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Sample records for cebus monkeys experimentally

  1. Glomerular lesions in experimental infections of Schistosoma mansoni in Cebus apella monkeys.

    PubMed

    De Brito, T; Gunji, J; Camargo, M E; Ceravolo, A; Da Silva, L C

    1971-01-01

    Three monkeys (Cebus apella) experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni studied for periods of 19, 14, and 11 months showed deposits containing gamma-globulin in subendothelial and subepithelial basal membranes and in basement membranes proper. The glomeruli showed mild reactivity characterized by local hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mesangial cells. Such findings were close to those observed by us in the kidney of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis patients without evidence of renal disease. The distribution of the deposits, both in human and experimental disease, are suggestive of preformed, non-glomerular antigen-antibody complexes that form in a zone of excess antigen and become trapped in the glomerular capillaries.The possibility exists, but has not yet been proved beyond doubt, that renal disease in schistosomiasis patients could be the end result of this pathogenetic mechanism.

  2. Susceptibility of Cebus apella monkey (Primates: Cebidae) to experimental Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infection.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Campos, Marliane Batista; Brígido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira; Gomes, Claudia Maria C; Corbett, Carlos E P; Laurenti, Márcia D

    2011-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil, the Cebus apella monkey (Primates: Cebidae) has been associated with the enzootic cycle of Leishmania (V.) shawi, a dermotropic parasite causing American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). It has also been successfully used as animal model for studying cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this work, there has been investigated its susceptibility to experimental Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infection, the etiologic agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). There were used ten C. apella specimens, eight adult and two young, four males and six females, all born and raised in captivity. Two experimental infection protocols were performed: i) six monkeys were inoculated, intra-dermal via (ID), into the base of the tail with 2 x 10(6) promastigotes forms from the stationary phase culture medium; ii) other four monkeys were inoculated with 3 x 10(7) amastigotes forms from the visceral infection of infected hamsters by two different via: a) two by intravenous via (IV) and, b) other two by intra-peritoneal via (IP). The parameters of infection evaluation included: a) clinical: physical exam of abdomen, weigh and body temperature; b) parasitological: needle aspiration of the bone-marrow for searching of amastigotes (Giemsa-stained smears) and promastigotes forms (culture medium); c) immunological: Indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and, Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). In the six monkeys ID inoculated (promastigotes forms) all parameters of infection evaluation were negative during the 12 months period of follow-up. Among the four monkeys inoculated with amastigotes forms, two IV inoculated showed the parasite in the bone-marrow from the first toward to the sixth month p.i. and following that they cleared the infection, whereas the other two IP inoculated were totally negative. These four monkeys showed specific IgG-antibody response since the third month p.i. (IP: 1/80 and IV: 1/320 IgG) toward to the 12th month (IP: 1/160 and IV: 1/5120). The

  3. Experimental field study of spatial memory and learning in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Garber, P A; Paciulli, L M

    1997-01-01

    Despite a large body of data on diet and ranging patterns in prosimians, monkeys and apes, little is known regarding the types of information that non-human primates use when making foraging decisions. In a series of controlled field experiments, we tested the ability of wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at La Suerte Biological Research Station in north-eastern Costa Rica to remember the spatial positions of 13 feeding platforms and use olfactory and visual cues to identify baited (real bananas) versus sham (plastic bananas) feeding sites. The results indicate that when 'place' was predictable, the capuchins learned the spatial locations of food and non-food sites rapidly (one-trial learning). In a second experiment, the positions of baited feeding sites were random. In the absence of other information, the capuchins used the presence of a local landmark cue (yellow block) placed at reward platforms to select feeding sites. In a final experiment, there was evidence that expectations regarding the amount of food available at a platform (2 bananas vs. 1/2 banana) had a significant influence on capuchin foraging decisions. Although the capuchins were sensitive to changes in experimental conditions, when they were given conflicting cues, spatial information was predominant over other information in selecting feeding sites.

  4. Physical growth of cebus monkeys, Cebus albifrons, during protein or calorie deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fleagle, J G; Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1975-03-01

    Infant cebus monkey (Cebus albifrons) on experimental diets providing low-protein (2.8% of calories) or low-calorie (67% of ad libitum intake) levels for 20 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age showed marked changes in their patterns of physical growth. Significant size differences between the malnourished animals and the control group appeared within 4 weeks. Although rates of growth were significantly reduced in all measurements, all of the malnourished monkeys, including low-protein animals showing zero weight gain, continued skeletal growth (except in skull measurements) at low levels for the duration of experiment. Both the protein- and calorie-restricted animals developed a thin, emaciated appearance often associated with marasmus, not by the continuous loss of tissue byt by the redistribution of the tissue over a slowly expanding skeleton. For many skeletal proportions, the pattern and shape development in the malnourished animals differed from that of the control animals. Growth during malnutrition was most affected in those parts of the skeleton which were more advanced in relative size.

  5. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress.

  6. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC) was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Results Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. Conclusions The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic maps of PfC in both genera

  7. Sequential Responding and Planning in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments have assessed planning during sequential responding to computer generated stimuli by Old World nonhuman primates including chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. However, no such assessment has been made with a New World primate species. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are an interesting test case for assessing the distribution of cognitive processes in the order Primates because they sometimes show proficiency in tasks also mastered by apes and Old World monkeys, but in other cases fail to match the proficiency of those other species. In two experiments, eight capuchin monkeys selected five arbitrary stimuli in distinct locations on a computer monitor in a learned sequence. In Experiment 1, shift trials occurred in which the second and third stimuli were transposed when the first stimulus was selected by the animal. In Experiment 2, mask trials occurred in which all remaining stimuli were masked after the monkey selected the first stimulus. Monkeys made more mistakes on trials in which the locations of the second and third stimuli were interchanged than on trials in which locations were not interchanged, suggesting they had already planned to select a location that no longer contained the correct stimulus. When mask trials occurred, monkeys performed at levels significantly better than chance, but their performance exceeded chance levels only for the first and the second selections on a trial. These data indicate that capuchin monkeys performed very similarly to chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys and appeared to plan their selection sequences during the computerized task, but only to a limited degree. PMID:22801861

  8. Allonursing in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus): milk or pacifier?

    PubMed

    Baldovino, M Celia; Di Bitetti, Mario S

    2008-01-01

    Allonursing, the behaviour of females nursing offspring that are not their own, is relatively frequent in capuchin monkeys. Using focal-animal sampling and ad libitum observations we describe the pattern of allonursing in a wild group of tufted capuchins, Cebus nigritus (4 cohorts, 22 infants), at Iguazú National Park, north-eastern Argentina, and test several hypotheses on the adaptive value of allonursing. During 2,351 contact hours with the group (including 4,207 focal-animal samples totalizing 329 h focused on infants) we observed 39 allonursing bouts. Infants were not allonursed more frequently by close kin than by more distant allomothers. Offspring of dominant females were allonursed more frequently than those of low-ranking females. Nursing bouts were longer than allonursing bouts. Our results suggest that allonursing in tufted capuchins has a social function and is not mainly aimed at providing milk to infants.

  9. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences.

  10. Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use tokens as symbols?

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, E; Crescimbene, L; Visalberghi, E

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of language, the comprehension of symbols is difficult to demonstrate. Tokens can be considered symbols since they arbitrarily stand for something else without having any iconic relation to their referent. We assessed whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use tokens as symbols to represent and combine quantities. Our paradigm involved choices between various combinations of tokens A and B, worth one and three rewards, respectively. Pay-off maximization required the assessment of the value of each offer by (i) estimating token numerousness, (ii) representing what each token stands for and (iii) making simple computations. When one token B was presented against one to five tokens A (experiment 1), four out of ten capuchins relied on a flexible strategy that allowed to maximize their pay-off, i.e. they preferred one token B against one and two tokens A, and they preferred four or five tokens A against one token B. Moreover, when two tokens B were presented against three to six tokens A (experiment 2), two out of six capuchins performed summation over representation of quantities. These findings suggest that capuchins can use tokens as symbols to flexibly combine quantities. PMID:17698487

  11. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) use spatial and visual information during within-patch foraging.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Daniela Fichtner; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2012-01-01

    Foraging in large-scale (navigation between patches), small-scale (choice of within-patch feeding sites), and micro-scale (close inspection of food items) space presents variable cognitive challenges. The reliability and usefulness of spatial memory and perceptual cues during food search in a forest environment vary among these spatial scales. This research applied an experimental field design to test the ability of a free-ranging group composed of eight black-horned capuchin monkeys, Cebus nigritus, inhabiting a forest fragment in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to use food-associated spatial, visual, olfactory, and quantitative (amount of food) cues during small-scale foraging decisions. The experimental design involved the establishment of a feeding station composed of eight feeding platforms distributed in a circular arrangement. A series of six experiments, each lasting 20 days, was conducted from March to August 2005. Two feeding platforms in each experimental session contained a food reward (real banana), whereas the remaining six platforms contained either a sham banana or an inaccessible real banana. Data on capuchin monkey foraging behavior at the feeding stations were collected by the "all occurrences" sampling method. The performance of the capuchins in the experiments was analyzed based on the first two platforms inspected in each session. The study group inspected feeding platforms in 571 occasions during 113 sessions. Capuchins used visual cues and spatial information (and adopted a win-return strategy) for finding the platforms baited with real bananas and showed weak evidence of the integration of spatial and quantitative cues, but failed to show evidence of using olfactory cues. In addition, individual differences in social rank and foraging behavior affected opportunities for learning and the performance in the cognitive tasks.

  12. Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) grips for the use of stone tools.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, G C; Suomi, S J

    1997-05-01

    This research examined capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) grips for the use of throwing, nut-cracking and cutting tools. We provided subjects with stones and apparatus that accommodated the use of stones as tools. Our subjects exhibited five grips, two of which the animals used when force was the primary consideration (power grips) and three of which the animals used when accuracy of sensory judgment and instrumentation was required (precision grips). We believe that the range of contexts in which capuchins use stone tools, combined with the ability of capuchins to employ both power and precision grips as part of their tool repertoire, indicate that Cebus apella can be used to identify grips that facilitated hominid lithic technology.

  13. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  14. Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) diagnose causal relations in the absence of a direct reward?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian J; Rottman, Benjamin M; Shankar, Maya; Betzler, Riana; Chituc, Vladimir; Rodriguez, Ricardo; Silva, Liara; Wibecan, Leah; Widness, Jane; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    We adapted a method from developmental psychology to explore whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) would place objects on a "blicket detector" machine to diagnose causal relations in the absence of a direct reward. Across five experiments, monkeys could place different objects on the machine and obtain evidence about the objects' causal properties based on whether each object "activated" the machine. In Experiments 1-3, monkeys received both audiovisual cues and a food reward whenever the machine activated. In these experiments, monkeys spontaneously placed objects on the machine and succeeded at discriminating various patterns of statistical evidence. In Experiments 4 and 5, we modified the procedure so that in the learning trials, monkeys received the audiovisual cues when the machine activated, but did not receive a food reward. In these experiments, monkeys failed to test novel objects in the absence of an immediate food reward, even when doing so could provide critical information about how to obtain a reward in future test trials in which the food reward delivery device was reattached. The present studies suggest that the gap between human and animal causal cognition may be in part a gap of motivation. Specifically, we propose that monkey causal learning is motivated by the desire to obtain a direct reward, and that unlike humans, monkeys do not engage in learning for learning's sake.

  15. Effects of p-aminohippurate and pyrazinoate on urate excretion in Cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gonzalez, M; Weiner, I M

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) induced by various concentrations of p-aminohippurate (PAH) and pyrazinoate in plasma were evaluated in anesthetized Cebus monkeys using the standard clearance technique. PAH at concentrations between 2 and 40 micrograms/ml produced modest uricosuria (delta FEurate, ca 50%). At higher concentrations of PAH (up to 1200 micrograms/ml) the values of FEurate were not different from controls. Pyrazinoate at concentrations between 1 and 700 micrograms/ml reduced FEurate. The depressant effect of pyrazinoate was not influenced by the presence of PAH. These results are consistent with the idea that the secretory component for urate is distinct from that for PAH in this monkey.

  16. Extraction of hermit crabs from their shells by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Soley, Fernando G; Chacón, Iria S; Soley-Guardia, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    We observed two capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) feeding on hermit crabs (Coenobita compressus) on the coast, and the tactics they used to extract this well-protected prey. The observations took place during the dry season at Playa Escondida beach, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The capuchins descended from trees at the back edge of the beach to capture passing hermit crabs. Both capuchins extracted the hermit crabs from their protective shells by holding the shell with one hand and pulling the crab out with the other. Even though this was accomplished within seconds, the extraction of hermit crabs from their shells did not appear to be a straightforward task. Once the capuchins succeeded in pulling the crabs out of their shells, they consumed the soft abdomen and discarded the rest of the crab's body. To our knowledge, the consumption of hermit crabs has not been previously reported for any capuchin monkey (Cebus or Sapajus). Our observations provide a new example of extractive foraging by capuchins, and thus an additional natural context for which fine motor skills (which are highly developed in capuchins) are necessary.

  17. Degrees of sexual dimorphism in Cebus and other New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Masterson, T J; Hartwig, W C

    1998-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism in primate species expresses the effects of phylogeny, life history, behavior, and ontogeny. The causes and implications of sexual dimorphism have been studied in several different primates using a variety of morphological databases such as body weight, canine length, and coat color and ornamentation. In addition to these different patterns of dimorphism, the degree to which a species is dimorphic results from a variety of possible causes. In this study we test the general hypothesis that a species highly dimorphic for one size-based index of dimorphism will be equally dimorphic (relative to other species) for other size-based indices. Specifically, the degree and pattern of sexual dimorphism in Cebus and several other New World monkey species is measured using craniometric data as a substitute for the troublesome range of variation in body weight estimates. In general, the rank ordering of species for dimorphism ratios differs considerably across neural vs. non-neural functional domains of the cranium. The relative degree of sexual dimorphism in different functional regions of the cranium is affected by the independent action of natural selection on those regions. Regions of the cranium upon which natural selection is presumed to have acted within a species show greater degrees of dimorphism than do the same regions in closely related taxa. Within Cebus, C. apella is consistently more dimorphic than other Cebus species for facial measurements, but not for neural or body weight measurements. The pattern in C. apella indicates no single best measurement of the degree of dimorphism in a species; rather, the relative degree of dimorphism applies only to the region being measured and may be enhanced by other selective pressures on morphology.

  18. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758).

  19. A note on select- and reject-controlling relations in the simple discrimination of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo R K; Mendonça, Mariana B; Barros, Romariz S; Galvão, Olavo F; McIlvane, William J

    2005-06-30

    Controlling relations in the simple discrimination performances of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were studied in two experiments using a blank-comparison procedure. The main goal was to determine whether monkeys would (a) select an S+ stimulus if another stimulus was substituted for the S- (indicating a select-controlling relation) and (b) reject an S- if another stimulus was substituted for S+ (indicating a reject-controlling relation). In experiment 1, two simple simultaneous discriminations were established, one of which was reversed repeatedly until rapid reversal learning was exhibited. During subsequent probe tests, some behavior was consistent with select- and reject-controlling relations, but there was also substantial variability. To control the variability, the procedures of experiment 2 were designed to establish select- and reject-control relations directly by training with the blank-comparison procedure. On subsequent probe trials, new stimuli were substituted for the blank comparison. Both animals exhibited consistent, reliable select- and reject-controlling relations. These experiments are the first to employ the blank-comparison procedure with non-human subjects. They also demonstrate a reliable method for generating select- and reject-controlling relations for experimental study.

  20. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use positive, but not negative, auditory cues to infer food location.

    PubMed

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Antworth, Rebecca L; Owren, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman primates appear to capitalize more effectively on visual cues than corresponding auditory versions. For example, studies of inferential reasoning have shown that monkeys and apes readily respond to seeing that food is present ("positive" cuing) or absent ("negative" cuing). Performance is markedly less effective with auditory cues, with many subjects failing to use this input. Extending recent work, we tested eight captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) in locating food using positive and negative cues in visual and auditory domains. The monkeys chose between two opaque cups to receive food contained in one of them. Cup contents were either shown or shaken, providing location cues from both cups, positive cues only from the baited cup, or negative cues from the empty cup. As in previous work, subjects readily used both positive and negative visual cues to secure reward. However, auditory outcomes were both similar to and different from those of earlier studies. Specifically, all subjects came to exploit positive auditory cues, but none responded to negative versions. The animals were also clearly different in visual versus auditory performance. Results indicate that a significant proportion of capuchins may be able to use positive auditory cues, with experience and learning likely playing a critical role. These findings raise the possibility that experience may be significant in visually based performance in this task as well, and highlight that coming to grips with evident differences between visual versus auditory processing may be important for understanding primate cognition more generally.

  1. Sero-epidemiological survey for toxoplasmosis in wild New World monkeys (Cebus spp.; Alouatta caraya) at the Paraná river basin, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, João Luis; Svoboda, Walfrido Kühl; Chryssafidis, Andréas Lazaros; de Souza Malanski, Luciano; Shiozawa, Marcos Massaaki; de Moraes Aguiar, Lucas; Teixeira, Gustavo Monteiro; Ludwig, Gabriela; da Silva, Lineu Roberto; Hilst, Carmem; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2005-11-05

    In this study, we captured 60 wild New World monkeys (Cebus spp.; Alouatta caraya) at the Paraná river basin, Paraná State, Brazil, and modified agglutination test (MAT) was performed to evaluate anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Prevalence was 30.2% (13/43) in Cebus spp. (capuchin monkeys) and 17.6% (3/17) for A. caraya (black and golden howler monkeys). MAT showed antibody titers of 16 (15/16) and 64 (1/16). Herein, we have observed an odds ratio (OR)=4.67 (1.06monkeys with presumed risk of human contact. There were not any statistical differences among age, species and sex (p>0.05). The present work is the first report on serum occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in wild capuchin monkeys and in wild black and golden howler monkeys.

  2. Conformism in the food processing techniques of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Perry, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Researchers of "culture" have long been interested in the role of social learning in establishing patterns of behavioral variation in wild animals, but very few studies examine this issue using a developmental approach. This 7-year study examines the acquisition of techniques used to process Luehea candida fruits in a wild population of white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, residing in and near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. The two techniques for extracting seeds (pounding or scrubbing) were approximately equal in efficiency, and subjects experimented with both techniques before settling on one technique-typically the one they most frequently observed. In a sample of 106 subjects that had already settled on a preferred technique, the females adopted the maternal technique significantly more often than expected by chance, but the males did not. Using a longitudinal approach, I examined the acquisition of Luehea processing techniques during the first 5 years of life. Regression analysis revealed that the technique most frequently observed (measured as proportion of Luehea processing bouts observed that used pounding as opposed to scrubbing) significantly predicted the technique adopted by female observers, particularly in the second year of life; the amount of impact of the observed technique on the practiced technique was somewhat less significant for male observers. These results held true for (a) observations of maternal technique only, (b) observations of technique used by all individuals other than the mother, and (c) observations of maternal and non-maternal techniques combined.

  3. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) modulate their use of an uncertainty response depending on risk.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2016-01-01

    Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking, and there has been a great deal of interest in how this ability manifests across primates. Based on much of the work to date, a tentative division has been drawn with New World monkeys on 1 side and Old World monkeys and apes on the other. Specifically, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans often show patterns reflecting metacognition, but New World monkeys typically do not, or show less convincing behavioral patterns. However, recent data suggest that this difference may relate to other aspects of some experimental tasks. For example, 1 possibility is that risk tolerance affects how capuchin monkeys, a New World primate species, tend to perform. Specifically, it has recently been argued that on tasks in which there are 2 or 3 options, the "risk" of guessing is tolerable for capuchins because there is a high probability of being correct even if they "know they do not know" or feel something akin to uncertainty. The current study investigated this possibility by manipulating the degree of risk (2-choices vs. 6-choices) and found that capuchin monkeys used the uncertainty response more on 6-choice trials than on 2-choice trials. We also found that rate of reward does not appear to underlie these patterns of performance, and propose that the degree of risk is modulating capuchin monkeys' use of the uncertainty response. Thus, the apparent differences between New and Old World monkeys in metacognition may reflect differences in risk tolerance rather than access to metacognitive states.

  4. Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Modulate Their Use of an Uncertainty Response Depending on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Church, Barbara A.; Smith, J. David

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking, and there has been a great deal of interest in how this ability manifests across primates. Based on much of the work to date, a tentative division has been drawn with New World monkeys on one side and Old World monkeys and apes on the other. Specifically, Old World monkeys, apes and humans often show patterns reflecting metacognition, but New World monkeys typically fail to do so, or show less convincing behavioral patterns. However, recent data suggests that this difference may relate to other aspects of some experimental tasks. For example, one possibility is that risk tolerance affects how capuchin monkeys, a New World primate species, tend to perform. Specifically, it has recently been argued that on tasks in which there are two or three options, the ‘risk’ of guessing is tolerable for capuchins since there is a high probability of being correct even if they ‘know they do not know’ or feel something akin to uncertainty. The current study investigated this possibility by manipulating the degree of risk (2-choices versus 6-choices) and found that capuchin monkeys used the uncertainty response more on 6-choice trials than on 2-choice trials. We also found that rate of reward does not appear to underlie these patterns of performance, and propose that the degree of risk is modulating the use of the uncertainty response in capuchin monkeys. Thus, the apparent differences between New and Old world monkeys in metacognition may reflect differences in risk tolerance rather than access to metacognitive states. PMID:26551351

  5. Kinematics and energetics of nut-cracking in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) in Piauí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Simpson, K; Izar, P; Ottoni, E; Visalberghi, E; Fragaszy, D

    2009-02-01

    Wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus, quadrupedal, medium-sized monkeys) crack nuts using large stones. We examined the kinematics and energetics of the nut-cracking action of two adult males and two adult females. From a bipedal stance, the monkeys raised a heavy hammer stone (1.46 and 1.32 kg, from 33 to 77% of their body weight) to an average height of 0.33 m, 60% of body length. Then, they rapidly lowered the stone by flexing the lower extremities and the trunk until the stone contacted the nut. A hit consisting of an upward phase and a downward phase averaged 0.74 s in duration. The upward phase lasted 69% of hit duration. All subjects added discernable energy to the stone in the downward phase. The monkeys exhibited individualized kinematic strategies, similar to those of human weight lifters. Capuchins illustrate that human-like bipedal stance and large body size are unnecessary to break tough objects from a bipedal position. The phenomenon of bipedal nut-cracking by capuchins provides a new comparative reference point for discussions of percussive tool use and bipedality in primates.

  6. Social after-effects of fur rubbing in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): increased antagonism and reduced affiliation.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    Fur rubbing is widely believed to have a social bonding function in capuchin monkeys, yet a recent study of tufted capuchins revealed increased levels of aggression and reduced levels of affiliation after fur-rubbing bouts. This observed decrease in group cohesion may be attributable to increased intragroup competition for fur-rub material rather than being a direct effect of fur rubbing itself. To test this hypothesis, we separated individual tufted monkeys (Cebus apella) from their social group and provided them with fur-rub material or control material, thereby avoiding intragroup competition. After engagement with materials, we released subjects back into their social group and observed their subsequent interactions with group members. We found that subjects were more likely to encounter aggression and less likely to receive affiliation from others in the fur-rub condition than in the control condition. These results support the idea that fur rubbing carries social after-effects for capuchin monkeys. The precise mechanisms of the observed effects remain to be clarified in future studies.

  7. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use conspecifics' emotional expressions to evaluate emotional valence of objects.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yo; Fujita, Kazuo

    2012-05-01

    Emotional expressions provide important clues to other individuals' emotional states, as well as the environmental situations leading to such states. Although monkeys often modify their behavior in response to others' expressions, it is unclear whether this reflects understanding of emotional meanings of expressions, or simpler, non-cognitive processes. The present study investigated whether a New World monkey species, tufted capuchin monkeys, recognize objects as elicitors of others' expressions. Observer monkeys witnessed another individual (demonstrator) reacting either positively or negatively to the contents of one of two containers and were then allowed to choose one of the containers. The observer preferred the container that evoked positive expressions in the demonstrator and avoided the container that evoked negative expressions. Thus, the monkeys appropriately associated the emotional valence of others' expressions with the container. This finding supports the view that the ability to represent others' emotions is not limited to humans and apes.

  8. Ontogeny of manipulative behavior and nut-cracking in young tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): a perception-action perspective.

    PubMed

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-11-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal developmental data from semifree-ranging tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to evaluate predictions arising from Perception-action theory linking manipulative development and the onset of tool-using. Percussive actions bringing an object into contact with a surface appeared within the first year of life. Most infants readily struck nuts and other objects against stones or other surfaces from 6 months of age, but percussive actions alone were not sufficient to produce nut-cracking sequences. Placing the nut on the anvil surface and then releasing it, so that it could be struck with a stone, was the last element necessary for nut-cracking to appear in capuchins. Young chimpanzees may face a different challenge in learning to crack nuts: they readily place objects on surfaces and release them, but rarely vigorously strike objects against surfaces or other objects. Thus the challenges facing the two species in developing the same behavior (nut-cracking using a stone hammer and an anvil) may be quite different. Capuchins must inhibit a strong bias to hold nuts so that they can release them; chimpanzees must generate a percussive action rather than a gentle placing action. Generating the right actions may be as challenging as achieving the right sequence of actions in both species. Our analysis suggests a new direction for studies of social influence on young primates learning sequences of actions involving manipulation of objects in relation to surfaces.

  9. GABA inactivation of visual area MT modifies the responsiveness and direction selectivity of V2 neurons in Cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jansen-Amorim, Ana Karla; Lima, Bruss; Fiorani, Mario; Gattass, Ricardo

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the contribution of the projections from area MT to the receptive field properties of cells in visual area V2 in anesthetized and paralyzed Cebus apella monkeys. We recorded extracellular single-unit activity using tungsten microelectrodes in three monkeys before and after pressure injection of a 0.25-mol/l GABA solution. The visual stimulus consisted of a single bar moving in one of eight directions. In total, 72 V2 neurons were studied in 18 sessions of GABA injection into area MT. A group of 22 neurons was investigated over a shorter period of time ranging from 15 to 60 min, during which the activity did not return to baseline levels. The remaining 50 neurons were studied over a period of at least 2 h, and no statistical difference was observed in the neuronal response before and long after GABA inactivation. The effects on these 50 neurons consisted of an early (1-20 min) significant general decrease in excitability with changes in either orientation or direction selectivity. The differential decrease in excitability resulted in an intermediate improvement (20-40 min) of the signal-to-noise ratio for the stimulus-driven activity. The inactivation depended on the quantity of GABA injected into area MT and persisted for a period of 2 h. The GABA inactivation in area MT produced inhibition of most cells (72%) and a significant change of direction tuning in the majority (56%) of V2 neurons. Both increases and also decreases in the direction tuning of V2 neurons were observed. These feedback projections are capable of modulating not only the levels of spontaneous and driven activity of V2 neurons but also the V2 receptive field properties, such as direction selectivity.

  10. Serial learning with wild card items by monkeys (Cebus apella): implications for knowledge of ordinal position.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, M R; Colombo, M

    1989-09-01

    We investigated monkeys' knowledge of the ordinal positions of stimuli that formed a 5-item serial list, ABCDE, by means of wild card items (W) that could substitute for items in the original series. In Experiment 1, training with wild cards was given on 3-, 4-, and 5-item series. In the last of these series, the wild card substitutions created five wild card sequences, WBCDE through ABCDW. During the final 10 sessions of training with each of two different wild cards (Items x and Y), the 3 subjects were able to successfully complete almost 60% of the wild card sequences. In Experiment 2, the two wild cards were presented on the same trial in 10 different double wild card sequences (e.g., AXCDY). The 2 monkey subjects correctly completed about 59% of the double wild card sequences during the final two training sessions. The performance levels achieved on single and on double wild card sequences, although well below that observed on the baseline sequence ABCDE (90% or better), support the view that the monkeys possessed some knowledge regarding the ordinal position of each baseline item. Consequently, an associative chain interpretation, which does not provide for knowledge of ordinal position, falls short as a complete account of the monkey's capacity for serial learning.

  11. Wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) use anvils and stone pounding tools.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, Dorothy; Izar, Patrícia; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Ottoni, Eduardo B; de Oliveira, Marino Gomes

    2004-12-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation in an area where nut-cracking by wild capuchin monkeys is common knowledge among local residents. In addition to observing male and female capuchin monkeys using stones to pound open nuts on stone "anvils," we surveyed the surrounding area and found physical evidence that monkeys cracked nuts on rock outcrops, boulders, and logs (collectively termed anvils). Anvils, which were identified by numerous shallow depressions on the upper surface, the presence of palm shells and debris, and the presence of loose stones of an appropriate size to pound nuts, were present even on the tops of mesas. The stones used to crack nuts can weigh >1 kg, and are remarkably heavy for monkeys that weigh <4 kg. The abundance of shell remains and depressions in the anvil surface at numerous anvil sites indicate that nut-cracking activity is common and long-enduring. Many of the stones found on anvils (presumably used to pound nuts) are river pebbles that are not present in the local area we surveyed (except on or near the anvils); therefore, we surmise that they were transported to the anvil sites. Ecologically and behaviorally, nut-cracking by capuchins appears to have strong parallels to nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees. The presence of abundant anvil sites, limited alternative food resources, abundance of palms, and the habit of the palms in this region to produce fruit at ground level all likely contribute to the monkeys' routine exploitation of palm nuts via cracking them with stones. This discovery provides a new reference point for discussions regarding the evolution of tool use and material culture in primates. Routine tool use to exploit keystone food resources is not restricted to living great apes and ancestral hominids.

  12. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus)

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Katharine M.; Schoof, Valérie A.M.; Sheller, Claire R.; Rich, Catherine I.; Klingelhofer, Peter P.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to <12 months; N = 3), early juvenile (1 to <3 years; N = 10), late juvenile (3 to <6 years; N = 9), subadult (6 to <10 years; N = 8), subordinate adult (≥10 years; N = 3), and alpha adult (≥ 10 years; N = 4, including one recently deposed alpha). Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. PMID:24184868

  13. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to <12months; N=3), early juvenile (1 to <3years; N=10), late juvenile (3 to <6years; N=9), subadult (6 to <10years; N=8), subordinate adult (⩾10years; N=3), and alpha adult (⩾10years; N=4, including one recently deposed alpha). Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage.

  14. Comparative distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Cândido, Paulo Laino; Sita, Luciane Valéria; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; de Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Elias, Carol Fuzeti

    2011-11-24

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely distributed in the brain of many species. In the hypothalamus, CART neurotransmission has been implicated in diverse functions including energy balance, stress response, and temperature and endocrine regulation. Although some studies have been performed in primates, very little is known about the distribution of CART neurons in New World monkeys. New World monkeys are good models for systems neuroscience, as some species have evolved several behavioral and anatomical characteristics shared with humans, including diurnal and social habits, intense maternal care, complex manipulative abilities and well-developed frontal cortices. In the present study, we assessed the distribution of CART mRNA and peptide in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We found that the distribution of hypothalamic CART neurons in these monkeys is similar to what has been described for rodents and humans, but some relevant differences were noticed. Only in capuchin monkeys CART neurons were observed in the suprachiasmatic and the intercalatus nuclei, whereas only in marmoset CART neurons were observed in the dorsal anterior nucleus. We also found that the only in marmoset displayed CART neurons in the periventricular preoptic nucleus and in an area seemingly comprising the premammillary nucleus. These hypothalamic sites are both well defined in rodents but poorly defined in humans. Our findings indicate that CART expression in hypothalamic neurons is conserved across species but the identified differences suggest that CART is also involved in the control of species-specific related functions.

  15. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  16. [Social behavior of the Wedge-capped Capuchin monkey Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae) in three zoological exhibits of Caracas, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López, Marie Charlotte; Zaida, Tárano

    2008-09-01

    Captivity represents an extreme situation for primates, especially for those with large home ranges, and its effect on their behavior might be considerable. The Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus is the most common primate in Venezuelan zoos. To estimate the effect of confinement on C. olivaceus behavior, we analyzed the social behavior of three groups that differed in captivity conditions, in zoological exhibits in Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar). Caricuao's group moved freely over a non-fenced area of 15 ha, Parque del Este's and El Pinar's groups lived in relatively small outdoor enclosures. Social behaviors were described using focal-animal sampling, group scans and ad libitum sampling. The frequency, duration and time devoted to each behavior (per focal period per individual) were estimated. Relative dominance between pairs of individuals was established as well as affiliative associations. The repertory of social behaviors was similar between groups and to which has been observed in nature, but the duration and frequency of affiliative and agonistic interactions differed between groups. Affiliative behaviors were less frequent but longer in Caricuao than in the other two groups, while agonistic behaviors were more frequent in El Pinar and Parque del Este. Differences between groups are explained by variation in captivity conditions. We suggest that confinement generates social tension and favors agonism, while affiliative encounters help reduce this tension. On the other hand, differences in agonism between captive and natural groups may result form prolonged association, restrictions to keep optimal spacing or leave the group. All groups had some social structure (e.g., dominance ranks, association and repulsion between individuals) but the social dynamic was partly disrupted. Dominance ranks were not clear throughout the group, the top male was not dominant over the top female, dominant individuals did not interact affiliatively more

  17. Infanticide in black capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Llorens, P; Di Bitetti, M S; Baldovino, M C; Janson, C H

    2008-05-01

    We report here one observed and two potential cases of infanticide during a brief period of 1 month after a dominant male replacement in one group of black capuchin monkeys in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. We also compile infant disappearances and demographic data in seven groups followed from 1-14 years. Behavioral and molecular data showed that the probability that an infanticidal male would kill his own progeny is very low in this species. Females that lost infants less than 6 months old had shorter interbirth intervals than females whose infants survived (14.12 ± 5.32 months, n=17 vs. 20.42 ± 5.65 months, n=34). Females whose infants die shortly after takeovers mate with the presumed infanticidal male during the most fertile days of their subsequent estrous periods giving this male a high probability of siring the new progeny. We recorded 181 proceptive periods and 52 births from 18 adult females in two groups. Most proceptive periods were concentrated during a conception season, but there was an increase in sexual behavior after male takeovers. Seven females copulated while pregnant after the observed male takeover, an unusual behavior in this species in years of group stability. Of 24 infants born during takeover years, 62.5% did not survive the first year, whereas only 22.5% of 80 infants died in years without male replacements. We found a significant positive association between infant mortality and male takeovers, but not with food provisioning. The main cause of infant mortality in this population is associated with male takeovers. Our results suggest that infanticide can have an important effect on the behavior of this species, selecting for female behaviors that function to reduce infanticide risk.

  18. Manual laterality in haptic and visual reaching tasks by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). An association between hand preference and hand accuracy for food discrimination.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, G; Cacchiarelli, B

    2000-01-01

    Manual laterality was examined in 26 tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) in three tasks differing in their sensorimotor demands and the availability of visual cues. The Haptic discrimination task required the monkeys to discriminate haptically between two pumpkin seeds and two tinfoil items stuck into a tray inside an opaque box. The other two tasks required the monkeys to reach for two pumpkin seeds stuck into the tray within a transparent box with vision (Visually guided reaching task) or without vision (Visual-Tactual reaching task) during reaching. A significant group-level left hand bias was found for food retrieval in both the Haptic discrimination and Visual-Tactual tasks, and a significant group-level right hand bias in the Visually guided reaching task. The strength of hand preferences did not differ among the tasks. It was found that the accuracy of food recognition in the Haptic discrimination task was greater for the left than the right hand. The results suggest that the differences in the manipulo-spatial requirements of the tasks and in the availability of visual cues can variously affect manual laterality in capuchins. The left-hand preferences for the Haptic discrimination and Visual-Tactual tasks as well as the left-hand advantage for food discrimination may reflect a greater involvement of the right hemisphere in processing haptic information.

  19. Allele frequencies and genetic diversity in two groups of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) living in an urban forest fragment.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Jeanne Margareth Jimenes; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz; De Jong, David

    2005-12-30

    There have been numerous studies genetically characterizing Old World Primates using microsatellites. However, few studies have been made of New World species and none on free-ranging Cebus apella, even though it is probably the most widely distributed species of monkey in the New World. The paucity of studies is due, in part, to the lack of polymorphisms described for this species. We studied two groups of wild tufted capuchins, Cebus apella nigritus, which inhabit Mata Santa Teresa, the Ecological Reserve of Ribeirão Preto, a 158-ha forest fragment in a semi-urban zone of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Group 1 had about 60 animals, 35 of which were sampled, and group 2 had about 40 animals, 20 of which were sampled. These group sizes are much larger than the published reports of 6-30 for this species, despite, or perhaps due to the isolation and the size of the forest fragment. Allele PEPC59*1 was the most frequent of all alleles at all loci in both groups (55.7 and 55%), allele PEPC8*1 was the most common allele in group 2 (46.9%) and PEPC8*4 in group 1 (41.1%), allele PEPC3*2 was the most common in group 1 (35.7%) and allele PEPC3*4 in group 2 (31.6%). The genetic diversity, considering each locus in each group, varied from 61.9% at locus PEPC59 to 78.6% at locus PEPC3, both in group 1. The mean genetic diversity (H(S)), considering both groups for all of the loci, was 71.1%. The inter-group diversity (F(ST)) was 1.9%, indicating that these groups belong to the same population. These groups apparently have a high genetic diversity, despite their isolation in a limited forest fragment, although more data are needed to adequately characterize this population.

  20. Social influences on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus).

    PubMed

    Agostini, Ilaria; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2005-04-01

    Foraging traditions in primates are becoming the subject of increasing debate. Recent evidence for such a phenomenon was recently provided for wild Cebus capucinus [Fragaszy & Perry, 2003]. To better understand the bases of animal traditions, one should examine intrapopulation behavioral variability and the influence of social context on within-group transmission of specific foraging patterns. We studied the variability of foraging patterns across age and sex classes, and the proximity patterns of juveniles to adults of both sexes in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) living in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. Foraging activity was examined for a period of 9 months in terms of proportions of focal samples devoted to foraging on certain food targets, microhabitats, and supports, and using specific foraging patterns. Proximity analyses were performed to reveal patterns of association between juveniles and adults. Sex differences in foraging behavior were present and overrode age differences. Overall, males ate more animal foods, foraged more for invertebrates on woody microhabitats (especially large branches), palms, and epiphytes, and used lower and larger supports than females. Females ate more fruits, foraged more on leaves and bamboo microhabitats, and used smaller supports than males. Juveniles were similar to adults of the same sex in terms of food targets, foraging substrates, and choice of supports, but were less efficient than adults. Proximity patterns indicated that juvenile males stayed in close spatial association with adult males and preferentially focused their "food interest" on them. This phenomenon was less evident in juvenile females. The degree to which juveniles, especially males, showed some of the sex-typical foraging patterns correlated positively with their proximity to adults of the same sex. These findings suggest that the acquisition of foraging behaviors by juvenile males is socially biased by their closeness to

  1. Cranial ontogeny and sexual dimorphism in two new world monkeys: Alouatta caraya (Atelidae) and Cebus apella (Cebidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, David; Casinos, Adrià

    2011-06-01

    Pattern of skull development and sexual dimorphism was studied in Cebus apella and Alouatta caraya using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. In both species, sexual dimorphism develops because the common growth trajectory in males extends and because of differences in growth rates between sexes. The expectation that the ontogenetic bases of adult dimorphism vary interspecifically is well substantiated by this study. A. caraya exhibits transitional dimorphism in its subadult stage, although the condylobasal length, zygomatic breadth, and rostrum length are strongly dimorphic in the final adult stage, being greater in males. Most cranial measurements in C. apella exhibit significant dimorphism in the adult stage, being strongly influenced by a faster rate of growth in males. Sexual dimorphism is also evidenced through sex differences in growth rates in several cranial measurements. These results also indicate that different ontogenetic mechanisms are acting in C. apella and A. caraya and reveal differences in the way through which neotropical primates attain adult sexual dimorphism.

  2. [Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Urbani, Bernardo; Valerio, Idalia; Vanegas, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region.

  3. Consequences of lethal intragroup aggression and alpha male replacement on intergroup relations and home range use in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Scarry, Clara J; Tujague, M Paula

    2012-09-01

    In conflicts between primate groups, the resource-holding potential (RHP) of competitors is frequently related to group size or male group size, which can remain relatively constant for long periods of time, promoting stable intergroup dominance relationships. Demographic changes in neighboring groups, however, could introduce uncertainty into existing relationships. Among tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus), dominant male replacement is a relatively infrequent demographic event that can have a profound effect on both the composition and size of the social group. Here, we report such a case and the consequences for home range use and intergroup aggression. Between June 2008 and August 2010, we periodically followed two neighboring groups (Macuco and Rita) in Iguazú National Park, recording daily paths (N = 143) and encounters between the groups (N = 28). We describe the events leading to a change in the male dominance hierarchy in the larger group (Macuco), which resulted in the death or dispersal of all adult males, followed by the succession of a young adult male to the dominant position. This takeover event reduced the numerical advantage in number of males between the two groups, although the ratio of total group sizes remained nearly constant. Following this shift in numerical asymmetry, the degree of escalation of intergroup aggression increased, and we observed reversals in the former intergroup dominance relationship. These changes in behavior during intergroup encounters were associated with changes in the use of overlapping areas. In the 6 months following the takeover, the area of home range overlap doubled, and the formerly dominant group's area of exclusive access was reduced by half. These results suggest that RHPin tufted capuchin monkeys is related to male group size. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of considering rare demographic events in attempts to understand the dynamics of aggression between primate groups.

  4. Pattern recognition in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): the role of the spatial organisation of stimulus parts.

    PubMed

    De Lillo, Carlo; Spinozzi, Giovanna; Truppa, Valentina

    2007-07-19

    We report four experiments aimed at characterising the role played by the encoding of the spatial relationship between stimulus parts in pattern recognition in capuchin monkeys, as assessed by a matching to sample task. The results of the first experiment, which were also reliably replicated at different stages in the course of the study, indicated that the simultaneous rotation and/or translation of the four parts into which the stimuli were divided, but not a global rotation of the entire stimulus, impaired matching performance in capuchin monkeys. Experiments two and three showed that matching performance was not impaired following similar manipulations of a subset of one, two or three parts. In experiment four, the same task was presented to human subjects. The same pattern of results emerged for humans and monkeys in trials where all the four stimulus parts were presented. However, the matching performance of humans was affected more than that of capuchin monkeys when only a subset of stimulus parts was featured in the task. These results support the conclusion that the matching performance of capuchin monkeys is affected by the rearrangement of stimulus parts and, as such it seems to rely on global properties of the stimulus such as the spatial relationships of the component parts. However, the remarkable ability of capuchin monkeys to identify a stimulus on the basis of a subset of parts suggests that the reliance on the global properties of the stimuli may not be pervasive as it is in humans.

  5. Ontogeny of Manipulative Behavior and Nut-Cracking in Young Tufted Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus Apella"): A Perception-Action Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal…

  6. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  7. Semen coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation and cryopreservation of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) semen in coconut water solution (CWS) and TES-TRIS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karol G; Miranda, Stefania A; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test the effect of coconut water solution and TES-TRIS on the seminal coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation in fresh diluted semen, and on the cryopreservation of semen from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Semen was collected from six males by electro-ejaculation, diluted in TES-TRIS or coconut water solution (CWS), and incubated at 35°C until the coagulated fraction of the semen was completely liquefied. In the experiment I, after liquefaction, samples were diluted in TES-TRIS or CWS, plus 6 and 10mM/mL of caffeine. Sperm motility and vigor were evaluated during 5h. For experiment II, after liquefaction, semen samples were extended in TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol in the final solution) or CWS (2.5% glycerol in the final solution), cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 week. The seminal coagulum was liquefied in (mean±SDM) 4.5±1.7 and 2.8±1.1h in TES-TRIS and CWS, respectively. Sperm were motile in TES-TRIS and CWS for 5.0±1.4 and 1.0±0.5h, respectively. The mean motility in this period was 38±22% (TES-TRIS) and 22.0±16.0 (CWS). Motility increased after caffeine addition only in samples diluted in CWS containing 6mM (22.5±16.0) or 10mM (28.0±19.0) caffeine. Post-thaw live sperm percentage was 26.2% in TES-TRIS and 13.2% in CWS. For cryopreservation of semen from C. apella TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol) was more appropriate than CWS (2.5% glycerol). CWS+caffeine potentially increase sperm motility and may be useful in artificial insemination of fresh diluted semen.

  8. Hand preference for tool-use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) is associated with asymmetry of the primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kimberley A; Thompson, Claudia R

    2013-05-01

    Skilled motor actions are associated with handedness and neuroanatomical specializations in humans. Recent reports have documented similar neuroanatomical asymmetries and their relationship to hand preference in some nonhuman primate species, including chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys. We investigated whether capuchins displayed significant hand preferences for a tool-use task and whether such preferences were associated with motor-processing regions of the brain. Handedness data on a dipping tool-use task and high-resolution 3T MRI scans were collected from 15 monkeys. Capuchins displayed a significant group-level left-hand preference for this type of tool use, and handedness was associated with asymmetry of the primary motor cortex. Left-hand preferent individuals displayed a deeper central sulcus in the right hemisphere. Our results suggest that capuchins show an underlying right-hemisphere bias for skilled movement.

  9. Do primates see the solitaire illusion differently? A comparative assessment of humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    An important question in comparative psychology is whether human and nonhuman animals share similar principles of perceptual organization. Despite much empirical research, no firm conclusion has been drawn. The Solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion in humans that occurs when one misperceives the relative number of 2 types of items presented in intermingled sets. To date, no study has investigated whether nonhuman animals perceive the Solitaire illusion as humans do. Here, we compared the perception of the Solitaire illusion in human and nonhuman primates in 3 experiments. We first observed (Experiment 1) the spontaneous behavior of chimpanzees when presented with 2 arrays composed of a different number of preferred and nonpreferred food items. In probe trials, preferred items were presented in the Solitaire pattern in 2 different spatial arrangements (either clustered centrally or distributed on the perimeter). Chimpanzees did not show any misperception of quantity in the Solitaire pattern. Next, humans, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and capuchin monkeys underwent the same testing of relative quantity judgments in a computerized task that also presented the Solitaire illusion (Experiments 2 and 3). Unlike humans, chimpanzees did not appear to perceive the illusion, in agreement with Experiment 1. The performance of rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys was also different from that of humans, but was slightly more indicative of a potential Solitaire illusion. On the whole, our results suggest a potential discontinuity in the visual mechanisms underlying the Solitaire illusion between human and nonhuman primates.

  10. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual but not acoustic information to find hidden food items.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task's contingencies.

  11. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus) for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Elizabeth Christine

    2015-01-01

    Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis), or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis). Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1) capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2) variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016), indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896), indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker) adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978), while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more experienced

  12. The influence of experimental manipulations on chewing speed during in vivo laboratory research in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Thompson, C L; Donley, E M; Stimpson, C D; Horne, W I; Vinyard, C J

    2011-07-01

    Even though in vivo studies of mastication in living primates are often used to test functional and adaptive hypotheses explaining primate masticatory behavior, we currently have little data addressing how experimental procedures performed in the laboratory influence mastication. The obvious logistical issue in assessing how animal manipulation impacts feeding physiology reflects the difficulty in quantifying mechanical parameters without handling the animal. In this study, we measured chewing cycle duration as a mechanical variable that can be collected remotely to: 1) assess how experimental manipulations affect chewing speed in Cebus apella, 2) compare captive chewing cycle durations to that of wild conspecifics, and 3) document sources of variation (beyond experimental manipulation) impacting captive chewing cycle durations. We find that experimental manipulations do increase chewing cycle durations in C. apella by as much as 152 milliseconds (ms) on average. These slower chewing speeds are mainly an effect of anesthesia (and/or restraint), rather than electrode implantation or more invasive surgical procedures. Comparison of captive and wild C. apella suggest there is no novel effect of captivity on chewing speed, although this cannot unequivocally demonstrate that masticatory mechanics are similar in captive and wild individuals. Furthermore, we document significant differences in cycle durations due to inter-individual variation and food type, although duration did not always significantly correlate with mechanical properties of foods. We advocate that the significant reduction in chewing speed be considered as an appropriate qualification when applying the results of laboratory-based feeding studies to adaptive explanations of primate feeding behaviors.

  13. Experimental pulmonary inflammatory injury in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Revak, S D; Rice, C L; Schraufstätter, I U; Halsey, W A; Bohl, B P; Clancy, R M; Cochrane, C G

    1985-01-01

    by the return to full activity of four out of five BAL samples after their incubation with the reducing agent dithiothreitol in the presence of methionine sulfoxide peptide reductase. The specific activity of catalase in the BAL fluids of animals given 3-amino, 1,2,4 triazole (AT) 1 h before lavaging showed drops from 0.97 in untreated monkeys to 0.04 in FNLP-treated and 0.49 in PMA-treated monkeys. MPO levels also fell in the AT-treated injured animals from 16.59 to 0.85 delta OD/min X ml in FNLP animals in the absence and presence of AT, and 30.47 to 0.60 delta OD/min X ml in PMA-treated animals. Inhibition of MPO by AT was shown in vitro to be H2O2 dependent. Total glutathione levels in the BAL fluids did not change appreciably after FNLP or PMA treatment. These studies present substantial evidence of the generation of both proteases and oxidants during the establishment of acute pulmonary inflammatory injury in an experimental primate model. Images PMID:2995448

  14. Experimental field study of problem-solving using tools in free-ranging capuchins (Sapajus nigritus, formerly Cebus nigritus).

    PubMed

    Garber, P A; Gomes, D F; Bicca-Marques, J C

    2012-04-01

    Some populations of capuchins are reported to use tools to solve foraging problems in the wild. In most cases, this involves the act of pounding and digging. The use of probing tools by wild capuchins is considerably less common. Here we report on the results of an experimental field study conducted in southern Brazil designed to examine the ability of wild black-horned capuchins (Sapajus nigritus) to use a wooden dowel as a lever or a probe to obtain an embedded food reward. A group of eight capuchins was presented with two experimental platforms, each housing a clear Plexiglas box containing two bananas on a shelf and four inserted dowels. Depending on the conditions of the experiment, the capuchins were required either to pull (Condition I) or push (Conditions II and III) the dowels, in order to dislodge the food reward from the shelf so that it could be manually retrieved. In Condition I, four individuals spontaneously solved the foraging problem by pulling the dowels in 25% (72/291) of visits. In Conditions II and III, however, no capuchin successfully pushed the dowels forward to obtain the food reward. During these latter two experimental conditions, the capuchins continued to pull the dowels (41/151 or 27% of visits), even though this behavior did not result in foraging success. The results of these field experiments are consistent with an identical study conducted on wild Cebus capucinus in Costa Rica, and suggest that when using an external object as a probe to solve a foraging problem, individual capuchins were able to rapidly learn an association between the tool and the food reward, but failed to understand exactly how the tool functioned in accomplishing the task. The results also suggest that once a capuchin learned to solve this tool-mediated foraging problem, the individual persisted in using the same solution even in the face of repeated failure (slow rate of learning extinction).

  15. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information.

  16. Transfer of tools and food between groups of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Westergaard, G C; Suomi, S J

    1997-01-01

    This research examined tool and food transfer between two groups of tufted capcuhin monkeys (Cebus apella). Subjects in one group transferred stones to subjects in a second group who in turn used the stones as cutting tools and then transferred food to subjects in the first group. Aspects of the capuchins' behavior are similar to those described for food-sharing in Cebus, cooperative tool use in Papio, and tool and food exchange in Pan. We propose that tool use and food-sharing facilitate tool and food transfer between captive groups of Cebus apella.

  17. VITAMIN C CONTENT OF MONKEY TISSUES IN EXPERIMENTAL POLIOMYELITIS.

    PubMed

    Jungeblut, C W; Feiner, R R

    1937-09-30

    1. The concentrations of reduced ascorbic acid present in the tissues of normal rhesus monkeys are of a magnitude in keeping with the values found for other animal species which are incapable of synthesizing vitamin C. These concentrations are subject to distinct increase by prolonged parenteral administration of ascorbic acid. 2. The amounts of vitamin C present in nervous tissue and the suprarenals of monkeys, paralyzed as the result of poliomyelitis infection, are slightly below the normal average when examined at the height of paralysis or in early convalescence. The figures show a tendency for a return to normal or slightly hypernormal levels concomitant with the progress of convalescence. 3. Vitamin C titrations of the tissues of monkeys which had received parenteral injections of ascorbic acid during the incubation period of poliomyelitic infection give different results according to whether such animals develop paralysis or survive without paralytic symptoms. In paralyzed C-treated monkeys the vitamin C levels are practically identical with those of normal C-prepared monkeys. Markedly higher values, however, are obtained with non-paralytic survivors in the early stages of their survival. As the period of survival lengthens normal figures prevail again. 4. The data are discussed in their relationship to the success or failure of vitamin C therapy in experimental poliomyelitis.

  18. Differential effects of unusual climatic stress on capuchin (Cebus capucinus) and howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) populations on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Milton, Katharine; Giacalone, Jacalyn

    2014-03-01

    Though the harmful effects anthropogenic disturbances pose to wild primates are well appreciated, comparatively little is known about the effects of natural disturbances. From December 2010 to January 2011, different mortality patterns were observed for two primate species, capuchins and howler monkeys, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Unusually high rainfall in 2010 was associated with census and cadaver data indicating the rapid loss of >70% of the capuchin population in late 2010 to early 2011. In contrast, over this same period, no decline was documented for howler monkeys and cadaver data for howlers was unexceptional. The high mortality experienced by the capuchin population was unexpected and its extent was not fully appreciated until the event was largely over. Explanations proposed for it included effects of hypothermia, disease or a shortage of some essential nutrient(s). Of these, the dietary explanation seems most probable. BCI capuchins depend most heavily on arthropod foods in December, when few higher quality ripe fruits are available. The unprecedented high rainfall in December 2010 is hypothesized to have largely eliminated the arthropod peak expected on BCI each December. A lack of protein-rich arthropods, when coupled with the climatic and nutritional stress capuchins generally experience at this time of year, appears to have precipitated the rapid die-off of most of the island's capuchin population. As howler monkeys obtain dietary protein primarily from leaves, a shortage of edible arthropods would not affect howler numbers. Comparison of our 2010 data with similar data on earlier primate/mammalian mortality events reported for BCI and for Corcovado, Costa Rica indicates that our understanding of the effects of natural disturbances on wild primate populations is not profound. We suggest that more research be devoted to this increasingly timely topic, so important to conservation policy.

  19. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections.

  20. Life history and locomotion in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata.

    PubMed

    Bezanson, Michelle

    2009-11-01

    As an individual matures from birth to adulthood, many factors may influence the positional repertoire. The biological and behavioral changes that accompany a growing individual are expected to influence foraging strategy, social status and interaction, diet, predator avoidance strategies, and ultimately positional behavior as a behavioral link between anatomy and the environment. In this work, positional behavior is considered as an important feature of life history in juvenile and adult white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) and mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the same tropical forest in Costa Rica. During growth and development ontogenetic changes in body size, limb proportions, and motor skills are likely to influence locomotion and posture through the arboreal canopy. I collected data on positional behavior, activity, branch size, branch angle, and crown location during a 12-month period at Estación Biológica La Suerte in northeastern Costa Rica. Life history timing and differences in rates of growth did not predictably influence the development of adultlike positional behaviors in Cebus and Alouatta. Young Cebus resembled the adult pattern of positional behavior by 6 months of age while howlers exhibited significant differences in several positional behavior categories through 24 months of age. The positional repertoire of both species revealed similarities in the types of modes used during feed/forage and travel in juveniles and adults. Data presented here suggest that the environment exerts different pressures on growing Cebus and Alouatta that may relate to diet, energy expenditure, foraging skill, and/or social learning.

  1. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Monkey Early Experimental Glaucoma: Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Juan; Lockwood, Howard; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Williams, Galen; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize experimental glaucoma (EG) versus control eye differences in lamina cribrosa (LC), beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF), connective tissue volume (CTV), and LC volume (LV) in monkey early EG. Methods Optic nerve heads (ONHs) of 14 unilateral EG and 6 bilateral normal (BN) monkeys underwent three-dimensional reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to a common cylinder with inner, middle, and outer layers. Full-thickness and layer averages for BD, PD, CTVF, CTV, and LV were calculated for each ONH. Beam diameter and PD distributions for each ONH were fit to a gamma distribution and summarized by scale and shape parameters. Experimental glaucoma and depth effects were assessed for each parameter by linear mixed-effects (LME) modeling. Animal-specific EG versus control eye differences that exceeded the maximum intereye difference among the six BN animals were considered significant. Results Overall EG eye mean PD was 12.8% larger (28.2 ± 5.6 vs. 25.0 ± 3.3 μm), CTV was 26.5% larger (100.06 ± 47.98 vs. 79.12 ± 28.35 × 106 μm3), and LV was 40% larger (229.29 ± 98.19 vs. 163.63 ± 39.87 × 106 μm3) than control eyes (P ≤ 0.05, LME). Experimental glaucoma effects were significantly different by layer for PD (P = 0.0097) and CTVF (P < 0.0001). Pore diameter expanded consistently across all PDs. Experimental glaucoma eye-specific parameter change was variable in magnitude and direction. Conclusions Pore diameter, CTV, and LV increase in monkey early EG; however, EG eye-specific change is variable and includes both increases and decreases in BD and CTVF. PMID:27362781

  2. ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ACCOMPANIED BY MYELIN DESTRUCTION EXPERIMENTALLY PRODUCED IN MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Thomas M.; Schwentker, Francis F.

    1935-01-01

    The repeated intramuscular injections of aqueous emulsions and alcohol-ether extracts of sterile normal rabbit brains in some manner produced pathological changes accompanied by myelin destruction in the brains of 7 of 8 monkeys (Macacus rhesus). Eight, control monkeys remained well. Cultures from the involved brains remained sterile, and no transmissible agent was demonstrated by means of intracerebral inoculations of emulsions of bits of the brains into monkeys, rabbits, guinea pigs, and white mice. PMID:19870385

  3. Bone Formation Rate in Experimental Disuse Osteoporosis in Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher; Young, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Specific mechanisms underlying weightless and hypodynamic bone loss are obscure. A principal relationship which must be affected is the balance between bone formation and bone resorption rates. In order to better define the influence of those parameters on bone loss, and also to develop measurements in other species as a useful adjunct to human research, studies were undertaken with experimental monkeys. Tests were conducted with a total of 6 adult male monkeys, weighing 10-13 kg, and approximately 10-12 yrs. of age to evaluate specifically bone formation rate during the development of disuse osteoporosis and osteopenia. Three animals were restrained in a semi-recumbent position for six months; three animals served as normal caged controls. Food intake (Purina) was held relatively constant at 200g/day for each animal. Using a Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer, bone mineral losses of 3.5 to 6% were seen in the mid-shaft of the tibia and in the distal radius. Bone loss was confirmed radiographically, with observation of thinning of the proximal tibial cortex and trabeculae in the calcaneus. Bone formation rate was determined using standard Ca-47 kinetics under metabolic balance conditions. After six months of restraint, accretion was 7.2-13.2 mg Ca/kg/day, compared to 3.2-4.1 mg Ca/kg/day in caged controls and 3-8 mg Ca/kg/day in normal adult humans. Fecal and urine calcium was 25-40% higher in restrained animals than in controls. Dietary calcium absorption decreases during restraint, and calcium turnover increases, implying a rise in bone resorption rate concommitant with the observed rise in bone accretion rate. Further studies dealing specifically with bone resorption are underway to define this more fully.

  4. Monkeys reject unequal pay.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; De Waal, Frans B M

    2003-09-18

    During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.

  5. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  6. Experimental toxoplasmosis and vaccine tests in Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Escajadillo, A; Frenkel, J K

    1991-04-01

    We studied Aotus lemurinus, Panamanian night monkeys, for susceptibility to Toxoplasma infection and for their capacity to develop immunity using either sufadiazine prophylaxis or the non-persistent ts-4 vaccine. The animals were highly susceptible to infection with a mouse pathogenic (T265) and a mouse nonpathogenic (T163) Toxoplasma isolate. A calculated single bradyzoite by mouth gave rise to infection which was fatal in nine to 12 days. Chemoprophylaxis with 60-300 of sulfadiazine mg per day for up to 40 days protected the animals; however this was followed by fatal reactivation of infection between 11 and 70 days after treatment was stopped. Vaccination was carried out in two or three doses subcutaneously. Challenge was performed in 26 animals using both Toxoplasma isolates. Five monkeys (19%) survived for over a year, 10 died after a prolonged illness, and 11 died as rapidly as the seven controls. Safety tests showed the vaccine to be nonpathogenic in 111 adults except for slight fever and local inflammation, although one of four juveniles died from disseminated infection. Vaccination of 25 pregnant monkeys was non-pathogenic; however two of 25 fetuses were aborted, one of which was infected and one newborn had microphthalmia, retinitis and a cataract; four of the offspring were not tested. When six lactating monkeys were vaccinated, Toxoplasma was not transmitted to the infants. The high susceptibility to Toxoplasma and the low immunizability was circumstantially attributed to absence of exposure and lack of selection by Toxoplasma of these arboreal monkeys even though about 50% of terrestrial animals from the same area were infected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Limited susceptibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to leprosy after experimental administration of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Gerald P; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Tan, Esterlina V; Fajardo, Tranquilino T; Villahermosa, Laarni G; Cellona, Roland V; Balagon, Maria V; White, Valerie A; Saunderson, Paul R; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-08-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis-importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1-19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration.

  8. An automatic experimental apparatus to study arm reaching in New World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several species of the New World monkeys have been used as experimental models in biomedical and neurophysiological research. However, a method for controlled arm reaching tasks has not been developed for these species. New Method We have developed a fully automated, pneumatically driven, portable, and reconfigurable experimental apparatus for arm-reaching tasks suitable for these small primates. Results We have utilized the apparatus to train two owl monkeys in a visually-cued arm-reaching task. Analysis of neural recordings demonstrates directional tuning of the M1 neurons. Comparison with Existing Method(s) Our apparatus allows automated control, freeing the experimenter from manual experiments. Conclusion The presented apparatus provides a valuable tool for conducting neurophysiological research on New World monkeys. PMID:26928257

  9. [Neuroanatomical study of experimental tremor produced by VMT lesion in monkeys--a horseradish peroxidase study].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T

    1988-01-01

    Destruction of the ventromedial tegmentum (VMT) of the midbrain in monkeys is known to produce tremors similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease. To elucidate such tremorgenic mechanisms, 50% horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into the VMT target region in three monkeys (macaca fuscata fuscata) and eleven adult cats. The volume injected varied between 0.05 and 0.1 microliter. The results suggest that afferent fibers to the thalamus, which passed through the VMT region, contains tractus cerebellothalamicus and nigrothalamic fibers. A large number of labelled cells were found in the ipsilateral nucleus dorsalis raphae, indicating that serotonergic neurons are related to the experimental tremors. Many labelled terminals were observed in the ipsilateral nucleus subthalamicus in the monkey, but in cats no terminals were found. This suggests that VMT region in the monkeys contains nigrosubthalamic fibers. The experimental tremors produced by destruction of the VMT region in the monkeys appears to be due to combined destruction of the tractus cerebellothalamicus, nigrothalamic fibers, tractus nigrostriatus, ascending serotonergic neurons from the nucleus dorsalis raphae and nigrosubthalamic fibers.

  10. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    PubMed

    Steelandt, Sophie; Dufour, Valérie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Thierry, Bernard

    2011-03-10

    Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana) in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  11. Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild monkeys from Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corte, Andreia C; Svoboda, Walfrido K; Navarro, Italmar T; Freire, Roberta L; Malanski, Luciano S; Shiozawa, M M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Aguiar, Lucas M; Passos, Fernando C; Maron, Angela; Camargo, Zoilo P; Itano, Eiko N; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in wild New World monkeys (Cebus sp. and Alouatta caraya). A total of 93 animals (Cebus sp., n = 68 and Alouatta caraya, n = 25) were captured in the Paraná River basin, Paraná State, Brazil and the serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and immunodiffusion using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively. The seropositivity observed by ELISA was 44.1% and 60% for Cebus sp. and A. caraya, respectively, while by immunodiffusion test Cebus sp. showed positivity of 2.9% only. No significant difference was observed in relation to age and sex. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in wild capuchin monkeys and in wild-black and golden-howler monkeys. The high positivity to P. brasiliensis infection in both species evaluated in our study and the positivity by immunodiffusion test in Cebus sp. suggest that natural disease may be occurring in wild monkeys living in paracoccidioidomycosis endemic areas.

  12. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  13. STUDIES ON ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS PRODUCED EXPERIMENTALLY IN RHESUS MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, Charles E.; Kabat, Elvin A.; Wolf, Abner; Bezer, Ada E.

    1950-01-01

    1. Animals injected with emulsions of monkey brain with adjuvants show a complex pattern of antibody response as determined by complement fixation tests. 2. Organ-specific complement-fixing antibodies to constituents of brain tissue may be formed which fix complement with brain tissues of various animal species but fail to react with other organs or with rabbit placenta. 3. Antibodies may be formed to some constituent of brain other than nervous tissue. It would seem that these can be detected by the strong complement fixation given with rabbit placenta. 4. Sera from individual animals may contain antibodies to the brain or placenta constituents, to both, or to neither. Occasional individual sera show unique patterns of antibody response as determined with various additional antigens such as fetal brain, posterior pituitary, or peripheral nerves. 5. No evidence of any etiological relationship between the development of encephalomyelitis and the complement-fixing antibodies to brain demonstrable in the sera could be found. The complement-fixing antibody to the placental constituent was unrelated to the encephalomyelitis. PMID:15436935

  14. Tibial changes in experimental disuse osteoporosis in the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. R.; Niklowitz, W. J.; Steele, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanical properties and structural changes in the monkey tibia with disuse osteoporosis and during subsequent recovery are investigated. Bone mending stiffness is evaluated in relation to microscopic changes in cortical bone and Norland bone mineral analysis. Restraint in the semireclined position is found to produce regional losses of bone most obviously in the anterior-proximal tibiae. After six months of restraint, the greatest losses of bone mineral in the proximal tibiae range from 23 percent to 31 percent; the largest changes in bone stiffness range from 36 percent to 40 percent. Approximately eight and one-half months of recovery are required to restore the normal bending properties. Even after 15 months of recovery, however, the bone mineral content does not necessarily return to normal levels. Histologically, resorption cavities in cortical bone are seen within one month of restraint; by two and one-half months of restraint there are large resorption cavities subperiosteally, endosteally, and intracortically. After 15 months of recovery, the cortex consists mainly of first-generation haversian systems. After 40 months, the cortex appears normal, with numerous secondary and tertiary generations of haversian systems.

  15. Dietary variability in Cebus apella in extreme habitats: evidence for adaptability.

    PubMed

    Brown, A D; Zunino, G E

    1990-01-01

    The dietary composition of Cebus apella in two subtropical forest environments of Argentina reflects the seasonal availability of potential food resources. In the marginal areas of the geographical distribution of this species, different resources are used during periods of scarcity. A greater tendency to use leaves in the diet is observed in the northwest (El Rey National Park), where there is greater seasonal variation of fruit availability. In El Rey, where there are few potential resources, the diet is dominated by a few resources, notably bromeliads. Where the resources are more abundant and the availability is more constant throughout the years (Baritú and Iguazú National Parks), the monkeys exhibit a feeding behavior similar to that seen in tropical areas. This ability of the genus Cebus to exploit resources not accessible to other primate species is one of the reasons for its wide geographical distribution and its widespread existence in ecosystems marginally used by primates.

  16. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, AN; Williams, LE; Brosnan, SF

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this

  17. Ultrastructural organization of thrombocytes in normal monkeys (Macaca arctoides) and in those with experimental viral malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chuvirov, G N; Fomenko, V N

    1978-01-01

    Data on platelet ultrastructure of 6 M. arctoides monkeys investigated before and during experimental viral malignant lymphoma are presented. It has been established that the inner structure of thrombocytes in healthy monkeys was almost similar to that of man. In experimental malignant lymphoma, irrespective of the clinical period of the disease, a decrease of alpha-, beta- and sigma-granules, a decrease of the functional activity of thrombocytes and an increase of delta-granules and glycogen granulation content were observed. The above mentioned disturbances can be a result of changes of megakaryocytes in malignant lymphoma. No viral particles in thrombocytes of neither healthy nor sick monkeys have been revealed.

  18. Pathogenesis of fulminant monkeypox with bacterial sepsis after experimental infection with West African monkeypox virus in a cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Noriyo; Saijo, Masayuki; Kataoka, Michiyo; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Sato, Yuko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Ogata, Momoko; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Sata, Tetsutaro; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of severe human monkeypox, which causes systemic and fulminant infections, is not clear. This study presents a case repot of fulminant monkeypox with bacterial sepsis after experimental infection with monkeypox virus in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). In our previous study (Saijo et al., 2009, J Gen Virol), two cynomolgus monkeys became moribund after experimental infection with monkeypox virus Liberia strain, West African strain. One exhibited typical monkeypox-related papulovesicular lesions. The other monkey presented fulminant clinical symptoms with a characteristic flat red rash similar to that found in smallpox, which is associated with extremely high fatality rates. In this study, we found that the monkey with flat red rash had high levels of viremia and neutropenia, as well as high plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared with the other monkey. Monkeypox virus replicates in epithelial cells and macrophages in various organs. Sepsis due to Gram-positive cocci was confirmed histopathologically in the monkey with flat red rash. The lack of inflammatory response in the lesion suggested that the monkey with sepsis experienced strong immune suppression during the viral infection. The neutropenia and excessive inflammatory cytokine responses indicate that neutrophils play key roles in the pathogenesis of systemic and fulminant human monkeypox virus infections with sepsis.

  19. Experimental Cross-Species Infection of Common Marmosets by Titi Monkey Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eunice C.; Liu, Maria; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Lanford, Robert E.; Kelly, Kristi R.; Bales, Karen L.; Schnurr, David P.; Canfield, Don R.; Patterson, Jean L.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV), as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses. PMID:23894316

  20. Experimental and computational analysis of monkey smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Churchland, M M; Lisberger, S G

    2001-08-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are guided by visual feedback and are surprisingly accurate despite the time delay between visual input and motor output. Previous models have reproduced the accuracy of pursuit either by using elaborate visual signals or by adding sources of motor feedback. Our goal was to constrain what types of signals drive pursuit by obtaining data that would discriminate between these two modeling approaches, represented by the "image motion model" and the "tachometer feedback" model. Our first set of experiments probed the visual properties of pursuit with brief square-pulse and sine-wave perturbations of target velocity. Responses to pulse perturbations increased almost linearly with pulse amplitude, while responses to sine wave perturbations showed strong saturation with increasing stimulus amplitude. The response to sine wave perturbations was strongly dependent on the baseline image velocity at the time of the perturbation. Responses were much smaller if baseline image velocity was naturally large, or was artificially increased by superimposing sine waves on pulse perturbations. The image motion model, but not the tachometer feedback model, could reproduce these features of pursuit. We used a revision of the image motion model that was, like the original, sensitive to both image velocity and image acceleration. Due to a saturating nonlinearity, the sensitivity to image acceleration declined with increasing image velocity. Inclusion of this nonlinearity was motivated by our experimental results, was critical in accounting for the responses to perturbations, and provided an explanation for the unexpected stability of pursuit in the presence of perturbations near the resonant frequency. As an emergent property, the revised image motion model was able to reproduce the frequency and damping of oscillations recorded during artificial feedback delays. Our second set of experiments replicated prior recordings of pursuit responses to multiple

  1. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    PubMed Central

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  2. [The therapeutic efficacy of ribamidil and virazole in experimental Lassa fever in monkeys].

    PubMed

    Dvoretskaia, V I; Bogatikov, G V; Pshenichnov, V A; Evseev, A A

    1991-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of ribamydil and virasol was evaluated in experimental Lassa fever in monkeys which received these drugs at various intervals after the onset of the clinical illness. Ribamydil or virasol administered in the first day of fever protected from death 60% to 66% of the infected animals, but when the drugs were given 2 days after the onset of fever the number of survivors declined to 0.20%. When the treatment was started 4 days after the onset of fever none of the drugs prevented deaths of Lassa virus-infected baboons.

  3. Copying without rewards: socially influenced foraging decisions among brown capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Kristin E; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-07-01

    An individual's foraging activity can be influenced by the choices made by nearby conspecifics. The interest shown in the location and characteristics of a feeding patch may depend on the feeding success of a conspecific there, a process that needs to be distinguished from choices guided by rewards to the observer itself. We investigated how rewards for both self and others influence the foraging choices of captive capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Thirteen adult capuchins observed familiar female conspecific models explore one of three opaque boxes under three conditions. In the first, there were no rewards available to either monkey; in the second, rewards were available to the model only; and in the third, both monkeys could retrieve a reward. Under all conditions, subjects more often explored the same box as the model than was expected by chance. Thus, without ever receiving a reward themselves or without seeing another receive rewards, subjects' searches were directed at the box explored by another monkey. The tendency to match the model's choice increased if the subject was rewarded. We compared these results to control conditions in which the model was either absent, or present but not allowed to demonstrate. Subjects' located the reward less often in control conditions, than in the experimental conditions. We conclude that extrinsic rewards, while helpful, are not required for partners to influence the foraging choices of capuchins, and that the unrewarded copying of foraging choices demonstrated here may provide the basis for additional social influences on learning.

  4. In Vivo Detection of Laminar and Peripapillary Scleral Hypercompliance in Early Monkey Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ivers, Kevin M.; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Qin, Lirong; Reyes, Luke; Fortune, Brad; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) detected, optic nerve head (ONH) compliance within control and experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes of 15 monkeys at EG onset. Methods Intraocular pressure (IOP) was chronically elevated in one eye of each animal using a laser. Experimental glaucoma onset was identified using confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT). Optical coherence tomography ONH imaging (40 radial B-scans) was performed at 10 mm Hg before and after laser. At EG onset, OCT scans were obtained at IOP 10 and 30 mm Hg. Optical coherence tomography landmarks within the IOP 10/30 images were delineated to quantify IOP 10/30 differences (compliance) for anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (ALCSD) relative to Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (ALCSD-BMO), ALCSD relative to peripheral BM (ALCSD-BM), and BMO depth relative to peripheral BM (BMOD-BM). A linear mixed effects model assessed for acute IOP elevation effects, control versus EG eye effects, and their interaction Results Effects of IOP elevation were greater in EG versus control eyes for ALCSD-BMO (−46 ± 45 vs. −8 ± 13 μm, P = 0.0042) and ALCSD-BM (−92 ± 64 vs. −42 ± 22 μm, P = 0.0075). Experimental glaucoma eye-specific ALCSD-BMO and ALCSD-BM compliance exceeded the range of control eye compliance in 9 and 8 of the 15 EG eyes, respectively. Post-laser peak IOP (R2 = 0.798, P < 0.0001) and post-laser mean IOP (R2 = 0.634, P < 0.0004) most strongly correlated to EG versus control eye differences in ALCSD-BMO compliance. Conclusions Laminar (ALCSD-BMO) and peripapillary scleral (ALCSD-BM) hypercompliance are present in most monkey eyes at the onset of EG. PMID:27409498

  5. Experimental infections of baboons (Papio spp.) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) with Trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Dzoma, B M; Matenga, E; Ruziwa, S D; Sacchi, L; Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    Experimental Trichinella zimbabwensis infections were established in three baboons (Papio sp.) and four vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) and the clinical-pathological manifestations assessed. The infected animals showed clinical signs ranging from fever, diarrhoea, periorbital oedema and muscular pain in varying degrees. One baboon became blind due to the infection. Levels of creatinine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased to reach a peak on Day 42 post-infection (pi) for both baboons and monkeys. Blood parameters such as packed cell volume, levels of red blood cells and white blood cells did not change significantly from the normal ranges except for the levels of eosinophils which peaked above the normal ranges at Day 28 and 56 pi in baboons and at Day 56 pi in monkeys. Two baboons and two monkeys died during the course of the experiment. They were emaciated and showed lesions such as ascites, hydropericardium, congested liver and enlarged gall bladder. Histopathological findings of various muscles included a basophilic transformation of muscle cells, the disappearance of sarcomere myofibrils and basophilic sarcoplasm with the presence of Trichinella larvae in the sarcoplasm. These changes were mainly in the massetter and were of various intensities in the tail, gastrocnemius and biceps muscles. Five consecutive treatments with an oxfendazole-levamisole combination on surviving animals failed to clear the infection whereas ivermectin cleared the infection after one treatment in two monkeys and after two treatments in a baboon.

  6. Are monkeys able to plan for future exchange?

    PubMed

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not non-human animals can plan for the future is a hotly debated issue. We investigate this question further and use a planning-to-exchange task to study future planning in the cooperative domain in two species of monkeys: the brown capuchin (Cebus apella) and the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). The rationale required subjects to plan for a future opportunity to exchange tokens for food by collecting tokens several minutes in advance. Subjects who successfully planned for the exchange task were expected to select suitable tokens during a collection period (5/10 min), save them for a fixed period of time (20/30 min), then take them into an adjacent compartment and exchange them for food with an experimenter. Monkeys mostly failed to transport tokens when entering the testing compartment; hence, they do not seem able to plan for a future exchange with a human partner. Three subjects did however manage to solve the task several times, albeit at very low rates. They brought the correct version of three possible token types, but rarely transported more than one suitable token at a time. Given that the frequency of token manipulation predicted transport, success might have occurred by chance. This was not the case, however, since in most cases subjects were not already holding the token in their hands before they entered the testing compartment. Instead, these results may reflect subjects' strengths and weaknesses in their time-related comprehension of the task.

  7. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  8. Can Old-World and New-World Monkeys Judge Spatial Above/Below Relations to be the Same or Different? Some of Them, But Not All of Them

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Roger K. R.; Flemming, Timothy M.; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of Relational Matching to Sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether Old World rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a Spatial Above/Below Relational Matching task as reported for Old World baboons (Papio papio). None of the Rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that New-World Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match Above/Below relations. The Capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of ‘Clever Hans’ controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract ‘relations between relations’ and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species. PMID:26581319

  9. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brino, Ana Leda F., Barros, Romariz S., Galvao, Ol; Garotti, M.; Da Cruz, Ilara R. N.; Santos, Jose R.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys ("Cebus apella"). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The…

  10. Parvalbumin expression and distribution in the hippocampal formation of Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Torres, Laila Brito; Araujo, Bruno Henrique Silva; Marruaz, Klena Sarges; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Sousa, Bolivar Saldanha; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2015-04-01

    New World primates play an important role in biomedical research. However, the literature still lacks information on many structural features of the brain in these species, particularly structures of the hippocampal formation that are related to long-term memory storage. This study was designed to provide information, for the first time, about the distribution and number of neurons expressing parvalbumin-immunoreactivity (PV-I) in the subregions of the hippocampal formation in Cebus apella, a New World primate species commonly used in biomedical research. Our results revealed that for several morphometric variables, PV-I cells differ significantly among the subregions CA1, CA2, CA3, and the hilus. Based upon our findings and those of other studies, we hypothesize that the proportional increase from monkeys to humans in PV-I cell density within CA1 is a factor contributing to the evolution of increased memory formation and storage.

  11. Paternal kin recognition and infant care in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Elizabeth J; Wikberg, Eva C; Kawamura, Shoji; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. We investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. We used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Our analyses suggest that the best predictor of adult and subadult male interactions with an infant is the male's dominance status, not his paternity status. We found that maternal siblings but not paternal siblings handled infants more than did unrelated individuals. We conclude that maternal but not paternal kinship influence patterns of infant handling in white-faced capuchins, regardless of whether or not they can recognize paternal kin. Am. J. Primatol. 78:659-668, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Capuchins (Cebus apella) fail to show an asymmetric dominance effect.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul M; Santos, Laurie R

    2017-03-01

    The asymmetric dominance effect (ADE) occurs when the introduction of a partially dominated decoy option increases the choice share of its dominating alternative. The ADE is a violation of regularity and the constant-ratio rule, which are two derivations of the independence of irrelevant alternatives axiom, a core tenant of rational choice. The ADE is one of the most widely reported human choice phenomena, leading researchers to probe its origins by studying a variety of non-human species. We examined the ADE in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), a species that displays many other decision biases. In Experiment 1, we used a touchscreen method to elicit choice-based preferences for food rewards in asymmetrically dominated choice sets. In Experiments 2 and 3, we distinguished between different types of judgments and used a free selection task to elicit consumption-based preferences for juice rewards. However, we found no evidence for the ADE through violations of regularity or the constant-ratio rule, despite the similarity of our stimuli to other human and non-human experiments. While these results appear to conflict with existing literature on the ADE in non-human species, we point out methodological differences-notably, the distinction between value-based and perception-based stimuli-that have led to a collection of phenomena that are difficult to understand under a unitary theoretical framework. In particular, we highlight key differences between the human and non-human research and provide a series of steps that researchers could take to better understand the ADE.

  13. ABO typing in experimental cynomolgus monkeys using non-invasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Song; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    ABH antigens are not expressed on the red blood cells of monkeys, making it difficult to accurately determine their blood type. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility, convenience, and stability of two non-invasive methods for ABO typing (a reverse gel system assay and a buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay) in cynomolgus monkeys (n = 72). The renal tissue immunofluorescent assay was used to obtain an accurate blood type in the monkeys. Using the reverse gel system assay and preabsorbed serum, we achieved accurate detection of ABO blood groups in 65 of the 72 monkeys but obtained confusing results in the remaining 7. The original immunofluorescent staining of the buccal mucosal smears clearly and correctly identified the ABO blood groups in 50 of the 72 monkeys. After repeated smearing and staining, the ABO group type could be correctly identified in samples from the rest of the monkeys, which were either lacking sufficient buccal mucosal cells or contained impurities. Based on our findings, we recommend the reverse gel system assay as the first choice for primate blood type analysis, and the buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay as a Supplementary Method whenever the reverse gel system assay fails to give a clear result. PMID:28112245

  14. Experimental infection of the New World owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) with hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed Central

    LeDuc, J W; Lemon, S M; Keenan, C M; Graham, R R; Marchwicki, R H; Binn, L N

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the susceptibility of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) to hepatitis A virus, but have not shown an association between infection and histopathological or chemical evidence of liver disease. Therefore, 12 seronegative, colony-bred monkeys were inoculated intravenously with a fecal suspension containing either PA33 strain hepatitis A virus (a strain recovered from a naturally infected Aotus sp.) or HM-175 virus (recovered from a human). Viral antigen was detected by radioimmunoassay in the feces of six monkeys 6 to 17 days after inoculation with PA33 virus, and by 9 to 21 days serum aminotransferase activities were significantly elevated in each. Antibody to the virus developed in each monkey by 28 days after inoculation. Similar findings were noted in five of six monkeys inoculated with HM-175 virus, although the incubation period preceding aminotransferase elevations was somewhat longer (25 to 39 days). Liver biopsies obtained from the 11 infected monkeys demonstrated mild to moderate portal inflammation, as well as random areas of focal necrosis and inflammation extending outward from the portal region. These data confirm the susceptibility of Aotus sp. to hepatitis A virus and indicate that the infection of this primate provides a useful animal model of human hepatitis A. Images PMID:6840861

  15. Capuchins, space, time and memory: an experimental test of what-where-when memory in wild monkeys.

    PubMed

    Janson, Charles H

    2016-10-12

    There is considerable controversy about the existence, extent and adaptive value of integrated multimodal memory in non-human animals. Building on prior results showing that wild capuchin monkeys in Argentina appear to recall both the location and amount of food at patches they had previously visited, I tested whether they also track and use elapsed time as a basis for decisions about which feeding patches to visit. I presented them with an experimental array of eight feeding sites, at each of which food rewards increased with increasing elapsed time since the previous visit, similar to the pattern of ripe fruit accumulation in natural feeding trees. Over the course of 68 days, comprising two distinct renewal rate treatments, one group repeatedly visited sites in the feeding array, generating 212 valid choices between sites. Comparison of observations against simulated movements and multinomial statistical models shows that the monkeys' choices were most consistent with dynamic memory for elapsed time specific to each of the eight sites. Thus, it appears that capuchin monkeys possess and use integrated memories of prior food patch use, including where the patch is relative to their current location, how productive the patch is and how long it has been since they last visited the patch. Natural selection to use such integrated memories in foraging tasks may provide an ecologically relevant basis for the evolution of complex intelligence in primates.

  16. [Experimental behavioral tests using monkey and rat offspring born from mothers exposed perinatally to EDCs].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2005-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to conduct risk assessment of EDCs for the development of CNS in humans by extrapolation from the results of behavioral tests in rats and monkeys. Our hypotheses on the mechanism which gives an adverse effect of EDCs to the developing neural systems are as follows. Thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting chemicals induce deterioration of neural development and estrogen (E2) agonistic chemicals may disturb apoptosis of fetal neural cells resulting in injury of normal neural circuit. The strategy of this study is a bottom up system; for example, basic information was obtained by an experiment using rats and then an experiment using monkey was designed to adapt the results from rats. The monkey experiment data will be assessed in comparison with human behavior. The tactics of this study are, however, a top down system. It is neural behaviors which are an end point evaluation that are primarily performed. They are mother-infant interactions, social behaviors, open field test, memory and learning tests, etc. As for analysis of the mechanism of EDCs' adverse effect, we tried two methods: one is an in vivo drug biased test which interferes with the monoamine oxidase (MAO) system and the other is an in vitro primary neural cell culture. EDCs including BPA, NP, propylthiouracil (PTU) and PCB-OH are injected orally to pregnant rats from gestation day 3 (GD3) to post natal day 21 (PND21) at weaning and their offspring were tested. On the other hand TCDD, BPA and PCB effect are assessed in rhesus monkey or cynomolgus monkey offspring. The study is still continuing and we will present the results obtained to date.

  17. Socially biased learning in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D; Visalberghi, E

    2004-02-01

    We review socially biased learning about food and problem solving in monkeys, relying especially on studies with tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and callitrichid monkeys. Capuchin monkeys most effectively learn to solve a new problem when they can act jointly with an experienced partner in a socially tolerant setting and when the problem can be solved by direct action on an object or substrate, but they do not learn by imitation. Capuchin monkeys are motivated to eat foods, whether familiar or novel, when they are with others that are eating, regardless of what the others are eating. Thus, social bias in learning about foods is indirect and mediated by facilitation of feeding. In most respects, social biases in learning are similar in capuchins and callitrichids, except that callitrichids provide more specific behavioral cues to others about the availability and palatability of foods. Callitrichids generally are more tolerant toward group members and coordinate their activity in space and time more closely than capuchins do. These characteristics support stronger social biases in learning in callitrichids than in capuchins in some situations. On the other hand, callitrichids' more limited range of manipulative behaviors, greater neophobia, and greater sensitivity to the risk of predation restricts what these monkeys learn in comparison with capuchins. We suggest that socially biased learning is always the collective outcome of interacting physical, social, and individual factors, and that differences across populations and species in social bias in learning reflect variations in all these dimensions. Progress in understanding socially biased learning in nonhuman species will be aided by the development of appropriately detailed models of the richly interconnected processes affecting learning.

  18. Can Traditions Emerge from the Interaction of Stimulus Enhancement and Reinforcement Learning? An Experimental Model.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    The study of social learning in captivity and behavioral traditions in the wild are two burgeoning areas of research, but few empirical studies have tested how learning mechanisms produce emergent patterns of tradition. Studies have examined how social learning mechanisms that are cognitively complex and possessed by few species, such as imitation, result in traditional patterns, yet traditional patterns are also exhibited by species that may not possess such mechanisms. We propose an explicit model of how stimulus enhancement and reinforcement learning could interact to produce traditions. We tested the model experimentally with tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), which exhibit traditions in the wild but have rarely demonstrated imitative abilities in captive experiments. Monkeys showed both stimulus enhancement learning and a habitual bias to perform whichever behavior first obtained them a reward. These results support our model that simple social learning mechanisms combined with reinforcement can result in traditional patterns of behavior.

  19. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P < 0.0026) and animal-specific EG eye change most frequent, for five phenomena (number of EG eyes and range of animal-specific change): posterior laminar deformation (21, −29 to −437 μm), laminar thickening (11, 20–73 μm) and thinning (3, −23 to −31 μm), scleral canal expansion (17, 20–139 μm), outward anterior (16, −16 to −124 μm) and posterior (17, −22 to −279 μm) laminar insertion migration, and peripapillary scleral bowing (11, 21–77 μm). Experimental glaucoma versus control eye laminar thickness differences were bimodal in behavior, being thickened in most EG eyes demonstrating the least deformation and less thickened or thinned in most EG eyes demonstrating the greatest deformation. Conclusions Our postmortem studies retrospectively identify five connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  20. Evaluation of the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) as an Experimental Animal Model for Dysbaric Osteonecrosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-07

    Osteonecrosis , Squirrel monkeys, Dysbarism, Decompression AM STRACT (Coalftwo Af VOW0 df it 060006 Red AV Ihib 6 In an attempt to develop an animal model for...subclinical decomipression sickness was produced. No clinical, radiologic, or post-mortem evidence of osteonecrosis was discovered during either the 6...ANIMAL MODE[L FOR DYSBARIC OSTEONECROSIS Uwsimemnt Ctoilo Jamm L. Kuppwr, USAF VC Naval Medical Rearchh and Doevlwomfnt Commxw SM~~?000.OI .01 .7022 A

  1. Embryo production by parthenogenetic activation and fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes from Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Lima, Julianne S; Leão, Danuza L; Sampaio, Rafael V; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Miranda, Moysés S; Ohashi, Otávio M; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2013-05-01

    The efficiency of in vitro fertilization (IVF) depends on the viability of spermatozoa. For capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), in vitro capacitation of spermatozoa is challenging because of their unique seminal coagulum. Motile spermatozoa can be obtained after liquefaction of the semen coagulum in coconut water-based solution. The objective of the present study was to establish an optimal in vitro maturation (IVM) protocol for capuchin monkeys and to observe the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) on IVF and parthenogenetic activation (PA) of oocytes collected from unstimulated females. We assessed spermatozoa quality after recovery from seminal coagulum using the solution ACP-118® as an extender. Oocytes were matured in vitro for 36 or 40 h and subjected to IVF or PA by applying ionomycin combined either with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) or roscovitine. In total, 87% of oocytes reached metaphase II (MII) after 40 IVM and 4-cell embryo production was obtained after IVF and parthenogenesis using ionomycin/6-DMAP. ACP-118® was used successfully to harvest viable spermatozoa from semen coagulum and in the preservation of spermatozoa, which were able to fertilize oocytes in vitro.

  2. Disruption of patterns of immunoreactive glial fibrillary acidic protein processes in the Cebus Apella striate cortex following loss of visual input.

    PubMed

    Colombo, J A; Yáñez, A; Lipina, S

    1999-01-01

    Long, interlaminar, astroglial processes and its patterned organization in the striate cortex of adult primates was previously described. Loss of visual input following bilateral retinal detachment and degeneration in an adult Cebus apella monkey resulted three months later in reduction of interlaminar processes immunoreactive to Glial Fibrillary Acid Protein antibody, loss of the honeycomb-like pattern normally present in tangential sections, and loss of high density patches of terminal segments of those processes in the opercular striate. These results further indicate the highly interactive nature of neuron-glial cerebral cortex architecture, and the dynamic regulation of astroglial interlaminar processes.

  3. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  4. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    PubMed Central

    Brino, Ana Leda F; Barros, Romariz S; Galvão, Olavo F; Garotti, M; da Cruz, Ilara R. N; Santos, José R; Dube, William V; McIlvane, William J

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The objective was to transform identity matching into arbitrary matching (i.e., matching not based on common physical features of the sample and comparison stimuli). Experiment 1 used a two-comparison procedure. The shaping procedure was ultimately effective, but occasional high error rates at certain program steps inspired a follow-up study. Experiment 2 used the same basic approach, but with a three-comparison matching task. During shaping, the monkey performed accurately until the final steps of the program. Subsequent experimentation tested the hypothesis that the decrease in accuracy was due to restricted stimulus control by sample stimulus features that had not yet been changed in the shaping program. Results were consistent with this hypothesis, thus suggesting a new approach that may transform the sample stimulus control shaping procedure from a sometimes useful laboratory tool to a more general approach to teaching the first instance of arbitrary matching performances to participants who show protracted difficulties in learning such performances. PMID:21547073

  5. Sample stimulus control shaping and restricted stimulus control in capuchin monkeys: a methodological note.

    PubMed

    Brino, Ana Leda F; Barros, Romariz S; Galvão, Olavo F; Garotti, M; da Cruz, Ilara R N; Santos, José R; Dube, William V; McIlvane, William J

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The objective was to transform identity matching into arbitrary matching (i.e., matching not based on common physical features of the sample and comparison stimuli). Experiment 1 used a two-comparison procedure. The shaping procedure was ultimately effective, but occasional high error rates at certain program steps inspired a follow-up study. Experiment 2 used the same basic approach, but with a three-comparison matching task. During shaping, the monkey performed accurately until the final steps of the program. Subsequent experimentation tested the hypothesis that the decrease in accuracy was due to restricted stimulus control by sample stimulus features that had not yet been changed in the shaping program. Results were consistent with this hypothesis, thus suggesting a new approach that may transform the sample stimulus control shaping procedure from a sometimes useful laboratory tool to a more general approach to teaching the first instance of arbitrary matching performances to participants who show protracted difficulties in learning such performances.

  6. Monkeys benefit from reciprocity without the cognitive burden.

    PubMed

    Suchak, Malini; de Waal, Frans B M

    2012-09-18

    The debate about the origins of human prosociality has focused on the presence or absence of similar tendencies in other species, and, recently, attention has turned to the underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether direct reciprocity could promote prosocial behavior in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Twelve capuchins tested in pairs could choose between two tokens, with one being "prosocial" in that it rewarded both individuals (i.e., 1/1), and the other being "selfish" in that it rewarded the chooser only (i.e., 1/0). Each monkey's choices with a familiar partner from their own group was compared with choices when paired with a partner from a different group. Capuchins were spontaneously prosocial, selecting the prosocial option at the same rate regardless of whether they were paired with an in-group or out-group partner. This indicates that interaction outside of the experimental setting played no role. When the paradigm was changed, such that both partners alternated making choices, prosocial preference significantly increased, leading to mutualistic payoffs. As no contingency could be detected between an individual's choice and their partner's previous choice, and choices occurred in rapid succession, reciprocity seemed of a relatively vague nature akin to mutualism. Having the partner receive a better reward than the chooser (i.e., 1/2) during the alternating condition increased the payoffs of mutual prosociality, and prosocial choice increased accordingly. The outcome of several controls made it hard to explain these results on the basis of reward distribution or learned preferences, and rather suggested that joint action promotes prosociality, resulting in so-called attitudinal reciprocity.

  7. [Genetic methods for the reintroduction of primates Saguinus, Aotus and Cebus (Primates: Cebidae) seized in Bogota, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Leguizamón, Norberto; Vásquez, Catalina; Rodríguez, Karen; Castillo, María Ignacia

    2010-09-01

    Primates are one of more confiscated taxa by the environmental authorities in Bogota, Colombia. During 2008, 133 monkeys were confiscated; samples from 115 of them were sequenced by the mitochondrial cythocrome oxidase II gene (mtCOII) and 112 sequences obtained were of high quality. These sequences were compared with those obtained by our research group from individuals directly sampled in the field, with precise geographic origin. So, a more specific geographic area of the Colombian territory could be considered for a correct rehabilitation treatment during the reintroduction of these confiscated animals. The main results with five primate species were: 1--For all the specimens analyzed of Saguinus leucopus, they could be liberated in any geographical area of its distribution range, since only one gene pool was found. 2--For the 14 Aotus sp. individuals sequenced from the SDA (Environmental District Secretariat), one of them (A. vociferans) was coming from the Amazon, seven exemplars belonged to A. griseimembra from the Magdalena Valley and the Colombian Caribbean coasts, four individuals represented to A. brumbacki from the Colombian Eastern Llanos, and two were associated to A. azarae azarae from Northern Argentina and Paraguay (which means that illegal traffic of animals is arriving to Colombia from other South-American countries). 3--Out 14 Cebus albifrons sequenced, two belonged to the geographical area of C. a. versicolor, one to C. a. pleei, 10 to C a. leucocephalus and one could be not assigned because its sequence yielded a great genetic divergence with respect to the other specimens sequenced of this species. 4--The two Cebus capucinus sequenced showed to be associated to a gene pool found in the Northern of Chocó, Sucre and Córdoba Departments. 5--Out 11 Cebus apella sequenced, 10 showed to belong to the gene pool presented in the Colombian Eastern Llanos and highly related (but differentiable) to Cebus apella apella from the French Guyana. It could

  8. [Cellular composition of the lymph nodes of monkeys (rhesus macaque) under normal and experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Rusina, A K

    1978-01-01

    By means of mathematical methods, quantitative and qualitative changes were studied in different structural components of the mesenteric (ileocecal) lymph nodes in normal monkeys (Macaca rhesus) and under per os administration of Salmonella typhi murium, streptomycin-dependent. Cellular composition was calculated in the cortical plateau, cortical (lymphoid) cords and in follicules. Average percent of every cell type was determined. Vaccine administration, was stated to inhibit cytopoiesis in the cortical plateau and in the follicules with light centers. An inverse correlation was noted between the content of small and medium size lymphocytes. Different reactivity of certain structural components in the lymph nodes was demonstrated. As a response to the vaccine administration, plasmocellular acidophilic and macrophagal reactions were most pronounced in the cortical (lymphoid) cords.

  9. Experimental Test of Spatial Updating Models for Monkey Eye-Head Gaze Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Van Grootel, Tom J.; Van der Willigen, Robert F.; Van Opstal, A. John

    2012-01-01

    How the brain maintains an accurate and stable representation of visual target locations despite the occurrence of saccadic gaze shifts is a classical problem in oculomotor research. Here we test and dissociate the predictions of different conceptual models for head-unrestrained gaze-localization behavior of macaque monkeys. We adopted the double-step paradigm with rapid eye-head gaze shifts to measure localization accuracy in response to flashed visual stimuli in darkness. We presented the second target flash either before (static), or during (dynamic) the first gaze displacement. In the dynamic case the brief visual flash induced a small retinal streak of up to about 20 deg at an unpredictable moment and retinal location during the eye-head gaze shift, which provides serious challenges for the gaze-control system. However, for both stimulus conditions, monkeys localized the flashed targets with accurate gaze shifts, which rules out several models of visuomotor control. First, these findings exclude the possibility that gaze-shift programming relies on retinal inputs only. Instead, they support the notion that accurate eye-head motor feedback updates the gaze-saccade coordinates. Second, in dynamic trials the visuomotor system cannot rely on the coordinates of the planned first eye-head saccade either, which rules out remapping on the basis of a predictive corollary gaze-displacement signal. Finally, because gaze-related head movements were also goal-directed, requiring continuous access to eye-in-head position, we propose that our results best support a dynamic feedback scheme for spatial updating in which visuomotor control incorporates accurate signals about instantaneous eye- and head positions rather than relative eye- and head displacements. PMID:23118883

  10. Myocarditis, Disseminated Infection, and Early Viral Persistence Following Experimental Coxsackievirus B Infection of Cynomolgus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cammock, Cheryl E.; Halnon, Nancy J.; Skoczylas, Jill; Blanchard, James; Bohm, Rudolf; Miller, Christopher J.; Lai, Chi; Krogstad, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B (CVB) infection is a common cause of acute viral myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myocarditis caused by this enterovirus is highly variable, ranging from mildly symptoms to complete hemodynamic collapse. These variations in initial symptoms and in the immediate and long term outcomes of this disease have impeded development of effective treatment strategies. Nine cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with myocarditic strains of CVB. Virological studies performed up to 28 days post-inoculation demonstrated the development of neutralizing antibody in all animals, and the presence of CVB in plasma. High dose intravenous inoculation (n = 2) resulted in severe disseminated disease, while low dose intravenous (n = 6) or oral infection (1 animal) resulted in clinically unapparent infection. Transient, minor, echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in several animals, but no animals displayed signs of significant acute cardiac failure. Although viremia rapidly resolved, signs of myocardial inflammation and injury were observed in all animals at the time of necropsy, and CVB was detected in postmortem myocardial specimens up to 28 days PI. This non-human primate system replicates many features of illness in acute coxsackievirus myocarditis and demonstrates that myocardial involvement may be common in enteroviral infection; it may provide a model system for testing of treatment strategies for enteroviral infections and acute coxsackievirus myocarditis. PMID:24040287

  11. Visual motion processing by neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys with experimental amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    El-Shamayleh, Yasmine; Kiorpes, Lynne; Kohn, Adam; Movshon, J. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Early experience affects the development of the visual system. Ocular misalignment or unilateral blur often causes amblyopia, a disorder which has become a standard for understanding developmental plasticity. Neurophysiological studies of amblyopia have focused almost entirely on the first stage of cortical processing in striate cortex. Here we provide the first extensive study of how amblyopia affects extrastriate cortex in nonhuman primates. We studied macaque monkeys (M. nemestrina) for which we have detailed psychophysical data, directly comparing physiological findings to perceptual capabilities. Because these subjects showed deficits in motion discrimination, we focused on area MT/V5, which plays a central role in motion processing. Most neurons in normal MT respond equally to visual stimuli presented through either eye; most recorded in amblyopes strongly preferred stimulation of the non-amblyopic (fellow) eye. The pooled responses of neurons driven by the amblyopic eye showed reduced sensitivity to coherent motion, and preferred higher speeds, in agreement with behavioral measurements. MT neurons were more limited in their capacity to integrate motion information over time than expected from behavioral performance; neurons driven by the amblyopic eye had even shorter integration times than those driven by the fellow eye. We conclude that some, but not all, of the motion sensitivity deficits associated with amblyopia can be explained by abnormal development of MT. PMID:20826682

  12. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  13. Information seeking in capuchins (Cebus apella): a rudimentary form of metacognition?

    PubMed

    Vining, Alexander Q; Marsh, Heidi L

    2015-05-01

    In previous research, great apes and rhesus macaques have demonstrated multiple apparently metacognitive abilities, whereas capuchin monkeys have not. The present experiment investigated whether at least a rudimentary form of metacognition might be demonstrated in capuchins if a simplified metacognitive task was used. Capuchins (Cebus apella) were required to locate a food reward hidden beneath one of two inverted cups that sat on a Plexiglas tray. In some conditions, the capuchins were shown where the food was hidden, in others they could infer its location, and in yet others they were not given information about the location of the food. On all trials, capuchins could optionally seek information about the food's location by looking up through the Plexiglas beneath the cups. In general, capuchins did this less often when they were shown the food reward, but not when they could infer the reward's location. These data suggest that capuchins-if metacognitive-only metacognitively control their information seeking in some conditions, particularly those in which information is presented in the visual domain. This may represent a rudimentary version of metacognitive control, in comparison with that seen in great apes and humans.

  14. Pairing and recombination features during meiosis in Cebus paraguayanus (Primates: Platyrrhini)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Cruz, Raquel; Robles, Pedro; Steinberg, Eliana R; Camats, Nuria; Brieño, Miguel A; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Mudry, Marta D

    2009-01-01

    Background Among neotropical Primates, the Cai monkey Cebus paraguayanus (CPA) presents long, conserved chromosome syntenies with the human karyotype (HSA) as well as numerous C+ blocks in different chromosome pairs. In this study, immunofluorescence (IF) against two proteins of the Synaptonemal Complex (SC), namely REC8 and SYCP1, two recombination protein markers (RPA and MLH1), and one protein involved in the pachytene checkpoint machinery (BRCA1) was performed in CPA spermatocytes in order to analyze chromosome meiotic behavior in detail. Results Although in the vast majority of pachytene cells all autosomes were paired and synapsed, in a small number of nuclei the heterochromatic C-positive terminal region of bivalent 11 remained unpaired. The analysis of 75 CPA cells at pachytene revealed a mean of 43.22 MLH1 foci per nucleus and 1.07 MLH1 foci in each CPA bivalent 11, always positioned in the region homologous to HSA chromosome 21. Conclusion Our results suggest that C blocks undergo delayed pairing and synapsis, although they do not interfere with the general progress of pairing and synapsis. PMID:19500368

  15. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests

    PubMed Central

    Crofoot, Margaret C.; Gilby, Ian C.; Wikelski, Martin C.; Kays, Roland W.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition. PMID:18184811

  16. Searching in the middle-Capuchins' (Cebus apella) and bonobos' (Pan paniscus) behavior during a spatial search task.

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia; Kanngiesser, Patricia; Saporiti, Martina; Amiconi, Alessandra; Bläsing, Bettina; Call, Josep

    2010-01-01

    In this study we show that bonobos and capuchin monkeys can learn to search in the middle of a landmark configuration in a small-scale space. Five bonobos (Pan paniscus) and 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested in a series of experiments with the expansion test paradigm. The primates were trained to search in the middle of a 4- or 2-landmark configuration, and were then tested with the same configuration expanded. Neither species searched in the middle of the expanded 4-landmark configuration. When presented with a 2-landmark configuration and a constant or variable inter-landmark training distance, the subjects sometimes searched preferentially in the middle of the expanded configuration. We discuss 2 alternative explanations of the results: extracting a middle rule or averaging between different goal-landmark vectors. In any case, compared to adult humans, primates appear highly constrained in their abilities to search in the middle of a configuration of detached landmarks. We discuss some of the factors that may influence the primates' behavior in this task.

  17. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Alfred L; Cooke, Siobhán B; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-07

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades.

  18. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

  19. ASPM and the Evolution of Cerebral Cortical Size in a Community of New World Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Villanea, Fernando A.; Perry, George H.; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) gene has been proposed as a major determinant of cerebral cortical size among primates, including humans. Yet the specific functions of ASPM and its connection to human intelligence remain controversial. This debate is limited in part by a taxonomic focus on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we expand the comparative context of ASPM sequence analyses with a study of New World monkeys, a radiation of primates in which enlarged brain size has evolved in parallel in spider monkeys (genus Ateles) and capuchins (genus Cebus). The primate community of Costa Rica is perhaps a model system because it allows for independent pairwise comparisons of smaller- and larger-brained species within two taxonomic families. Accordingly, we analyzed the complete sequence of exon 18 of ASPM in Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii. As the analysis of multiple species in a genus improves phylogenetic reconstruction, we also analyzed eleven published sequences from other New World monkeys. Our exon-wide, lineage-specific analysis of eleven genera and the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) on ASPM revealed no detectable evidence for positive selection in the lineages leading to Ateles or Cebus, as indicated by dN/dS ratios of <1.0 (0.6502 and 0.4268, respectively). Our results suggest that a multitude of interacting genes have driven the evolution of larger brains among primates, with different genes involved in this process in different encephalized lineages, or at least with evidence for positive selection not readily apparent for the same genes in all lineages. The primate community of Costa Rica may serve as a model system for future studies that aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive capacity and cortical size. PMID:23028686

  20. Incidence and cytotoxicity of antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys directed to nonGal antigens, and their relevance for experimental models.

    PubMed

    Rood, Pleunie P M; Rood, Pleunic P M; Hara, Hidetaka; Busch, Jamie L; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Ball, Suyapa; Ayares, David; Awwad, Michel; Cooper, David K C

    2006-02-01

    The recent availability of pigs homozygous for alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GT-KO) has enabled the study of incidence and cytotoxicity of antibodies of cynomolgus monkeys directed to antigens other than Galalpha1,3Gal (Gal), termed nonGal antigens. To this aim, sera from 21 cynomolgus monkeys were tested by flow cytometry for binding of IgM and IgG to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from wild-type (WT) and GT-KO pigs. The sera were also tested for complement-dependent cytotoxicity to WT and GT-KO PBMC. Anti-WT IgM and IgG were found in 100% and 95%, respectively, and anti-GT-KO IgM and IgG in 76% and 66%, respectively, in the sera of the monkeys tested (P < 0.01). Whereas 100% of sera were cytotoxic to WT PBMC, only 76% were cytotoxic to GT-KO PBMC, and the level of cytotoxicity was significantly less (P < 0.01). Although the incidence and cytotoxicity of antibodies in monkey sera to GT-KO pig PBMC are significantly less than to WT PBMC, approximately three-quarters of the monkeys tested had cytotoxic antibodies to GT-KO PBMC. This incidence of cytotoxicity is significantly higher than that found in baboons and humans, suggesting the baboon may be an easier and possibly more suitable model to study antibody-mediated rejection of transplanted GT-KO pig organs and cells.

  1. Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Andrade Junior, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Carneiro Muniz, José Augusto Pereira; Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos Cunha; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Samia; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments. PMID:21811552

  2. Retropositional events consolidate the branching order among New World monkey genera.

    PubMed

    Osterholz, Martin; Walter, Lutz; Roos, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Due to contradicting relationships obtained from various morphological and genetic studies, phylogenetic relationships among New World monkey genera are highly disputed. In the present study, we analyzed the presence/absence pattern of 128 SINE integrations in all New World monkey genera. Among them, 70 were specific for only a single genus, whereas another 18 were present in all New World monkey genera. The 40 remaining insertions were informative to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among genera. Several of them confirmed the monophyly of the three families Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae as well as of the subfamily Callithrichinae. Further markers provided evidence for a sister grouping of Cebidae and Atelidae to the exclusion of Pitheciidae as well as for relationships among genera belonging to Callithrichinae and Atelidae. Although a close affiliation of Saimiri, Aotus and Cebus to Callithrichinae was shown, the relationships among the three genera remained unresolved due to three contradicting insertions.

  3. Analysis of the heterochromatin of Cebus (Primates, Platyrrhini) by micro-FISH and banding pattern comparisons.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Mariela; De Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Amaral, Paulo J S; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y; Pieczarka, Julio C; Mühlmann, María C; Mudry, Marta D

    2011-04-01

    The karyotype of the neotropical primate genus Cebus (Platyrrhini: Cebidae), considered the most ancestral one, shows the greatest amount of heterochromatin described among Platyrrhini genera. Banding techniques and restriction enzyme digestion have previously revealed great variability of quantity and composition of heterochromatin in this genus. In this context, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse this genomic region and discuss its possible role in the diversification of Cebus.We used a heterochromatin probe for chromosome 11 of Cebus libidinosus (11qHe+ CLI probe), obtained by chromosome microdissection. Twenty-six specimens belonging to the families Atelidae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae and Pithecidae (Platyrrhini) were studied. Fourteen out of 26 specimens were Cebus (Cebidae) individuals of C. libidinosus, C. xanthosternos, C. apella, C. nigritus, C. albifrons, C. kaapori and C. olivaceus. In Cebus specimens, we found 6 to 22 positive signals located in interstitial and telomeric positions along the different species. No hybridization signal was observed among the remaining Ceboidea species, thus reinforcing the idea of a Cebus-specific heterochromatin composed of a complex system of repetitive sequences.

  4. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-04-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network.

  5. Monkey Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  6. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  7. Inbreeding avoidance and female mate choice shape reproductive skew in capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator).

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Eva C; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M; Campos, Fernando A; Yashima, Akiko S; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L; Hiwatashi, Tomohide; Kawamura, Shoji

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive skew in multimale groups may be determined by the need for alpha males to offer reproductive opportunities as staying incentives to subordinate males (concessions), by the relative fighting ability of the alpha male (tug-of-war) or by how easily females can be monopolized (priority-of-access). These models have rarely been investigated in species with exceptionally long male tenures, such as white-faced capuchins, where female mate choice for novel unrelated males may be important in shaping reproductive skew. We investigated reproductive skew in white-faced capuchins at Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica, using 20 years of demographic, behavioural and genetic data. Infant survival and alpha male reproductive success were highest in small multimale groups, which suggests that the presence of subordinate males can be beneficial to the alpha male, in line with the concession model's assumptions. None of the skew models predicted the observed degree of reproductive sharing, and the probability of an alpha male producing offspring was not affected by his relatedness to subordinate males, whether he resided with older subordinate males, whether he was prime aged, the number of males or females in the group or the number of infants conceived within the same month. Instead, the alpha male's probability of producing offspring decreased when he was the sire of the mother, was weak and lacked a well-established position and had a longer tenure. Because our data best supported the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis and female choice for strong novel mates, these hypotheses should be taken into account in future skew models.

  8. Visuospatial learning and memory in the Cebus apella and microglial morphology in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and CA1 lacunosum molecular layer.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, Carlos; de Lima, Camila M; Fôro, César A R; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Magalhães, Nara G M; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Diniz, Daniel G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da C; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether the morphology of microglia in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG-Mol) or in the lacunosum molecular layer of CA1 (CA1-LMol) was correlated with spatial learning and memory in the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Learning and memory was tested in 4 monkeys with visuo-spatial, paired associated learning (PAL) tasks from the Cambridge battery of neuropsychological tests. After testing, monkeys were sacrificed, and hippocampi were sectioned. We specifically immunolabeled microglia with an antibody against the adapter binding, ionized calcium protein. Microglia were selected from the middle and outer thirds of the DG-Mol (n=268) and the CA1-LMol (n=185) for three-dimensional reconstructions created with Neurolucida and Neuroexplorer software. Cluster and discriminant analyses, based on microglial morphometric parameters, identified two major morphological microglia phenotypes (types I and II) found in both the CA1-LMol and DG-Mol of all individuals. Compared to type II, type I microglia were significantly smaller, thinner, more tortuous and ramified, and less complex (lower fractal dimensions). PAL performance was both linearly and non-linearly correlated with type I microglial morphological features from the rostral and caudal DG-Mol, but not with microglia from the CA1-LMol. These differences in microglial morphology and correlations with PAL performance were consistent with previous proposals of hippocampal regional contributions for spatial learning and memory. Our results suggested that at least two morphological microglial phenotypes provided distinct physiological roles to learning-associated activity in the rostral and caudal DG-Mol of the monkey brain.

  9. Growth restriction of an experimental live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine in human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro parallels attenuation in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Scull, Margaret A.; Schmidt, Alexander C.; Murphy, Brian R.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of severe pediatric respiratory viral disease. We characterized wild-type HPIV2 infection in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) and found that the virus replicates to high titer, sheds apically, targets ciliated cells, and induces minimal cytopathology. Replication of an experimental, live attenuated HPIV2 vaccine strain, containing both temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating mutations, was restricted >30-fold compared to rHPIV2-WT in HAE at 32°C and exhibited little productive replication at 37°C. This restriction paralleled attenuation in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, supporting the HAE model as an appropriate and convenient system for characterizing HPIV2 vaccine candidates. PMID:20139039

  10. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p < 0.0001) than the non-habituated group, and spent significantly more time eating and foraging (p < 0.0001). While the habituated monkeys at CWR may not be over-habituated, they could become that way as development, especially ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica

  11. Female Putty-Nosed Monkeys Use Experimentally Altered Contextual Information to Disambiguate the Cause of Male Alarm Calls

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Many animal vocal signals are given in a wide range of contexts which can sometimes have little in common. Yet, to respond adaptively, listeners must find ways to identify the cause of a signal, or at least rule out alternatives. Here, we investigate the nature of this process in putty-nosed monkeys, a forest primate. In this species, adult males have a very restricted repertoire of vocalizations which are given in response to a wide variety of events occurring under conditions of limited visibility. We carried out a series of field playback experiments on females (N = 6) in a habituated group in Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria, in which male alarm/loud calls were presented either alone, or following acoustic information that simulated the occurrence of natural disturbances. We demonstrate that listeners appear to integrate contextual information in order to distinguish among possible causes of calls. We conclude that, in many cases, pragmatic aspects of communication play a crucial role in call interpretation and place a premium on listeners' abilities to integrate information from different sources. PMID:23755265

  12. Independence of biomechanical forces and craniofacial pneumatization in Cebus.

    PubMed

    Rae, Todd C; Koppe, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Several different factors have been hypothesized as explanations of variation in primate paranasal sinus size. Biomechanical forces, particularly those associated with mastication, are frequently evoked to account for differences in primate craniofacial pneumatization. To test whether masticatory stresses are responsible for maxillary sinus volume diversity, two platyrrhine species of the genus Cebus (C. apella and C. albifrons) were examined. The former has been identified as a hard object feeder, and many morphological differences between the two species are attributable to differences in the mechanical properties of their respective diets. Sinus volumes were derived from serial coronal CT scans of the crania of adults. Several external cranial measurements were used to scale sinus volume relative to the size of the face. Relative measures of maxillary sinus volume were compared using standard statistical techniques. In all comparisons, the two capuchin species do not differ from one another significantly at P < 0.05. Thus, this "natural experiment" fails to support the interpretation that biomechanical forces acting on the facial skeleton substantially affect the degree of paranasal pneumatization in primates. This result suggests that it is unlikely that the maxillary sinus performs any function in relation to masticatory stress; other factors must be responsible for the variation in sinus volume among primates.

  13. The associative and limbic thalamus in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an experimental study in the monkey

    PubMed Central

    Rotge, J Y; Aouizerate, B; Amestoy, V; Lambrecq, V; Langbour, N; Nguyen, T H; Dovero, S; Cardoit, L; Tignol, J; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P; Guehl, D

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent psychiatric disorder characterized by repetitive intrusive thoughts and severe anxiety, leading to compulsive behaviors. Although medical treatment is effective in most cases, resistance is observed in about 30% of patients. In this context, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudate or subthalamic nuclei has been recently proposed with encouraging results. However, some patients were unimproved or exhibited awkward side effects. Therefore, exploration of new targets for DBS remains critical in OCD. In the latter, functional imaging studies revealed overactivity in the limbic and associative cortico-subcortical loops encompassing the thalamus. However, the role of the thalamus in the genesis of repetitive behaviors and related anxiety is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological-induced overactivity of the medial thalamus could give rise to abnormal behaviors close to that observed in OCD. We modulated the ventral anterior (VA) and medial dorsal (MD) nuclei activity by in situ bicuculline (GABAA antagonist) microinjections in subhuman primates and assessed their pharmacological-induced behavior. Bicuculline injections within the VA caused significant repetitive and time-consuming motor acts whereas those performed within the MD induced symptoms of dysautonomic dysregulation along with abnormal vocalizations and marked motor hypoactivity. These findings suggest that overactivation of the VA and MD nuclei of the thalamus provokes compulsive-like behaviors and neurovegetative manifestations usually associated with the feeling of anxiety in OCD patients. In further research, this translational approach should allow us to test the effectiveness and side effects of these thalamic nuclei DBS in monkey and perhaps, in a second step, to propose a transfer of this technique to severely disabled OCD patients. PMID:23010765

  14. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics.

  15. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T

    2016-08-03

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru.

  16. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  17. Oxygen isotope values in bone carbonate and collagen are consistently offset for New World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Brooke Erin

    2014-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotopes are increasingly used in ecological research. Here, I present oxygen isotope (δ18O) values for bone carbonate and collagen from howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from three localities in Costa Rica. There are apparent differences in δ18Ocarbonate and δ18Ocollagen among species. Monkeys from moist forest have significantly lower isotope values than those from drier localities. Because patterns are similar for both substrates, discrimination (Δ) between δ18Ocarbonate and δ18Ocollagen is relatively consistent among species and localities (17.6 ± 0.9‰). Although this value is larger than that previously obtained for laboratory rats, consistency among species and localities suggests it can be used to compare δ18Ocarbonate and δ18Ocollagen for monkeys, and potentially other medium-bodied mammals. Establishing discrimination for oxygen between these substrates for wild monkeys provides a foundation for future environmental and ecological research on modern and ancient organisms. PMID:25392315

  18. Complex proteinopathy with accumulations of prion protein, hyperphosphorylated tau, α-synuclein and ubiquitin in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Pedro; Cervenak, Juraj; Bu, Ming; Miller, Lindsay; Asher, David M

    2014-07-01

    Proteins aggregate in several slowly progressive neurodegenerative diseases called 'proteinopathies'. Studies with cell cultures and transgenic mice overexpressing mutated proteins suggested that aggregates of one protein induced misfolding and aggregation of other proteins as well - a possible common mechanism for some neurodegenerative diseases. However, most proteinopathies are 'sporadic', without gene mutation or overexpression. Thus, proteinopathies in WT animals genetically close to humans might be informative. Squirrel monkeys infected with the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent developed an encephalopathy resembling variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with accumulations not only of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)), but also three other proteins: hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau), α-synuclein and ubiquitin; β-amyloid protein (Aβ) did not accumulate. Severity of brain lesions correlated with spongiform degeneration. No amyloid was detected. These results suggested that PrP(TSE) enhanced formation of p-tau and aggregation of α-synuclein and ubiquitin, but not Aβ, providing a new experimental model for neurodegenerative diseases associated with complex proteinopathies.

  19. Hepatitis E genotype 4 virus from feces of monkeys infected experimentally can be cultured in PLC/PRF/5 cells and upregulate host interferon-inducible genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Ying; Harrison, Tim J; Luo, Baobin; Zhou, Yan; Li, Xiuhua; Song, Aijing; Huang, Weijin; Wang, Youchun

    2014-10-01

    The understanding of the interaction between hepatitis E virus (HEV) and its host cells has been impeded greatly by the absence of a cell culture system. In this study, an efficient cultivation method was developed in PLC/PRF/5 cells for HEV genotype 4 from the feces of monkeys infected experimentally. Compared to minimal essential medium (MEM), mixed Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM)/M199 improved the infection efficiency of HEV in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The incubation time and temperature were set at 6 hr and 40°C, respectively. Compared to a 100% ELISA positive ratio (EPR) of 1 × 10(6)  copies/ml HEV inoculated flasks, the ELISA positive ratio was 100%, 75%, 37.5%, and 100% for flasks inoculated with HEV incubated for 30 min under the conditions of pH 3.0, pH 11.0, 56°C and delipidation treatment, respectively. Gene expression profiles of HEV inoculated and control PLC/PRF/5 cells were assayed using a microarray. Four interferon-inducible genes, IFI27, IFI6, Mx1, and CMPK2, were up-regulated during HEV-infection. Furthermore, the replication of HEV was inhibited at 3-14 days after treatment with 500 IU/ml IFN-α2b.

  20. The Effect of Dietary Adaption on Cranial Morphological Integration in Capuchins (Order Primates, Genus Cebus)

    PubMed Central

    Makedonska, Jana; Wright, Barth W.; Strait, David S.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C.apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C.albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback foods. This is the

  1. Consul, the Educated Monkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolpas, Sidney J.; Massion, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a toy, the Educated Monkey, developed to help students learn multiplication tables and associated division, factoring, and addition tables and associated subtraction. Explains why the monkey works and reviews geometric, algebraic, and arithmetic concepts. (KHR)

  2. Failed attempts at experimental transplantation and transmission of nocturnally-periodic simian Loa from monkey to man

    PubMed Central

    Duke, BOL

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes unsuccessful attempts to induce a nocturnally-periodic infection with simian Loa in a human volunteer (the author of this paper) by means of 1. Transplanting adult simian Loa worms from a wild drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) to man; and 2. Infecting the same volunteer by sub-cutaneous inoculation with infective larvae of simian Loa from a laboratory-bred, experimentally infected Chrysops silacea. PMID:15283865

  3. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.

  4. Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  5. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    PubMed Central

    Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; de Abreu, Tainá; Pfrimer, Gabriel A.; Silva, Sylla F.; Ziermann, Janine M.; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Tomaz, Carlos; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H.; Maior, Rafael S.; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales A.

    2013-01-01

    Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology. PMID:24396829

  6. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  7. Interspecific infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site.

  8. Antibody Responses to a Novel Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein Vaccine Correlate with Protection against Experimental Malaria Infection in Aotus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, David R.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; White, John H.; Cowan, Graeme J. M.; Samuel, Kay; Dubbeld, Martin A.; der Wel, Annemarie Voorberg-van; Thomas, Alan W.; McBride, Jana S.; Arnot, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The Block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum has been identified as a target of protective immunity by a combination of seroepidemiology and parasite population genetics. Immunogenicity studies in small animals and Aotus monkeys were used to determine the efficacy of recombinant antigens derived from this region of MSP-1 as a potential vaccine antigen. Aotus lemurinus griseimembra monkeys were immunized three times with a recombinant antigen derived from the Block 2 region of MSP-1 of the monkey-adapted challenge strain, FVO of Plasmodium falciparum, using an adjuvant suitable for use in humans. Immunofluorescent antibody assays (IFA) against erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum using sera from the immunized monkeys showed that the MSP-1 Block 2 antigen induced significant antibody responses to whole malaria parasites. MSP-1 Block 2 antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed no significant differences in antibody titers between immunized animals. Immunized animals were challenged with the virulent P. falciparum FVO isolate and monitored for 21 days. Two out of four immunized animals were able to control their parasitaemia during the follow-up period, whereas two out of two controls developed fulminating parasitemia. Parasite-specific serum antibody titers measured by IFA were four-fold higher in protected animals than in unprotected animals. In addition, peptide-based epitope mapping of serum antibodies from immunized Aotus showed distinct differences in epitope specificities between protected and unprotected animals. PMID:24421900

  9. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) perform self- and social anointing in captivity.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Jay P; Tapanes, Elizabeth; Evans, Sian

    2014-01-01

    Several species of primates, including owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), anoint by rubbing their fur with odiferous substances. Previous research has shown that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) anoint socially by rubbing their bodies together in groups of two or more while anointing. Owl monkeys housed at the DuMond Conservancy have been observed to anoint over the last 10 years, and we report detailed new information on the anointing behavior of this population, including descriptions of social anointing which occurs frequently. We first investigated the occurrence of self-anointing in 35 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes. Detailed descriptions regarding body regions anointed were obtained for all anointers (n = 28). The median duration for a self-anointing bout was 3.6 min (range from approx. 2 s to 14.15 min). While the latency and length of anointing bouts showed considerable interindividual differences, no statistically significant differences were found between sexes, wild- or captive-born owl monkeys or across age groups. However, we found the lower back and tail were anointed at a rate significantly greater than other body parts, but there were no differences in these patterns across sex or wild- or captive-born owl monkeys. More recently, social anointing was investigated in 26 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes, of which half were observed to anoint socially. The average duration for all social anointing bouts was 72.88 s, with a median duration of 30 s (range 5-322 s). A detailed ethogram was also generated that included behaviors that were performed while anointing, including facial expressions and vocalizations. The intraindividual variability for 8 monkeys used in both investigations is discussed. These findings extend our knowledge of anointing and confirm the existence of social anointing in another genus with a unique biology (nocturnal and socially monogamous) distinct from capuchins.

  10. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  11. Motion Sickness-Induced Food Aversions in the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, M. Aaron; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1979-01-01

    Conditioned aversions to colored, flavored water were established in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by following consumption with 90 min of simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation. The experimental group (N= 13) drank significantly less of the green, almond-flavored test solution than did the control group (N=14) during three post-treatment preference testing days. Individual differences were noted in that two experimental monkeys readily drank the test solution after rotational stimulation. Only two of the experimental monkeys showed emesis during rotation, yet 10 monkeys in this group developed an aversion. These results suggest that: (1) motion sickness can be readily induced in Squirrel monkeys with simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation, and (2) that conditioned food aversions are achieved in the absence of emesis in this species.

  12. Therapy of Staphylococcal Infections in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Harold N.; Saslaw, Samuel

    1971-01-01

    Intravenous inoculation of a penicillin-resistant, phage type 80/81 staphylococcus caused lethal infection in six of eight untreated monkeys. Daily intragastric administration of clindamycin hydrochloride and erythromycin stearate and intramuscular inoculation of clindamycin-2-phosphate and methicillin, all at a dose level of 50 mg/kg, was followed by mortalities of one of eight, one of eight, none of eight, and one of eight monkeys, respectively. Duration of obvious acute illness in surviving monkeys and time required for complete recovery were not significantly different in the four therapy groups with the exception that duration of acute illness in monkeys treated with clindamycin-2-phosphate (mean, 4.1 days) was significantly shorter than in monkeys given erythromycin stearate (mean, 7.1 days). In vitro sensitivity data and serum antibacterial levels would suggest that methicillin would be the least effective therapeutically, followed by erythromycin stearate and the two clindamycin preparations in that order. However, this prediction was not fulfilled in these studies in experimentally infected monkeys. PMID:4994902

  13. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  14. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  15. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; DeRoshia, C. W.; Hetherington, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  16. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Winget, C M; Rosenblatt, L S; DeRoshia, C W; Hetherington, N W

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  17. Monomorphic region of the serotonin transporter promoter gene in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Esterina; Lucarelli, Marco; Passarelli, Francesca; Butler, Richard H; Tamellini, Andrea; Addessi, Elsa; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Laviola, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Genetic variation in the human serotonin system has long been studied because of its functional consequences and links to various neuropsychiatric and behavior-related disorders. Among non-human primates, the common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and tufted capuchins monkeys (Cebus apella) are becoming increasingly used as models to study the effects of genes, environments, and their interaction on physiology and complex behavior. In order to investigate the independent functions of and potential interactions between serotonin-related genes, anxiety and neuropsychiatric disorders, we analyzed the presence and variability of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in marmoset and capuchin monkeys. By PCR and using heterologous primers from the human sequence, we amplified and then sequenced the corresponding 5-HTT region in marmosets and capuchins. The resulting data revealed the presence of a tandem repeat sequence similar to that described in humans, but unlike humans and other Old World primates, no variable length alleles were detected in these New World monkeys, suggesting that if serotonin transporter is involved in modulating behavior in these animals it does so through different molecular mechanisms.

  18. a Maximum Entropy Model of the Bearded Capuchin Monkey Habitat Incorporating Topography and Spectral Unmixing Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, A. M.; Bernardes, S.; Nibbelink, N.; Biondi, L.; Presotto, A.; Fragaszy, D. M.; Madden, M.

    2012-07-01

    Movement patterns of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus (Sapajus) libidinosus) in northeastern Brazil are likely impacted by environmental features such as elevation, vegetation density, or vegetation type. Habitat preferences of these monkeys provide insights regarding the impact of environmental features on species ecology and the degree to which they incorporate these features in movement decisions. In order to evaluate environmental features influencing movement patterns and predict areas suitable for movement, we employed a maximum entropy modelling approach, using observation points along capuchin monkey daily routes as species presence points. We combined these presence points with spatial data on important environmental features from remotely sensed data on land cover and topography. A spectral mixing analysis procedure was used to generate fraction images that represent green vegetation, shade and soil of the study area. A Landsat Thematic Mapper scene of the area of study was geometrically and atmospherically corrected and used as input in a Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) procedure and a linear spectral unmixing approach was used to generate the fraction images. These fraction images and elevation were the environmental layer inputs for our logistic MaxEnt model of capuchin movement. Our models' predictive power (test AUC) was 0.775. Areas of high elevation (>450 m) showed low probabilities of presence, and percent green vegetation was the greatest overall contributor to model AUC. This work has implications for predicting daily movement patterns of capuchins in our field site, as suitability values from our model may relate to habitat preference and facility of movement.

  19. The ontogeny of prehensile-tail use in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata.

    PubMed

    Bezanson, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    A study of the platyrrhine prehensile tail provides an opportunity to better understand how ecological and biomechanical factors affect the ability of primates to distribute mass across many different kinds of arboreal supports. Young individuals experience ontogenetic changes in body mass, limb proportions, and motor skills that are likely to exert a strong influence on foraging strategies, social behaviors, support use, and associated prehensile-tail use. In this research, I examine ontogenetic patterns of prehensile-tail use in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata. I collected behavioral data on activity, positional context, support size, and prehensile-tail use in five age categories of white-faced capuchins and mantled howlers during a 12-month period at Estación Biológica La Suerte in northeastern Costa Rica. Infant and juvenile howlers and capuchins were found to use their prehensile tails significantly more often than adults during feeding, foraging, and social behavior. Prehensile-tail use did not show predictable increases during growth. In both species, adults used their prehensile tails in mass-bearing modes significantly less often than juveniles. Despite differences in tail anatomy in Cebus and Alouatta, prehensile-tail use was observed to follow an increasing trajectory from infancy, peaking during juvenescence, and then decreasing in older juveniles and adults. In both species, it appeared that adult patterns of prehensile-tail use reflected the demands placed on young juveniles.

  20. Capuchins (Cebus apella) are limited in their ability to infer others' goals based on context.

    PubMed

    Drayton, Lindsey A; Varman, Liliana; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that many primate species understand others' actions not only in terms of their physical movements, but also in terms of the actor's underlying goals and intentions. Impressively, apes also have the capacity to incorporate previously acquired contextual information into their goal representations. To date, little work has tested whether other primates demonstrate this level of flexibility when inferring others' goals. To help address this question, we tested capuchin monkeys using a procedure similar to one that Buttelmann, Schütte, Carpenter, Call, and Tomasello (2012) used to test apes. Capuchin subjects were repeatedly shown an experimenter manipulating locking mechanisms on a series of boxes. In an experimental condition, the experimenter gave subjects food retrieved from inside the boxes, whereas in a control condition subjects never received food from inside the boxes. We then explored how capuchin subjects would interpret the experimenter's ambiguous manipulation of a novel box. In contrast to apes, subjects in our experiment showed little evidence of being able to flexibly use temporally dissociated contextual cues to make inferences regarding others' goals. This result may point to a crucial difference in the sophistication with which ape and nonape primates understand others' actions.

  1. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  2. Natural Plasmodium infections in Brazilian wild monkeys: reservoirs for human infections?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Cerutti, Crispim; Curado, Izilda; de Paiva, Byanca Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Yamasaki, Tasciane; Summa, Maria Eugênia Laurito; Neves, Dafne do Valle Dutra de Andrade; de Oliveira, Salma Gomes; Gomes, Almério de Castro

    2008-08-01

    Four hundred and forty-eight samples of total blood from wild monkeys living in areas where human autochthonous malaria cases have been reported were screened for the presence of Plasmodium using microscopy and PCR analysis. Samples came from the following distinct ecological areas of Brazil: Atlantic forest (N=140), semideciduous Atlantic forest (N=257) and Cerrado (a savannah-like habitat) (N=51). Thick and thin blood smears of each specimen were examined and Plasmodium infection was screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR). The frequency of Plasmodium infections detected by PCR in Alouatta guariba clamitans in the São Paulo Atlantic forest was 11.3% or 8/71 (5.6% for Plasmodium malariae and 5.6% for Plasmodium vivax) and one specimen was positive for Plasmodium falciparum (1.4%); Callithrix sp. (N=30) and Cebus apella (N=39) specimens were negative by PCR tests. Microscopy analysis was negative for all specimens from the Atlantic forest. The positivity rate for Alouatta caraya from semideciduous Atlantic forest was 6.8% (16/235) in the PCR tests (5.5, 0.8 and 0.4% for P. malariae, P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively), while C. apella specimens were negative. Parasitological examination of the samples using thick smears revealed Plasmodium sp. infections in only seven specimens, which had few parasites (3.0%). Monkeys from the Cerrado (a savannah-like habitat) (42 specimens of A. caraya, 5 of Callithrix jacchus and 4 of C. apella) were negative in both tests. The parasitological prevalence of P. vivax and P. malariae in wild monkeys from Atlantic forest and semideciduous Atlantic forest and the finding of a positive result for P. falciparum in Alouatta from both types of forest support the hypothesis that monkeys belonging to this genus could be a potential reservoir. Furthermore, these findings raise the question of the relationship between simian and autochthonous human malaria in extra-Amazonian regions.

  3. Rhesus monkey platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  4. Activated partial thromboplastin time of owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) plasma.

    PubMed

    Mrema, J E; Johnson, G S; Kelley, S T; Green, T J

    1984-06-01

    Owl monkey plasma samples produced short, reproducible activated partial thromboplastin times, similar to those obtained with samples from many other mammalian species. This was an apparent contradiction to an earlier report of long irreproducible activated partial thromboplastin times from owl monkey samples. The discrepant data could not be explained by differences in anticoagulants (citrate or oxalate), assay reagents (partial thromboplastin with either diatomaceous earth or ellagic acid), or activation incubation times (2, 5, or 10 minutes); nor could they be explained by differences in the monkeys' sex, age or previous experimental exposure to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  5. Hippocampal lesion prevents spatial relational learning in adult macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G; Lavenex, Pierre

    2006-04-26

    The role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory has been extensively studied in rodents. Comparable studies in nonhuman primates, however, are few, and findings are often contradictory. This may be attributable to the failure to distinguish between allocentric and egocentric spatial representations in experimental designs. For this experiment, six adult monkeys received bilateral hippocampal ibotenic acid lesions, and six control subjects underwent sham surgery. Freely moving monkeys then foraged for food located in two arrays of three distinct locations among 18 locations distributed in an open-field arena. Multiple goals and four pseudorandomly chosen entrance points precluded the monkeys' ability to rely on an egocentric strategy to identify food locations. Monkeys were tested in two conditions. First, local visual cues marked the food locations. Second, no local cues marked the food locations, so that monkeys had to rely on an allocentric (spatial relational) representation of the environment to discriminate these locations. Both hippocampal-lesioned and control monkeys discriminated the food locations in the presence of local cues. However, in the absence of local cues, control subjects discriminated the food locations, whereas hippocampal-lesioned monkeys were unable to do so. Interestingly, histological analysis of the brain of one control monkey whose behavior was identical to that of the experimentally lesioned animals revealed a bilateral ischemic lesion restricted to the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that the adult monkey hippocampal formation is critical for the establishment or use of allocentric spatial representations and that selective damage of the hippocampus prevents spatial relational learning in adult nonhuman primates.

  6. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  7. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.

  8. Evaluation of a new bioresorbable barrier to facilitate guided bone regeneration around exposed implant threads. An experimental study in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Hürzeler, M B; Kohal, R J; Naghshbandi, J; Mota, L F; Conradt, J; Hutmacher, D; Caffesse, R G

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new bioresorbable barrier alone or in combination with BioOss for guided bone regeneration around dental implants with exposed implant threads. Five adult Macaca fascicularis monkeys were used in this investigation. After extraction of all premolars and first molars, two endosteal oral implants were installed in each quadrant and the bony defects were randomly treated with either: 1) placement of the new bioresorbable device alone (group 1); 2) placement of the new bioresorbable barrier in combination with BioOss (group 2); 3) placement of an ePTFE barrier in combination with BioOss (group 3); or (4) control (group 4). After a period of six months the animals were killed and the histological processing was performed. There was a significant difference in the amount of new bone regeneration around the implants between the four groups (i.e. groups 1, 2, 3 and 4) (P=0.0122). There was no difference, however, between group 2 and group 3. It can be concluded that the new bioresorbable barrier in combination with BioOss appears to obtain the same results in this type of bony defects as the grafting material in combination with an ePTFE barrier.

  9. On the occurrence of Cebus flavius (Schreber 1774) in the Caatinga, and the use of semi-arid environments by Cebus species in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Renata G; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Silva, Thiago César Farias; de Souza Fialho, Marcos; de Araújo Roque, Alan; Fernandes, Adalberto; Arruda, Fátima

    2009-10-01

    Cebus flavius is a recently rediscovered species and a candidate for the 25 most endangered primate species list. It was hypothesized that the distribution of C. flavius was limited to the Atlantic Forest, while the occurrence of C. libidinosus in the Rio Grande do Norte (RN) Caatinga was inferred, given its occurrence in neighboring states. As a result of a survey in ten areas of the RN Caatinga, this paper reports on four Cebus populations, including the first occurrence of C. flavius in the Caatinga, and an expansion of the northwestern limits of distribution for the species. This C. flavius population may be a rare example of a process of geographic distribution retraction, and is probably the most endangered population of this species. New areas of occurrence of C. libidinosus are also described. Tool use sites were observed in association with reports of the presence of both capuchin species.

  10. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a root canal filling material in reimplanted teeth. Microscopic analysis in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Holland, Roberto; de Souza, Valdir; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise

    2007-10-01

    This study analyzed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root canal filling material for the immediate reimplantation of monkey teeth. Four adult capuchin monkeys Cebus apella were used, which had their maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors on both sides extracted and reimplanted after 15 min. During the extra-alveolar period, the teeth were kept in saline solution and after reimplantation retention was performed with a stainless steel wire and composite resin for 14 days. After 7 days, the reimplanted teeth were submitted to endodontic treatment with biomechanics up to file n. 30 and irrigation with a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2)], and then divided into two study groups: group I - root canal filled with a Ca(OH)(2) paste, and group II - root canal filled with MTA. Radiographic follow up was performed at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively, and after 180 days the animals were killed and specimens were processed for histomorphological analysis. The results revealed that most specimens of both groups presented organized periodontal ligament with no inflammation. The resorptions observed were surface resorptions and were repaired by cementum. Both MTA and Ca(OH)(2) were good root canal filling materials for immediately reimplanted teeth, providing good repair and also allowing biological sealing of some lateral canals. There was no significant difference between the study groups (alpha = 29.60%).

  11. Interspecific Infanticide and Infant-Directed Aggression by Spider Monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a Fragmented Forest in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site. Am. J. Primatol. 74:990–997, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22767357

  12. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  13. Chemotherapy of haemobartonellosis in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Michel, J C; de Thoisy, B; Contamin, H

    2000-04-01

    Splenectomised Saimiri sciureus squirrel monkeys are being used increasingly as an experimental host for human malarial studies, notably for the assessment of candidate vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection. Recently, we have reported that colony-reared S. sciureus monkeys are asymptomatic carriers of Haemobartonella sp. and that patent Haemobartonella infection, activated following splenectomy, may interfere with the course of P. falciparum parasitaemia in these animals. For several years, splenectomised S. sciureus monkeys were routinely submitted to oxytetracycline therapy before their use in malarial studies in order to prevent a possible spontaneous Heamobartonella infection. However, we report here that such antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and that neoarsphenamine chemotherapy may be considered as an alternative to cure both latent and patent haemobartonellosis in S. sciureus monkeys.

  14. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  15. Do Social Conditions Affect Capuchin Monkeys’ (Cebus apella) Choices in a Quantity Judgment Task?

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Beran et al. (2012) reported that capuchin monkeys closely matched the performance of humans in a quantity judgment test in which information was incomplete but a judgment still had to be made. In each test session, subjects first made quantity judgments between two known options. Then, they made choices where only one option was visible. Both humans and capuchin monkeys were guided by past outcomes, as they shifted from selecting a known option to selecting an unknown option at the point at which the known option went from being more than the average rate of return to less than the average rate of return from earlier choices in the test session. Here, we expanded this assessment of what guides quantity judgment choice behavior in the face of incomplete information to include manipulations to the unselected quantity. We manipulated the unchosen set in two ways: first, we showed the monkeys what they did not get (the unchosen set), anticipating that “losses” would weigh heavily on subsequent trials in which the same known quantity was presented. Second, we sometimes gave the unchosen set to another monkey, anticipating that this social manipulation might influence the risk-taking responses of the focal monkey when faced with incomplete information. However, neither manipulation caused difficulty for the monkeys who instead continued to use the rational strategy of choosing known sets when they were as large as or larger than the average rate of return in the session, and choosing the unknown (riskier) set when the known set was not sufficiently large. As in past experiments, this was true across a variety of daily ranges of quantities, indicating that monkeys were not using some absolute quantity as a threshold for selecting (or not) the known set, but instead continued to use the daily average rate of return to determine when to choose the known versus the unknown quantity. PMID:23181038

  16. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Schroeder, Gabriel R.; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals “succeed” in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory. PMID:25365530

  17. Pathology of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Timothy G.; Stookey, James L.; Eddy, Gerald A.; Kastello, Michael D.

    1973-01-01

    Gross and microscopic lesions associated with Bolivan hemorrhagic fever virus infection in the rhesus monkey were studied in 10 animals which died following inoculation. Gross lesions included skin rash, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, meningeal edema, hydropericardium and enlarged friable livers. Hemorrhagic manifestations of the infection were not consistently observed, but hemorrhages were present in the skin, heart, brain and nares in some monkeys. Histopathologic lesions were fairly consistent. Hepatic necrosis with the presence of acidophilic hyaline bodies, necrotizing enteritis, epithelial necrosis and adrenal cortical necrosis were present in all monkeys. Those monkeys which died after the seventeenth day of infection had nonsupurative meningoencephalitis; lymphoid necrosis was present in 3 monkeys that died after day 18. Other microscopic lesions included myocardial degeneration, lymphoid and reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia and lymphoid depletion. Most of the histopathologic lesions described in human autopsy material were reproduced; however, the necrosis in the skin and oral mucosa, mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and the adrenal cortex have not been described in man. Despite these apparent discrepancies the results of this investigation indicate that the rhesus monkey is a good experimental model for the study of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever infection. ImagesFig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4202335

  18. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  19. Anatomical aspects of the lacrimal gland of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella).

    PubMed Central

    Veiga Neto, E R; Tamega, O J; Zorzetto, N L; Dall Pai, V

    1992-01-01

    In the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) the main lacrimal gland is composed of 2 distinct portions with an intraorbital and extraorbital localisation, interconnected by a bridge of glandular tissue which crosses the lateral orbital wall through the lateral orbital fissure located in the sphenozygomatic suture. The intraorbital lacrimal gland is flattened and extremely thin, with a variable outline. It lies on the upper and outer third of the globe of the eye, and the aponeurosis and the belly of the lateral rectus muscle, extending antero-posteriorly from the upper lateral angle of the orbit midway along the orbital cavity. The extraorbital lacrimal gland is compact, halfmoon-shaped, with 3 surfaces, 3 borders and 2 extremities. It lies in the temporal fossa between the temporalis muscle and the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone, fitting into a depression in this bone, and totally surrounded by adipose tissue. The secretory cells have a flocculent appearance and either low or high density. They possess a basal region containing the nucleus and rich in granular endoplasmic reticulum, and an apical region filled with secretory granules varying in size, form and density. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1452484

  20. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) discriminate between knowing and not knowing and collect information as needed before acting.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Robert R; Zivin, Aaron; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-10-01

    Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before acting, as when we determine whether we know a phone number before dialing. Such metacognition, or thinking about thinking, can improve selection of appropriate behavior. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta) are capable of a simple form of metacognitive access to the contents of short-term memory. Monkeys chose among four opaque tubes, one of which concealed food. The tube containing the reward varied randomly from trial to trial. On half the trials the monkeys observed the experimenter baiting the tube, whereas on the remaining trials their view of the baiting was blocked. On each trial, monkeys were allowed a single chance to select the tube containing the reward. During the choice period the monkeys had the opportunity to look down the length of each tube, to determine if it contained food. When they knew the location of the reward, most monkeys chose without looking. In contrast, when ignorant, monkeys often made the effort required to look, thereby learning the location of the reward before choosing. Looking improved accuracy on trials on which monkeys had not observed the baiting. The difference in looking behavior between trials on which the monkeys knew, and trials on which they were ignorant, suggests that rhesus monkeys discriminate between knowing and not knowing. This result extends similar observations made of children and apes to a species of Old World monkey, suggesting that the underlying cognitive capacities may be widely distributed among primates.

  1. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  2. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  3. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias.

    PubMed

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-Su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development.

  4. Acute physiological responses of squirrel monkeys exposed to hyperdynamic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral responses to a hyperdynamic environment were examined in four adult male squirrel monkeys. After baseline monitoring at 1 G, monkeys were exposed to one of three conditions: (1) +2 Gz for 60 minutes, (2) +2.9 Gz max for 8 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle launch), or (3) +1.7 Gz max for 19 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle reentry). During all experimental conditions, heart rate rose, and colonic temperature began to decline within the first ten minutes of centrifugation and decreased by as much as 2 C in some instances. Behaviorally, during centrifugation, the monkeys seemed to exhibit drowsiness and fall asleep, an observation not made during the control period. It is concluded that primates are susceptible to acute hyperdynamic field exposure.

  5. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research. PMID:25657726

  6. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research.

  7. Lassa virus infection of rhesus monkeys: pathogenesis and treatment with ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Jahrling, P B; Hesse, R A; Eddy, G A; Johnson, K M; Callis, R T; Stephen, E L

    1980-05-01

    Rhesus monkeys were experimentally infected with Lassa virus to establish their suitability as a nonhuman primate model for the human disease and to test the protective efficacy of ribavirin, an antiviral drug. Six of 10 untreated control monkeys died after subcutaneous inoculation of 10(6.1) plaque-forming units of Lassa virus (strain Josiah). Infectivity titrations of tissue homogenates from the six dead monkeys indicated significant replication in all tissues tested except the central nervous system. This distribution of virus was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence examination of cryostat-sectioned tissues. Ribavirin was beneficial in the treatment of two groups of infected monkeys. Four monkeys first treated on the day of viral inoculation experienced only mild clinical disease; four monkeys first treated five days later experienced a more severe illness. None of the eight monkeys treated with ribavirin died. Viremia titers and elevations of levels of serum transaminases in treated monkeys were significantly lower than in controls. Ribavirin may be beneficial in the treatment of humans exposed to this life-threatening virus.

  8. Monkey Able Being Ready for preflight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Able, is being ready for placement into a capsule for a preflight test of Jupiter, AM-18 mission. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959 and also carried a rhesus monkey, Baker, into suborbit.

  9. Precocious quantitative cognition in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2016-02-01

    Basic quantitative abilities are thought to have an innate basis in humans partly because the ability to discriminate quantities emerges early in child development. If humans and nonhuman primates share this developmentally primitive foundation of quantitative reasoning, then this ability should be present early in development across species and should emerge earlier in monkeys than in humans because monkeys mature faster than humans. We report that monkeys spontaneously make accurate quantity choices by 1 year of age in a task that human children begin to perform only at 2.5 to 3 years of age. Additionally, we report that the quantitative sensitivity of infant monkeys is equal to that of the adult animals in their group and that rates of learning do not differ between infant and adult animals. This novel evidence of precocious quantitative reasoning in infant monkeys suggests that human quantitative reasoning shares its early developing foundation with other primates. The data further suggest that early developing components of primate quantitative reasoning are constrained by maturational factors related to genetic development as opposed to learning experience alone.

  10. Stereopsis and disparity vergence in monkeys with subnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1997-02-01

    The surgical treatment for strabismus in infants generally results in microtropia or subnormal binocular vision. Although the clinical characteristics of these conditions are well established, there are important questions about the mechanisms of binocular vision in these patients that can best be investigated in an appropriate animal model. In the present psychophysical investigations, spatial frequency response functions for disparity-induced fusional vergence and for local stereopsis were studied in macaque monkeys, who demonstrated many of the major visual characteristics of patients whose eyes were surgically aligned during infancy. In six rhesus monkeys, unilateral esotropia was surgically induced at various ages (30-184 days of age). However, over the next 12 months, all of the monkeys recovered normal eye alignment. Behavioral measurements at 4-6 years of age showed that the monkeys' prism-induced fusional vergence responses were indistinguishable from those of control monkeys or humans with normal binocular vision. Investigations of stereo-depth discrimination demonstrated that each of the experimental monkeys also had stereoscopic vision, but their stereoacuities varied from being essentially normal to severely stereo-deficient. The degree of stereo-deficiency was not related to the age at which surgical esotropia was induced, or to the presence or absence of amblyopia, and was not dependent on the spatial frequency of the test stimulus. Altogether, these experiments demonstrate that a temporary, early esotropia can affect the binocular disparity responses of motor and sensory components of binocular vision differently, probably because of different sensitive periods of development for the two components.

  11. Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Timothy E; Janes, Amy C; Kaufman, Marc J

    2012-08-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N = 14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on four tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2 ± 2.6 days (range: 50-70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 min per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within 2 months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful in reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys.

  12. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  13. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  14. Monkey Baker in bio-pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Baker, in bio-pack couch being readied for Jupiter (AM-18 flight). Jupiter, AM-18 mission, also carried an American-born rhesus monkey, Able into suborbit. The flight was successful and both monkeys were recovered in good condition. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959.

  15. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  16. Systems Biology of the Vervet Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Service, Susan K.; Cantor, Rita M.; Dewar, Ken; Jentsch, James D.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Turner, Trudy R.; Warren, Wesley C.; Weinstock, George M.; Woods, Roger P.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an international collaboration to develop the vervet monkey as the most comprehensively phenotypically and genomically characterized NHP, a process that will enable the scientific community to employ this model for systems biology investigations. PMID:24174437

  17. Testing of Compounds for Efficacy against Schistosomiasis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-25

    of compound BL23702 in primates. Protocol WRHN-IIIMc was established to study the use of Marmoset monkeys as antipenetrant models . The monkeys used in...antipentrant models . The monkeys used in each of these protocols have been exposed and no data is available at this time. Investigation of the non...Cebus apl ... 95 Section III Protocol WRHN-IIIMc Marmoset Penetration Model ..... 96 Table 5 Experimental Design for Marmoset Experiment ......... 99

  18. Lassa Virus Infection of Rhesus Monkeys: Pathogenesis and Treatment with Ribavirin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    viruses [5, 61, is effective in treating severe The views of the authors do not purport to reflect the posi- Lassa virus disease in rhesus monkeys...THE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES - VOL. 141, NO. 5 MAY 1980 1980 by The University of Chicago. 0022-1899/80/410500 .95 ECr C- Lassa Virus Infection...Atlanta, Georgia Rhesus monkeys were experimentally infected with Lassa virus to establish their suita- bility as a nonhuman primate model for the human

  19. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  20. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Nagata, Noriyo; Ami, Yasushi; Seki, Fumio; Suzaki, Yuriko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Komase, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Takeda, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, 46 monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.

  1. Polioencephalomalacia secondary to hypernatremia in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Macri, S M Cummings; Masek-Hammerman, K; Crowell, A M; Fenn, M S; Knight, H L; Westmoreland, S V; Miller, A D

    2014-05-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp) are one of the most consistently used New World primates in biomedical research and are increasingly being used in neuroscience research, including models of drug abuse and addiction. Spontaneous neurologic disease in the squirrel monkey is uncommonly reported but includes various infectious diseases as well as cerebral amyloidosis. Hypernatremia is an extremely serious condition of hyperosmolarity that occurs as a result of water loss, adipsia, or excess sodium intake. Neurologic effects of hypernatremia reflect the cellular dehydration produced by the shift of water from the intracellular fluid space into the hypertonic extracellular fluid space. Severe hypernatremia may result in cerebrocortical laminar necrosis (polioencephalomalacia) in human patients as well as in a number of domestic species, including pigs, poultry, and ruminants. We report the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of polioencephalomalacia in 13 squirrel monkeys. Polioencephalomalacia in these animals was associated with hypernatremia that was confirmed by serum levels of sodium greater than 180 mmol/L (reference range, 134.0-154.0 mmol/L [mEq/L]). All animals had concurrent diseases or experimental manipulation that predisposed to adipsia. Immunohistochemical investigation using antibodies to neuronal nuclei (NeuN), CNPase, Iba-1, and CD31 revealed necrosis of predominantly cerebral cortical layers 3, 4, and 5 characterized by neuronal degeneration and loss, oligodendrocytic loss, microglial proliferation, and vascular reactivity. The squirrel monkey is exquisitely sensitive to hyperosmolar metabolic disruption and it is associated with laminar cortical necrosis.

  2. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  3. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  4. Chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in the milk of six species of New and Old world monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kohta; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Kimura, Kazumasa; Glander, Kenneth E.; Hinde, Katie; Dittus, Wolfgang; Milligan, Lauren A.; Power, Michael L.; Oftedal, Olav T.

    2010-01-01

    Human and great ape milks contain a diverse array of milk oligosaccharides, but little is known about the milk oligosaccharides of other primates, and how they differ among taxa. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk of three species of Old World or catarrhine monkeys (Cercopithecidae: rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), toque macaque (Macaca sinica) and Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas)) and three of New World or platyrrhine monkeys (Cebidae: tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) and Bolivian squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis); Atelidae: mantled howler (Alouatta palliata)). The milks of these species contained 6–8% total sugar, most of which was lactose: the estimated ratio of oligosaccharides to lactose in Old World monkeys (1:4 to 1:6) was greater than in New World monkeys (1:12 to 1:23). The chemical structures of the oligosaccharides were determined mainly by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc) were found in the milk of the rhesus macaque, toque macaque, Hamadryas baboon and tufted capuchin, but oligosaccharides containing the type I unit (Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc), which have been found in human and many great ape milks, were absent from the milk of all species studied. Oligosaccharides containing Lewis x (Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc) and 3-fucosyl lactose (3-FL, Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc) were found in the milk of the three cercopithecid monkey species, while 2-fucosyl lactose (5'-FL, Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was absent from all species studied. All of these milks contained acidic oligosaccharides that had N-acetylneuraminic acid as part of their structures, but did not contain oligosaccharides that had N-glycolylneuraminic acid, in contrast to the milk or colostrum of great apes which contain both types of acidic oligosaccharides. Two GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides, lactose 3′-O-sulfate and lacto-N-novopentaose I (Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc) were found only in the

  5. A Markerless 3D Computerized Motion Capture System Incorporating a Skeleton Model for Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Takamura, Yusaku; Hori, Etsuro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a novel markerless motion capture system (MCS) for monkeys, in which 3D surface images of monkeys were reconstructed by integrating data from four depth cameras, and a skeleton model of the monkey was fitted onto 3D images of monkeys in each frame of the video. To validate the MCS, first, estimated 3D positions of body parts were compared between the 3D MCS-assisted estimation and manual estimation based on visual inspection when a monkey performed a shuttling behavior in which it had to avoid obstacles in various positions. The mean estimation error of the positions of body parts (3–14 cm) and of head rotation (35–43°) between the 3D MCS-assisted and manual estimation were comparable to the errors between two different experimenters performing manual estimation. Furthermore, the MCS could identify specific monkey actions, and there was no false positive nor false negative detection of actions compared with those in manual estimation. Second, to check the reproducibility of MCS-assisted estimation, the same analyses of the above experiments were repeated by a different user. The estimation errors of positions of most body parts between the two experimenters were significantly smaller in the MCS-assisted estimation than in the manual estimation. Third, effects of methamphetamine (MAP) administration on the spontaneous behaviors of four monkeys were analyzed using the MCS. MAP significantly increased head movements, tended to decrease locomotion speed, and had no significant effect on total path length. The results were comparable to previous human clinical data. Furthermore, estimated data following MAP injection (total path length, walking speed, and speed of head rotation) correlated significantly between the two experimenters in the MCS-assisted estimation (r = 0.863 to 0.999). The results suggest that the presented MCS in monkeys is useful in investigating neural mechanisms underlying various psychiatric disorders and developing

  6. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  7. Effect of Pulsed 5.62 GHz Microwaves on Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) Performing a Repeated Acquisition Task.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-28

    Bioelectromagnetics 1: 149-160, 1980. 12. Premack, D., and Bahwell, R., Operant-level lever pressing by a monkey as a function of intertest interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 2

  8. Herpesvirus saimiri-induced lymphoproliferative disease in howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rangan, S R; Martin, L N; Enright, F M; Abee, C R

    1977-07-01

    Four of 5 howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) experimentally infected with Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) developed a rapidly fatal malignant lymphoma accompanied by peripheral T-cell lymphocytosis. HVS was isolated from fresh and tissue cultured blood and tissue lymphocytes and from cell cultures derived from nonlymphoid organs. Humoral antibodies against HVS-induced antigens were detected in the sera of the animals. The in vitro response of the peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulants was depressed following HVS infection.

  9. Incidence of ketamine-induced emesis in cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used for staphylococcal enterotoxin bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Adesiyun, A. A.; Tatini, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ten (24%) of 41 cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) showed emetic response to 2.5-20 mg/Kg of ketamine injected i.m. Reduction of the levels of ketamine to one half or less of the emetic level resulted in faster recovery from sedation yet provided adequate time for intubation and subsequent intragastric feeding of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) in only 6 of the 10 monkeys without emesis. The onset of the first emetic episode with ketamine was similar to that induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). Cynomologus monkeys showing emetic response to ketamine could still be used for SE bioassay if an experimentally determined non-emetic dose for individual monkeys is employed for sedation. PMID:7093145

  10. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    de Blois, S T; Novak, M A; Bond, M

    1998-06-01

    The authors tested orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) on object permanence tasks. In Experiment 1, orangutans solved all visible displacements and most invisible displacements except those involving movements into 2 boxes successively. In Experiment 2, performance of orangutans on double invisible displacements and control displacements (assessing simple strategies) was compared. Orangutans did not use the simple strategy of selecting the box visited last by the experimenter. Instead, poorer performance on double invisible displacements may have been related to increased memory requirements. In Experiment 3, squirrel monkeys were tested using the procedure of Experiment 1. Squirrel monkeys solved visible but did not comprehend invisible displacements. Results suggest that orangutans but not squirrel monkeys possess Stage 6 object permanence capabilities.

  11. CXCR4 homologues of gibbon ape, African green monkey, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top marmoset.

    PubMed

    Zubair, S; Metzenberg, S

    2000-08-10

    CXCR4 gene homologues were isolated from an ape (gibbon), an Old World monkey (African green monkey), and two New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and cotton-top marmoset), and their DNA sequences determined. The squirrel monkey and cotton-top marmoset CXCR4 sequences more closely resemble homologues from apes than Old World monkeys, a pattern not seen for the related chemokine receptor CCR5. The African green monkey CXCR4 gene is similar to its homologue in baboon, a pattern that has also been seen among CCR5 homologues. The gibbon CXCR4 contains the first polymorphisms recognized in ape homologues, the human and chimpanzee CXCR4 proteins being identical, and two of these three differences are also observed in one or more Old World monkey homologues. While 18 positions within CXCR4 are now known to be polymorphic in primates, 7 of these polymorphisms have been observed in multiple examples and 11 have been observed only once.

  12. Turnover of human and monkey plasma kininogens in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, T; Wing, D A; Pierce, J V; Pettit, G W

    1979-01-01

    The normal metabolic turnover of plasma kininogens was studied by measuring the disappearance of intravenously administered radiolabeled human and monkey plasma kininogens from the circulation of healthy adult rhesus monkeys. Curves obtained by plotting log radioactivity against time could be expressed as double exponential equations, with the first term representing diffusion, and the second, catabolism. No significant difference between the turnovers of human and monkey kininogens was observed. The difference between the t1/2 of high molecular weight kininogen (25.95 +/- 1.60 h) (mean +/- SEM) and that of low molecular weight kininogen (18.94 +/- 1.93 h) was only marginally significant (P less than 0.05). In contrast, a highly significant (P less than 0.001) difference in their mean catabolic rates (1.12 +/- 0.08 d-1 for high molecular weight kininogen vs. 2.07 +/- 0.09 d-1 for low molecular weight kininogen) was observed. These differences between the two kininogens were attributed to differences in their distribution between the intra- and extravascular pools. Studies of kininogen turnover will be useful in elucidating the in vivo functions of the various kininogens in health as well as during clinical illness. PMID:105015

  13. Development of Object Concepts in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Scott P.; Price, Tracy A.; Vance, Jayme A.; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    One of the most interesting questions in cognitive development is how we acquire and mentally represent knowledge about objects. We investigated the development of object concepts in macaque monkeys. Monkeys viewed trajectory occlusion movies in which a ball followed a linear path that was occluded for some portion of the display while their point of gaze was recorded with a corneal-reflection eye tracker. We analyzed the pattern of eye movements as an indicator of object representation. A majority of eye movements of adult monkeys were anticipatory, implying a functional internal object representation that guided oculomotor behavior. The youngest monkeys lacked this strong internal representation of objects. Longitudinal testing showed that this ability develops over time providing compelling evidence that object concepts develop similarly in monkeys and humans. Therefore, the macaque monkey provides an animal model with which to examine neural mechanisms underlying the development of object representations. PMID:18335495

  14. Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Ott, Torben; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Jacob, Simon N; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Awake, behaving rhesus monkeys are widely used in neurophysiological research. Neural signals are typically measured from monkeys trained with operant conditioning techniques to perform a variety of behavioral tasks in exchange for rewards. Over the past years, monkeys' psychological well-being during experimentation has become an increasingly important concern. We suggest objective criteria to explore whether training sessions during which the monkeys work under controlled water intake over many days might affect their behavior. With that aim, we analyzed a broad range of species-specific behaviors over several months ('ethogram') and used these ethograms as a proxy for the monkeys' well-being. Our results show that monkeys' behavior during training sessions is unaffected by the duration of training-free days in-between. Independently of the number of training-free days (two or nine days) with ad libitum food and water supply, the monkeys were equally active and alert in their home group cages during training phases. This indicates that the monkeys were well habituated to prolonged working schedules and that their well-being was stably ensured during the training sessions.

  15. The enhanced tool-kit of two groups of wild bearded capuchin monkeys in the Caatinga: tool making, associative use, and secondary tools.

    PubMed

    Mannu, Massimo; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2009-03-01

    The use of stones to crack open encapsulated fruit is widespread among wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) inhabiting savanna-like environments. Some populations in Serra da Capivara National Park (Piauí, Brazil), though, exhibit a seemingly broader toolkit, using wooden sticks as probes, and employing stone tools for a variety of purposes. Over the course of 701.5 hr of visual contact of two wild capuchin groups we recorded 677 tool use episodes. Five hundred and seventeen of these involved the use of stones, and 160 involved the use of sticks (or other plant parts) as probes to access water, arthropods, or the contents of insects' nests. Stones were mostly used as "hammers"--not only to open fruit or seeds, or smash other food items, but also to break dead wood, conglomerate rock, or cement in search of arthropods, to dislodge bigger stones, and to pulverize embedded quartz pebbles (licking, sniffing, or rubbing the body with the powder produced). Stones also were used in a "hammer-like" fashion to loosen the soil for digging out roots and arthropods, and sometimes as "hoes" to pull the loosened soil. In a few cases, we observed the re-utilization of stone tools for different purposes (N=3), or the combined use of two tools-stones and sticks (N=4) or two stones (N=5), as sequential or associative tools. On three occasions, the monkeys used smaller stones to loosen bigger quartz pebbles embedded in conglomerate rock, which were subsequently used as tools. These could be considered the first reports of secondary tool use by wild capuchin monkeys.

  16. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  17. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  18. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Erin A.; Olson, Carl R.

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system. PMID:26067532

  19. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella).

    PubMed

    Wilson, V; Lefevre, C E; Morton, F B; Brosnan, S F; Paukner, A; Bates, T C

    2014-02-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one's personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins.

  20. Heterochromatin and chromosome evolution: a FISH probe of Cebus apella paraguayanus (Primate: Platyrrhini) developed by chromosome microdissection.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Mariela; Mühlmann, María; Mudry, Marta Dolores

    2005-12-30

    Neotropical Primate karyotypes are highly variable, particularly in the heterochromatic regions, not only regarding the amount of heterochromatin, but also the composition. G and C banding and FISH techniques provide useful information to characterize interspecific relationships. We used chromosome microdissection to develop a FISH probe of the chromosome 11 heterochromatic block (11qHe+) of Cebus apella paraguayanus (CAPp). Fragments of the 11qHe+ microdissected from fibroblast cell culture were collected in a PCR tube, amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primer-PCR and subsequently labeled. The specificity of the FISH probe was confirmed in metaphases of some Ceboidea species. Signals were located in the He+ of chromosomes 4, 11, 12, 13, and 19 of CAPp and in the He+ of chromosomes 4, 12 and 13 of C. a. nigritus (CAPn); no signals were observed when other Ceboidea species were analyzed. We propose that the heterochromatin observed in CAPp and CAPn is specific for these species. We consider this C. apella heterochromatin identity as a possible key for the interpretation of chromosomal evolution in these Ceboidea.

  1. Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource: Banking Tissues for Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Daunais, JB; Davenport, AT; Helms, CM; Gonzales, SW; Hemby, SE; Friedman, DP; Farro, JP; Baker, EJ; Grant, KA

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is co-morbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of EtOH and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. Methods The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates (NHPs), specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent/day) over long periods of time (12–30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the ethanol-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. Results The MATRR is a unique post-mortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer ethanol using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. Conclusions This resource provides a translational

  2. Test monkeys anesthetized by routine procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Test monkeys are safely anesthetized for five minutes by confining them for less than six minutes in enclosures containing a controlled volume of ether. Thus the monkeys can be properly and safely positioned on test couches and fitted with electrodes or other devices prior to physiological tests.

  3. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  4. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  5. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  6. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  7. Orientation perception in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masumi

    2008-07-01

    It was previously demonstrated that monkeys divide the orientation continuum into cardinal and oblique categories. However, it is still unclear how monkeys perceive within-category orientations. To better understand monkeys' perception of orientation, two experiments were conducted using five monkeys. In experiment 1, they were trained to identify either one cardinal or one oblique target orientation out of six orientations. The results showed that they readily identified the cardinal target whether it was oriented horizontally or vertically. However, a longer training period was needed to identify the oblique target orientation regardless of its degree and direction of tilt. In experiment 2, the same monkeys were trained to identify two-oblique target orientations out of six orientations. These orientations were paired, either sharing the degree of tilt, direction of tilt, or neither property. The results showed that the monkeys readily identified oblique orientations when they had either the same degree or direction of tilt. However, when the target orientations had neither the same degree nor direction of tilt, the animals had difficulty in identifying them. In summary, horizontal and vertical orientations are individually processed, indicating that monkeys do not have a category for cardinal orientation, but they may recognize cardinal orientations as non-obliques. In addition, monkeys efficiently abstract either the degree or the direction of tilt from oblique orientations, but they have difficulty combining these features to identify an oblique orientation. Thus, not all orientations within the oblique category are equally perceived.

  8. Direct demonstration of retroviral recombination in a rhesus monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Wooley, D P; Smith, R A; Czajak, S; Desrosiers, R C

    1997-01-01

    Recombination may be an important mechanism for increasing variation in retroviral populations. Retroviral recombination has been demonstrated in tissue culture systems by artificially creating doubly infected cells. Evidence for retroviral recombination in vivo is indirect and is based principally on the identification of apparently mosaic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences. We infected a rhesus monkey with two different molecularly cloned strains of simian immunodeficiency virus. One strain of virus had a deletion in vpx and vpr, and the other strain had a deletion in nef. Each strain on its own induced low virus loads and was nonpathogenic in rhesus monkeys. When injected simultaneously into separate legs of the same monkey, persistent high virus loads and declines in CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations were observed. Analysis of proviral DNA isolated directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that full-length, nondeleted SIVmac239 predominated by 2 weeks after infection. These results provide direct experimental evidence for genetic recombination between two different retroviral strains in an infected host. The results illustrate the ease and rapidity with which recombination can occur in an infected animal and the selection that can occur for variants generated by genetic recombination. PMID:9371629

  9. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 {mu}g/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  10. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy develop tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, P; Cervenak, J; Yakovleva, O; Gregori, L; Pomeroy, K; Cook, A; Muhammad, F S; Seuberlich, T; Cervenakova, L; Asher, D M

    2012-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were infected experimentally with the agent of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two to four years later, six of the monkeys developed alterations in interactive behaviour and cognition and other neurological signs typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At necropsy examination, the brains from all of the monkeys showed pathological changes similar to those described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) of man, except that the squirrel monkey brains contained no PrP-amyloid plaques typical of that disease. Constant neuropathological features included spongiform degeneration, gliosis, deposition of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) and many deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) in several areas of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Western blots showed large amounts of proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the central nervous system. The striking absence of PrP plaques (prominent in brains of cynomolgus macaques [Macaca fascicularis] with experimentally-induced BSE and vCJD and in human patients with vCJD) reinforces the conclusion that the host plays a major role in determining the neuropathology of TSEs. Results of this study suggest that p-Tau, found in the brains of all BSE-infected monkeys, might play a role in the pathogenesis of TSEs. Whether p-Tau contributes to development of disease or appears as a secondary change late in the course of illness remains to be determined.

  11. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a psoralen-inactivated dengue-1 virus vaccine candidate in Aotus nancymaae monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maves, Ryan C; Oré, Roger M Castillo; Porter, Kevin R; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2011-03-24

    Psoralens are photoreactive compounds that cross-link pyrimidines after exposure to UVA radiation. In this experiment, we tested the protective efficacy of a psoralen-inactivated dengue vaccine candidate in non-human primates. Two groups of 7 Aotus nancymaae monkeys received either 10ng per dose of inactivated DENV1 plus alum adjuvant or alum alone (controls). Doses were injected intradermally on days 0, 14, and 28. Monkeys then received a challenge inoculation of 1.1 × 10(4)PFUs of WestPac 74 DENV-1 on day 132. At 62 days, only 1/7 vaccinated monkeys had detectable IgM, but IgG and neutralizing antibody remained detectable in 7/7. No IgM, IgG, or neutralizing antibody was detectable in control monkeys. DENV-1 viremia was detected after challenge in 3/7 vaccinated monkeys and 5/6 control monkeys (with one removed due to pregnancy) (p=0.27), but days of viremia were reduced from 3.67 days/animal among controls to 0.71 days/animal among vaccinated monkeys (p=0.051). Psoralen-inactivated DENV1 is immunogenic in Aotus nancymaae with a trend towards a reduction in days of viremia following experimental challenge.

  12. Human plasma concentrations of cytochrome P450 probes extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Shida, Satomi; Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    1. Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used in preclinical studies as non-human primate species. Pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes determined in cynomolgus monkeys after single oral or intravenous administrations were extrapolated to give human plasma concentrations. 2. Plasma concentrations of slowly eliminated caffeine and R-/S-warfarin and rapidly eliminated omeprazole and midazolam previously observed in cynomolgus monkeys were scaled to human oral biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Results of the simplified human PBPK models were consistent with reported experimental PK data in humans or with values simulated by a fully constructed population-based simulator (Simcyp). 3. Oral administrations of metoprolol and dextromethorphan (human P450 2D probes) in monkeys reportedly yielded plasma concentrations similar to their quantitative detection limits. Consequently, ratios of in vitro hepatic intrinsic clearances of metoprolol and dextromethorphan determined in monkeys and humans were used with simplified PBPK models to extrapolate intravenous PK in monkeys to oral PK in humans. 4. These results suggest that cynomolgus monkeys, despite their rapid clearance of some human P450 substrates, could be a suitable model for humans, especially when used in conjunction with simple PBPK models.

  13. Transplantation of Adult Monkey Neural Stem Cells into A Contusion Spinal Cord Injury Model in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hajinasrollah, Mostafa; Zare Mehrjerdi, Nargess; Azizi, Hossein; Hemmesi, Katayoun; Moghiminasr, Reza; Azhdari, Zahra; Talebi, Ardeshir; Mohitmafi, Soroush; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad; Sharifi, Giuve; Baharvand, Hossein; Rezaee, Omidvar; Kiani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months. Results Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based on Tarlov’s scale and our established behavioral tests for monkeys. Conclusion Our findings have indicated that mNSCs can facilitate recovery in contusion SCI models in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additional studies are necessary to determine the im- provement mechanisms after cell transplantation. PMID:24567941

  14. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Owl Monkeys (Aotus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly. PMID:23759531

  15. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    PubMed

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  16. [Squirrel monkey--an ideal primate (correction of prmate) model of space physiology].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, K

    1997-06-01

    Investigation of the vestibulo-ocular system of the squirrel monkey was reviewed in consideration of space motion sickness (SMS), or which is recently more often termed as space adaptation syndrome (SAS). Since the first launching of the space satellite, Sputnik [correction of Sputonik] in October 1957, many experiments were carried out in biological and medical fields. A various kind of creatures were used as experimental models from protozoa to human beings. Rats and monkeys are most favorite animals, particularly the non-human primate seems to be the one, because of its phylogenetic relatives akin to the human beings. Chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, pig tailed-monkeys, red-faced monkeys and squirrel monkeys have been used mostly in American space experiments. Russian used rhesus monkeys. Among these, however, the squirrel monkey has an advantage of the small size of the body, ranging from 600- l000g in adult. This small size as a primate is very advantageous in experiments conducted in a narrow room of the space satellite or shuttle because of its space-saving. The squirrel monkey has another advantage to rear easily as is demonstrated to keep it as a pet. Accordingly, this petit animal provides us a good animal model in biological and medical experiments in space craft. The size of the brain of the squirrel monkey is extraordinary large relative to the body size, which is even superior to that of the human beings. This is partly owed to enlargement of the occipito-temporal cortices, which are forced to well develop for processing a huge amount of audio-visual information indispensable to the arboreal habitant to survive in tropical forest. The vestibular system of the squirrel monkey seems to be the most superior as well, when judged from it relative size of the vestibular nuclear complex. Balancing on swinging twigs or jumping from tree to tree developed the capability of this equilibrium system. Fernandez, Goldberg and his collaborators used the squirrel monkey

  17. Behavioral Determinants of Cannabinoid Self-Administration in Old World Monkeys.

    PubMed

    John, William S; Martin, Thomas J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    Reinforcing effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active ingredient in marijuana, as assessed with self-administration (SA), has only been established in New World primates (squirrel monkeys). The objective of this study was to investigate some experimental factors that may enhance intravenous SA of THC and the cannabinoid receptor (CBR) agonist CP 55 940 in Old World monkeys (rhesus and cynomolgus), a species that has been used extensively in biomedical research. In one experiment, male rhesus monkeys (N=9) were trained to respond under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The effects of CP 55 940 (1.0-10 μg/kg, i.v.) and THC (3.0-300 μg/kg, i.v.) on food-maintained responding and body temperature were determined in these subjects prior to giving them access to self-administer each drug. Both drugs dose-dependently decreased food-maintained responding. CP 55 940 (0.001-3.0 μg/kg) functioned as a reinforcer in three monkeys, whereas THC (0.01-10 μg/kg) did not have reinforcing effects in any subject. CP 55 940 was least potent to decrease food-maintained responding in the monkeys in which CP 55 940 functioned as a reinforcer. Next, THC was administered daily to monkeys until tolerance developed to rate-decreasing effects. When THC SA was reexamined, it functioned as a reinforcer in three monkeys. In a group of cocaine-experienced male cynomolgus monkeys (N=4), THC SA was examined under a second-order schedule of reinforcement; THC functioned as reinforcer in two monkeys. These data suggest that SA of CBR agonists may be relatively independent of their rate-decreasing effects in Old World monkeys. Understanding individual differences in vulnerability to THC SA may lead to novel treatment strategies for marijuana abuse.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 1 February 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.2.

  18. Effects of Fragment and Vegetation Structure on the Population Abundance of Ateles hybridus, Alouatta seniculus and Cebus albifrons in Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Christopher; Link, Andres; King-Bailey, Gillian; Donati, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Many primate species currently subsist in fragmented and anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Different threats arise depending on the species' life history strategy, dietary requirements and habitat preference. Additionally, anthropogenic disturbance is far from uniform and may affect individual forest fragments in a single landscape in differing ways. We studied the effects of fragmentation on three species of diurnal primate, Cebus albifrons, Alouatta seniculus and Ateles hybridus, in Magdalena Valley, Colombia. We tested the assumption that generalist species are more resilient than specialist species to habitat degradation by examining the fragments' vegetation and spatial structure and how these affected primate presence and abundance patterns. We found C. albifrons, a generalist, to be the most abundant species in 9 of 10 forest fragments, regardless of the level of habitat disturbance. A. hybridus, a large-bodied primate with a specialist diet, was either absent or low in abundance in fragments that had experienced recent disturbances and was found only in higher-quality fragments, regardless of the fragment size. A. seniculus, a species considered to have a highly flexible diet and the ability to survive in degraded habitat, was found in intermediate abundances between those of Cebus spp. and Ateles spp., and was more frequently found in high-quality fragments.

  19. A deficit in face-voice integration in developing vervet monkeys exposed to ethanol during gestation.

    PubMed

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders display behavioural and intellectual impairments that strongly implicate dysfunction within the frontal cortex. Deficits in social behaviour and cognition are amongst the most pervasive outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure. Our naturalistic vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey concurrently presenting two different calls along with a single audio track matching the content of one of the calls, they were not able to match the correct video to the single audio track. This was manifest by their average looking time being equally spent towards both the matching and non-matching videos. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration.

  20. Acquisition of Cocaine Self-Administration with Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Woods, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Six experimentally naive rhesus monkeys produced 0.01 mg/kg/infusion cocaine by lever pressing under a tandem fixed-ratio 1 differential-reinforcement-of-other- behavior schedule. One lever press initiated an unsignaled 15- or 30-s delay culminating in cocaine delivery. Each press made during the delay reset the delay interval. With two…

  1. Social Behavior in Interacting Squirrel Monkeys with Differential Nutritional and Environmental Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Patricia F.

    This paper reports an observational study of the effects of handling on the social behavior of squirrel monkeys who received a protein deficient diet. After birth, experimental animals received a low-protein diet for a 6-week period. A subgroup of these animals were handled between 3 and 12 weeks of age. All of the animals interacted (in four…

  2. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) complex learning skills reassessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    An automated computerized testing facility is employed to study basic learning and transfer in rhesus monkeys including discrimination learning set and mediational learning. The data show higher performance levels than those predicted from other tests that involved compromised learning with analogous conditions. Advanced transfer-index ratios and positive transfer of learning are identified, and indications of mediational learning strategies are noted. It is suggested that these data are evidence of the effectiveness of the present experimental apparatus for enhancing learning in nonhuman primates.

  3. Radiographic evidence of disuse osteoporosis in the monkey /M. nemestrina/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. R.; Schneider, V. S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiological techniques were utilized for monitoring progressive changes in compact bone in the tibia of monkeys during experimentally induced osteopenia. Bone mass loss in the tibia during restraint was evaluated from radiographs, from bone mineral analysis, and from images reconstructed from gamma ray computerized tomography. The losses during 6 months of restraint tended to occur predominantly in the proximal tibia and were characterized by subperiosteal bone loss, intracortical striations, and scalloped endosteal surfaces. Bone mineral content in the cross section of the tibia declined 17-21%. In 6 months of recovery, the mineral content of the proximal tibia remained depressed.

  4. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  5. Simian varicella virus reactivation in cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Mahalingam, Ravi Traina-Dorge, Vicki Wellish, Mary Lorino, Rebecca Sanford, Robert Ribka, Erin P. Alleman, Scott J. Brazeau, Elizabeth Gilden, Donald H.

    2007-11-10

    SVV infection of primates closely resembles VZV infection of humans. Like VZV, SVV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons. We used this model to study the effect of immunosuppression on varicella reactivation. Cynomolgus monkeys latently infected with SVV were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus and prednisone. Of four latently infected monkeys that were immunosuppressed and subjected to the stress of transportation and isolation, one developed zoster, and three others developed features of subclinical reactivation. Another non-immunosuppressed latently infected monkey that was subjected to the same stress of travel and isolation showed features of subclinical reactivation. Virus reactivation was confirmed not only by the occurrence of zoster in one monkey, but also by the presence of late SVV RNA in ganglia, and the detection of SVV DNA in non-ganglionic tissue, and SVV antigens in skin, ganglia and lung.

  6. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  7. Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

    SciTech Connect

    La Vail, M.M.; Rapaport, D.H.; Rakic, P. )

    1991-07-01

    Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2- to 6-month-old animals, each of which was exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) on a single embryonic (E) or postnatal (P) day. Cell birth in the monkey retina begins just after E27, and approximately 96% of cells are generated by E120. The remaining cells are produced during the last (approximately 45) prenatal days and into the first several weeks after birth. Cell genesis begins near the fovea, and proceeds towards the periphery. Cell division largely ceases in the foveal and perifoveal regions by E56. Despite extensive overlap, a class-specific sequence of cell birth was observed. Ganglion and horizontal cells, which are born first, have largely congruent periods of cell genesis with the peak between E38 and E43, and termination around E70. The first labeled cones were apparent by E33, and their highest density was achieved between E43 and E56, tapering to low values at E70, although some cones are generated in the far periphery as late as E110. Amacrine cells are next in the cell birth sequence and begin genesis at E43, reach a peak production between E56 and E85, and cease by E110. Bipolar cell birth begins at the same time as amacrines, but appears to be separate from them temporally since their production reaches a peak between E56 and E102, and persists beyond the day of birth. Mueller cells and rod photoreceptors, which begin to be generated at E45, achieve a peak, and decrease in density at the same time as bipolar cells, but continue genesis at low density on the day of birth. Thus, bipolar, Mueller, and rod cells have a similar time of origin.

  8. Comparative analysis of field-isolate and monkey-adapted Plasmodium vivax genomes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ernest R; Barnwell, John W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2015-03-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology.

  9. The Moral Lives of Laboratory Monkeys: Television and the Ethics of Care.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Lesley A

    2017-04-04

    Why do lab monkeys watch TV? This essay examines the preponderance of televisions in primate housing units based in academic research laboratories. Within such labs, television and related visual media are glossed as part-and-parcel of welfare or species-specific enrichment practices intended for research monkeys, a logic that is simultaneously historically- and ontologically-based. In many research centers, television figures prominently in the two inseparable domains of a lab monkey's life: as a research tool employed during experiments, and in housing units where captive monkeys are said to enjoy watching TV during "down time." My purpose is not to determine whether monkeys do indeed enjoy, or need, television; rather, I employ visual media as a means to uncover, and decipher, the moral logic of an ethics of care directed specifically at highly sentient creatures who serve as human proxies in a range of experimental contexts. I suggest that this specialized ethics of animal care materializes Mattingly's notion of "moral laboratories" (Mattingly in Moral laboratories: family peril and the struggle for a good life, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2014), where television mediates the troublesome boundary of species difference among the simian and human subjects who cohabit laboratory worlds.

  10. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  11. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis, erythrarchus) through patch use.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-10-26

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys' use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilize secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection.

  12. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  13. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  14. An MRI based average macaque monkey stereotaxic atlas and space (MNI monkey space).

    PubMed

    Frey, Stephen; Pandya, Deepak N; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Bailey, Lara; Petrides, Michael; Collins, D Louis

    2011-04-15

    In studies of the human brain, a standard stereotaxic space such as the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI space) is widely used to provide a common reference for the three-dimensional localization of functional activation foci and anatomical structures, enabling the comparison of results obtained across different studies. Here we present a standard macaque monkey brain MRI template that offers a common stereotaxic reference frame to localize anatomical and functional information in an organized and reliable way for comparison across individual monkeys and studies. We have used MRI volumes from a group of 25 normal adult macaque monkeys (18 cynomolgus and 7 rhesus) to create a common standard macaque monkey brain as well as atlases for each of these species separately. In addition, the digital macaque monkey volume was subjected to 3D volumetric analysis and comparison of brain structures between the individual brains and the average atlas. Furthermore, we provide a means of transforming any macaque MRI volume into MNI monkey space coordinates in 3D using simple web based tools. Coordinates in MNI monkey space can also be transformed into the coordinate system of a detailed neuroanatomical paper atlas (Paxinos et al., 2008), enabling researchers to identify and delineate cortical and subcortical structures in their individual macaque monkey brains.

  15. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    PubMed

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage.

  16. Mental transformations of spatial stimuli in humans and in monkeys: rotation vs. translocation.

    PubMed

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Rokyta, Richard; Bures, Jan

    2013-03-01

    according to the map presented in the other spatial frame depended on the type of stimulus manipulation. We demonstrated that for monkeys there was a difference between solving "mental rotation" and "mental translocation" in this experimental design. We showed that humans were able both to mentally rotate and translocate the displayed stimuli. However, the mental rotation was more difficult than mental translocation also for them. These experiments help us to understand how the monkeys perceive the abstract spatial information, create the representation of space and how they transform the information about the position obtained from one spatial frame into another. The comparison between humans and monkeys allows us to study this cognitive ability in phylogeny.

  17. Circadian phase relationships in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Wekstein, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two adult male pigtail monkeys were placed in an isolated, soundproofed chamber (entered for cleaning only) for a period of six months, during which time their deep body temperatures T sub DB, telemetered from transmitters implanted in the abdominal cavity), fluid intake, urinary output (UV), urinary sodium and potassium were continuously monitored. During the first 3 1/2 months, lights (L) were turned on at 0000 hours, off at 1200 hours. Photoperiod phase was then delayed (light span prolonged) 6 hours to a new schedule: L on at 0600 hours, off at 1800 hours. Six weeks later, photoperiod phase was advanced 6 hours to return to the original schedule. Prior to shift, T sub DB typically began a steep rise 0-5 hours prior to L on, a steep fall 3-4 hours prior to L off, relative plateaus in between. Urinary Na typically peaks 2 hours prior to L off, has a minimum 2-4 hours prior to L on; K tends both to peak and show a minimum 2-8 hours earlier than Na; in contrast, UV peaks at L on, has a minimum 2-6 hours after L off. Upon delaying photoperiod phase, T sub DB shift was completed in 8 days. UV shifted more rapidly but tended to overshoot the new phase. Within 5 days, UV and K completed their shifts, although Na did not fully resynchronize within the 6 week period monitored.

  18. Terrestrial predator alarm vocalizations are a valid monitor of stress in captive brown capuchins (Cebus apella)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boinski, S.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The vocal behavior of captive animals is increasingly exploited as an index of well-being. Here we show that the terrestrial predator alarm (TPA) vocalization, a robust and acoustically distinctive anti-predation vocal response present in many mammal and bird species, offers useful information on the relative well-being and stress levels of captive animals. In a 16-week experiment evaluating the effects of varying levels of physical environmental enrichment (control < toys < foraging box < foraging box and toys) in the cages of eight singly housed adult male brown capuchins, we quantified the 1) emission rate of TPAs, 2) proportions of normal and abnormal behavior sample intervals, and 3) fecal and plasma cortisol levels. Variation in TPA emission across the experimental conditions was significant. We found significant reductions in the mean TPA production rate by the group in the enriched (toys, foraging box, and foraging box and toys) compared to the control condition; pre-and post-experimental conditions, however, did not differ from the control condition. Mean TPA production by the group was also significantly positively correlated to mean group levels of fecal cortisol and proportion of abnormal behavior sample intervals, and significantly negatively correlated to the average proportion of normal behavior sample intervals in the group. Based on group means, plasma cortisol levels were positively, but not significantly, related to increasing TPA rate. At the level of the responses of an individual subject, however, the covariation between the vocal and non-vocal behavioral measures and the cortisol assays seldom attained significance. Nevertheless, the direction of the relationships among these parameters within individual subjects typically mirrored those correlations based on group means. At both the group mean and individual levels, our results are consistent with the.

  19. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  20. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  1. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  2. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    PubMed

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  3. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  4. A MEG investigation of somatosensory processing in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tony W.; Godwin, Dwayne W.; Czoty, Paul W.; Nader, Michael A.; Kraft, Robert A.; Buchheimer, Nancy C.; Daunais, James B.

    2009-01-01

    -head MEG instrumentation to record neuromagnetic responses in adult rhesus monkeys. Nonhuman primate models of human disease provide the closest phylogenetic link to humans. The present, non-invasive imaging study could promote exciting links between invasive animal studies and non-invasive human studies, allowing experimentally induced deficits and pharmacological treatments to be interpreted in light of resulting brain network interactions. PMID:19306931

  5. A MEG investigation of somatosensory processing in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tony W; Godwin, Dwayne W; Czoty, Paul W; Nader, Michael A; Kraft, Robert A; Buchheimer, Nancy C; Daunais, James B

    2009-07-15

    use current human whole-head MEG instrumentation to record neuromagnetic responses in adult rhesus monkeys. Nonhuman primate models of human disease provide the closest phylogenetic link to humans. The present, non-invasive imaging study could promote exciting translational integration of invasive animal studies and non-invasive human studies, allowing experimentally induced deficits and pharmacological treatments to be interpreted in light of resulting brain network interactions.

  6. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  7. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  8. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  9. Movement Limitation and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-alpha (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CDB+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  10. Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

  11. Ranking Cognitive Flexibility in a Group Setting of Rhesus Monkeys with a Set-Shifting Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Shnitko, Tatiana A.; Allen, Daicia C.; Gonzales, Steven W.; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability is an executive function underling cognitive flexibility in humans and animals. In humans, this function is typically observed during a single experimental session where dimensions of playing cards are used to measure flexibility in the face of changing rules for reinforcement (i.e., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)). In laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, variants of the WCST involve extensive training and testing on a series of dimensional discriminations, usually in social isolation. In the present study, a novel experimental approach was used to assess attentional set-shifting simultaneously in 12 rhesus monkeys. Specifically, monkeys living in individual cages but in the same room were trained at the same time each day in a set-shifting task in the same housing environment. As opposed to the previous studies, each daily session began with a simple single-dimension discrimination regardless of the animal’s performance on the previous session. A total of eight increasingly difficult, discriminations (sets) were possible in each daily 45 min session. Correct responses were reinforced under a second-order schedule of flavored food pellet delivery, and criteria for completing a set was 12 correct trials out of a running total of 15 trials. Monkeys progressed through the sets at their own pace and abilities. The results demonstrate that all 12 monkeys acquired the simple discrimination (the first set), but individual differences in the ability to progress through all eight sets were apparent. A performance index (PI) that encompassed progression through the sets, errors and session duration was calculated and used to rank each monkey’s performance in relation to each other. Overall, this version of a set-shifting task results in an efficient assessment of reliable differences in cognitive flexibility in a group of monkeys. PMID:28386222

  12. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) through patch use.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-11-01

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys’ use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilise secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection.

  13. Cervical carotid and circle of willis arterial anatomy of macaque monkeys: a comparative anatomy study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nishant; Lee, John J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2009-07-01

    Macaque monkeys are used in many research applications, including cerebrovascular investigations. However, detailed catalogs of the relevant vascular anatomy are scarce. We present our experience with macaque vessel patterns as determined by digital subtraction angiography of 34 different monkeys. We retrospectively analyzed digital subtraction angiograms obtained during experimental internal carotid artery (ICA) catheterization and subsequent injection of 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Results were catalogued according to vascular distribution and variants observed. Macaque monkeys have a bovine aortic arch. The carotid vessels generally bifurcate, but are occasionally observed to divide into three vessels. The external carotid gives rise primarily to two trunks: an occipital branch and a common vessel that subsequently gives off the lingual, facial, and superior thyroid arteries. The internal maxillary artery may be present as a terminal branch of the external carotid or as a branch of the occipital artery. The ICA is similar in course to that of the human. The anterior circle of Willis was intact in all monkeys in our study. Its primary difference from that of the human is the union of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries as a single (azygous) median vessel. Macaque cervical carotid and circle of Willis arterial anatomy differs from humans in a couple of specific patterns. Knowledge of these differences and similarities between human and macaque anatomy is important in developing endovascular macaque models of human diseases, such as ischemic stroke.

  14. [Studies on virulence of HIV and development of non-virulent live AIDS vaccine using monkeys].

    PubMed

    Hayami, Masanori; Horiuchi, Reii

    2004-06-01

    A great effort for developing AIDS vaccine has been carried out in the world, designed by various new ideas based on basic research information obtained in recent virology and immunology. Withall it, to obtain effective AIDS vaccine is considered skeptical. One of the reasons of its difficulty is a lack of experimental animals susceptible to HIV-1. In our laboratory, we have succeeded in developing chimeric SIV having 3' half of HIV-1 genome including env (SHIV), which is infectious to macaque monkeys. One of SHIVs has been proved nonpathogenic in monkeys from various aspects and it afforded protective immunity to monkeys against pathogenic SHIV challenge infection. Now, we are trying to develop anti-HIV live attenuated vaccines using the nonpathogenic SHIV as a starting material. In the history of virus vaccine, live attenuated vaccines have been proved most effective in measles and polio-myelitis. However, it is not clear whether nonpathogenic HIV exists or not. Futhermore, even if nonpathogenic HIV could be obtained, there is possibility that it will easily mutate to pathogenic one. Therefore, to develop live attenuated AIDS vaccine is considered dangerous. In this article, We will introduce our research on SHIV pathogenicity using monkeys and hypothesize possibility to obtain nonpathogenic HIV which is speculated from the origin and evolution of HIV/SIV. To clarify virulence and nonvirulence of HIV and to obtain nonpathogenic virus are not only applied research but also basic science to dissolve the fundemental question why HIV can induce the disease.

  15. Wild vervet monkeys copy alternative methods for opening an artificial fruit.

    PubMed

    van de Waal, Erica; Claidière, Nicolas; Whiten, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Experimental studies of animal social learning in the wild remain rare, especially those that employ the most discriminating tests in which alternative means to complete naturalistic tasks are seeded in different groups. We applied this approach to wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) using an artificial fruit ('vervetable') opened by either lifting a door panel or sliding it left or right. In one group, a trained model lifted the door, and in two others, the model slid it either left or right. Members of each group then watched their model before being given access to multiple baited vervetables with all opening techniques possible. Thirteen of these monkeys opened vervetables, displaying a significant tendency to use the seeded technique on their first opening and over the course of the experiment. The option preferred in these monkeys' first successful manipulation session was also highly correlated with the proportional frequency of the option they had previously witnessed. The social learning effects thus documented go beyond mere stimulus enhancement insofar as the same door knob was grasped for either technique. Results thus suggest that through imitation, emulation or both, new foraging techniques will spread across groups of wild vervet monkeys to create incipient foraging traditions.

  16. Spatial memory and the monkey hippocampus: not all space is created equal.

    PubMed

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the role of the monkey hippocampus in spatial learning and memory, however few, have reliably produced inconsistent results. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory has been clearly established in rodents, studies in nonhuman primates have made a variety of claims that range from the involvement of the hippocampus in spatial memory only at relatively longer memory delays, to no role for the hippocampus in spatial memory at all. In contrast, we have shown that selective damage restricted to the hippocampus (CA regions) prevents the learning or use of allocentric, spatial relational representations of the environment in freely behaving adult monkeys tested in an open-field arena. In this commentary, we discuss a unifying framework that explains these apparently discrepant results regarding the role of the monkey hippocampus in spatial learning and memory. We describe clear and strict criteria to interpret the findings from previous studies and guide future investigations of spatial memory in monkeys. Specifically, we affirm that, as in the rodent, the primate hippocampus is critical for spatial relational learning and memory, and in a time-independent manner. We describe how claims to the contrary are the result of experimental designs that fail to recognize, and control for, egocentric (hippocampus-independent) and allocentric (hippocampus-dependent) spatial frames of reference. Finally, we conclude that the available data demonstrate unequivocally that the central role of the hippocampus in allocentric, spatial relational learning and memory is conserved among vertebrates, including nonhuman primates.

  17. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Lima, Larissa S; Campos, Rafael K; Guedes, Maria I M C; Cota, Marcela M G; Assis, Felipe L; Borges, Iara A; Souza-Júnior, Milton F; Lobato, Zélia I P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil.

  18. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    PubMed

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  19. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  20. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  1. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  2. Lung deposition of droplet aerosols in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Irshad, H; Kuehl, P; Holmes, T D; Sherwood, R; Hobbs, C H

    2008-09-01

    Nonhuman primates are often the animal models of choice to study the infectivity and therapy of inhaled infectious agents. Most animal models for inhaled infectious diseases use aerosol/droplets generated by an atomization technique such as a Collison nebulizer that produces particles in the size range of 1 to 3 microm in diameter. There are few data in the literature on deposition patterns in monkeys. Our study was designed to measure the deposition pattern in monkeys using droplets having diameters of 2 and 5 microm using an exposure system designed to expose monkeys to aerosols of infectious agents. Six cynomolgus monkeys were exposed to droplets. The aerosol solution was generated from a Vero cell supernate containing DMEM + 10% fetal bovine serum tagged with Tc-99m radiolabel. Collison and Retec nebulizers were used to generate small and large droplets, respectively. The particle size (as determined from a cascade impactor) showed an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 2.3 and 5.1 microm for the Collison and Retec nebulizer, respectively. The animals were anesthetized, placed in a plethysmography box, and exposed to the aerosol. The deposition pattern was determined using a gamma camera. Deposition in the head airways was 39% and 58% for 2.3- and 5.1-microm particle aerosols, respectively, whereas the deposition in the deep lung was 12% and 8%, respectively. This information will be useful in developing animal models for inhaled infectious agents.

  3. Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, André T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Júnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zélia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

    2010-01-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

  4. Implications of the corneal temperature range in the prediction of laser thermal damage. [Monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Mikesell, G.W. Jr.; Schepler, K.L.

    1980-04-01

    Corneal temperatures of the rhesus monkeys have been measured under conditions that may exist during laser experiments. The minimum and maximum temperatures found for all experimental conditions were 29.54/sup 0/C and 39.16/sup 0/C, respectively, a range of 9.62/sup 0/C. A computer model of thermal damage due to laser irradiation was used to determine the effect varying initial temperature could have on corneal damage thresholds (ED50's). The range of 9.62/sup 0/C found in monkeys for all experimental conditions corresponded to a 39% difference in threshold power. The dependence of damage thresholds on initial temperature could be an important factor to consider when basing laser safety standards on damage threshold data.

  5. Scrub Typhus Vaccine Candidate Kp r56 Induces Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Cynomolgus Monkeys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-28

    binding of 100 l/well of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat antibodies directed to monkey immu- noglobulin G (IgG) or IgM (Kirkegaard & Perry...candidates. Vaccine 21:4550–4554. 8. Cheers, C., H. Pavlov, C. Riglar, and E. Madraso. 1980. Macrophage acti- vation during experimental murine brucellosis ...III. Do macrophages exert feedback control during brucellosis ? Cell. Immunol. 49:168–177. 9. Ching, W. M., H. Wang, C. Eamsila, D. J. Kelly, and G. A

  6. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    SciTech Connect

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  7. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Detect Rhythmic Groups in Music, but Not the Beat

    PubMed Central

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P.; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the ‘downbeat’; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm). PMID:23251509

  8. Antibodies against human BLyS and APRIL attenuate EAE development in marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Heijmans, Nicole; Oh, Luke; Bauer, Jan; Blezer, Erwin L A; Laman, Jon D; Migone, Thi-Sau; Devalaraja, Matt N; 't Hart, Bert A

    2012-09-01

    B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS, also indicated as BAFF (B-cell activating factor) and CD257), and A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL, CD256) are two members of the TNF superfamily with a central role in B cell survival. Antibodies against these factors have potential therapeutic relevance in autoimmune inflammatory disorders with a proven pathogenic contribution of B cells, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study we performed a multi-parameter efficacy comparison of monoclonal antibodies against human anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). A MS-like disease was induced by immunization with recombinant human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rhMOG) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The results show that the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL antibody cause significant depletion of circulating CD20+ B cells, but a small subset of CD20 + CD40(high) B cells was not depleted. Induction of CD20+ B cell depletion from lymph nodes was only observed in the anti-BLyS treated monkeys. Both antibodies had a significant inhibitory effect on disease development, but all monkeys developed clinically evident EAE. Anti-BLyS treated monkeys were sacrificed with the same clinical signs as saline-treated monkeys, but nevertheless displayed significantly reduced spinal cord demyelination. This effect was not observed in the anti-APRIL treated monkeys. The two antibodies had a different effect on T cell subset activation and the profiles of ex vivo released cytokines. In conclusion, treatment with anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL delays the development of neurological disease in a relevant preclinical model of MS. The two mAbs achieve this effect via different mechanisms.

  9. Recombinant poxvirus boosting of DNA-primed rhesus monkeys augments peak but not memory T lymphocyte responses.

    PubMed

    Santra, Sampa; Barouch, Dan H; Korioth-Schmitz, Birgit; Lord, Carol I; Krivulka, Georgia R; Yu, Faye; Beddall, Margaret H; Gorgone, Darci A; Lifton, Michelle A; Miura, Ayako; Philippon, Valerie; Manson, Kelledy; Markham, Phillip D; Parrish, John; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Schmitz, Jörn E; Gelman, Rebecca S; Shiver, John W; Montefiori, David C; Panicali, Dennis; Letvin, Norman L

    2004-07-27

    Although a consensus has emerged that an HIV vaccine should elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, the characteristics of an effective vaccine-induced T lymphocyte response remain unclear. We explored this issue in the simian human immunodeficiency virus/rhesus monkey model in the course of assessing the relative immunogenicity of vaccine regimens that included a cytokine-augmented plasmid DNA prime and a boost with DNA or recombinant pox vectors. Recombinant vaccinia virus, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), and recombinant fowlpox were comparable in their immunogenicity. Moreover, whereas the magnitude of the peak vaccine-elicited T lymphocyte responses in the recombinant pox virus-boosted monkeys was substantially greater than that seen in the monkeys immunized with plasmid DNA alone, the magnitudes of recombinant pox boosted CTL responses decayed rapidly and were comparable to those of the DNA-alone-vaccinated monkeys by the time of viral challenge. Consistent with these comparable memory T cell responses, the clinical protection seen in all groups of experimentally vaccinated monkeys was similar. This study, therefore, indicates that the steady-state memory, rather than the peak effector vaccine-elicited T lymphocyte responses, may be the critical immune correlate of protection for a CTL-based HIV vaccine.

  10. Simian immunodeficiency virus mutants resistant to serum neutralization arise during persistent infection of rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, D P; Collignon, C; Desrosiers, R C

    1993-01-01

    We previously described the pattern of sequence variation in gp120 following persistent infection of rhesus monkeys with the pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 molecular clone (D.P.W. Burns and R.C. Desrosiers, J. Virol. 65:1843, 1991). Sequence changes were confined largely to five variable regions (V1 to V5), four of which correspond to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 variable regions. Remarkably, 182 of 186 nucleotide substitutions that were documented in these variable regions resulted in amino acid changes. This is an extremely nonrandom pattern, which suggests selective pressure driving amino acid changes in discrete variable domains. In the present study, we investigated whether neutralizing-antibody responses are one selective force responsible at least in part for the observed pattern of sequence variation. Variant env sequences called 1-12 and 8-22 obtained 69 and 93 weeks after infection of a rhesus monkey with cloned SIVmac239 were recombined into the parental SIVmac239 genome, and variant viruses were generated by transfection of cultured cells with cloned DNA. The 1-12 and 8-22 recombinants differ from the parental SIVmac239 at 18 amino acid positions in gp120 and at 5 and 10 amino acid positions, respectively, in gp41. Sequential sera from the monkey infected with cloned SIVmac239 from which the 1-12 and 8-22 variants were isolated showed much higher neutralizing antibody titers to cloned SIVmac239 than to the cloned 1-12 and 8-22 variants. For example, at 55 weeks postinfection the neutralizing antibody titer against SIVmac239 was 640 while those to the variant viruses were 40 and less than 20. Two other rhesus monkeys infected with cloned SIVmac239 showed a similar pattern. Rhesus monkeys were also experimentally infected with the cloned variants so that the type-specific nature of the neutralizing antibody responses could be verified. Indeed, each of these monkeys showed neutralizing-antibody responses of much

  11. Sensorimotor gating impairments induced by MK-801 treatment may be reduced by tolerance effect and by familiarization in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Saletti, Patricia G.; Maior, Rafael S.; Hori, Etsuro; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Dizocilpine (MK-801) is a non-competitive NMDA antagonist that induces schizophreniclike effects. It is therefore widely used in experimental models of schizophrenia including prepulse inhibition (PPI) impairments in rodents. Nevertheless, MK-801 has never been tested in monkeys on a PPI paradigm. In order to evaluate MK-801 effects on monkeys’ PPI, we tested eight capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) using three different doses of MK-801 (0.01; 0.02; 0.03 mg/kg). Results show PPI impairment in acute administration of the highest dose (0.03 mg/kg). PPI impairment induced by MK-801 was reversed by re-exposure to the PPI test throughout treatment trials, in contrast with rodent studies. These results indicate that tolerance effect and familiarization with PPI test may reduce the sensorimotor gating deficits induced by MK-801 in monkeys, suggesting a drug-training interaction. PMID:26441660

  12. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  13. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  14. Effect of Vincristine Sulfate on Pseudomonas Infections in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Saslaw, Samuel; Carlisle, Harold N.; Moheimani, Mohammad

    1972-01-01

    In rhesus monkeys, intravenous challenge with 0.6 × 1010 to 2.2 × 1010Pseudomonas aeruginosa organisms caused acute illness of 4 to 5 days' duration with spontaneous recovery in 13 of 15 monkeys; blood cultures became negative 3 to 17 days after challenge. Leukocytosis was observed in all monkeys. Intravenous or intratracheal inoculation of 2.0 to 2.5 mg of vincristine sulfate was followed by leukopenia in 4 to 5 days. Intravenous inoculation of 4.2 × 1010 to 7.8 × 1010 pyocin type 6 Pseudomonas organisms in monkeys given vincristine sulfate 4 days previously resulted in fatal infection in 11 of 14 monkeys, whereas none of four receiving Pseudomonas alone died. These studies suggest that an antimetabolite-induced leukopenia predisposes to severe Pseudomonas sepsis and that such monkeys may serve as a biological model for study of comparative efficacy of antimicrobial agents. PMID:4631913

  15. Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Dimitrov, Dragan; Carmena, Jose M.; Crist, Roy; Lehew, Gary; Kralik, Jerald D.; Wise, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    A paradigm is described for recording the activity of single cortical neurons from awake, behaving macaque monkeys. Its unique features include high-density microwire arrays and multichannel instrumentation. Three adult rhesus monkeys received microwire array implants, totaling 96–704 microwires per subject, in up to five cortical areas, sometimes bilaterally. Recordings 3–4 weeks after implantation yielded 421 single neurons with a mean peak-to-peak voltage of 115 ± 3 μV and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 5:1. As many as 247 cortical neurons were recorded in one session, and at least 58 neurons were isolated from one subject 18 months after implantation. This method should benefit neurophysiological investigation of learning, perception, and sensorimotor integration in primates and the development of neuroprosthetic devices. PMID:12960378

  16. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  17. Increased atherosclerosis and glomerulonephritis in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) given injections of BSA over an extended period of time.

    PubMed Central

    Stills, H. F.; Bullock, B. C.; Clarkson, T. B.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effects of experimental immune complex disease on the development of glomerulonephritis and aortic and coronary artery atherosclerosis. Fourteen adult male macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed a mildly atherogenic diet. Ten of these animals were given repeated intravenous injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the remaining 4 were given similar injections of saline. Three of the monkeys given BSA responded with a high antibody titer, 4 with a moderate titer, and 3 with a low level titer to BSA. In all 4 monkeys with the moderate antibody response glomerulonephritis developed, characterized by increased glomerular cellularity, electron-dense deposits in the glomerular capillary basal lamina, and deposits of IgG, IgM, C3, C4, and BSA. Glomerulonephritis was not seen in the other 6 monkeys given BSA or the 4 control monkeys. Aortic lesions seen at necropsy consisted of a few fatty intimal streaks with no differences between test monkeys (given BSA) and control monkeys (given saline). There was no correlation between total serum cholesterol concentration, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, or BSA antibody levels and the degree of aortic atherosclerosis. Immunochemical stains for immunoglobulins and complement components revealed increased intimal staining when intimal thickness increased. Medial staining for immunoglobulin and complement components appeared to be slightly increased in monkeys with moderately high-level titers of BSA. The extent of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries of monkeys given BSA was greater than in the control animals. Differences in the extent and severity of the atherosclerotic lesions were most pronounced in the proximal portions of the main coronary arteries, suggesting an increased susceptibility of this site to immune-complex-exacerbated atherosclerosis. In addition to the increased lesion severity in monkeys given BSA, there were numerous granulocytes seen within

  18. Shaping avoidance behavior in restrained monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lockard, J S

    1969-07-01

    Lever-pulling avoidance behavior of 24 monkeys was actively shaped with a manual shock-control box and a closed-circuit TV system. A negative reinforcement procedure was used wherein a periodically occurring body shock was postponed each time the subject moved toward the lever. All subjects were trainable with this method, two-thirds of them in fewer than five, 1- to 2-hr sessions. Negative reinforcement was more effective than a punishment procedure.

  19. The pathology of innactivation in monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarz De Bourne, M. N.; Mcclure, H.; Keeling, M.

    1973-01-01

    Progress report on a long-term experiment using rhesus monkeys and designed to study the effects of isolation up to one year, as well as the effects of bed rest simulated by immobilization in a plaster cast for six months. The investigation includes histopathological and histochemical studies of these effects on various internal organs and tissues, and some of the preliminary results of these studies are presented and discussed.

  20. Modeling the searching behavior of social monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, D.; Miramontes, O.; Ramos-Fernández, G.; Mateos, J. L.; Cocho, G.

    2004-10-01

    We discuss various features of the trajectories of spider monkeys looking for food in a tropical forest, as observed recently in an extensive in situ study. Some of the features observed can be interpreted as the result of social interactions. In addition, a simple model of deterministic walk in a random environment reproduces the observed angular correlations between successive steps, and in some cases, the emergence of Lévy distributions for the length of the steps.

  1. Spatial relational memory in 9-month-old macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in one of two sets of three distinct locations. Monkeys were tested in two different conditions: (1) when local visual cues marked the two sets of potentially baited locations, so that monkeys could use both local and spatial information to discriminate these locations from never-baited locations; and (2) when no local visual cues marked the two sets of potentially baited locations, so that monkeys had to rely on a spatial relational representation of the environment to discriminate these locations. No 9-mo-old or adult monkey associated the presence of the proximal landmarks, at the center of the arena, with the presence of food in one set of three distinct locations. All monkeys, however, discriminated the potentially baited locations in the presence of local visual cues, thus providing evidence of visual discrimination learning. More importantly, all 9-mo-old monkeys tested discriminated the potentially baited locations in absence of the local visual cues, thus exhibiting evidence of spatial relational learning. These findings indicate that spatial memory processes characterized by a relational representation of the environment are present as early as 9 mo of age in macaque monkeys.

  2. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  3. Molecular systematics and phylogeography of Cebus capucinus (Cebidae, Primates) in Colombia and Costa Rica by means of the mitochondrial COII gene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Ledezma, Andrea; Leguizamon, Norberto; Sánchez, Ronald; Chinchilla, Misael; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-04-01

    We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period.

  4. Behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernando A; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    We examined thermoregulatory behaviors in a wild population of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) inhabiting a highly seasonal dry forest in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. The dry season in SRNP lasts approximately 5 months and is characterized by high ambient temperatures regularly exceeding 37 degrees C, low relative humidity, and the near absence of precipitation. This study demonstrates that capuchins rest more and travel shorter distances during the hottest and driest hours of the day, and suggests that they extend their tongues to lower body temperature via evaporative cooling. Seasonal weather patterns and group movement data reported here are based on 940 h of observations on three social groups of capuchins (wet season: 370 h, dry season: 570 h). In the dry season, the proportion of time spent resting increased at higher temperatures whereas the proportion of time spent traveling decreased. Distance traveled between location points taken at half-hour intervals decreased significantly as temperature increased, although the correlation was not strong. Capuchins exposed their tongues during hot, dry, windy conditions, and this behavior was much more frequent in the dry season. Temperature was significantly higher and humidity significantly lower for "tongue-out" events than expected for a random event in the dry season. Finally, as surface water became scarce, home-range areas of heavy use became increasingly centered on the remaining permanent water sources. These results suggest that heat stress and water scarcity are significant influences on the behavior of capuchins in hot, dry conditions.

  5. Effects of gut passage, feces, and seed handling on latency and rate of germination in seeds consumed by capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Valenta, Kim; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-04-01

    One of the key measures of the effectiveness of primary seed dispersal by animals is the quality of seed dispersal (Schupp: Plant Ecol 107/108 [1993] 15-29). We present data on quality of seed dispersal by two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica to test the hypothesis that capuchin seed handling results in effective primary dispersal for some fruit species they consume. We examined seed handling for 27 plant species, and germination rates of 18 species consumed by capuchins. For five of the most commonly swallowed seed species, we determined germination rates and average time to germination (latency) for seeds ingested and defecated by capuchins and compared these to seeds removed directly from fruit and planted. For the same five species, we compared germination rates and latency for passed seeds planted in capuchin feces to those cleaned of feces and planted in soil. For three of five species, differences in proportion of germinated seeds were significantly higher for gut passed seeds than for controls. For four of five species, germination latency was significantly faster for gut passed seeds than for controls. Feces had either no effect on seed germination rate or precluded germination. Data presented here support the hypothesis that white-faced capuchins are effective primary dispersers.

  6. Acquisition Of Cocaine Self-Administration With Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement In Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Galuska, Chad M; Woods, James H

    2005-01-01

    Six experimentally naive rhesus monkeys produced 0.01 mg/kg/infusion cocaine by lever pressing under a tandem fixed-ratio 1 differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule. One lever press initiated an unsignaled 15- or 30-s delay culminating in cocaine delivery. Each press made during the delay reset the delay interval. With two exceptions, responding was acquired and maintained at higher rates than responding on a second (inoperative) lever. For the exceptions, a cancellation contingency was arranged in which each formerly inoperative-lever response reset the tandem schedule. This manipulation reduced presses on the inoperative lever. Subsequently, the consequences of responding on the two levers were reversed, and the monkeys again responded at higher rates on the operative lever. As a comparison, 3 additional experimentally naive monkeys received response-independent cocaine deliveries. Although lever pressing was observed, it extinguished and was subsequently reestablished under the tandem schedule. The results suggest that although response-reinforcer contiguity is not required for cocaine to acquire reinforcing functions, a response-reinforcer relation appears necessary. PMID:16262189

  7. Perceived control in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - Enhanced video-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether perceived control effects found in humans extend to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) tested in a video-task format, using a computer-generated menu program, SELECT. Choosing one of the options in SELECT resulted in presentation of five trials of a corresponding task and subsequent return to the menu. In Experiments 1-3, the animals exhibited stable, meaningful response patterns in this task (i.e., they made choices). In Experiment 4, performance on tasks that were selected by the animals significantly exceeded performance on identical tasks when assigned by the experimenter under comparable conditions (e.g., time of day, order, variety). The reliable and significant advantage for performance on selected tasks, typically found in humans, suggests that rhesus monkeys were able to perceive the availability of choices.

  8. Photochemical injury to the foveomacula of the monkey eye following argon blue-green panretinal photocoagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Parver, L M

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Visual loss following panretinal photocoagulation was found in the Diabetic Retinopathy and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Studies. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that light scattered in the monkey eye during a procedure designed to mimic a clinical panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) can produce a photochemical injury to the foveomacula. METHODS: Ten eyes of 5 adult cynomologous monkeys underwent a PRP using an argon blue-green laser. Three eyes in 2 monkeys underwent a sham PRP, and an additional eye had a PRP with blue filtered slit-lamp illumination. The animals had baseline fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms that were repeated 24 hours after the experimental procedure. Forty-eight hours after the experimental procedure, the eyes were removed and processed for light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: There were no observable changes in the macula on fundus photography or fluorescein angiography 24 hours following PRP. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the retinal pigment epithelium and the outer photoreceptors, which were confined to the foveola. The control eyes showed no apparent effect from the slit lamp illumination used during the PRP. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of histologic evidence of retinal injury in the foveomacula of the monkey eye after a procedure designed to mimic clinical PRP supports the hypothesis that photochemical retinal damage in the foveola may be associated with this procedure. Images FIGURE 1A FIGURE 1B FIGURE 1C FIGURE 1D FIGURE 1E FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:11190033

  9. Effect of substrates on the mechanical performance of rhesus monkey papillary muscle.

    PubMed

    Snow, T R

    1980-04-15

    This study examines the effect of different substrates on mechanical performance of excised papillary muscles from rhesus monkeys which had been divided into a control group and an experimental group fed a high fat diet for 5 months prior to sacrifice. The results show that performance is affected by availabel substrate for both groups. The performance of the experimental group was depressed relative to control with the short chain fatty acid, butyrate (C4), producing a monotonically decreasing force-frequency response. Relative to the other mammals, isolated rhesus papillary muscles exhibited a protracted treppe which was sensitive to beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol.

  10. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  11. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  12. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  13. Behavioral Effects of Atropine and Benactyzine: Man-Monkey Comparisons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Dose - response curves for atropine- or benactyzine-induced performance decrements were estimated for both humans and monkeys. Monkeys were more...tolerant than humans to both drugs, and their dose - response curves were not as steep. Thus, no simple correction coefficient would allow extrapolation of

  14. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  15. Norovirus GII.17 Natural Infections in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhanlong; Liu, Bo; Tao, Yufen; Li, Chao; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Noroviruses are a leading viral cause of acute gastroenteritis among humans. During the 2014–15 epidemic season, norovirus GII.17 was detected in rhesus monkeys in China. Genetic, structural, and challenge studies revealed virus mutations and verified the infections. Thus, cross-species transmission may occur, and monkeys may be a virus reservoir. PMID:28102802

  16. Corollary discharge contributes to perceived eye location in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Wilsaan M; Cavanaugh, James; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Wurtz, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Despite saccades changing the image on the retina several times per second, we still perceive a stable visual world. A possible mechanism underlying this stability is that an internal retinotopic map is updated with each saccade, with the location of objects being compared before and after the saccade. Psychophysical experiments have shown that humans derive such location information from a corollary discharge (CD) accompanying saccades. Such a CD has been identified in the monkey brain in a circuit extending from superior colliculus to frontal cortex. There is a missing piece, however. Perceptual localization is established only in humans and the CD circuit only in monkeys. We therefore extended measurement of perceptual localization to the monkey by adapting the target displacement detection task developed in humans. During saccades to targets, the target disappeared and then reappeared, sometimes at a different location. The monkeys reported the displacement direction. Detections of displacement were similar in monkeys and humans, but enhanced detection of displacement from blanking the target at the end of the saccade was observed only in humans, not in monkeys. Saccade amplitude varied across trials, but the monkey's estimates of target location did not follow that variation, indicating that eye location depended on an internal CD rather than external visual information. We conclude that monkeys use a CD to determine their new eye location after each saccade, just as humans do.

  17. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  18. Do monkeys think in metaphors? Representations of space and time in monkeys and humans

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Casasanto, Daniel; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the relationship between the representation of space and time has produced two contrasting proposals. ATOM, posits that space and time are represented via a common magnitude system, suggesting a symmetrical relationship between space and time. According to metaphor theory, however, representations of time depend on representations of space asymmetrically. Previous findings in humans have supported metaphor theory. Here, we investigate the relationship between time and space in a nonverbal species, by testing whether nonhuman primates show space-time interactions consistent with metaphor theory or with ATOM. We tested two rhesus monkeys and 16 adult humans in a nonverbal task that assessed the influence of an irrelevant dimension (time or space) on a relevant dimension (space or time). In humans, spatial extent had a large effect on time judgments whereas time had a small effect on spatial judgments. In monkeys, both spatial and temporal manipulations showed large bi-directional effects on judgments. In contrast to humans, spatial manipulations in monkeys did not produce a larger effect on temporal judgments than the reverse. Thus, consistent with previous findings, human adults showed asymmetrical space-time interactions that were predicted by metaphor theory. In contrast, monkeys showed patterns that were more consistent with ATOM. PMID:20846645

  19. Do monkeys think in metaphors? Representations of space and time in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Dustin J; Casasanto, Daniel; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Research on the relationship between the representation of space and time has produced two contrasting proposals. ATOM posits that space and time are represented via a common magnitude system, suggesting a symmetrical relationship between space and time. According to metaphor theory, however, representations of time depend on representations of space asymmetrically. Previous findings in humans have supported metaphor theory. Here, we investigate the relationship between time and space in a nonverbal species, by testing whether non-human primates show space-time interactions consistent with metaphor theory or with ATOM. We tested two rhesus monkeys and 16 adult humans in a nonverbal task that assessed the influence of an irrelevant dimension (time or space) on a relevant dimension (space or time). In humans, spatial extent had a large effect on time judgments whereas time had a small effect on spatial judgments. In monkeys, both spatial and temporal manipulations showed large bi-directional effects on judgments. In contrast to humans, spatial manipulations in monkeys did not produce a larger effect on temporal judgments than the reverse. Thus, consistent with previous findings, human adults showed asymmetrical space-time interactions that were predicted by metaphor theory. In contrast, monkeys showed patterns that were more consistent with ATOM.

  20. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  1. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  2. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  3. Third Grade Children's Comprehension of "Monkey, Monkey" as a Function of Verbal and Visual Recall. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jeanne; Fitch, Marguerite

    To determine children's "dramatic literacy" and the modal sources of their inferences, a study interviewed 45 Kansas third graders in regard to a theater production of "Monkey, Monkey." Two-thirds of the children reported that third graders in another city would enjoy this production "a lot." A majority found the play…

  4. Take the monkey and run

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Hambright, M. Karen; Hewes, Kelly; Schilder, Brian M.; Ross, Corinna N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small, New World primate that is used extensively in biomedical and behavioral research. This short-lived primate, with its small body size, ease of handling, and docile temperament, has emerged as a valuable model for aging and neurodegenerative research. A growing body of research has indicated exercise, aerobic exercise especially, imparts beneficial effects to normal aging. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these positive effects of exercise, and the degree to which exercise has neurotherapeutic effects, is an important research focus. Thus, developing techniques to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise would have great advantages. New method Here we describe the marmoset exercise ball (MEB) paradigm: a safe (for both experimenter and subjects), novel and effective means to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. We trained young adult male marmosets to run on treadmills for 30 min a day, 3 days a week. Results Our training procedures allowed us to engage male marmosets in this aerobic exercise within 4 weeks, and subjects maintained this frequency of exercise for 3 months. Comparison with existing methods To our knowledge, this is the first described method to engage marmosets in aerobic exercise. A major advantage of this exercise paradigm is that while it was technically forced exercise, it did not appear to induce stress in the marmosets. Conclusions These techniques should be useful to researchers wishing to address physiological responses of exercise in a marmoset model. PMID:25835199

  5. The misbehaviour of a metacognitive monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Ken; Evans, Theodore A.; Menzel, Emilie; Smith, J. David; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Metacognition, the monitoring of one’s own mental states, is a fundamental aspect of human intellect. Despite tests in nonhuman animals suggestive of uncertainty monitoring, some authors interpret these results solely in terms of primitive psychological mechanisms and reinforcement regimes, where “reinforcement” is invariably considered to be the delivery and consumption of earned food rewards. Surprisingly, few studies have detailed the trial-by-trial behaviour of animals engaged in such tasks. Here we report ethology-based observations on a rhesus monkey completing sparse-dense discrimination problems, and given the option of escaping trials (i.e., responding “uncertain”) at its own choosing. Uncertainty responses were generally made on trials of high objective difficulty, and were characterized by long latencies before beginning visible trials, long times taken for response, and, even after controlling for difficulty, high degrees of wavering during response. Incorrect responses were also common in trials of high objective difficulty, but were characterized by low degrees of wavering. This speaks to the likely adaptive nature of “hesitation,” and is inconsistent with models which argue or predict implicit, inflexible information-seeking or “alternative option” behaviours whenever challenging problems present themselves, Confounding models which suggest that nonhuman behaviour in metacognition tasks is driven solely by food delivery/consumption, the monkey was also observed allowing pellets to accumulate and consuming them during and after trials of all response/outcome categories (i.e., whether correct, incorrect, or escaped). This study thus bolsters previous findings that rhesus monkey behaviour in metacognition tasks is in some respects disassociated from mere food delivery/consumption, or even the avoidance of punishment. These and other observations fit well with the evolutionary status and natural proclivities of rhesus monkeys

  6. Low-status monkeys "play dumb" when learning in mixed social groups.

    PubMed

    Drea, C M; Wallen, K

    1999-10-26

    Many primates, including humans, live in complex hierarchical societies where social context and status affect daily life. Nevertheless, primate learning studies typically test single animals in limited laboratory settings where the important effects of social interactions and relationships cannot be studied. To investigate the impact of sociality on associative learning, we compared the individual performances of group-tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) across various social contexts. We used a traditional discrimination paradigm that measures an animal's ability to form associations between cues and the obtaining of food in choice situations; but we adapted the task for group testing. After training a 55-member colony to separate on command into two subgroups, composed of either high- or low-status families, we exposed animals to two color discrimination problems, one with all monkeys present (combined condition), the other in their "dominant" and "subordinate" cohorts (split condition). Next, we manipulated learning history by testing animals on the same problems, but with the social contexts reversed. Monkeys from dominant families excelled in all conditions, but subordinates performed well in the split condition only, regardless of learning history. Subordinate animals had learned the associations, but expressed their knowledge only when segregated from higher-ranking animals. Because aggressive behavior was rare, performance deficits probably reflected voluntary inhibition. This experimental evidence of rank-related, social modulation of performance calls for greater consideration of social factors when assessing learning and may also have relevance for the evaluation of human scholastic achievement.

  7. Restricted Stimulus Control in Stimulus Control Shaping with a Capuchin Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Brino, Ana Leda F.; Galvão, Olavo F.; Barros, Romariz S.; Goulart, Paulo R. K.; McIlvane, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching the first instances of arbitrary matching to sample to nonhumans can prove difficult and time consuming. Stimulus control relations may develop that differ from those intended by the experimenter – even when stimulus control shaping procedures are used. This paper reports efforts to identify sources of shaping program failure with a capuchin monkey. Procedures began with a baseline of identity matching. During subsequent shaping trials, compound comparison stimuli had two components – one identical to and another different from the sample. The identical component was eliminated gradually by removing portions across trials (i.e., subtracting stimulus elements). The monkey performed accurately throughout shaping. At a late stage in the program, probe tests were conducted: (1) arbitrary matching trials that had all elements of the identical comparison removed and (2) other trials that included residual elements. During the test, the monkey performed at low levels on the former trials and higher levels on the latter. These results suggested that higher accuracy was due merely to continued control by the residual elements: the target arbitrary matching relations had not been learned. Thus, it appears that procedures that gradually transform identity matching baselines into arbitrary matching can fail by inadvertently shaping restricted control by residual elements. Subsequent probes at the end of the shaping series showed a successful transfer of stimulus control from identity to arbitrary matching after further programming steps apparently overcame the restricted stimulus control. PMID:24817994

  8. Do females pay attention to secondary sexual coloration in vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerald, Melissa S.; Ayala, James; Ruíz-Lambides, Angelina; Waitt, Corri; Weiss, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Several primate species show sexual dichromatism with males displaying conspicuous coloration of the pelage or skin. Studies of scrotal coloration in male vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus aethiops) suggest that it is an important intrasexual signal, with relatively dark, colourful males dominating paler males. To date, no studies have examined the influence of male colour on intersexual social interactions in vervet monkeys. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate whether female vervet monkeys attend to male coloration. We experimentally introduced females, housed with either “pale” or “dark” males, to stimulus males whose scrota were pale, dark, or pale but painted to look dark. Overall, during introductions, females did not differ in time spent directing affiliative behaviour toward pale, dark, and painted males; however, females, permanently housed with dark males, spent significantly more time directing affiliative behaviour toward pale than painted males. When the stimulus male was pale, affiliative exchanges between males and females were longer than when the stimulus male was painted. Home male colour was not related to female-initiated aggression. Home male colour was also not related to male-initiated aggression, although painted stimulus males were more likely to initiate aggression than pale stimulus males. These findings lead us to conclude that females pay attention to male coloration, but do not bias their interactions toward males solely on the basis of natural male coloration.

  9. Does presentation format influence visual size discrimination in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.)?

    PubMed

    Truppa, Valentina; Carducci, Paola; Trapanese, Cinzia; Hanus, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most experimental paradigms to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli. To this end, different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation are used, which highlights the necessity to compare data obtained with different methods. The present study assessed whether, and to what extent, capuchin monkeys' ability to solve a size discrimination problem is influenced by the type of procedure used to present the problem. Capuchins' ability to generalise knowledge across different tasks was also evaluated. We trained eight adult tufted capuchin monkeys to select the larger of two stimuli of the same shape and different sizes by using pairs of food items (Experiment 1), computer images (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2). Our results indicated that monkeys achieved the learning criterion faster with food stimuli compared to both images and objects. They also required consistently fewer trials with objects than with images. Moreover, female capuchins had higher levels of acquisition accuracy with food stimuli than with images. Finally, capuchins did not immediately transfer the solution of the problem acquired in one task condition to the other conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that--even in relatively simple visual discrimination problems where a single perceptual dimension (i.e., size) has to be judged--learning speed strongly depends on the mode of presentation.

  10. Pathology of hepatitis A infection in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus).

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, C. M.; Lemon, S. M.; LeDuc, J. W.; McNamee, G. A.; Binn, L. N.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential liver biopsies of owl monkeys that had been experimentally infected with one of two strains of hepatitis A virus (HM-175 or PA-33) were examined for histopathologic alterations. Preinoculation biopsies were normal with only occasional minimal mononuclear cell infiltrates in portal tracts and hepatic lobular parenchyma. Histopathologic features that were present in biopsies taken during the period of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity (16-43 days after the intravenous inoculation of virus) included infiltration of predominantly mononuclear inflammatory cells into portal tracts and surrounding parenchyma, degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, and hypertrophy of Kupffer cells. Changes were similar in monkeys infected with either HM-175 or PA-33 virus strains. Convalescent biopsies (147-186 days after inoculation) showed resolving lesions with mild portal inflammation and occasional focal collections of inflammatory cells in the parenchyma. These histologic changes are similar to those associated with hepatitis A infection in man, chimpanzees, and several species of marmosets, and support the further use of the owl monkey as a model of human hepatitis A. Images Figure 1 Figure 2-4 Figure 5-6 Figure 7 PMID:6711675

  11. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive the Zöllner illusion?

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman animals share the same perceptual mechanisms. In humans, the Zöllner illusion occurs when two parallel lines appear to be convergent when oblique crosshatching lines are superimposed. Although one baboon study suggests that they too might perceive this illusion, the results of that study were unclear, whereas two recent studies suggest that birds see this illusion in the opposite direction from humans. It is currently unclear whether these mixed results are an artifact of the experimental design or reflect a peculiarity of birds' visual system or, instead, a wider phenomenon shared among nonhuman mammals. Here, we trained 6 monkeys to select the narrower of two gaps at the end of two convergent lines. Three different conditions were set up: control (no crosshatches), perpendicular (crosshatches not inducing the illusion), and Zöllner (crosshatches inducing the illusion in humans). During training, the degrees of convergence between the two lines ranged from 15° to 12°. Monkeys that reached the training criterion were tested with more difficult discriminations (11°-1°), including probe trials with parallel lines (0°). The results showed that monkeys perceived the Zöllner illusion in the same direction as humans. Comparison of these data with the data from bird studies points toward the existence of different orientation-tuned mechanisms between primate and nonprimate species.

  12. [Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae) and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Matamoros, Jorge; Villalobos-Brenes, Federico; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-06-01

    Habitat destruction may cause wildlife population fragmentation and is considered an important factor in small population species extinction. As wildlife populations become smaller, threats to their stability and persistence arise as a result of demographic, environmental and genetic stochastic factors. The aim of this work was to study the effects of population fragmentation on the long term viability of Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus populations, at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí (RVSPN), Heredia. For this we used the computer software VORTEX to run a population viability analysis (PVA) for both species. The input data of the PVA were taken from the demography structure of the RVSPN, literature sources from the species and from PVA related papers. We evaluated two sets of scenarios: small fragmented populations to reflect the population current state, and one larger and continuous population, to reflect the effect of reforestation actions followed by RVSPN to connect forest fragments. Results suggest that both A. palliata and C. capucinus can survive in isolated forest fragments. However, if different factors as inbreeding depression, catastrophes or habitat loss were incorporated to the scenarios, the small fragmented populations become unstable and the risk of extinction increased for both species. Continuous and larger populations were more robust against the threats incorporated in the scenarios when compared to the current situation of smaller and fragmented populations. The best management option for both species would be to continue reforestation efforts in the area to connect forest fragments, with the result of larger and continuous populations of both species. It is important to continue the observation of both species populations, and to promote a habitat management to reduce the negative effects of stochastic environmental events.

  13. No evidence for neo-oogenesis may link to ovarian senescence in adult monkey.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jihong; Zhang, Dongdong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mengyuan; Mao, Jian; Yin, Yu; Ye, Xiaoying; Liu, Na; Han, Jihong; Gao, Yingdai; Cheng, Tao; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2013-11-01

    Female germline or oogonial stem cells transiently residing in fetal ovaries are analogous to the spermatogonial stem cells or germline stem cells (GSCs) in adult testes where GSCs and meiosis continuously renew. Oocytes can be generated in vitro from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, but the existence of GSCs and neo-oogenesis in adult mammalian ovaries is less clear. Preliminary findings of GSCs and neo-oogenesis in mice and humans have not been consistently reproducible. Monkeys provide the most relevant model of human ovarian biology. We searched for GSCs and neo-meiosis in ovaries of adult monkeys at various ages, and compared them with GSCs from adult monkey testis, which are characterized by cytoplasmic staining for the germ cell marker DAZL and nuclear expression of the proliferative markers PCNA and KI67, and pluripotency-associated genes LIN28 and SOX2, and lack of nuclear LAMIN A, a marker for cell differentiation. Early meiocytes undergo homologous pairing at prophase I distinguished by synaptonemal complex lateral filaments with telomere perinuclear distribution. By exhaustive searching using comprehensive experimental approaches, we show that proliferative GSCs and neo-meiocytes by these specific criteria were undetectable in adult mouse and monkey ovaries. However, we found proliferative nongermline somatic stem cells that do not express LAMIN A and germ cell markers in the adult ovaries, notably in the cortex and granulosa cells of growing follicles. These data support the paradigm that adult ovaries do not undergo germ cell renewal, which may contribute significantly to ovarian senescence that occurs with age.

  14. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys crack nuts dexterously.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Madhur; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2015-05-18

    Dexterous tool use has been crucial in the evolution of hominid percussive technology. According to Newell, "dexterity" is the ability of an organism to make goal-directed corrections in movements to optimize effort. Dexterous movements are smooth and effective and accomplish the same goal with less energy than less dexterous movements. Dexterity develops during the later phases of refining a motor skill as the actor becomes sensitive to the outcome of the preceding movement, or to its modulation. In the present study, we examined how wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus, at Fazenda Boa Vista in Piauí, Brazil, that routinely crack palm nuts using stones by placing them on rock outcrops, boulders, and logs (collectively termed anvils) modulate the kinematic parameters of the strikes while processing a single tucum, Astrocaryum campestre nut. The monkeys cracked the nuts by repeatedly striking them with moderate force (i.e., not exceeding a threshold), rather than by striking them more forcefully once, and modulated the kinematic parameters of the current strike on the basis of the condition of the nut following the preceding strike (i.e., the development of any fracture or crack). Repeatedly striking the nuts with moderate force is energetically more efficient than forcefully striking them once and reduces the likelihood of smashing the kernel. Determining the changing energetic constraints of the task and dynamically optimizing movements using those as criteria are dexterous accomplishments. We discuss the implications of the present findings.

  15. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-01-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. PMID:24850892

  16. Accommodation dynamics in aging rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Croft, M A; Kaufman, P L; Crawford, K S; Neider, M W; Glasser, A; Bito, L Z

    1998-12-01

    Accommodation, the mechanism by which the eye focuses on near objects, is lost with increasing age in humans and monkeys. This pathophysiology, called presbyopia, is poorly understood. We studied aging-related changes in the dynamics of accommodation in rhesus monkeys aged 4-24 yr after total iridectomy and midbrain implantation of an electrode to permit visualization and stimulation, respectively, of the eye's accommodative apparatus. Real-time video techniques were used to capture and quantify images of the ciliary body and lens. During accommodation in youth, ciliary body movement was biphasic, lens movement was monophasic, and both slowed as the structures approached their new steady-state positions. Disaccommodation occurred more rapidly for both ciliary body and lens, but with longer latent period, and slowed near the end point. With increasing age, the amplitude of lens and ciliary body movement during accommodation declined, as did their velocities. The latent period of lens and ciliary body movements increased, and ciliary body movement became monophasic. The latent period of lens and ciliary body movement during disaccommodation was not significantly correlated with age, but their velocity declined significantly. The age-dependent decline in amplitude and velocity of ciliary body movements during accommodation suggests that ciliary body dysfunction plays a role in presbyopia. The age changes in lens movement could be a consequence of increasing inelasticity or hardening of the lens, or of age changes in ciliary body motility.

  17. Squirrel Monkey Requirements for Chronic Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined: (1) the ability of a small non-human primate to tolerate chronic centrifugation on a centrifuge with a radius of 0.9 m, and (2) the influence of centrifuge radius on the response of primates to hyperdynamic fields. Eight adult male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 1.5 g via centrifugation at two different radii (0.9 m and 3.0 m). Body temperature, activity, feeding and drinking were monitored. These primates did tolerate and adapt to 1.5G via centrifugation on either radius centrifuge. The results show, however, that centrifuge radius does have an effect on the responses of the primate to the hyperdynamic environment. Adaptation to the hyperdynamic environment occurred more quickly on the larger centrifuge. This study demonstrates that a small, non-human primate model, such as the squirrel monkey, could be used on a 0.9 m radius centrifuge such as is being considered by the NASA Space Station Program.

  18. Vestibuloocular reflex of rhesus monkeys after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard; Kozlovskaia, Inessa; Raphan, Theodore; Solomon, David; Helwig, Denice; Cohen, Nathaniel; Sirota, Mikhail; Iakushin, Sergei

    1992-01-01

    The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of two rhesus monkeys was recorded before and after 14 days of spaceflight. The gain (eye velocity/head velocity) of the horizontal VOR, tested 15 and 18 h after landing, was approximately equal to preflight values. The dominant time constant of the animal tested 15 h after landing was equivalent to that before flight. During nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), the latency, rising time constant, steady-state eye velocity, and phase of modulation in eye velocity and eye position with respect to head position were similar in both monkeys before and after flight. There were changes in the amplitude of modulation of horizontal eye velocity during steady-state OVAR and in the ability to discharge stored activity rapidly by tilting during postrotatory nystagmus (tilt dumping) after flight: OVAR modulations were larger, and tilt dumping was lost in the one animal tested on the day of landing and for several days thereafter. If the gain and time constant of the horizontal VOR exchange in microgravity, they must revert to normal soon after landing. The changes that were observed suggest that adaptation to microgravity had caused alterations in way that the central nervous system processes otolith input.

  19. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    PubMed Central

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  20. Development of relational memory processes in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Maria C; Malkova, Ludise; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2016-12-01

    The present study tested whether relational memory processes, as measured by the transverse patterning problem, are late-developing in nonhuman primates as they are in humans. Eighteen macaques ranging from 3 to 36 months of age, were trained to solve a set of visual discriminations that formed the transverse patterning problem. Subjects were trained at 3, 4-6, 12, 15-24 or 36 months of age to solve three discriminations as follows: 1) A+ vs. B-; 2) B+ vs. C-; 3) C+ vs. A. When trained concurrently, subjects must adopt a relational strategy to perform accurately on all three problems. All 36 month old monkeys reached the criterion of 90% correct, but only one 24-month-old and one 15-month-old did, initially. Three-month-old infants performed at chance on all problems. Six and 12-month-olds performed at 75-80% correct but used a 'linear' or elemental solution (e.g. A>B>C), which only yields correct performance on two problems. Retraining the younger subjects at 12, 24 or 36 months yielded a quantitative improvement on speed of learning, and a qualitative improvement in 24-36 month old monkeys for learning strategy. The results suggest that nonspatial relational memory develops late in macaques (as in humans), maturing between 15 and 24 months of age.

  1. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Ferraro, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.; Klimovitsky, V.; Magedov, V.; Alpatov, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer.

  2. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search.

    PubMed

    Segraves, Mark A; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-03-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search.

  3. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search

    PubMed Central

    Segraves, Mark A.; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2017-01-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search. PMID:28355625

  4. Spatial choices of macaque monkeys based on abstract visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Bures, Jan

    2006-11-01

    Our study investigates whether macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are able to make spatial choices in a real space according to abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. We tested whether there was a difference in the processing of stimuli reflecting the configuration of a response space ("spatial stimuli") and stimuli of simple geometrical patterns lacking implicit spatial information. We trained two monkeys to choose one of nine touch-holes on a transparent panel attached to a computer monitor according to one of four visual stimuli successively displayed on the screen. The first monkey followed the visual stimuli designed as a representation of the response space ("configurations"), the second monkey observed geometrical patterns or pictures without information about the response space. In the first phase the position or the size of the stimuli varied but the shapes remained the same. In the second phase we changed the stimuli - "configurations" represented the response space in a similar way as in the previous phase, but marked different touch-holes - the patterns were changed entirely. The comparison of these two monkeys using different stimuli was expected to reveal potential differences between pattern discrimination and using configuration information included in the stimuli. The results of this experiment showed that both monkeys were able to use visual stimuli in phase 1 effectively (independently on their position on the screen), but only the monkey that obtained configuration information learnt an effective strategy after the change of stimuli in phase 2.

  5. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) do recognize themselves in the mirror: implications for the evolution of self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Rajala, Abigail Z; Reininger, Katharine R; Lancaster, Kimberly M; Populin, Luis C

    2010-09-29

    Self-recognition in front of a mirror is used as an indicator of self-awareness. Along with humans, some chimpanzees and orangutans have been shown to be self-aware using the mark test. Monkeys are conspicuously absent from this list because they fail the mark test and show persistent signs of social responses to mirrors despite prolonged exposure, which has been interpreted as evidence of a cognitive divide between hominoids and other species. In stark contrast with those reports, the rhesus monkeys in this study, who had been prepared for electrophysiological recordings with a head implant, showed consistent self-directed behaviors in front of the mirror and showed social responses that subsided quickly during the first experimental session. The self-directed behaviors, which were performed in front of the mirror and did not take place in its absence, included extensive observation of the implant and genital areas that cannot be observed directly without a mirror. We hypothesize that the head implant, a most salient mark, prompted the monkeys to overcome gaze aversion inhibition or lack of interest in order to look and examine themselves in front of the mirror. The results of this study demonstrate that rhesus monkeys do recognize themselves in the mirror and, therefore, have some form of self-awareness. Accordingly, instead of a cognitive divide, they support the notion of an evolutionary continuity of mental functions.

  6. Emergence and evolution of inter-specific segregating retrocopies in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Retroposition is an RNA-mediated mechanism to generate gene duplication, and is believed to play an important role in genome evolution and phenotypic adaptation in various species including primates. Previous studies suggested an elevated rate of recent retroposition in the rhesus macaque genome. To better understand the impact of retroposition on macaque species which have undergone an adaptive radiation approximately 3–6 million years ago, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify recently derived retrocopies in cynomolgus monkeys. As a result, we identified seven experimentally validated young retrocopies, all of which are polymorphic in cynomolgus monkeys. Unexpectedly, five of them are also present in rhesus monkeys and are still segregating. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicates that the observed inter-specific polymorphism is attribute to ancestral polymorphism. Further population genetics analysis provided strong evidence of balancing selection on at least one case (Crab-eating monkey retrocopy 6, or CER6) in both species. CER6 is in adjacent with an immunoglobulin related gene and may be involved in host-pathogen interaction, a well-known target of balancing selection. Altogether, our data support that retroposition is an important force to shape genome evolution and species adaptation. PMID:27600022

  7. A comparison of pharmacokinetics between humans and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Akabane, Takafumi; Tabata, Kenji; Kadono, Keitaro; Sakuda, Shuichi; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Teramura, Toshio

    2010-02-01

    To verify the availability of pharmacokinetic parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, hepatic availability (Fh) and the fraction absorbed multiplied by intestinal availability (FaFg) were evaluated to determine their contributions to absolute bioavailability (F) after intravenous and oral administrations. These results were compared with those for humans using 13 commercial drugs for which human pharmacokinetic parameters have been reported. In addition, in vitro studies of these drugs, including membrane permeability, intrinsic clearance, and p-glycoprotein affinity, were performed to classify the drugs on the basis of their pharmacokinetic properties. In the present study, monkeys had a markedly lower F than humans for 8 of 13 drugs. Although there were no obvious differences in Fh between humans and monkeys, a remarkable species difference in FaFg was observed. Subsequently, we compared the FaFg values for monkeys with the in vitro pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. No obvious FaFg differences were observed between humans and monkeys for drugs that undergo almost no in vivo metabolism. In contrast, low FaFg were observed in monkeys for drugs that undergo relatively high metabolism in monkeys. These results suggest that first-pass intestinal metabolism is greater in cynomolgus monkeys than in humans, and that bioavailability in cynomolgus monkeys after oral administration is unsuitable for predicting pharmacokinetics in humans. In addition, a rough correlation was also observed between in vitro metabolic stability and Fg in humans, possibly indicating the potential for Fg prediction in humans using only in vitro parameters after slight modification of the evaluation system for in vitro intestinal metabolism.

  8. Germline transmission in transgenic Huntington’s disease monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Sean; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S.; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Jean, Sherrie; Gould, Kenneth; Chan, Anthony W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic nonhuman primate models are increasingly popular model for neurological and neurodegenerative disease because their brain functions and neural anatomies closely resemble those of humans [1–6]. Transgenic Huntington’s disease monkeys (HD monkeys) developed clinical features similar to those seen in HD patients, making the monkeys suitable for preclinical study of HD [6–12]. However, until HD monkey colonies can be readily expanded, their use in preclinical studies will be limited [1, 13, 14]. In the present study, we confirmed germline transmission of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) transgene in both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated from three male HD monkey founders (F0), as well as in second-generation offspring (F1) produced via artificial insemination by using intrauterine insemination (IUI) technique. A total of five offspring were produced from fifteen females that were inseminated by IUI using semen collected from the three HD founders (5/15; 33%). Thus far, sperm collected from HD founder (rHD8) has led to two F1 transgenic HD moenkys with germline transmission rate at 100% (2/2). mHTT expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using skin fibroblasts from the F1 HD monkeys, as well as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) established from one of the F1 HD monkeys (rHD8-2). Here we report the stable germline transmission and expression of the mHTT transgene in HD monkeys, which suggest possible expansion of HD monkey colonies for preclinical and biomedical researches. PMID:25917881

  9. Transmission of naturally occurring lymphoma in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R D; Blake, B J; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; King, N W; Letvin, N L

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and cryptosporidiosis. They also showed evidence of an abnormal circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell. These findings, all characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) of macaques, suggest a link between these transmissible lymphomas and AIDS in macaque monkeys. Images PMID:6576377

  10. Reproduction of the owl monkey (Aotus spp.) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Málaga, C A; Weller, R E; Buschbom, R L; Baer, J F; Kimsey, B B

    1997-06-01

    The reproduction performance of captive owl monkeys, a breed used extensively in biomedical research, was observed at the Battelle Primate Facility (BPF). The colony grew through captive breeding, imports from the Peruvian Primatological Project, and others to a peak size of 730. It included seven karyotypes of Aotus sp. Results showed that owl monkeys can breed successfully in a laboratory in numbers sufficient to sustain modest research programs. Reproductive success increases when pairs are compatible, of the same karyotype, and stabilized; however, mated pairs of different karyotype are also productive. Under conditions of controlled lighting and heating, owl monkeys at BPF showed no birth peak nor birth season.

  11. Transmission of Naturally Occurring Lymphoma in Macaque Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Ronald D.; Blake, Beverly J.; Chalifoux, Laura V.; Sehgal, Prabhat K.; King, Norval W.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1983-08-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and cryptosporidiosis. They also showed evidence of an abnormal circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell. These findings, all characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) of macaques, suggest a link between these transmissible lymphomas and AIDS in macaque monkeys.

  12. Improved Monkey-King Genetic Algorithm for Solving Large Winner Determination in Combinatorial Auction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuzhong

    Using GA solve the winner determination problem (WDP) with large bids and items, run under different distribution, because the search space is large, constraint complex and it may easy to produce infeasible solution, would affect the efficiency and quality of algorithm. This paper present improved MKGA, including three operator: preprocessing, insert bid and exchange recombination, and use Monkey-king elite preservation strategy. Experimental results show that improved MKGA is better than SGA in population size and computation. The problem that traditional branch and bound algorithm hard to solve, improved MKGA can solve and achieve better effect.

  13. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  14. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  15. Realignment strategies for awake-monkey fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Stoewer, Steffen; Goense, Jozien; Keliris, Georgios A; Bartels, Andreas; Logothetis, Nikos K; Duncan, John; Sigala, Natasha

    2011-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments with awake nonhuman primates (NHPs) have recently seen a surge of applications. However, the standard fMRI analysis tools designed for human experiments are not optimal for NHP data collected at high fields. One major difference is the experimental setup. Although real head movement is impossible for NHPs, MRI image series often contain visible motion artifacts. Animal body movement results in image position changes and geometric distortions. Since conventional realignment methods are not appropriate to address such differences, algorithms tailored specifically for animal scanning become essential. We have implemented a series of high-field NHP specific methods in a software toolbox, fMRI Sandbox (http://kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/~stoewer/), which allows us to use different realignment strategies. Here we demonstrate the effect of different realignment strategies on the analysis of awake-monkey fMRI data acquired at high field (7 T). We show that the advantage of using a nonstandard realignment algorithm depends on the amount of distortion in the dataset. While the benefits for less distorted datasets are minor, the improvement of statistical maps for heavily distorted datasets is significant.

  16. Operant conditioning of autogrooming in vervet monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Iver H.; Ragnarsdottir, G. Adda; Randrup, Kirsten I.

    1984-01-01

    Vervet monkeys received food reinforcement contingent on autogrooming. Experiment 1 reinforced grooming on a schedule of increasing intermittency and grooming increased in frequency and duration; with only pauses reinforced, grooming decreased in frequency and duration. Experiment 2 demonstrated differentiation of operant autogrooming; in each session a different single form of grooming was reinforced (for example, grooming the tail only), and that form increased in frequency while other forms became less frequent. In Experiment 3 scratching was succesfully conditioned with a method that selectively reinforced variety in behavior; reinforcement was contingent on a shift in scratching form. In Experiment 4, with no contingencies on grooming, a prefood stimulus did not increase autogrooming whether or not grooming had previously resulted in contingent reinforcement. The form of conditioned autogrooming resembled the form of unconditioned autogrooming. The discussion suggests how reinforcement principles can account for changes in the topography of operant behavior. PMID:16812384

  17. Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; de Boer, Bart; Mathur, Neil; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2016-01-01

    For four decades, the inability of nonhuman primates to produce human speech sounds has been claimed to stem from limitations in their vocal tract anatomy, a conclusion based on plaster casts made from the vocal tract of a monkey cadaver. We used x-ray videos to quantify vocal tract dynamics in living macaques during vocalization, facial displays, and feeding. We demonstrate that the macaque vocal tract could easily produce an adequate range of speech sounds to support spoken language, showing that previous techniques based on postmortem samples drastically underestimated primate vocal capabilities. Our findings imply that the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural changes rather than modifications of vocal anatomy. Macaques have a speech-ready vocal tract but lack a speech-ready brain to control it. PMID:27957536

  18. Amygdalar vocalization pathways in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, U

    1982-06-10

    In 22 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the amygdala and along the trajectory of the stria terminalis. Then, lesions were placed in the stria terminalis, its bed nucleus, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and several di- and mesencephalic structures in order to find out the pathways along which the amygdala exerts its vocalization-controlling influence. It was found that different call types are controlled by different pathways. Purring and chattering calls, which express a self-confident, challenging attitude and an attempt to recruit fellow-combatants in intra-specific mobbing, respectively, are controlled via the stria terminalis; alarm peep and groaning calls, in contrast, which indicate flight motivation and resentment, respectively, are triggered via the ventral amygdalofugal fibre bundle. Both pathways traverse the dorsolateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, respectively, and unite in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain.

  19. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  20. Neurobehavioral Development of Common Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Braun, Katarina M.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2016-01-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys are a resource for biomedical research and their use is predicted to increase due to the suitability of this species for transgenic approaches. Identification of abnormal neurodevelopment due to genetic modification relies upon the comparison with validated patterns of normal behavior defined by unbiased methods. As scientists unfamiliar with nonhuman primate development are interested to apply genomic editing techniques in marmosets, it would be beneficial to the field that the investigators use validated methods of postnatal evaluation that are age and species appropriate. This review aims to analyze current available data on marmoset physical and behavioral postnatal development, describe the methods used and discuss next steps to better understand and evaluate marmoset normal and abnormal postnatal neurodevelopment PMID:26502294

  1. Motion sickness in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordy, J. M.; Brizzee, K. R.

    1980-01-01

    In this study of susceptibility to motion sickness the specific aims were to examine the effects of combined vertical rotation and horizontal acceleration, phenotype, sex, visual cues, morning and afternoon testing, and repeated test exposures on incidence, frequency, and latency of emetic responses. The highest emetic incidence of 89% with an emetic frequency of 2.0 during 60 min and a latency of 19 min from onset of testing occurred at 25 rpm and 0.5 Hz linear acceleration. Since the emetic responses were quite similar to man in eliciting motion stimuli it was concluded that the squirrel monkey represents a very suitable primate model for studies of motion and space sickness.

  2. The capuchin monkey as a flight candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The highly evolved nervous system and associated complex behavioral capabilities of the nonhuman primates make them good candidates for certain studies in the space environment since deleterious changes in these more complex aspects of a biological status can only be demonstrated by species which share such highly evolved features with man. Important assets which urge the selection of the capuchin monkey for space experiments include his small size, high intelligence, relative disease resistance, nutritional requirements, and lower volume life support systems. The species is particularly suited for experiments on the nervous system or on process under neural control because of the similarity of capuchin and human blood chemistry profiles and endocrine systems involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and vasomotor tone.

  3. Color vision in the black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Antônio C; Didonet, Julia J; Araújo, Carolina S; Saletti, Patrícia G; Borges, Tânia R J; Pessoa, Valdir F

    2008-01-01

    Electrophysiological and molecular genetic studies have shown that howler monkeys (Alouatta) are unique among all studied platyrrhines: they have the potential to display trichromatic color vision among males and females. This study examined the color discrimination abilities of four howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) through a series of tasks involving a behavioral paradigm of discrimination learning. The animals were maintained and housed as a group in the Zoological Gardens of Brasília and were tested in their own home cages. Stimuli consisting of pairs of Munsell color chips were presented in random brightness values to assure that discriminations were based on color rather than brightness cues. All the animals (three males, one female) successfully discriminated all the stimulus pairs, including those that would be expected to be difficult for a dichromatic monkey. These results are consistent with the earlier predictions suggesting that howler monkeys are routinely trichromatic.

  4. Dulcin and saccharin taste in squirrel monkeys, rats, and men.

    PubMed

    Fisher, G L; Pfaffmann, C; Brown, E

    1965-10-22

    In a taste-preference comparison of sweetening agents, men reacted positively to two nonnutritive sweeteners, dulcin and sodium saccharin; rats preferred only saccharin and squirrel monkeys, only dulcin.

  5. Perceptual learning: 12-month-olds' discrimination of monkey faces.

    PubMed

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-11-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following 20 s of familiarization, and two 5-s visual-paired comparison test trials, 12-month-olds failed to show discrimination. However, following 40 s of familiarization and two 10-s test trials, 12-month-olds showed reliable discrimination of novel monkey faces. A final experiment was performed demonstrating 12-month-olds' discrimination of the monkey face was due to the increased familiarization rather than increased time of visual comparison. Results are discussed in the context of perceptual narrowing, in particular the flexible nature of perceptual narrowing.

  6. Monkeys as a source of viral diseases in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pille, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Under institutional scientific-research conditions, during contact with monkeys or their tissues, there is a danger of infection of the associates by simian viruses which are pathogenic to man. Presented in this paper is information on these stimulants.

  7. 49. Historic American Buildings Survey CARVING IN MONKEY LOGGIA PHOTOCOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Historic American Buildings Survey CARVING IN MONKEY LOGGIA PHOTOCOPY OF PLATE FROM IRVIN L. SCOOT, 'MARALAGO', THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT (JUNE 20, 1928), P. 809 - Mar-a-Lago, 1100 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  8. Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile River Playground comfort station, looking northwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  9. Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wright, A A; Rivera, J J; Hulse, S H; Shyan, M; Neiworth, J J

    2000-09-01

    Two rhesus monkeys were tested for octave generalization in 8 experiments by transposing 6- and 7-note musical passages by an octave and requiring same or different judgments. The monkeys showed no octave generalization to random-synthetic melodies, atonal melodies, or individual notes. They did show complete octave generalization to childhood songs (e.g., "Happy Birthday") and tonal melodies (from a tonality algorithm). Octave generalization was equally strong for 2-octave transpositions but not for 0.5- or 1.5-octave transpositions of childhood songs. These results combine to show that tonal melodies form musical gestalts for monkeys, as they do for humans, and retain their identity when transposed with whole octaves so that chroma (key) is preserved. This conclusion implicates similar transduction, storage, processing, and relational memory of musical passages in monkeys and humans and has implications for nature-nurture origins of music perception.

  10. Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley.

    PubMed

    Steckenfinger, Shawn A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-10-27

    Very realistic human-looking robots or computer avatars tend to elicit negative feelings in human observers. This phenomenon is known as the "uncanny valley" response. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling is because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of "human," but fail to live up to it. That is, this failure generates feelings of unease due to character traits falling outside the expected spectrum of everyday social experience. These unsettling emotions are thought to have an evolutionary origin, but tests of this hypothesis have not been forthcoming. To bridge this gap, we presented monkeys with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as real monkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). To our surprise, monkey visual behavior fell into the uncanny valley: They looked longer at real faces and unrealistic synthetic faces than at realistic synthetic faces.

  11. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  12. Effects of Histamine H3 Receptor Activation on the Behavioral-Stimulant Effects of Methamphetamine and Cocaine in Mice and Squirrel Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L.; Manvich, Daniel F.; Bauzo, Rayna M.; Howell, Leonard L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cocaine and methamphetamine (METH) are two commonly abused drugs that have behavioral-stimulant properties. These stimulant effects are partially mediated by the dopaminergic system. Recent evidence has suggested that the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) may modulate the release of dopamine induced by METH. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of H3R in the behavioral-stimulant effects of cocaine and METH in mice and monkeys. Methods Nonhabituated, experimentally naïve mice (n = 5–6) were pretreated with the H3R agonist imetit 30 min before METH or cocaine, and activity was measured for 90 min. The behavioral-stimulant effects of METH and cocaine were also studied in squirrel monkeys (n = 3) under a fixed-interval schedule of stimulus termination. Monkeys were pretreated with imetit 30 min before the peak behavioral-stimulant doses of METH or cocaine derived from individual subjects. Results Pretreatment with imetit did not affect basal activity in mice. Imetit significantly attenuated the behavioral-stimulant effects of METH, but not cocaine. In monkeys, no dose of imetit tested significantly altered the behavioral-stimulant effects of METH or cocaine. Conclusion These results suggest a role of H3R in the behavioral-stimulant effects of METH, but not cocaine, in mice and no role in monkeys. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:19145102

  13. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  14. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  15. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  16. ON THE SUBJECT OF PSEUDO-TUBERCULOSIS IN THE MONKEY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    J. Verge and Placidi have reported a case of pseudo- tuberculosis in a Macaque (Macacus rhesus). They emphasize that this ailment is found rarely in...the monkey. It may be true that there are only a few authentic observations of pseudo- tuberculosis in this animal; however, this ailment is not as rare...as Verge and Placidi indicate. If autopsies are performed on all the monkeys that die in the zoos, pseudo- tuberculosis will be found often enough

  17. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity.

  18. Transplantation of cultured rhesus monkey vascular endothelial cells to allogeneic cornea concomitant with stripping of Descemet's membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin; Wu, Min; Sun, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenjia; Hu, Zhulin; Liu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Context: In cases of damaged corneal endothelium cells (CECs) of the eye, transplantation of cultured vascular endothelial cells (VECs) may be a viable method to restore transparency. Aims: To evaluate the viability of replacing damaged primate CECs with cultured allogeneic VECs. Subjects and Methods: Rhesus monkey VECs (RMVECs) were cultured and proliferating cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in vitro. RMs of the experimental group (n = 6) underwent manual Descemettt membrane stripping with transplantation of RMVECs labeled with BrdU; those in the control group received manual Descemetnt membrane stripping without transplantation. Postoperative evaluations included the transparency and appearance of the corneal graft; distribution and ultrastructural changes of RMVECs on the inner surface of the cornea using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistological identification of BrdU. Results: At 90 days postsurgery, the corneal grafts of the monkeys in the experimental group retained better transparency than those of the controls, without corneal neovascularization or bullous keratopathy. A layer of cells with positive BrdU staining was found on the posterior surface of the treated corneas in the experimental group, while there was no VEC structure in corneal grafts from the monkeys of the control group. Conclusions: RMVECs can grow on the posterior surface of the cornea without Descemet's membrane. Cultured and transplanted RMVECs appeared similar in ultrastructure. VECs can provide a barrier to maintain corneal dehydration and transparency to some extent. PMID:26576525

  19. Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, while discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the two cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of two consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25436219

  20. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  1. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  2. Monkeys and apes: are their cognitive skills really so different?

    PubMed

    Amici, Federica; Aureli, Filippo; Call, Josep

    2010-10-01

    Differences in cognitive skills across taxa, and between monkeys and apes in particular, have been explained by different hypotheses, although these often are not supported by systematic interspecific comparisons. Here, we directly compared the cognitive performance of the four great apes and three monkey species (spider monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and long-tailed macaques), differing in their phylogenetic-relatedness and socioecology. We tested subjects on their ability to remember object locations (memory task), track object displacements (transposition task), and obtain out-of-reach rewards (support task). Our results showed no support for an overall clear-cut distinction in cognitive skills between monkeys and apes as species performance varied substantially across tasks. Although we found differences in performance at tracking object displacements between monkeys and apes, interspecific differences in the other two tasks were better explained in terms of differential socioecology, especially differential levels of fission-fusion dynamics. A cluster analysis using mean scores of each condition of the three tasks for each species suggested that the only dichotomy might be between members of the genus Pan and the rest of the tested species. These findings evidence the importance of using multiple tasks across multiple species in a comparative perspective to test different explanations for the enhancement of specific cognitive skills.

  3. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    PubMed Central

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism. PMID:25027164

  4. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  5. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  6. The Physiological Effect of Human Grooming on the Heart Rate and the Heart Rate Variability of Laboratory Non-Human Primates: A Pilot Study in Male Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Grandi, Laura Clara; Ishida, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is a widespread, essential, and complex behavior with social and affiliative valence in the non-human primate world. Its impact at the autonomous nervous system level has been studied during allogrooming among monkeys living in a semi-naturalistic environment. For the first time, we investigated the effect of human grooming to monkey in a typical experimental situation inside laboratory. We analyzed the autonomic response of male monkeys groomed by a familiar human (experimenter), in terms of the heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) at different body parts. We considered the HRV in both the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and RMSSD/SDNN) and the frequency domain (HF, LF, and LF/HF). For this purpose, we recorded the electrocardiogram of two male rhesus monkeys seated in a primate chair while the experimenter groomed their mouth, chest, or arm. We demonstrated that (1) the grooming carried out by a familiar human determined a decrement of the HR and an increment of the HRV; (2) there was a difference in relation to the groomed body part. In particular, during grooming the mouth the HRV was higher than during grooming the arm and the chest. Taken together, the results represent the first evidence that grooming carried out by a familiar human on experimental monkeys has the comparable positive physiological effect of allogrooming between conspecifics. Moreover, since the results underlined the positive modulation of both HR and HRV, the present study could be a starting point to improve the well-being of non-human primates in experimental condition by means of grooming by a familiar person. PMID:26664977

  7. A comparative assessment of hand preference in captive red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Nasibah; Mangalam, Madhur; Kaumanns, Werner; Singh, Mewa

    2014-01-01

    There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates-the 'task complexity' theory and the 'postural origins' theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the 'niche structure' hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container). In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging). Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence the perception of

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Hand Preference in Captive Red Howler Monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and Yellow-Breasted Capuchin Monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos

    PubMed Central

    Sfar, Nasibah; Mangalam, Madhur; Kaumanns, Werner; Singh, Mewa

    2014-01-01

    There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates–the ‘task complexity’ theory and the ‘postural origins’ theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the ‘niche structure’ hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container). In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging). Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence the

  9. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus.

  10. Intrapericardial denervation: Responses to water immersion in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings. water immersion; natriuresis; vasopressin; eardiae denervation; monkey

  11. Metabolism of glutamine and glutamate in monkey lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, H.M. Jr.; Zigler, J.S. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    In rat lenses, glutamine (GLN), not glutamate (GLU), from the surrounding fluids is the primary source of GLU utilized by several metabolic pathways. To study lenticular amino acid metabolism in a primate, fresh lenses from young (2-3 yr) rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 3, 6, or 24 hr in balanced salt medium containing 5 mM of amino-labeled /sup 15/N-GLN or /sup 15/N-GLU. The % enrichment of /sup 15/N in several free amino acids was determined by GCMS. GLN entered the monkey lenses more rapidly than GLU, but, in contrast to rat lenses, /sup 15/N-GLN did not more rapidly label other amino acids. The % of /sup 15/N in the (GLN + GLU) pool of the monkey lenses in /sup 15/N-GLN reached 20, 35, and 60% at 3, 6, and 24 hr respectively, compared with 10, 20, and 40% in the lenses in /sup 15/N-GLU. However, in monkey lenses incubated 24 hr with /sup 15/N-GLN, the /sup 15/N in alanine, serine, proline, and (aspartate + asparagine) was only 35, 6, 7, and 30% respectively, compared with 50, 10, 7, and 50% in monkey lenses with /sup 15/N-GLU. Compared with rat lenses, monkey lenses showed slower transport, deamidation, and metabolism of GLN, and less serine, proline, and glycine synthesis. Also, part of the GLU in monkey lenses appeared to be in a slowly transaminating pool. Species differences should be considered when rats are used as a model to study changes in human lenses during aging and cataractogenesis.

  12. Retinohypothalamic connections in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chijuka, John C.

    Previous studies of retinohypothalamic projections in macaques were performed with anterograde degeneration or autoradiographic techniques that were not sufficiently sensitive to fully define these projections. Results of studies in non-primates using sensitive tracers have revealed more extensive retinohypothalamic projection than previously seen. We hypothesize that there are more extensive retinohypothalamic projections in the higher primate, macaque monkey. Thus, the primary goal of this investigation was to characterize the retinohypothalamic projections in the macaque monkey using the more sensitive tract tracer, cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) unilaterally injected intravitreally. Secondary goals were to determine: (1) whether there is a retinal projection to the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus; (2) whether there are direct retinal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus; and (3) whether any retinally-projecting hypothalamic neurons can be retrogradely labeled by intravitreal CTB injections. Our results confirmed our hypothesis that there are more extensive projections to the central targets. We found that, in addition to the well-described retinal projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a number of other hypothalamic areas were labeled. We observed projections to the medial and lateral preoptic areas, including the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area. A number of retinal fibers terminated immediately dorsal to the supraoptic nucleus (SO), with a few fibers penetrating and terminating within the nucleus. A few fibers continued laterally beyond the SO into the substantia innominata immediately ventral to the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, a dense plexus of CTB-labeled, retinal fibers were present in the subventricular nucleus and adjacent subventricular area. Some of these fibers coursed dorsally from this region to penetrate the ependyma lining the third ventricle and apparently

  13. Histopathologic evaluation of three ultraviolet-activated composite resins on monkey pulps.

    PubMed

    Heys; RJ Heys, D R; Fox, C F; Avery, J K

    1977-11-01

    The pulpal responses of three ultraviolet-activated composite resins, Nuva-Fil, Experimental UV No. 1 and Experimental UV No. 2, were tested on adult monkey teeth using silicate and zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) as positive and negative controls. All materials were placed in Class V cavity preparations in Rhesus monkey teeth using approximately 48 anterior and 63 posterior teeth of both the maxillary and mandibular arches. A total of 111 teeth were utilized and all materials were evaluated at 3 days, 5 and 8 weeks. Following left ventricular perfusion, the teeth were prepared for microscopic evaluation using routine histological procedures. The 3-day pulpal response of all the ultraviolet-activated composites was slight with some disruption and vacuolization in the odontoblastic layer and a slight inflammatory response. At 5 weeks there was a reduction of the inflammatory response and the formation of reparative dentin was noted for all ultraviolet composites. The 8-week pulp response was slight, characterized by a minimal inflammatory response adjacent to the zone of reparative dentin. Generally, ZOE produced the mildest response while silicate produced the most severe response at the three time intervals.

  14. Mortality in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in China Due to Infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Serotype O:1a.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Li, Meng; Amer, Said; Liu, Shelan; Luo, Jing; Wang, Shan; He, Hongxuan

    2016-09-01

    The most common serotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infecting non-human primates are serotypes O:1b, O:3, O:4, and O:7. The O:1a serotype has never been reported in non-human primates. The present study describes an outbreak of serotype O:1a with high fatality (6/18) in captive rhesus monkeys in China. Bacteria were isolated from different organs of the carcasses using standard microbiological procedures. The strain was identified using conventional and molecular techniques such as morphological and biochemical identification, serotype determination, PCR-sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, detection of virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The pathogenicity was determined after experimental infection in mice. Taken together, the obtained data indicate that Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1a is a pathogen of concern and represents a potential threat to monkey conservation efforts.

  15. Effects of Head-down Tilt on Nerve Conduction in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Li-Zhi; Chen, Zhao-Hui; Dai, Zhong-Quan; Huang, Xu-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few studies have focused on peripheral nerve conduction during exposure to microgravity. The −6° head-down tilt (HDT) comprises an experimental model used to simulate the space flight environment. This study investigated nerve conduction characteristics of rhesus monkeys before and after prolonged exposure to HDT. Methods: Six rhesus monkeys (3–4 years old) were tilted backward 6° from the horizontal. Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed on the median, ulnar, tibial, and fibular motor nerves. Analysis of variance with a randomized block design was conducted to compare the differences in the NCS before and 7, 21, and 42 days after the −6° HDT. Results: The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 21 and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (4.38 ± 2.83 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 4.85, P = 0.013 and 3.30 ± 2.70 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 5.93, P = 0.004, respectively). The distal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 7, 21, and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (7.28 ± 1.27 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 4.03, P = 0.039; 5.05 ± 2.01 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 6.25, P = 0.04; and 3.95 ± 2.79 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 7.35, P = 0.01; respectively). The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the tibial nerve was significantly decreased at 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (6.14 ± 1.94 vs. 11.87 ± 3.19 mV, F = 5.02, P = 0.039). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the compound muscle action potential amplitudes of nerves are decreased under simulated microgravity in rhesus monkeys. Moreover, rhesus monkeys exposed to HDT might be served as an experimental model for the study of NCS under microgravity. PMID:28139516

  16. Sound Localization Cues in the Marmoset Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Slee, Sean J.; Young, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    The most important acoustic cues available to the brain for sound localization are produced by the interaction of sound with the animal's head and external ears. As a first step in understanding the relation between these cues and their neural representation in a vocal new-world primate, we measured head related transfer functions (HRTFs) across frequency for a wide range of sound locations in three anesthetized marmoset monkeys. The HRTF magnitude spectrum has a broad resonance peak at 6-12 kHz that coincides with the frequency range of the major call types of this species. A prominent first spectral notch (FN) in the HRTF magnitude above this resonance was observed at most source locations. The center frequency of the FN increased monotonically from ∼12-26 kHz with increases in elevation in the lateral field. In the frontal field FN frequency changed in a less orderly fashion with source position. From the HRTFs we derived interaural time (ITDs) and level differences (ILDs). ITDs and ILDs (below 12 kHz) varied as a function of azimuth between +/- 250 μs and +/-20 dB, respectively. A reflexive orienting behavioral paradigm was used to confirm that marmosets can orient to sound sources. PMID:19963054

  17. Radiation-Released Histamine in the Rhesus Monkey as Modified by Mast Cell Depletion and Antihistamine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    radiation of two untreated monkeys, four monkeys given chlorpheniramine 30 minutes before irradiation and four monkeys treated with 48/80 for four...antagonist, chlorpheniramine ’ (3 mg/kg), 30 minutes before irradiation. Experiment 3. Seven monkeys were given aminoguanidine and 30 minutes later the...4000-rad dose of ionizing radiation in animals receiving no treatment. When the animals were pretreated with chlorpheniramine , the histamine

  18. Monkeys show recognition without priming in a classification task

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans show visual perceptual priming by identifying degraded images faster and more accurately if they have seen the original images, while simultaneously failing to recognize the same images. Such priming is commonly thought, with little evidence, to be widely distributed phylogenetically. Following Brodbeck (1997), we trained rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to categorize photographs according to content (e.g., birds, fish, flowers, people). In probe trials, we tested whether monkeys were faster or more accurate at categorizing degraded versions of previously seen images (primed) than degraded versions of novel images (unprimed). Monkeys categorized reliably, but showed no benefit from having previously seen the images. This finding was robust across manipulations of image quality (color, grayscale, line drawings), type of image degradation (occlusion, blurring), levels of processing, and number of repetitions of the prime. By contrast, in probe matching-to-sample trials, monkeys recognized the primes, demonstrating that they remembered the primes and could discriminate them from other images in the same category under the conditions used to test for priming. Two experiments that replicated Brodbeck’s (1997) procedures also produced no evidence of priming. This inability to find priming in monkeys under perceptual conditions sufficient for recognition presents a puzzle. PMID:22975587

  19. NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY

    PubMed Central

    Langston, William C.; Darby, William J.; Shukers, Carroll F.; Day, Paul L.

    1938-01-01

    Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey. PMID:19870827

  20. Early Parkinson's disease symptoms in α-synuclein transgenic monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yuyu; Guo, Xiangyu; Chen, Yongchang; Wang, Chuan-En; Gao, Jinquan; Yang, Weili; Kang, Yu; Si, Wei; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Li, Shihua; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease that can be caused by genetic mutations in α-synuclein (α-syn) or duplication of wild-type α-syn; PD is characterized by the deposition of α-syn aggregates, indicating a gain of toxicity from accumulation of α-syn. Although the major neuropathologic feature of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, non-motor symptoms including anxiety, cognitive defect and sleep disorder precede the onset of motor impairment, and many clinical symptoms of PD are not caused by degeneration of DA neurons. Non-human primate models of PD are important for revealing the early pathology in PD and identifying effective treatments. We established transgenic PD rhesus monkeys that express mutant α-syn (A53T). Six transgenic A53T monkeys were produced via lentiviral vector expressing A53T in fertilized monkey eggs and subsequent embryo transfer to surrogates. Transgenic A53T is expressed in the monkey brain and causes age-dependent non-motor symptoms, including cognitive defects and anxiety phenotype, without detectable sleeping disorders. The transgenic α-syn monkeys demonstrate the specific early symptoms caused by mutant α-syn and provide insight into treatment of early PD. PMID:25552648

  1. Generation of Transgenic Monkeys with Human Inherited Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Anthony W.S; Yang, Shang-Hsun

    2009-01-01

    Modeling human diseases using nonhuman primates including chimpanzee, rhesus, cynomolgus, marmoset and squirrel monkeys has been reported in the past decades. Due to the high similarity between nonhuman primates and humans, including genome constitution, cognitive behavioral functions, anatomical structure, metabolic, reproductive, and brain functions; nonhuman primates have played an important role in understanding physiological functions of the human body, clarifying the underlying mechanism of human diseases, and the development of novel treatments for human diseases. However, nonhuman primate research has been restricted to cognitive, behavioral, biochemical and pharmacological approaches of human diseases due to the limitation of gene transfer technology in nonhuman primates. The recent advancement in transgenic technology that has led to the generation of the first transgenic monkey in 2001 and a transgenic monkey model of Huntington's disease (HD) in 2008 has changed that focus. The creation of transgenic HD monkeys that replicate key pathological features of human HD patients further suggests the crucial role of nonhuman primates in the future development of biomedicine. These successes have opened the door to genetic manipulation in nonhuman primates and a new era in modeling human inherited genetic disorders. We focused on the procedures in creating transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys, but our work can be applied to transgenesis in other nonhuman primate species. PMID:19467335

  2. [Monkey-pox, a model of emergent then reemergent disease].

    PubMed

    Georges, A J; Matton, T; Courbot-Georges, M C

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of monkey pox in the United States of America highlights the problem (known for other infectious agents) of dissemination of pathogens outside their endemic area, and of subsequent global threats of variable gravity according to agents. It is a real emergency since monkey pox had been confined to Africa for several decades, where small epidemics occurred from time to time, monkey pox is a "miniature smallpox" which, in Africa, evolves on an endemic (zoonotic) mode with, as reservoirs, several species of wild rodents (mainly squirrels) and some monkey species. It can be accidentally transmitted to man then develops as epidemics, sometimes leading to death. The virus was imported in 2003 in the United States of America, via Gambia rats and wild squirrels (all African species), and infected prairie dogs (which are now in fashion as pets), then crossed the species barrier to man. In the United States of America, screening campaigns, epidemiological investigations, and subsequent treatments led to a rapid control of the epidemic, which is a model of emergent disease for this country. Therapeutic and preventive measures directly applicable to monkey pox are discussed. They can also be applied against other pox virus infections (including smallpox). The risk of criminal introduction of pox viruses is discussed since it is, more than ever, a real worldwide threat.

  3. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing.

  4. Cynomolgus monkeys are successfully and persistently infected with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) after long-term immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Gardinali, Noemi Rovaris; Guimarães, Juliana Rodrigues; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; Kevorkian, Yohan Britto; Bottino, Fernanda de Oliveira; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; da Silva, Aline Campos de Azevedo; Pinto, Douglas Pereira; da Fonseca, Laís Bastos; Vilhena, Leandro Schiavo; Uiechi, Edilson; da Silva, Maria Cristina Carlan; Moran, Julio; Marchevsky, Renato Sérgio; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs. HEV infected monkeys were followed up during 160 days post infection (dpi) by clinical signs; virological, biochemical and haematological parameters; and liver histopathology. The tacrolimus blood levels were monitored throughout the experiment. Immunosuppression was confirmed by clinical and laboratorial findings, such as: moderate weight loss, alopecia, and herpes virus opportunistic infection. In this study, chronic HEV infection was characterized by the mild increase of liver enzymes serum levels; persistent RNA viremia and viral faecal shedding; and liver histopathology. Three out of four immunosuppressed monkeys showed recurrent HEV RNA detection in liver samples, evident hepatocellular ballooning degeneration, mild to severe macro and microvesicular steatosis (zone 1), scattered hepatocellular apoptosis, and lobular focal inflammation. At 69 dpi, liver biopsies of all infected monkeys revealed evident ballooning degeneration (zone 3), discrete hepatocellular apoptosis, and at most mild portal and intra-acinar focal inflammation. At 160 dpi, the three chronically HEV infected monkeys showed microscopic features (piecemeal necrosis) corresponding to chronic hepatitis in absence of fibrosis and cirrhosis in liver parenchyma. Within 4-months follow up, the tacrolimus-immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys infected with a Brazilian swine HEV-3 strain exhibited more severe hepatic lesions progressing to chronic hepatitis

  5. Cynomolgus monkeys are successfully and persistently infected with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) after long-term immunosuppressive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Juliana Rodrigues; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; Kevorkian, Yohan Britto; Bottino, Fernanda de Oliveira; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; da Silva, Aline Campos de Azevedo; Pinto, Douglas Pereira; da Fonseca, Laís Bastos; Vilhena, Leandro Schiavo; Uiechi, Edilson; da Silva, Maria Cristina Carlan; Moran, Julio; Marchevsky, Renato Sérgio; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs. HEV infected monkeys were followed up during 160 days post infection (dpi) by clinical signs; virological, biochemical and haematological parameters; and liver histopathology. The tacrolimus blood levels were monitored throughout the experiment. Immunosuppression was confirmed by clinical and laboratorial findings, such as: moderate weight loss, alopecia, and herpes virus opportunistic infection. In this study, chronic HEV infection was characterized by the mild increase of liver enzymes serum levels; persistent RNA viremia and viral faecal shedding; and liver histopathology. Three out of four immunosuppressed monkeys showed recurrent HEV RNA detection in liver samples, evident hepatocellular ballooning degeneration, mild to severe macro and microvesicular steatosis (zone 1), scattered hepatocellular apoptosis, and lobular focal inflammation. At 69 dpi, liver biopsies of all infected monkeys revealed evident ballooning degeneration (zone 3), discrete hepatocellular apoptosis, and at most mild portal and intra-acinar focal inflammation. At 160 dpi, the three chronically HEV infected monkeys showed microscopic features (piecemeal necrosis) corresponding to chronic hepatitis in absence of fibrosis and cirrhosis in liver parenchyma. Within 4-months follow up, the tacrolimus-immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys infected with a Brazilian swine HEV-3 strain exhibited more severe hepatic lesions progressing to chronic hepatitis

  6. Differential expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in human versus cynomolgus monkey skin eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Pantano, Serafino; Dubost, Valérie; Darribat, Katy; Couttet, Philippe; Grenet, Olivier; Busch, Steven; Moulin, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) is a peptidase whose inhibition is beneficial in Type II diabetes treatment. Several evidences suggest potential implication of DPP4 in skin disorders such as psoriasis, keloids and fibrotic skin diseases where its inhibition could also be beneficial. DPP4 expression in human skin was described mainly in dermal fibroblasts and a subset of keratinocytes in the basal layer. Of importance in the perspective of preclinical experimentation, DPP4 distribution in skin of non-human primate species has not been documented. This report evidences unexpected differences between a set of human and cynomolgus monkey skin samples revealing a major expression of DPP4 in eccrine sweat glands of cynomolgus monkeys but not in humans. This represents a unique distinctive feature compared to the conserved expression of dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9 and potential relevant DPP4 substrates such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and receptors (NPY-receptor 1 and Neurokinin receptor). Finally the observation that cathepsin D, an unrelated protease, shows the opposite expression compared to DPP4 (present in human but not in cynomolgus monkey eccrine sweat glands) could indicate that human eccrine sweat glands evolved a divergent protease repertoire compared to non-human primates. These unexpected differences in the eccrine sweat glands protease repertoire will need to be confirmed extending the analysis to a major number of donors but could imply possible biochemical divergences, reflecting the functional evolution of the glands and the control of their activity. Our findings also demonstrate that non-human primates studies aiming at understanding DPP4 function in skin biology are not readily translatable to human.

  7. Improved Methods for Electroacupuncture and Electromyographic Recordings in Normal and Parkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; Fan, Xiaotong; Grondin, Richard; Edwards, Ramsey; Forman, Eric; Moorehead, Jennifer; Gerhardt, Greg; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2010-01-01

    Although acupuncture has been widely and routinely used in healthcare in the USA, its use has been based more on empirical observation than on scientific knowledge. Therefore, there is a great need for better understanding the underlying mechanism(s) of action. A great body of evidence supports that nonhuman primates are a candidate for studying human diseases. However, the use of nonhuman primates in neurophysiological, neuroimaging and neurochemical studies is extremely challenging, especially under fully conscious, alert conditions. In the present study, we developed a protocol for safely performing acupuncture, electro-acupuncture (EA) and electromyography (EMG) in both normal nonhuman primates and animals with parkinsonian-like symptoms. Four normal and four hemiparkinsonian middle-aged rhesus monkeys were extensively trained, behaviorally monitored, and received both EA and EMG for several months. The results demonstrated that (1) all rhesus monkeys used in the study could be trained for procedures including EA and EMG; (2) all animals tolerated the procedures involving needle/electrode insertion; (3) EA procedures used in the study did not adversely alter the animal’s locomotor activities; rather, MPTP-treated animals showed a significant improvement in movement speed; and (4) EMG detected significant differences in muscle activity between the arms with and without MPTP-induced rigidity. Our results support that rhesus monkeys can be used as an experimental animal model to study EA and that EMG has the potential to be used to objectively assess the effects of antiparkinsonian therapies. The results also indicate that animals, especially those with parkinsonian-like symptoms, could benefit from long-term EA stimulations. PMID:20654649

  8. Intrasulcal electrocorticography in macaque monkeys with minimally invasive neurosurgical protocols.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Osada, Takahiro; Sawahata, Hirohito; Suzuki, Takafumi; Shibata, Masahiro; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Sato, Noboru; Kawai, Kensuke; Saito, Nobuhito; Hasegawa, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Electrocorticography (ECoG), multichannel brain-surface recording and stimulation with probe electrode arrays, has become a potent methodology not only for clinical neurosurgery but also for basic neuroscience using animal models. The highly evolved primate's brain has deep cerebral sulci, and both gyral and intrasulcal cortical regions have been implicated in important functional processes. However, direct experimental access is typically limited to gyral regions, since placing probes into sulci is difficult without damaging the surrounding tissues. Here we describe a novel methodology for intrasulcal ECoG in macaque monkeys. We designed and fabricated ultra-thin flexible probes for macaques with micro-electro-mechanical systems technology. We developed minimally invasive operative protocols to implant the probes by introducing cutting-edge devices for human neurosurgery. To evaluate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG, we conducted electrophysiological recording and stimulation experiments. First, we inserted parts of the Parylene-C-based probe into the superior temporal sulcus to compare visually evoked ECoG responses from the ventral bank of the sulcus with those from the surface of the inferior temporal cortex. Analyses of power spectral density and signal-to-noise ratio revealed that the quality of the ECoG signal was comparable inside and outside of the sulcus. Histological examination revealed no obvious physical damage in the implanted areas. Second, we placed a modified silicone ECoG probe into the central sulcus and also on the surface of the precentral gyrus for stimulation. Thresholds for muscle twitching were significantly lower during intrasulcal stimulation compared to gyral stimulation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG in macaques. The novel methodology proposed here opens up a new frontier in neuroscience research, enabling the direct measurement and manipulation of electrical activity in the whole brain.

  9. Nuclear microscopic investigations into the elemental changes in the substantia nigra of unilaterally MPTP-lesioned Parkinsonian monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, P. S. P.; He, Y.; Lee, T.; Watt, F.

    1997-07-01

    Various transition metals, particularly iron, have been implicated in the aetiology of the neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson's disease, in which there is a characteristic loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. In this study, monkeys were unilaterally lesioned with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP) to obtain primate models of parkinsonism, with the non-lesioned side of the brain serving as controls. The monkeys were sacrificed at one day, one week, two weeks, one month and one year after lesioning to investigate the time dependent elemental changes in the parkinsonian SN. Sections of the brain encompassing both the lesioned and non-lesioned SNs were analysed using the National University of Singapore nuclear microscope. Adjacent sections were tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemically stained to provide complementary information on dopaminergic cell loss and to facilitate definition of the SN boundaries during data analysis. In one-day and one-week monkeys (representing early stages of the disease), there were no changes in elemental concentrations within experimental errors and the adjacent TH-stained sections did not show apparent cell loss in the SN. At two weeks, cell loss was seen in the lesioned SN compared to the control SN. Although there was no bulk increase in SN iron, localised accumulation of iron in granules containing up to 15% by weight iron was observed in the lesioned SN of one of the two-week monkeys. An average 15% increase in nigral iron, significant at the 90% confidence level ( p < 0.1), was seen in the one-month monkeys. TH-stained sections for the one-month monkeys showed cell loss in the lesioned SN. In one-year samples (representing the advanced stage of the disease) there was a significant ( p < 0.05) 56% increase in iron, 14% increase in phosphorous and a 20% decrease in copper. Here an almost complete loss of cells in the lesioned SN was apparent from the adjacent TH

  10. Modification by dopaminergic drugs of choice behavior under concurrent schedules of intravenous saline and food delivery in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gasior, Maciej; Paronis, Carol A; Bergman, Jack

    2004-01-01

    The allocation of "choice" behavior provides a measure that may be useful in developing experimental models of clinical relapse. In the present experiments, indirect monoaminergic agonists [cocaine, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR 12909), desipramine, and citalopram], and dopaminergic D1 family agonists [(+/-)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SKF 82958), R-(+)-6-bromo-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (R-(+)-6-BrAPB), and 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SKF 83959)] and D2 family agonists [quinelorane, R-(-)-10,11-dihydroxy-N-n-propylnorapomorphine (R-NPA), (+)-N-propyl-hydroxynaphoxazine [(+)-PHNO], and S-(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol (PD 128907)] were evaluated for their capacity to alter the distribution of choice behavior in cocaine-experienced monkeys. Rhesus monkeys responded on two levers (injection-lever and food-lever) under concurrent fixed ratio 30; fixed ratio 30 schedules of i.v. cocaine and food delivery. Under training conditions, the distribution of behavior was related to the unit dose of i.v. cocaine: when saline was available, responding occurred predominantly on the food-lever and when reinforcing doses of cocaine were available, responding occurred predominantly on the injection-lever. Drugs were studied by administering i.m. pretreatment doses before components in sessions of i.v. saline availability. Cocaine produced dose-related increases in injection-lever responding in all monkeys, whereas desipramine failed to alter the distribution of behavior in any monkey. The dopamine transport blocker GBR 12909 and each dopamine D1 family agonist markedly increased injection-lever responding in three of four monkeys; the serotonin transport blocker citalopram and D2 family agonists were comparably effective in only one

  11. Operant discrimination of an interoceptive stimulus in rhesus monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Slucki, Henry; Adam, Gyorgi; Porter, Robert W.

    1965-01-01

    Five rhesus macaques monkeys surgically prepared with Thiry small intestinal (jejunum) loops and implanted brain electrodes were restrained in primate chairs and kept on 23-hr deprivation-feeding cycle. After being trained to press a lever for sugar pills on an FR 25 schedule of reinforcement, a discrimination training procedure was established. Lever presses were reinforced during the SD—a non-aversive mechanical stimulus applied to the internal walls of the Thiry loop by rhythmic inflation-deflation of a small latex balloon by air at the rate of one cycle per sec at 100 mm Hg pressure. The SΔ was the absence of the visceral stimulation. The monkeys successfully discriminated between presence and absence of the internal stimulus. A discrimination reversal was attempted and completed on one monkey. The results clearly show operant discrimination based on an interoceptive stimulus. Cortical and subcortical EEG records reflected the onset but not termination of the visceral stimulation. PMID:4954822

  12. Perceptual Decision Making in Rodents, Monkeys, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Hanks, Timothy D; Summerfield, Christopher

    2017-01-04

    Perceptual decision making is the process by which animals detect, discriminate, and categorize information from the senses. Over the past two decades, understanding how perceptual decisions are made has become a central theme in the neurosciences. Exceptional progress has been made by recording from single neurons in the cortex of the macaque monkey and using computational models from mathematical psychology to relate these neural data to behavior. More recently, however, the range of available techniques and paradigms has dramatically broadened, and researchers have begun to harness new approaches to explore how rodents and humans make perceptual decisions. The results have illustrated some striking convergences with findings from the monkey, but also raised new questions and provided new theoretical insights. In this review, we summarize key findings, and highlight open challenges, for understanding perceptual decision making in rodents, monkeys, and humans.

  13. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  14. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-07-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achieve high uniformity in both resolution (<1 mm) and SNR (>8) within a large FOV of 6 cm in diameter, even when the imaging objects are enclosed by a monkey skull. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through a skull ranging from 2 to 4 mm in thickness. This study demonstrates that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull and can potentially be applied to human neonatal brain imaging.

  15. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    DOE PAGES

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; ...

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved tomore » have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.« less

  16. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A.; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W.; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.

  17. Topical capsaicin application causes cold hypersensitivity in awake monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Hiroshi; Honda, Kuniya; Kitagawa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Masahiro; Taira, Masato; Yamashita, Akiko; Katsuyama, Narumi; Masuda, Yuji; Kato, Takafumi; Iwata, Koichi

    2008-06-01

    Recent animal studies have demonstrated that many trigeminal ganglion neurons co-express TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors following peripheral inflammation. In the present study, we examined whether cold receptors were sensitized by capsaicin in awake monkeys. Two monkeys were trained to detect a change in cold stimulus temperature (30 degrees C to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 degrees C) applied to the facial skin. A total of 589 trials were studied, and the number of escape and hold-through trials and detection latency were measured. The number of escape trials was increased after capsaicin treatment, whereas that of hold-through trials was decreased. Detection latency was significantly decreased after capsaicin treatment. The present findings suggest that topical application of capsaicin to the facial skin induces reversible hypersensitivity to a facial cold stimulus in behaving monkeys.

  18. Do capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) prefer symmetrical face shapes?

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Annika; Wooddell, Lauren J.; Lefevre, Carmen; Lonsdorf, Eric; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In humans, facial symmetry has been linked to an individual's genetic quality, and facial symmetry has a small yet significant effect on ratings of facial attractiveness. The same evolutionary processes underlying these phenomena may also convey a selective advantage to symmetrical individuals of other primate species, yet to date, few studies have examined sensitivity to facial symmetry in non-human primates. Here we presented images of symmetrical and asymmetrical human and monkey faces to tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella), and hypothesized that capuchins would visually prefer symmetrical faces of opposite sex conspecifics. Instead, we found that male capuchins preferentially attended to symmetrical male conspecific faces whereas female capuchins did not appear to discriminate between symmetrical and asymmetrical faces. These results suggest that male capuchin monkeys may use facial symmetry to judge male quality in intra-male competition. PMID:28182489

  19. No strings attached: physiological monitoring of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with thermal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Stephanos; Chotard, Hélène; Davila-Ross, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Methodological challenges make physiological affective observations very restrictive as in many cases they take place in a laboratory setting rather than the animals' natural habitat. In the current study using Infrared Thermal Imaging we examine the physiological thermal imprints of five macaques. The monkeys were exposed in three different experimental scenarios. Playing with a toy, food teasing as well as feeding. It was observed that during teasing the temperature of the region surrounding the eyes was higher than play as a result of rapid saccades directed at the food. Compared to play and teasing, a lower temperature accompanied feeding on the upper lip, nose and orbital region suggesting elevated levels of distress. These findings prove that thermal imaging is a reliable method of physiological monitoring the subject at a distance while preserving a semi-experimental setting. PMID:26150774

  20. Comparative Overview of Visuospatial Working Memory in Monkeys and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Oyama, Kei; Nakamura, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats. In monkeys, a number of lesion studies indicate that the brain region most responsible for visuospatial working memory is the ventral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vDLPFC), as the performance in the standard tests for visuospatial working memory, such as delayed response and delayed alternation tasks, are impaired by lesions in this region. Single-unit studies revealed a characteristic firing pattern in neurons in this area, a sustained delay activity. Further studies indicated that the information maintained in the working memory, such as cue location and response direction in a delayed response, is coded in the sustained delay activity. In rats, an area comparable to the monkey vDLPFC was found to be the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as the delayed alternation in a T-maze is impaired by its lesion. Recently, the sustained delay activity similar to that found in monkeys has been found in the dorsal mPFC of rats performing the delayed response task. Furthermore, anatomical studies indicate that the vDLPFC in monkeys and the dorsal mPFC in rats have much in common, such as that they are both the major targets of parieto-frontal projections. Thus lines of evidence indicate that in both monkeys and rodents, the PFC plays a critical role in working memory. PMID:28018186

  1. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Arteriviruses, Pegiviruses, and Lentiviruses Are Common among Wild African Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Adam L.; Lauck, Michael; Ghai, Ria R.; Nelson, Chase W.; Heimbruch, Katelyn; Hughes, Austin L.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Jasinska, Anna J.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a historically important source of zoonotic viruses and are a gold-standard model for research on many human pathogens. However, with the exception of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (family Retroviridae), the blood-borne viruses harbored by these animals in the wild remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of two novel simian pegiviruses (family Flaviviridae) and two novel simian arteriviruses (family Arteriviridae) in wild African green monkeys from Zambia (malbroucks [Chlorocebus cynosuros]) and South Africa (vervet monkeys [Chlorocebus pygerythrus]). We examine several aspects of infection, including viral load, genetic diversity, evolution, and geographic distribution, as well as host factors such as age, sex, and plasma cytokines. In combination with previous efforts to characterize blood-borne RNA viruses in wild primates across sub-Saharan Africa, these discoveries demonstrate that in addition to SIV, simian pegiviruses and simian arteriviruses are widespread and prevalent among many African cercopithecoid (i.e., Old World) monkeys. IMPORTANCE Primates are an important source of viruses that infect humans and serve as an important laboratory model of human virus infection. Here, we discover two new viruses in African green monkeys from Zambia and South Africa. In combination with previous virus discovery efforts, this finding suggests that these virus types are widespread among African monkeys. Our analysis suggests that one of these virus types, the simian arteriviruses, may have the potential to jump between different primate species and cause disease. In contrast, the other virus type, the pegiviruses, are thought to reduce the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans. However, we did not observe a similar protective effect in SIV-infected African monkeys coinfected with pegiviruses, possibly because SIV causes little to no disease in these hosts

  3. Atlas-guided segmentation of vervet monkey brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model.

  4. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model. PMID:22253661

  5. Comparative Overview of Visuospatial Working Memory in Monkeys and Rats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Oyama, Kei; Nakamura, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats. In monkeys, a number of lesion studies indicate that the brain region most responsible for visuospatial working memory is the ventral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vDLPFC), as the performance in the standard tests for visuospatial working memory, such as delayed response and delayed alternation tasks, are impaired by lesions in this region. Single-unit studies revealed a characteristic firing pattern in neurons in this area, a sustained delay activity. Further studies indicated that the information maintained in the working memory, such as cue location and response direction in a delayed response, is coded in the sustained delay activity. In rats, an area comparable to the monkey vDLPFC was found to be the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as the delayed alternation in a T-maze is impaired by its lesion. Recently, the sustained delay activity similar to that found in monkeys has been found in the dorsal mPFC of rats performing the delayed response task. Furthermore, anatomical studies indicate that the vDLPFC in monkeys and the dorsal mPFC in rats have much in common, such as that they are both the major targets of parieto-frontal projections. Thus lines of evidence indicate that in both monkeys and rodents, the PFC plays a critical role in working memory.

  6. Estrogen modulates cognitive and cholinergic processes in surgically menopausal monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Gregory Paul; Voytko, Mary Lou

    2005-03-01

    Estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women is associated with changes in physiological processes. The extent to which estrogen loss is associated with cognitive changes noted by postmenopausal women has been more difficult to determine for a variety of reasons. Primate models of menopause are now being used to determine the effects of estrogen loss and replacement on cognitive abilities and to investigate the neural mechanisms by which estrogen may influence cognitive function. The present report presents data from cognitive and neurobiological studies in surgically menopausal monkeys that have examined how estrogen loss and replacement may be affecting cognitive abilities and the cholinergic system; a neural system that is known to influence memory and attention function. These studies are indicating that visuospatial attention function is especially sensitive to estrogen states in young monkeys, but that multiple cognitive domains are sensitive to estrogen states in middle-aged monkeys. In addition, anatomical and functional imaging studies indicate that the primate cholinergic system is modulated by estrogen, and pharmacological studies demonstrate that estrogen uses cholinergic muscarinic receptors to influence visuospatial attention. These studies demonstrate that estrogen influences cognitive abilities in monkey models of menopause and the cholinergic system may be one of the mechanisms by which estrogen modulates cognitive function. Given the current unknowns and concerns regarding the use of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, continued studies in monkey models of menopause are especially needed to further elucidate the effects of estrogen on cognitive and neurobiological processes, with particular emphasis on studies in middle-aged monkeys, determining the optimal aspects of ERT regimens, and identifying the relationships between estrogen effects on cognitive and neurobiological function.

  7. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  8. Role of the vestibular end organs in experimental motion sickness - A primate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Experimental studies of the role of vestibular end organs in motion sickness experienced by squirrel monkeys are reviewed. The first experiments in motion-sickness-susceptible squirrel monkeys were performed under a free-moving condition with horizontal rotation and vertical oscillation. In the following experiments, the vestibular-visual conflict in the pitch plane was given to the chair-restrained (upright position) squirrel monkeys. Results of this study showed that the existence of otolith afferents, which continually signal the directional change of gravity and linear acceleration vectors, was necessary for the elicitation of emesis by the sensory conflict in pitch.

  9. Naturally occurring melioidosis in a colonized rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Fritz, P E; Miller, J G; Slayter, M; Smith, T J

    1986-10-01

    An aged wild-caught male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), maintained in a research facility for 10 years, developed bilateral pelvic limb paralysis without other signs of disease. Unresponsive to therapy, the monkey was killed and necropsied. Chronic inflammation with osteolysis of thoracic vertebrae 10-13 was observed. Pseudomonas pseudomallei was cultured and identified from cerebrospinal fluid obtained at the site of the thoracic lesion. This Gram-negative bacterium can cause infection in animals and man and may remain latent for years before the appearance of clinical signs.

  10. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  11. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca).

    PubMed

    Sá, L R; DiLoreto, C; Leite, M C; Wakamatsu, A; Santos, R T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2000-09-01

    Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV).

  12. Assessment of obesity in pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Walike, B C; Goodner, C J; Koerker, D J; Chideckel, E W; Kalnasy, L W

    1977-01-01

    Obesity was studied in a colony of 873 Macaca nemestrina to establish tools for epidemiologic studies, to examine a genetic form of obesity, to document age/sex relationships to obesity, and to compare metabolic profiles of obese and normal monkeys. Age/weight growth curves were analyzed to select the most obese monkeys and age- and sex-matched normal controls. Degree of adiposity was determined using tritiated water for estimation of lean body mass. Body weight, anterior trunk height, and abdominal and triceps skinfolds were measured. Fasting insulin, fasting free fatty acids, and glucose disappearance rate were determined. The results give evidence of similarities between macaque and human obestiy.

  13. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities.

  14. A hybrid monkey search algorithm for clustering analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yongquan; Luo, Qifang

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  15. Comparison of Object Recognition Behavior in Human and Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Schmidt, Kailyn

    2015-01-01

    Although the rhesus monkey is used widely as an animal model of human visual processing, it is not known whether invariant visual object recognition behavior is quantitatively comparable across monkeys and humans. To address this question, we systematically compared the core object recognition behavior of two monkeys with that of human subjects. To test true object recognition behavior (rather than image matching), we generated several thousand naturalistic synthetic images of 24 basic-level objects with high variation in viewing parameters and image background. Monkeys were trained to perform binary object recognition tasks on a match-to-sample paradigm. Data from 605 human subjects performing the same tasks on Mechanical Turk were aggregated to characterize “pooled human” object recognition behavior, as well as 33 separate Mechanical Turk subjects to characterize individual human subject behavior. Our results show that monkeys learn each new object in a few days, after which they not only match mean human performance but show a pattern of object confusion that is highly correlated with pooled human confusion patterns and is statistically indistinguishable from individual human subjects. Importantly, this shared human and monkey pattern of 3D object confusion is not shared with low-level visual representations (pixels, V1+; models of the retina and primary visual cortex) but is shared with a state-of-the-art computer vision feature representation. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys and humans share a common neural shape representation that directly supports object perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To date, several mammalian species have shown promise as animal models for studying the neural mechanisms underlying high-level visual processing in humans. In light of this diversity, making tight comparisons between nonhuman and human primates is particularly critical in determining the best use of nonhuman primates to

  16. Characterization of Cerebral Damage in a Monkey Model of Alzheimer's Disease Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Hyeon-Gu; Lee, Youngjeon; Jeon, Chang-Yeop; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Jin, Yeung Bae; Kang, Philyong; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Ji-Su; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Hyun; Sim, Bo-Woong; Song, Bong-Seok; Park, Young-Ho; Hong, Yonggeun; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2015-01-01

    In line with recent findings showing Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an insulin-resistant brain state, a non-transgenic animal model with intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (icv-STZ) administration has been proposed as a representative experimental model of AD. Although icv-STZ rodent models of AD have been increasingly researched, studies in non-human primate models are very limited. In this study, we aimed to characterize the cerebral damage caused by icv-STZ in non-human primates; to achieve this, three cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were administered four dosages of STZ (2 mg/kg) dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and another three controls were injected with only artificial cerebrospinal fluid at the cerebellomedullary cistern. In vivo neuroimaging was performed with clinical 3.0 T MRI, followed by quantitative analysis with FSL for evaluation of structural changes of the brain. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate cerebral histopathology. We showed that icv-STZ caused severe ventricular enlargement and parenchymal atrophy, accompanying amyloid-β deposition, hippocampal cell loss, tauopathy, ependymal cell loss, astrogliosis, and microglial activation, which are observed in human aged or AD brain. The findings suggest that the icv-STZ monkey model would be a valuable resource to study the mechanisms and consequences of a variety of cerebral pathologies including major pathological hallmarks of AD. Furthermore, the study of icv-STZ monkeys could contribute to the development of treatments for age- or AD-associated cerebral changes.

  17. Cashew Nut Positioning during Stone Tool Use by Wild Bearded Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus).

    PubMed

    Falótico, Tiago; Luncz, Lydia V; Svensson, Magdalena S; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) at Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil, regularly use stone tools to break open cashew nuts (Anacardium spp.). Here we examine 2 approaches used by the capuchins to position the kidney-shaped cashew nuts on an anvil before striking with a stone tool. Lateral positioning involves placing the nut on its flatter, more stable side, therefore requiring less attention from the monkey during placement. However, the less stable and never previously described arched position, in which the nut is balanced with its curved side uppermost, requires less force to crack the outer shell. We observed cashew nut cracking in a field experimental setting. Only 6 of 20 adults, of both sexes, were observed to deliberately place cashew nuts in an arched position, which may indicate that the technique requires time and experience to learn. We also found that use of the arched position with dry nuts, but not fresh, required, in 63% of the time, an initial processing to remove one of the cashew nut lobes, creating a more stable base for the arch. This relatively rare behaviour appears to have a complex ontogeny, but further studies are required to establish the extent to which social learning is involved.

  18. Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) spontaneously associate alarm calls with snakes appearing in the left visual field.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Masahiro; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Koda, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    Many socially living animals are sensitive to a potential predator as part of their antipredator strategy. Alarm calls function to deter predators and to help other group members detect danger. The left visual field is involved in detection of potential threats or predators in many vertebrates, but it is unclear how alarm calls influence visual detection of a potential predator. Here, we experimentally examined how alarm calls spontaneously influence the search for pictures of a potential predator in captive Japanese macaques. We used an audiovisual preferential-looking paradigm by presenting pictures of a snake and a flower simultaneous with either a recording of alarm calls or contact calls. We found no difference in gaze duration between the 2 picture types when playing back contact calls. Monkeys looked significantly longer at pictures of snakes than at those of flowers when alarm calls were played back if the snake pictures were presented on the left side of the monkey's visual field, indicating right hemispheric bias during processing of predator representations. This is the first laboratory demonstration of auditory enhancement of visual detection of predators in the left visual field in animals, which will contribute to a better understanding of alarm call studies conducted in the wild.

  19. Does Presentation Format Influence Visual Size Discrimination in Tufted Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus spp.)?

    PubMed Central

    Truppa, Valentina; Carducci, Paola; Trapanese, Cinzia; Hanus, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Most experimental paradigms to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli. To this end, different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation are used, which highlights the necessity to compare data obtained with different methods. The present study assessed whether, and to what extent, capuchin monkeys’ ability to solve a size discrimination problem is influenced by the type of procedure used to present the problem. Capuchins’ ability to generalise knowledge across different tasks was also evaluated. We trained eight adult tufted capuchin monkeys to select the larger of two stimuli of the same shape and different sizes by using pairs of food items (Experiment 1), computer images (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2). Our results indicated that monkeys achieved the learning criterion faster with food stimuli compared to both images and objects. They also required consistently fewer trials with objects than with images. Moreover, female capuchins had higher levels of acquisition accuracy with food stimuli than with images. Finally, capuchins did not immediately transfer the solution of the problem acquired in one task condition to the other conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that – even in relatively simple visual discrimination problems where a single perceptual dimension (i.e., size) has to be judged – learning speed strongly depends on the mode of presentation. PMID:25927363

  20. Cynomolgus monkey induced pluripotent stem cells established by using exogenous genes derived from the same monkey species.

    PubMed

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Ono, Ryoichi; Shimada, Manami; Shibata, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Inada, Hiroyasu; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells established by introduction of the transgenes POU5F1 (also known as Oct3/4), SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC have competence similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. iPS cells generated from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes taken from the same species would be a particularly important resource, since various biomedical investigations, including studies on the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical technology development, and research resource development, have been performed using cynomolgus monkeys. In addition, the use of xenogeneic genes would cause complicating matters such as immune responses when they are expressed. In this study, therefore, we established iPS cells by infecting cells from the fetal liver and newborn skin with amphotropic retroviral vectors containing cDNAs for the cynomolgus monkey genes of POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Flat colonies consisting of cells with large nuclei, similar to those in other primate ES cell lines, appeared and were stably maintained. These cell lines had normal chromosome numbers, expressed pluripotency markers and formed teratomas. We thus generated cynomolgus monkey iPS cell lines without the introduction of ecotropic retroviral receptors or other additional transgenes by using the four allogeneic transgenes. This may enable detailed analysis of the mechanisms underlying the reprogramming. In conclusion, we showed that iPS cells could be derived from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iPS cell lines established from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes from the same species.

  1. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  2. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya’an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis. PMID:26509708

  3. Taking personality selection bias seriously in animal cognition research: a case study in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Lee, Phyllis C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M

    2013-07-01

    In most experimental work on animal cognition, researchers attempt to control for multiple interacting variables by training subjects prior to testing, allowing subjects to participate voluntarily, and providing subjects with food rewards. However, do such methods encourage selection bias from subjects' personalities? In this study, we trained eighteen zoo-housed capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) for two experiments, under conditions of positive reinforcement (i.e. food rewards) and free-choice participation. Using a combination of behavioral and rater-based methods, we identified and validated five personality dimensions in these capuchins (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness). Scores on Openness were positively related to individual differences in monkey task participation, reflecting previous work showing that such individuals are often more active, curious, and willing to engage in testing. We also found a negative relationship between scores on Assertiveness and performance on tasks, which may reflect the trade-offs between speed and accuracy in these animals' decision-making. Highly Assertive individuals (the most sociable within monkey groups) may also prioritize social interactions over engaging in research. Lastly, monkeys that consistently participated and performed well on both tasks showed significantly higher Openness and lower Assertiveness compared to others, mirroring relationships found between personality, participation, and performance among all participants. Participation and performance during training was clearly biased toward individuals with particular personalities (i.e. high Openness, low Assertiveness). Results are discussed in light of the need for careful interpretation of comparative data on animal cognition and the need for researchers to take personality selection bias more seriously.

  4. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    PubMed

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  5. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, G.A.; Anderson, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide.

  6. In vitro drug metabolism of green tea catechins in human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wendy W; Qin, Geng-Yao; Zhang, Ting; Feng, Wan-Yong

    2012-06-01

    The metabolic fate of green tea catechins [(-)-epicatechin ((-)-EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) (-)- epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] in cryopreserved human, monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes was studied. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and isomerization pathways of (-)-EC in all five species were found. Methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, hydrolysis, isomerization and glucosidation pathways of ECG were found. Species differences in metabolism of (-)-EC or ECG were observed. Surprisingly, no metabolites of EGC or EGCG were detected, but chemical oxidation and polymerization were observed under these experimental conditions. It appeared that enzymatic reactions and chemical reactions were differentiated by an additional hydroxyl group on the B-ring between (-)-EC/ECG and EGC/EGCG. For (-)-EC, thirty-five metabolites including isomerized (M6. M10 and M25), glucuronidated (M3, M5 and M11), sulfated (M7, M15, M16, M18, M20, M23, M26), methylated (M2, M9, M12, M17, M19, M21, M27, M30, M32), glucuronated/methylated (M4, M8, M13, M14), sulfated/methylated (M22, M24, M28, M29, M31, M33, M34, M35) and diglucuronidate (M1), were detected and characterized. M11, M18, M19 and M23 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M10, M20, M22, M26 and M31 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M5, M6 and M10 were major metabolites in rat hepatocytes; and M5, M6 and M13 were major metabolites in mouse hepatocytes. For ECG, twelve metabolites including isomerized (M1), hydrolyzed (M3), glucosidated (M2), glucuronidated (M4 and M6), sulfated (M9, M11 and M12), methylated (M7), sulfated/glucuronidated/methylated (M8 and M10) and diglucuronidated (M5), were detected and characterized. M4, M11 and M12 were major metabolites in human hepatocytes; M11 and M12 were major metabolites in monkey hepatocytes; M3 and M11 were major metabolites in dog hepatocytes; M4, M6 and

  7. A Behavioral Taxonomy of Loneliness in Humans and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Capitanio, John P.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Cole, Steven W.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  8. A behavioral taxonomy of loneliness in humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Capitanio, John P; Hawkley, Louise C; Cole, Steven W; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-01-01

    Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness) than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i) individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii) individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii) the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) living in large social groups: (i) those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness), (ii) those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness), and (iii) those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness). This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and mechanistic

  9. Impairment in abstraction and set shifting in aged rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tara L; Killiany, Ronald J; Herndon, James G; Rosene, Douglas L; Moss, Mark B

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of changes in cognition with aging has increased in importance as the number of individuals over the age of 65 years grows. To date, studies have demonstrated that age-related changes occur most extensively in the cognitive domains of memory and executive function. Whereas a large number of studies have been conducted about the effects of aging on memory, far less have explored the effects of aging on the so called "executive function" which include abilities essential for successful performance of higher level activities of daily living. As part of our ongoing effort to better characterize these changes, we assessed executive function in a non-human primate model of normal human aging using the Conceptual Set Shifting Task (CSST). This recently developed task assesses abstraction, concept formation and set shifting in the monkey in a way analogous to the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in humans. Relative to young adult monkeys, aged monkeys evidenced significant difficulty in both acquisition and performance on this task, and moreover, demonstrated a high degree of perseverative responding. The pattern of performance displayed by the aged monkeys suggests an age-related decline in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning.

  10. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque" and Bartonella quintana bacteremia in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M; Kelly, Catherine M; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism.

  11. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  12. New Insights into Samango Monkey Speciation in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré L.; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M. Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study. PMID:25798604

  13. Raiding parties of male spider monkeys: insights into human warfare?

    PubMed

    Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M; Verpooten, Jan; Slater, Kathryn; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Raids into neighboring territories may occur for different reasons, including the increase of foraging and mating opportunities directly or indirectly through the killing of neighboring rivals. Lethal raids have been mainly observed in humans and chimpanzees, with raiding males being reported to search purposefully for neighbors. Here we report on the first cases ever witnessed of raiding parties of male spider monkeys, a species expected to show such a behavioral tendency, given its similarity with humans and chimpanzees in critical socio-ecological characteristics, such as fission-fusion social dynamics and male-male bonding. Despite the high degree of arboreality of spider monkeys, all seven witnessed raids involved the males progressing single file on the ground in unusual silence. This is remarkably similar to the behavior of chimpanzees. The circumstances around the raids suggest that factors such as reduced mating opportunities, number of males relative to that in the neighboring community, and the strength of bonds among males could play a role in the timing of such actions. The raids did not appear to be aimed at finding food, whereas there is some indication that they may directly or indirectly increase reproductive opportunities. Although no killing was observed, we cannot exclude the possibility that spider monkey raids may be aimed at harming rivals if a vulnerable individual were encountered. The similarity of spider monkey raids with those of chimpanzees and humans supports the notion that lethal raiding is a convergent response to similar socio-ecological conditions.

  14. Fermentative digestion of food in the colobus monkey, Colobus, polykomos.

    PubMed

    Kay, R N; Hoppe, P; Maloiy, G M

    1976-04-15

    Fermentation of leafy food occurs in the enlarged saccus gastricus of the colobus monkey with the formation of volatile fatty acid, as in the rumen of ruminant animals. About half of the digestible organic matter and cellulose of the diet is digested in this way.

  15. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  16. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  17. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  18. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  19. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  20. Astronaut William Thornton observes monkey in the RAHF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut William E. Thornton, 51-B/Spacelab 3 mission specialist, observes one of two squirel monkeys (cage #1) in the research animal holding facility (RAHF) at the Ames double rack facility aboard the Spacelab 3 science module in the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger.

  1. Multimodal convergence within the intraparietal sulcus of the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Guipponi, Olivier; Wardak, Claire; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Pinède, Serge; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2013-02-27

    The parietal cortex is highly multimodal and plays a key role in the processing of objects and actions in space, both in human and nonhuman primates. Despite the accumulated knowledge in both species, we lack the following: (1) a general description of the multisensory convergence in this cortical region to situate sparser lesion and electrophysiological recording studies; and (2) a way to compare and extrapolate monkey data to human results. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the monkey to provide a bridge between human and monkey studies. We focus on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and specifically probe its involvement in the processing of visual, tactile, and auditory moving stimuli around and toward the face. We describe three major findings: (1) the visual and tactile modalities are strongly represented and activate mostly nonoverlapping sectors within the IPS. The visual domain occupies its posterior two-thirds and the tactile modality its anterior one-third. The auditory modality is much less represented, mostly on the medial IPS bank. (2) Processing of the movement component of sensory stimuli is specific to the fundus of the IPS and coincides with the anatomical definition of monkey ventral intraparietal area (VIP). (3) A cortical sector within VIP processes movement around and toward the face independently of the sensory modality. This amodal representation of movement may be a key component in the construction of peripersonal space. Overall, our observations highlight strong homologies between macaque and human VIP organization.

  2. Paratuberculosis (Johne’s Disease) in the Monkey (Macaca Mulatta),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Johne’s disease or paratuberculosis is caused by the acid-fast organism Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and is known to affect cattle, sheep and goats...IT HAS A PROLONGED COURSE CHARACTERIZED BY DIARRHEA, EMACIATION, AND EVENTUALLY DEATH. The recognition of paratuberculosis in the monkey provides

  3. Chemical recognition of fruit ripeness in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, Omer; Orts Garri, Rosa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Schulz, Stefan; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Ayasse, Manfred; Laska, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacities that can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection. Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) display high olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe and unripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spider monkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits that become increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spider monkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound that mark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripe fruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise. PMID:26440380

  4. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  5. Focal striatal dopamine may potentiate dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bankiewicz, Krystof S; Daadi, Marcel; Pivirotto, Philip; Bringas, John; Sanftner, Laura; Cunningham, Janet; Forsayeth, John R; Eberling, Jamie L

    2006-02-01

    Striatal neurons convert L-dopa to dopamine (DA) following gene transfer of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) via adeno-associated virus (AAV) in parkinsonian monkeys. We investigated whether AAV-AADC could reduce or eliminate L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) and side effects in MPTP-treated monkeys. Five monkeys were made parkinsonian by bilateral MPTP lesions. The optimal therapeutic dose of L-dopa was determined using an acute dose response regimen. After 3 weeks of chronic L-dopa treatment, AAV-AADC or control vector was bilaterally injected into the striatum. Animals were assessed for 6 months with the same L-dopa dosing as presurgery as well as chronic oral L-dopa treatment. Presurgery LID was observed at doses greater than 5 mg/kg. The AAV-AADC-treated animals displayed an average 7.3-fold decrease in the therapeutic dose of L-dopa throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Only AAV-AADC-treated monkeys were susceptible to dyskinesias even at sub-clinical doses. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed well-delineated foci of AADC within the striatum. These results suggest that high levels of focal DA were generated in response to L-dopa administration and may be responsible for the exacerbation of dyskinesias. This may be similar to focal dopaminergic activity in PD patients that developed off-drug or "runaway" dyskinesias following fetal mesencephalic grafts.

  6. Heterotopic autotransplantation of ovarian cortex in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Suguru; Suzuki, Nao; Hashimoto, Shu; Takae, Seido; Takenoshita, Makoto; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Yoshiharu; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2010-02-01

    Abstract In recent years, removal of ova or ovaries before chemotherapy or radiation therapy has been investigated in young female cancer patients to avoid the adverse effects of treatment. Orthotopic autotransplantation of ovarian cortex has advantages such as easy collection of ova and the possibility of spontaneous pregnancy. Although children have been born after successful orthotopic autotransplantation into the residual ovaries, some patients cannot undergo this procedure such as those who need bilateral ovariectomy or pelvic radiation therapy, therefore it is still necessary to investigate suitable heterotopic autotransplantation sites. The present study was performed in primates (cynomolgus monkeys) with the objective of determining the optimum site for heterotopic autotransplantation of ovarian cortex to enhance the clinical application of this method. The retroperitoneal iliac fossa and omentum were selected as sites for heterotopic autotransplantation. Two cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to laparotomy under anesthesia. After resection of the bilateral adnexae, the ovaries were cut into 0.5 cm cubes that were transplanted. Blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and progesterone were monitored, and monkeys with a regular estrus cycle underwent superovulation and egg collection. In both monkeys studied, recovery of a regular estrus cycle was confirmed after heterotopic autotransplantation of ovarian tissue. MII phase ova were successfully collected from tissues transplanted into the retroperitoneal iliac fossa or omentum. Development to the early blastocyst stage was confirmed after microfertilization. We established an appropriate method of heterotopic autotransplantation using ovarian cortex into the retroperitoneal iliac fossa or omentum in primates.

  7. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zorn, G A; Anderson, C W

    1981-01-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. Cells reconstructed from infected human karyoplasts and monkey cytoplasts expressed fiber, whereas cells reconstructed from infected monkey karyoplasts and human cytoplasts did not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide. Furthermore, they suggest that the translational apparatus of monkey cells is competent to translate functional fiber mRNA synthesized in human cells. Images PMID:7218436

  8. Latent simian varicella virus reactivates in monkeys treated with tacrolimus with or without exposure to irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Ravi; Traina-Dorge, Vicki; Wellish, Mary; Deharo, Eileen; Singletary, Morgan L; Ribka, Erin P; Sanford, Robert; Gilden, Don

    2010-01-01

    Simian varicella virus (SVV) infection of primates resembles human varicellazoster virus (VZV) infection. After primary infection, SVV becomes latent in ganglia and reactivates after immunosuppression or social and environmental stress. Herein, natural SVV infection was established in 5 cynomolgus macaques (cynos) and 10 African green (AG) monkeys. Four cynos were treated with the immunosuppressant tacrolimus (80 to 300 μg/kg/day) for 4 months and 1 was untreated (group 1). Four AG monkeys were exposed to a single dose (200 cGy) of x-irradiation (group 2), and 4 other AG monkeys were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus for 4 months (group 3); the remaining 2 AG monkeys were untreated. Zoster rash developed 1 to 2 weeks after tacrolimus treatment in 3 of 4 monkeys in group 1, 6 weeks after irradiation in 1 of 4 monkeys in group 2, and 1 to 2 weeks after irradiation in all 4 monkeys in group 3. All monkeys were euthanized 1 to 4 months after immunosuppression. SVV antigens were detected immunohistochemically in skin biopsies as well as in lungs of most monkeys. Low copy number SVV DNA was detected in ganglia from all three groups of monkeys, including controls. RNA specific for SVV ORFs 61, 63, and 9 was detected in ganglia from one immunosuppressed monkey in group 1. SVV antigens were detected in multiple ganglia from all immunosuppressed monkeys in every group, but not in controls. These results indicate that tacrolimus treatment produced reactivation in more monkeys than irradiation and tacrolimus and irradiation increased the frequency of SVV reactivation as compared to either treatment alone. PMID:20822371

  9. Continuous metabolic and cardiovascular measurements on a monkey subject during a simulated 6-day Spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Mains, R. C.; Kodama, A. M.; Mccutcheon, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    A 10-kg male pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) was selected as an optimal species for spaceflight studies on weightlessness. Three days before the simulated launch, the animal was placed in a fiberglass pod system to provide continuous measurement of respiratory gas exchange. Attention is given to examining the effects of weightlessness on several basic parameters of metabolic and cardiovascular function in an adult nonhuman primate. The 10.7-day total simulated-experiment period consisted of preflight 2.6 days, inflight 6.3 days, and postflight 1.8 days. Statistically significant diurnal variation was noted in oxygen consumption and CO2 production rates, body temperature and HR, but not in respiratory quotient or blood pressure. The high quality of the continuous data obtained demonstrates the feasibility of performing sound physiological experimentation on nonhuman primates in the Spacelab environment.

  10. Face recognition systems in monkey and human: are they the same thing?

    PubMed

    Yovel, Galit; Freiwald, Winrich A

    2013-01-01

    Primate societies are based on face recognition. Face recognition mechanisms have been studied most extensively in humans and macaque monkeys. In both species, multiple brain areas specialized for face processing have been found, and their functional properties are characterized with increasing detail, so we can now begin to address questions about similarities and differences of face-recognition systems across species with 25 million years of separate evolution. Both systems are organized into multiple face-selective cortical areas in spatial arrangements and with functional specializations, implying both hierarchical and parallel modes of information processing. Yet open questions about homologies remain. To address these, future studies employing similar techniques and experimental designs across multiple species are needed to identify a putative core primate face processing system and to understand its differentiations into the multiple branches of the primate order.

  11. Face recognition systems in monkey and human: are they the same thing?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Primate societies are based on face recognition. Face recognition mechanisms have been studied most extensively in humans and macaque monkeys. In both species, multiple brain areas specialized for face processing have been found, and their functional properties are characterized with increasing detail, so we can now begin to address questions about similarities and differences of face-recognition systems across species with 25 million years of separate evolution. Both systems are organized into multiple face-selective cortical areas in spatial arrangements and with functional specializations, implying both hierarchical and parallel modes of information processing. Yet open questions about homologies remain. To address these, future studies employing similar techniques and experimental designs across multiple species are needed to identify a putative core primate face processing system and to understand its differentiations into the multiple branches of the primate order. PMID:23585928

  12. Great apes and rhesus monkeys as subjects for psychopharmacological studies of stimulants and depressants.

    PubMed

    Pieper, W A

    1976-09-01

    A group of experiments is described in which chimpanzees and orangutans are utilized as subjects in research projects designed to evaluate the effects of stimulant and depressant drugs on learning and performance. Efficiency of performance on a task which measures spaced responding was impaired when subjects smoked cigarettes containing delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol prior to testing. In a sequential learning task, these subjects also demonstrated reduced performance when stimulatn drugs were orally administered before testing. Depressant drugs did not produce comparable decrements in sequential learning performance. Physical and behavioral tolerance and dependence on ethanol were investigated in rhesus monkey subjects using a variety of experimental procedures, including forced oral acceptance, intragastric intubation, intravenous infusion, and conditioned voluntary oral acceptance.

  13. Recovery from unilateral labyrinthectomy in rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Fetter, M; Zee, D S

    1988-02-01

    1. We recorded eye movements in six rhesus monkeys before and after unilateral labyrinthectomy and quantified the compensation for both the static and the dynamic disturbances of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). 2. When first recorded after labyrinthectomy (18-20 h postlesion), all animals had a spontaneous nystagmus with mean slow-phase velocities ranging from 24 to 54 degrees/s measured in darkness and 0-4 degrees/s measured in the light. The level of nystagmus diminished quickly, and by postoperative day 25 mean values ranged from 4 to 22 degrees/s, measured in darkness. The waveform of individual slow phases was variable, but in the first postoperative week its trajectory usually showed an increasing, or an increasing then decreasing, velocity. This finding indicates that peripheral vestibular lesions can alter the function of the ocular motor eye-position integrator. 3. The VOR gain (eye velocity/head velocity, corrected for spontaneous nystagmus) during rotations (30-300 degrees/s) in the dark was diminished from nearly 1.0 preoperatively to approximately 0.5 when first measured after labyrinthectomy, except for rotations toward the lesioned side at high speeds for which the gain was even lower. Within the first few postoperative days, for rotations toward the intact side, the VOR gain increased rapidly, to approximately 0.8. For rotations toward the lesioned side similar behavior was noted for stimuli of 30-60 degrees/s, but at higher velocities compensation proceeded more slowly. By 3 mo postoperatively gains had reached values ranging from 0.77 to 1.03 for rotations toward the intact side and from 0.61 to 0.98 for rotations toward the lesioned side. Values were higher for lower-velocity stimuli. 4. Caloric testing with ice water in the unoperated ear elicited nystagmus with a mean value of maximum slow-phase velocity of 129 degrees/s preoperatively and 195 degrees/s 3 mo postoperatively. There was no caloric response on the lesioned side. From the

  14. Normative Values of Retinal Oxygen Saturation in Rhesus Monkeys: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yang, Yiquan; Yang, Diya; Liu, Xiangxiang; Sun, Yunxiao; Wei, Shifei; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the normal values of the retinal oxygen saturation in Rhesus monkeys and to evaluated repeatability and reproducibility of retinal oxygen saturation measurements. Methods Eighteen adult Rhesus macaque monkeys were included in this experimental study. An Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter (Oxymap, Reykjavik, Iceland) was used to perform oximetry on all subjects. Global arterial (SaO2) and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), arteriovenous difference in SO2 were measured. In the first examination, each eye was imaged three times. At the following two examinations, each eye was imaged once. All examinations were finished in one month. P values were calculated to evaluate the difference between the measurements during three visits by performing an ANOVA. Intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined. Results At baseline, the average SaO2 and SvO2 were 89.48 ± 2.64% and 54.85 ± 2.18%, respectively. The global A-V difference was 34.63 ± 1.91%. The difference between the three visits was not significant (p>0.05). The highest A-V difference in SO2 and lowest saturations were found in the inferotemporal quadrant. Intra-session and inter-visit repeatability were both high. For all oxygen saturation parameters, the ICC values of the intra-session repeatability ranged between 0.92 and 0.96. As found previously, a relatively high ICC value for inter-visit repeatability also was found for all oxygen saturation measurements, ranging between 0.86 and 0.94, with the lowest values in the infero-nasal quadrant. Conclusions Our study is the first to describe retinal SO2 in healthy Rhesus monkeys. In normal monkey eyes, the reproducibility and repeatability of retinal oximetry oxygen saturation measurements were high in the retinal arterioles and venules. Our results support that Oxymap T1 retinal oximetry is a suitable and reliable technique in monkey studies. PMID:26930659

  15. Modulatory Effects of the Ipsi and Contralateral Ventral Premotor Cortex (PMv) on the Primary Motor Cortex (M1) Outputs to Intrinsic Hand and Forearm Muscles in Cebus apella

    PubMed Central

    Quessy, Stephan; Côté, Sandrine L.; Hamadjida, Adjia; Deffeyes, Joan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-01-01

    The ventral premotor cortex (PMv) is a key node in the neural network involved in grasping. One way PMv can carry out this function is by modulating the outputs of the primary motor cortex (M1) to intrinsic hand and forearm muscles. As many PMv neurons discharge when grasping with either arm, both PMv within the same hemisphere (ipsilateral; iPMv) and in the opposite hemisphere (contralateral; cPMv) could modulate M1 outputs. Our objective was to compare modulatory effects of iPMv and cPMv on M1 outputs to intrinsic hand and forearm muscles. We used paired-pulse protocols with intracortical microstimulations in capuchin monkeys. A conditioning stimulus was applied in either iPMv or cPMv simultaneously or prior to a test stimulus in M1 and the effects quantified in electromyographic signals. Modulatory effects from iPMv were predominantly facilitatory, and facilitation was much more common and powerful on intrinsic hand than forearm muscles. In contrast, while the conditioning of cPMv could elicit facilitatory effects, in particular to intrinsic hand muscles, it was much more likely to inhibit M1 outputs. These data show that iPMv and cPMv have very different modulatory effects on the outputs of M1 to intrinsic hand and forearm muscles. PMID:27473318

  16. Public perceptions of animal experimentation across Europe.

    PubMed

    von Roten, Fabienne Crettaz

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this article is to map out public perceptions of animal experimentation in 28 European countries. Postulating cross-cultural differences, this study mixes country-level variables (from the Eurostat database) and individual-level variables (from Eurobarometer Science and Technology 2010). It is shown that experimentation on animals such as mice is generally accepted in European countries, but perceptions are divided on dogs and monkeys. Between 2005 and 2010, we observe globally a change of approval on dogs and monkeys, with a significant decrease in nine countries. Multilevel analysis results show differences at country level (related to a post-industrialism model) and at individual level (related to gender, age, education, proximity and perceptions of science and the environment). These results may have consequences for public perceptions of science and we call for more cross-cultural research on press coverage of animal research and on the level of public engagement of scientists doing animal research.

  17. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  18. Growth and immunity conferred by a Plasmodium falciparum temperature sensitive mutant in Panamanian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Inselburg, J; Rossan, R N; Escajadillo, A

    1989-05-01

    We have compared the growth of the wild type Plasmodium falciparum strain Honduras 1 and a previously isolated temperature sensitive mutant of it, AP1-16, in Panamanian owl monkeys. We examined serially infected splenectomized and normal animals that were initially infected with cultured parasites that had been grown in a mixture of owl monkey and human erythrocytes. Initial infections in splenectomized monkeys were marked by multiple recrudescences. The mutant grew less well than the wild type in the splenectomized monkeys, as determined by lower peak and total parasitemias. In the splenectomized monkeys tested by rechallenge with the wild type parasite, the mutant stimulated a comparable degree of protection. That protection was manifested in 2 ways. There was a marked reduction in the level of the primary parasitemia in the rechallenged monkeys and an absence of recrudescent parasitemias after the primary parasitemia. The potential value of generating and studying temperature sensitive P. falciparum strains that show attenuated growth is considered.

  19. Cross-Taxa Similarities in Affect-Induced Changes of Vocal Behavior and Voice in Arboreal Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kevin; Rossard, Arnaud; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the affective state of an individual across species with comparable non-invasive methods is a current challenge in animal communication research. This study aims to explore to which extent affect intensity is conveyed in the vocal behaviours of three nonhuman primate species (Campbell's monkeys, De Brazza's monkeys, red-capped mangabeys), which vary in body size, ecological niche and social system. Similarly in the three species, we experimentally induced a change in captive social groups' affect by locking all group members together in their outside enclosure. The two experimental conditions which varied in affect intensity consisted in imposing a pre-reunion 90 mn-separation by splitting up the respective group into two subgroups (High affect condition) or not (Low affect condition). We measured call rates as well as voice features at the time of reunion in both conditions. The three studied species reacted in a very similar way. Across species, call rates changed significantly between the behaviourally defined states. Furthermore, contact call duration and, to some extent, voice pitch increased. Our results suggest, for the first time in arboreal Old World monkeys, that affect intensity is conveyed reliably in vocal behaviour and specific acoustic characteristics of voice, irrespective of body size and ecological niche differences between species. Cross-taxa similarities in acoustic cues of affect intensity point to phylogenetic constraints and inheritance from a common ancestor, whereas variations in vocal behaviour and affect intensity-related acoustic cues between species may be an adaptation to specific social requirements and depend on social systems. Our findings as well as a comparison with published works on acoustic communication in other vertebrate groups support the hypothesis that affect intensity in human voice originates from precursors already found deep inside the vertebrate phylogeny. PMID:22984618

  20. Research and in situ conservation of owl monkeys enhances environmental law enforcement at the Colombian-Peruvian border.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Angela M; Peck, Mika R

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on impacts of illegal trade in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans) for the biomedical research market in the Colombian-Peruvian Amazonian border. Through freedom of information requests and interviews with hunters we found that 912 owl monkeys, including A. nancymaae captured in Peru, were trapped over a 3-month period in 2012 to supply a malaria research facility based in Leticia, Colombia, which had trapping permits for the use of only 800 A. vociferans annually yet experimentation took place using A. nancymaae. High levels of extraction in Peru have had population-level impacts with significantly lower densities of Aotus spp. (3-24 individuals/km(2)) compared to Colombian sites with low hunting pressure (26-44 individuals/km(2)). Post-experimental release of this species in Colombian territory has created a new distribution whose status and impacts on resident populations of A. vociferans remain unknown. The trapping method has also had environmental impact, with loss of over 65,000 trees (including sleeping sites), annually. As Aotus species are registered under the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II, international trade requires official permission and evidence that extraction does not impact wild populations. However, no official records exist and CITES legislation has failed, due principally to a lack of appropriate monitoring by national authorities responsible for compliance. Of further concern is that we had previously documented and reported the illegal trade to the appropriate governmental authorities yet still no action was taken-as demonstrated by the continuing trade in 2013. Enforcement eventually occurred when a non-governmental organization initiated legal action against organizations responsible. A successful second instance ruling by the Colombian State's Council in 2013 revoked trapping permits. Using the trade in owl monkeys as a case study we consider

  1. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  2. Influence of Target Parameters on Fixation Stability in Normal and Strabismic Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Pirdankar, Onkar H.; Das, Vallabh E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of fixation target parameters on fixation instability in strabismic monkeys. Methods One normal and three exotropic monkeys were presented with four differently shaped fixation targets, with three diameters, during monocular or binocular viewing. Fixation targets were white on a black background or vice versa. Binocular eye movements were recorded using the magnetic search coil technique and fixation stability quantified by calculating the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA). Results Fixation instability was greater in all the strabismic monkeys compared with the normal monkey. During monocular viewing, strabismic monkeys showed significantly greater instability in the covered eye compared to the fixating eye. Multifactorial ANOVA suggested statistically significant target parameter influences, although effect sizes were small. Thus, a disk-shaped target resulted in greater instability than other target shapes in the viewing eyes of the normal monkey and two of three strabismic monkeys. A similar target-shape effect was also observed in the covered eye. Least instability was elicited with a 0.5° target in the normal monkey and a 1.0° target in the strabismic monkeys, both in the viewing and the covered eye. Target/background polarity effects were idiosyncratic. In strabismic monkeys, stability of the fixating eye during binocular viewing was not different from the stability of the same eye during monocular viewing. Conclusions Abnormal drifts and nystagmus contribute to increased fixation instability in strabismic monkeys. Target parameters (shape and size) that influence fixation stability in a normal animal also affected fixation stability in our sample of strabismic monkeys. PMID:26968739

  3. Eruption of Permanent Dentition in Rhesus Monkeys Exposed to ELF (extremely Low Frequency) Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    ýfj NAMRL 1295 ERUPTION OF PERMANENT DENTITION IN RHESUS MONKEYS EXPOSED TO ELF FIELDS Weli Tony D. David, Gregory A. Harris, and John A. Bley, Jr...distribution unlimited. ERUPTION OF PERMANENT DENTITION IN RHESUS MONKEYS EXPOSED TO ELF FIELDS Tony D. David, Gregory A. Harris, and John A. Bley, Jr. Naval...mechanism involved. This interim report concerns the maturation of the permanent dentition in rhesus monkeys. Information dealing with tooth development is

  4. Exploration and learning in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): the role of action-outcome contingencies.

    PubMed

    Polizzi di Sorrentino, Eugenia; Sabbatini, Gloria; Truppa, Valentina; Bordonali, Anna; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Formica, Domenico; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2014-09-01

    Animals have a strong propensity to explore the environment. Spontaneous exploration has a great biological significance since it allows animals to discover and learn the relation between specific behaviours and their consequences. The role of the contingency between action and outcome for learning has been mainly investigated in instrumental learning settings and much less in free exploration contexts. We tested 16 capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) with a mechatronic platform that allowed complex modules to be manipulated and to produce different outcomes. Experimental subjects could manipulate the modules and discover the contingencies between their own specific actions and the outcomes produced (i.e., the opening and lighting of a box). By contrast, Control subjects could operate on the modules, but the outcomes experienced were those performed by their paired Experimental subjects ("yoked-control" paradigm). In the exploration phase, in which no food reward was present, Experimental subjects spent more time on the board and manipulated the modules more than Yoked subjects. Experimental subjects outperformed Yoked subjects in the following test phase, where success required recalling the effective action so to open the box, now baited with food. These findings demonstrate that the opportunity to experience action-outcome contingencies in the absence of extrinsic rewards promotes capuchins' exploration and facilitates learning processes. Thus, this intrinsically motivated learning represents a powerful mechanism allowing the acquisition of skills and cognitive competence that the individual can later exploit for adaptive purposes.

  5. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  6. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Danilo B.; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Trindade, Giliane S.; Kroon, Erna G.; Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest. PMID:26787153<