-ray irradiation, and Bell, et al. have shown their response to thermal neutrons. This last work, however, provided an example of a silicone in which both the boron and the scintillator were contained in the rubber as solutes, a formulation which led to the precipitation of solids and sublimation of the boron component. In the present work we describe a scintillator in which the boron is chemically bonded to the siloxane and so avoids the problem of precipitation and loss of boron to sublimation. Material containing up to 18% boron, by weight, was prepared, mounted on photomultipliers, and exposed to both neutron and gamma fluxes. Pulse height spectra showing the neutron and photon response were obtained, and although the light output was found to be much poorer than from samples in which boron was dissolved, the higher boron concentrations enabled essentially 100% neutron absorption in only a few millimeters' thickness of rubber.

  11. Cerium fluoride, a new fast, heavy scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1988-11-01

    We describe the scintillation properties of Cerium Fluoride (CeF/sub 3/), a newly discovered, heavy (6.16 g/cm/sup 3/), inorganic scintillator. Its fluorescence decay lifetime, measured with the delayed coincidence method, is described by a single exponential with a 27 /+-/ ns time constant. The emission spectrum peaks at a wavelength of 340 nm, and drops to less than 10% of its peak value at 315 nm and 460 nm. When a 1 cm optical quality cube of CeF/sub 3/ is excited with 511 keV photons, a photopeak with a 20% full width at half maximum is observed at approximately half the light output of a Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystal with similar geometry. We also present measurements of the decay time and light output of CeF/sub 3/ doped with three rare-earth elements (Dy, Er, and Pr). The short fluorescence lifetime, high density, and reasonable light output of this new scintillator suggest that it would be useful for applications where high counting rates, good stopping power, and nanosecond timing are important, such as medical imaging and nuclear science. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Detecting dark matter with scintillating bubble chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianjie; Dahl, C. Eric; Jin, Miaotianzi; Baxter, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Threshold based direct WIMP dark matter detectors such as the superheated bubble chambers developed by the PICO experiment have demonstrated excellent electron-recoil and alpha discrimination, excellent scalability, ease of change of target fluid, and low cost. However, the nuclear-recoil like backgrounds have been a limiting factor in their dark matter sensitivity. We present a new type of detector, the scintillating bubble chamber, which reads out the scintillation pulse of the scattering events as well as the pressure, temperature, acoustic traces, and bubble images as a conventional bubble chamber does. The event energy provides additional handle to discriminate against the nuclear-recoil like backgrounds. Liquid xenon is chosen as the target fluid in our prototyping detector for its high scintillation yield and suitable vapor pressure which simplifies detector complexity. The detector can be used as an R&D tool to study the backgrounds present in the current PICO bubble chambers or as a prototype for standalone dark matter detectors in the future. Supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0012161.

  13. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    DOEpatents

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  14. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  15. A large Scintillating Fibre Tracker for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greim, R.

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb experiment will be upgraded during LHC Long Shutdown 2 to be able to record data at a higher instantaneous luminosity. The readout rate is currently limited to 1 MHz by the Level 1 trigger. In order to achieve the target integrated luminosity of 50 fb‑1 during LHC Run 3, all subdetectors have to be read out by a 40 MHz trigger-less readout system. Especially, the current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet suffer from large detector dead times and a small granularity in the Outer Tracker, which consists of proportional straw tubes. Therefore, the Downstream Tracker will be replaced by a Scintillating Fibre Tracker with Silicon Photomultiplier readout. The total sensitive area of 340 m2 is made up of 2.5 m long fibre mats consisting of six staggered layers of 250 μm thin scintillating fibres. The scintillation light created by the charged particles traversing the fibre mats is transported to the fibre ends via total internal reflection and detected by state-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays. This paper presents the detector concept, design, challenges, custom-made readout chips, as well as laboratory and beam test results.

  16. New Scintillating Crystals for PET Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Systematic R&D on basic mechanism in inorganic scintillators, initiated by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN 10 years ago, has contributed not to a small amount, to the development of new materials for a new generation of medical imaging devices with increased resolution and sensitivity. The first important requirement for a scintillator to be used in medical imaging devices is the stopping power for the given energy range of X and γ rays to be considered, and more precisely the conversion efficiency. A high light yield is also mandatory to improve the energy resolution, which is essentially limited by the photostatistics and the electronic noise at these energies. A short scintillation decay time allows to reduce the dead time and therefore to increase the limiting counting rate. When all these requirements are fulfilled the sensitivity and image contrast are increased for a given patient dose, or the dose can be reduced. Examples of new materials under development by the Crystal Clear Collaboration will be given with an emphasis on the major breakthrough they can bring in medical imaging, as compared to present equipments.

  17. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-09-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments are reviewed and the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types are compared.

  18. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    DOE PAGES

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-08-03

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can bemore » used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Lastly, we review applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments and compare the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types.« less

  19. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-08-03

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Lastly, we review applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments and compare the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types.

  20. Separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights in linear alkyl benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mohan; Guo, Ziyi; Yeh, Minfang; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-09-11

    To separate scintillation and Cherenkov lights in water-based liquid scintillator detectors is a desired feature for future neutrino and proton decay experiments. Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) is one important ingredient of a water-based liquid scintillator currently under development. In this paper we report on the separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights observed in an LAB sample. The rise and decay times of the scintillation light are measured to be (7.7±3.0)ns and (36.6±2.4)ns, respectively, while the full width [–3σ, 3σ] of the Cherenkov light is 12 ns and is dominated by the time resolution of the photomultiplier tubes. Here, the scintillation light yield was measured to be(1.01±0.12)×103photons/MeV.

  1. Methods for the continuous production of plastic scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Bross, Alan; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Mellott, Kerry

    1999-10-19

    Methods for producing plastic scintillating material employing either two major steps (tumble-mix) or a single major step (inline-coloring or inline-doping). Using the two step method, the polymer pellets are mixed with silicone oil, and the mixture is then tumble mixed with the dopants necessary to yield the proper response from the scintillator material. The mixture is then placed in a compounder and compounded in an inert gas atmosphere. The resultant scintillator material is then extruded and pelletized or formed. When only a single step is employed, the polymer pellets and dopants are metered into an inline-coloring extruding system. The mixture is then processed under a inert gas atmosphere, usually argon or nitrogen, to form plastic scintillator material in the form of either scintillator pellets, for subsequent processing, or as material in the direct formation of the final scintillator shape or form.

  2. Optical scintillation measurements in a desert environment IV: simulated effects of scintillation on communications links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suite, Michele; Rabinovich, W. S.; Mahon, Rita; Moore, Christopher; Ferraro, Mike; Burris, H. R., Jr.; Thomas, L. M.

    2011-09-01

    Optical scintillation is an effect that limits the performance of many optical systems including imagers and free space optical communication links. The Naval Research Laboratory is undertaking a series of measurement campaigns of optical scintillation in a variety of environments. In December of 2010 measurements were made over a one week period in the desert at China Lake, CA. The NRL TATS system was used to measure time resolved scintillation over a variety of different ranges and terrains. This data has been used to determine fade rate and duration as a function of weather and link margin. Temporal correlation of fades has also been calculated. This data allows simulation of a variety of communication protocols and the effects of those protocols on link throughput. In this paper we present a comparison of different protocols for both direct and retroreflector links.

  3. Cresst-II: dark matter search with scintillating absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angloher, G.; Bucci, C.; Cozzini, C.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Frank, T.; Hauff, D.; Henry, S.; Jagemann, Th.; Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Majorovits, B.; Ninkovic, J.; Petricca, F.; Pröbst, F.; Ramachers, Y.; Rau, W.; Seidel, W.; Stark, M.; Uchaikin, S.; Stodolsky, L.; Wulandari, H.

    2004-03-01

    In the CRESST-II experiment, scintillating CaWO4 crystals are used as absorbers for direct weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) detection. Nuclear recoils can be discriminated against electron recoils by measuring phonons and scintillation light simultaneously. The absorber crystal and the silicon light detector are read out by tungsten superconducting phase transition thermometers. Results on the sensitivity of the phonon and the light channel, radiopurity, the scintillation properties of CaWO4, and on the WIMP sensitivity are presented.

  4. Composite solid-state scintillators for neutron detection

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Im, Hee-Jung; Pawel, Michelle D.

    2006-09-12

    Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator for neutron detection comprising a matrix material fabricated from an inorganic sol-gel precursor solution homogeneously doped with a liquid scintillating material and a neutron absorbing material. The neutron absorbing material yields at least one of an electron, a proton, a triton, an alpha particle or a fission fragment when the neutron absorbing material absorbs a neutron. The composite scintillator further comprises a liquid scintillating material in a self-assembled micelle formation homogeneously doped in the matrix material through the formation of surfactant-silica composites. The scintillating material is provided to scintillate when traversed by at least one of an electron, a proton, a triton, an alpha particle or a fission fragment. The scintillating material is configured such that the matrix material surrounds the micelle formation of the scintillating material. The composite scintillator is fabricated and applied as a thin film on substrate surfaces, a coating on optical fibers or as a glass material.

  5. Ionospheric scintillation observations over Kenyan region - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Xiao, Yu; Ming, Ou

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric scintillation refers to the rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a satellite signal as it passes through small-scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere. By analyzing ionospheric scintillation observation datasets from satellite signals such as GPS signals we can study the morphology of ionospheric bubbles. At low latitudes, the diurnal behavior of scintillation is driven by the formation of large-scale equatorial density depletions which form one to two hours after sunset via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism near the magnetic equator. In this work we present ionospheric scintillation activity over Kenya using data derived from a newly installed scintillation monitor developed by CRIRP at Pwani University (39.78°E, 3.24°S) during the period August to December, 2014. The results reveal the scintillation activity mainly occurs from post-sunset to post-midnight hours, and ceases around 04:00 LT. We also found that the ionospheric scintillation tends to appear at the southwest and northwest of the station. These locations coincide with the southern part of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly crest over Kenya region. The occurrence of post-midnight L-band scintillation events which are not linked to pre-midnight scintillation observations raises fundamental question on the mechanism and source of electric fields driving the plasma depletion under conditions of very low background electron density.

  6. Scintillation of Un-doped ZnO Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Colosimo, A. M.; Ji, Jianfeng; Stepanov, P. S.; Boatner, L. A.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-07

    In this paper, scintillation properties are often studied by photo-luminescence (PL) and scintillation measurements. In this work, we combine X-ray-induced luminescence (XRIL) spectroscopy [Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 103112 (2012)] with PL and standard scintillation measurements to give insight into the scintillation properties of un-doped ZnO single crystals. XRIL revealed that ZnO luminescence proportionally increases with X-ray power and exhibits excellent linearity - indicating the possibility of developing radiation detectors with good energy resolution. Finally, by coupling ZnO crystals to fast photomultiplier tubes and monitoring the anode signal, rise times as fast as 0.9 ns were measured.

  7. Development of polystyrene-based scintillation materials and its mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shinji, Osamu; Saito, Katashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2012-12-01

    Scintillation materials based on polystyrene (PS) have been investigated. Para-terphenyl was employed as a fluorescent molecule (fluor) that functions as a wavelength shifter. A clear increase in photon yield of the scintillation materials relative to the pure PS was observed, which cannot be explained by the conventional theory of scintillation mechanism. Furthermore, the photon yield increased with flour concentration in accordance with a power-law. Here we reveal the emergence of a luminescence of PS-based scintillation materials and demonstrate that their photon yields can be controlled by the fluor concentration.

  8. Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bignell, Lindsey J.; Mume, Eskender; Jackson, Timothy W.; Lee, George P.

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

  9. Energy Transfer Based Nanocomposite Scintillator for Radiation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Soha; Sahi, Sunil; Chen, Wei; Ma, Lun; Kenarangui, Rasool

    2014-09-01

    Scintillators are the materials that emit light upon irradiation with high energy radiation like X-ray or gamma-ray. Inorganic single crystal and organic (plastic and liquid) are the two most used scintillator types. Both of these scintillator kinds have advantages and disadvantages. Inorganic single crystals are expensive and difficult to grow in desire shape and size. Also, single crystal scintillator such as NaI and CsI are very hygroscopic. On the other hand, organic scintillators have low density which limits their applications in gamma spectroscopy. Due to high quantum yield and size dependent emission, nanoparticles have attracted interested in various field of research. Here, we have studies the nanoparticles for radiation detection. We have synthesized nanoparticles of Cerium fluoride (CeF3), Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper complex and Zinc sulfide (ZnS). We have used Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) principle to enhance the luminescence properties of nanocomposite scintillator. Nanocomposites scintillators are structurally characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Optical properties are studied using Photoluminescence, UV-Visible and X-ray. Enhancements in the luminescence are observed under UV and X-ray excitation. Preliminary studies shows nanocomposite scintillators are promising for radiation detection. Scintillators are the materials that emit light upon irradiation with high energy radiation like X-ray or gamma-ray. Inorganic single crystal and organic (plastic and liquid) are the two most used scintillator types. Both of these scintillator kinds have advantages and disadvantages. Inorganic single crystals are expensive and difficult to grow in desire shape and size. Also, single crystal scintillator such as NaI and CsI are very hygroscopic. On the other hand, organic scintillators have low density which limits their applications in gamma spectroscopy. Due to high quantum

  10. Multifrequency equatorial ionospheric scintillations in American and Indian zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, R. G.; Aarons, J.; Whitney, H. E.; Mullen, J. P.; Pantoja, J.; Deshpande, M. R.; Vats, H. O.; Chandra, H.; Davies, K.

    1980-01-01

    Amplitude scintillations of 40/41, 140 and 360 MHz transmissions recorded at Huancayo (phase I) and at Ootacamund (phase II) of the ATS-6 program are compared. The scintillations were found to be strongest between 20 and 24 hr LT with another peak around midday. The daytime scintillations do not show a significant seasonal variation at either of these stations. The nighttime scintillations were maximum during December solstices at Huancayo and during equinoxes at Ootacamund and suggested to be due to non-q type of sporadic E following the occurrence of counter-electrojet.

  11. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  12. Report on radiation exposure of lead-scintillator stack

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-11-08

    A stack of lead and scintillator was placed in a neutral beam obtained from targeting 800 GeV protons. Small pieces of film containing radiochromic dye were placed adjacent to the layers of scintillator for the purpose of measuring the radiation dose to the scintillator. Our motivation was to calibrate the radiation dose obtainable in this manner for future tests of scintillator for SSC experiments and to relate dose to flux to check absolute normalization for calculations. We also observed several other radiation effects which should be considered for both damage and compensation in a calorimeter.

  13. Plasmonic light yield enhancement of a liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, Lindsey J.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Mume, Eskender; Lee, George P.

    2013-05-27

    We demonstrate modifications to the light yield properties of an organic liquid scintillator due to the localization of the tertiary fluorophore component to the surface of Ag-core silica-shell nanoparticles. We attribute this enhancement to the near-field interaction of Ag nanoparticle plasmons with these fluor molecules. The scintillation light yield enhancement is shown to be equal to the fluorescence enhancement within measurement uncertainties. With a suitable choice of plasmon energy and scintillation fluor, this effect may be used to engineer scintillators with enhanced light yields for radiation detection applications.

  14. Design and Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Superconducting Bolometer Array for SAFIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Voellmer, George; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory will employ a large-format, two-dimensional, close-packed bolometer array. SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer operating at wavelengths between 100 micron and 700 micron. The array format is 16x32 pixels, using a 32-element multiplexer developed in part for this instrument. The low backgrounds achieved in spectroscopy require very sensitive detectors with NEPs (Noise Equivalent Powers) of order 5x10(exp 18)W/square root of Hz. An architecture which permits 512 pixels to be placed adjacent to each other in an area the size of a postage stamp, integrate them with multiplexers, and provide all the necessary wiring interconnections is a complex proposition, but can be achieved. Superconducting detectors can be close-packed using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) format, and SQUID multiplexers operating at the detector bas temperature can be intimately coupled to them. The result is a compact array, easily scalable to kilopixel arrays. Engineering results from the first such detector arrays will be presented.

  15. Antenna-coupled TES bolometers used in BICEP2, Keck Array, and SPIDER

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Amiri, M.; ...

    2015-10-20

    We have developed antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor bolometers for a wide range of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimetry experiments, including Bicep2, Keck Array, and the balloon borne Spider. These detectors have reached maturity and this paper reports on their design principles, overall performance, and key challenges associated with design and production. Our detector arrays repeatedly produce spectral bands with 20%–30% bandwidth at 95, 150, or 230 GHz. The integrated antenna arrays synthesize symmetric co-aligned beams with controlled side-lobe levels. Cross-polarized response on boresight is typicallymore » $$\\sim 0.5\\%$$, consistent with cross-talk in our multiplexed readout system. End-to-end optical efficiencies in our cameras are routinely 35% or higher, with per detector sensitivities of NET ~ 300 $$\\mu {{\\rm{K}}}_{\\mathrm{CMB}}\\sqrt{{\\rm{s}}}$$. Thanks to the scalability of this design, we have deployed 2560 detectors as 1280 matched pairs in Keck Array with a combined instantaneous sensitivity of $$\\sim 9\\;\\mu {{\\rm{K}}}_{\\mathrm{CMB}}\\sqrt{{\\rm{s}}}$$, as measured directly from CMB maps in the 2013 season. Furthermore, similar arrays have recently flown in the Spider instrument, and development of this technology is ongoing.« less

  16. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Yuryev, V. A. Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.; Mironov, S. A.; Dubkov, V. P.; Uvarov, O. V.; Kalinushkin, V. P.; Senkov, V. M.; Nalivaiko, O. Y.; Novikau, A. G.; Gaiduk, P. I.

    2015-05-28

    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about −2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.

  17. YBCO hot-electron bolometers dedicated to THz detection and imaging: Embedding issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurino, M.; Kreisler, A. J.; Türer, I.; Martinez, A.; Gensbittel, A.; Dégardin, A. F.

    2010-06-01

    High-Tc hot-electron bolometers (HEB) are an interesting alternative to other superconducting heterodyne mixers in the terahertz frequency range because of low-cost cooling investment, ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth and low intrinsic noise level, even at 80 K. A technological process to fabricate stacked yttrium-based (YBCO) / praseodymium-based (PBCO) ultra-thin films (in the 15 to 40 nm thickness range) etched to form 0.5 μm × 0.5 μm constrictions, elaborated on (100) MgO substrates, has been previously described. Ageing effects were also considered, with the consequence of increased electrical resistance, significant degradation of the regular THz response and no HEB mixing action. Electron and UV lithography steps are revisited here to realize HEB mixers based on nano-bridges covered by a log-periodic planar gold antenna, dedicated to the 1 to 7 THz range. Several measures have been attempted to reduce the conversion losses, mainly by considering the embedding issues related to the YBCO nano-bridge impedance matching to the antenna and the design of optimized intermediate frequency circuitry. Antenna simulations were performed and validated through experiments on scaled models at GHz frequencies. Electromagnetic coupling to the incoming radiation was also studied, including crosstalk between neighbour antennas forming a linear imaging array.

  18. Enriched TeO2 bolometers with active particle discrimination: Towards the CUPID experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Beeman, J. W.; Dafinei, I.; Dumoulin, L.; Ge, Z.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Nagorny, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Orlandi, D.; Pagnanini, L.; Pattavina, L.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Poda, D. V.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Scielzo, N. D.; Zhu, Y.

    2017-04-01

    We present the performances of two 92% enriched 130TeO2 crystals operated as thermal bolometers in view of a next generation experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. The crystals, 435 g each, show an energy resolution, evaluated at the 2615 keV γ-line of 208Tl, of 6.5 and 4.3 keV FWHM. The only observable internal radioactive contamination arises from 238U (15 and 8 μBq/kg, respectively). The internal activity of the most problematic nuclei for neutrinoless double beta decay, 226Ra and 228Th, are both evaluated as <3.1 μBq/kg for one crystal and <2.3 μBq/kg for the second. Thanks to the readout of the weak Cherenkov light emitted by β / γ particles by means of Neganov-Luke bolometric light detectors we were able to perform an event-by-event identification of β / γ events with a 95% acceptance level, while establishing a rejection factor of 98.21% and 99.99% for α particles.

  19. Antenna-coupled TES bolometer arrays for BICEP2/Keck and SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, A.; Aikin, R. W.; Amiri, M.; Bock, J. J.; Bonetti, J. A.; Brevik, J. A.; Burger, B.; Chattopadthyay, G.; Day, P. K.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Kenyon, M.; Kovac, J. M.; Kuo, C. L.; Lange, A. E.; LeDuc, H. G.; Llombart, N.; Nguyen, H. T.; Ogburn, R. W.; Reintsema, C. D.; Runyan, M. C.; Staniszewski, Z.; Sudiwala, R.; Teply, G.; Trangsrud, A. R.; Turner, A. D.; Wilson, P.

    2010-07-01

    BICEP2/Keck and SPIDER are cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeters targeting the B-mode polarization induced by primordial gravitational waves from inflation. They will be using planar arrays of polarization sensitive antenna-coupled TES bolometers, operating at frequencies between 90 GHz and 220 GHz. At 150 GHz each array consists of 64 polarimeters and four of these arrays are assembled together to make a focal plane, for a total of 256 dual-polarization elements (512 TES sensors). The detector arrays are integrated with a time-domain SQUID multiplexer developed at NIST and read out using the multi-channel electronics (MCE) developed at the University of British Columbia. Following our progress in improving detector parameters uniformity across the arrays and fabrication yield, our main effort has focused on improving detector arrays optical and noise performances, in order to produce science grade focal planes achieving target sensitivities. We report on changes in detector design implemented to optimize such performances and following focal plane arrays characterization. BICEP2 has deployed a first 150 GHz science grade focal plane to the South Pole in December 2009.

  20. Superconducting bolometers: High-T(sub c) and low-T(sub c)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, P. L.

    1991-04-01

    A description is given of recent work at Berkeley on superconducting detectors and mixers for infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The first report is a review article which summarizes the status of development of superconducting components for infrared and millimeter wave receivers. Next, a report is given on measurements and theoretical modeling of the absorptivity (surface resistance) of high quality epitaxial films of the high-(Tc) superconductor YBCO from 750 GHz to 21 THz. The next report describes measurements of the thermal boundary resistance between YBCO films and various substrates. This resistance is much larger than expected from the acoustic impedance mismatch model and gives a thermal time constant in the nanosecond range for typical YBCO films. Then, there are reports on the design and experimental performance of two different types of high-(Tc) bolometric detectors. One is a conventional bolometer with a gold-black absorber. The other is an antenna coupled microbolometer. The properties of a low-(Tc) microbolometer are also described. The last reports describe accurate measurements and also theoretical modeling of an SIS quasiparticle waveguide mixer for W-band which uses very high quality Ta junctions. The best mixer noise is only 1.3 times the quantum limit. Both the mixer gain and the noise are in quantitative agreement with the quantum theory.

  1. Optical response of a titanium-based cold-electron bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Ernst; Tarasov, Mikhail; Grimes, Paul K.; Chekushkin, Artem; Kuzmin, Leonid S.; Yassin, Ghassan

    2013-08-01

    We present experimental results on the testing of cold-electron bolometer (CEB) detectors comprised of a thin Ti film absorber and two SIN junctions integrated with a planar antenna. The CEB performance was tested in a He3 sorption cryostat HELIOX-AC-V at bath temperatures of 280-305 mK. The optical response was measured using the hot/cold load method by flipping a Cu reflector opposite a blackbody surface inside a 3 K shield and using a thermal source with variable temperature. In the first experiment, the detector chip was mounted in an optical sample-holder whose aperture was switched towards or away from a blackbody source changing the incident radiation temperature from 3 K to 270 mK. As a result, we measured the optical response to a 3 K/270 mK radiation temperature change. The measured voltage response value for the detector integrated in a double-dipole antenna was ΔVout = 120 μV. This corresponds to a noise equivalent power of NEP = Vn/(dV/dP) = 3.5 × 10-17 W Hz-1/2, where dV/dP is the voltage to power response obtained from the incoming power estimation based on the Planck formula.

  2. Mechanical designs and development of TES bolometer detector arrays for the Advanced ACTPol experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Page, Lyman A.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Thornton, Robert; Ullom, Joel N.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-07-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline profile leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modified to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  3. Graphene quantum dots for high-performance THz hot electron bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fatimy, A.; Han, P.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Boyd, A. K.; Daniels, K. M.; Sushkov, A. B.; Drew, D.; Gaskill, D. K.; Barbara, P.

    We study graphene quantum dots patterned from epitaxial graphene on SiC with a resistance strongly dependent on temperature. The combination of weak electron-phonon coupling and small electronic heat capacity in graphene makes these quantum dots ideal hot-electron bolometers. We characterize their response to THz radiation as a function of dot size, with sizes ranging from 30 to 700 nm and temperature, from 2.4K to 80K. We show that quantum dots exhibit a variation of resistance with temperature higher than 430 M Ω/K below 6K, leading to electrical responsivities for an absorbed THz power above 1×1010 V/W. The high responsivity, the potential for operation above 80 K and the process scalability show great promise towards practical applications of graphene quantum dot THz detectors. 1A. El Fatimy, R.L.Myers-Ward, A.K. Boyd, K.M. Daniels, D. K. Gaskill, and P. Barbara, Nature Nanotechnology, Accepted (2015). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (Award Number N000141310865).

  4. Antenna-coupled TES Bolometers Used in BICEP2, Keck Array, and Spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BICEP2 Collaboration; Keck Array Collaboration; SPIDER Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Amiri, M.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Bock, J. J.; Bonetti, J. A.; Brevik, J. A.; Buder, I.; Bullock, E.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Davis, G.; Day, P. K.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Filippini, J. P.; Fliescher, S.; Golwala, S. R.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hilton, G. C.; Hristov, V.; Hui, H.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Karkare, K. S.; Kaufman, J. P.; Keating, B. G.; Kefeli, S.; Kernasovskiy, S. A.; Kovac, J. M.; Kuo, C. L.; LeDuc, H. G.; Leitch, E. M.; Llombart, N.; Lueker, M.; Mason, P.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Brient, R.; Ogburn, R. W., IV; Orlando, A.; Pryke, C.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Richter, S.; Runyan, M. C.; Schwarz, R.; Sheehy, C. D.; Staniszewski, Z. K.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Teply, G. P.; Tolan, J. E.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Vieregg, A. G.; Weber, A.; Wiebe, D. V.; Wilson, P.; Wong, C. L.; Yoon, K. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor bolometers for a wide range of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimetry experiments, including Bicep2, Keck Array, and the balloon borne Spider. These detectors have reached maturity and this paper reports on their design principles, overall performance, and key challenges associated with design and production. Our detector arrays repeatedly produce spectral bands with 20%-30% bandwidth at 95, 150, or 230 GHz. The integrated antenna arrays synthesize symmetric co-aligned beams with controlled side-lobe levels. Cross-polarized response on boresight is typically ˜ 0.5%, consistent with cross-talk in our multiplexed readout system. End-to-end optical efficiencies in our cameras are routinely 35% or higher, with per detector sensitivities of NET ˜ 300 μ {K}{CMB}√{s}. Thanks to the scalability of this design, we have deployed 2560 detectors as 1280 matched pairs in Keck Array with a combined instantaneous sensitivity of ˜ 9 μ {K}{CMB}√{s}, as measured directly from CMB maps in the 2013 season. Similar arrays have recently flown in the Spider instrument, and development of this technology is ongoing.

  5. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Khavari, Niloufar; Klein, Jeffrey; Koopman, Brian J.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeffrey; Mumby, Grace; Nati, Federico; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  6. Comparing the response of PSD-capable plastic scintillator to standard liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Richard S.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Gwon, Chul; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses a test campaign to characterize the response of the recently developed plastic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities (EJ-299-33). PSD is a property exhibited by certain types of scintillating material in which incident stimuli (fast neutrons or γ rays) can be separated by exploiting differences in the scintillation light pulse tail. Detector geometries used were: a 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm cube and a 10-cm diameter×10-cm long cylinder. EJ-301 and EJ-309 liquid scintillators with well-known responses were also tested. The work was conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell Van De Graaff accelerator. The facility accelerated protons on a thin Li target to yield quasi-monoenergetic neutrons from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction (Q-value: -1.644 MeV). Collimated fast neutrons were obtained by placing detectors behind a neutron spectrometer. Rotating the spectrometer, and thus changing the neutron energy, allowed us to achieve 0.5-3.2 MeV neutrons in 200-300 keV steps. Data were acquired through a flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC) capable of performing digital PSD measurements. By using the PSD technique to separate the neutron events from unwanted γ background, we constructed a pulse height spectrum at each energy. Obtaining a relationship of the relative light output versus energy allowed us to construct the response function for the EJ-299-33 and liquid scintillator. The EJ-299-33 response in terms of electron equivalent energy (Ee.e.) vs. proton equivalent energy (Ep.e.), how it compared with the standard xylene-based EJ-301 (or, NE-213/BC-501 A equivalent) and EJ-309 liquid scintillator response, and how the EJ-301 and EJ-309 compared, are presented. We find that the EJ-299-33 demonstrated a lower light output by up to 40% for <1.0 MeV neutrons; and ranging between a 5-35% reduction for 2.5-3.0 MeV neutrons compared to the EJ-301/309, depending on the scintillator and geometry. Monte Carlo modeling techniques were

  7. Fundamental Limits of Scintillation Detector Timing Precision

    PubMed Central

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm Lu2SiO5:Ce and LaBr3:Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A−1/2 more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA−1/2. An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10,000 photoelectrons/ns. A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10,000 photoelectrons/ns. PMID:24874216

  8. Global Morphology of Ionospheric Scintillations II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-11

    Fading at Huancayo , Peru 3. Scintillation Contours at 136 MHz for 6 Years Data from Huancayo , Peru 4. Fading on 254 MHz as Observed at Kwajalein 5...Flight Center, NASA Z861-71-239. 8 3.2 Dependence on Magnetic Activity Data from Huancayo , Peru, when analyzed over a long period has shown as a gross...a second increase, that is, after midnight during magnetically disturbed days. 60 HUANCAYO , PERU LES - 6, 254 MHz S1 > 60 -- Kp = 0 - 3 ---Kp=4-9

  9. Thin GSO scintillator for neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.

    1994-05-01

    The new scintillator cerium-doped gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO -- Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce) has a light output that is about 20% that of NaI(T1). The enormous cross section of Gd for capture of.thermal neutrons makes GSO a candidate for novel types of neutron.detectors. The characteristic radiations from neutron capture in Gd can be stopped in about 75 {mu}m of GSO. Data obtained from a GSO detector that was about 0.6-mm thick demonstrated that thermal neutrons could easily be detected and that higher energy gamma rays caused minimal interference.

  10. Cherenkov and Scintillation Properties of Cubic Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M.J.; Adams, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Kuznetsov, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Cubic zirconium (CZ) is a high index of refraction (n =2.17) material that we have investigated for Cherenkov counter applications. Laboratory and proton accelerator tests of an 18cc sample of CZ show that the expected fast Cherenkov response is accompanied by a longer scintillation component that can be separated by pulse shaping. This presents the possibility of novel particle spectrometers which exploits both properties of CZ. Other high index materials being examined for Cherenkov applications will be discussed. Results from laboratory tests and an accelerator exposure will be presented and a potential application in solar energetic particle instruments will be discussed

  11. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0more » to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.« less

  12. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield and scintillation pulse shape from nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Avetisyan, R.; Back, H. O.; Cocco, A. G.; Dejongh, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, Y.; Kendziora, C.; Lippincott, W. H.; Love, C.; Lyons, S.; Manenti, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meng, Y.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Olvitt, D.; Pordes, S.; Qian, H.; Rossi, B.; Saldanha, R.; Sangiorgio, S.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S. Y.; Tan, W.; Tatarowicz, J.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Yoo, J.; Scene Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V /cm . For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V /cm . We also report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from Krm83 internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni ) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  13. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  14. Microprocessor-based single particle calibration of scintillation counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumdar, G. K. D.; Pathak, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    A microprocessor-base set-up is fabricated and tested for the single particle calibration of the plastic scintillator. The single particle response of the scintillator is digitized by an A/D converter, and a 8085 A based microprocessor stores the pulse heights. The digitized information is printed. Facilities for CRT display and cassette storing and recalling are also made available.

  15. Applications for New Scintillator Technologies in Gamma Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Mark L.; Bloser, Peter F.; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James M.

    2016-10-01

    Scintillators have long been used for probing the high energy universe. The reliability and low cost of scintillator-PMT detectors have made them the de facto standard for experiments on high altitude balloons and in orbiting satellites. New scintillators and new readout technologies offer important opportunities for more capable experiments. Recent scintillator developments include faster signals, increased light output, improved energy resolution, and better handling characteristics. Although PMTs remain effective for scintillator readout, new technologies offer more compact, rugged devices with much lower operational voltages. The adoption of these technologies is not without its difficulties, especially for space applications, where the technology readiness level can be an important consideration. To illustrate these issues, we will discuss the use of scintillators in Compton imaging experiments. At energies from about 500 keV to 30 MeV, Compton telescopes are the most effective means of imaging the gamma ray sky. To date, the only Compton telescope that has flown in space was the COMPTEL instrument on NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). CGRO, launched in 1991 and de-orbited in 2000, was based entirely on the use of technologies from the 1980’s. We have been working on an improved Compton telescope design, called the Advanced Scintillator Compton Telescope (ASCOT). It is much like COMPTEL, but utilizes up-to-date scintillator and readout technologies.

  16. Scintillation of nonuniformly correlated beams in atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yalong; Gbur, Greg

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the scintillation properties of nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams in atmospheric turbulence and have shown that NUC beams can not only have lower scintillation but also higher intensity than Gaussian-Schell model beams and even higher intensity than coherent Gaussian beams over certain propagation distances.

  17. Characterizing Properties and Performance of 3D Printed Plastic Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    We are determining various characteristics of the performance of 3D printed scintillators. A scintillator luminesces when an energetic particle raises electrons to an excited state by depositing some of its energy in the atom. When these excited electrons fall back down to their stable states, they emit the excess energy as light. We have characterized the transmission spectrum, emission spectrum, and relative intensity of light produced by 3D printed scintillators. We are also determining mechanical properties such as tensile strength and compressibility, and the refractive index. The emission and transmission spectra were measured using a monochromator. By observing the transmission spectrum, we can see which optical wavelengths are absorbed by the scintillator. This is then used to correct the emission spectrum, since this absorption is present in the emission spectrum. Using photomultiplier tubes in conjunction with integration hardware (QDC) to measure the intensity of light emitted by 3D printed scintillators, we compare with commercial plastic scintillators. We are using the characterizations to determine if 3D printed scintillators are a viable alternative to commercial scintillators for use at Jefferson Lab in nuclear and accelerated physics detectors. I would like to thank Wouter Deconinck, as well as the Parity group at the College of William and Mary for all advice and assistance with my research.

  18. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scintillation (gamma) camera. 892.1100 Section 892.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1100 Scintillation (gamma) camera....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scintillation (gamma) camera. 892.1100 Section 892.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1100 Scintillation (gamma) camera....

  20. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scintillation (gamma) camera. 892.1100 Section 892.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1100 Scintillation (gamma) camera....

  1. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scintillation (gamma) camera. 892.1100 Section 892.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1100 Scintillation (gamma) camera....

  2. Some studies of avalanche photodiode readout of fast scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Holl, I.; Lorenz, E.; Natkaniez, S.; Renker, D.; Schmelz, C. |; Schwartz, B.

    1995-08-01

    Photomultipliers (PMs) are the classical readout element for scintillation detectors in high energy particle physics, nuclear physics, medical physics, industrial radiation monitors etc. Here, large area avalanche photodiodes with high performance, narrow operation tolerances and high reliability have recently become available. The authors report on some tests of their performance in the readout of fast scintillators.

  3. Purification of KamLAND-Zen liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Haruo

    2013-08-08

    KamLAND-Zen is neutrino-less double-beta decay search experiment using enriched 300 kg of {sup 136}Xe dissolved in pure liquid scintillator. This report is purification work of liquid scintillator for KamLAND-Zen experiment before installation in the inner-balloon and background rejection processes after installation.

  4. Multichroic Antenna-Coupled Bolometers for CMB Polarization and Sub-mm Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Adrian

    We propose to develop planar antenna-coupled superconducting bolometer arrays for observations at sub-millimeter to millimeter wavelengths. Our pixel architecture features a dual-polarization log-periodic antenna with a 4:1-bandwidth ratio, followed by a filter bank that divides the total bandwidth into several broad photometric bands. The advantages of this approach, compared with those using conventional single-color pixels, include a combination of greatly reduced focal-plane mass, higher array sensitivity, and a larger number of spectral bands. These advantages have the potential to greatly reduce the cost and/or increase the performance of NASA missions in the sub-millimeter to millimeter bands. For CMB polarization measurements, a wide frequency range of roughly 30 to 300 GHz is required to subtract galactic foregrounds. The multichroic architecture we propose enables a relatively low-cost 30-cm aperture space mission to have sufficient sensitivity to probe below the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.01. For a larger aperture mission, such as the EPIC-IM concept, the proposed technology could reduce the focal-plane mass by a factor of 2-3, with great savings in required cryocooler performance and therefore cost. We have demonstrated the lens-coupled antenna concept in the POLARBEAR ground-based CMB polarization experiment now operating in Chile. That experiment uses a single-band planar antenna and produces excellent beam properties and optical efficiency. In the laboratory, we have measured two octaves of total bandwidth in the log-periodic sinuous antenna. We have built filter banks of 2, 3, and 7 bands with 4, 6, and 14 bolometers per pixel for two linear polarizations. Building on these accomplishments, the deliverables for the proposed work include: *Two pixel types that together cover the range from 30 to 300 GHz. The low-frequency pixel will have bands centered at 35, 50, and 80 GHz and the high frequency pixel will have bands centered at 120, 180, and 270

  5. Broad-band efficiency calibration of ITER bolometer prototypes using Pt absorbers on SiN membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, H.; Willmeroth, M.; Zhang, D.; Gottwald, A.; Krumrey, M.; Scholze, F.

    2013-12-01

    The energy resolved efficiency of two bolometer detector prototypes for ITER with 4 channels each and absorber thicknesses of 4.5 μm and 12.5 μm, respectively, has been calibrated in a broad spectral range from 1.46 eV up to 25 keV. The calibration in the energy range above 3 eV was performed against previously calibrated silicon photodiodes using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by five different beamlines of Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage rings BESSY II and Metrology Light Source in Berlin. For the measurements in the visible range, a setup was realised using monochromatized halogen lamp radiation and a calibrated laser power meter as reference. The measurements clearly demonstrate that the efficiency of the bolometer prototype detectors in the range from 50 eV up to ≈6 keV is close to unity; at a photon energy of 20 keV the bolometer with the thick absorber detects 80% of the photons, the one with the thin absorber about 50%. This indicates that the detectors will be well capable of measuring the plasma radiation expected from the standard ITER scenario. However, a minimum absorber thickness will be required for the high temperatures in the central plasma. At 11.56 keV, the sharp Pt-L3 absorption edge allowed to cross-check the absorber thickness by fitting the measured efficiency to the theoretically expected absorption of X-rays in a homogeneous Pt-layer. Furthermore, below 50 eV the efficiency first follows the losses due to reflectance expected for Pt, but below 10 eV it is reduced further by a factor of 2 for the thick absorber and a factor of 4 for the thin absorber. Most probably, the different histories in production, storage, and operation led to varying surface conditions and additional loss channels.

  6. Hot-Electron Bolometers on Ultra-thin Silicon Chips with Beam Leads for a 585GHz Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Robert Bruce

    2004-05-01

    Interest in observing astronomical phenomena within the terahertz frequency spectrum has driven demand for extremely sensitive heterodyne receivers. Radio astronomers use observatories such as the 12 meter Kitt Peak telescope in Arizona and the James Clerk Maxwell telescope atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii to probe molecules and dust in interstellar clouds, the dynamics of star formation, proto-planetary discs, and other astronomical phenomena. Additional terahertz applications include atmospheric spectroscopy, remote sensing, bio-particle detection, and terahertz medical imaging. Novel devices for heterodyne mixing, such as ultra-thin silicon chips and hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), will extend the experimental capabilities of receivers into the terahertz frequency domain. We developed and integrated several submillimeter-wave technologies that improve the design and assembly of terahertz receivers. The first of these, ultra-thin silicon chips with gold beam leads, is an innovative approach for mounting non-linear circuit elements and other microwave circuit structures within a terahertz waveguide receiver. These chips will also facilitate the development of large format arrays of terahertz receivers, which integrate multiple receivers onto a single micromachined array frame. The second involves the fabrication of phonon-cooled and diffusion-cooled HEBs, which have device dimensions of less than a quarter-micron. These new bolometer fabrication processes rely on electron-beam lithography to define sub-micron device dimensions. This dissertation demonstrates the functionality of the ultra-thin silicon chips as well as the hot-electron bolometers, and sets the stage for radio frequency testing of these technologies in a 585GHz receiver.

  7. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich cluster reconstruction in multiband bolometer camera surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, S.; Juin, J. B.; Yvon, D.; Moudden, Y.; Anthoine, S.; Pierpaoli, E.

    2006-08-01

    We present a new method for the reconstruction of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) galaxy clusters in future SZ-survey experiments using multiband bolometer cameras such as Olimpo, APEX, or Planck. Our goal is to optimise SZ-Cluster extraction from our observed noisy maps. None of the algorithms used in the detection chain is tuned using prior knowledge of the SZ-Cluster signal, or other astrophysical sources (Optical Spectrum, Noise Covariance Matrix, or covariance of SZ Cluster wavelet coefficients). First, a blind separation of the different astrophysical components that contribute to the observations is conducted using an Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. This is a new application of ICA to multichannel astrophysical data analysis. Then, a recent non linear filtering technique in the wavelet domain, based on multiscale entropy and the False Discovery Rate (FDR) method, is used to detect and reconstruct the galaxy clusters. We use the Source Extractor software to identify the detected clusters. The proposed method was applied on realistic simulations of observations that we produced as mixtures of synthetic maps of the four brightest light sources in the range 143 GHz to 600 GHz namely the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, the extragalactic InfraRed point sources and the Galactic Dust Emission. We also implemented a simple model of optics and noise to account for instrumental effects. Assuming nominal performance for the near future SZ-survey Olimpo, our detection chain recovers 25% of the cluster of mass larger than 1014 M⊙, with 90% purity. Our results are compared with those obtained with published algorithms. This new method has a high global detection efficiency in the high-purity/low completeness region, being however a blind algorithm (i.e. without using any prior assumptions on the data to be extracted).

  8. The mass distribution of clumps within infrared dark clouds. A Large APEX Bolometer Camera study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, L.; Wyrowski, F.; Schuller, F.; Menten, K. M.; Ballesteros-Paredes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present an analysis of the dust continuum emission at 870 μm in order to investigate the mass distribution of clumps within infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). Methods: We map six IRDCs with the Large APEX BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) at APEX, reaching an rms noise level of σrms = 28-44 mJy beam-1. The dust continuum emission coming from these IRDCs was decomposed by using two automated algorithms, Gaussclumps and Clumpfind. Moreover, we carried out single-pointing observations of the N2H+ (3-2) line toward selected positions to obtain kinematic information. Results: The mapped IRDCs are located in the range of kinematic distances of 2.7-3.2 kpc. We identify 510 and 352 sources with Gaussclumps and Clumpfind, respectively, and estimate masses and other physical properties assuming a uniform dust temperature. The mass ranges are 6-2692 M⊙ (Gaussclumps) and 7-4254 M⊙ (Clumpfind), and the ranges in effective radius are ~0.10-0.74 pc (Gaussclumps) and 0.16-0.99 pc (Clumpfind). The mass distribution, independent of the decomposition method used, is fitted by a power law, dN/dM ∝ Mα, with an index (α) of -1.60 ± 0.06, consistent with the CO mass distribution and other high-mass star-forming regions. Based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX). APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A148

  9. Measurements of the optical performance of bolometers for SPICA/SAFARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gert; Gao, Jian-Rong; Khosropanah, Pourya; Ridder, Marcel; Ferrari, Lorenza; Laauwen, Wouter M.; Ranjan, Manisha; Mauskopf, Philip D.; Morozov, Dmitry; Trappe, Neil A.

    2012-09-01

    We have measured the optical response of detectors designed for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. To take advantage of SPICA's cooled optics, SAFARI’s three bolometer arrays are populated with extremely sensitive (NEP~2×10-19 W/√Hz) transition edge sensors with a transition temperature close to 100 mK. The extreme sensitivity and low saturation power (~4 fW) of SAFARI’s detectors present challenges to characterizing them. We have therefore built up an ultra-low background test facility with a cryogen-free high-capacity dilution refrigerator, paying careful attention to stray-light exclusion. Our use of a pulse-tube cooler to pre-cool the dilution refrigerator required that the SAFARI Detector System Test Facility provide a high degree electrical, magnetic, and mechanical isolation for the detectors. We have carefully characterized the performance of the test facility in terms of background power loading. The test facility has been designed to be flexible and easily reconfigurable with internal illuminators that allow us to characterize the optical response of the detectors. We describe the test facility and some of the steps we took to create an ultra-low background test environment. We have measured the optical response of two detectors designed for SAFARI’s short-wave wavelength band in combination with a spherical backshort and conical feedhorn. We find an overall optical efficiency of 40% for both, compared with an ideal-case predicted optical efficiency of 66%.

  10. Fabrication of a Cryogenic Terahertz Emitter for Bolometer Focal Plane Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James; Brown, Ari; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A fabrication process is reported for prototype emitters of THz radiation, which operate cryogenically, and should provide a fast, stable blackbody source suitable for characterization of THz devices. The fabrication has been demonstrated and, at the time of this reporting, testing was underway. The emitter is similar to a monolithic silicon bolometer in design, using both a low-noise thermometer and a heater element on a thermally isolated stage. An impedance-matched, high-emissivity coat ing is also integrated to tune the blackbody properties. This emitter is designed to emit a precise amount of power as a blackbody spectrum centered on terahertz frequencies. The emission is a function of the blackbody temperature. An integrated resistive heater and thermometer system can control the temperature of the blackbody with greater precision than previous incarnations of calibration sources that relied on blackbody emission. The emitter is fabricated using a silicon- on-insulator substrate wafer. The buried oxide is chosen to be less than 1 micron thick, and the silicon device thickness is 1-2 microns. Layers of phosphorus compensated with boron are implanted into and diffused throughout the full thickness of the silicon device layer to create the thermometer and heater components. Degenerately doped wiring is implanted to connect the devices to wire-bondable contact pads at the edge of the emitter chip. Then the device is micromachined to remove the thick-handle silicon behind the thermometer and heater components, and to thermally isolate it on a silicon membrane. An impedance- matched emissive coating (ion assisted evaporated Bi) is applied to the back of the membrane to enable high-efficiency emission of the blackbody spectrum.

  11. Analysis of Ionospheric Scintillation Characteristics in Sub-Antarctica Region with GNSS Data at Macquarie Island.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jinling

    2017-01-12

    Ionospheric scintillation has a great impact on radio propagation and electronic system performance, thus is extensively studied currently. The influence of scintillation on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is particularly evident, making GNSS an effective medium to study characteristics of scintillation. Ionospheric scintillation varies greatly in relation with temporal and spatial distribution. In this paper, both temporal and spatial characteristics of scintillation are investigated based on Macquarie Island's GNSS scintillation data collected from 2011 to 2015. Experiments demonstrate that occurrence rates of amplitude scintillation have a close relationship with solar activity, while phase scintillation is more likely to be generated by geomagnetic activity. In addition, scintillation distribution behaviors related to elevation and azimuth angles are statistically analyzed for both amplitude and phase scintillation. The proposed work is valuable for a deeper understanding of theoretical mechanisms of ionospheric scintillation in this region, and provides a reference for GNSS applications in certain regions around sub-Antarctica.

  12. Analysis of Ionospheric Scintillation Characteristics in Sub-Antarctica Region with GNSS Data at Macquarie Island

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kai; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Jinling

    2017-01-01

    Ionospheric scintillation has a great impact on radio propagation and electronic system performance, thus is extensively studied currently. The influence of scintillation on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is particularly evident, making GNSS an effective medium to study characteristics of scintillation. Ionospheric scintillation varies greatly in relation with temporal and spatial distribution. In this paper, both temporal and spatial characteristics of scintillation are investigated based on Macquarie Island’s GNSS scintillation data collected from 2011 to 2015. Experiments demonstrate that occurrence rates of amplitude scintillation have a close relationship with solar activity, while phase scintillation is more likely to be generated by geomagnetic activity. In addition, scintillation distribution behaviors related to elevation and azimuth angles are statistically analyzed for both amplitude and phase scintillation. The proposed work is valuable for a deeper understanding of theoretical mechanisms of ionospheric scintillation in this region, and provides a reference for GNSS applications in certain regions around sub-Antarctica. PMID:28085087

  13. GPS Amplitude Scintillations over Kampala, Uganda, During 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, Andrew O.; Idolor, Raphael; D'Ujanga, Florence M.; Doherty, Patricia H.

    2016-10-01

    This study characterizes equatorial scintillations at L1/L2 GPS frequency over Kampala (0.30°N, 32.50°E, mag. lat. 9.26°S), Uganda, on different time scales during the minimum and ascending phases of solar cycle 24 (2010-2011). Of all the days investigated, 25 October 2011 recorded the highest occurrence of scintillation, and it was attributed to geomagnetic storm occurrence. We used the data of 25 October to generate plots of the elevation angle and S4 index against local time on a satellite- by-satellite basis, with a view to distinguishing satellites links whose signals were impaired by ionospheric irregularities from those impaired by multipath. Conclusively, GPS amplitude scintillations over Kampala occur predominantly during post sunset hours and decay around midnight. Equinoctial months recorded the highest occurrences of scintillations, while June solstice recorded the least. Scintillation occurrences also increase with solar and geomagnetic activity.

  14. Comparison of tropospheric scintillation prediction models of the Indonesian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng Yee; Singh, Mandeep Jit

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric scintillation is a phenomenon that will cause signal degradation in satellite communication with low fade margin. Few studies of scintillation have been conducted in tropical regions. To analyze tropospheric scintillation, we obtain data from a satellite link installed at Bandung, Indonesia, at an elevation angle of 64.7° and a frequency of 12.247 GHz from 1999 to 2000. The data are processed and compared with the predictions of several well-known scintillation prediction models. From the analysis, we found that the ITU-R model gives the lowest error rate when predicting the scintillation intensity for fade at 4.68%. However, the model should be further tested using data from higher-frequency bands, such as the K and Ka bands, to verify the accuracy of the model.

  15. Comparison and analysis of tropospheric scintillation models for Northern Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeep, J. S.; Yee, Anthony Cheng Chen; Abdullah, M.; Tariqul, M.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on tropospheric scintillation on satellite link that has been performed at University Sains Malaysia (USM) to obtain statistics of scintillation from the 12.255 GHz Superbird-C satellite with an elevation angle of 40.1°. Comparison of existing tropospheric scintillation models, namely the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Direct Physical-Statistical Prediction (DPSP), Modeled Physical-Statistical Prediction (MPSP), Kamp-Tervonen-Salonen (KVS), and Karasawa were done for the measurement site. Then, cumulative distributions of measured scintillation intensity compared to the result of the prediction models for tropospheric scintillation were plotted and analyzed. ITU-R model gave the best prediction of 5.8% of error at 0.1% of fading time, compared with the other models.

  16. Measurement of ortho-positronium properties in liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perasso, S.; Consolati, G.; Franco, D.; Hans, S.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A.; Tonazzo, A.; Yeh, M.

    2013-08-01

    Pulse shape discrimination in liquid scintillator detectors is a well-established technique for the discrimination of heavy particles from light particles. Nonetheless, it is not efficient in the separation of electrons and positrons, as they give rise to indistinguishable scintillator responses. This inefficiency can be overtaken through the exploitation of the formation of ortho-Positronium (o-Ps), which alters the time profile of light pulses induced by positrons. We characterized the o-Ps properties in the most commonly used liquid scintillators, i.e. PC, PXE, LAB, OIL and PC + PPO. In addition, we studied the effects of scintillator doping on the o-Ps properties for dopants currently used in neutrino experiments, Gd and Nd. Further measurements for Li-loaded and Tl-loaded liquid scintillators are foreseen. We found that the o-Ps properties are suitable for enhancing the electron-positron discrimination.

  17. Measurement of ortho-positronium properties in liquid scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Perasso, S.; Franco, D.; Tonazzo, A.; Consolati, G.; Hans, S.; Yeh, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A.

    2013-08-08

    Pulse shape discrimination in liquid scintillator detectors is a well-established technique for the discrimination of heavy particles from light particles. Nonetheless, it is not efficient in the separation of electrons and positrons, as they give rise to indistinguishable scintillator responses. This inefficiency can be overtaken through the exploitation of the formation of ortho-Positronium (o-Ps), which alters the time profile of light pulses induced by positrons. We characterized the o-Ps properties in the most commonly used liquid scintillators, i.e. PC, PXE, LAB, OIL and PC + PPO. In addition, we studied the effects of scintillator doping on the o-Ps properties for dopants currently used in neutrino experiments, Gd and Nd. Further measurements for Li-loaded and Tl-loaded liquid scintillators are foreseen. We found that the o-Ps properties are suitable for enhancing the electron-positron discrimination.

  18. Interplanetary and ionosphere scintillation produced by ICME 20 December 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Shishov, V. I.; Subaev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Observational data of scintillation monitoring with typical time about 1 s at the frequency 111 MHz are presented for the period between 18 and 23 December when interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) of flare origin resulted in the geomagnetic storm on 20-21 December 2015 with Dst ≈ -200 nT. Our estimates show that the mean ICME speed between the solar corona and the start of interplanetary scintillation enhancement is close to the mean speed between the corona and the Earth. The strong increase of the nighttime scintillation level is observed after ICME coming to the Earth. Scintillation analysis of the individual radio sources shows that the 1 s night scintillation is of ionospheric origin and can be explained by an order increase of irregularity drift speed in the disturbed ionosphere.

  19. Separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights in linear alkyl benzene

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Mohan; Guo, Ziyi; Yeh, Minfang; ...

    2016-09-11

    To separate scintillation and Cherenkov lights in water-based liquid scintillator detectors is a desired feature for future neutrino and proton decay experiments. Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) is one important ingredient of a water-based liquid scintillator currently under development. In this paper we report on the separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights observed in an LAB sample. The rise and decay times of the scintillation light are measured to be (7.7±3.0)ns and (36.6±2.4)ns, respectively, while the full width [–3σ, 3σ] of the Cherenkov light is 12 ns and is dominated by the time resolution of the photomultiplier tubes. Here, the scintillationmore » light yield was measured to be(1.01±0.12)×103photons/MeV.« less

  20. Visible scintillation photodetector device incorporating chalcopyrite semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Stowe, Ashley C.; Burger, Arnold

    2017-04-04

    A photodetector device, including: a scintillator material operable for receiving incident radiation and emitting photons in response; a photodetector material coupled to the scintillator material operable for receiving the photons emitted by the scintillator material and generating a current in response, wherein the photodetector material includes a chalcopyrite semiconductor crystal; and a circuit coupled to the photodetector material operable for characterizing the incident radiation based on the current generated by the photodetector material. Optionally, the scintillator material includes a gamma scintillator material and the incident radiation received includes gamma rays. Optionally, the photodetector material is further operable for receiving thermal neutrons and generating a current in response. The circuit is further operable for characterizing the thermal neutrons based on the current generated by the photodetector material.

  1. Invited article: millimeter-wave bolometer array receiver for the Atacama pathfinder experiment Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (APEX-SZ) instrument.

    PubMed

    Schwan, D; Ade, P A R; Basu, K; Bender, A N; Bertoldi, F; Cho, H-M; Chon, G; Clarke, John; Dobbs, M; Ferrusca, D; Güsten, R; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Horellou, C; Johansson, D; Johnson, B R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Kneissl, R; Lanting, T; Lee, A T; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Muders, D; Pacaud, F; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Sommer, M W; Spieler, H; Tucker, C; Weiss, A; Westbrook, B; Zahn, O

    2011-09-01

    The Atacama pathfinder experiment Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (APEX-SZ) instrument is a millimeter-wave cryogenic receiver designed to observe galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from the 12 m APEX telescope on the Atacama plateau in Chile. The receiver contains a focal plane of 280 superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers instrumented with a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system. The bolometers are cooled to 280 mK via a three-stage helium sorption refrigerator and a mechanical pulse-tube cooler. Three warm mirrors, two 4 K lenses, and a horn array couple the TES bolometers to the telescope. APEX-SZ observes in a single frequency band at 150 GHz with 1' angular resolution and a 22' field-of-view, all well suited for cluster mapping. The APEX-SZ receiver has played a key role in the introduction of several new technologies including TES bolometers, the frequency-domain multiplexed readout, and the use of a pulse-tube cooler with bolometers. As a result of these new technologies, the instrument has a higher instantaneous sensitivity and covers a larger field-of-view than earlier generations of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich instruments. The TES bolometers have a median sensitivity of 890 μK(CMB)√s (NEy of 3.5 × 10(-4) √s). We have also demonstrated upgraded detectors with improved sensitivity of 530 μK(CMB)√s (NEy of 2.2 × 10(-4) √s). Since its commissioning in April 2007, APEX-SZ has been used to map 48 clusters. We describe the design of the receiver and its performance when installed on the APEX telescope.

  2. In situ calibration of the foil detector for an infrared imaging video bolometer using a carbon evaporation technique.

    PubMed

    Mukai, K; Peterson, B J; Takayama, S; Sano, R

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method. Also, the principle of the in situ calibration system was justified.

  3. Comparison between hot spot modeling and measurement of a superconducting hot electron bolometer mixer at submillimeter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Wei; Delorme, Yan; Feret, Alexandre; Lefevre, Rolland; Lecomte, Benoit; Dauplay, Fred; Krieg, Jean-Michel; Beaudin, Gerard; Zhang, Wen; Ren, Yuan; Shi, Sheng-Cai

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the modeling and measurement of a quasioptical niobium nitride superconducting hot electron bolometer mixer at submillimeter wavelengths. The modeling is performed with a distributed hot spot model which is based on solving a heat balance equation for electron temperature along the superconducting microbridge. Particular care has been taken during the modeling concerning the temperature-dependent resistance and the bias current dependence of the critical temperature of the device. The dc and mixing characteristics of this mixer have been computed and we have observed a quite good match between the predicted and the measured results for both dc characteristics and mixing performances at submillimeter wavelengths.

  4. Microwave Mixing and if Bandwidth in Sub-Micron Long High -T(sub c) Hot - Electron Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harnack, Oliver; Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Kleinsasser, Alan; Barner, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    The hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixer made from a high-T(sub c) superconductor (HTS) was introduced recently as a competing alternative to a Schottky mixer. The HEB mixer would require 100-times less LO power and thus would be a desirable candidate for long-term observational missions such as atmospheric remote-sensing and planetary science. The required cooling temperatures between 65 K and 75 K can be achieved with available space-qualified coolers or even with passive radiative coolers.

  5. Scintillation fluctuations of optical communication lasers in atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panich, Michael G.; Coffaro, Joseph T.; Belichki, Sara B.; Splitter, Landon J.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Fountain, Wayne; Tucker, Frank M.

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate scintillation fluctuations on optical communication lasers and evaluate potential system improvements to reduce scintillation effects. This research attempts to experimentally verify mathematical models developed by Andrews and Phillips [1] for scintillation fluctuations in atmospheric turbulence using two different transmitting wavelengths. Propagation range lengths and detector quantities were varied to confirm the theoretical scintillation curve. In order to confirm the range and wavelength dependent scintillation curve, intensity measurements were taken from a 904nm and 1550nm laser source for an assortment of path distances along the 1km laser range at the Townes Laser Institute. The refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) data was also taken at various ranges using two commercial scintillometers. This parameter is used to characterize the strength of atmospheric turbulence, which induces scintillation effects on the laser beam, and is a vital input parameter to the mathematical model. Data was taken and analyzed using a 4-detector board array. The material presented in this paper outlines the verification and validation of the theoretical scintillation model, and steps to improve the scintillation fluctuation effects on the laser beam through additional detectors and a longer transmitting wavelength. Experimental data was post processed and analyzed for scintillation fluctuations of the two transmitting wavelengths. The results demonstrate the benefit of additional detectors and validate a mathematical model that can be scaled for use in a variety of communications or defense applications. Scintillation is a problem faced by every free space laser communication system and the verification of an accurate mathematical model to simulate these effects has strong application across the industry.

  6. SDC conceptual design: Scintillating fiber outer tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Bird, F.; SDC Collaboration

    1992-01-22

    The authors propose an all-scintillating fiber detector for the purpose of outer tracking for the SDC. The objectives of this tracking system are to: (1) provide a first level trigger for {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.3 with sharp p{sub T} threshold with the ability to resolve individual beam crossings; (2) provide pattern recognition capability and momentum resolution which complements and extends the capabilities of the inner silicon tracking system; (3) provide three dimensional linkage with outer detection systems including the shower maximum detector, muon detectors, and calorimetry; (4) provide robust tracking and track-triggering at the highest luminosities expected at the SSC. The many attractive features of a fiber tracker include good position resolution, low occupancy, low mass in the active volume, and excellent resistance to radiation damage. An additional important feature, especially at the SSC, is the intrinsically prompt response time of a scintillating fiber. This property is exploited in the construction of a level 1 trigger sensitive to individual beam crossings.

  7. High-latitutde scintillations using NNSS satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersley, L.

    1985-11-01

    An experiment is described which has been established in Northern Sweden since September 1984 to monitor scintillations using transmissions from NNSS satellites. Designed for long-term nearly-unattended operation, with control and data handling based around a PDP 11/23 minicomputer, the equipment records and processes data from more than 20 NNSS passes per day. Stored on magnetic tape for further study for each 20s segment of received signal after suitable detrending, are S4-indices for both frequencies, the r.m.s. differential phase fluctuations, the differential phase rotation (differential doppler), together with statistics of signal fading below selected thresholds and durations of individual fades. Determination of satellite position in nearly-real time from the transmitted ephemeris parameters enables estimates of effective ionospheric irregularity height to be made for high-elevation passes by means of the cross correlation of signals received on two separated antennas. A second mode of operation allows the raw data to be stored for subsequent analysis. This has been used successfully for coordinated special program experiments in conjunction with the EISCAT ionospheric radar facility in the study of the physical processes reponsible for the scintillation-producing irregularities.

  8. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  9. Fast Scintillating Paddles for DarkLight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The DarkLight experiment proposes to search for a dark photon in the 10-100 MeV mass range via its production in fixed-target electron-proton collisions. The experimental design is driven by the desire to detect the complete final state including the recoiling proton, while also sustaining a very high luminosity in order to search for this rare process. Although the final design of the DarkLight experiment calls for fully streamed detector readout, initial studies will rely on traditional, triggered approaches. In order to facilitate precision measurements at high rate, a fast, thin, finely-segmented trigger detector based on plastic scintillating paddles and custom amplifiers was developed. I will discuss this design and its performance in recent DarkLight beam studies, as well as the work we have done to develop detectors using individual scintillating fibers. The DarkLight project is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40818.

  10. Liquid Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stefanie N.; Learned, John G.

    2010-03-30

    Large open volume (not segmented) liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. We describe the potential employment of large detectors (>1 kiloton) for studies of higher energy neutrino interactions, such as cosmic rays and long-baseline experiments. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked. Here we take into account Fermat's principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we are calling the 'Fermat surface', and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification. This capability may be demonstrated in the new long-baseline neutrino beam from Jaeri accelerator to the KamLAND detector in Japan. Other exciting applications include the use of Hanohano as a movable long-baseline detector in this same beam, and LENA in Europe for future long-baseline neutrino beams from CERN. Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long-baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake.

  11. Characterization of cerium fluoride nanocomposite scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Esch, Ernst I; Brown, Leif O; Couture, Aaron J; Mckigney, Edward A; Muenchausen, Ross E; Del Sesto, Rico E; Gilbertson, Robert D; Mccleskey, T Mark; Reifarth, Rene

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the neutron capture cross-sections of a number of short-lived isotopes would advance both pure and applied scientific research. These cross-sections are needed for calculation of criticality and waste production estimates for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, for analysis of data from nuclear weapons tests, and to improve understanding of nucleosynthesis. However, measurement of these cross-sections would require a detector with a faster signal decay time than those used in existing neutron capture experiments. Crystals of faster detector materials are not available in sufficient sizes and quantities to supply these large-scale experiments. Instead, we propose to use nanocomposite detectors, consisting of nanoscale particles of a scintillating material dispersed in a matrix material. We have successfully fabricated cerium fluoride (CeF{sub 3}) nanoparticles and dispersed them in a liquid matrix. We have characterized this scintillator and have measured its response to neutron capture. Results of the optical, structural, and radiation characterization will be presented.

  12. Comparison of gamma-ray detectors: Scintillators, scintillating fibers, and semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    New scintillators that have advantages relative to NaI(Tl) and BGO include GSO, LSO, YAP, and BaF{sub 2}. GSO, for example, is very radiation hard, and BaF{sub 2} is very fast. Scintillating fibers, which allow good spatial resolution and complex geometries, have been used extensively in high energy physics, but they can also be used at lower energies. Semiconductors such as germanium, silicon, CdTe, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2} can provide good resolution. The proliferation of types has made selection of a gamma-ray detector for a particular application difficult. The authors compare the different types and give examples of choices that have been made for laboratory experiments, portable instruments, and space applications.

  13. Optimizing ZnS/6LiF scintillators for wavelength-shifting-fiber neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, Lowell; Funk, Loren L; Hannan, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Riedel, Richard A; Wang, Cai-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare the performance of grooved and flat ZnS/6LiF scintillators in a wavelength shifting-fiber (WLSF) detector. Flat ZnS/6LiF scintillators with the thickness L=0.2-0.8 mm were characterized using photon counting and pulse-height analysis and compared to a grooved scintillator of approximately 0.8 mm thick. While a grooved scintillator considerably increases the apparent thickness of the scintillator to neutrons for a given coating thickness, we find that the flat scintillators perform better than the grooved scintillators in terms of both light yield and neutron detection efficiency. The flat 0.8-mm-thick scintillator has the highest light output, and it is 52% higher compared with a grooved scintillator of same thickness. The lower light output of the grooved scintillator as compared to the flat scintillator is consistent with the greater scintillator-WLSF separation and the much larger average emission angle of the grooved scintillator. We also find that the average light cone width, or photon travel-length as measured using time-of-flight powder diffraction of diamond and vanadium, decreases with increasing L in the range of L=0.6-0.8 mm. This result contrasts with the traditional Swank diffusion model for micro-composite scintillators, and could be explained by a decrease in photon diffusion-coefficient or an increase in micro-particle content in the flat scintillator matrix for the thicker scintillators.

  14. A Generic Receiver Tracking Model for GPS Ionospheric Amplitude Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paula, E. R.; Moraes, A. D.; Perrella, W. J.; Galera Monico, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Ionospheric scintillations result in rapid variations in phase and amplitude of the radio signal, which propagates through the ionosphere. Depending on the temporal and spatial situation, the scintillation can represent a problem in the availability and precision of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Scintillations affect the receiver performance, specially the tracking loop level. Depending on the scintillation level, the receiver might increase the measurement errors or even can lead to a loss of lock of the carrier and code loops. In extreme cases, the scintillation can result in full disrupting of the receiver. In this work we introduce a generic model to evaluate the effects of ionospheric amplitude scintillation on GPS receiver tracking loops. This model is based on α-μ distribution, which can be seen as a generalized fading model, that includes a variety of distributions such as Gamma, Nakagami-m, Exponential, Weibull, one-sided Gaussian and Rayleigh. Differently from the model based only on Nakagami-m, this one is not limited to S4< 0,71 which allows using it to predict amplitude scintillation effects for stronger scenarios. The estimation of α-μ coefficients, the empirical parameterization based on field measurements and the typical values estimated based on observations made during the last solar maximum are presented and discussed.

  15. Development of scintillation materials for medical imaging and other applications

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, C. L.

    2013-02-05

    Scintillation materials that produce pulses of visible light in response to the absorption of energetic photons, neutrons, and charged particles, are widely used in various applications that require the detection of radiation. The discovery and development of new scintillators has accelerated in recent years, due in large part to their importance in medical imaging as well as in security and high energy physics applications. Better understanding of fundamental scintillation mechanisms as well as the roles played by defects and impurities have aided the development of new high performance scintillators for both gamma-ray and neutron detection. Although single crystals continue to dominate gamma-ray based imaging techniques, composite materials and transparent optical ceramics potentially offer advantages in terms of both synthesis processes and scintillation performance. A number of promising scintillator candidates have been identified during the last few years, and several are currently being actively developed for commercial production. Purification and control of raw materials and cost effective crystal growth processes can present significant challenges to the development of practical new scintillation materials.

  16. Graphene-based mid-infrared room-temperature pyroelectric bolometers with ultrahigh temperature coefficient of resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, U.; Parret, R.; Nanot, S.; Bruna, M.; Borini, S.; De Fazio, D.; Zhao, Z.; Lidorikis, E.; Koppens, F.H.L.; Ferrari, A. C.; Colli, A.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing number of applications demanding highly sensitive photodetectors in the mid-infrared. Thermal photodetectors, such as bolometers, have emerged as the technology of choice, because they do not need cooling. The performance of a bolometer is linked to its temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR, ∼2–4% K−1 for state-of-the-art materials). Graphene is ideally suited for optoelectronic applications, with a variety of reported photodetectors ranging from visible to THz frequencies. For the mid-infrared, graphene-based detectors with TCRs ∼4–11% K−1 have been demonstrated. Here we present an uncooled, mid-infrared photodetector, where the pyroelectric response of a LiNbO3 crystal is transduced with high gain (up to 200) into resistivity modulation for graphene. This is achieved by fabricating a floating metallic structure that concentrates the pyroelectric charge on the top-gate capacitor of the graphene channel, leading to TCRs up to 900% K−1, and the ability to resolve temperature variations down to 15 μK. PMID:28139766

  17. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  18. Graphene-based mid-infrared room-temperature pyroelectric bolometers with ultrahigh temperature coefficient of resistance.

    PubMed

    Sassi, U; Parret, R; Nanot, S; Bruna, M; Borini, S; De Fazio, D; Zhao, Z; Lidorikis, E; Koppens, F H L; Ferrari, A C; Colli, A

    2017-01-31

    There is a growing number of applications demanding highly sensitive photodetectors in the mid-infrared. Thermal photodetectors, such as bolometers, have emerged as the technology of choice, because they do not need cooling. The performance of a bolometer is linked to its temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR, ∼2-4% K(-1) for state-of-the-art materials). Graphene is ideally suited for optoelectronic applications, with a variety of reported photodetectors ranging from visible to THz frequencies. For the mid-infrared, graphene-based detectors with TCRs ∼4-11% K(-1) have been demonstrated. Here we present an uncooled, mid-infrared photodetector, where the pyroelectric response of a LiNbO3 crystal is transduced with high gain (up to 200) into resistivity modulation for graphene. This is achieved by fabricating a floating metallic structure that concentrates the pyroelectric charge on the top-gate capacitor of the graphene channel, leading to TCRs up to 900% K(-1), and the ability to resolve temperature variations down to 15 μK.

  19. MgB2 Thin-Film Bolometer for Applications in Far-Infrared Instruments on Future Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 256 fW/square root Hz operating at 30 Hz in the 8.5 - 12.35 micron spectral bandpass. This value corresponds to an electrical specific detectivity of 7.6 x 10(exp 10) cm square root Hz/W. The bolometer shows a measured blackbody (optical) specific detectivity of 8.8 x 10(exp 9) cm square root Hz/W, with a responsivity of 701.5 kV/W and a first-order time constant of 5.2 ms. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that a blackbody specific detectivity of 6.4 x 10(exp 10) cm/square root Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17 - 250 micron spectral wavelength range.

  20. Noise temperature and beam pattern of an NbN hot electron bolometer mixer at 5.25 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Khosropanah, P.; Gao, J. R.; Bansal, T.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Miao, W.; Shi, S. C.

    2010-11-01

    We report the measured sensitivities of a superconducting NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne receiver at 5.25 THz. Terahertz (THz) radiation is quasioptically coupled to a HEB mixer with a lens and a spiral antenna. Using a measurement setup with black body calibration sources and a beam splitter in vacuo, and an antireflection coated Si lens, we obtained a double sideband (DSB) receiver noise temperature (TrecDSB) of 1150 K, which is nine times hν/2k, where h is the Planck constant, ν the frequency, and k the Boltzmann constant. In addition, the measured far field beam patterns of the integrated lens antenna show nearly collimated beams from 2.5 to 5.3 THz that allow reliable measurement of TrecDSB using the vacuum setup. Our experimental results in combination with an antenna-to-bolometer coupling simulation suggest that the HEB mixer can work well at least up to 6 THz, making it suitable for next generation of high-resolution spectroscopic space telescopes and, in particular, for the detection of the neutral atomic oxygen line at 4.7 THz.