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Sample records for cebus monkeys experimentally

  1. Glomerular lesions in experimental infections of Schistosoma mansoni in Cebus apella monkeys.

    PubMed

    De Brito, T; Gunji, J; Camargo, M E; Ceravolo, A; Da Silva, L C

    1971-01-01

    Three monkeys (Cebus apella) experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni studied for periods of 19, 14, and 11 months showed deposits containing gamma-globulin in subendothelial and subepithelial basal membranes and in basement membranes proper. The glomeruli showed mild reactivity characterized by local hypertrophy and hyperplasia of mesangial cells. Such findings were close to those observed by us in the kidney of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis patients without evidence of renal disease. The distribution of the deposits, both in human and experimental disease, are suggestive of preformed, non-glomerular antigen-antibody complexes that form in a zone of excess antigen and become trapped in the glomerular capillaries.The possibility exists, but has not yet been proved beyond doubt, that renal disease in schistosomiasis patients could be the end result of this pathogenetic mechanism.

  2. Susceptibility of Cebus apella monkey (Primates: Cebidae) to experimental Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infection.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Liliane Almeida; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Campos, Marliane Batista; Brígido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira; Gomes, Claudia Maria C; Corbett, Carlos E P; Laurenti, Márcia D

    2011-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil, the Cebus apella monkey (Primates: Cebidae) has been associated with the enzootic cycle of Leishmania (V.) shawi, a dermotropic parasite causing American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). It has also been successfully used as animal model for studying cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this work, there has been investigated its susceptibility to experimental Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi-infection, the etiologic agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). There were used ten C. apella specimens, eight adult and two young, four males and six females, all born and raised in captivity. Two experimental infection protocols were performed: i) six monkeys were inoculated, intra-dermal via (ID), into the base of the tail with 2 x 10(6) promastigotes forms from the stationary phase culture medium; ii) other four monkeys were inoculated with 3 x 10(7) amastigotes forms from the visceral infection of infected hamsters by two different via: a) two by intravenous via (IV) and, b) other two by intra-peritoneal via (IP). The parameters of infection evaluation included: a) clinical: physical exam of abdomen, weigh and body temperature; b) parasitological: needle aspiration of the bone-marrow for searching of amastigotes (Giemsa-stained smears) and promastigotes forms (culture medium); c) immunological: Indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and, Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). In the six monkeys ID inoculated (promastigotes forms) all parameters of infection evaluation were negative during the 12 months period of follow-up. Among the four monkeys inoculated with amastigotes forms, two IV inoculated showed the parasite in the bone-marrow from the first toward to the sixth month p.i. and following that they cleared the infection, whereas the other two IP inoculated were totally negative. These four monkeys showed specific IgG-antibody response since the third month p.i. (IP: 1/80 and IV: 1/320 IgG) toward to the 12th month (IP: 1/160 and IV: 1/5120). The

  3. Experimental field study of spatial memory and learning in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Garber, P A; Paciulli, L M

    1997-01-01

    Despite a large body of data on diet and ranging patterns in prosimians, monkeys and apes, little is known regarding the types of information that non-human primates use when making foraging decisions. In a series of controlled field experiments, we tested the ability of wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at La Suerte Biological Research Station in north-eastern Costa Rica to remember the spatial positions of 13 feeding platforms and use olfactory and visual cues to identify baited (real bananas) versus sham (plastic bananas) feeding sites. The results indicate that when 'place' was predictable, the capuchins learned the spatial locations of food and non-food sites rapidly (one-trial learning). In a second experiment, the positions of baited feeding sites were random. In the absence of other information, the capuchins used the presence of a local landmark cue (yellow block) placed at reward platforms to select feeding sites. In a final experiment, there was evidence that expectations regarding the amount of food available at a platform (2 bananas vs. 1/2 banana) had a significant influence on capuchin foraging decisions. Although the capuchins were sensitive to changes in experimental conditions, when they were given conflicting cues, spatial information was predominant over other information in selecting feeding sites.

  4. Protein requirements of adult cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons).

    PubMed

    Ausman, L M; Hegsted, D M

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-nine adult cebus monkeys (18 males and 11 females) were used in long-term feeding experiments designed to study the protein requirements of this species. By feeding an otherwise adequate diet containing graded levels of lactalbumin, it was shown that diets containing 7.5% of the calories as protein were necessary for long-term weight maintenance. This estimate is compared to data obtained with young growing cebus monkeys in which 7% of the calories was sufficient for maximum growth, although it must be emphasized that due to its greater caloric intake/kg body weight, the protein intake/kg body weight of the younger animal is higher. Whereas a diet containing 9.34% protein supplied by dried bread crumbs (bread diet) was insufficient for weight maintenance of the adults, additions of 4 g lysine/kg bread crumbs and 1.5 g each methionine and threonine/kg bread crumbs produced a diet indistinguishable from the control diet (4.7% bread protein + 4.7% lactalbumin). When wheat gluten was added to the bread diet elevating the protein content to 16.2% of the calories, the amount of lysine necessary to improve the diet to weight maintenance levels increased when expressed/100 dietary kcal as compared to the bread diet alone, although the amounts in both diets were similar when expressed/g of dietary protein.

  5. Physical growth of cebus monkeys, Cebus albifrons, during protein or calorie deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fleagle, J G; Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1975-03-01

    Infant cebus monkey (Cebus albifrons) on experimental diets providing low-protein (2.8% of calories) or low-calorie (67% of ad libitum intake) levels for 20 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age showed marked changes in their patterns of physical growth. Significant size differences between the malnourished animals and the control group appeared within 4 weeks. Although rates of growth were significantly reduced in all measurements, all of the malnourished monkeys, including low-protein animals showing zero weight gain, continued skeletal growth (except in skull measurements) at low levels for the duration of experiment. Both the protein- and calorie-restricted animals developed a thin, emaciated appearance often associated with marasmus, not by the continuous loss of tissue byt by the redistribution of the tissue over a slowly expanding skeleton. For many skeletal proportions, the pattern and shape development in the malnourished animals differed from that of the control animals. Growth during malnutrition was most affected in those parts of the skeleton which were more advanced in relative size.

  6. Schedule control of the vocal behavior of Cebus monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Leander, J. David; Milan, Michael A.; Jasper, Kathleen B.; Heaton, Kathleen L.

    1972-01-01

    The vocal behavior of three Cebus monkeys was maintained by fixed-ratio schedules of response dependent reinforcement at values between fixed-ratio 1 and fixed-ratio 15. In one monkey that was exposed to variable-interval, fixed-interval, and conjunctive fixed-ratio fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement, vocal responding occurred at a low rate, but schedule-appropriate patterns were maintained. The rates and patterns of responding engendered indicated that the vocal operant can be brought under schedule control in the monkey by the use of response-dependent reinforcement. PMID:16811585

  7. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  8. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-01-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency. Images PMID:418417

  9. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC) was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Results Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. Conclusions The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic maps of PfC in both genera

  10. Infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons) with Herpesvirus saimiri.

    PubMed

    Rabin, H; Pearson, G R; Wallen, W C; Neubauer, R H; Cicmanec, J L; Orr, T W

    1975-03-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) induced persistent, clinically inapparent infections of long-term duration in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons). The infections were characterized by development of antibody to HVS-associated antigens and recovery of low levels of virus-genome-carrying lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Peripheral lymphocyte counts remained in low-normal to normal ranges and no physical signs of lymphoma were evident. Prednisolone treatment caused immunosuppression in one monkey; this was accompanied by a progressive loss of humoral antibody to HVS-associated antigens, but neoplastic disease did not develop.

  11. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Sequential Responding and Planning in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments have assessed planning during sequential responding to computer generated stimuli by Old World nonhuman primates including chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. However, no such assessment has been made with a New World primate species. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are an interesting test case for assessing the distribution of cognitive processes in the order Primates because they sometimes show proficiency in tasks also mastered by apes and Old World monkeys, but in other cases fail to match the proficiency of those other species. In two experiments, eight capuchin monkeys selected five arbitrary stimuli in distinct locations on a computer monitor in a learned sequence. In Experiment 1, shift trials occurred in which the second and third stimuli were transposed when the first stimulus was selected by the animal. In Experiment 2, mask trials occurred in which all remaining stimuli were masked after the monkey selected the first stimulus. Monkeys made more mistakes on trials in which the locations of the second and third stimuli were interchanged than on trials in which locations were not interchanged, suggesting they had already planned to select a location that no longer contained the correct stimulus. When mask trials occurred, monkeys performed at levels significantly better than chance, but their performance exceeded chance levels only for the first and the second selections on a trial. These data indicate that capuchin monkeys performed very similarly to chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys and appeared to plan their selection sequences during the computerized task, but only to a limited degree. PMID:22801861

  13. Assessment of the efficiency of nitrogen utilization in the infant cebus monkey (Cebus albifrons) by nitrogen balance.

    PubMed

    Gallina, D L; Ausman, L M

    1986-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) balance and growth were utilized to assess the efficiency of N utilization in the infant cebus monkey (Cebus albifrons). The efficiency of N utilization as calculated from N balance data was 35%. The efficiency of N utilization for growth was 37% as determined by weight change over a 28-day trial and by body composition data from the literature. These results indicate, therefore, that growth and N balance are comparable indicators of N utilization in these primates.

  14. An outbreak of severe leptospirosis in capuchin (Cebus) monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Szonyi, Barbara; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Ramírez, Marcela; Moreno, Natali; Ko, Albert I.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally acquired acute leptospirosis in monkeys is uncommon. This study reports an outbreak of severe leptospirosis among 52 capuchin (Cebus) monkeys that had been rescued from homes and housed in a wildlife rehabilitation center in Colombia in 2007. Case confirmation consisted of Leptospira isolation followed by a polymerase chain reaction targeting the LipL32 gene. The attack and mortality rates were 71% and 27%, respectively. Sixteen cases were confirmed. Necropsy revealed diffuse jaundice and pulmonary hemorrhage. Multi-locus sequence typing identified the agent to be Leptospira interrogans sequence type 17, indicating rats as the source of infection. An environmental survey confirmed rodent infestation as the cause of the outbreak. The extent of Leptospira transmission between humans and monkeys is unknown. Improper husbandry of non-human primates could create new reservoirs and transmission routes for Leptospira threatening conservation efforts and public health. PMID:20554228

  15. Social traditions and social learning in capuchin monkeys (Cebus)

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have evolutionarily converged with humans and chimpanzees in a number of ways, including large brain size, omnivory and extractive foraging, extensive cooperation and coalitionary behaviour and a reliance on social learning. Recent research has documented a richer repertoire of group-specific social conventions in the coalition-prone Cebus capucinus than in any other non-human primate species; these social rituals appear designed to test the strength of social bonds. Such diverse social conventions have not yet been noted in Cebus apella, despite extensive observation at multiple sites. The more robust and widely distributed C. apella is notable for the diversity of its tool-use repertoire, particularly in marginal habitats. Although C. capucinus does not often use tools, white-faced capuchins do specialize in foods requiring multi-step processing, and there are often multiple techniques used by different individuals within the same social group. Immatures preferentially observe foragers who are eating rare foods and hard-to-process foods. Young foragers, especially females, tend to adopt the same foraging techniques as their close associates. PMID:21357221

  16. Physical growth of cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Fleagle, J G; Samonds, K W

    1975-03-01

    Infannt cebus monkeys, removed from their mothers shortly after birth, were reared in a primate nursery on diets of controlled nutritional quality. At regular intervals between birth and one year of age, each monkey was anesthetized, measured, and radiographed. Measurements were fitted to functions of the animal's age in days; a linear function for the first 6 to 8 weeks and a logarithmic function for the remainder of the first year. Mean constant curves have been calculated for each measure and estimates of animal variability have been obtained by interpolating sizes at given ages from regression lines fitted to the data for each animal. The maximum rate of growth was attained soon after birth. Cranial-caudal and distal-proximal maturity gradients in size attainment were observed.

  17. CENTRIFUGATION OF THE WHITE-FRONTED CAPUCHIN MONKEY, CEBUS ALBIFRONS (HUMBOLDT).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    In preparation for biological experiments aboard orbiting laboratories three Cebus albifrons , white-fronted capuchin monkey, were exposed to five...not vary from normal. Normal heart rate was restored upon cessation of centrifugation. It appears that the Cebus can withstand the acceleration of

  18. Lack of platelet monoamine oxidase activity in Cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons).

    PubMed

    Heintz, R; Richardson, M A; Perumal, A S; Casey, D E

    1989-01-01

    1. Recent evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase (MAO) plays an important role modulating the extrapyramidal syndromes produced by neuroleptic drugs in both human and nonhuman primates. 2. To evaluate the possibility of using peripheral blood platelet MAO-B levels as indices of central nervous system MAO-B effects, we measured platelet MAO-B levels in Cebus monkeys that were previously tested with neuroleptics (N = 36) or drug naive (N = 6). 3. No platelet MAO-B was consistently detectable in these blood samples. 4. Thus platelet measures of MAO-B do not reliably reflect brain MAO-B function in nonhuman primates and do not offer a useful model for studying blood-brain MAO-B relationships.

  19. Cone photopigment variations in Cebus apella monkeys evidenced by electroretinogram measurements and genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Juliana G.M.; Fiorani, Mario; Araujo, Eduardo A.; Zana, Yossi; Bonci, Daniela M.O.; Neitz, Maureen; Ventura, Dora F.; Gattass, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the color vision pattern in male and female Cebus apella monkeys by means of electroretinogram measurements and genetic analysis. Our objective was to establish a simple, fast and efficient protocol in order to determine the chromatic vision pattern in Cebus monkeys. We found five among ten possible different phenotypes, two trichromats and three dichromats. We also found that Cebus present a new allele with spectral peak near 552 nm, with the amino acid combination SFT at positions 180, 277 and 285 of the opsin gene, in addition to the previously described SYT, AFT and AFA alleles. PMID:19883678

  20. Allonursing in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus): milk or pacifier?

    PubMed

    Baldovino, M Celia; Di Bitetti, Mario S

    2008-01-01

    Allonursing, the behaviour of females nursing offspring that are not their own, is relatively frequent in capuchin monkeys. Using focal-animal sampling and ad libitum observations we describe the pattern of allonursing in a wild group of tufted capuchins, Cebus nigritus (4 cohorts, 22 infants), at Iguazú National Park, north-eastern Argentina, and test several hypotheses on the adaptive value of allonursing. During 2,351 contact hours with the group (including 4,207 focal-animal samples totalizing 329 h focused on infants) we observed 39 allonursing bouts. Infants were not allonursed more frequently by close kin than by more distant allomothers. Offspring of dominant females were allonursed more frequently than those of low-ranking females. Nursing bouts were longer than allonursing bouts. Our results suggest that allonursing in tufted capuchins has a social function and is not mainly aimed at providing milk to infants.

  1. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences.

  2. Dietary fat unsaturation enhances drug metabolism in cebus but not in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Meydani, M; Blumberg, J B; Hayes, K C

    1985-05-01

    Antipyrine disappearance and sleeping time following barbiturate anesthesia were assessed to evaluate the effects of dietary corn oil and coconut oil on the drug-metabolizing enzyme systems (DMES) in cebus (Cebus albifrons) and squirrel (Saimiri sciureus) monkeys. Plasma antipyrine clearance (half-life) was measured in both species before and after induction of DMES by i.v. injection of barbiturates on two consecutive days. Sleeping time was measured after administration of either pentobarbital or hexobarbital and proved to be the most demonstrable measure of diet-drug interaction. In neither cebus nor squirrel monkeys was antipyrine half-life significantly affected by dietary fat. Sleeping time for the coconut oil-fed squirrel monkeys was shorter than for those fed corn oil, whereas corn oil-fed cebus awoke sooner than the coconut oil-fed cebus. Thus, barbiturate but not antipyrine metabolism in monkeys can be influenced by dietary fat unsaturation, and the effect appears to be species dependent. Genetic differences in phospholipid metabolism are thought to underlie this difference.

  3. Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use tokens as symbols?

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, E; Crescimbene, L; Visalberghi, E

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of language, the comprehension of symbols is difficult to demonstrate. Tokens can be considered symbols since they arbitrarily stand for something else without having any iconic relation to their referent. We assessed whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use tokens as symbols to represent and combine quantities. Our paradigm involved choices between various combinations of tokens A and B, worth one and three rewards, respectively. Pay-off maximization required the assessment of the value of each offer by (i) estimating token numerousness, (ii) representing what each token stands for and (iii) making simple computations. When one token B was presented against one to five tokens A (experiment 1), four out of ten capuchins relied on a flexible strategy that allowed to maximize their pay-off, i.e. they preferred one token B against one and two tokens A, and they preferred four or five tokens A against one token B. Moreover, when two tokens B were presented against three to six tokens A (experiment 2), two out of six capuchins performed summation over representation of quantities. These findings suggest that capuchins can use tokens as symbols to flexibly combine quantities. PMID:17698487

  4. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) respond to video images of themselves

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James R.; Kuroshima, Hika; Paukner, Annika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have used mirror-image stimulation in attempts to find self-recognition in monkeys. However, very few studies have presented monkeys with video images of themselves; the present study is the first to do so with capuchin monkeys. Six tufted capuchin monkeys were individually exposed to live face-on and side-on video images of themselves (experimental Phase 1). Both video screens initially elicited considerable interest. Two adult males looked preferentially at their face-on image, whereas two adult females looked preferentially at their side-on image; the latter elicited lateral movements and head-cocking. Only males showed communicative facial expressions, which were directed towards the face-on screen. In Phase 2 monkeys discriminated between real-time, face-on images and identical images delayed by 1 second, with the adult females especially preferring real-time images. In this phase both screens elicited facial expressions, shown by all monkeys. In Phase 3 there was no evidence of discrimination between previously recorded video images of self and similar images of a familiar conspecific. Although they showed no signs of explicit self-recognition, the monkeys’ behaviour strongly suggests recognition of the correspondence between kinaesthetic information and external visual effects. In species such as humans and great apes, this type of self-awareness feeds into a system that gives rise to explicit self-recognition. PMID:18574604

  5. What Are My Chances? Closing the Gap in Uncertainty Monitoring between Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Smith, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) but not capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) respond to difficult or ambiguous situations by choosing not to respond or by seeking more information. Here we assessed whether a task with very low chance accuracy could diminish this species difference, presumably indicating that capuchins—compared to macaques—are less risk averse as opposed to less sensitive to signals of uncertainty. Monkeys searched for the largest of six stimuli on a computer screen. Trial difficulty was varied, and monkeys could choose to opt out of any trial. All rhesus monkeys, including some with no prior use of the uncertainty response, selectively avoided the most difficult trials. The majority of capuchins sometimes made uncertainty responses, but at lower rates than rhesus monkeys. Nonetheless, the presence of some adaptive uncertainty responding suggests that capuchins also experience uncertainty and can respond to it, though with less proficiency than macaque monkeys. PMID:25368870

  6. Representations of the body surface in areas 3b and 1 of postcentral parietal cortex of Cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Felleman, D J; Nelson, R J; Sur, M; Kaas, J H

    1983-05-23

    The somatotopic organization of postcentral parietal cortex was determined with microelectrode mapping methods in a New World monkey, Cebus albifrons. As in previous studies in macaque, squirrel and owl monkeys, two separate representations of the body surface were found in regions corresponding to the architectonic fields 3b and 1. The two representations were roughly mirror-images of each other, with receptive field locations matched for recording sites along the common border. As in other monkeys, the glabrous digit tips of the hand and foot pointed rostrally in the Area 3b representation and caudally in the Area 1 representation. Both representations proceeded in parallel from the tail on the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere to the teeth and tongue in lateral cortex along the Sylvian fissure. Compared with the other monkeys, the tail of the cebus monkey, which is prehensile, was represented in a very large region of cortex in Areas 3b and 1. Like its close relative, the squirrel monkey, the representation of the trunk and parts of the limbs were reversed in orientation in both Area 3b and Area 1 in cebus monkeys as compared to owl and macaque monkeys. The reversals of organization for some but not all parts of the representations in cebus and squirrel monkeys suggest that one line of New World monkeys acquired a unique but functionally adequate pattern of somatotopic organization for the two adjoining fields.

  7. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-09-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d between periods. During the first enrichment period, the authors provided Buster cubes and wood cylinders with drilled holes filled with gum arabic. During the second enrichment period, monkeys were provided with a deep litter of bark shavings, and during the third enrichment period, they were given Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had improved and that group housing combined with environmental enrichment can improve the welfare of old laboratory tufted capuchin monkeys that were previously housed individually.

  8. Papillary carcinoma of apocrine sweat glands in a capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons).

    PubMed

    Cameron, A M; Conroy, J D

    1976-01-01

    A tumor removed from the skin of the right pectoral region of a 19-year-old male Capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons) was morphologically classified as a papillary carcinoma of apocrine sweat gland origin. The designation of malignancy was based primarily on cellular pleomorphism and stromal invasion. This is believed to be the first report of this neoplasm in nonhuman primates. There has been no evidence of recurrence nor metastasis in the 12 months following excision.

  9. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) use spatial and visual information during within-patch foraging.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Daniela Fichtner; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2012-01-01

    Foraging in large-scale (navigation between patches), small-scale (choice of within-patch feeding sites), and micro-scale (close inspection of food items) space presents variable cognitive challenges. The reliability and usefulness of spatial memory and perceptual cues during food search in a forest environment vary among these spatial scales. This research applied an experimental field design to test the ability of a free-ranging group composed of eight black-horned capuchin monkeys, Cebus nigritus, inhabiting a forest fragment in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to use food-associated spatial, visual, olfactory, and quantitative (amount of food) cues during small-scale foraging decisions. The experimental design involved the establishment of a feeding station composed of eight feeding platforms distributed in a circular arrangement. A series of six experiments, each lasting 20 days, was conducted from March to August 2005. Two feeding platforms in each experimental session contained a food reward (real banana), whereas the remaining six platforms contained either a sham banana or an inaccessible real banana. Data on capuchin monkey foraging behavior at the feeding stations were collected by the "all occurrences" sampling method. The performance of the capuchins in the experiments was analyzed based on the first two platforms inspected in each session. The study group inspected feeding platforms in 571 occasions during 113 sessions. Capuchins used visual cues and spatial information (and adopted a win-return strategy) for finding the platforms baited with real bananas and showed weak evidence of the integration of spatial and quantitative cues, but failed to show evidence of using olfactory cues. In addition, individual differences in social rank and foraging behavior affected opportunities for learning and the performance in the cognitive tasks.

  10. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  11. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  12. Stone tool use by adult wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus). Frequency, efficiency and tool selectivity.

    PubMed

    Spagnoletti, Noemi; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Ottoni, Eduardo; Izar, Patricia; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-07-01

    Chimpanzees have been the traditional referential models for investigating human evolution and stone tool use by hominins. We enlarge this comparative scenario by describing normative use of hammer stones and anvils in two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) over one year. We found that most of the individuals habitually use stones and anvils to crack nuts and other encased food items. Further, we found that in adults (1) males use stone tools more frequently than females, (2) males crack high resistance nuts more frequently than females, (3) efficiency at opening a food by percussive tool use varies according to the resistance of the encased food, (4) heavier individuals are more efficient at cracking high resistant nuts than smaller individuals, and (5) to crack open encased foods, both sexes select hammer stones on the basis of material and weight. These findings confirm and extend previous experimental evidence concerning tool selectivity in wild capuchin monkeys (Visalberghi et al., 2009b; Fragaszy et al., 2010b). Male capuchins use tools more frequently than females and body mass is the best predictor of efficiency, but the sexes do not differ in terms of efficiency. We argue that the contrasting pattern of sex differences in capuchins compared with chimpanzees, in which females use tools more frequently and more skillfully than males, may have arisen from the degree of sexual dimorphism in body size of the two species, which is larger in capuchins than in chimpanzees. Our findings show the importance of taking sex and body mass into account as separate variables to assess their role in tool use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) diagnose causal relations in the absence of a direct reward?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian J; Rottman, Benjamin M; Shankar, Maya; Betzler, Riana; Chituc, Vladimir; Rodriguez, Ricardo; Silva, Liara; Wibecan, Leah; Widness, Jane; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    We adapted a method from developmental psychology to explore whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) would place objects on a "blicket detector" machine to diagnose causal relations in the absence of a direct reward. Across five experiments, monkeys could place different objects on the machine and obtain evidence about the objects' causal properties based on whether each object "activated" the machine. In Experiments 1-3, monkeys received both audiovisual cues and a food reward whenever the machine activated. In these experiments, monkeys spontaneously placed objects on the machine and succeeded at discriminating various patterns of statistical evidence. In Experiments 4 and 5, we modified the procedure so that in the learning trials, monkeys received the audiovisual cues when the machine activated, but did not receive a food reward. In these experiments, monkeys failed to test novel objects in the absence of an immediate food reward, even when doing so could provide critical information about how to obtain a reward in future test trials in which the food reward delivery device was reattached. The present studies suggest that the gap between human and animal causal cognition may be in part a gap of motivation. Specifically, we propose that monkey causal learning is motivated by the desire to obtain a direct reward, and that unlike humans, monkeys do not engage in learning for learning's sake.

  14. Do Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Diagnose Causal Relations in the Absence of a Direct Reward?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Brian J.; Rottman, Benjamin M.; Shankar, Maya; Betzler, Riana; Chituc, Vladimir; Rodriguez, Ricardo; Silva, Liara; Wibecan, Leah; Widness, Jane; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    We adapted a method from developmental psychology [1] to explore whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) would place objects on a “blicket detector” machine to diagnose causal relations in the absence of a direct reward. Across five experiments, monkeys could place different objects on the machine and obtain evidence about the objects’ causal properties based on whether each object “activated” the machine. In Experiments 1–3, monkeys received both audiovisual cues and a food reward whenever the machine activated. In these experiments, monkeys spontaneously placed objects on the machine and succeeded at discriminating various patterns of statistical evidence. In Experiments 4 and 5, we modified the procedure so that in the learning trials, monkeys received the audiovisual cues when the machine activated, but did not receive a food reward. In these experiments, monkeys failed to test novel objects in the absence of an immediate food reward, even when doing so could provide critical information about how to obtain a reward in future test trials in which the food reward delivery device was reattached. The present studies suggest that the gap between human and animal causal cognition may be in part a gap of motivation. Specifically, we propose that monkey causal learning is motivated by the desire to obtain a direct reward, and that unlike humans, monkeys do not engage in learning for learning’s sake. PMID:24586347

  15. Benzoquinones from millipedes deter mosquitoes and elicit self-anointing in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.).

    PubMed

    Weldon, Paul J; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Klun, Jerome A; Oliver, James E; Debboun, Mustapha

    2003-07-01

    Neotropical monkeys of the genus Cebus anoint themselves by rubbing arthropods and plants against their pelage. A recent study has shown that free-ranging wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (C. olivaceus) in Venezuela self-anoint with a benzoquinone-secreting millipede, an activity by which they are hypothesized to appropriate chemical deterrents of mosquitoes. To evaluate the plausibility of this hypothesis, female yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were presented with two millipede secretory compounds, 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, on nylon-reinforced silicone membranes placed over wells filled with human blood, a highly preferred food. Mosquitoes exhibited fewer landings, fed less frequently, and flew more frequently (a possible indication of repellency) in the presence of membranes treated with benzoquinones than with controls. These compounds also elicit self-anointing in captive male and female tufted (C. apella) and white-faced (C. capucinus) capuchin monkeys.

  16. Hematological and plasma biochemical values for captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Wirz, Annarita; Truppa, Valentina; Riviello, M Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Hematological and blood biochemical parameters are of great importance in medical and veterinary practice. Unfortunately, normal reference range intervals for hematological and serum biochemical values in the tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) have seldom been reported. The study reported here is based on data from blood samples collected from 44 monkeys over an 8-year period. Male and female data are displayed separately within two age categories: juveniles and adults, and effects for sex and age are examined. Significant differences between males and females are found for erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and α(1) globulin. Significant differences between juveniles and adults are found for neutrophils, calcium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphorus, glucose, total protein, serum iron, and some serum protein parameters and albumin/globulin ratio. These values are compared with values we previously reported, and their importance in care and well-being of captive tufted capuchin monkeys is discussed. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Shaw, Gillian; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil; Vilani, Ricardo G D'O C

    2008-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, capuchin monkeys were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Five of the 15 monkeys were used for the evaluation of normal conjunctival flora. Ages varied from 6 to 20 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test (STT), tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness (CCT) using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach), Model 200P+) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the capuchin monkey eye were as follows: IOP: 18.4 +/- 3.8 mmHg; STT: 14.9 +/- 5.1 mm/min; CCT: 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. Streptococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the capuchin monkey. The data obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists and laboratory animal medicine specialists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the capuchin monkey. These ophthalmic reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the capuchin monkey eye.

  18. Cebus phylogenetic relationships: a preliminary reassessment of the diversity of the untufted capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Boubli, Jean P; Rylands, Anthony B; Farias, Izeni P; Alfaro, Michael E; Alfaro, Jessica Lynch

    2012-04-01

    The untufted, or gracile, capuchin monkeys are currently classified in four species, Cebus albifrons, C. capucinus, C. olivaceus, and C. kaapori, with all but C. kaapori having numerous described subspecies. The taxonomy is controversial and their geographic distributions are poorly known. Cebus albifrons is unusual in its disjunct distribution, with a western and central Amazonian range, a separate range in the northern Andes in Colombia, and isolated populations in Trinidad and west of the Andes in Ecuador and northern Peru. Here we examine previous morphological and molecular hypotheses of the taxonomy and phylogeny of Cebus. We construct a time-calibrated phylogeny based upon mitochondrial DNA sequences from 50 Cebus samples from across their range. Our data indicate that untufted capuchins underwent a radiation at about 2 Ma, and quickly diversified in both the Andes and the Amazon. We provide a provisional reassessment for the taxonomy of untufted capuchins in the Amazon, the Llanos, the Andes, Trinidad, and Central America, splitting currently paraphyletic taxa into several species, including: at least two Amazonian species (C. yuracus and C. unicolor); a species from the Guiana Shield (most likely the same as Humboldt's C. albifrons); two northern Andean species, C. versicolor, C. cesarae; C. brunneus (with trinitatis a junior synonym) on the Venezuelan coast, and C. adustus in the region of Lake Maracaibo; C. capucinus in northwestern Ecuador and Colombia, and Panama; C. imitator in Central America; C. olivaceus and C. castaneus occupying a large part of the Guiana Shield; and C. kaapori in the eastern Amazon, south of the Rio Amazonas. More intensive and extensive geographic sampling is needed, including that for some subspecies not represented here. Taxa from the southwestern Amazon (yuracus, cuscinus, and unicolor) and the phylogenetic position of Humboldt's Simia albifrons from the Orinoco remain particularly poorly defined. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals

  19. Extent and Limits of the Matching Concept in Cebus Apella: A Matter of Experimental Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Faria Galvao, Olavo; da Silva Barros, Romariz; Ricardo dos Santos, Jose; de Faria Brino, Ana Leda; Brandao, Sandra; Lavratti, Cintia Mara; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to exhibit generalized sameness-difference judgments is a hallmark of cognition that is regularly exhibited by humans. As yet, that capacity has not been well documented in New World monkeys such as the capuchin (Cebus apella). This article presents data obtained with 6 capuchin monkeys with a variety of procedures that might lead to…

  20. Effects of p-aminohippurate and pyrazinoate on urate excretion in Cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gonzalez, M; Weiner, I M

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) induced by various concentrations of p-aminohippurate (PAH) and pyrazinoate in plasma were evaluated in anesthetized Cebus monkeys using the standard clearance technique. PAH at concentrations between 2 and 40 micrograms/ml produced modest uricosuria (delta FEurate, ca 50%). At higher concentrations of PAH (up to 1200 micrograms/ml) the values of FEurate were not different from controls. Pyrazinoate at concentrations between 1 and 700 micrograms/ml reduced FEurate. The depressant effect of pyrazinoate was not influenced by the presence of PAH. These results are consistent with the idea that the secretory component for urate is distinct from that for PAH in this monkey.

  1. Extraction of hermit crabs from their shells by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Soley, Fernando G; Chacón, Iria S; Soley-Guardia, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    We observed two capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) feeding on hermit crabs (Coenobita compressus) on the coast, and the tactics they used to extract this well-protected prey. The observations took place during the dry season at Playa Escondida beach, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The capuchins descended from trees at the back edge of the beach to capture passing hermit crabs. Both capuchins extracted the hermit crabs from their protective shells by holding the shell with one hand and pulling the crab out with the other. Even though this was accomplished within seconds, the extraction of hermit crabs from their shells did not appear to be a straightforward task. Once the capuchins succeeded in pulling the crabs out of their shells, they consumed the soft abdomen and discarded the rest of the crab's body. To our knowledge, the consumption of hermit crabs has not been previously reported for any capuchin monkey (Cebus or Sapajus). Our observations provide a new example of extractive foraging by capuchins, and thus an additional natural context for which fine motor skills (which are highly developed in capuchins) are necessary.

  2. The Development of the Basal Ganglia in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Sobieski, Courtney A.; Gilbert, Valerie R.; Chiappini-Williamson, Christine; Sherwood, Chet C.; Strick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are subcortical structures involved in the planning, initiation and regulation of movement as well as a variety of non-motor, cognitive and affective functions. Capuchin monkeys share several important characteristics of development with humans, including a prolonged infancy and juvenile period, a long lifespan, and complex manipulative abilities. This makes capuchins important comparative models for understanding age-related neuroanatomical changes in these structures. Here we report developmental volumetric data on the three subdivisions of the basal ganglia, the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Based on a cross-sectional sample, we describe brain development in 28 brown capuchin monkeys (male n = 17, female n = 11; age range = 2 months – 20 years) using high-resolution structural MRI. We found that the raw volumes of the putamen and caudate varied significantly with age, decreasing in volume from birth through early adulthood. Notably, developmental changes did not differ between sexes. Because these observed developmental patterns are similar to humans, our results suggest that capuchin monkeys may be useful animal models for investigating neurodevelopmental disorders of the basal ganglia. PMID:20227397

  3. Degrees of sexual dimorphism in Cebus and other New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Masterson, T J; Hartwig, W C

    1998-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism in primate species expresses the effects of phylogeny, life history, behavior, and ontogeny. The causes and implications of sexual dimorphism have been studied in several different primates using a variety of morphological databases such as body weight, canine length, and coat color and ornamentation. In addition to these different patterns of dimorphism, the degree to which a species is dimorphic results from a variety of possible causes. In this study we test the general hypothesis that a species highly dimorphic for one size-based index of dimorphism will be equally dimorphic (relative to other species) for other size-based indices. Specifically, the degree and pattern of sexual dimorphism in Cebus and several other New World monkey species is measured using craniometric data as a substitute for the troublesome range of variation in body weight estimates. In general, the rank ordering of species for dimorphism ratios differs considerably across neural vs. non-neural functional domains of the cranium. The relative degree of sexual dimorphism in different functional regions of the cranium is affected by the independent action of natural selection on those regions. Regions of the cranium upon which natural selection is presumed to have acted within a species show greater degrees of dimorphism than do the same regions in closely related taxa. Within Cebus, C. apella is consistently more dimorphic than other Cebus species for facial measurements, but not for neural or body weight measurements. The pattern in C. apella indicates no single best measurement of the degree of dimorphism in a species; rather, the relative degree of dimorphism applies only to the region being measured and may be enhanced by other selective pressures on morphology.

  4. A note on select- and reject-controlling relations in the simple discrimination of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo R K; Mendonça, Mariana B; Barros, Romariz S; Galvão, Olavo F; McIlvane, William J

    2005-06-30

    Controlling relations in the simple discrimination performances of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were studied in two experiments using a blank-comparison procedure. The main goal was to determine whether monkeys would (a) select an S+ stimulus if another stimulus was substituted for the S- (indicating a select-controlling relation) and (b) reject an S- if another stimulus was substituted for S+ (indicating a reject-controlling relation). In experiment 1, two simple simultaneous discriminations were established, one of which was reversed repeatedly until rapid reversal learning was exhibited. During subsequent probe tests, some behavior was consistent with select- and reject-controlling relations, but there was also substantial variability. To control the variability, the procedures of experiment 2 were designed to establish select- and reject-control relations directly by training with the blank-comparison procedure. On subsequent probe trials, new stimuli were substituted for the blank comparison. Both animals exhibited consistent, reliable select- and reject-controlling relations. These experiments are the first to employ the blank-comparison procedure with non-human subjects. They also demonstrate a reliable method for generating select- and reject-controlling relations for experimental study.

  5. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use positive, but not negative, auditory cues to infer food location.

    PubMed

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Antworth, Rebecca L; Owren, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman primates appear to capitalize more effectively on visual cues than corresponding auditory versions. For example, studies of inferential reasoning have shown that monkeys and apes readily respond to seeing that food is present ("positive" cuing) or absent ("negative" cuing). Performance is markedly less effective with auditory cues, with many subjects failing to use this input. Extending recent work, we tested eight captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) in locating food using positive and negative cues in visual and auditory domains. The monkeys chose between two opaque cups to receive food contained in one of them. Cup contents were either shown or shaken, providing location cues from both cups, positive cues only from the baited cup, or negative cues from the empty cup. As in previous work, subjects readily used both positive and negative visual cues to secure reward. However, auditory outcomes were both similar to and different from those of earlier studies. Specifically, all subjects came to exploit positive auditory cues, but none responded to negative versions. The animals were also clearly different in visual versus auditory performance. Results indicate that a significant proportion of capuchins may be able to use positive auditory cues, with experience and learning likely playing a critical role. These findings raise the possibility that experience may be significant in visually based performance in this task as well, and highlight that coming to grips with evident differences between visual versus auditory processing may be important for understanding primate cognition more generally.

  6. Living together: behavior and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rebecca; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Dufour, Valérie; MacDonald, Charlotte; Whiten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    There are potential advantages of housing primates in mixed species exhibits for both the visiting public and the primates themselves. If the primates naturally associate in the wild, it may be more educational and enjoyable for the public to view. Increases in social complexity and stimulation may be enriching for the primates. However, mixed species exhibits might also create welfare problems such as stress from interspecific aggression. We present data on the behavior of single and mixed species groups of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) housed at the Living Links to Human Evolution Research Centre in the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland's Edinburgh Zoo. These species associate in the wild, gaining foraging benefits and decreased predation. But Cebus are also predators themselves with potential risks for the smaller Saimiri. To study their living together we took scan samples at > or =15 min intervals on single (n=109) and mixed species groups (n=152), and all occurrences of intraspecific aggression and interspecific interactions were recorded. We found no evidence of chronic stress and Saimiri actively chose to associate with Cebus. On 79% of scans, the two species simultaneously occupied the same part of their enclosure. No vertical displacement was observed. Interspecific interactions were common (>2.5/hr), and equally divided among mildly aggressive, neutral, and affiliative interactions such as play. Only one aggressive interaction involved physical contact and was non-injurious. Aggressive interactions were mostly (65%) displacements and vocal exchanges, initiated almost equally by Cebus and Saimiri. Modifications to the enclosure were successful in reducing these mildly aggressive interactions with affiliative interactions increasing in frequency and diversity. Our data suggest that in carefully designed, large enclosures, naturally associating monkeys are able to live harmoniously and are enriched by each other

  7. The hybrid delay task: Can capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) sustain a delay after an initial choice to do so?

    PubMed Central

    Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina; Bramlett, Jessica; Tierno, Valeria; McIntyre, Joseph M.; Addessi, Elsa; Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Choosing to wait for a better outcome (delay choice) and sustaining the delay prior to that outcome (delay maintenance) are both prerequisites for successful self control in intertemporal choices. However, most existing experimental methods test these skills in isolation from each other, and no significant correlation has been observed in performance across these tasks. In this study we introduce a new paradigm, the hybrid delay task, which combines an initial delay choice with a subsequent delay maintenance stage. This allows testing how often choosing to wait is paired with the actual ability to do so. We tested 18 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) from two laboratories in various conditions, and we found that subjects frequently chose the delayed reward but then failed to wait for it, due to poor delay maintenance. However, performance improved with experience and different behavioral responses for error correction were evident. These findings have far reaching implications: if such a high error rate was observed also in other species (possibly including Homo sapiens), this may indicate that delay choice tasks that make use of salient, prepotent stimuli do not reliably assess generalized self control, insofar as choosing to wait does not entail always being able to do so. PMID:23274585

  8. How different are robust and gracile capuchin monkeys? An argument for the use of sapajus and cebus.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Jessica W Lynch; Silva, José D E Sousa E; Rylands, Anthony B

    2012-04-01

    Capuchin monkey behavior has been the focus of increasing numbers of captive and field studies in recent years, clarifying behavioral and ecological differences between the two morphological types: the gracile and the robust capuchins (also referred to as untufted and tufted). Studies have tended to focus on the gracile species Cebus capucinus (fewer data are available for C. albifrons, C. olivaceus, and C. kaapori) and on Cebus apella, a name that has encompassed all of the robust capuchins since the 1960s. As a result, it is difficult to ascertain the variation within either gracile or robust types. The phylogenetic relationships between gracile and robust capuchins have also, until now, remained obscure. Recent studies have suggested two independent Pliocene radiations of capuchins stemming from a common ancestor in the Late Miocene, about 6.2 millions of years ago (Ma). The present-day gracile capuchins most likely originated in the Amazon, and the robust capuchins in the Atlantic Forest to the southeast. Sympatry between the two types is explained by a recent expansion of robust capuchins into the Amazon (ca. 400,000 years ago). Morphological data also support a division of capuchins into the same two distinct groups, and we propose the division of capuchin monkeys into two genera, Sapajus Kerr, 1792, for robust capuchins and Cebus Erxleben, 1777, for gracile capuchins, based on a review of extensive morphological, genetic, behavioral, ecological, and biogeographic evidence. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sero-epidemiological survey for toxoplasmosis in wild New World monkeys (Cebus spp.; Alouatta caraya) at the Paraná river basin, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, João Luis; Svoboda, Walfrido Kühl; Chryssafidis, Andréas Lazaros; de Souza Malanski, Luciano; Shiozawa, Marcos Massaaki; de Moraes Aguiar, Lucas; Teixeira, Gustavo Monteiro; Ludwig, Gabriela; da Silva, Lineu Roberto; Hilst, Carmem; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2005-11-05

    In this study, we captured 60 wild New World monkeys (Cebus spp.; Alouatta caraya) at the Paraná river basin, Paraná State, Brazil, and modified agglutination test (MAT) was performed to evaluate anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Prevalence was 30.2% (13/43) in Cebus spp. (capuchin monkeys) and 17.6% (3/17) for A. caraya (black and golden howler monkeys). MAT showed antibody titers of 16 (15/16) and 64 (1/16). Herein, we have observed an odds ratio (OR)=4.67 (1.06monkeys with presumed risk of human contact. There were not any statistical differences among age, species and sex (p>0.05). The present work is the first report on serum occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in wild capuchin monkeys and in wild black and golden howler monkeys.

  10. Tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and C. apella).

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Young, Jesse W

    2011-11-01

    Physical anthropologists have devoted considerable attention to the structure and function of the primate prehensile tail. Nevertheless, previous morphological studies have concentrated solely on adults, despite behavioral evidence that among many primate taxa, including capuchin monkeys, infants and juveniles use their prehensile tails during a greater number and greater variety of positional behaviors than do adults. In this study, we track caudal vertebral growth in a mixed longitudinal sample of white-fronted and brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella). We hypothesized that young capuchins would have relatively robust caudal vertebrae, affording them greater tail strength for more frequent tail-suspension behaviors. Our results supported this hypothesis. Caudal vertebral bending strength (measured as polar section modulus at midshaft) scaled to body mass with negative allometry, while craniocaudal length scaled to body mass with positive allometry, indicating that infant and juvenile capuchin monkeys are characterized by particularly strong caudal vertebrae for their body size. These findings complement previous results showing that long bone strength similarly scales with negative ontogenetic allometry in capuchin monkeys and add to a growing body of literature documenting the synergy between postcranial growth and the changing locomotor demands of maturing animals. Although expanded morphometric data on tail growth and behavioral data on locomotor development are required, the results of this study suggest that the adult capuchin prehensile-tail phenotype may be attributable, at least in part, to selection on juvenile performance, a possibility that deserves further attention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) modulate their use of an uncertainty response depending on risk.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2016-01-01

    Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking, and there has been a great deal of interest in how this ability manifests across primates. Based on much of the work to date, a tentative division has been drawn with New World monkeys on 1 side and Old World monkeys and apes on the other. Specifically, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans often show patterns reflecting metacognition, but New World monkeys typically do not, or show less convincing behavioral patterns. However, recent data suggest that this difference may relate to other aspects of some experimental tasks. For example, 1 possibility is that risk tolerance affects how capuchin monkeys, a New World primate species, tend to perform. Specifically, it has recently been argued that on tasks in which there are 2 or 3 options, the "risk" of guessing is tolerable for capuchins because there is a high probability of being correct even if they "know they do not know" or feel something akin to uncertainty. The current study investigated this possibility by manipulating the degree of risk (2-choices vs. 6-choices) and found that capuchin monkeys used the uncertainty response more on 6-choice trials than on 2-choice trials. We also found that rate of reward does not appear to underlie these patterns of performance, and propose that the degree of risk is modulating capuchin monkeys' use of the uncertainty response. Thus, the apparent differences between New and Old World monkeys in metacognition may reflect differences in risk tolerance rather than access to metacognitive states.

  12. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Conformism in the food processing techniques of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Perry, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Researchers of "culture" have long been interested in the role of social learning in establishing patterns of behavioral variation in wild animals, but very few studies examine this issue using a developmental approach. This 7-year study examines the acquisition of techniques used to process Luehea candida fruits in a wild population of white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, residing in and near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. The two techniques for extracting seeds (pounding or scrubbing) were approximately equal in efficiency, and subjects experimented with both techniques before settling on one technique-typically the one they most frequently observed. In a sample of 106 subjects that had already settled on a preferred technique, the females adopted the maternal technique significantly more often than expected by chance, but the males did not. Using a longitudinal approach, I examined the acquisition of Luehea processing techniques during the first 5 years of life. Regression analysis revealed that the technique most frequently observed (measured as proportion of Luehea processing bouts observed that used pounding as opposed to scrubbing) significantly predicted the technique adopted by female observers, particularly in the second year of life; the amount of impact of the observed technique on the practiced technique was somewhat less significant for male observers. These results held true for (a) observations of maternal technique only, (b) observations of technique used by all individuals other than the mother, and (c) observations of maternal and non-maternal techniques combined.

  14. Reproductive parameters of a captive colony of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) from 1984 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Annarita; Riviello, M Cristina

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a demographic analysis of 22 years of data recorded on a colony of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in captivity at the CNR Primate Centre (Rome, Italy). Information is provided on reproduction, sex ratio, inter-birth interval (IBI), seasonality, and body weight. From 1984 to 2006, 46 live births were recorded. There were births in almost all months of the year, but a higher frequency was observed during spring and summer (71.1%). The sex ratio was 1:1 M:F for newborns and 1:1.06 M:F for surviving offspring. At birth, infants' average weight was 238.13 +/- 37.51 g, i.e. 250 +/- 56.79 g for males and 231 +/- 26.08 g for females. Age at first birth for females ranged from 4.9 to 7 years (n = 9), while males achieved first paternity between the ages of 5 and 9.2 years (n = 6). Only one pair of twins was recorded during this period. For females, the mean IBI was 17.88 +/- 1.84 months, when they reared infants, and 12.70 +/- 1.73 months, when they did not rear offspring. Infant mortality within the first 2 months was 28.3%.

  15. Cytoarchitecture and musculotopic organization of the facial motor nucleus in Cebus apella monkey

    PubMed Central

    Horta-Júnior, J A C; Tamega, O J; Cruz-Rizzolo, R J

    2004-01-01

    The architecture and musculotopic organization of the facial motor nucleus in the Cebus apella monkey (a New World primate) were investigated using histological techniques and a multiple labelling strategy, in which horseradish peroxidase-conjugated neuroanatomical tracers (CTB-HRP and WGA-HRP) and fluorescent tracers were injected into individual facial muscles. The facial motor nucleus was formed by multipolar motoneurons and had an ovoid shape, with its rostrocaudal axis measuring on average 1875 μm. We divided the nucleus into four different subnuclei: medial, intermediate, dorsal and lateral. Retrograde labelling patterns revealed that individual muscles were innervated by longitudinal functional columns of motoneurons. The columns of the orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus, orbicularis oris, auricularis superior, buccinator and platysma muscles were located in the dorsal, intermediate, lateral, medial, lateral and intermediate subnuclei, respectively. However, the motoneuron columns of the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle and frontalis muscle could not be associated with a specific subnucleus. The present results confirm previous studies regarding the musculotopic organization of the facial motor nucleus. However, we observed some particularities in terms of the relative size of each column in C. apella, which might be related to the functional and behavioral importance of each muscle in the particular context of this primate. PMID:15032907

  16. When size makes a difference: allometry, life-history and morphological evolution of capuchins (Cebus) and squirrels (Saimiri) monkeys (Cebinae, Platyrrhini)

    PubMed Central

    Marroig, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Background How are morphological evolution and developmental changes related? This rather old and intriguing question had a substantial boost after the 70s within the framework of heterochrony (changes in rates or timing of development) and nowadays has the potential to make another major leap forward through the combination of approaches: molecular biology, developmental experimentation, comparative systematic studies, geometric morphometrics and quantitative genetics. Here I take an integrated approach combining life-history comparative analyses, classical and geometric morphometrics applied to ontogenetic series to understand changes in size and shape which happen during the evolution of two New World Monkeys (NWM) sister genera. Results Cebus and Saimiri share the same basic allometric patterns in skull traits, a result robust to sexual and ontogenetic variation. If adults of both genera are compared in the same scale (discounting size differences) most differences are small and not statistically significant. These results are consistent using both approaches, classical and geometric Morphometrics. Cebus is a genus characterized by a number of peramorphic traits (adult-like) while Saimiri is a genus with paedomorphic (child like) traits. Yet, the whole clade Cebinae is characterized by a unique combination of very high pre-natal growth rates and relatively slow post-natal growth rates when compared to the rest of the NWM. Morphologically Cebinae can be considered paedomorphic in relation to the other NWM. Geometric morphometrics allows the precise separation of absolute size, shape variation associated with size (allometry), and shape variation non-associated with size. Interestingly, and despite the fact that they were extracted as independent factors (principal components), evolutionary allometry (those differences in allometric shape associated with intergeneric differences) and ontogenetic allometry (differences in allometric shape associated with

  17. The effects of long-term soy protein and milk protein feeding on the pancreas of Cebus albifrons monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ausman, L M; Harwood, J P; King, N W; Sehgal, P K; Nicolosi, R J; Hegsted, D M; Liener, I E; Donatucci, D; Tarcza, J

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-seven 2- to 4-yr-old cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed from infancy purified diets containing lactalbumin, soy isolate, casein or soy concentrate as the sole protein source. Hematologic and clinical chemistry values were similar for all groups. Head and tail portions of each pancreas were surgically removed for histopathologic evaluation and determination of protein, RNA and DNA content, and for trypsin and chymotrypsin activity. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 26 of 27 monkeys showed normal pancreatic tissue with occasional acinar vacuolation in all diet groups. The remaining animal, one of only two fed soy concentrate, had diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the pancreas associated with mild to moderate atrophy of acinar tissue. Biochemical analyses of the pancreatic biopsies indicated no group differences among animals fed lactalbumin, soy isolate or casein. One of two monkeys in the soy concentrate group showed decreased pancreatic protein, RNA and trypsin concentrations; this was probably due to the fibrosis in this animal. No evidence of pancreatic hypertrophy or hyperplasia, as measured by RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios, respectively, was seen in any diet group.

  18. Effect of long-term feeding of soy-based diets on the pancreas of Cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Harwood, J P; Ausman, L M; King, N W; Sehgal, P K; Nicolosi, R J; Liener, I E; Donatucci, D; Tarcza, J

    1986-01-01

    Feeding soy-based protein containing trypsin inhibitor causes pancreatic hypertrophy in the rat, and long-term feeding (up to 2 years) has revealed a high incidence of adenoma following hypertrophy. It was therefore of interest to determine whether the ingestion of soy-based protein has any adverse effects on the primate pancreas. A resource of 27 Cebus albifrons monkeys, previously used to evaluate the protein quality of several soy and milk proteins, has been maintained on semi-synthetic diets for 3 to 4 years; the protein sources for the diets were casein, lactalbumin, soy isolate and soy concentrate. In general the monkeys were in good physical health and their weights were appropriate for age and sex. Serum biochemical and hematological profiles were normal and there were no major differences between the groups. A pancreatic biopsy from both the head and tail region of the pancreas was taken from each monkey. Visual observation of the pancreas revealed no overt pathology; two independent histological examinations indicated no diet-related differences between groups, and biochemical analyses of trypsin, chymotrypsin, protein, DNA and RNA revealed no differences. It is concluded that feeding low level trypsin inhibitor-containing diets for up to 4 years caused no adverse effects in the pancreas of the Cebus nonhuman primate.

  19. Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Modulate Their Use of an Uncertainty Response Depending on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Church, Barbara A.; Smith, J. David

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking, and there has been a great deal of interest in how this ability manifests across primates. Based on much of the work to date, a tentative division has been drawn with New World monkeys on one side and Old World monkeys and apes on the other. Specifically, Old World monkeys, apes and humans often show patterns reflecting metacognition, but New World monkeys typically fail to do so, or show less convincing behavioral patterns. However, recent data suggests that this difference may relate to other aspects of some experimental tasks. For example, one possibility is that risk tolerance affects how capuchin monkeys, a New World primate species, tend to perform. Specifically, it has recently been argued that on tasks in which there are two or three options, the ‘risk’ of guessing is tolerable for capuchins since there is a high probability of being correct even if they ‘know they do not know’ or feel something akin to uncertainty. The current study investigated this possibility by manipulating the degree of risk (2-choices versus 6-choices) and found that capuchin monkeys used the uncertainty response more on 6-choice trials than on 2-choice trials. We also found that rate of reward does not appear to underlie these patterns of performance, and propose that the degree of risk is modulating the use of the uncertainty response in capuchin monkeys. Thus, the apparent differences between New and Old world monkeys in metacognition may reflect differences in risk tolerance rather than access to metacognitive states. PMID:26551351

  20. In-Group Conformity Sustains Different Foraging Traditions in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Dindo, Marietta; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Decades of research have revealed rich cultural repertoires encompassing multiple traditions in wild great apes, a picture crucially complemented by experimental simulations with captive apes. Studies with wild capuchin monkeys, the most encephalized simian species, have indicated a New World convergence on these cultural phenomena, involving multiple traditions and tool use. However, experimental studies to date are in conflict with such findings in concluding that capuchins, like other monkeys, show minimal capacities for social learning. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a new experimental approach in which the alpha male of each of two groups of capuchins was trained to open an artificial foraging device in a quite different way, using either a slide or lift action, then reunited with his group. In each group a majority of monkeys, 8 of 11 and 13 of 14, subsequently mastered the task. Seventeen of the successful 21 monkeys discovered the alternative action to that seeded in the group, performing it a median of 4 times. Nevertheless, all 21 primarily adopted the technique seeded by their group's alpha male. Median proportions of slide versus lift were 0.96 for the group seeded with slide versus 0. 01 for the group seeded with lift. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest a striking effect of social conformity in learned behavioral techniques, consistent with field reports of capuchin traditions and convergent on the only other species in which such cultural phenomena have been reported, chimpanzees and humans. PMID:19924242

  1. In-group conformity sustains different foraging traditions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Dindo, Marietta; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-11-18

    Decades of research have revealed rich cultural repertoires encompassing multiple traditions in wild great apes, a picture crucially complemented by experimental simulations with captive apes. Studies with wild capuchin monkeys, the most encephalized simian species, have indicated a New World convergence on these cultural phenomena, involving multiple traditions and tool use. However, experimental studies to date are in conflict with such findings in concluding that capuchins, like other monkeys, show minimal capacities for social learning. Here we report a new experimental approach in which the alpha male of each of two groups of capuchins was trained to open an artificial foraging device in a quite different way, using either a slide or lift action, then reunited with his group. In each group a majority of monkeys, 8 of 11 and 13 of 14, subsequently mastered the task. Seventeen of the successful 21 monkeys discovered the alternative action to that seeded in the group, performing it a median of 4 times. Nevertheless, all 21 primarily adopted the technique seeded by their group's alpha male. Median proportions of slide versus lift were 0.96 for the group seeded with slide versus 0. 01 for the group seeded with lift. These results suggest a striking effect of social conformity in learned behavioral techniques, consistent with field reports of capuchin traditions and convergent on the only other species in which such cultural phenomena have been reported, chimpanzees and humans.

  2. Microscopic pathology of liver of capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons) infected with Athesmia foxi (dicrocoelidae : trematoda) : a pictorial illustration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; De Meurichy, W; Van Peer, L

    1980-10-01

    Histopathological changes in the livers of two white fronted capuchin monkeys, Cebus albifrons, associated with Athesmia foxi (Dicrocoelidae : Trematoda) infection are illustrated through photomicrographic plates. The lesions are confined in and around the hepatic biliary system. The bile ducts are greatly distended and thickened because of fibroblastic activity and collagen deposit in its walls. In one of the livers desquamative, necrotic and reorganizational changes are found to be well marked. At places the bile duct lumen contains infiltrating inflammatory cells and shed pieces of biliary epithelia mixed in a scanty necrotic tissue while elsewhere the necrotic changes are more pronounced and the bile duct contents are presented only by homogeneous amorphous debris. The overall picture is that of chronic cholangitis coupled with cholangiectasis.

  3. Disodium Phosphonoacetate in Cream Base as a Possible Topical Treatment for Skin Lesions of Herpes Simplex Virus in Cebus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Amos E.; London, William T.; Sever, John L.

    1977-01-01

    Disodium phosphonoacetate (PAA) in a cream-ointment base was applied to herpesvirus skin lesions on the genitalia of cebus monkeys. The lesions had been produced by the intradermal injection of herpes simplex virus type 2. Concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 5% PAA were used. Liberal application of PAA at concentrations of 2 and 5% proved extremely irritating and produced extensive, severe lesions over the treated area. The 2% PAA, when applied carefully to the lesion area, proved less irritating, but did not reduce healing time when compared with the placebo-treated animals. The 0.2% PAA caused slight reduction in lesion size and duration, but these differences were not statistically significant when compared with placebo-treated animals. PMID:411417

  4. Kinematics and energetics of nut-cracking in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) in Piauí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Simpson, K; Izar, P; Ottoni, E; Visalberghi, E; Fragaszy, D

    2009-02-01

    Wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus, quadrupedal, medium-sized monkeys) crack nuts using large stones. We examined the kinematics and energetics of the nut-cracking action of two adult males and two adult females. From a bipedal stance, the monkeys raised a heavy hammer stone (1.46 and 1.32 kg, from 33 to 77% of their body weight) to an average height of 0.33 m, 60% of body length. Then, they rapidly lowered the stone by flexing the lower extremities and the trunk until the stone contacted the nut. A hit consisting of an upward phase and a downward phase averaged 0.74 s in duration. The upward phase lasted 69% of hit duration. All subjects added discernable energy to the stone in the downward phase. The monkeys exhibited individualized kinematic strategies, similar to those of human weight lifters. Capuchins illustrate that human-like bipedal stance and large body size are unnecessary to break tough objects from a bipedal position. The phenomenon of bipedal nut-cracking by capuchins provides a new comparative reference point for discussions of percussive tool use and bipedality in primates.

  5. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts.

    PubMed

    Perry, Susan E; Barrett, Brendan J; Godoy, Irene

    2017-07-24

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators' individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors.

  6. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Susan E.; Godoy, Irene

    2017-01-01

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators’ individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors. PMID:28739946

  7. Social after-effects of fur rubbing in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): increased antagonism and reduced affiliation.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    Fur rubbing is widely believed to have a social bonding function in capuchin monkeys, yet a recent study of tufted capuchins revealed increased levels of aggression and reduced levels of affiliation after fur-rubbing bouts. This observed decrease in group cohesion may be attributable to increased intragroup competition for fur-rub material rather than being a direct effect of fur rubbing itself. To test this hypothesis, we separated individual tufted monkeys (Cebus apella) from their social group and provided them with fur-rub material or control material, thereby avoiding intragroup competition. After engagement with materials, we released subjects back into their social group and observed their subsequent interactions with group members. We found that subjects were more likely to encounter aggression and less likely to receive affiliation from others in the fur-rub condition than in the control condition. These results support the idea that fur rubbing carries social after-effects for capuchin monkeys. The precise mechanisms of the observed effects remain to be clarified in future studies.

  8. Ontogeny of long bone geometry in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella): implications for locomotor development and life history

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jesse W.; Fernández, David; Fleagle, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of a diverse array of animals have found that young individuals often have robust bones for their body size (i.e. augmented cross-sectional dimensions), limiting fracture risk despite general musculoskeletal immaturity. However, previous research has focused primarily on precocial taxa (e.g. rodents, lagomorphs, bovids, goats and emu). In this study, we examined the ontogenetic scaling of humeral and femoral cross-sectional robusticity in a mixed-longitudinal sample of two slow-growing, behaviourally altricial capuchin monkeys. Results showed that, when regressed against biomechanically appropriate size variables (i.e. the product of body mass and bone length), humeral and femoral bending strengths generally scale with negative allometry, matching the scaling patterns observed in previous studies of more precocial mammals. Additionally, bone strength relative to predicted loads (e.g. ‘safety factors’) peaks at birth and rapidly decreases during postnatal growth, falling to less than 5 per cent of peak values by weaning age. We suggest that increased safety factors during early ontogeny may be an adaptation to mitigate injury from falling during initial locomotor efforts. Overall, the results presented here suggest that ontogenetic declines in relative long bone strength may represent a common pattern among mammals that is perhaps preadaptive for different purposes among different lineages. PMID:19864273

  9. Ontogeny of long bone geometry in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella): implications for locomotor development and life history.

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W; Fernández, David; Fleagle, John G

    2010-04-23

    Studies of a diverse array of animals have found that young individuals often have robust bones for their body size (i.e. augmented cross-sectional dimensions), limiting fracture risk despite general musculoskeletal immaturity. However, previous research has focused primarily on precocial taxa (e.g. rodents, lagomorphs, bovids, goats and emu). In this study, we examined the ontogenetic scaling of humeral and femoral cross-sectional robusticity in a mixed-longitudinal sample of two slow-growing, behaviourally altricial capuchin monkeys. Results showed that, when regressed against biomechanically appropriate size variables (i.e. the product of body mass and bone length), humeral and femoral bending strengths generally scale with negative allometry, matching the scaling patterns observed in previous studies of more precocial mammals. Additionally, bone strength relative to predicted loads (e.g. 'safety factors') peaks at birth and rapidly decreases during postnatal growth, falling to less than 5 per cent of peak values by weaning age. We suggest that increased safety factors during early ontogeny may be an adaptation to mitigate injury from falling during initial locomotor efforts. Overall, the results presented here suggest that ontogenetic declines in relative long bone strength may represent a common pattern among mammals that is perhaps preadaptive for different purposes among different lineages.

  10. Conceptual thresholds for same and different in old-(Macaca mulatta) and new-world (Cebus apella) monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Flemming, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Learning of the relational same/different (S/D) concept has been demonstrated to be largely dependent upon stimulus sets containing more than two items for pigeons and old-world monkeys. Stimulus arrays containing several images for use in same/different discrimination procures (e.g. 16 identical images vs. 16 nonidentical images) have been shown to facilitate and even be necessary for learning of relational concepts (Flemming, Beran & Washburn, 2007; Wasserman, Young & Fagot, 2001; Young, Wasserman & Garner, 1997). In the present study, we investigate the threshold at which a new world primate, the capuchin (Cebus apella) may be able to make such a discrimination. Utilizing a method of increasing entropy, rather than conventional procedures of decreasing entropy, we demonstrate unique evidence that capuchin monkeys are readily capable of making 2-item relational S/D conditional discriminations. In another experiment, we examine the supposed level of difficulty in making S/D discriminations by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Whereas pigeons (Columba livia) and baboons (Papio papio) have shown marked difficulty simultaneously discriminating same from different arrays at all when composed of fewer than 8 items each, rhesus monkeys seem to understand that pairs of stimuli connote sameness and difference just the same (Flemming et al., 2007). With sustained accurate performance of 2-item S/D discriminations, both experienced and task-naïve rhesus monkeys appear quite certain in their conceptual knowledge of same and different. We conclude that learning of the same/different relational concept may be less dependent upon high levels of entropy contrast than originally hypothesized for nonhuman primates. PMID:21238555

  11. The apo E/apo CIII molar ratio affects removal of cholesterol ester from modified human lipoproteins injected into cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Z F; Gibson, J C; Hayes, K C

    1986-04-14

    The removal of postprandial (PP) and postabsorptive (PA) human LDL and HDL cholesterol was examined in cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) following in vitro labelling of these lipoproteins by 3H-cholesterol in the presence or absence of DTNB. The removal of LDL cholesteryl ester was 3.5 and 2 times greater than that of HDL in male and female monkeys, respectively. Incubation with DTNB reduced cholesteryl ester removal by 45 and 52% for LDL and HDL, respectively. Cholesteryl ester from PA lipoproteins was removed 80% faster than that PP particles only when plasma was incubated without DTNB. Cholesterol removal from these lipoproteins was positively (r = 0.941) and significantly (P less than 0.001) correlated with the molar apo E/apo CIII ratio. The data suggest that density of lipoproteins was less important than their apoprotein composition in dictating their removal from circulation.

  12. Long-term effect of low dietary calcium:phosphate ratio on the skeleton of Cebus albifrons monkeys.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M P; Hunt, R D; Griffiths, H J; McIntyre, K W; Zimmerman, R E

    1977-05-01

    Wildcaught cinnamon ringtail monkeys, Cebus albifrons, were fed diets with Ca:P ratios of 1:4 1:2.1 1:0,4, and 1:0.5 for 3 to 88 months. Monkeys fed the diet with Ca:P ratios of 1:4 and 1:21 C ratios similar to that of human diets) had minor microscopic changes suggestive of osteoporosis when compared to other species of animals. The changes were not detected by conventional or magnification radiography or by 125I photon absorptiometry. These findings are in in striking contrast to studies in other animals where similar diets resulted in significant bone resorption within 6 weeks to 6 months. This study suggests that the non-human primate may be a more appropriate animal model for the investigation of nutritional osteopenia in man in whom bone resorption appears to be a slowly progressive process. In view of our findings, studies using lower animal species must be re-evaluated with respect to the hypothesis that high dietary phosphate is a significant etiologic factor in senile osteoporosis in man.

  13. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) use conspecifics' emotional expressions to evaluate emotional valence of objects.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yo; Fujita, Kazuo

    2012-05-01

    Emotional expressions provide important clues to other individuals' emotional states, as well as the environmental situations leading to such states. Although monkeys often modify their behavior in response to others' expressions, it is unclear whether this reflects understanding of emotional meanings of expressions, or simpler, non-cognitive processes. The present study investigated whether a New World monkey species, tufted capuchin monkeys, recognize objects as elicitors of others' expressions. Observer monkeys witnessed another individual (demonstrator) reacting either positively or negatively to the contents of one of two containers and were then allowed to choose one of the containers. The observer preferred the container that evoked positive expressions in the demonstrator and avoided the container that evoked negative expressions. Thus, the monkeys appropriately associated the emotional valence of others' expressions with the container. This finding supports the view that the ability to represent others' emotions is not limited to humans and apes.

  14. Grasping primate development: Ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W; Heard-Booth, Amber N

    2016-09-01

    Young primates have relatively large hands and feet for their body size, perhaps enhancing grasping ability. We test the hypothesis that selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for these scaling trends by examining the ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella). If selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for the observed patterns of hand and foot growth in primates, we predicted that fingers and toes would be longer early in life and proportionally decline with age. We measured the lengths of manual and pedal metapodials and phalanges in a mixed-longitudinal radiographic sample. Bone lengths were (a) converted into phalangeal indices (summed non-distal phalangeal length/metapodial length) to test for age-related changes in intrinsic proportions and (b) fit to Gompertz models of growth to test for differences in the dynamics of phalangeal versus metapodial growth. Manual and pedal phalangeal indices nearly universally decreased with age in capuchin monkeys. Growth curve analyses revealed that metapodials generally grew at a faster rate, and for a longer duration, than corresponding phalanges. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that primates are under selection for increased grasping ability early in life. Relatively long digits may be functionally adaptive for growing capuchins, permitting a more secure grasp on both caregivers and arboreal supports, as well as facilitating early foraging. Additional studies of primates and other mammals, as well as tests of grasping performance, are required to fully evaluate the adaptive significance of primate hand and foot growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ontogeny of manipulative behavior and nut-cracking in young tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): a perception-action perspective.

    PubMed

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-11-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal developmental data from semifree-ranging tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to evaluate predictions arising from Perception-action theory linking manipulative development and the onset of tool-using. Percussive actions bringing an object into contact with a surface appeared within the first year of life. Most infants readily struck nuts and other objects against stones or other surfaces from 6 months of age, but percussive actions alone were not sufficient to produce nut-cracking sequences. Placing the nut on the anvil surface and then releasing it, so that it could be struck with a stone, was the last element necessary for nut-cracking to appear in capuchins. Young chimpanzees may face a different challenge in learning to crack nuts: they readily place objects on surfaces and release them, but rarely vigorously strike objects against surfaces or other objects. Thus the challenges facing the two species in developing the same behavior (nut-cracking using a stone hammer and an anvil) may be quite different. Capuchins must inhibit a strong bias to hold nuts so that they can release them; chimpanzees must generate a percussive action rather than a gentle placing action. Generating the right actions may be as challenging as achieving the right sequence of actions in both species. Our analysis suggests a new direction for studies of social influence on young primates learning sequences of actions involving manipulation of objects in relation to surfaces.

  16. GABA inactivation of visual area MT modifies the responsiveness and direction selectivity of V2 neurons in Cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jansen-Amorim, Ana Karla; Lima, Bruss; Fiorani, Mario; Gattass, Ricardo

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the contribution of the projections from area MT to the receptive field properties of cells in visual area V2 in anesthetized and paralyzed Cebus apella monkeys. We recorded extracellular single-unit activity using tungsten microelectrodes in three monkeys before and after pressure injection of a 0.25-mol/l GABA solution. The visual stimulus consisted of a single bar moving in one of eight directions. In total, 72 V2 neurons were studied in 18 sessions of GABA injection into area MT. A group of 22 neurons was investigated over a shorter period of time ranging from 15 to 60 min, during which the activity did not return to baseline levels. The remaining 50 neurons were studied over a period of at least 2 h, and no statistical difference was observed in the neuronal response before and long after GABA inactivation. The effects on these 50 neurons consisted of an early (1-20 min) significant general decrease in excitability with changes in either orientation or direction selectivity. The differential decrease in excitability resulted in an intermediate improvement (20-40 min) of the signal-to-noise ratio for the stimulus-driven activity. The inactivation depended on the quantity of GABA injected into area MT and persisted for a period of 2 h. The GABA inactivation in area MT produced inhibition of most cells (72%) and a significant change of direction tuning in the majority (56%) of V2 neurons. Both increases and also decreases in the direction tuning of V2 neurons were observed. These feedback projections are capable of modulating not only the levels of spontaneous and driven activity of V2 neurons but also the V2 receptive field properties, such as direction selectivity.

  17. Violent coalitionary attacks and intraspecific killing in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys ( Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Gros-Louis, Julie; Perry, Susan; Manson, Joseph H

    2003-10-01

    During 12 years of observation, we have observed three confirmed and two inferred lethal coalitionary attacks on adult male white-faced capuchins ( Cebus capucinus) by members of two habituated social groups at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. In one case, an alpha male was badly wounded and evicted from his group, and when later found by his former groupmates he was attacked by several of them and died less than 24 h later. In two other cases, lone extra-group males were mobbed by adult and immature males of a bisexual group. One victim's abdomen was torn open and he died less than 24 h later. A second victim was quite badly bitten but may have escaped. The fourth and fifth cases resulted from intergroup encounters. One victim lost the use of both arms but may have survived, whereas the other died of unknown causes within an hour of the attack. The observed death rate from coalitionary aggression at our site is approximately the same as that reported for eastern chimpanzees. Because at least three of the five observed incidents involved large coalitions attacking lone victims, they support the general hypothesis that imbalances of power contribute to intraspecific killing in primates. However, the occurrence of lethal coalitional attacks in a species lacking fission-fusion social organization poses a challenge to the more specific version of the imbalance-of-power hypothesis proposed by Manson and Wrangham in 1991 to explain chimpanzee and human intergroup aggression.

  18. Social facilitation of exploratory foraging behavior in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Dindo, Marietta; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-05-01

    Much of the research on animal social learning focuses on complex cognitive functions such as imitation and emulation. When compelling evidence for such processes is not forthcoming, simpler processes are often assumed but rarely directly tested for. In this study we address the phenomenon of social facilitation, whereby the presence of a feeding conspecific is hypothesized to affect the motivation and behavior of the subject, elevating the likelihood of exploration and discovery in relation to the task at hand. Using a novel foraging task, sufficiently challenging that only just over half the subjects successfully gained food from it, we compared the performance of capuchin monkeys working either alone, or in a "social" condition where an actively feeding conspecific was in an adjacent chamber. Although similar numbers of subjects in these conditions were eventually successful during the 20 trials presented, the latency to successful solution of the task was over three times faster for monkeys in the social condition. The minority of monkeys that failed to learn (9/23) were then exposed to a proficient model. Only those older than 5 years provided evidence of learning from this. Accordingly, we obtained evidence for the social facilitation the study was designed to test for, and limited supplementary evidence for social learning in the older individuals who had not learned individually. These results are discussed in relation to other recent evidence for social learning in monkeys. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Serial learning with wild card items by monkeys (Cebus apella): implications for knowledge of ordinal position.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, M R; Colombo, M

    1989-09-01

    We investigated monkeys' knowledge of the ordinal positions of stimuli that formed a 5-item serial list, ABCDE, by means of wild card items (W) that could substitute for items in the original series. In Experiment 1, training with wild cards was given on 3-, 4-, and 5-item series. In the last of these series, the wild card substitutions created five wild card sequences, WBCDE through ABCDW. During the final 10 sessions of training with each of two different wild cards (Items x and Y), the 3 subjects were able to successfully complete almost 60% of the wild card sequences. In Experiment 2, the two wild cards were presented on the same trial in 10 different double wild card sequences (e.g., AXCDY). The 2 monkey subjects correctly completed about 59% of the double wild card sequences during the final two training sessions. The performance levels achieved on single and on double wild card sequences, although well below that observed on the baseline sequence ABCDE (90% or better), support the view that the monkeys possessed some knowledge regarding the ordinal position of each baseline item. Consequently, an associative chain interpretation, which does not provide for knowledge of ordinal position, falls short as a complete account of the monkey's capacity for serial learning.

  20. Wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) use anvils and stone pounding tools.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, Dorothy; Izar, Patrícia; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Ottoni, Eduardo B; de Oliveira, Marino Gomes

    2004-12-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation in an area where nut-cracking by wild capuchin monkeys is common knowledge among local residents. In addition to observing male and female capuchin monkeys using stones to pound open nuts on stone "anvils," we surveyed the surrounding area and found physical evidence that monkeys cracked nuts on rock outcrops, boulders, and logs (collectively termed anvils). Anvils, which were identified by numerous shallow depressions on the upper surface, the presence of palm shells and debris, and the presence of loose stones of an appropriate size to pound nuts, were present even on the tops of mesas. The stones used to crack nuts can weigh >1 kg, and are remarkably heavy for monkeys that weigh <4 kg. The abundance of shell remains and depressions in the anvil surface at numerous anvil sites indicate that nut-cracking activity is common and long-enduring. Many of the stones found on anvils (presumably used to pound nuts) are river pebbles that are not present in the local area we surveyed (except on or near the anvils); therefore, we surmise that they were transported to the anvil sites. Ecologically and behaviorally, nut-cracking by capuchins appears to have strong parallels to nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees. The presence of abundant anvil sites, limited alternative food resources, abundance of palms, and the habit of the palms in this region to produce fruit at ground level all likely contribute to the monkeys' routine exploitation of palm nuts via cracking them with stones. This discovery provides a new reference point for discussions regarding the evolution of tool use and material culture in primates. Routine tool use to exploit keystone food resources is not restricted to living great apes and ancestral hominids.

  1. Effect of dietary fat saturation and cholesterol on low density lipoprotein degradation by mononuclear cells of Cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kuo, P C; Rudd, M A; Nicolosi, R; Loscalzo, J

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which dietary unsaturated fatty acids lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is unknown. Unsaturated fatty acids incorporated into the cell membrane can increase membrane fluidity and, as a result, dramatically alter membrane-dependent cell functions. Therefore, we examined the effect of long-term dietary consumption of corn oil and coconut oil with and without cholesterol in amounts equivalent to those of a typical Western diet on the degradation of human LDL by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Cebus albifrons monkeys. Cellular LDL degradation was dramatically enhanced in the mononuclear cells isolated from animals fed corn oil in comparison with those from animals fed coconut oil. The addition of cholesterol to the diets resulted in a slight attenuation of LDL degradation in the corn oil group while no effect was noted in the coconut oil group. Crossover LDL binding and degradation experiments with LDL isolated from animals fed corn oil diets and coconut oil diets demonstrated increased binding and degradation of LDL in mononuclear cells from animals fed corn oil diets. Enhanced mononuclear cell LDL degradation was accompanied by increased cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content, increased membrane fluidity, and decreased plasma cholesterol. Increased cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content with its concomitant increase in membrane fluidity mirrored the dietary lipid profile of the host animal. A linear relationship was observed between cellular LDL degradation and both cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content and membrane fluidity. These observations parallel results noted in whole-animal LDL catabolic studies with these same animals described elsewhere. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which dietary unsaturated fatty acids exert their LDL-lowering effect.

  2. Feedforward and feedback connections and their relation to the cytox modules of V2 in Cebus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento-Silva, Sheila; Pinõn, Carmen; Soares, Juliana GM; Gattass, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    To study the circuitry related to the ventral stream of visual information processing and its relation to the cytochrome oxidase (CytOx) modules in visual area V2, we injected anterograde and retrograde cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) tracer into nine sites in area V4 in five Cebus apella monkeys. The injection site locations ranged from 2° to 10° eccentricity in the lower visual field representation of V4. Alternate cortical sections, cut tangentially to the pial surface or in the coronal plane, were stained for CTb immunocytochemistry or for CytOx histochemistry or for Nissl. Our results indicate that the V4-projecting cells and terminal-like labeling were located in interstripes and thin CytOx-rich stripes and avoided the CytOx-rich thick stripes in V2. The feedforward projecting cell bodies in V2 were primarily located in the supragranular layers and sparsely located in the infragranular layers, whereas the feedback projections (i.e., the terminal-like labels) were located in the supra- and infragranular layers. V4 injections of CTb resulted in labeling of the thin stripes and interstripes of V2 and provided an efficient method of distinguishing the V2 modules that were related to the ventral stream from the CytOx-rich thick stripes, related to the dorsal stream. In V2, there was a significant heterogeneity in the distribution of projections: feedforward projections were located in CytOx-rich thin stripes and in the CytOx-poor interstripes, whereas the feedback projections were more abundant in the thin stripes than in the interstripes. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3091–3105, 2014. PMID:24585707

  3. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus)

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Katharine M.; Schoof, Valérie A.M.; Sheller, Claire R.; Rich, Catherine I.; Klingelhofer, Peter P.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to <12 months; N = 3), early juvenile (1 to <3 years; N = 10), late juvenile (3 to <6 years; N = 9), subadult (6 to <10 years; N = 8), subordinate adult (≥10 years; N = 3), and alpha adult (≥ 10 years; N = 4, including one recently deposed alpha). Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. PMID:24184868

  4. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to <12months; N=3), early juvenile (1 to <3years; N=10), late juvenile (3 to <6years; N=9), subadult (6 to <10years; N=8), subordinate adult (⩾10years; N=3), and alpha adult (⩾10years; N=4, including one recently deposed alpha). Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage.

  5. Comparative distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Cândido, Paulo Laino; Sita, Luciane Valéria; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; de Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Elias, Carol Fuzeti

    2011-11-24

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely distributed in the brain of many species. In the hypothalamus, CART neurotransmission has been implicated in diverse functions including energy balance, stress response, and temperature and endocrine regulation. Although some studies have been performed in primates, very little is known about the distribution of CART neurons in New World monkeys. New World monkeys are good models for systems neuroscience, as some species have evolved several behavioral and anatomical characteristics shared with humans, including diurnal and social habits, intense maternal care, complex manipulative abilities and well-developed frontal cortices. In the present study, we assessed the distribution of CART mRNA and peptide in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We found that the distribution of hypothalamic CART neurons in these monkeys is similar to what has been described for rodents and humans, but some relevant differences were noticed. Only in capuchin monkeys CART neurons were observed in the suprachiasmatic and the intercalatus nuclei, whereas only in marmoset CART neurons were observed in the dorsal anterior nucleus. We also found that the only in marmoset displayed CART neurons in the periventricular preoptic nucleus and in an area seemingly comprising the premammillary nucleus. These hypothalamic sites are both well defined in rodents but poorly defined in humans. Our findings indicate that CART expression in hypothalamic neurons is conserved across species but the identified differences suggest that CART is also involved in the control of species-specific related functions.

  6. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  7. Sex differences in play behavior in juvenile tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    According to the motor training hypothesis, play behavior in juvenile primates improves motor skills that are required in later adult life. Sex differences in juvenile play behavior can therefore be expected when adult animals assume distinct sexually dimorphic roles. Tufted capuchin monkeys show sexually dimorphic levels of physical antagonism in both inter- and intragroup encounters. Accordingly, it can be predicted that juvenile capuchins also show sex differences in social play behavior. To test this hypothesis, the play behavior of nine juvenile and two infant capuchins was examined. As predicted, juvenile males showed significantly higher levels of social play (wrestle, chase) than juvenile females, but no differences were found in nonsocial play (arboreal, object). Levels of infant play behavior were comparable to that of juveniles. These results lend support to the motor training hypothesis and highlight the need for more detailed investigations of individual differences in play behavior. PMID:18668302

  8. [Social behavior of the Wedge-capped Capuchin monkey Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae) in three zoological exhibits of Caracas, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    López, Marie Charlotte; Zaida, Tárano

    2008-09-01

    Captivity represents an extreme situation for primates, especially for those with large home ranges, and its effect on their behavior might be considerable. The Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus is the most common primate in Venezuelan zoos. To estimate the effect of confinement on C. olivaceus behavior, we analyzed the social behavior of three groups that differed in captivity conditions, in zoological exhibits in Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar). Caricuao's group moved freely over a non-fenced area of 15 ha, Parque del Este's and El Pinar's groups lived in relatively small outdoor enclosures. Social behaviors were described using focal-animal sampling, group scans and ad libitum sampling. The frequency, duration and time devoted to each behavior (per focal period per individual) were estimated. Relative dominance between pairs of individuals was established as well as affiliative associations. The repertory of social behaviors was similar between groups and to which has been observed in nature, but the duration and frequency of affiliative and agonistic interactions differed between groups. Affiliative behaviors were less frequent but longer in Caricuao than in the other two groups, while agonistic behaviors were more frequent in El Pinar and Parque del Este. Differences between groups are explained by variation in captivity conditions. We suggest that confinement generates social tension and favors agonism, while affiliative encounters help reduce this tension. On the other hand, differences in agonism between captive and natural groups may result form prolonged association, restrictions to keep optimal spacing or leave the group. All groups had some social structure (e.g., dominance ranks, association and repulsion between individuals) but the social dynamic was partly disrupted. Dominance ranks were not clear throughout the group, the top male was not dominant over the top female, dominant individuals did not interact affiliatively more

  9. Infanticide in black capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Llorens, P; Di Bitetti, M S; Baldovino, M C; Janson, C H

    2008-05-01

    We report here one observed and two potential cases of infanticide during a brief period of 1 month after a dominant male replacement in one group of black capuchin monkeys in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. We also compile infant disappearances and demographic data in seven groups followed from 1-14 years. Behavioral and molecular data showed that the probability that an infanticidal male would kill his own progeny is very low in this species. Females that lost infants less than 6 months old had shorter interbirth intervals than females whose infants survived (14.12 ± 5.32 months, n=17 vs. 20.42 ± 5.65 months, n=34). Females whose infants die shortly after takeovers mate with the presumed infanticidal male during the most fertile days of their subsequent estrous periods giving this male a high probability of siring the new progeny. We recorded 181 proceptive periods and 52 births from 18 adult females in two groups. Most proceptive periods were concentrated during a conception season, but there was an increase in sexual behavior after male takeovers. Seven females copulated while pregnant after the observed male takeover, an unusual behavior in this species in years of group stability. Of 24 infants born during takeover years, 62.5% did not survive the first year, whereas only 22.5% of 80 infants died in years without male replacements. We found a significant positive association between infant mortality and male takeovers, but not with food provisioning. The main cause of infant mortality in this population is associated with male takeovers. Our results suggest that infanticide can have an important effect on the behavior of this species, selecting for female behaviors that function to reduce infanticide risk.

  10. Prearcuate cortex in the Cebus monkey has cortical and subcortical connections like the macaque frontal eye field and projects to fastigial-recipient oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei.

    PubMed

    Leichnetz, G R; Gonzalo-Ruiz, A

    1996-01-01

    The cortical and subcortical connections of the prearcuate cortex were studied in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, albifrons) using the anterograde and retrograde transport capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase technique. The findings demonstrate remarkable similarities to those of the macaque frontal eye field and strongly support their homology. The report then focuses on specific prearcuate projections to oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei that were shown in a companion experiment to entertain connections with the caudal oculomotor portion of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus. The principal corticocortical connections of the cebus prearcuate cortex were with dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, lateral intraparietal sulcal cortex, posterior medial parietal cortex, and superior temporal sulcal cortex, which were for the most part reciprocal and columnar in organization. The connections of the dorsal prearcuate region were heavier to the dorsomedial prefrontal and posterior medial parietal cortices, and those of the ventral region were heavier to the superior temporal sulcal cortex. The prearcuate cortex projects to several brainstem areas which also receive projections from the caudal fastigial nucleus, including the supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray matter, superior colliculus, medial nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, dorsomedial basilar pontine nucleus, dorsolateral basilar pontine nucleus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, pontine raphe, and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. The findings define a neuroanatomical framework within which convergence of prearcuate (putative frontal eye field) and caudal fastigial nucleus connections might occur, facilitating their potential interaction in saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement.

  11. Manual laterality in haptic and visual reaching tasks by tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). An association between hand preference and hand accuracy for food discrimination.

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, G; Cacchiarelli, B

    2000-01-01

    Manual laterality was examined in 26 tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) in three tasks differing in their sensorimotor demands and the availability of visual cues. The Haptic discrimination task required the monkeys to discriminate haptically between two pumpkin seeds and two tinfoil items stuck into a tray inside an opaque box. The other two tasks required the monkeys to reach for two pumpkin seeds stuck into the tray within a transparent box with vision (Visually guided reaching task) or without vision (Visual-Tactual reaching task) during reaching. A significant group-level left hand bias was found for food retrieval in both the Haptic discrimination and Visual-Tactual tasks, and a significant group-level right hand bias in the Visually guided reaching task. The strength of hand preferences did not differ among the tasks. It was found that the accuracy of food recognition in the Haptic discrimination task was greater for the left than the right hand. The results suggest that the differences in the manipulo-spatial requirements of the tasks and in the availability of visual cues can variously affect manual laterality in capuchins. The left-hand preferences for the Haptic discrimination and Visual-Tactual tasks as well as the left-hand advantage for food discrimination may reflect a greater involvement of the right hemisphere in processing haptic information.

  12. Allele frequencies and genetic diversity in two groups of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) living in an urban forest fragment.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Jeanne Margareth Jimenes; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz; De Jong, David

    2005-12-30

    There have been numerous studies genetically characterizing Old World Primates using microsatellites. However, few studies have been made of New World species and none on free-ranging Cebus apella, even though it is probably the most widely distributed species of monkey in the New World. The paucity of studies is due, in part, to the lack of polymorphisms described for this species. We studied two groups of wild tufted capuchins, Cebus apella nigritus, which inhabit Mata Santa Teresa, the Ecological Reserve of Ribeirão Preto, a 158-ha forest fragment in a semi-urban zone of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Group 1 had about 60 animals, 35 of which were sampled, and group 2 had about 40 animals, 20 of which were sampled. These group sizes are much larger than the published reports of 6-30 for this species, despite, or perhaps due to the isolation and the size of the forest fragment. Allele PEPC59*1 was the most frequent of all alleles at all loci in both groups (55.7 and 55%), allele PEPC8*1 was the most common allele in group 2 (46.9%) and PEPC8*4 in group 1 (41.1%), allele PEPC3*2 was the most common in group 1 (35.7%) and allele PEPC3*4 in group 2 (31.6%). The genetic diversity, considering each locus in each group, varied from 61.9% at locus PEPC59 to 78.6% at locus PEPC3, both in group 1. The mean genetic diversity (H(S)), considering both groups for all of the loci, was 71.1%. The inter-group diversity (F(ST)) was 1.9%, indicating that these groups belong to the same population. These groups apparently have a high genetic diversity, despite their isolation in a limited forest fragment, although more data are needed to adequately characterize this population.

  13. Social influences on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus).

    PubMed

    Agostini, Ilaria; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2005-04-01

    Foraging traditions in primates are becoming the subject of increasing debate. Recent evidence for such a phenomenon was recently provided for wild Cebus capucinus [Fragaszy & Perry, 2003]. To better understand the bases of animal traditions, one should examine intrapopulation behavioral variability and the influence of social context on within-group transmission of specific foraging patterns. We studied the variability of foraging patterns across age and sex classes, and the proximity patterns of juveniles to adults of both sexes in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) living in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. Foraging activity was examined for a period of 9 months in terms of proportions of focal samples devoted to foraging on certain food targets, microhabitats, and supports, and using specific foraging patterns. Proximity analyses were performed to reveal patterns of association between juveniles and adults. Sex differences in foraging behavior were present and overrode age differences. Overall, males ate more animal foods, foraged more for invertebrates on woody microhabitats (especially large branches), palms, and epiphytes, and used lower and larger supports than females. Females ate more fruits, foraged more on leaves and bamboo microhabitats, and used smaller supports than males. Juveniles were similar to adults of the same sex in terms of food targets, foraging substrates, and choice of supports, but were less efficient than adults. Proximity patterns indicated that juvenile males stayed in close spatial association with adult males and preferentially focused their "food interest" on them. This phenomenon was less evident in juvenile females. The degree to which juveniles, especially males, showed some of the sex-typical foraging patterns correlated positively with their proximity to adults of the same sex. These findings suggest that the acquisition of foraging behaviors by juvenile males is socially biased by their closeness to

  14. Cranial ontogeny and sexual dimorphism in two new world monkeys: Alouatta caraya (Atelidae) and Cebus apella (Cebidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, David; Casinos, Adrià

    2011-06-01

    Pattern of skull development and sexual dimorphism was studied in Cebus apella and Alouatta caraya using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. In both species, sexual dimorphism develops because the common growth trajectory in males extends and because of differences in growth rates between sexes. The expectation that the ontogenetic bases of adult dimorphism vary interspecifically is well substantiated by this study. A. caraya exhibits transitional dimorphism in its subadult stage, although the condylobasal length, zygomatic breadth, and rostrum length are strongly dimorphic in the final adult stage, being greater in males. Most cranial measurements in C. apella exhibit significant dimorphism in the adult stage, being strongly influenced by a faster rate of growth in males. Sexual dimorphism is also evidenced through sex differences in growth rates in several cranial measurements. These results also indicate that different ontogenetic mechanisms are acting in C. apella and A. caraya and reveal differences in the way through which neotropical primates attain adult sexual dimorphism.

  15. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  16. [Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Urbani, Bernardo; Valerio, Idalia; Vanegas, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region.

  17. Consequences of lethal intragroup aggression and alpha male replacement on intergroup relations and home range use in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    PubMed

    Scarry, Clara J; Tujague, M Paula

    2012-09-01

    In conflicts between primate groups, the resource-holding potential (RHP) of competitors is frequently related to group size or male group size, which can remain relatively constant for long periods of time, promoting stable intergroup dominance relationships. Demographic changes in neighboring groups, however, could introduce uncertainty into existing relationships. Among tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus), dominant male replacement is a relatively infrequent demographic event that can have a profound effect on both the composition and size of the social group. Here, we report such a case and the consequences for home range use and intergroup aggression. Between June 2008 and August 2010, we periodically followed two neighboring groups (Macuco and Rita) in Iguazú National Park, recording daily paths (N = 143) and encounters between the groups (N = 28). We describe the events leading to a change in the male dominance hierarchy in the larger group (Macuco), which resulted in the death or dispersal of all adult males, followed by the succession of a young adult male to the dominant position. This takeover event reduced the numerical advantage in number of males between the two groups, although the ratio of total group sizes remained nearly constant. Following this shift in numerical asymmetry, the degree of escalation of intergroup aggression increased, and we observed reversals in the former intergroup dominance relationship. These changes in behavior during intergroup encounters were associated with changes in the use of overlapping areas. In the 6 months following the takeover, the area of home range overlap doubled, and the formerly dominant group's area of exclusive access was reduced by half. These results suggest that RHPin tufted capuchin monkeys is related to male group size. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of considering rare demographic events in attempts to understand the dynamics of aggression between primate groups.

  18. How to spend a token? Trade-offs between food variety and food preference in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Addessi, Elsa; Mancini, Alessandra; Crescimbene, Lara; Ariely, Dan; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    Humans and non-human animals often choose among different alternatives by seeking variety. Here we assessed whether variety-seeking, i.e. the tendency to look for diversity in services and goods, occurs in capuchin monkeys--South-American primates which--as humans--are omnivorous and susceptible to food monotony. Capuchins chose between a Variety-token, that allowed to select one among 10 different foods (one more-preferred and nine less-preferred) and a Monotony-token, that--upon exchange with the experimenter--either allowed to select one among 10 units of the same more-preferred food or gave access to one unit of the more-preferred food. To examine how food preference affects variety-seeking, in the B-condition we presented nine moderately preferred foods, whereas in the C-condition we presented nine low-preferred foods. Overall, capuchins preferred the Variety-token over the Monotony-token and often selected one of the less-preferred foods. These results suggest that variety-seeking is rooted in our evolutionary history, and that it satisfies the need of experiencing stimulation from the environment; at the ultimate level, variety-seeking may allow the organism to exploit novel foods and obtain a correct nutritional intake. Finally, variety-seeking could have contributed to the transition from barter to money in many human cultures. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pattern recognition in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): the role of the spatial organisation of stimulus parts.

    PubMed

    De Lillo, Carlo; Spinozzi, Giovanna; Truppa, Valentina

    2007-07-19

    We report four experiments aimed at characterising the role played by the encoding of the spatial relationship between stimulus parts in pattern recognition in capuchin monkeys, as assessed by a matching to sample task. The results of the first experiment, which were also reliably replicated at different stages in the course of the study, indicated that the simultaneous rotation and/or translation of the four parts into which the stimuli were divided, but not a global rotation of the entire stimulus, impaired matching performance in capuchin monkeys. Experiments two and three showed that matching performance was not impaired following similar manipulations of a subset of one, two or three parts. In experiment four, the same task was presented to human subjects. The same pattern of results emerged for humans and monkeys in trials where all the four stimulus parts were presented. However, the matching performance of humans was affected more than that of capuchin monkeys when only a subset of stimulus parts was featured in the task. These results support the conclusion that the matching performance of capuchin monkeys is affected by the rearrangement of stimulus parts and, as such it seems to rely on global properties of the stimulus such as the spatial relationships of the component parts. However, the remarkable ability of capuchin monkeys to identify a stimulus on the basis of a subset of parts suggests that the reliance on the global properties of the stimuli may not be pervasive as it is in humans.

  20. Effect of dietary fat saturation and cholesterol on LDL composition and metabolism. In vivo studies of receptor and nonreceptor-mediated catabolism of LDL in cebus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, R J; Stucchi, A F; Kowala, M C; Hennessy, L K; Hegsted, D M; Schaefer, E J

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which polyunsaturated fats reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were investigated in 20 cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) fed diets containing corn oil or coconut oil as fat (31% of calories) with or without dietary cholesterol (0.1% by weight) for 3 to 10 years. Coconut-oil feeding compared to corn-oil feeding resulted in significant increases in levels of plasma total cholesterol (176%), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-LDL cholesterol (236%), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (148%), apo B (78%), and apo A-I (112%). The addition of dietary cholesterol to corn oil compared to corn oil alone resulted in smaller, but significant, increases in levels of total cholesterol (44%), HDL cholesterol (40%), and apo A-I (33%). Although the increases in VLDL-LDL cholesterol were of similar magnitude (52%), they barely failed to reach statistical significance (p less than 0.08), while the changes in apo B levels were negligible. The addition of dietary cholesterol to coconut oil, compared to coconut oil alone, resulted in no significant changes in lipoprotein cholesterol or apoproteins, although levels of VLDL-LDL cholesterol and apo B values increased 22% and 16%, respectively. Although hepatic free cholesterol content was not altered by diet, coconut-oil compared to corn-oil feeding resulted in significant increases in hepatic cholesteryl esters (236%) and triglycerides (325%), the latter increasing still further when dietary cholesterol was added to coconut oil (563%). To further assess the effects of these dietary changes on LDL metabolism, radioiodinated normal and glucosylated LDL kinetics were performed. The production rate of LDL apo B was not altered by diet. With corn-oil feeding, 63% of LDL catabolism was via the receptor-mediated pathway. Coconut-oil compared to corn-oil feeding resulted in a 50% decrease in receptor-mediated LDL apo B fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and a 27% reduction in

  1. Looking Ahead? Computerized Maze Task Performance by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella), and Human Children (Homo sapiens)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Futch, Sara E.; Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and – at least to an extent – anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques) a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys) and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to “plan ahead” to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future oriented cognition in primates. PMID:25798793

  2. Ontogeny of Manipulative Behavior and Nut-Cracking in Young Tufted Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus Apella"): A Perception-Action Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal…

  3. Ontogeny of Manipulative Behavior and Nut-Cracking in Young Tufted Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus Apella"): A Perception-Action Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal…

  4. Semen coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation and cryopreservation of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) semen in coconut water solution (CWS) and TES-TRIS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karol G; Miranda, Stefania A; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test the effect of coconut water solution and TES-TRIS on the seminal coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation in fresh diluted semen, and on the cryopreservation of semen from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Semen was collected from six males by electro-ejaculation, diluted in TES-TRIS or coconut water solution (CWS), and incubated at 35°C until the coagulated fraction of the semen was completely liquefied. In the experiment I, after liquefaction, samples were diluted in TES-TRIS or CWS, plus 6 and 10mM/mL of caffeine. Sperm motility and vigor were evaluated during 5h. For experiment II, after liquefaction, semen samples were extended in TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol in the final solution) or CWS (2.5% glycerol in the final solution), cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 week. The seminal coagulum was liquefied in (mean±SDM) 4.5±1.7 and 2.8±1.1h in TES-TRIS and CWS, respectively. Sperm were motile in TES-TRIS and CWS for 5.0±1.4 and 1.0±0.5h, respectively. The mean motility in this period was 38±22% (TES-TRIS) and 22.0±16.0 (CWS). Motility increased after caffeine addition only in samples diluted in CWS containing 6mM (22.5±16.0) or 10mM (28.0±19.0) caffeine. Post-thaw live sperm percentage was 26.2% in TES-TRIS and 13.2% in CWS. For cryopreservation of semen from C. apella TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol) was more appropriate than CWS (2.5% glycerol). CWS+caffeine potentially increase sperm motility and may be useful in artificial insemination of fresh diluted semen.

  5. Evolution of growth hormone in primates: the GH gene clusters of the New World monkeys marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons).

    PubMed

    Wallis, O Caryl; Wallis, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The GH gene cluster in marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, comprises eight GH-like genes and pseudogenes and appears to have arisen as a consequence of gene duplications occurring independently of those leading to the human GH gene cluster. We report here the complete sequence of the marmoset GH gene locus, including the intergenic regions and 5' and 3' flanking sequence, and a study of the multiple GH-like genes of an additional New World monkey (NWM), the white-fronted capuchin, Cebus albifrons. The marmoset sequence includes 945 nucleotides (nt) of 5' flanking sequence and 1596 nt of 3' flanking sequence that are "unique"; between these are eight repeat units, including the eight GH genes/pseudogenes. The breakpoints between these repeats are very similar, indicating a regular pattern of gene duplication. These breakpoints do not correspond to those found in the much less regular human GH gene cluster. This and phylogenetic analysis of the repeat units within the marmoset gene cluster strongly support the independent origin of these gene clusters, and the idea that the episode of rapid evolution that occurred during GH evolution in primates preceded the gene duplications. The marmoset GH gene cluster also differs from that of human in having fewer and more evenly distributed Alu sequences (a single pair in each repeat unit) and a "P-element" upstream of every gene/pseudogene. In human there is no P-element upstream of the gene encoding pituitary GH, and these elements have been implicated in placental expression of the other genes of the cluster. The GH gene clusters in marmoset and capuchin appear to have arisen as the consequence of a single-gene duplication event, but in capuchin there was then a remarkable expansion of the GH locus, giving at least 40 GH-like genes and pseudogenes. Thus even among NWMs the GH gene cluster is very variable.

  6. Hand preference for tool-use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) is associated with asymmetry of the primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kimberley A; Thompson, Claudia R

    2013-05-01

    Skilled motor actions are associated with handedness and neuroanatomical specializations in humans. Recent reports have documented similar neuroanatomical asymmetries and their relationship to hand preference in some nonhuman primate species, including chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys. We investigated whether capuchins displayed significant hand preferences for a tool-use task and whether such preferences were associated with motor-processing regions of the brain. Handedness data on a dipping tool-use task and high-resolution 3T MRI scans were collected from 15 monkeys. Capuchins displayed a significant group-level left-hand preference for this type of tool use, and handedness was associated with asymmetry of the primary motor cortex. Left-hand preferent individuals displayed a deeper central sulcus in the right hemisphere. Our results suggest that capuchins show an underlying right-hemisphere bias for skilled movement.

  7. Hand Preference for Tool-Use in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) is Associated with Asymmetry of the Primary Motor Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Thompson, Claudia R.

    2012-01-01

    Skilled motor actions are associated with handedness and neuroanatomical specializations in humans. Recent reports have documented similar neuroanatomical asymmetries and their relationship to hand preference in some nonhuman primate species, including chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys. We investigated whether capuchins displayed significant hand preferences for a tool use task and whether such preferences were associated with motor-processing regions of the brain. Handedness data on a dipping tool-use task and high-resolution 3T MRI scans were collected from 15 monkeys. Capuchins displayed a significant group-level left-hand preference for this type of tool use, and handedness was associated with asymmetry of the primary motor cortex. Left-hand preferent individuals displayed a deeper central sulcus in the right hemisphere. Our results suggest that capuchins show an underlying right-hemisphere bias for skilled movement. PMID:22987442

  8. Do primates see the solitaire illusion differently? A comparative assessment of humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    An important question in comparative psychology is whether human and nonhuman animals share similar principles of perceptual organization. Despite much empirical research, no firm conclusion has been drawn. The Solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion in humans that occurs when one misperceives the relative number of 2 types of items presented in intermingled sets. To date, no study has investigated whether nonhuman animals perceive the Solitaire illusion as humans do. Here, we compared the perception of the Solitaire illusion in human and nonhuman primates in 3 experiments. We first observed (Experiment 1) the spontaneous behavior of chimpanzees when presented with 2 arrays composed of a different number of preferred and nonpreferred food items. In probe trials, preferred items were presented in the Solitaire pattern in 2 different spatial arrangements (either clustered centrally or distributed on the perimeter). Chimpanzees did not show any misperception of quantity in the Solitaire pattern. Next, humans, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and capuchin monkeys underwent the same testing of relative quantity judgments in a computerized task that also presented the Solitaire illusion (Experiments 2 and 3). Unlike humans, chimpanzees did not appear to perceive the illusion, in agreement with Experiment 1. The performance of rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys was also different from that of humans, but was slightly more indicative of a potential Solitaire illusion. On the whole, our results suggest a potential discontinuity in the visual mechanisms underlying the Solitaire illusion between human and nonhuman primates.

  9. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) spontaneously use visual but not acoustic information to find hidden food items.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

    2009-02-01

    Foraging choices in tufted capuchins monkeys are guided by perceptual, cognitive, and motivational factors, but little is known about how these factors might interact. The present study investigates how different types of sensory information affect capuchins' ability to locate hidden food. In two experiments, capuchins were presented with two cups, one baited and one empty. Monkeys were given visual, acoustic, or acoustic-visual information related to the baited cup, the empty cup, or both baited and empty cup. Results show that capuchins spontaneously used visual information to locate food, and that information indicating presence and absence of food led to higher success rates than information indicating only absence of food. In contrast, acoustic information did not lead to success rates above chance levels and failed to enhance performance in combination with visual information. Capuchins spontaneously avoided a visually empty cup, but they did not appear to associate sounds with either the presence or absence of food. Being able to locate food items with the aid of acoustic cues might be a learned process that requires interactive experiences with the task's contingencies.

  10. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus) for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Elizabeth Christine

    2015-01-01

    Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis), or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis). Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1) capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2) variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016), indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896), indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker) adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978), while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more experienced

  11. Experimental pulmonary inflammatory injury in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Revak, S D; Rice, C L; Schraufstätter, I U; Halsey, W A; Bohl, B P; Clancy, R M; Cochrane, C G

    1985-01-01

    by the return to full activity of four out of five BAL samples after their incubation with the reducing agent dithiothreitol in the presence of methionine sulfoxide peptide reductase. The specific activity of catalase in the BAL fluids of animals given 3-amino, 1,2,4 triazole (AT) 1 h before lavaging showed drops from 0.97 in untreated monkeys to 0.04 in FNLP-treated and 0.49 in PMA-treated monkeys. MPO levels also fell in the AT-treated injured animals from 16.59 to 0.85 delta OD/min X ml in FNLP animals in the absence and presence of AT, and 30.47 to 0.60 delta OD/min X ml in PMA-treated animals. Inhibition of MPO by AT was shown in vitro to be H2O2 dependent. Total glutathione levels in the BAL fluids did not change appreciably after FNLP or PMA treatment. These studies present substantial evidence of the generation of both proteases and oxidants during the establishment of acute pulmonary inflammatory injury in an experimental primate model. Images PMID:2995448

  12. Working and waiting for better rewards: Self-control in two monkey species (Cebus apella and Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Beran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control is typically defined as choosing a greater, delayed reward over a lesser, more immediate reward. However, in nature, there are other costs besides delay associated with obtaining the greatest outcome including increased effort, potential punishment, and low probability of reward. Effort is an interesting case because it sometimes impairs self-control, by acting as an additional cost, and at other times facilitates self-control, by distracting one from impulsive options. Additionally, different species may perform differently in effortful self-control tasks, based on their natural ecology. To gain insight into these aspects of self-control behavior, we examined capuchin monkeys’ and rhesus monkeys’ self-control in separate working and waiting choice tasks. We hypothesized that capuchins would show greater self-control in the working task, given their naturally higher activity level, whereas rhesus would perform similarly in both tasks. Rhesus performed as predicted, whereas contrary to our hypothesis, capuchins exhibited lesser performance in the working task. Nonetheless, these results may still stem from inherent species differences interacting with details of the methodology. Capuchins, being highly energetic and social monkeys, may have divided their energy and attention between the working task and other elements of the test environment such as visible group mates or manipulanda. PMID:24412729

  13. The influence of experimental manipulations on chewing speed during in vivo laboratory research in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Thompson, C L; Donley, E M; Stimpson, C D; Horne, W I; Vinyard, C J

    2011-07-01

    Even though in vivo studies of mastication in living primates are often used to test functional and adaptive hypotheses explaining primate masticatory behavior, we currently have little data addressing how experimental procedures performed in the laboratory influence mastication. The obvious logistical issue in assessing how animal manipulation impacts feeding physiology reflects the difficulty in quantifying mechanical parameters without handling the animal. In this study, we measured chewing cycle duration as a mechanical variable that can be collected remotely to: 1) assess how experimental manipulations affect chewing speed in Cebus apella, 2) compare captive chewing cycle durations to that of wild conspecifics, and 3) document sources of variation (beyond experimental manipulation) impacting captive chewing cycle durations. We find that experimental manipulations do increase chewing cycle durations in C. apella by as much as 152 milliseconds (ms) on average. These slower chewing speeds are mainly an effect of anesthesia (and/or restraint), rather than electrode implantation or more invasive surgical procedures. Comparison of captive and wild C. apella suggest there is no novel effect of captivity on chewing speed, although this cannot unequivocally demonstrate that masticatory mechanics are similar in captive and wild individuals. Furthermore, we document significant differences in cycle durations due to inter-individual variation and food type, although duration did not always significantly correlate with mechanical properties of foods. We advocate that the significant reduction in chewing speed be considered as an appropriate qualification when applying the results of laboratory-based feeding studies to adaptive explanations of primate feeding behaviors.

  14. An Experimental Itch Model in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M. C. Holden; Naughton, Norah N.

    2007-01-01

    Background The most common side effect of spinal opioid administration is pruritus, which has been treated with a variety of agents with variable success. Currently, there are few animal models developed to study this side effect. The aim of this study was to establish a nonhuman primate model to pharmacologically characterize the effects of intrathecal administration of morphine. Methods Eight adult rhesus monkeys were used. Scratching responses were videotaped and counted by observers who were blinded to experimental conditions. Antinociception was measured by a warm-water (50°C) tail-withdrawal assay. The dose-response of intrathecal morphine (1-320 μg) for both scratching and antinociception in all subjects was established. An opioid antagonist, nalmefene, was administered either intravenously or subcutaneously to assess its efficacy against intrathecal morphine. Results Intrathecal morphine (1-32 μg) increased scratching in a dose-dependent manner. Higher doses of intrathecal morphine (10-100 μg) produced thermal antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, nalmefene (10-32 μg/kg intravenously) attenuated maximum scratching responses among subjects. Pretreatment with nalmefene (32μg/kg subcutaneously) produced approximately 10-fold rightward shifts of intrathecal morphine dose-response curves for both behavioral effects. Conclusions These data indicate that intrathecal morphine-induced scratching and antinociception are mediated by opioid receptors. The magnitude of nalmefene antagonism of intrathecal morphine is consistent with μ opioid receptor mediation. This experimental itch model is useful for evaluating different agents that may suppress scratching without interfering with antinociception. It may also facilitate the clarification of mechanisms underlying these phenomena. PMID:10719958

  15. Experimental field study of problem-solving using tools in free-ranging capuchins (Sapajus nigritus, formerly Cebus nigritus).

    PubMed

    Garber, P A; Gomes, D F; Bicca-Marques, J C

    2012-04-01

    Some populations of capuchins are reported to use tools to solve foraging problems in the wild. In most cases, this involves the act of pounding and digging. The use of probing tools by wild capuchins is considerably less common. Here we report on the results of an experimental field study conducted in southern Brazil designed to examine the ability of wild black-horned capuchins (Sapajus nigritus) to use a wooden dowel as a lever or a probe to obtain an embedded food reward. A group of eight capuchins was presented with two experimental platforms, each housing a clear Plexiglas box containing two bananas on a shelf and four inserted dowels. Depending on the conditions of the experiment, the capuchins were required either to pull (Condition I) or push (Conditions II and III) the dowels, in order to dislodge the food reward from the shelf so that it could be manually retrieved. In Condition I, four individuals spontaneously solved the foraging problem by pulling the dowels in 25% (72/291) of visits. In Conditions II and III, however, no capuchin successfully pushed the dowels forward to obtain the food reward. During these latter two experimental conditions, the capuchins continued to pull the dowels (41/151 or 27% of visits), even though this behavior did not result in foraging success. The results of these field experiments are consistent with an identical study conducted on wild Cebus capucinus in Costa Rica, and suggest that when using an external object as a probe to solve a foraging problem, individual capuchins were able to rapidly learn an association between the tool and the food reward, but failed to understand exactly how the tool functioned in accomplishing the task. The results also suggest that once a capuchin learned to solve this tool-mediated foraging problem, the individual persisted in using the same solution even in the face of repeated failure (slow rate of learning extinction).

  16. [Experimental infection of green monkeys with adenoassociated virus].

    PubMed

    Dreizin, R S; Zhuravel', T F; Tarasova, A B; Sobolev, S G; Kozlov, V G

    1981-01-01

    Primary infection and reinfection with adeno-associated virus type 4 (AAV-4) was reproduced in green monkeys experimentally infected with AAV-4 in mixture with adenovirus. Wide dissemination of the satellite virus in animals was observed. AAV-4 and its antigen were detectable 5 to 23 days after inoculation. In monkeys infected with a mixture of AAV-4 and adenovirus or with one of them the infection was accompanied by a marked fever persisting from the 5th to the 20th day after inoculation. The infected monkeys showed an intensive rise of homologous antibody titer most marked on the 10th-15th day after inoculation with AAV-4. AAV-4 and its antigen were detected in smears from conjunctival and tonsillar mucosa, rectal specimens in the time course of the infectious process, as well as from the trachea, lungs, liver, spleen, intestines and kidneys of the sacrificed monkeys. Besides, AAV-4 antigen was found in cells of the tonsils and blood leukocytes of the sacrificed monkeys. No virus or its antigen were found in the brain and heart tissues. Virions of adeno-associated virus were found by electron microscopic examinations of kidney cells of one of 3 monkeys infected with AAV-4.

  17. VITAMIN C CONTENT OF MONKEY TISSUES IN EXPERIMENTAL POLIOMYELITIS.

    PubMed

    Jungeblut, C W; Feiner, R R

    1937-09-30

    1. The concentrations of reduced ascorbic acid present in the tissues of normal rhesus monkeys are of a magnitude in keeping with the values found for other animal species which are incapable of synthesizing vitamin C. These concentrations are subject to distinct increase by prolonged parenteral administration of ascorbic acid. 2. The amounts of vitamin C present in nervous tissue and the suprarenals of monkeys, paralyzed as the result of poliomyelitis infection, are slightly below the normal average when examined at the height of paralysis or in early convalescence. The figures show a tendency for a return to normal or slightly hypernormal levels concomitant with the progress of convalescence. 3. Vitamin C titrations of the tissues of monkeys which had received parenteral injections of ascorbic acid during the incubation period of poliomyelitic infection give different results according to whether such animals develop paralysis or survive without paralytic symptoms. In paralyzed C-treated monkeys the vitamin C levels are practically identical with those of normal C-prepared monkeys. Markedly higher values, however, are obtained with non-paralytic survivors in the early stages of their survival. As the period of survival lengthens normal figures prevail again. 4. The data are discussed in their relationship to the success or failure of vitamin C therapy in experimental poliomyelitis.

  18. Quantifying seasonal fallback on invertebrates, pith, and bromeliad leaves by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Mosdossy, Krisztina N; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2015-09-01

    Fallback foods (FBFs) are hypothesized to shape the ecology, morphology, and behavior of primates, including hominins. Identifying FBFs is therefore critical for revealing past and present foraging adaptations. Recent research suggests invertebrates act as seasonal FBFs for many primate species and human populations. Yet, studies measuring the consumption of invertebrates relative to ecological variation are widely lacking. We address this gap by examining food abundance and entomophagy by primates in a seasonal forest. We study foraging behavior of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)-a species renowned for its intelligence and propensity for extractive foraging-along with the abundance of invertebrates, dietary ripe fruits, pith, and bromeliads. Consumption events and processing time are recorded during focal animal samples. We determine abundance of vegetative foods through phenological and density records. Invertebrates are collected in malaise, pan, and terrestrial traps; caterpillar abundance is inferred from frass traps. Invertebrates are abundant throughout the year and capuchins consume invertebrates-including caterpillars-frequently when fruit is abundant. However, capuchins spend significantly more time processing protected invertebrates when fruit and caterpillars are low in abundance. Invertebrate foraging patterns are not uniform. Caterpillar consumption is consistent with a preferred strategy, whereas capuchins appear to fallback on invertebrates requiring high handling time. Capuchins are convergent with hominins in possessing large brains and high levels of sensorimotor intelligence, thus our research has broad implications for primate evolution, including factors shaping cognitive innovations, brain size, and the role of entomophagy in the human diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Behavioural Repertoires and Time Budgets of Semi-Free-Ranging and Captive Groups of Wedge-Capped Capuchin Monkeys, Cebus olivaceus, in Zoo Exhibits in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Tárano, Zaida; López, Marie Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The behavioural repertoires and time budgets of 2 captive groups and 1 semi-free-ranging group of Cebus olivaceus were determined with the aim to assess the impact of the zoo environment on behaviour. The repertoires were qualitatively similar between groups and to those reported for wild troops, but the captive groups showed self-directed and stereotyped behaviours not reported in the wild. The differences in repertoires between groups were easily associated with the opportunity to interact directly with the visitors, with particularities of the enclosure and with the severity of confinement. Overall, females spent more time foraging than males in the 2 captive groups, and adults rested and watched more than subadults in all the groups. Time budgets were dominated by foraging, resting, movement and affiliative interactions, but their relative importance varied between groups, with foraging being especially prominent in the most confined group. The time budgets also varied qualitatively from those reported for wild troops. We conclude the species is behaviourally able to adjust to captivity, but the slight differences along the continuum from wild to semi-free to captive are suggestive of mild stress or social tension probably due to unstimulating environmental conditions, high visitor pressure and deviations from typical sex-age group composition.

  20. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information.

  1. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential effects of unusual climatic stress on capuchin (Cebus capucinus) and howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) populations on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Milton, Katharine; Giacalone, Jacalyn

    2014-03-01

    Though the harmful effects anthropogenic disturbances pose to wild primates are well appreciated, comparatively little is known about the effects of natural disturbances. From December 2010 to January 2011, different mortality patterns were observed for two primate species, capuchins and howler monkeys, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Unusually high rainfall in 2010 was associated with census and cadaver data indicating the rapid loss of >70% of the capuchin population in late 2010 to early 2011. In contrast, over this same period, no decline was documented for howler monkeys and cadaver data for howlers was unexceptional. The high mortality experienced by the capuchin population was unexpected and its extent was not fully appreciated until the event was largely over. Explanations proposed for it included effects of hypothermia, disease or a shortage of some essential nutrient(s). Of these, the dietary explanation seems most probable. BCI capuchins depend most heavily on arthropod foods in December, when few higher quality ripe fruits are available. The unprecedented high rainfall in December 2010 is hypothesized to have largely eliminated the arthropod peak expected on BCI each December. A lack of protein-rich arthropods, when coupled with the climatic and nutritional stress capuchins generally experience at this time of year, appears to have precipitated the rapid die-off of most of the island's capuchin population. As howler monkeys obtain dietary protein primarily from leaves, a shortage of edible arthropods would not affect howler numbers. Comparison of our 2010 data with similar data on earlier primate/mammalian mortality events reported for BCI and for Corcovado, Costa Rica indicates that our understanding of the effects of natural disturbances on wild primate populations is not profound. We suggest that more research be devoted to this increasingly timely topic, so important to conservation policy.

  3. Bone defect repair on the alveolar wall of the maxillary sinus using collagen membranes and temporal fascia: an experimental study in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adalberto Novaes; Oliveira, José Américo de; Jamur, Maria Célia; Junqueira, José Ari Gualberto; Correa, Vani Maria; Lima, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo

    2011-01-01

    Few studies has been done using guided bone regeneration in maxillary sinus defects. To assess the bone repair process in surgical defects on the alveolar wall of the monkey maxillary sinus, which communicates with the sinus cavity, by using collagen membranes: Gen-derm--Genius Baumer, Pro-tape--Proline and autologous temporal fascia. In this prospective and experimental study, orosinusal communications were performed in four tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and histologic analysis was carried out 180 days after. In the defects without a cover (control), bone proliferation predominated in two animals and fibrous connective tissue predominated in the other two. In defects repaired with a temporal fascia flap, fibrous connective tissue predominated in three animals and bone proliferation predominated in one. In the defects repaired with Gen-derm or Pro-tape collagen membranes there was complete bone proliferation in three animals and fibrous connective tissue in one. Surgical defect can be repaired with both bone tissue and fibrous connective tissue in all study groups; collagen membranes was more beneficial in the bone repair process than temporal fascia or absence of a barrier.

  4. A comparative study of neonatal skeletal development in Cebus and other primates.

    PubMed

    Watts, E S

    1990-01-01

    Comparisons of hand/wrist radiographs of neonatal Cebus albifrons (n = 14) and Cebus apella (n = 4) with those of Saimiri sciureus boliviensis (n = 9) and Macaca mulatta (n = 63) reveal that the cebid monkeys show much less skeletal ossification at birth than macaques. Differences in gestation time alone cannot account for the differences in skeletal maturity at birth in the two groups of monkeys. The skeletal precocity of the newborn macaques indicates that their ossification either begins earlier in gestation or proceeds at a more rapid rate, or both. This, in turn, raises questions about the timing of organogenesis and gestational comparability in cebid and cercopithecid monkeys. The advanced state of ossification seen in macaques at birth is not typical of other groups of anthropoid primates, including Cebus, Saimiri, Pan and Homo, and may represent an ontogenetic specialization.

  5. Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture in Monkey Early Experimental Glaucoma: Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Juan; Lockwood, Howard; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Williams, Galen; Yang, Hongli; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize experimental glaucoma (EG) versus control eye differences in lamina cribrosa (LC), beam diameter (BD), pore diameter (PD), connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF), connective tissue volume (CTV), and LC volume (LV) in monkey early EG. Methods Optic nerve heads (ONHs) of 14 unilateral EG and 6 bilateral normal (BN) monkeys underwent three-dimensional reconstruction and LC beam segmentation. Each beam and pore voxel was assigned a diameter based on the largest sphere that contained it before transformation to a common cylinder with inner, middle, and outer layers. Full-thickness and layer averages for BD, PD, CTVF, CTV, and LV were calculated for each ONH. Beam diameter and PD distributions for each ONH were fit to a gamma distribution and summarized by scale and shape parameters. Experimental glaucoma and depth effects were assessed for each parameter by linear mixed-effects (LME) modeling. Animal-specific EG versus control eye differences that exceeded the maximum intereye difference among the six BN animals were considered significant. Results Overall EG eye mean PD was 12.8% larger (28.2 ± 5.6 vs. 25.0 ± 3.3 μm), CTV was 26.5% larger (100.06 ± 47.98 vs. 79.12 ± 28.35 × 106 μm3), and LV was 40% larger (229.29 ± 98.19 vs. 163.63 ± 39.87 × 106 μm3) than control eyes (P ≤ 0.05, LME). Experimental glaucoma effects were significantly different by layer for PD (P = 0.0097) and CTVF (P < 0.0001). Pore diameter expanded consistently across all PDs. Experimental glaucoma eye-specific parameter change was variable in magnitude and direction. Conclusions Pore diameter, CTV, and LV increase in monkey early EG; however, EG eye-specific change is variable and includes both increases and decreases in BD and CTVF. PMID:27362781

  6. How tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella spp) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) align objects to surfaces: insights into spatial reasoning and implications for tool use.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Stone, Brian W; Scott, Nicole M; Menzel, Charles

    2011-10-01

    This report addresses phylogenetic variation in a spatial skill that underlies tool use: aligning objects to a feature of a surface. Fragaszy and Cummins-Sebree's [Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews 4:282-306, 2005] model of relational spatial reasoning and Skill Development and Perception-Action theories guided the design of the study. We examined how capuchins and chimpanzees place stick objects of varying shapes into matching grooves on a flat surface. Although most individuals aligned the long axis of the object with the matching groove more often than expected by chance, all typically did so with poor precision. Some individuals managed to align a second feature, and only one (a capuchin monkey) achieved above-chance success at aligning three features with matching grooves. Our findings suggest that capuchins and chimpanzees do not reliably align objects along even one axis, and that neither species can reliably or easily master object placement tasks that require managing two or more spatial relations concurrently. Moreover, they did not systematically vary their behavior in a manner that would aid discovery of the affordances of the stick-surface combination beyond sliding the stick along the surface (which may have provided haptic information about the location of the groove). These limitations have profound consequences for the forms of tool use we can expect these individuals to master. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ACCOMPANIED BY MYELIN DESTRUCTION EXPERIMENTALLY PRODUCED IN MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Thomas M.; Schwentker, Francis F.

    1935-01-01

    The repeated intramuscular injections of aqueous emulsions and alcohol-ether extracts of sterile normal rabbit brains in some manner produced pathological changes accompanied by myelin destruction in the brains of 7 of 8 monkeys (Macacus rhesus). Eight, control monkeys remained well. Cultures from the involved brains remained sterile, and no transmissible agent was demonstrated by means of intracerebral inoculations of emulsions of bits of the brains into monkeys, rabbits, guinea pigs, and white mice. PMID:19870385

  8. Experimental leprosy in monkeys. I. Sooty mangabey monkeys: transmission, susceptibility, clinical and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Gormus, B J; Xu, K; Baskin, G B; Martin, L N; Bohm, R P; Blanchard, J L; Mack, P A; Ratterree, M S; McClure, H M; Meyers, W M

    1995-06-01

    A total of 31 sooty mangabey monkeys (SMM) (Cercocebus torquatus atys) inoculated by various routes with differing numbers of SMM-origin Mycobacterium leprae (ML) and 4 SMM inoculated with human-origin ML were observed for 4-12 years. SMM-origin ML was more pathogenic in SMM than human-origin ML. The spectrum of disease ranged from indeterminate to borderline and lepromatous in different animals. Some animals developed pure neural leprosy. Erythema nodosum leprosum (SNL) was also observed. Combined intravenous/intracutaneous (IV/IC) routes of inoculation more effectively induced advancing, disseminated lepromatous forms of leprosy; IV or IC routes alone were less effective at comparable doses. Total IV/IC doses of SMM-origin ML equal to or greater than 5 x 10(8), with morphologic indices (MIs) ranging from 5 to 10%, produced advancing, disseminated LL leprosy in 92% of SMM. Lower IV/IC doses and inoculations by a single IV or IC route produced fewer leprosy infections and more spontaneous regressions. As a species, captive SMM are highly susceptible to experimental leprosy and provide an excellent model for the longitudinal study of leprosy.

  9. Bone Formation Rate in Experimental Disuse Osteoporosis in Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher; Young, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Specific mechanisms underlying weightless and hypodynamic bone loss are obscure. A principal relationship which must be affected is the balance between bone formation and bone resorption rates. In order to better define the influence of those parameters on bone loss, and also to develop measurements in other species as a useful adjunct to human research, studies were undertaken with experimental monkeys. Tests were conducted with a total of 6 adult male monkeys, weighing 10-13 kg, and approximately 10-12 yrs. of age to evaluate specifically bone formation rate during the development of disuse osteoporosis and osteopenia. Three animals were restrained in a semi-recumbent position for six months; three animals served as normal caged controls. Food intake (Purina) was held relatively constant at 200g/day for each animal. Using a Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer, bone mineral losses of 3.5 to 6% were seen in the mid-shaft of the tibia and in the distal radius. Bone loss was confirmed radiographically, with observation of thinning of the proximal tibial cortex and trabeculae in the calcaneus. Bone formation rate was determined using standard Ca-47 kinetics under metabolic balance conditions. After six months of restraint, accretion was 7.2-13.2 mg Ca/kg/day, compared to 3.2-4.1 mg Ca/kg/day in caged controls and 3-8 mg Ca/kg/day in normal adult humans. Fecal and urine calcium was 25-40% higher in restrained animals than in controls. Dietary calcium absorption decreases during restraint, and calcium turnover increases, implying a rise in bone resorption rate concommitant with the observed rise in bone accretion rate. Further studies dealing specifically with bone resorption are underway to define this more fully.

  10. Life history and locomotion in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata.

    PubMed

    Bezanson, Michelle

    2009-11-01

    As an individual matures from birth to adulthood, many factors may influence the positional repertoire. The biological and behavioral changes that accompany a growing individual are expected to influence foraging strategy, social status and interaction, diet, predator avoidance strategies, and ultimately positional behavior as a behavioral link between anatomy and the environment. In this work, positional behavior is considered as an important feature of life history in juvenile and adult white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) and mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the same tropical forest in Costa Rica. During growth and development ontogenetic changes in body size, limb proportions, and motor skills are likely to influence locomotion and posture through the arboreal canopy. I collected data on positional behavior, activity, branch size, branch angle, and crown location during a 12-month period at Estación Biológica La Suerte in northeastern Costa Rica. Life history timing and differences in rates of growth did not predictably influence the development of adultlike positional behaviors in Cebus and Alouatta. Young Cebus resembled the adult pattern of positional behavior by 6 months of age while howlers exhibited significant differences in several positional behavior categories through 24 months of age. The positional repertoire of both species revealed similarities in the types of modes used during feed/forage and travel in juveniles and adults. Data presented here suggest that the environment exerts different pressures on growing Cebus and Alouatta that may relate to diet, energy expenditure, foraging skill, and/or social learning.

  11. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

    PubMed

    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  12. Ultrastructure of quiescent oocytes of Cebus albifrons.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, B R; Hertig, A T

    1975-01-01

    Quiescent oocytes of the monkey Cebus albifrons were examined with the electron microscope. In many respects the ultrastructure of these cells was similar to that of other mammalian species. Elongate and oval mitochondria, lamellar Golgi complexes, small profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolar organelles were randomly distributed around a round nucleus which usually contained a nucleolus and clumps of heterochromatin. Among the unusual morphological characteristics of these oocytes are 'membranous aggregates', membrane-bound organelles containing a complex of convoluted membranes, some very dense rod-like structures and a droplet of moderate density which resembles lipid. A similar droplet is frequently found in mitochondria. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in many of these oocytes, forming parallel arrays and concentric rings around the nucleus. Folded membrane complexes, apparent elaborations of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, are frequently found in the cytoplasm in continuity with cisternae of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and associated with vesicles which often contain flocculent material. The morphology of Cebus oocytes suggests a greater rate of steroid and protein synthesis, transport, and storage than is usually indicated by the ultrastructure of other mammalian oocytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:811634

  13. Ultrastructure of quiescent oocytes of Cebus albifrons.

    PubMed

    Barton, B R; Hertig, A T

    1975-11-01

    Quiescent oocytes of the monkey Cebus albifrons were examined with the electron microscope. In many respects the ultrastructure of these cells was similar to that of other mammalian species. Elongate and oval mitochondria, lamellar Golgi complexes, small profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolar organelles were randomly distributed around a round nucleus which usually contained a nucleolus and clumps of heterochromatin. Among the unusual morphological characteristics of these oocytes are 'membranous aggregates', membrane-bound organelles containing a complex of convoluted membranes, some very dense rod-like structures and a droplet of moderate density which resembles lipid. A similar droplet is frequently found in mitochondria. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in many of these oocytes, forming parallel arrays and concentric rings around the nucleus. Folded membrane complexes, apparent elaborations of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, are frequently found in the cytoplasm in continuity with cisternae of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and associated with vesicles which often contain flocculent material. The morphology of Cebus oocytes suggests a greater rate of steroid and protein synthesis, transport, and storage than is usually indicated by the ultrastructure of other mammalian oocytes.

  14. Monkeys reject unequal pay.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Sarah F; De Waal, Frans B M

    2003-09-18

    During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.

  15. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  16. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment.

    PubMed

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-08-16

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1-6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  17. Hyperthyroid monkeys: a nonhuman primate model of experimental Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wu, L P; Fu, J; Lv, H J; Guan, X Y; Xu, L; Chen, P; Gao, C Q; Hou, P; Ji, M J; Shi, B Y

    2013-12-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disease with the prevalence between 0.5 and 2% in women. Several lines of evidence indicate that the shed A-subunit rather than the full-length thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is the autoantigen that triggers autoimmunity and leads to hyperthyroidism. We have for the first time induced GD in female rhesus monkeys, which exhibit greater similarity to patients with GD than previous rodent models. After final immunization, the monkeys injected with adenovirus expressing the A-subunit of TSHR (A-sub-Ad) showed some characteristics of GD. When compared with controls, all the test monkeys had significantly higher TSHR antibody levels, half of them had increased total thyroxine (T₄) and free T₄, and 50% developed goiter. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, quantitative studies on subpopulations of CD4+T helper cells were carried out. The data indicated that this GD model involved a mixed Th1 and Th2 response. Declined Treg proportions and increased Th17:Treg ratio are also observed. Our rhesus monkey model successfully mimicked GD in humans in many aspects. It would be a useful tool for furthering our understanding of the pathogenesis of GD and would potentially shorten the distance toward the prevention and treatment of this disease in human.

  18. Experimental toxoplasmosis and vaccine tests in Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Escajadillo, A; Frenkel, J K

    1991-04-01

    We studied Aotus lemurinus, Panamanian night monkeys, for susceptibility to Toxoplasma infection and for their capacity to develop immunity using either sufadiazine prophylaxis or the non-persistent ts-4 vaccine. The animals were highly susceptible to infection with a mouse pathogenic (T265) and a mouse nonpathogenic (T163) Toxoplasma isolate. A calculated single bradyzoite by mouth gave rise to infection which was fatal in nine to 12 days. Chemoprophylaxis with 60-300 of sulfadiazine mg per day for up to 40 days protected the animals; however this was followed by fatal reactivation of infection between 11 and 70 days after treatment was stopped. Vaccination was carried out in two or three doses subcutaneously. Challenge was performed in 26 animals using both Toxoplasma isolates. Five monkeys (19%) survived for over a year, 10 died after a prolonged illness, and 11 died as rapidly as the seven controls. Safety tests showed the vaccine to be nonpathogenic in 111 adults except for slight fever and local inflammation, although one of four juveniles died from disseminated infection. Vaccination of 25 pregnant monkeys was non-pathogenic; however two of 25 fetuses were aborted, one of which was infected and one newborn had microphthalmia, retinitis and a cataract; four of the offspring were not tested. When six lactating monkeys were vaccinated, Toxoplasma was not transmitted to the infants. The high susceptibility to Toxoplasma and the low immunizability was circumstantially attributed to absence of exposure and lack of selection by Toxoplasma of these arboreal monkeys even though about 50% of terrestrial animals from the same area were infected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Development of Maze Navigation by Tufted Capuchins (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jing; Kennedy, Erica H.; Pickering, Tomas; Menzel, Charles R.; Stone, Brian W.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of spatial navigation hypothesize that animals use vector or topological information to choose routes, often including detours, to move objects or themselves to goals. We assessed adult capuchin monkeys’ (Cebus apella) navigation through 192 virtual 2-dimensional mazes that incorporated detour problems. Six monkeys initially were significantly less likely to choose the correct paths when detours were required than when not. Three of the six monkeys repeatedly practiced the 192 mazes to asymptotic mastery; the other three did not practice the mazes again. In a subsequent transfer test, each monkey made correct choices equivalently often on familiar and novel mazes, which suggests that they used general planning skills for maze navigation. Of the three monkeys that practiced the 192 maze-set repeatedly, one efficiently detoured and the other two significantly improved detouring compared to their initial performance. Two monkeys, contrary to their performance when completing the 192 maze-set for the first time, made correct choices at the same rate as chimpanzees. Some evidence suggested that two monkeys used topological information, but utilization of vector information was obvious for all monkeys. Our findings suggest that the boundaries of any individual’s navigational abilities are not predicted by species, but depend on experience. PMID:21138761

  20. Limited susceptibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to leprosy after experimental administration of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Gerald P; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C; Abalos, Rodolfo M; Tan, Esterlina V; Fajardo, Tranquilino T; Villahermosa, Laarni G; Cellona, Roland V; Balagon, Maria V; White, Valerie A; Saunderson, Paul R; Walsh, Douglas S

    2012-08-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis-importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1-19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration.

  1. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  2. An automatic experimental apparatus to study arm reaching in New World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several species of the New World monkeys have been used as experimental models in biomedical and neurophysiological research. However, a method for controlled arm reaching tasks has not been developed for these species. New Method We have developed a fully automated, pneumatically driven, portable, and reconfigurable experimental apparatus for arm-reaching tasks suitable for these small primates. Results We have utilized the apparatus to train two owl monkeys in a visually-cued arm-reaching task. Analysis of neural recordings demonstrates directional tuning of the M1 neurons. Comparison with Existing Method(s) Our apparatus allows automated control, freeing the experimenter from manual experiments. Conclusion The presented apparatus provides a valuable tool for conducting neurophysiological research on New World monkeys. PMID:26928257

  3. [Neuroanatomical study of experimental tremor produced by VMT lesion in monkeys--a horseradish peroxidase study].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T

    1988-01-01

    Destruction of the ventromedial tegmentum (VMT) of the midbrain in monkeys is known to produce tremors similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease. To elucidate such tremorgenic mechanisms, 50% horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into the VMT target region in three monkeys (macaca fuscata fuscata) and eleven adult cats. The volume injected varied between 0.05 and 0.1 microliter. The results suggest that afferent fibers to the thalamus, which passed through the VMT region, contains tractus cerebellothalamicus and nigrothalamic fibers. A large number of labelled cells were found in the ipsilateral nucleus dorsalis raphae, indicating that serotonergic neurons are related to the experimental tremors. Many labelled terminals were observed in the ipsilateral nucleus subthalamicus in the monkey, but in cats no terminals were found. This suggests that VMT region in the monkeys contains nigrosubthalamic fibers. The experimental tremors produced by destruction of the VMT region in the monkeys appears to be due to combined destruction of the tractus cerebellothalamicus, nigrothalamic fibers, tractus nigrostriatus, ascending serotonergic neurons from the nucleus dorsalis raphae and nigrosubthalamic fibers.

  4. Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E.; Jaax, N.; White, J.; Jahrling, P.

    1995-01-01

    The potential of aerogenic infection by Ebola virus was established by using a head-only exposure aerosol system. Virus-containing droplets of 0.8-1.2 microns were generated and administered into the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys via inhalation. Inhalation of viral doses as low as 400 plaque-forming units of virus caused a rapidly fatal disease in 4-5 days. The illness was clinically identical to that reported for parenteral virus inoculation, except for the occurrence of subcutaneous and venipuncture site bleeding and serosanguineous nasal discharge. Immunocytochemistry revealed cell-associated Ebola virus antigens present in airway epithelium, alveolar pneumocytes, and macrophages in the lung and pulmonary lymph nodes; extracellular antigen was present on mucosal surfaces of the nose, oropharynx and airways. Aggregates of characteristic filamentous virus were present within type I pneumocytes, macrophages, and air spaces of the lung by electron microscopy. Demonstration of fatal aerosol transmission of this virus in monkeys reinforces the importance of taking appropriate precautions to prevent its potential aerosol transmission to humans. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7547435

  5. Effects of a bisphosphonate on experimental periodontitis in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Brunsvold, M A; Chaves, E S; Kornman, K S; Aufdemorte, T B; Wood, R

    1992-10-01

    Bisphosphonates have been shown to increase bone mass in estrogen-deficient patients by inhibiting osteoclast activity. The purpose of this study was to measure clinical and radiographic effects of a bisphosphonate on periodontitis development in monkeys. Twenty-seven (27) adult cynomolgus monkeys were studied. After quarantine, baseline data were obtained including plaque index, gingival index, clinical probing depth measurements, and intraoral radiographs. Standardized radiographs were analyzed for quantitative changes in bone density using a computer assisted densitometric (CADIA) system. Animals were divided into 3 groups to receive 1 of the 3 treatment agents; these agents consisted of two levels of the test drug (alendronate) and a saline placebo. Agents were injected in the saphenous vein of the lower leg every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. One week after the initiation of treatment agent injections, mandibular right molars and premolars were ligated with 3-0 silk sutures to induce periodontitis. Ligated teeth were also inoculated with Porphyromonas gingivalis to insure a significant etiologic challenge. Nonligated homologous teeth served as controls. Clinical measurements and radiographs were repeated at 8 and 16 weeks after ligation. The bisphosphonate at a concentration of 0.05 mg/kg significantly retarded the progression of periodontitis as measured by bone density changes. The higher level dose of the test drug did not differ from placebo with respect to loss of bone density. Clinical indices were not affected significantly by the test drugs. Drugs that alter bone metabolism may offer a new approach to the treatment of periodontal disease.

  6. [Experimental choroidal neovascularization induced by laser in the eyes of rhesus monkeys].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Yan, Mi; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jun-jun; Liu, Bin; Meng, Dan; Du, Cai-feng

    2008-07-01

    To establish an experimental model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) through perimacular laser treatment in the eyes of rhesus Monkey. The experimental CNV was induced by perimacular laser injury in the eyes of 8 rhesus monkeys and confirmed by a comparison before and after the laser treatment (20 d, 34 d, 48 d) with fluorescence fundus angiography (FFA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Classic CNV similar to human CNV appeared in 68.8% of the laser spots. Hypofluorescence in the early phase and fluorescence leakage in the late phase were detected by the FFA. High reflect light echogenic mass and retina edema were detected by the OCT. The histopathologic examinations found proliferated fiber-vasculosa membranes in the laser burnt spots. The pathological changes lasted 48 days until the monkeys were killed. The laser induced experimental CNV in rhesus monkey has a high prevalence and stability, which maintains a long period. It is an ideal experimental model for studying the pathologic mechanism of CNV and effective treatment for CNV.

  7. Skin mycoflora of Cebus primates kept in captivity and semicaptivity.

    PubMed

    Fedullo, José Daniel L; Rossi, Claudio N; Gambale, Walderez; Germano, Pedro Manuel L; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the fungal mycoflora in healthy tufted capuchins primates (Cebus sp) kept in captivity and semicaptivity to allow a more realistic interpretation on the basis of fungi isolated from their skin. Furthermore, we aimed at evaluating the potential risk of infection to humans by fungi perpetuated in the tegument of monkeys of this genus. For the collection of skin material, the carpet method was used, followed by seeding in Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media, Mycosel agar, Dermatophyte Test Medium and Sabouraud agar supplemented with olive oil. Seventeen genera of fungi were detected, being three of them isolated only in the captivity animals (Acremonium - Cephalosporium, Phoma and Trichosporon). The genera of fungi with the higher frequencies were identified in the semicaptivity capuchins (Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium). Many of the genera of fungi identified are potential pathogens for immune-compromised monkeys and humans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    PubMed

    Steelandt, Sophie; Dufour, Valérie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Thierry, Bernard

    2011-03-10

    Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana) in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  9. Tibial changes in experimental disuse osteoporosis in the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. R.; Niklowitz, W. J.; Steele, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanical properties and structural changes in the monkey tibia with disuse osteoporosis and during subsequent recovery are investigated. Bone mending stiffness is evaluated in relation to microscopic changes in cortical bone and Norland bone mineral analysis. Restraint in the semireclined position is found to produce regional losses of bone most obviously in the anterior-proximal tibiae. After six months of restraint, the greatest losses of bone mineral in the proximal tibiae range from 23 percent to 31 percent; the largest changes in bone stiffness range from 36 percent to 40 percent. Approximately eight and one-half months of recovery are required to restore the normal bending properties. Even after 15 months of recovery, however, the bone mineral content does not necessarily return to normal levels. Histologically, resorption cavities in cortical bone are seen within one month of restraint; by two and one-half months of restraint there are large resorption cavities subperiosteally, endosteally, and intracortically. After 15 months of recovery, the cortex consists mainly of first-generation haversian systems. After 40 months, the cortex appears normal, with numerous secondary and tertiary generations of haversian systems.

  10. STUDIES ON ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS PRODUCED EXPERIMENTALLY IN RHESUS MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, Charles E.; Kabat, Elvin A.; Wolf, Abner; Bezer, Ada E.

    1950-01-01

    1. Animals injected with emulsions of monkey brain with adjuvants show a complex pattern of antibody response as determined by complement fixation tests. 2. Organ-specific complement-fixing antibodies to constituents of brain tissue may be formed which fix complement with brain tissues of various animal species but fail to react with other organs or with rabbit placenta. 3. Antibodies may be formed to some constituent of brain other than nervous tissue. It would seem that these can be detected by the strong complement fixation given with rabbit placenta. 4. Sera from individual animals may contain antibodies to the brain or placenta constituents, to both, or to neither. Occasional individual sera show unique patterns of antibody response as determined with various additional antigens such as fetal brain, posterior pituitary, or peripheral nerves. 5. No evidence of any etiological relationship between the development of encephalomyelitis and the complement-fixing antibodies to brain demonstrable in the sera could be found. The complement-fixing antibody to the placental constituent was unrelated to the encephalomyelitis. PMID:15436935

  11. Levofloxacin Cures Experimental Pneumonic Plague in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Barr, Edward B.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; Koster, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Background Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. Methods and Results Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops) were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3–145 (mean = 65) 50% lethal (LD50) doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39°C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a “humanized” dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53–165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. Conclusion Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen. PMID:21347450

  12. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  13. Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild monkeys from Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corte, Andreia C; Svoboda, Walfrido K; Navarro, Italmar T; Freire, Roberta L; Malanski, Luciano S; Shiozawa, M M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Aguiar, Lucas M; Passos, Fernando C; Maron, Angela; Camargo, Zoilo P; Itano, Eiko N; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in wild New World monkeys (Cebus sp. and Alouatta caraya). A total of 93 animals (Cebus sp., n = 68 and Alouatta caraya, n = 25) were captured in the Paraná River basin, Paraná State, Brazil and the serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and immunodiffusion using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively. The seropositivity observed by ELISA was 44.1% and 60% for Cebus sp. and A. caraya, respectively, while by immunodiffusion test Cebus sp. showed positivity of 2.9% only. No significant difference was observed in relation to age and sex. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in wild capuchin monkeys and in wild-black and golden-howler monkeys. The high positivity to P. brasiliensis infection in both species evaluated in our study and the positivity by immunodiffusion test in Cebus sp. suggest that natural disease may be occurring in wild monkeys living in paracoccidioidomycosis endemic areas.

  14. Structure/Function Studies and the Effects of Memantine in Monkeys with Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Gabelt, B'Ann T.; Rasmussen, Carol A.; Tektas, Ozan Y.; Kim, Charlene B. Y.; Peterson, John C.; Nork, T. Michael; Hoeve, James N. Ver; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC) methodology was established and verified in monkeys with experimental glaucoma (ExpG). Terminal GDx parameters were correlated with axon counts and electrophysiologic measures. The effects of memantine on these parameters were investigated. Methods. ExpG was induced in monkeys and intraocular pressure monitored weekly. Some monkeys received memantine in their diet before and after ExpG induction (1–10 months). GDx VCC scans, stereophotographs, and multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) data were collected at baseline and every 6 to 8 weeks until euthanasia. Optic nerves were prepared for axon counting and other morphologic analysis. Results. There was no difference in IOP elevation exposure between memantine-treated and no-memantine–treated monkeys. The percentage of the optic nerve area composed of connective tissue septa was significantly greater in ExpG eyes than in Fellow eyes. There was a strong positive correlation between axon counts and terminal GDx parameter measures. Animals not receiving memantine exhibited significantly lower mfVEP amplitudes in ExpG eyes compared with the ipsilateral baseline or the final value in the Fellow eye. ExpG eyes from memantine-treated animals had higher overall mean amplitudes that were not significantly different relative to the ipsilateral baseline and final amplitudes in the Fellow eye. Conclusions. The authors' studies confirm that GDx VCC can be utilized in monkey ExpG studies to detect early retinal structural changes and that these changes are highly correlated with optic nerve axon counts. These structural changes may or may not lead to central functional changes as shown by the mfVEP in response to investigational therapies. PMID:22427549

  15. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, AN; Williams, LE; Brosnan, SF

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this

  16. Pathogenesis of fulminant monkeypox with bacterial sepsis after experimental infection with West African monkeypox virus in a cynomolgus monkey.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Noriyo; Saijo, Masayuki; Kataoka, Michiyo; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Sato, Yuko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Ogata, Momoko; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Sata, Tetsutaro; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of severe human monkeypox, which causes systemic and fulminant infections, is not clear. This study presents a case repot of fulminant monkeypox with bacterial sepsis after experimental infection with monkeypox virus in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). In our previous study (Saijo et al., 2009, J Gen Virol), two cynomolgus monkeys became moribund after experimental infection with monkeypox virus Liberia strain, West African strain. One exhibited typical monkeypox-related papulovesicular lesions. The other monkey presented fulminant clinical symptoms with a characteristic flat red rash similar to that found in smallpox, which is associated with extremely high fatality rates. In this study, we found that the monkey with flat red rash had high levels of viremia and neutropenia, as well as high plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared with the other monkey. Monkeypox virus replicates in epithelial cells and macrophages in various organs. Sepsis due to Gram-positive cocci was confirmed histopathologically in the monkey with flat red rash. The lack of inflammatory response in the lesion suggested that the monkey with sepsis experienced strong immune suppression during the viral infection. The neutropenia and excessive inflammatory cytokine responses indicate that neutrophils play key roles in the pathogenesis of systemic and fulminant human monkeypox virus infections with sepsis.

  17. Experimental Cross-Species Infection of Common Marmosets by Titi Monkey Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eunice C.; Liu, Maria; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Lanford, Robert E.; Kelly, Kristi R.; Bales, Karen L.; Schnurr, David P.; Canfield, Don R.; Patterson, Jean L.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV), as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses. PMID:23894316

  18. [Experimental infection in man and monkey (Cercopithecus callitrichus) by sarcosporidian cysts of cattle and swine].

    PubMed

    Hiepe, F; Hiepe, T; Hlinak, P; Jungmann, R; Horsch, R; Weidauer, B

    1979-01-01

    Reported in this paper is experimental sarcosporidial infection of man and lower primates (grass monkey). The courses of infection were followed up by coprological and serological tests. Oral-alimentary administration of 100 Sarcocystis (S.)-fusiformis cysts obtained from cattle muscle caused patent infection in man. Gastro-intestinal symptoms developed in one of the probands, between five and seven days after infection. No sporocysts were detectable from the stools of seven probands who had consumed 200 g each of commercially available minced pork which contained small amounts of Sarcocystis miescherania villi. Rise in antibody to Sarcocystes following infection was detected however, by means of indirect fluorescence antibody reaction (IFAR). Gastrointestinal complaints were reported by one of the probands, one day after infection. No sporocysts were detectable from the stools of four grass monkeys, following oral-alimentary administration of 50 or 25 S. miescherania cysts, but rise in antibody to S. miescherania was recorded in these cases. Those grass monkeys which had received 50 cysts responded by exhibiting, after infection, severe clinical phenomena with intestinal signs and symptoms of the central nervous sytem.

  19. Experimental and computational analysis of monkey smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Churchland, M M; Lisberger, S G

    2001-08-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are guided by visual feedback and are surprisingly accurate despite the time delay between visual input and motor output. Previous models have reproduced the accuracy of pursuit either by using elaborate visual signals or by adding sources of motor feedback. Our goal was to constrain what types of signals drive pursuit by obtaining data that would discriminate between these two modeling approaches, represented by the "image motion model" and the "tachometer feedback" model. Our first set of experiments probed the visual properties of pursuit with brief square-pulse and sine-wave perturbations of target velocity. Responses to pulse perturbations increased almost linearly with pulse amplitude, while responses to sine wave perturbations showed strong saturation with increasing stimulus amplitude. The response to sine wave perturbations was strongly dependent on the baseline image velocity at the time of the perturbation. Responses were much smaller if baseline image velocity was naturally large, or was artificially increased by superimposing sine waves on pulse perturbations. The image motion model, but not the tachometer feedback model, could reproduce these features of pursuit. We used a revision of the image motion model that was, like the original, sensitive to both image velocity and image acceleration. Due to a saturating nonlinearity, the sensitivity to image acceleration declined with increasing image velocity. Inclusion of this nonlinearity was motivated by our experimental results, was critical in accounting for the responses to perturbations, and provided an explanation for the unexpected stability of pursuit in the presence of perturbations near the resonant frequency. As an emergent property, the revised image motion model was able to reproduce the frequency and damping of oscillations recorded during artificial feedback delays. Our second set of experiments replicated prior recordings of pursuit responses to multiple

  20. Dietary variability in Cebus apella in extreme habitats: evidence for adaptability.

    PubMed

    Brown, A D; Zunino, G E

    1990-01-01

    The dietary composition of Cebus apella in two subtropical forest environments of Argentina reflects the seasonal availability of potential food resources. In the marginal areas of the geographical distribution of this species, different resources are used during periods of scarcity. A greater tendency to use leaves in the diet is observed in the northwest (El Rey National Park), where there is greater seasonal variation of fruit availability. In El Rey, where there are few potential resources, the diet is dominated by a few resources, notably bromeliads. Where the resources are more abundant and the availability is more constant throughout the years (Baritú and Iguazú National Parks), the monkeys exhibit a feeding behavior similar to that seen in tropical areas. This ability of the genus Cebus to exploit resources not accessible to other primate species is one of the reasons for its wide geographical distribution and its widespread existence in ecosystems marginally used by primates.

  1. [The therapeutic efficacy of ribamidil and virazole in experimental Lassa fever in monkeys].

    PubMed

    Dvoretskaia, V I; Bogatikov, G V; Pshenichnov, V A; Evseev, A A

    1991-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of ribamydil and virasol was evaluated in experimental Lassa fever in monkeys which received these drugs at various intervals after the onset of the clinical illness. Ribamydil or virasol administered in the first day of fever protected from death 60% to 66% of the infected animals, but when the drugs were given 2 days after the onset of fever the number of survivors declined to 0.20%. When the treatment was started 4 days after the onset of fever none of the drugs prevented deaths of Lassa virus-infected baboons.

  2. Influence of experimental history on nicotine self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajeev I; Sullivan, Katherine A; Kohut, Stephen J; Bergman, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Methods for establishing robust long-term self-administration of intravenous (i.v.) nicotine, the primary psychoactive agent in tobacco, are not well-established in laboratory animals. Here, we examine the use of a fading procedure to establish robust and consistent i.v. nicotine self-administration under second-order schedule conditions in squirrel monkeys. First, self-administration behavior was developed in two groups of male squirrel monkeys using a second-order fixed-interval 5-min schedule with fixed-ratio 5 units (FI 5-min (FR5: S)). Comparable performances were maintained by i.v. cocaine (0.032 mg/kg/injection (inj); group A, n = 3) and the combination of food delivery (20-30 % condensed milk) and 0.01 mg/kg/inj i.v. nicotine (group B, n = 3). Subsequently, the concentration of condensed milk was gradually reduced to zero in the second group and self-administration behavior was maintained by i.v. nicotine alone. Next, self-administration of a range of doses of i.v. nicotine (0.001-0.032 mg/kg/inj) and, in additional experiments, the minor tobacco alkaloid anatabine (0.01-0.18 mg/kg/inj) was studied in both groups. Results show that nicotine and anatabine had reinforcing effects in both groups. However, optimal doses of nicotine and anatabine maintained significantly higher rates of i.v. self-administration behavior in subjects trained with the fading procedure than in subjects provided with a history of cocaine-maintained responding. These results illustrate conditions under which robust i.v. nicotine self-administration can be established in squirrel monkeys and the influence of prior experimental history in the expression of reinforcing effects of nicotine and anatabine.

  3. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    PubMed Central

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  4. In Vivo Detection of Laminar and Peripapillary Scleral Hypercompliance in Early Monkey Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ivers, Kevin M.; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Qin, Lirong; Reyes, Luke; Fortune, Brad; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT) detected, optic nerve head (ONH) compliance within control and experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes of 15 monkeys at EG onset. Methods Intraocular pressure (IOP) was chronically elevated in one eye of each animal using a laser. Experimental glaucoma onset was identified using confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT). Optical coherence tomography ONH imaging (40 radial B-scans) was performed at 10 mm Hg before and after laser. At EG onset, OCT scans were obtained at IOP 10 and 30 mm Hg. Optical coherence tomography landmarks within the IOP 10/30 images were delineated to quantify IOP 10/30 differences (compliance) for anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (ALCSD) relative to Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (ALCSD-BMO), ALCSD relative to peripheral BM (ALCSD-BM), and BMO depth relative to peripheral BM (BMOD-BM). A linear mixed effects model assessed for acute IOP elevation effects, control versus EG eye effects, and their interaction Results Effects of IOP elevation were greater in EG versus control eyes for ALCSD-BMO (−46 ± 45 vs. −8 ± 13 μm, P = 0.0042) and ALCSD-BM (−92 ± 64 vs. −42 ± 22 μm, P = 0.0075). Experimental glaucoma eye-specific ALCSD-BMO and ALCSD-BM compliance exceeded the range of control eye compliance in 9 and 8 of the 15 EG eyes, respectively. Post-laser peak IOP (R2 = 0.798, P < 0.0001) and post-laser mean IOP (R2 = 0.634, P < 0.0004) most strongly correlated to EG versus control eye differences in ALCSD-BMO compliance. Conclusions Laminar (ALCSD-BMO) and peripapillary scleral (ALCSD-BM) hypercompliance are present in most monkey eyes at the onset of EG. PMID:27409498

  5. Exploring the Relationship Between Cerebellar Asymmetry and Handedness in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Capuchins (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) cerebellar asymmetry and its relationship to handedness was conducted. Magnetic resonance images of the brain and behavioral data on a coordinated bimanual task were obtained from 16 chimpanzees and 11 capuchins. Chimpanzees displayed a greater rightward bias of the posterior cerebellum and capuchins displayed a greater leftward bias of the anterior cerebellum. Cerebellar asymmetries were significantly associated with handedness in capuchins but not chimpanzees, and this effect was most pronounced in right-handed capuchins. PMID:17382360

  6. Experimental infections of baboons (Papio spp.) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) with Trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, S; Dzoma, B M; Matenga, E; Ruziwa, S D; Sacchi, L; Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    Experimental Trichinella zimbabwensis infections were established in three baboons (Papio sp.) and four vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) and the clinical-pathological manifestations assessed. The infected animals showed clinical signs ranging from fever, diarrhoea, periorbital oedema and muscular pain in varying degrees. One baboon became blind due to the infection. Levels of creatinine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase increased to reach a peak on Day 42 post-infection (pi) for both baboons and monkeys. Blood parameters such as packed cell volume, levels of red blood cells and white blood cells did not change significantly from the normal ranges except for the levels of eosinophils which peaked above the normal ranges at Day 28 and 56 pi in baboons and at Day 56 pi in monkeys. Two baboons and two monkeys died during the course of the experiment. They were emaciated and showed lesions such as ascites, hydropericardium, congested liver and enlarged gall bladder. Histopathological findings of various muscles included a basophilic transformation of muscle cells, the disappearance of sarcomere myofibrils and basophilic sarcoplasm with the presence of Trichinella larvae in the sarcoplasm. These changes were mainly in the massetter and were of various intensities in the tail, gastrocnemius and biceps muscles. Five consecutive treatments with an oxfendazole-levamisole combination on surviving animals failed to clear the infection whereas ivermectin cleared the infection after one treatment in two monkeys and after two treatments in a baboon.

  7. Copying without rewards: socially influenced foraging decisions among brown capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Kristin E; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-07-01

    An individual's foraging activity can be influenced by the choices made by nearby conspecifics. The interest shown in the location and characteristics of a feeding patch may depend on the feeding success of a conspecific there, a process that needs to be distinguished from choices guided by rewards to the observer itself. We investigated how rewards for both self and others influence the foraging choices of captive capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Thirteen adult capuchins observed familiar female conspecific models explore one of three opaque boxes under three conditions. In the first, there were no rewards available to either monkey; in the second, rewards were available to the model only; and in the third, both monkeys could retrieve a reward. Under all conditions, subjects more often explored the same box as the model than was expected by chance. Thus, without ever receiving a reward themselves or without seeing another receive rewards, subjects' searches were directed at the box explored by another monkey. The tendency to match the model's choice increased if the subject was rewarded. We compared these results to control conditions in which the model was either absent, or present but not allowed to demonstrate. Subjects' located the reward less often in control conditions, than in the experimental conditions. We conclude that extrinsic rewards, while helpful, are not required for partners to influence the foraging choices of capuchins, and that the unrewarded copying of foraging choices demonstrated here may provide the basis for additional social influences on learning.

  8. Postnatal growth allometry of the extremities in Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella: a longitudinal and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jungers, W L; Fleagle, J G

    1980-11-01

    Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella, partially sympatric capuchin monkeys from South America, are known to differ substantially in adult body mass and bodily proportions. C. apella possesses a robust, stocky build in contrast to the more gracile, relatively longer limbed body design of C. alblfrons. Average birth weights and adult body lengths of these two congeners, however, are remarkably similar and do not serve to distinguish them. This study examines longitudinal growth rates and patterns of ontogenetic scaling in the extremities (humerus, radius, hand, femur, tibia, foot) in order to document the nature and magnitude of skeletal changes associated with increasing age and body mass. Our data indicate that the growth rates of the six skeletal components of the limbs differ only slightly and somewhat inconsistently between the two species. Body mass, however, increases at a consistently faster rate in C. apella. Relative to body mass, therefore, the extremities of C. albifrons scale much faster than those of C. apella. This implies that at any given postnatal body mass, C. alblfrons is longer limbed that C. apella. Conversely, C. apella is heavier than C. albifrons at any given limb length or age. We suggest that such differences in body mass distribution are causally related to differences in locomotor behavior and foraging strategies. Specifically, the relatively long-limbed C. albifrons is probably more cursorial and tends to travel longer distances each day than C. apella. C. apella is a much more deliberate quadruped and is also characterized by especially vigorous and powerful foraging and feeding behaviors. We also compare our results to other (mostly cross-sectional) studies of skeletal growth allometry in nonhuman primates.

  9. Insights into Intraspecies Variation in Primate Prosocial Behavior: Capuchins (Cebus apella) Fail to Show Prosociality on a Touchscreen Task.

    PubMed

    Drayton, Lindsey A; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-06-01

    Over the past decade, many researchers have used food donation tasks to test whether nonhuman primates show human-like patterns of prosocial behavior in experimental settings. Although these tasks are elegant in their simplicity, performance within and across species is difficult to explain under a unified theoretical framework. Here, we attempt to better understand variation in prosociality by examining the circumstances that promote and hinder the expression of prosocial preferences. To this end, we tested whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)-a species that has previously demonstrated prosocial preferences-would behave prosocially using a novel touchscreen task. In contrast to previous studies, we found that capuchins as a group did not prosocially deliver food to a partner. Importantly however, data from control conditions revealed that subjects demonstrated limited understanding of the reward contingencies of the task. We also compared individuals' performance in the current study with their performance in a previously published prosociality study. We conclude by discussing how continuing to explore intraspecies variation in performance on prosocial tasks may help inform debates regarding the existence of other-regarding preferences in nonhuman species.

  10. Nature of the Refractive Errors in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Experimentally Induced Ametropias

    PubMed Central

    Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Smith, Earl L.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the contribution of individual ocular components to vision-induced ametropias in 210 rhesus monkeys. The primary contribution to refractive-error development came from vitreous chamber depth; a minor contribution from corneal power was also detected. However, there was no systematic relationship between refractive error and anterior chamber depth or between refractive error and any crystalline lens parameter. Our results are in good agreement with previous studies in humans, suggesting that the refractive errors commonly observed in humans are created by vision-dependent mechanisms that are similar to those operating in monkeys. This concordance emphasizes the applicability of rhesus monkeys in refractive-error studies. PMID:20600237

  11. Implicit and Explicit Category Learning by Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. David; Crossley, Matthew J.; Boomer, Joseph; Church, Barbara A.; Beran, Michael J.; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Current theories of human categorization differentiate an explicit, rule-based system of category learning from an implicit system that slowly associates regions of perceptual space with response outputs. The researchers extended this theoretical differentiation to the category learning of New World primates. Four capuchins learned categories of circular sine-wave gratings that varied in bar spatial frequency and orientation. The rule-based and information-integration tasks, respectively, had one-dimensional and two-dimensional solutions. Capuchins, like humans, strongly dimensionalized the stimuli and learned the rule-based task more easily. The results strengthen the suggestion that nonhuman primates have some structural components of humans’ capacity for explicit categorization, which in humans is linked to declarative cognition and consciousness. The results also strengthen the primate contrast to other vertebrate species that may lack the explicit system. Therefore, the results raise important questions about the origins of the explicit categorization system during cognitive evolution and about its overall phylogenetic distribution. PMID:22023264

  12. Tool use in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons trinitatis).

    PubMed

    Phillips, K A

    1998-01-01

    White-fronted capuchins were observed to use leaves as cups to retrieve water from tree cavities. On multiple occasions several individuals performed this behavior. Thus, these capuchins engage in habitual tool use, as defined by McGrew's classificatory scheme of tool using behavior.

  13. Are monkeys able to plan for future exchange?

    PubMed

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not non-human animals can plan for the future is a hotly debated issue. We investigate this question further and use a planning-to-exchange task to study future planning in the cooperative domain in two species of monkeys: the brown capuchin (Cebus apella) and the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). The rationale required subjects to plan for a future opportunity to exchange tokens for food by collecting tokens several minutes in advance. Subjects who successfully planned for the exchange task were expected to select suitable tokens during a collection period (5/10 min), save them for a fixed period of time (20/30 min), then take them into an adjacent compartment and exchange them for food with an experimenter. Monkeys mostly failed to transport tokens when entering the testing compartment; hence, they do not seem able to plan for a future exchange with a human partner. Three subjects did however manage to solve the task several times, albeit at very low rates. They brought the correct version of three possible token types, but rarely transported more than one suitable token at a time. Given that the frequency of token manipulation predicted transport, success might have occurred by chance. This was not the case, however, since in most cases subjects were not already holding the token in their hands before they entered the testing compartment. Instead, these results may reflect subjects' strengths and weaknesses in their time-related comprehension of the task.

  14. Evaluation of the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) as an Experimental Animal Model for Dysbaric Osteonecrosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-07

    Osteonecrosis , Squirrel monkeys, Dysbarism, Decompression AM STRACT (Coalftwo Af VOW0 df it 060006 Red AV Ihib 6 In an attempt to develop an animal model for...dysbaric osteonecoosis in man, squirrel monkeys were repetedly exposid to a profile consisting of both hyperbaric and hypobaric pressures. Clinical and...subclinical decomipression sickness was produced. No clinical, radiologic, or post-mortem evidence of osteonecrosis was discovered during either the 6

  15. Can Old-World and New-World Monkeys Judge Spatial Above/Below Relations to be the Same or Different? Some of Them, But Not All of Them

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Roger K. R.; Flemming, Timothy M.; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of Relational Matching to Sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether Old World rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a Spatial Above/Below Relational Matching task as reported for Old World baboons (Papio papio). None of the Rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that New-World Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match Above/Below relations. The Capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of ‘Clever Hans’ controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract ‘relations between relations’ and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species. PMID:26581319

  16. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  17. Experimental infection of the New World owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) with hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed Central

    LeDuc, J W; Lemon, S M; Keenan, C M; Graham, R R; Marchwicki, R H; Binn, L N

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the susceptibility of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) to hepatitis A virus, but have not shown an association between infection and histopathological or chemical evidence of liver disease. Therefore, 12 seronegative, colony-bred monkeys were inoculated intravenously with a fecal suspension containing either PA33 strain hepatitis A virus (a strain recovered from a naturally infected Aotus sp.) or HM-175 virus (recovered from a human). Viral antigen was detected by radioimmunoassay in the feces of six monkeys 6 to 17 days after inoculation with PA33 virus, and by 9 to 21 days serum aminotransferase activities were significantly elevated in each. Antibody to the virus developed in each monkey by 28 days after inoculation. Similar findings were noted in five of six monkeys inoculated with HM-175 virus, although the incubation period preceding aminotransferase elevations was somewhat longer (25 to 39 days). Liver biopsies obtained from the 11 infected monkeys demonstrated mild to moderate portal inflammation, as well as random areas of focal necrosis and inflammation extending outward from the portal region. These data confirm the susceptibility of Aotus sp. to hepatitis A virus and indicate that the infection of this primate provides a useful animal model of human hepatitis A. Images PMID:6840861

  18. ABO typing in experimental cynomolgus monkeys using non-invasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Song; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    ABH antigens are not expressed on the red blood cells of monkeys, making it difficult to accurately determine their blood type. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility, convenience, and stability of two non-invasive methods for ABO typing (a reverse gel system assay and a buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay) in cynomolgus monkeys (n = 72). The renal tissue immunofluorescent assay was used to obtain an accurate blood type in the monkeys. Using the reverse gel system assay and preabsorbed serum, we achieved accurate detection of ABO blood groups in 65 of the 72 monkeys but obtained confusing results in the remaining 7. The original immunofluorescent staining of the buccal mucosal smears clearly and correctly identified the ABO blood groups in 50 of the 72 monkeys. After repeated smearing and staining, the ABO group type could be correctly identified in samples from the rest of the monkeys, which were either lacking sufficient buccal mucosal cells or contained impurities. Based on our findings, we recommend the reverse gel system assay as the first choice for primate blood type analysis, and the buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay as a Supplementary Method whenever the reverse gel system assay fails to give a clear result. PMID:28112245

  19. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brino, Ana Leda F., Barros, Romariz S., Galvao, Ol; Garotti, M.; Da Cruz, Ilara R. N.; Santos, Jose R.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys ("Cebus apella"). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The…

  20. Trichromacy increases fruit intake rates of wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus imitator).

    PubMed

    Melin, Amanda D; Chiou, Kenneth L; Walco, Emily R; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L; Kawamura, Shoji; Fedigan, Linda M

    2017-09-26

    Intraspecific color vision variation is prevalent among nearly all diurnal monkeys in the neotropics and is seemingly a textbook case of balancing selection acting to maintain genetic polymorphism. Clear foraging advantages to monkeys with trichromatic vision over those with dichromatic "red-green colorblind" vision have been observed in captive studies; however, evidence of trichromatic advantage during close-range foraging has been surprisingly scarce in field studies, perhaps as a result of small sample sizes and strong impacts of environmental or individual variation on foraging performance. To robustly test the effects of color vision type on foraging efficiency in the wild, we conducted an extensive study of dichromatic and trichromatic white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator), controlling for plant-level and monkey-level variables that may affect fruit intake rates. Over the course of 14 months, we collected behavioral data from 72 monkeys in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. We analyzed 19,043 fruit feeding events within 1,602 foraging bouts across 27 plant species. We find that plant species, color conspicuity category, and monkey age class significantly impact intake rates, while sex does not. When plant species and age are controlled for, we observe that trichromats have higher intake rates than dichromats for plant species with conspicuously colored fruits. This study provides clear evidence of trichromatic advantage in close-range fruit feeding in wild monkeys. Taken together with previous reports of dichromatic advantage for finding cryptic foods, our results illuminate an important aspect of balancing selection maintaining primate opsin polymorphism.

  1. Capuchins, space, time and memory: an experimental test of what-where-when memory in wild monkeys.

    PubMed

    Janson, Charles H

    2016-10-12

    There is considerable controversy about the existence, extent and adaptive value of integrated multimodal memory in non-human animals. Building on prior results showing that wild capuchin monkeys in Argentina appear to recall both the location and amount of food at patches they had previously visited, I tested whether they also track and use elapsed time as a basis for decisions about which feeding patches to visit. I presented them with an experimental array of eight feeding sites, at each of which food rewards increased with increasing elapsed time since the previous visit, similar to the pattern of ripe fruit accumulation in natural feeding trees. Over the course of 68 days, comprising two distinct renewal rate treatments, one group repeatedly visited sites in the feeding array, generating 212 valid choices between sites. Comparison of observations against simulated movements and multinomial statistical models shows that the monkeys' choices were most consistent with dynamic memory for elapsed time specific to each of the eight sites. Thus, it appears that capuchin monkeys possess and use integrated memories of prior food patch use, including where the patch is relative to their current location, how productive the patch is and how long it has been since they last visited the patch. Natural selection to use such integrated memories in foraging tasks may provide an ecologically relevant basis for the evolution of complex intelligence in primates.

  2. Alu-derived old world monkeys exonization event and experimental validation of the LEPR gene.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Soo; Park, Sang-Je; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ekyune; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Myeong-Su; Kim, Heui-Soo; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2010-09-01

    The leptin receptor (LEPR) is a crucial regulatory protein that interacts with Leptin. In our analysis of LEPR, novel AluJb-derived alternative transcripts were identified in the genome of the rhesus monkey. In order to investigate the occurrence of AluJb-derived alternative transcripts and the mechanism underlying exonization events, we conducted analyses using a number of primate genomic DNAs and adipose RNAs of tissue and primary cells derived from the crab-eating monkey. Our results demonstrate that the AluJb element has been integrated into our common ancestor genome prior to the divergence of simians and prosimians. The lineage-specific exonization event of the LEPR gene in chimpanzees, orangutans, and Old World monkeys appear to have been accomplished via transition mutations of the 5' splicing site (second position of C to T). However, in New World monkeys and prosimians, the AluJb-related LEPR transcript should be silenced by the additional transversion mutation (fourth position of T to G). The AluJb-related transcript of human LEPR should also be silenced by a mutation of the 5' splicing site (first position of G to A) and the insertion of one nucleotide sequence (minus fourth position of A). Our data suggests that lineage-specific exonization events should be determined by the combination event of the formation of splicing sites and protection against site-specific mutation pressures. These evolutionary mechanisms could be major sources for primate diversification.

  3. Experimental thyroiditis in the rhesus monkey. I. Cytotoxic, mixed-agglutinating and complement-fixing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kite, J. H.; Argue, Helen; Rose, N. R.

    1966-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys inoculated repeatedly with a crude extract of pooled rhesus thyroids plus complete Freund adjuvant produced autoantibodies cytotoxic for monkey and human thyroid cells in vitro. No cytotoxicity was observed with normal rhesus kidney or adrenal cells taken as controls from the same animals. The specific cytotoxic reaction was absorbed by thyroid microsomes, but not by other tissue fractions. Monkey (as well as human) thyroiditis sera failed to fix complement with thyroglobulin although both fixed complement with crude thyroid suspensions. The cytotoxic antibody was heat stable (56°C for 30 min) and required complement for damage to tissue cells. Fractionation by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation demonstrated that the cytotoxic antibody had a sedimentation rate of about 7S and was stable to sulphydryl agents, whereas the complement-fixing antibody sedimented more rapidly and was largely inactivated by mercaptoethanol treatment. Thus in this case, cytotoxic antibody is not identical with the over-all complement-fixing activity of an antiserum. The presence of organ specific antigen on the surface of cultured rhesus thyroid cells was detected by the mixed agglutination antiglobulin reaction using monkey antisera. The curves of antibody production detected by mixed agglutination and cytotoxicity tend to correspond although the former test was 10–100 times more sensitive. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4958216

  4. [Experimental behavioral tests using monkey and rat offspring born from mothers exposed perinatally to EDCs].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2005-06-01

    Purpose of this study is to conduct risk assessment of EDCs for the development of CNS in humans by extrapolation from the results of behavioral tests in rats and monkeys. Our hypotheses on the mechanism which gives an adverse effect of EDCs to the developing neural systems are as follows. Thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting chemicals induce deterioration of neural development and estrogen (E2) agonistic chemicals may disturb apoptosis of fetal neural cells resulting in injury of normal neural circuit. The strategy of this study is a bottom up system; for example, basic information was obtained by an experiment using rats and then an experiment using monkey was designed to adapt the results from rats. The monkey experiment data will be assessed in comparison with human behavior. The tactics of this study are, however, a top down system. It is neural behaviors which are an end point evaluation that are primarily performed. They are mother-infant interactions, social behaviors, open field test, memory and learning tests, etc. As for analysis of the mechanism of EDCs' adverse effect, we tried two methods: one is an in vivo drug biased test which interferes with the monoamine oxidase (MAO) system and the other is an in vitro primary neural cell culture. EDCs including BPA, NP, propylthiouracil (PTU) and PCB-OH are injected orally to pregnant rats from gestation day 3 (GD3) to post natal day 21 (PND21) at weaning and their offspring were tested. On the other hand TCDD, BPA and PCB effect are assessed in rhesus monkey or cynomolgus monkey offspring. The study is still continuing and we will present the results obtained to date.

  5. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P < 0.0026) and animal-specific EG eye change most frequent, for five phenomena (number of EG eyes and range of animal-specific change): posterior laminar deformation (21, −29 to −437 μm), laminar thickening (11, 20–73 μm) and thinning (3, −23 to −31 μm), scleral canal expansion (17, 20–139 μm), outward anterior (16, −16 to −124 μm) and posterior (17, −22 to −279 μm) laminar insertion migration, and peripapillary scleral bowing (11, 21–77 μm). Experimental glaucoma versus control eye laminar thickness differences were bimodal in behavior, being thickened in most EG eyes demonstrating the least deformation and less thickened or thinned in most EG eyes demonstrating the greatest deformation. Conclusions Our postmortem studies retrospectively identify five connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  6. Peri-implant bone reactions to immediately loaded implants. An experimental study in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Romanos, G; Toh, C G; Siar, C H; Swaminathan, D; Ong, A H; Donath, K; Yaacob, H; Nentwig, G H

    2001-04-01

    There are reports which demonstrate that immediately loaded splinted implants can be osseointegrated when they are placed in the anterior part of the lower jaw. The concept of immediate loading has not been well investigated in the posterior mandible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone reactions around immediately loaded implants placed in the posterior region of the lower jaw in the monkey model. Six adult Macaca fascicularis monkeys were used in this study. A total of 36 implants were placed after extraction of the second premolars, first and second molars, and complete healing of the sockets. Three control (C) group implants were placed in one quadrant of the lower jaw of each monkey. After a delay of 3 months to allow osseointegration to take place, the implants were loaded for 1 month using temporary resin bridges and later for 2 months using metal splinted crowns. In the contralateral region of the lower jaw, 3 test (T) group implants were placed and loaded immediately with the same sequence as carried out for the C implants. Specimens were examined and evaluated histologically after sacrifice. All of the implants were osseointegrated. Compact, cortical bone in contact with the implant surface without any gaps or connective tissue formation was observed. It was concluded that immediately loaded, splinted implants can be osseointegrated with a similar hard and soft tissue peri-implant response as delayed-loaded implants in the posterior mandible.

  7. Changes in optic nerve head circulation in response to vasoactive agents: intereye comparison in monkeys with experimental unilateral glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Mayama, Chihiro; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Ota, Takashi; Tomidokoro, Atsuo; Araie, Makoto

    2012-08-22

    To investigate circulatory changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to vasoactive agents including calcium antagonists, a substrate of nitric oxide (NO), and an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) in monkeys with unilateral experimental glaucoma. Argon laser cautery to the trabecular meshwork was used to create experimental unilateral glaucoma in nine monkeys. The effects of systemic lomerizine or nilvadipine (calcium-antagonists), L-arginine (a substrate of NO), and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor) on the ONH tissue blood velocity (NB(ONH)) was studied by the laser speckle method. Lomerizine and nilvadipine significantly increased NB(ONH) in the untreated normal eyes (P = 0.039 and 0.008, respectively), while significant, less increases were found in the laser-treated experimental glaucomatous eyes with significant intereye differences (P = 0.036 and 0.011, respectively). L-arginine significantly increased NB(ONH) in both eyes without intereye difference (P = 0.71). L-NAME had no significant effects on NB(ONH) in the experimental glaucoma eyes; however, it produced a significant decrease in the nonlaser treated eyes (P = 0.036). In experimental glaucomatous eyes, the reactivity of ONH vessels to calcium antagonists was preserved, but was significantly reduced. The response to a NOS inhibitor was lost; however, reactivity to a substrate of NO was normal. These data indicate that in experimental glaucoma, vasodilator reactivity in the peripheral vasculature of the ONH is preserved, but functional alterations are likely to affect reactivity to the NO system.

  8. Socially biased learning in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D; Visalberghi, E

    2004-02-01

    We review socially biased learning about food and problem solving in monkeys, relying especially on studies with tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and callitrichid monkeys. Capuchin monkeys most effectively learn to solve a new problem when they can act jointly with an experienced partner in a socially tolerant setting and when the problem can be solved by direct action on an object or substrate, but they do not learn by imitation. Capuchin monkeys are motivated to eat foods, whether familiar or novel, when they are with others that are eating, regardless of what the others are eating. Thus, social bias in learning about foods is indirect and mediated by facilitation of feeding. In most respects, social biases in learning are similar in capuchins and callitrichids, except that callitrichids provide more specific behavioral cues to others about the availability and palatability of foods. Callitrichids generally are more tolerant toward group members and coordinate their activity in space and time more closely than capuchins do. These characteristics support stronger social biases in learning in callitrichids than in capuchins in some situations. On the other hand, callitrichids' more limited range of manipulative behaviors, greater neophobia, and greater sensitivity to the risk of predation restricts what these monkeys learn in comparison with capuchins. We suggest that socially biased learning is always the collective outcome of interacting physical, social, and individual factors, and that differences across populations and species in social bias in learning reflect variations in all these dimensions. Progress in understanding socially biased learning in nonhuman species will be aided by the development of appropriately detailed models of the richly interconnected processes affecting learning.

  9. Histomorphometrical analysis of the effects of the bisphosphonate alendronate on bone loss caused by experimental periodontitis in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, M; Quartuccio, H; Seedor, J G; Aufdemorte, T B; Brunsvold, M; Chaves, E; Kornman, K S; Rodan, G A

    1994-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of alendronate, a bisphosphate, in reducing alveolar bone loss caused by experimental periodontitis in cynomolgus monkeys. Periodontitis was initiated in adult monkeys by ligating mandibular molar teeth at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and subsequently inoculating the ligature with Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis. Contralateral, homologous non-ligated teeth served as controls. Animals received, intravenously, either saline (placebo) or alendronate at 0.05 or 0.25 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 16 weeks. After the animals were sacrificed, coronal sections through mandibular molars were subjected to histomorphometrical analysis. No overt side-effects were observed in any of the animals participating in this study. In placebo-treated animals, ligation and inoculation resulted in significant bone loss both at the CEJ and at the furcation. Alendronate at 0.05 mg/kg significantly reduced bone loss associated with the experimental periodontitis at both sites. In contrast, the dose of 0.25 mg/kg was ineffective in attenuating alveolar bone loss in the furcation area and only slightly effective in preventing it at the CEJ area. The results of the histomorphometric analysis correlate closely with those of the radiographic analysis of the same experiment. These data indicate that alendronate could reduce the loss of alveolar support associated with periodontitis and suggest that bisphosphonates, by virtue of their significant inhibitory action on osteoclasts, may become a treatment modality in the battle against alveolar bone destruction during periodontal disease.

  10. Parvalbumin expression and distribution in the hippocampal formation of Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Torres, Laila Brito; Araujo, Bruno Henrique Silva; Marruaz, Klena Sarges; de Souza, Janaina Sena; Sousa, Bolivar Saldanha; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2015-04-01

    New World primates play an important role in biomedical research. However, the literature still lacks information on many structural features of the brain in these species, particularly structures of the hippocampal formation that are related to long-term memory storage. This study was designed to provide information, for the first time, about the distribution and number of neurons expressing parvalbumin-immunoreactivity (PV-I) in the subregions of the hippocampal formation in Cebus apella, a New World primate species commonly used in biomedical research. Our results revealed that for several morphometric variables, PV-I cells differ significantly among the subregions CA1, CA2, CA3, and the hilus. Based upon our findings and those of other studies, we hypothesize that the proportional increase from monkeys to humans in PV-I cell density within CA1 is a factor contributing to the evolution of increased memory formation and storage.

  11. Paternal kin recognition and infant care in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Elizabeth J; Wikberg, Eva C; Kawamura, Shoji; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence for paternal kin recognition and paternally biased behaviors is mixed among primates. We investigate whether infant handling behaviors exhibit paternal kin biases in wild white-faced capuchins monkeys (Cebus capucinus) by comparing interactions between infants and genetic sires, potential sires, siblings (full sibling, maternal, and paternal half-siblings) and unrelated handlers. We used a linear mixed model approach to analyze data collected on 21 focal infants from six groups in Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Our analyses suggest that the best predictor of adult and subadult male interactions with an infant is the male's dominance status, not his paternity status. We found that maternal siblings but not paternal siblings handled infants more than did unrelated individuals. We conclude that maternal but not paternal kinship influence patterns of infant handling in white-faced capuchins, regardless of whether or not they can recognize paternal kin. Am. J. Primatol. 78:659-668, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Capuchins (Cebus apella) fail to show an asymmetric dominance effect.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul M; Santos, Laurie R

    2017-03-01

    The asymmetric dominance effect (ADE) occurs when the introduction of a partially dominated decoy option increases the choice share of its dominating alternative. The ADE is a violation of regularity and the constant-ratio rule, which are two derivations of the independence of irrelevant alternatives axiom, a core tenant of rational choice. The ADE is one of the most widely reported human choice phenomena, leading researchers to probe its origins by studying a variety of non-human species. We examined the ADE in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), a species that displays many other decision biases. In Experiment 1, we used a touchscreen method to elicit choice-based preferences for food rewards in asymmetrically dominated choice sets. In Experiments 2 and 3, we distinguished between different types of judgments and used a free selection task to elicit consumption-based preferences for juice rewards. However, we found no evidence for the ADE through violations of regularity or the constant-ratio rule, despite the similarity of our stimuli to other human and non-human experiments. While these results appear to conflict with existing literature on the ADE in non-human species, we point out methodological differences-notably, the distinction between value-based and perception-based stimuli-that have led to a collection of phenomena that are difficult to understand under a unitary theoretical framework. In particular, we highlight key differences between the human and non-human research and provide a series of steps that researchers could take to better understand the ADE.

  13. Can Traditions Emerge from the Interaction of Stimulus Enhancement and Reinforcement Learning? An Experimental Model

    PubMed Central

    MATTHEWS, LUKE J; PAUKNER, ANNIKA; SUOMI, STEPHEN J

    2010-01-01

    The study of social learning in captivity and behavioral traditions in the wild are two burgeoning areas of research, but few empirical studies have tested how learning mechanisms produce emergent patterns of tradition. Studies have examined how social learning mechanisms that are cognitively complex and possessed by few species, such as imitation, result in traditional patterns, yet traditional patterns are also exhibited by species that may not possess such mechanisms. We propose an explicit model of how stimulus enhancement and reinforcement learning could interact to produce traditions. We tested the model experimentally with tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), which exhibit traditions in the wild but have rarely demonstrated imitative abilities in captive experiments. Monkeys showed both stimulus enhancement learning and a habitual bias to perform whichever behavior first obtained them a reward. These results support our model that simple social learning mechanisms combined with reinforcement can result in traditional patterns of behavior. PMID:21135912

  14. Can Traditions Emerge from the Interaction of Stimulus Enhancement and Reinforcement Learning? An Experimental Model.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    The study of social learning in captivity and behavioral traditions in the wild are two burgeoning areas of research, but few empirical studies have tested how learning mechanisms produce emergent patterns of tradition. Studies have examined how social learning mechanisms that are cognitively complex and possessed by few species, such as imitation, result in traditional patterns, yet traditional patterns are also exhibited by species that may not possess such mechanisms. We propose an explicit model of how stimulus enhancement and reinforcement learning could interact to produce traditions. We tested the model experimentally with tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), which exhibit traditions in the wild but have rarely demonstrated imitative abilities in captive experiments. Monkeys showed both stimulus enhancement learning and a habitual bias to perform whichever behavior first obtained them a reward. These results support our model that simple social learning mechanisms combined with reinforcement can result in traditional patterns of behavior.

  15. Sample stimulus control shaping and restricted stimulus control in capuchin monkeys: a methodological note.

    PubMed

    Brino, Ana Leda F; Barros, Romariz S; Galvão, Olavo F; Garotti, M; da Cruz, Ilara R N; Santos, José R; Dube, William V; McIlvane, William J

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The objective was to transform identity matching into arbitrary matching (i.e., matching not based on common physical features of the sample and comparison stimuli). Experiment 1 used a two-comparison procedure. The shaping procedure was ultimately effective, but occasional high error rates at certain program steps inspired a follow-up study. Experiment 2 used the same basic approach, but with a three-comparison matching task. During shaping, the monkey performed accurately until the final steps of the program. Subsequent experimentation tested the hypothesis that the decrease in accuracy was due to restricted stimulus control by sample stimulus features that had not yet been changed in the shaping program. Results were consistent with this hypothesis, thus suggesting a new approach that may transform the sample stimulus control shaping procedure from a sometimes useful laboratory tool to a more general approach to teaching the first instance of arbitrary matching performances to participants who show protracted difficulties in learning such performances.

  16. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    PubMed Central

    Brino, Ana Leda F; Barros, Romariz S; Galvão, Olavo F; Garotti, M; da Cruz, Ilara R. N; Santos, José R; Dube, William V; McIlvane, William J

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The objective was to transform identity matching into arbitrary matching (i.e., matching not based on common physical features of the sample and comparison stimuli). Experiment 1 used a two-comparison procedure. The shaping procedure was ultimately effective, but occasional high error rates at certain program steps inspired a follow-up study. Experiment 2 used the same basic approach, but with a three-comparison matching task. During shaping, the monkey performed accurately until the final steps of the program. Subsequent experimentation tested the hypothesis that the decrease in accuracy was due to restricted stimulus control by sample stimulus features that had not yet been changed in the shaping program. Results were consistent with this hypothesis, thus suggesting a new approach that may transform the sample stimulus control shaping procedure from a sometimes useful laboratory tool to a more general approach to teaching the first instance of arbitrary matching performances to participants who show protracted difficulties in learning such performances. PMID:21547073

  17. [Cellular composition of the lymph nodes of monkeys (rhesus macaque) under normal and experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Rusina, A K

    1978-01-01

    By means of mathematical methods, quantitative and qualitative changes were studied in different structural components of the mesenteric (ileocecal) lymph nodes in normal monkeys (Macaca rhesus) and under per os administration of Salmonella typhi murium, streptomycin-dependent. Cellular composition was calculated in the cortical plateau, cortical (lymphoid) cords and in follicules. Average percent of every cell type was determined. Vaccine administration, was stated to inhibit cytopoiesis in the cortical plateau and in the follicules with light centers. An inverse correlation was noted between the content of small and medium size lymphocytes. Different reactivity of certain structural components in the lymph nodes was demonstrated. As a response to the vaccine administration, plasmocellular acidophilic and macrophagal reactions were most pronounced in the cortical (lymphoid) cords.

  18. Experimental Test of Spatial Updating Models for Monkey Eye-Head Gaze Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Van Grootel, Tom J.; Van der Willigen, Robert F.; Van Opstal, A. John

    2012-01-01

    How the brain maintains an accurate and stable representation of visual target locations despite the occurrence of saccadic gaze shifts is a classical problem in oculomotor research. Here we test and dissociate the predictions of different conceptual models for head-unrestrained gaze-localization behavior of macaque monkeys. We adopted the double-step paradigm with rapid eye-head gaze shifts to measure localization accuracy in response to flashed visual stimuli in darkness. We presented the second target flash either before (static), or during (dynamic) the first gaze displacement. In the dynamic case the brief visual flash induced a small retinal streak of up to about 20 deg at an unpredictable moment and retinal location during the eye-head gaze shift, which provides serious challenges for the gaze-control system. However, for both stimulus conditions, monkeys localized the flashed targets with accurate gaze shifts, which rules out several models of visuomotor control. First, these findings exclude the possibility that gaze-shift programming relies on retinal inputs only. Instead, they support the notion that accurate eye-head motor feedback updates the gaze-saccade coordinates. Second, in dynamic trials the visuomotor system cannot rely on the coordinates of the planned first eye-head saccade either, which rules out remapping on the basis of a predictive corollary gaze-displacement signal. Finally, because gaze-related head movements were also goal-directed, requiring continuous access to eye-in-head position, we propose that our results best support a dynamic feedback scheme for spatial updating in which visuomotor control incorporates accurate signals about instantaneous eye- and head positions rather than relative eye- and head displacements. PMID:23118883

  19. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  20. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  1. Monkeys benefit from reciprocity without the cognitive burden.

    PubMed

    Suchak, Malini; de Waal, Frans B M

    2012-09-18

    The debate about the origins of human prosociality has focused on the presence or absence of similar tendencies in other species, and, recently, attention has turned to the underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether direct reciprocity could promote prosocial behavior in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Twelve capuchins tested in pairs could choose between two tokens, with one being "prosocial" in that it rewarded both individuals (i.e., 1/1), and the other being "selfish" in that it rewarded the chooser only (i.e., 1/0). Each monkey's choices with a familiar partner from their own group was compared with choices when paired with a partner from a different group. Capuchins were spontaneously prosocial, selecting the prosocial option at the same rate regardless of whether they were paired with an in-group or out-group partner. This indicates that interaction outside of the experimental setting played no role. When the paradigm was changed, such that both partners alternated making choices, prosocial preference significantly increased, leading to mutualistic payoffs. As no contingency could be detected between an individual's choice and their partner's previous choice, and choices occurred in rapid succession, reciprocity seemed of a relatively vague nature akin to mutualism. Having the partner receive a better reward than the chooser (i.e., 1/2) during the alternating condition increased the payoffs of mutual prosociality, and prosocial choice increased accordingly. The outcome of several controls made it hard to explain these results on the basis of reward distribution or learned preferences, and rather suggested that joint action promotes prosociality, resulting in so-called attitudinal reciprocity.

  2. Movement of retinal vessels toward the optic nerve head after increasing intraocular pressure in monkey eyes with experimental glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Atsumi; Enomoto, Nobuko; Ishida, Kyoko; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Horai, Naoto; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hara, Hideaki; Tomita, Goji

    2017-09-01

    A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of RBVs located relatively far from the ONH edge after increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) in an experimental monkey model of glaucoma. Fundus photographs were obtained in 17 monkeys. High IOP was induced in the monkeys by laser photocoagulation burns applied uniformly with 360° irradiation around the trabecular meshwork of the left eye. The right eye was left intact and used as a non-treated control. Considering the circadian rhythm of IOP, it was measured in both eyes of each animal at around the same time-points. Then, fundus photographs were obtained. Using Image J image analysis software, an examiner (N.E.) measured the fundus photographs at two time-points, i.e. before laser treatment (time 1) and the last fundus photography after IOP elevation (time 2). The following parameters were measured (in pixels): 1) vertical diameter of the ONH (DD), 2) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the superior branch of the central retinal vein (UV), 3) distance from the ONH edge to the first bifurcation point of the inferior branch of the central retinal vein (LV), 4) ONH area, and 5) surface area of the cup of the ONH. We calculated the ratios of UV to DD (UV/DD), LV to DD (LV/DD), and the cup area to disc area ratio (C/D). The mean UV/DD at time 1 (0.656 ± 0.233) was

  3. Visual motion processing by neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys with experimental amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    El-Shamayleh, Yasmine; Kiorpes, Lynne; Kohn, Adam; Movshon, J. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Early experience affects the development of the visual system. Ocular misalignment or unilateral blur often causes amblyopia, a disorder which has become a standard for understanding developmental plasticity. Neurophysiological studies of amblyopia have focused almost entirely on the first stage of cortical processing in striate cortex. Here we provide the first extensive study of how amblyopia affects extrastriate cortex in nonhuman primates. We studied macaque monkeys (M. nemestrina) for which we have detailed psychophysical data, directly comparing physiological findings to perceptual capabilities. Because these subjects showed deficits in motion discrimination, we focused on area MT/V5, which plays a central role in motion processing. Most neurons in normal MT respond equally to visual stimuli presented through either eye; most recorded in amblyopes strongly preferred stimulation of the non-amblyopic (fellow) eye. The pooled responses of neurons driven by the amblyopic eye showed reduced sensitivity to coherent motion, and preferred higher speeds, in agreement with behavioral measurements. MT neurons were more limited in their capacity to integrate motion information over time than expected from behavioral performance; neurons driven by the amblyopic eye had even shorter integration times than those driven by the fellow eye. We conclude that some, but not all, of the motion sensitivity deficits associated with amblyopia can be explained by abnormal development of MT. PMID:20826682

  4. Myocarditis, Disseminated Infection, and Early Viral Persistence Following Experimental Coxsackievirus B Infection of Cynomolgus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cammock, Cheryl E.; Halnon, Nancy J.; Skoczylas, Jill; Blanchard, James; Bohm, Rudolf; Miller, Christopher J.; Lai, Chi; Krogstad, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B (CVB) infection is a common cause of acute viral myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myocarditis caused by this enterovirus is highly variable, ranging from mildly symptoms to complete hemodynamic collapse. These variations in initial symptoms and in the immediate and long term outcomes of this disease have impeded development of effective treatment strategies. Nine cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with myocarditic strains of CVB. Virological studies performed up to 28 days post-inoculation demonstrated the development of neutralizing antibody in all animals, and the presence of CVB in plasma. High dose intravenous inoculation (n = 2) resulted in severe disseminated disease, while low dose intravenous (n = 6) or oral infection (1 animal) resulted in clinically unapparent infection. Transient, minor, echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in several animals, but no animals displayed signs of significant acute cardiac failure. Although viremia rapidly resolved, signs of myocardial inflammation and injury were observed in all animals at the time of necropsy, and CVB was detected in postmortem myocardial specimens up to 28 days PI. This non-human primate system replicates many features of illness in acute coxsackievirus myocarditis and demonstrates that myocardial involvement may be common in enteroviral infection; it may provide a model system for testing of treatment strategies for enteroviral infections and acute coxsackievirus myocarditis. PMID:24040287

  5. Embryo production by parthenogenetic activation and fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes from Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Lima, Julianne S; Leão, Danuza L; Sampaio, Rafael V; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Miranda, Moysés S; Ohashi, Otávio M; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2013-05-01

    The efficiency of in vitro fertilization (IVF) depends on the viability of spermatozoa. For capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), in vitro capacitation of spermatozoa is challenging because of their unique seminal coagulum. Motile spermatozoa can be obtained after liquefaction of the semen coagulum in coconut water-based solution. The objective of the present study was to establish an optimal in vitro maturation (IVM) protocol for capuchin monkeys and to observe the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) on IVF and parthenogenetic activation (PA) of oocytes collected from unstimulated females. We assessed spermatozoa quality after recovery from seminal coagulum using the solution ACP-118® as an extender. Oocytes were matured in vitro for 36 or 40 h and subjected to IVF or PA by applying ionomycin combined either with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) or roscovitine. In total, 87% of oocytes reached metaphase II (MII) after 40 IVM and 4-cell embryo production was obtained after IVF and parthenogenesis using ionomycin/6-DMAP. ACP-118® was used successfully to harvest viable spermatozoa from semen coagulum and in the preservation of spermatozoa, which were able to fertilize oocytes in vitro.

  6. Disruption of patterns of immunoreactive glial fibrillary acidic protein processes in the Cebus Apella striate cortex following loss of visual input.

    PubMed

    Colombo, J A; Yáñez, A; Lipina, S

    1999-01-01

    Long, interlaminar, astroglial processes and its patterned organization in the striate cortex of adult primates was previously described. Loss of visual input following bilateral retinal detachment and degeneration in an adult Cebus apella monkey resulted three months later in reduction of interlaminar processes immunoreactive to Glial Fibrillary Acid Protein antibody, loss of the honeycomb-like pattern normally present in tangential sections, and loss of high density patches of terminal segments of those processes in the opercular striate. These results further indicate the highly interactive nature of neuron-glial cerebral cortex architecture, and the dynamic regulation of astroglial interlaminar processes.

  7. Effects of olanexidine gluconate on preoperative skin preparation: an experimental study in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Nii, Takuya; Hagi, Akifumi; Inoue, Yasuhide; Imamura, Tadashi

    2017-05-01

    To determine the bactericidal efficacy of a new topical antiseptic for preoperative skin preparation, olanexidine gluconate (development code: OPB-2045G), against transient or resident bacterial flora on the skin of cynomolgus monkeys. After measuring baseline bacterial counts on test sites marked on the abdomens, we applied olanexidine, chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine. After 10 min (fast-acting effect) and 6 h (long-lasting effect), bacterial counts were measured again and log10 reductions were calculated. In addition, we determined the bactericidal effects on the skin contaminated with blood before or after applying the antiseptics. In the non-blood-contaminated condition, the mean log10 reductions of olanexidine at doses of 1-2 % were significantly higher than those of saline (negative control), but did not significantly differ from those of 0.5 % chlorhexidine and 10 % povidone-iodine at either time point. But olanexidine was significantly more effective at both time points than chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine when applied after the site was contaminated with blood. Olanexidine was also significantly more effective than chlorhexidine and as effective as or more effective than povidone-iodine at both time points when skin was contaminated with blood after the antiseptics were applied. The bactericidal effects of olanexidine were comparable to those of commercial antiseptics such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine in non-blood-contaminated conditions. More importantly, the effect of olanexidine was hardly affected by blood unlike commercial antiseptics. Thus, it is considered that olanexidine has a favourable property for skin preparation in various types of surgical treatments.

  8. The influence of food material properties on jaw kinematics in the primate, Cebus.

    PubMed

    Reed, David A; Ross, Callum F

    2010-12-01

    To quantify the impact of food material properties on temporal and spatial variables of chewing kinematics at the level of the feeding sequence, gape cycle, and gape cycle phases. Three-dimensional kinematics were quantified from two adult, male capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) while chewing on foods grouped by material properties into two categories, foods of high toughness and foods of low toughness. Total sequence duration and the total number of chews in a sequence are significantly influenced by food material properties, with foods of high toughness having shorter sequence durations and lower total chew numbers per sequence. Mean cycle duration is not impacted by food material properties at the level of the sequence, but food group differences are found when each cycle is compared independently by food group. Prior to chew fifteen, foods of low toughness elicit significantly lower gape cycle durations and significantly lower vertical displacements of M(1). At the level of the chew phase, variance in slow close explains the majority of variance in chew cycle duration prior to chew thirteen, with foods of low toughness eliciting shorter slow close durations and smaller vertical displacements of M(1). The vertical displacement of M(1) throughout the chewing sequence is the primary spatial determinant of variance in the duration of slow close. These data reveal that chewing behaviour in Cebus is temporally stereotyped at the level of the gape cycle, but temporally and spatially flexible within the cycle, at least partly due to central mechanisms of motor control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging Cebus albifrons in the Western Amazon, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Martin-Solano, Sarah; Carrillo-Bilbao, Gabriel A; Ramirez, William; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Levecke, Bruno; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Losson, Bertrand

    2017-12-01

    Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons). We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera) of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11) and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15) in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal), we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes. We observed a high prevalence (84%) across the 26 individuals, with the most prevalent parasite being Strongyloides sp. (76.9%), followed by Hymenolepis sp. (38.5%) and Prosthenorchis elegans (11.5%). We found Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moskovskii/nuttalli and Capillaria sp. in only a minority of the animals (3.8%). In addition, we observed unidentified strongyles in approximately one-third of the animals (34.6%). We found a total of 6 parasite genera for the adult age group, which showed higher parasite richness than the subadult age group (5) and the juvenile age group (3). Faecal egg/cyst counts were not significantly different between captive and free-ranging individuals or between sexes or age groups. The free-ranging group had a higher prevalence than the captive group; however, this difference was not significant. The only genus common to captive and free-ranging individuals was Strongyloides sp. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and the presence of Strongyloides in both populations support results from previous studies in Cebus species. This high prevalence could be related to the high degree of humidity in the region. For the free-ranging group, additional studies are required to gain insights into the differences in parasite prevalence and intensity between age and sex groups. Additionally, our study demonstrated that a serial sampling of each individual increases the

  10. [Genetic methods for the reintroduction of primates Saguinus, Aotus and Cebus (Primates: Cebidae) seized in Bogota, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Leguizamón, Norberto; Vásquez, Catalina; Rodríguez, Karen; Castillo, María Ignacia

    2010-09-01

    Primates are one of more confiscated taxa by the environmental authorities in Bogota, Colombia. During 2008, 133 monkeys were confiscated; samples from 115 of them were sequenced by the mitochondrial cythocrome oxidase II gene (mtCOII) and 112 sequences obtained were of high quality. These sequences were compared with those obtained by our research group from individuals directly sampled in the field, with precise geographic origin. So, a more specific geographic area of the Colombian territory could be considered for a correct rehabilitation treatment during the reintroduction of these confiscated animals. The main results with five primate species were: 1--For all the specimens analyzed of Saguinus leucopus, they could be liberated in any geographical area of its distribution range, since only one gene pool was found. 2--For the 14 Aotus sp. individuals sequenced from the SDA (Environmental District Secretariat), one of them (A. vociferans) was coming from the Amazon, seven exemplars belonged to A. griseimembra from the Magdalena Valley and the Colombian Caribbean coasts, four individuals represented to A. brumbacki from the Colombian Eastern Llanos, and two were associated to A. azarae azarae from Northern Argentina and Paraguay (which means that illegal traffic of animals is arriving to Colombia from other South-American countries). 3--Out 14 Cebus albifrons sequenced, two belonged to the geographical area of C. a. versicolor, one to C. a. pleei, 10 to C a. leucocephalus and one could be not assigned because its sequence yielded a great genetic divergence with respect to the other specimens sequenced of this species. 4--The two Cebus capucinus sequenced showed to be associated to a gene pool found in the Northern of Chocó, Sucre and Córdoba Departments. 5--Out 11 Cebus apella sequenced, 10 showed to belong to the gene pool presented in the Colombian Eastern Llanos and highly related (but differentiable) to Cebus apella apella from the French Guyana. It could

  11. Isolation and characterization of two new herpes-like viruses from capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; Frye, L D; Gibbs, C J; Chou, S M; Cutchins, E C; Gajdusek, D C; Ward, G

    1976-09-01

    Two herpes-like viruses were isolated from capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) brain and (Cebus albifrons) spleen cell cultures, respectively. Both isolates induced similar cytopathic effects consisting of rounded and ballooned cells in the original monkey cell cultures and in a wide range of permissive cell types. Neutralizing antibody to each virus was present in serum from the capuchin monkey from which it was isolated, but the two viruses did not cross-react by neutralization. Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugates of hyperimmune rabbit serum to one of the isolates showed an antigenic cross relationship between the two isolates. By electron microscopy, herpes-like virus particles were observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected human diploid fibroblast cell cultures. Virus-infected cell cultures stained with acridine orange revealed small deoxyribonucleic acid-containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Both viruses were inhibited by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and inactivated by chloroform or exposure to 56 degrees C for 30 min. Antisera prepared against 16 prototype herpesviruses and cytomegaloviruses did not neutralize approximately 100 50% tissue culture infective doses of either capuchin isolate. Neutralizing antibody to the capuchin isolates was detected in sera from 8 of 17 capuchin monkeys but not in sera from 16 humans, 15 chimpanzees, and 10 spider, 6 rhesus, and 5 squirrel monkeys.

  12. Pairing and recombination features during meiosis in Cebus paraguayanus (Primates: Platyrrhini)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Cruz, Raquel; Robles, Pedro; Steinberg, Eliana R; Camats, Nuria; Brieño, Miguel A; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Mudry, Marta D

    2009-01-01

    Background Among neotropical Primates, the Cai monkey Cebus paraguayanus (CPA) presents long, conserved chromosome syntenies with the human karyotype (HSA) as well as numerous C+ blocks in different chromosome pairs. In this study, immunofluorescence (IF) against two proteins of the Synaptonemal Complex (SC), namely REC8 and SYCP1, two recombination protein markers (RPA and MLH1), and one protein involved in the pachytene checkpoint machinery (BRCA1) was performed in CPA spermatocytes in order to analyze chromosome meiotic behavior in detail. Results Although in the vast majority of pachytene cells all autosomes were paired and synapsed, in a small number of nuclei the heterochromatic C-positive terminal region of bivalent 11 remained unpaired. The analysis of 75 CPA cells at pachytene revealed a mean of 43.22 MLH1 foci per nucleus and 1.07 MLH1 foci in each CPA bivalent 11, always positioned in the region homologous to HSA chromosome 21. Conclusion Our results suggest that C blocks undergo delayed pairing and synapsis, although they do not interfere with the general progress of pairing and synapsis. PMID:19500368

  13. Information seeking in capuchins (Cebus apella): a rudimentary form of metacognition?

    PubMed

    Vining, Alexander Q; Marsh, Heidi L

    2015-05-01

    In previous research, great apes and rhesus macaques have demonstrated multiple apparently metacognitive abilities, whereas capuchin monkeys have not. The present experiment investigated whether at least a rudimentary form of metacognition might be demonstrated in capuchins if a simplified metacognitive task was used. Capuchins (Cebus apella) were required to locate a food reward hidden beneath one of two inverted cups that sat on a Plexiglas tray. In some conditions, the capuchins were shown where the food was hidden, in others they could infer its location, and in yet others they were not given information about the location of the food. On all trials, capuchins could optionally seek information about the food's location by looking up through the Plexiglas beneath the cups. In general, capuchins did this less often when they were shown the food reward, but not when they could infer the reward's location. These data suggest that capuchins-if metacognitive-only metacognitively control their information seeking in some conditions, particularly those in which information is presented in the visual domain. This may represent a rudimentary version of metacognitive control, in comparison with that seen in great apes and humans.

  14. Sexual dimorphism and interspecific cranial form in two capuchin species: Cebus albifrons and C. apella.

    PubMed

    Masterson, T J

    1997-12-01

    Ontogenetic patterns of sexual dimorphism and cranial form in two capuchin monkeys, Cebus albifrons and C. apella, are investigated by means of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. The analyses are based on 23 linear variables. Univariate analyses indicate that similar ontogenetic patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism are present; however, interspecific differences exist in timing. Ontogenetic scaling is present in both species' crania; however, it is more prevalent in C. albifrons. Several departures are present in cranial regions associated with orbital shape, the dental arcade, and the muscles of mastication. The latter two indicate that sexual differences in diet and/or foraging strategies may exist. Sexual selection is suggested as being the primary selective regime underlying the observed patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism in each species. Interspecific comparisons confirm that C. apella possesses a more dimorphic cranium than C. albifrons and that sexual dimorphism in C. apella begins earlier in development. Although interspecific ontogenetic scaling is present in some cranial variables, C. apella is not just a scaled-up version of C. albifrons. These sympatric congeners seem to be differentiated by variables related to the orbital region and the masticatory apparatus, as indicated by both departures from ontogenetic scaling and results of the discriminant function analysis. Ecological selection, rather than varying degrees of sexual selection, is likely to be responsible for this finding given that C. apella is known to consume hard-object foods. This is consistent with the predicted outcome of the competitive exclusion principle.

  15. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests

    PubMed Central

    Crofoot, Margaret C.; Gilby, Ian C.; Wikelski, Martin C.; Kays, Roland W.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition. PMID:18184811

  16. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  17. Incidence and cytotoxicity of antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys directed to nonGal antigens, and their relevance for experimental models.

    PubMed

    Rood, Pleunie P M; Rood, Pleunic P M; Hara, Hidetaka; Busch, Jamie L; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Ball, Suyapa; Ayares, David; Awwad, Michel; Cooper, David K C

    2006-02-01

    The recent availability of pigs homozygous for alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GT-KO) has enabled the study of incidence and cytotoxicity of antibodies of cynomolgus monkeys directed to antigens other than Galalpha1,3Gal (Gal), termed nonGal antigens. To this aim, sera from 21 cynomolgus monkeys were tested by flow cytometry for binding of IgM and IgG to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from wild-type (WT) and GT-KO pigs. The sera were also tested for complement-dependent cytotoxicity to WT and GT-KO PBMC. Anti-WT IgM and IgG were found in 100% and 95%, respectively, and anti-GT-KO IgM and IgG in 76% and 66%, respectively, in the sera of the monkeys tested (P < 0.01). Whereas 100% of sera were cytotoxic to WT PBMC, only 76% were cytotoxic to GT-KO PBMC, and the level of cytotoxicity was significantly less (P < 0.01). Although the incidence and cytotoxicity of antibodies in monkey sera to GT-KO pig PBMC are significantly less than to WT PBMC, approximately three-quarters of the monkeys tested had cytotoxic antibodies to GT-KO PBMC. This incidence of cytotoxicity is significantly higher than that found in baboons and humans, suggesting the baboon may be an easier and possibly more suitable model to study antibody-mediated rejection of transplanted GT-KO pig organs and cells.

  18. Pargyline reduces/prevents neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Heintz, R; Casey, D E

    1987-01-01

    The neuropharmacologic mechanisms underlying neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) were studied using a nonhuman primate model. Twenty-six Cebus albifrons monkeys were given weekly challenges of haloperidol (0.025 mg/kg IM), and half of the animals received the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor pargyline (5 mg/kg PO) daily for 17 consecutive days during the protocol. Pargyline caused no changes in baseline behaviors, but significantly reduced haloperidol-induced acute dystonia (AD) (-67%, P less than 0.002) and parkinsonism (-56%, P less than 0.005). The majority (8 of 13) of the experimental group had complete prevention of neuroleptic-induced EPS during cotreatment with pargyline. Behavioral scores returned to baseline levels after stopping pargyline, and did not show the further sensitization to haloperidol-induced AD that occurred in the control group. The possible mechanisms by which an MAO inhibitor might influence neuroleptic-induced AD were considered. The most likely explanation would appear to involve facilitation of striatal dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by inhibition of intra- and extraneuronal MAO, thus supporting the hypothesis that AD is due to decreased striatal DA function with secondary cholinergic hyperfunction.

  19. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

  20. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Alfred L; Cooke, Siobhán B; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-07

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades.

  1. Recovery of Peripheral Refractive Errors and Ocular Shape in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Experimentally Induced Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Hung, Li-Fang; Smith, Earl L.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in ocular shape and relative peripheral refraction during the recovery from myopia produced by form deprivation (FD) and hyperopic defocus. FD was imposed in 6 monkeys by securing a diffuser lens over one eye; hyperopic defocus was produced in another 6 monkeys by fitting one eye with -3D spectacle. When unrestricted vision was re-established, the treated eyes recovered from the vision-induced central and peripheral refractive errors. The recovery of peripheral refractive errors was associated with corresponding changes in the shape of the posterior globe. The results suggest that vision can actively regulate ocular shape and the development of central and peripheral refractions in infant primates. PMID:23026012

  2. Experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): evidence of active extrahepatic site of HAV replication

    PubMed Central

    Amado, Luciane A; Marchevsky, Renato S; de Paula, Vanessa S; Hooper, Cleber; Freire, Marcos da S; Gaspar, Ana Maria C; Pinto, Marcelo A

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the replication sites of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after intravenous inoculation. The cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the Brazilian hepatitis A virus strain (HAF-203). Monkeys were euthanized on days 15, 30, 45 and 60 postinoculation (pi). Liver samples, submandibular salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node and tonsils were removed for virological and pathological evaluation. Immunofluorescence analyses on liver and salivary gland sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of HAV antigen (HAV Ag). The presence of HAV genome was monitored by real-time PCR. The HAV RNA was detected at 7 days postinoculation (dpi), concomitantly in serum, saliva and faeces. The highest HAV viral load was observed in faeces at 15 dpi (105 copies/ml), followed by serum viral load of 104 copies/ml at 20 dpi and saliva viral load of 103copies/ml at 7 dpi. The animals showed first histological and biochemical signs of hepatitis at 15 dpi. The HAV antigen (Ag) was present from day 7 until day 60 pi in the liver and salivary glands. The HAV replicative intermediate was also detected in the liver (4.5 × 104 copies/mg), salivary glands (1.9 × 103 copies/mg), tonsils (4.2 × 101 copies/mg) and lymph nodes (3.4 × 101 copies/mg). Our data demonstrated that the salivary gland as an extrahepatic site of early HAV replication could create a potential risk of saliva transmitted infection. In addition, the cynomolgus monkey was confirmed as a suitable model to study the pathogenesis of HAV human infection. PMID:20096073

  3. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Banding patterns of the chromosomes of Cebus albifrons. Comparative study with Cebur apella.

    PubMed

    García, M; Freitas, L; Miró, R; Egozcue, J

    1976-01-01

    Quinacrine- and Giemsa-banding studies of the chromosomes of Cebus albifrons permitted to obtain a pattern that characterizes the species. The topography of the bands has been compared with that of Cebus apella. Each chromosome pair of C. albifrons has a homologue in C. apella. The differences between the two karyotypes are the result of five pericentric inversions.

  5. Searching in the middle-Capuchins' (Cebus apella) and bonobos' (Pan paniscus) behavior during a spatial search task.

    PubMed

    Potì, Patrizia; Kanngiesser, Patricia; Saporiti, Martina; Amiconi, Alessandra; Bläsing, Bettina; Call, Josep

    2010-01-01

    In this study we show that bonobos and capuchin monkeys can learn to search in the middle of a landmark configuration in a small-scale space. Five bonobos (Pan paniscus) and 2 capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were tested in a series of experiments with the expansion test paradigm. The primates were trained to search in the middle of a 4- or 2-landmark configuration, and were then tested with the same configuration expanded. Neither species searched in the middle of the expanded 4-landmark configuration. When presented with a 2-landmark configuration and a constant or variable inter-landmark training distance, the subjects sometimes searched preferentially in the middle of the expanded configuration. We discuss 2 alternative explanations of the results: extracting a middle rule or averaging between different goal-landmark vectors. In any case, compared to adult humans, primates appear highly constrained in their abilities to search in the middle of a configuration of detached landmarks. We discuss some of the factors that may influence the primates' behavior in this task.

  6. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept. Copyright 2007 APA.

  7. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. ASPM and the Evolution of Cerebral Cortical Size in a Community of New World Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Villanea, Fernando A.; Perry, George H.; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) gene has been proposed as a major determinant of cerebral cortical size among primates, including humans. Yet the specific functions of ASPM and its connection to human intelligence remain controversial. This debate is limited in part by a taxonomic focus on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we expand the comparative context of ASPM sequence analyses with a study of New World monkeys, a radiation of primates in which enlarged brain size has evolved in parallel in spider monkeys (genus Ateles) and capuchins (genus Cebus). The primate community of Costa Rica is perhaps a model system because it allows for independent pairwise comparisons of smaller- and larger-brained species within two taxonomic families. Accordingly, we analyzed the complete sequence of exon 18 of ASPM in Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii. As the analysis of multiple species in a genus improves phylogenetic reconstruction, we also analyzed eleven published sequences from other New World monkeys. Our exon-wide, lineage-specific analysis of eleven genera and the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) on ASPM revealed no detectable evidence for positive selection in the lineages leading to Ateles or Cebus, as indicated by dN/dS ratios of <1.0 (0.6502 and 0.4268, respectively). Our results suggest that a multitude of interacting genes have driven the evolution of larger brains among primates, with different genes involved in this process in different encephalized lineages, or at least with evidence for positive selection not readily apparent for the same genes in all lineages. The primate community of Costa Rica may serve as a model system for future studies that aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive capacity and cortical size. PMID:23028686

  9. Strongyloides cebus (Nematoda: Strongyloididae) in Lagothrix cana (Primates: Atelidae) from the Brazilian Amazon: aspects of clinical presentation, anatomopathology, treatment, and parasitic biology.

    PubMed

    Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2013-12-01

    Abstract :  Seven cases of parasitism by Strongyloides cebus were identified in Lagothrix cana from Brazil. Aspects of the clinical presentation, treatment, pathology, and parasitic biology of these infections are described. Moderate to severe disease was observed, requiring hospitalization of 3 primates, and diarrhea was the most common clinical sign described. One L. cana individual died, for which ulcerative enteritis was the major finding upon histopathological analysis. The use of ivermectin in these atelids was safe and effective against the parasite. Parallel attempts to experimentally infect gerbils with the parasite failed. Lagothrix cana is presented as a new host for S. cebus. The evidence that Strongyloides infections are common in nonhuman primates under free-living conditions, and even more prevalent in captive animals, likely represents a neglected problem.

  10. Monkey Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  11. Monkey Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  12. Retropositional events consolidate the branching order among New World monkey genera.

    PubMed

    Osterholz, Martin; Walter, Lutz; Roos, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Due to contradicting relationships obtained from various morphological and genetic studies, phylogenetic relationships among New World monkey genera are highly disputed. In the present study, we analyzed the presence/absence pattern of 128 SINE integrations in all New World monkey genera. Among them, 70 were specific for only a single genus, whereas another 18 were present in all New World monkey genera. The 40 remaining insertions were informative to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among genera. Several of them confirmed the monophyly of the three families Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae as well as of the subfamily Callithrichinae. Further markers provided evidence for a sister grouping of Cebidae and Atelidae to the exclusion of Pitheciidae as well as for relationships among genera belonging to Callithrichinae and Atelidae. Although a close affiliation of Saimiri, Aotus and Cebus to Callithrichinae was shown, the relationships among the three genera remained unresolved due to three contradicting insertions.

  13. Growth restriction of an experimental live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine in human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro parallels attenuation in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Scull, Margaret A.; Schmidt, Alexander C.; Murphy, Brian R.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of severe pediatric respiratory viral disease. We characterized wild-type HPIV2 infection in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) and found that the virus replicates to high titer, sheds apically, targets ciliated cells, and induces minimal cytopathology. Replication of an experimental, live attenuated HPIV2 vaccine strain, containing both temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating mutations, was restricted >30-fold compared to rHPIV2-WT in HAE at 32°C and exhibited little productive replication at 37°C. This restriction paralleled attenuation in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, supporting the HAE model as an appropriate and convenient system for characterizing HPIV2 vaccine candidates. PMID:20139039

  14. Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Andrade Junior, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Carneiro Muniz, José Augusto Pereira; Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos Cunha; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Samia; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments. PMID:21811552

  15. Cranial suture morphology and its relationship to diet in Cebus.

    PubMed

    Byron, Craig D

    2009-12-01

    Cranial sutures are complex morphological structures. Four Cebus species (C. albifrons, C. apella, C. capucinus, C. olivaceus) are used here to test the hypothesis that sagittal suture complexity is enhanced in animals that eat materially challenging foods. These primates are ideal for such comparative studies because they are closely related and some are known to exhibit differences in the material properties of the foods they ingest and masticate. Specifically, Cebus apella is notable among members of this genus for ingesting food items of high toughness as well as consistently demonstrating a relatively robust cranial morphology. Consistent with previous studies, C. apella demonstrates significantly more robust mandibular and temporal fossa morphology. Also, C. apella possesses sagittal sutures that are more complex than congenerics. These data are used to support the hypothesis that cranial suture complexity is increased in response to consuming diets with more obdurate material properties. One interpretation of this hypothesis is that, compared to non-apelloids, total strain in the apelloid cranial suture connective tissue environment is elevated due to increased jaw muscle activity by increases in either force magnitudes or the number of chewing events. It is argued that greater masticatory function enhances the growth and modeling of cranial suture interdigitation. These data show that cranial suture complexity is one more hard tissue feature from the skull that might be used to inform hypotheses of dietary functional morphology.

  16. Female Putty-Nosed Monkeys Use Experimentally Altered Contextual Information to Disambiguate the Cause of Male Alarm Calls

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Many animal vocal signals are given in a wide range of contexts which can sometimes have little in common. Yet, to respond adaptively, listeners must find ways to identify the cause of a signal, or at least rule out alternatives. Here, we investigate the nature of this process in putty-nosed monkeys, a forest primate. In this species, adult males have a very restricted repertoire of vocalizations which are given in response to a wide variety of events occurring under conditions of limited visibility. We carried out a series of field playback experiments on females (N = 6) in a habituated group in Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria, in which male alarm/loud calls were presented either alone, or following acoustic information that simulated the occurrence of natural disturbances. We demonstrate that listeners appear to integrate contextual information in order to distinguish among possible causes of calls. We conclude that, in many cases, pragmatic aspects of communication play a crucial role in call interpretation and place a premium on listeners' abilities to integrate information from different sources. PMID:23755265

  17. Analysis of the heterochromatin of Cebus (Primates, Platyrrhini) by micro-FISH and banding pattern comparisons.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Mariela; De Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Amaral, Paulo J S; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y; Pieczarka, Julio C; Mühlmann, María C; Mudry, Marta D

    2011-04-01

    The karyotype of the neotropical primate genus Cebus (Platyrrhini: Cebidae), considered the most ancestral one, shows the greatest amount of heterochromatin described among Platyrrhini genera. Banding techniques and restriction enzyme digestion have previously revealed great variability of quantity and composition of heterochromatin in this genus. In this context, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse this genomic region and discuss its possible role in the diversification of Cebus.We used a heterochromatin probe for chromosome 11 of Cebus libidinosus (11qHe+ CLI probe), obtained by chromosome microdissection. Twenty-six specimens belonging to the families Atelidae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae and Pithecidae (Platyrrhini) were studied. Fourteen out of 26 specimens were Cebus (Cebidae) individuals of C. libidinosus, C. xanthosternos, C. apella, C. nigritus, C. albifrons, C. kaapori and C. olivaceus. In Cebus specimens, we found 6 to 22 positive signals located in interstitial and telomeric positions along the different species. No hybridization signal was observed among the remaining Ceboidea species, thus reinforcing the idea of a Cebus-specific heterochromatin composed of a complex system of repetitive sequences.

  18. Inbreeding avoidance and female mate choice shape reproductive skew in capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus imitator).

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Eva C; Jack, Katharine M; Fedigan, Linda M; Campos, Fernando A; Yashima, Akiko S; Bergstrom, Mackenzie L; Hiwatashi, Tomohide; Kawamura, Shoji

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive skew in multimale groups may be determined by the need for alpha males to offer reproductive opportunities as staying incentives to subordinate males (concessions), by the relative fighting ability of the alpha male (tug-of-war) or by how easily females can be monopolized (priority-of-access). These models have rarely been investigated in species with exceptionally long male tenures, such as white-faced capuchins, where female mate choice for novel unrelated males may be important in shaping reproductive skew. We investigated reproductive skew in white-faced capuchins at Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica, using 20 years of demographic, behavioural and genetic data. Infant survival and alpha male reproductive success were highest in small multimale groups, which suggests that the presence of subordinate males can be beneficial to the alpha male, in line with the concession model's assumptions. None of the skew models predicted the observed degree of reproductive sharing, and the probability of an alpha male producing offspring was not affected by his relatedness to subordinate males, whether he resided with older subordinate males, whether he was prime aged, the number of males or females in the group or the number of infants conceived within the same month. Instead, the alpha male's probability of producing offspring decreased when he was the sire of the mother, was weak and lacked a well-established position and had a longer tenure. Because our data best supported the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis and female choice for strong novel mates, these hypotheses should be taken into account in future skew models.

  19. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  20. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  1. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella

    PubMed Central

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network. PMID:26966266

  2. Different Patterns of Cortical Inputs to Subregions of the Primary Motor Cortex Hand Representation in Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Dea, Melvin; Hamadjida, Adjia; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Quessy, Stephan; Dancause, Numa

    2016-04-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) plays an essential role in the control of hand movements in primates and is part of a complex cortical sensorimotor network involving multiple premotor and parietal areas. In a previous study in squirrel monkeys, we found that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) projected mainly to 3 regions within the M1 forearm representation [rostro-medial (RM), rostro-lateral (RL), and caudo-lateral (CL)] with very few caudo-medial (CM) projections. These results suggest that projections from premotor areas to M1 are not uniform, but rather segregated into subregions. The goal of the present work was to study how inputs from diverse areas of the ipsilateral cortical network are organized within the M1 hand representation. In Cebus apella, different retrograde neuroanatomical tracers were injected in 4 subregions of the hand area of M1 (RM, RL, CM, and CL). We found a different pattern of input to each subregion of M1. RM receives inputs predominantly from dorsal premotor cortex, RL from PMv, CM from area 5, and CL from area 2. These results support that the M1 hand representation is composed of several subregions, each part of a unique cortical network.

  3. The associative and limbic thalamus in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: an experimental study in the monkey

    PubMed Central

    Rotge, J Y; Aouizerate, B; Amestoy, V; Lambrecq, V; Langbour, N; Nguyen, T H; Dovero, S; Cardoit, L; Tignol, J; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P; Guehl, D

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent psychiatric disorder characterized by repetitive intrusive thoughts and severe anxiety, leading to compulsive behaviors. Although medical treatment is effective in most cases, resistance is observed in about 30% of patients. In this context, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudate or subthalamic nuclei has been recently proposed with encouraging results. However, some patients were unimproved or exhibited awkward side effects. Therefore, exploration of new targets for DBS remains critical in OCD. In the latter, functional imaging studies revealed overactivity in the limbic and associative cortico-subcortical loops encompassing the thalamus. However, the role of the thalamus in the genesis of repetitive behaviors and related anxiety is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological-induced overactivity of the medial thalamus could give rise to abnormal behaviors close to that observed in OCD. We modulated the ventral anterior (VA) and medial dorsal (MD) nuclei activity by in situ bicuculline (GABAA antagonist) microinjections in subhuman primates and assessed their pharmacological-induced behavior. Bicuculline injections within the VA caused significant repetitive and time-consuming motor acts whereas those performed within the MD induced symptoms of dysautonomic dysregulation along with abnormal vocalizations and marked motor hypoactivity. These findings suggest that overactivation of the VA and MD nuclei of the thalamus provokes compulsive-like behaviors and neurovegetative manifestations usually associated with the feeling of anxiety in OCD patients. In further research, this translational approach should allow us to test the effectiveness and side effects of these thalamic nuclei DBS in monkey and perhaps, in a second step, to propose a transfer of this technique to severely disabled OCD patients. PMID:23010765

  4. Visuospatial learning and memory in the Cebus apella and microglial morphology in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and CA1 lacunosum molecular layer.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, Carlos; de Lima, Camila M; Fôro, César A R; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Magalhães, Nara G M; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Diniz, Daniel G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da C; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether the morphology of microglia in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG-Mol) or in the lacunosum molecular layer of CA1 (CA1-LMol) was correlated with spatial learning and memory in the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Learning and memory was tested in 4 monkeys with visuo-spatial, paired associated learning (PAL) tasks from the Cambridge battery of neuropsychological tests. After testing, monkeys were sacrificed, and hippocampi were sectioned. We specifically immunolabeled microglia with an antibody against the adapter binding, ionized calcium protein. Microglia were selected from the middle and outer thirds of the DG-Mol (n=268) and the CA1-LMol (n=185) for three-dimensional reconstructions created with Neurolucida and Neuroexplorer software. Cluster and discriminant analyses, based on microglial morphometric parameters, identified two major morphological microglia phenotypes (types I and II) found in both the CA1-LMol and DG-Mol of all individuals. Compared to type II, type I microglia were significantly smaller, thinner, more tortuous and ramified, and less complex (lower fractal dimensions). PAL performance was both linearly and non-linearly correlated with type I microglial morphological features from the rostral and caudal DG-Mol, but not with microglia from the CA1-LMol. These differences in microglial morphology and correlations with PAL performance were consistent with previous proposals of hippocampal regional contributions for spatial learning and memory. Our results suggested that at least two morphological microglial phenotypes provided distinct physiological roles to learning-associated activity in the rostral and caudal DG-Mol of the monkey brain.

  5. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  6. Hepatitis E genotype 4 virus from feces of monkeys infected experimentally can be cultured in PLC/PRF/5 cells and upregulate host interferon-inducible genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Ying; Harrison, Tim J; Luo, Baobin; Zhou, Yan; Li, Xiuhua; Song, Aijing; Huang, Weijin; Wang, Youchun

    2014-10-01

    The understanding of the interaction between hepatitis E virus (HEV) and its host cells has been impeded greatly by the absence of a cell culture system. In this study, an efficient cultivation method was developed in PLC/PRF/5 cells for HEV genotype 4 from the feces of monkeys infected experimentally. Compared to minimal essential medium (MEM), mixed Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM)/M199 improved the infection efficiency of HEV in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The incubation time and temperature were set at 6 hr and 40°C, respectively. Compared to a 100% ELISA positive ratio (EPR) of 1 × 10(6)  copies/ml HEV inoculated flasks, the ELISA positive ratio was 100%, 75%, 37.5%, and 100% for flasks inoculated with HEV incubated for 30 min under the conditions of pH 3.0, pH 11.0, 56°C and delipidation treatment, respectively. Gene expression profiles of HEV inoculated and control PLC/PRF/5 cells were assayed using a microarray. Four interferon-inducible genes, IFI27, IFI6, Mx1, and CMPK2, were up-regulated during HEV-infection. Furthermore, the replication of HEV was inhibited at 3-14 days after treatment with 500 IU/ml IFN-α2b.

  7. Complex proteinopathy with accumulations of prion protein, hyperphosphorylated tau, α-synuclein and ubiquitin in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy of monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cervenak, Juraj; Bu, Ming; Miller, Lindsay; Asher, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins aggregate in several slowly progressive neurodegenerative diseases called ‘proteinopathies’. Studies with cell cultures and transgenic mice overexpressing mutated proteins suggested that aggregates of one protein induced misfolding and aggregation of other proteins as well – a possible common mechanism for some neurodegenerative diseases. However, most proteinopathies are ‘sporadic’, without gene mutation or overexpression. Thus, proteinopathies in WT animals genetically close to humans might be informative. Squirrel monkeys infected with the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent developed an encephalopathy resembling variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease with accumulations not only of abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE), but also three other proteins: hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau), α-synuclein and ubiquitin; β-amyloid protein (Aβ) did not accumulate. Severity of brain lesions correlated with spongiform degeneration. No amyloid was detected. These results suggested that PrPTSE enhanced formation of p-tau and aggregation of α-synuclein and ubiquitin, but not Aβ, providing a new experimental model for neurodegenerative diseases associated with complex proteinopathies. PMID:24769839

  8. Complex proteinopathy with accumulations of prion protein, hyperphosphorylated tau, α-synuclein and ubiquitin in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy of monkeys.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Pedro; Cervenak, Juraj; Bu, Ming; Miller, Lindsay; Asher, David M

    2014-07-01

    Proteins aggregate in several slowly progressive neurodegenerative diseases called 'proteinopathies'. Studies with cell cultures and transgenic mice overexpressing mutated proteins suggested that aggregates of one protein induced misfolding and aggregation of other proteins as well - a possible common mechanism for some neurodegenerative diseases. However, most proteinopathies are 'sporadic', without gene mutation or overexpression. Thus, proteinopathies in WT animals genetically close to humans might be informative. Squirrel monkeys infected with the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent developed an encephalopathy resembling variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with accumulations not only of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)), but also three other proteins: hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau), α-synuclein and ubiquitin; β-amyloid protein (Aβ) did not accumulate. Severity of brain lesions correlated with spongiform degeneration. No amyloid was detected. These results suggested that PrP(TSE) enhanced formation of p-tau and aggregation of α-synuclein and ubiquitin, but not Aβ, providing a new experimental model for neurodegenerative diseases associated with complex proteinopathies.

  9. Oxygen isotope values in bone carbonate and collagen are consistently offset for New World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Brooke Erin

    2014-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotopes are increasingly used in ecological research. Here, I present oxygen isotope (δ18O) values for bone carbonate and collagen from howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from three localities in Costa Rica. There are apparent differences in δ18Ocarbonate and δ18Ocollagen among species. Monkeys from moist forest have significantly lower isotope values than those from drier localities. Because patterns are similar for both substrates, discrimination (Δ) between δ18Ocarbonate and δ18Ocollagen is relatively consistent among species and localities (17.6 ± 0.9‰). Although this value is larger than that previously obtained for laboratory rats, consistency among species and localities suggests it can be used to compare δ18Ocarbonate and δ18Ocollagen for monkeys, and potentially other medium-bodied mammals. Establishing discrimination for oxygen between these substrates for wild monkeys provides a foundation for future environmental and ecological research on modern and ancient organisms. PMID:25392315

  10. Consul, the Educated Monkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolpas, Sidney J.; Massion, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a toy, the Educated Monkey, developed to help students learn multiplication tables and associated division, factoring, and addition tables and associated subtraction. Explains why the monkey works and reviews geometric, algebraic, and arithmetic concepts. (KHR)

  11. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T

    2016-08-03

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru.

  12. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos; da Silva, Sandro P.; Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L. S. G.; Nunes, Marcio R. T.

    2016-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299

  13. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p < 0.0001) than the non-habituated group, and spent significantly more time eating and foraging (p < 0.0001). While the habituated monkeys at CWR may not be over-habituated, they could become that way as development, especially ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica

  14. Failed attempts at experimental transplantation and transmission of nocturnally-periodic simian Loa from monkey to man

    PubMed Central

    Duke, BOL

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes unsuccessful attempts to induce a nocturnally-periodic infection with simian Loa in a human volunteer (the author of this paper) by means of 1. Transplanting adult simian Loa worms from a wild drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) to man; and 2. Infecting the same volunteer by sub-cutaneous inoculation with infective larvae of simian Loa from a laboratory-bred, experimentally infected Chrysops silacea. PMID:15283865

  15. Genus Cebus Q- and G-band karyotypes and natural hybrids.

    PubMed

    Torres de Caballero, O M; Ramirez, C; Yunis, E

    1976-01-01

    The Q- and G-band analyses of Cebus capucinus, Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella are presented. The study is based on the results obtained from 18 specimens of the genus. For almost all of them, their exact locality is known. The data presented include the statement of two natural hybrids from C. capucinus and C. albifrons. On an evolutionary basis our results agree with the taxonomic concepts which postulate more similarity between C. capucinus and C. albifrons than between C. capucinus and C. apella. Furthermore, the comparative study of the Q- and G-band patterns indicates an independent chromosome evolution for C. albifrons and C. apella derived from a common ancestor more similar to C. capucinus.

  16. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  17. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  18. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics.

  19. Independence of biomechanical forces and craniofacial pneumatization in Cebus.

    PubMed

    Rae, Todd C; Koppe, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Several different factors have been hypothesized as explanations of variation in primate paranasal sinus size. Biomechanical forces, particularly those associated with mastication, are frequently evoked to account for differences in primate craniofacial pneumatization. To test whether masticatory stresses are responsible for maxillary sinus volume diversity, two platyrrhine species of the genus Cebus (C. apella and C. albifrons) were examined. The former has been identified as a hard object feeder, and many morphological differences between the two species are attributable to differences in the mechanical properties of their respective diets. Sinus volumes were derived from serial coronal CT scans of the crania of adults. Several external cranial measurements were used to scale sinus volume relative to the size of the face. Relative measures of maxillary sinus volume were compared using standard statistical techniques. In all comparisons, the two capuchin species do not differ from one another significantly at P < 0.05. Thus, this "natural experiment" fails to support the interpretation that biomechanical forces acting on the facial skeleton substantially affect the degree of paranasal pneumatization in primates. This result suggests that it is unlikely that the maxillary sinus performs any function in relation to masticatory stress; other factors must be responsible for the variation in sinus volume among primates.

  20. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.

  1. Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  2. Antibody Responses to a Novel Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein Vaccine Correlate with Protection against Experimental Malaria Infection in Aotus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, David R.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; White, John H.; Cowan, Graeme J. M.; Samuel, Kay; Dubbeld, Martin A.; der Wel, Annemarie Voorberg-van; Thomas, Alan W.; McBride, Jana S.; Arnot, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The Block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum has been identified as a target of protective immunity by a combination of seroepidemiology and parasite population genetics. Immunogenicity studies in small animals and Aotus monkeys were used to determine the efficacy of recombinant antigens derived from this region of MSP-1 as a potential vaccine antigen. Aotus lemurinus griseimembra monkeys were immunized three times with a recombinant antigen derived from the Block 2 region of MSP-1 of the monkey-adapted challenge strain, FVO of Plasmodium falciparum, using an adjuvant suitable for use in humans. Immunofluorescent antibody assays (IFA) against erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum using sera from the immunized monkeys showed that the MSP-1 Block 2 antigen induced significant antibody responses to whole malaria parasites. MSP-1 Block 2 antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed no significant differences in antibody titers between immunized animals. Immunized animals were challenged with the virulent P. falciparum FVO isolate and monitored for 21 days. Two out of four immunized animals were able to control their parasitaemia during the follow-up period, whereas two out of two controls developed fulminating parasitemia. Parasite-specific serum antibody titers measured by IFA were four-fold higher in protected animals than in unprotected animals. In addition, peptide-based epitope mapping of serum antibodies from immunized Aotus showed distinct differences in epitope specificities between protected and unprotected animals. PMID:24421900

  3. Impact of stimulus format and reward value on quantity discrimination in capuchin and squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Billas, Alison R; Schmitt, Vanessa

    2017-08-24

    Quantity discrimination abilities are seen in a diverse range of species with similarities in performance patterns, suggesting common underlying cognitive mechanisms. However, methodological factors that impact performance make it difficult to draw broad phylogenetic comparisons of numerical cognition across studies. For example, some Old World monkeys selected a higher quantity stimulus more frequently when choosing between inedible (pebbles) than edible (food) stimuli. In Experiment 1 we presented brown capuchin (Cebus [Sapajus] paella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with the same two-choice quantity discrimination task in three different stimulus conditions: edible, inedible, and edible replaced (in which choice stimuli were food items that stood in for the same quantity of food items that were given as a reward). Unlike Old World monkeys, capuchins selected the higher quantity stimulus more in the edible condition and squirrel monkeys showed generally poor performance across all stimulus types. Performance patterns suggested that differences in subjective reward value might motivate differences in choice behavior between and within species. In Experiment 2 we manipulated the subjective reinforcement value of the reward by varying reward type and delay to reinforcement and found that delay to reinforcement had no impact on choice behavior, while increasing the value of the reward significantly improved performance by both species. The results of this study indicate that species presented with identical tasks may respond differently to methodological factors such as stimulus and reward types, resulting in significant differences in choice behavior that may lead to spurious suggestions of species differences in cognitive abilities.

  4. Development and eruption of the mandibular cheek teeth in Cebus albifrons.

    PubMed

    Fleagle, J G; Schaffler, M B

    1982-01-01

    The development and eruption of the mandibular cheek teeth of Cebus albifrons is described from a longitudinal series of whole body radiographs. Males are generally ahead of females in both development and eruption times. The dental development and eruption in C. albifrons is intermediate between the smaller New World primates and the larger catarrhines.

  5. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus).

    PubMed

    Makedonska, Jana; Wright, Barth W; Strait, David S

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback foods. This is the

  6. The Effect of Dietary Adaption on Cranial Morphological Integration in Capuchins (Order Primates, Genus Cebus)

    PubMed Central

    Makedonska, Jana; Wright, Barth W.; Strait, David S.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C.apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C.albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback foods. This is the

  7. Motion Sickness-Induced Food Aversions in the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, M. Aaron; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1979-01-01

    Conditioned aversions to colored, flavored water were established in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by following consumption with 90 min of simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation. The experimental group (N= 13) drank significantly less of the green, almond-flavored test solution than did the control group (N=14) during three post-treatment preference testing days. Individual differences were noted in that two experimental monkeys readily drank the test solution after rotational stimulation. Only two of the experimental monkeys showed emesis during rotation, yet 10 monkeys in this group developed an aversion. These results suggest that: (1) motion sickness can be readily induced in Squirrel monkeys with simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation, and (2) that conditioned food aversions are achieved in the absence of emesis in this species.

  8. Interspecific infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site.

  9. Therapy of Staphylococcal Infections in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, Harold N.; Saslaw, Samuel

    1971-01-01

    Intravenous inoculation of a penicillin-resistant, phage type 80/81 staphylococcus caused lethal infection in six of eight untreated monkeys. Daily intragastric administration of clindamycin hydrochloride and erythromycin stearate and intramuscular inoculation of clindamycin-2-phosphate and methicillin, all at a dose level of 50 mg/kg, was followed by mortalities of one of eight, one of eight, none of eight, and one of eight monkeys, respectively. Duration of obvious acute illness in surviving monkeys and time required for complete recovery were not significantly different in the four therapy groups with the exception that duration of acute illness in monkeys treated with clindamycin-2-phosphate (mean, 4.1 days) was significantly shorter than in monkeys given erythromycin stearate (mean, 7.1 days). In vitro sensitivity data and serum antibacterial levels would suggest that methicillin would be the least effective therapeutically, followed by erythromycin stearate and the two clindamycin preparations in that order. However, this prediction was not fulfilled in these studies in experimentally infected monkeys. PMID:4994902

  10. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) perform self- and social anointing in captivity.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Jay P; Tapanes, Elizabeth; Evans, Sian

    2014-01-01

    Several species of primates, including owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), anoint by rubbing their fur with odiferous substances. Previous research has shown that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) anoint socially by rubbing their bodies together in groups of two or more while anointing. Owl monkeys housed at the DuMond Conservancy have been observed to anoint over the last 10 years, and we report detailed new information on the anointing behavior of this population, including descriptions of social anointing which occurs frequently. We first investigated the occurrence of self-anointing in 35 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes. Detailed descriptions regarding body regions anointed were obtained for all anointers (n = 28). The median duration for a self-anointing bout was 3.6 min (range from approx. 2 s to 14.15 min). While the latency and length of anointing bouts showed considerable interindividual differences, no statistically significant differences were found between sexes, wild- or captive-born owl monkeys or across age groups. However, we found the lower back and tail were anointed at a rate significantly greater than other body parts, but there were no differences in these patterns across sex or wild- or captive-born owl monkeys. More recently, social anointing was investigated in 26 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes, of which half were observed to anoint socially. The average duration for all social anointing bouts was 72.88 s, with a median duration of 30 s (range 5-322 s). A detailed ethogram was also generated that included behaviors that were performed while anointing, including facial expressions and vocalizations. The intraindividual variability for 8 monkeys used in both investigations is discussed. These findings extend our knowledge of anointing and confirm the existence of social anointing in another genus with a unique biology (nocturnal and socially monogamous) distinct from capuchins. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  12. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  13. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  14. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    PubMed Central

    Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; de Abreu, Tainá; Pfrimer, Gabriel A.; Silva, Sylla F.; Ziermann, Janine M.; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Tomaz, Carlos; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H.; Maior, Rafael S.; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales A.

    2013-01-01

    Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology. PMID:24396829

  15. An enzootic outbreak of acute disease associated with pathogenic E. coli in Adler monkey colony.

    PubMed

    Lapin, Boris A; Yakovleva, Lelita A; Dzhikidze, Eteri K; Gvozdik, Tatiana E; Agumava, Aslan A; Stasilevich, Zinaida K; Danilova, Irina G

    2015-12-01

    In spring 2009 in Adler colony of the Institute of Medical Primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic E. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals). The epidemiological analysis, bacteriological investigation, postmortem examination, histological analysis, and PCR were used to identify the infectious agent. Marked hemorrhagic diathesis, lethargy, dehydration, diarrhea with blood, wasting, and sometimes dystrophic changes in articular cartilages were noted. Morphologically, hemorrhagic enterocolitis and massive hemorrhages were found. PCR investigation of bacteriologically isolated E. coli characterized it as enteropathogenic and enteroinvasive E. coli. The outbreak in Adler colony slightly differed from similar outbreak in Florida in 2014 by more marked hemorrhagic diathesis and articular changes in some monkeys caused by polyavitaminosis developed in the course of infection. Sensitive to infection were M. mulatta, M. fascicularis, Cercopithecus aethiops, P. hamadryas and anubis, and Cebus capucinus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. a Maximum Entropy Model of the Bearded Capuchin Monkey Habitat Incorporating Topography and Spectral Unmixing Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, A. M.; Bernardes, S.; Nibbelink, N.; Biondi, L.; Presotto, A.; Fragaszy, D. M.; Madden, M.

    2012-07-01

    Movement patterns of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus (Sapajus) libidinosus) in northeastern Brazil are likely impacted by environmental features such as elevation, vegetation density, or vegetation type. Habitat preferences of these monkeys provide insights regarding the impact of environmental features on species ecology and the degree to which they incorporate these features in movement decisions. In order to evaluate environmental features influencing movement patterns and predict areas suitable for movement, we employed a maximum entropy modelling approach, using observation points along capuchin monkey daily routes as species presence points. We combined these presence points with spatial data on important environmental features from remotely sensed data on land cover and topography. A spectral mixing analysis procedure was used to generate fraction images that represent green vegetation, shade and soil of the study area. A Landsat Thematic Mapper scene of the area of study was geometrically and atmospherically corrected and used as input in a Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) procedure and a linear spectral unmixing approach was used to generate the fraction images. These fraction images and elevation were the environmental layer inputs for our logistic MaxEnt model of capuchin movement. Our models' predictive power (test AUC) was 0.775. Areas of high elevation (>450 m) showed low probabilities of presence, and percent green vegetation was the greatest overall contributor to model AUC. This work has implications for predicting daily movement patterns of capuchins in our field site, as suitability values from our model may relate to habitat preference and facility of movement.

  17. Monomorphic region of the serotonin transporter promoter gene in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Esterina; Lucarelli, Marco; Passarelli, Francesca; Butler, Richard H; Tamellini, Andrea; Addessi, Elsa; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Laviola, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Genetic variation in the human serotonin system has long been studied because of its functional consequences and links to various neuropsychiatric and behavior-related disorders. Among non-human primates, the common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and tufted capuchins monkeys (Cebus apella) are becoming increasingly used as models to study the effects of genes, environments, and their interaction on physiology and complex behavior. In order to investigate the independent functions of and potential interactions between serotonin-related genes, anxiety and neuropsychiatric disorders, we analyzed the presence and variability of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in marmoset and capuchin monkeys. By PCR and using heterologous primers from the human sequence, we amplified and then sequenced the corresponding 5-HTT region in marmosets and capuchins. The resulting data revealed the presence of a tandem repeat sequence similar to that described in humans, but unlike humans and other Old World primates, no variable length alleles were detected in these New World monkeys, suggesting that if serotonin transporter is involved in modulating behavior in these animals it does so through different molecular mechanisms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Winget, C M; Rosenblatt, L S; DeRoshia, C W; Hetherington, N W

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  19. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; DeRoshia, C. W.; Hetherington, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  20. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; DeRoshia, C. W.; Hetherington, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  1. Phylogenetic studies of the genus Cebus (Cebidae-Primates) using chromosome painting and G-banding

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromosomal painting, using whole chromosome probes from humans and Saguinus oedipus, was used to establish karyotypic divergence among species of the genus Cebus, including C. olivaceus, C. albifrons, C. apella robustus and C. apella paraguayanus. Cytogenetic studies suggested that the species of this genus have conservative karyotypes, with diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 to 2n = 54. Results Banding studies revealed morphological divergence among some chromosomes, owing to variations in the size of heterochromatic blocks. This analysis demonstrated that Cebus species have five conserved human associations (i.e., 5/7, 2/16, 10/16, 14/15, 8/18 and 3/21) when compared with the putative ancestral Platyrrhini karyotype. Conclusion The autapomorphies 8/15/8 in C. albifrons and 12/15 in C. olivaceus explain the changes in chromosome number from 54 to 52. The association 5/16/7, which has not previously been reported in Platyrrhini, was also found in C. olivaceus. These data corroborate previous FISH results, suggesting that the genus Cebus has a very similar karyotype to the putative ancestral Platyrrhini. PMID:18534011

  2. Phylogenetic studies of the genus Cebus (Cebidae-Primates) using chromosome painting and G-banding.

    PubMed

    Amaral, P J S; Finotelo, L F M; De Oliveira, E H C; Pissinatti, A; Nagamachi, C Y; Pieczarka, J C

    2008-06-05

    Chromosomal painting, using whole chromosome probes from humans and Saguinus oedipus, was used to establish karyotypic divergence among species of the genus Cebus, including C. olivaceus, C. albifrons, C. apella robustus and C. apella paraguayanus. Cytogenetic studies suggested that the species of this genus have conservative karyotypes, with diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 to 2n = 54. Banding studies revealed morphological divergence among some chromosomes, owing to variations in the size of heterochromatic blocks. This analysis demonstrated that Cebus species have five conserved human associations (i.e., 5/7, 2/16, 10/16, 14/15, 8/18 and 3/21) when compared with the putative ancestral Platyrrhini karyotype. The autapomorphies 8/15/8 in C. albifrons and 12/15 in C. olivaceus explain the changes in chromosome number from 54 to 52. The association 5/16/7, which has not previously been reported in Platyrrhini, was also found in C. olivaceus. These data corroborate previous FISH results, suggesting that the genus Cebus has a very similar karyotype to the putative ancestral Platyrrhini.

  3. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  4. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  5. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  6. Variations in sexual behavior among capuchin monkeys function for conspecific mate recognition: a phylogenetic analysis and a new hypothesis for female proceptivity in tufted capuchins.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Luke J

    2012-04-01

    Researchers of capuchin monkeys have noted stereotyped body postures, facial expressions, and vocalizations that accompany copulations in this genus. Notable variations in these sexual behaviors are observed across capuchin species. Although several hypotheses exist to explain variation in the duration and vigor of sexual behaviors across species, there is no proposed explanation for variation in the forms of these behaviors. I hypothesized that the forms of sexual behaviors function as recognition signals of conspecific mates. Such signals are adaptive when F1 hybrids exhibit reduced fitness compared with nonhybrid offspring. Recent evidence from nonprimate taxa supports the existence of species recognition signals during mating. Using newly observed sexual behaviors for Cebus albifrons and a recent phylogeny of capuchins, I found significant support for a key prediction of the conspecific mate recognition hypothesis: evolutionary changes in sexual behaviors were associated with speciation. Given the resultant best model for evolution of sexual behaviors, I reconstructed the ancestral pattern of sexual behaviors for extant capuchin species (genera Cebus and Sapajus). This reconstruction suggests that the extreme female proceptivity of tufted capuchin monkeys may function to increase female reproductive choices in the context of sperm-limited males (genus Sapajus). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Behavioral assessment of pain detection and tolerance in monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Alexander A.; Vierck, Charles J.

    1973-01-01

    Cebus albifrons monkeys received electrical stimulation of the hindlimbs over a wide range of intensities. On trials signalled by a blue light, the animals were permitted to escape shock by pressing a disc, or shock was terminated after 8 sec (free escape). Escape force (disc pressure) was found to increase as stimulation intensity increased well beyond escape threshold, while shock duration curves reached plateau at the mid-range of intensities. The shock duration curves generated by free escape responses should be comparable to pain detection functions obtained by similar operations in humans, and the curves were stable over months of testing, as is generally found in pain-detection studies. On trials signalled by a red light, the animals received intense tail shock immediately after escape responses (punished escape), or, if they endured leg shock for 8 sec without escaping, then they could avoid tail shock with a panel press. The shock duration curves generated by punished escape responses should be comparable to pain tolerance functions as defined for human subjects, and the escape thresholds were considerably higher on red-light trials. As in human studies, the tolerance curves were not stable over repeated testing sessions, and some feature of the paradigm forced a progression toward extremely high levels of tolerance. PMID:4196268

  8. Behavioral assessment of pain detection and tolerance in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Manning, A A; Vierck, C J

    1973-01-01

    Cebus albifrons monkeys received electrical stimulation of the hindlimbs over a wide range of intensities. On trials signalled by a blue light, the animals were permitted to escape shock by pressing a disc, or shock was terminated after 8 sec (free escape). Escape force (disc pressure) was found to increase as stimulation intensity increased well beyond escape threshold, while shock duration curves reached plateau at the mid-range of intensities. The shock duration curves generated by free escape responses should be comparable to pain detection functions obtained by similar operations in humans, and the curves were stable over months of testing, as is generally found in pain-detection studies. On trials signalled by a red light, the animals received intense tail shock immediately after escape responses (punished escape), or, if they endured leg shock for 8 sec without escaping, then they could avoid tail shock with a panel press. The shock duration curves generated by punished escape responses should be comparable to pain tolerance functions as defined for human subjects, and the escape thresholds were considerably higher on red-light trials. As in human studies, the tolerance curves were not stable over repeated testing sessions, and some feature of the paradigm forced a progression toward extremely high levels of tolerance.

  9. Conservation of replication chronology of homologous chromosome bands between four species of the genus Cebus and man.

    PubMed

    Couturier, J; Dutrillaux, B

    1981-01-01

    Replication patterns after 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation are analyzed in chromosomes of four species of the genus Cebus (C. capucinus, C. albifrons, C. appella, and C. nigrivittatus). They are compared with those of man, taking as reference the banding analyses previously described. It was found that the high degree of conservation of chromosome structures between Cebus and man was accompanied by conservation of the DNA-replication sequence of the bands. It is assumed that this conservation during the course of evolution may apply to other mammals. Thus, replication patterns may be useful for ensuring interspecific comparisons. The only detected difference concerns late-replicating X chromosomes from normal female cells: The predominant lymphocyte pattern described in man is rare in Cebus, in which the usual lymphocyte pattern corresponds to that of human fibroblasts or to the minor human lymphocyte pattern.

  10. Rhesus monkey platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  11. Activated partial thromboplastin time of owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) plasma.

    PubMed

    Mrema, J E; Johnson, G S; Kelley, S T; Green, T J

    1984-06-01

    Owl monkey plasma samples produced short, reproducible activated partial thromboplastin times, similar to those obtained with samples from many other mammalian species. This was an apparent contradiction to an earlier report of long irreproducible activated partial thromboplastin times from owl monkey samples. The discrepant data could not be explained by differences in anticoagulants (citrate or oxalate), assay reagents (partial thromboplastin with either diatomaceous earth or ellagic acid), or activation incubation times (2, 5, or 10 minutes); nor could they be explained by differences in the monkeys' sex, age or previous experimental exposure to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  12. Evaluation of a new bioresorbable barrier to facilitate guided bone regeneration around exposed implant threads. An experimental study in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Hürzeler, M B; Kohal, R J; Naghshbandi, J; Mota, L F; Conradt, J; Hutmacher, D; Caffesse, R G

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new bioresorbable barrier alone or in combination with BioOss for guided bone regeneration around dental implants with exposed implant threads. Five adult Macaca fascicularis monkeys were used in this investigation. After extraction of all premolars and first molars, two endosteal oral implants were installed in each quadrant and the bony defects were randomly treated with either: 1) placement of the new bioresorbable device alone (group 1); 2) placement of the new bioresorbable barrier in combination with BioOss (group 2); 3) placement of an ePTFE barrier in combination with BioOss (group 3); or (4) control (group 4). After a period of six months the animals were killed and the histological processing was performed. There was a significant difference in the amount of new bone regeneration around the implants between the four groups (i.e. groups 1, 2, 3 and 4) (P=0.0122). There was no difference, however, between group 2 and group 3. It can be concluded that the new bioresorbable barrier in combination with BioOss appears to obtain the same results in this type of bony defects as the grafting material in combination with an ePTFE barrier.

  13. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  14. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; Almeida, Adilson José de; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Castro, Tatiana Xavier de; Nascimento, Jussara Pereira do; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group.

  15. Hippocampal lesion prevents spatial relational learning in adult macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G; Lavenex, Pierre

    2006-04-26

    The role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory has been extensively studied in rodents. Comparable studies in nonhuman primates, however, are few, and findings are often contradictory. This may be attributable to the failure to distinguish between allocentric and egocentric spatial representations in experimental designs. For this experiment, six adult monkeys received bilateral hippocampal ibotenic acid lesions, and six control subjects underwent sham surgery. Freely moving monkeys then foraged for food located in two arrays of three distinct locations among 18 locations distributed in an open-field arena. Multiple goals and four pseudorandomly chosen entrance points precluded the monkeys' ability to rely on an egocentric strategy to identify food locations. Monkeys were tested in two conditions. First, local visual cues marked the food locations. Second, no local cues marked the food locations, so that monkeys had to rely on an allocentric (spatial relational) representation of the environment to discriminate these locations. Both hippocampal-lesioned and control monkeys discriminated the food locations in the presence of local cues. However, in the absence of local cues, control subjects discriminated the food locations, whereas hippocampal-lesioned monkeys were unable to do so. Interestingly, histological analysis of the brain of one control monkey whose behavior was identical to that of the experimentally lesioned animals revealed a bilateral ischemic lesion restricted to the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that the adult monkey hippocampal formation is critical for the establishment or use of allocentric spatial representations and that selective damage of the hippocampus prevents spatial relational learning in adult nonhuman primates.

  16. Natural Plasmodium infections in Brazilian wild monkeys: reservoirs for human infections?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Cerutti, Crispim; Curado, Izilda; de Paiva, Byanca Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Yamasaki, Tasciane; Summa, Maria Eugênia Laurito; Neves, Dafne do Valle Dutra de Andrade; de Oliveira, Salma Gomes; Gomes, Almério de Castro

    2008-08-01

    Four hundred and forty-eight samples of total blood from wild monkeys living in areas where human autochthonous malaria cases have been reported were screened for the presence of Plasmodium using microscopy and PCR analysis. Samples came from the following distinct ecological areas of Brazil: Atlantic forest (N=140), semideciduous Atlantic forest (N=257) and Cerrado (a savannah-like habitat) (N=51). Thick and thin blood smears of each specimen were examined and Plasmodium infection was screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex PCR). The frequency of Plasmodium infections detected by PCR in Alouatta guariba clamitans in the São Paulo Atlantic forest was 11.3% or 8/71 (5.6% for Plasmodium malariae and 5.6% for Plasmodium vivax) and one specimen was positive for Plasmodium falciparum (1.4%); Callithrix sp. (N=30) and Cebus apella (N=39) specimens were negative by PCR tests. Microscopy analysis was negative for all specimens from the Atlantic forest. The positivity rate for Alouatta caraya from semideciduous Atlantic forest was 6.8% (16/235) in the PCR tests (5.5, 0.8 and 0.4% for P. malariae, P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively), while C. apella specimens were negative. Parasitological examination of the samples using thick smears revealed Plasmodium sp. infections in only seven specimens, which had few parasites (3.0%). Monkeys from the Cerrado (a savannah-like habitat) (42 specimens of A. caraya, 5 of Callithrix jacchus and 4 of C. apella) were negative in both tests. The parasitological prevalence of P. vivax and P. malariae in wild monkeys from Atlantic forest and semideciduous Atlantic forest and the finding of a positive result for P. falciparum in Alouatta from both types of forest support the hypothesis that monkeys belonging to this genus could be a potential reservoir. Furthermore, these findings raise the question of the relationship between simian and autochthonous human malaria in extra-Amazonian regions.

  17. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  18. Capuchins (Cebus apella) are limited in their ability to infer others' goals based on context.

    PubMed

    Drayton, Lindsey A; Varman, Liliana; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-02-01

    Recent research suggests that many primate species understand others' actions not only in terms of their physical movements, but also in terms of the actor's underlying goals and intentions. Impressively, apes also have the capacity to incorporate previously acquired contextual information into their goal representations. To date, little work has tested whether other primates demonstrate this level of flexibility when inferring others' goals. To help address this question, we tested capuchin monkeys using a procedure similar to one that Buttelmann, Schütte, Carpenter, Call, and Tomasello (2012) used to test apes. Capuchin subjects were repeatedly shown an experimenter manipulating locking mechanisms on a series of boxes. In an experimental condition, the experimenter gave subjects food retrieved from inside the boxes, whereas in a control condition subjects never received food from inside the boxes. We then explored how capuchin subjects would interpret the experimenter's ambiguous manipulation of a novel box. In contrast to apes, subjects in our experiment showed little evidence of being able to flexibly use temporally dissociated contextual cues to make inferences regarding others' goals. This result may point to a crucial difference in the sophistication with which ape and nonape primates understand others' actions.

  19. Botulinum Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    1980) and the other in gibbons (Hylobates lar) (Smith et aI., 1985). In addition to nonhuman primates , most other animal species that show some...nonhuman primate species are known to be susceptible to type Cl and D toxins both in nature and as experimental models. A large natural outbreak of... primates were previously reported, one in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus and Cebus olivaceus) (Smart et al

  20. Vertical chin augmentation with interpositional porous polyethylene implants: a histologic study in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Magro-Filho, O; Kallal, R; Rangel-Garcia Júnior, I; Magro-Ernica, N

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate histologically the tissue reaction in the chin after a vertical augmentation using interpositional porous polyethylene (PPE) implants in monkeys. Six monkeys (Cebus apella) underwent an anterior horizontal mandibular osteotomy with implantation of an interpositional PPE implant to increase the vertical height. The animals were sacrificed 5 months postoperatively. Histologic preparations were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The perimeter of the interface between the implant and the bone, the implant and the trabecular space, and the implant and the fibrous capsule were quantified using the NIH Image Analysis System (Image 1.60/PPC). In addition, the Tukey test was done. The study demonstrated that bone growth takes place within the pores of the implant; a fibrous capsule exists in some animals, where the implant has contact with the periosteum and mentalis muscle with few chronic inflammatory cells; and the 3 different tissues responded in statistically different manners. Perimeter analysis revealed 68.9% implant-bone contact, 22.9% implant-fibrous tissue contact, and 8.2% implant-trabecular space contact.

  1. Chemotherapy of haemobartonellosis in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Michel, J C; de Thoisy, B; Contamin, H

    2000-04-01

    Splenectomised Saimiri sciureus squirrel monkeys are being used increasingly as an experimental host for human malarial studies, notably for the assessment of candidate vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection. Recently, we have reported that colony-reared S. sciureus monkeys are asymptomatic carriers of Haemobartonella sp. and that patent Haemobartonella infection, activated following splenectomy, may interfere with the course of P. falciparum parasitaemia in these animals. For several years, splenectomised S. sciureus monkeys were routinely submitted to oxytetracycline therapy before their use in malarial studies in order to prevent a possible spontaneous Heamobartonella infection. However, we report here that such antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and that neoarsphenamine chemotherapy may be considered as an alternative to cure both latent and patent haemobartonellosis in S. sciureus monkeys.

  2. Cross-site differences in foraging behavior of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    PubMed

    Panger, Melissa A; Perry, Susan; Rose, Lisa; Gros-Louis, Julie; Vogel, Erin; Mackinnon, Katherine C; Baker, Mary

    2002-09-01

    Researchers have identified a variety of cross-site differences in the foraging behavior of free-ranging great apes, most notably among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and more recently orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), that are not due to obvious genetic or ecological differences. These differences are often referred to as "traditions." What is not known is whether this high level of interpopulation variation in behavior is limited to hominoids. In this study, we use long-term data from three Costa Rican field sites that are geographically close and similar ecologically to identify potential foraging traditions in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Foraging traditions are predicted in Cebus because of many behavioral and morphological convergences between this genus and the great apes. The processing techniques used for the same food species were compared across sites, and all differences found were classified as present, habitual, or customary. Proximity data were also analyzed to determine if social learning mechanisms could explain variation in foraging behavior. Of the 61 foods compared, we found that 20 of them are processed differently by capuchins across sites. The differences involve pound, rub, tap, "fulcrum," "leaf-wrap," and "army ant following." For most of the differences with enough data to analyze, the average proximity score of the "matched" dyads (two individuals within a group who shared a "different" processing technique) was statistically higher than the average proximity score of the remaining "unmatched" dyads. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The ontogeny of prehensile-tail use in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata.

    PubMed

    Bezanson, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    A study of the platyrrhine prehensile tail provides an opportunity to better understand how ecological and biomechanical factors affect the ability of primates to distribute mass across many different kinds of arboreal supports. Young individuals experience ontogenetic changes in body mass, limb proportions, and motor skills that are likely to exert a strong influence on foraging strategies, social behaviors, support use, and associated prehensile-tail use. In this research, I examine ontogenetic patterns of prehensile-tail use in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata. I collected behavioral data on activity, positional context, support size, and prehensile-tail use in five age categories of white-faced capuchins and mantled howlers during a 12-month period at Estación Biológica La Suerte in northeastern Costa Rica. Infant and juvenile howlers and capuchins were found to use their prehensile tails significantly more often than adults during feeding, foraging, and social behavior. Prehensile-tail use did not show predictable increases during growth. In both species, adults used their prehensile tails in mass-bearing modes significantly less often than juveniles. Despite differences in tail anatomy in Cebus and Alouatta, prehensile-tail use was observed to follow an increasing trajectory from infancy, peaking during juvenescence, and then decreasing in older juveniles and adults. In both species, it appeared that adult patterns of prehensile-tail use reflected the demands placed on young juveniles.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xiao-xin; Huang, Ling; Jing, Mei-dong; Zhang, Li; Feng, Pei-yong; Wang, Ai-yun

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of primates have been extensively investigated, but key issues remain unresolved. Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data have many advantages in phylogenetic analyses, but such data are available for only 46 primate species. In this work, we determined the complete mitogenome sequence of the black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella). The genome was 16,538 bp in size and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs and a control region. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage did not differ significantly from those of other primates. The control region contained several distinct repeat motifs, including a putative termination-associated sequence (TAS) and several conserved sequence blocks (CSB-F, E, D, C, B and 1). Among the protein-coding genes, the COII gene had lower nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions rates while the ATP8 and ND4 genes had higher rates. A phylogenetic analysis using Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and the complete mitogenome data for platyrrhine species confirmed the basal position of the Callicebinae and the sister relationship between Atelinae and Cebidae, as well as the sister relationship between Aotinae (Aotus) and Cebinae (Cebus/Saimiri) in Cebidae. These conclusions agreed with the most recent molecular phylogenetic investigations on primates. This work provides a framework for the use of complete mitogenome information in phylogenetic analyses of the Platyrrhini and primates in general. PMID:22888306

  5. Interspecific Infanticide and Infant-Directed Aggression by Spider Monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a Fragmented Forest in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site. Am. J. Primatol. 74:990–997, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22767357

  6. Simian malaria in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: first description of natural infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebinae subfamily) by Plasmodium simium.

    PubMed

    de Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; de Sousa, Taís Nóbrega; Pissinatti, Alcides; Zalis, Mariano G; Suaréz-Mutis, Martha C; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Brasil, Patrícia; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2015-02-18

    In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting non-human primates, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. These species are morphologically, genetically and immunologically indistinguishable from the human Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax parasites, respectively. Plasmodium simium has been observed naturally infecting monkeys of the genera Alouatta and Brachyteles in a restricted area of the Atlantic Forest in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. However, its reported geographical distribution and the diversity of its vertebrate hosts may be underestimated, since available data were largely based on analyses by microscopic examination of peripheral blood, a method with limited sensitivity, considering the potential sub-patent feature of these infections. The present study describes, for the first time, the natural infection of P. simium in capuchin monkeys from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Blood samples from 30 non-human primates belonging to nine species kept in the Primate Centre of Rio de Janeiro were collected. Fragments of spleen and liver from one dead monkey found in the neighborhoods of the Primate Centre were also analysed. Molecular diagnosis was performed by nested PCR (18SSU rRNA) and the amplified fragment was sequenced. Thirty per cent of the captive animals were infected with P. simium and/or P. brasilianum. The dead monkey tested positive for DNA of P. simium. For the first time, Cebinae primates (two specimens of genus Cebus and two of genus Sapajos) were found naturally infected by P. simium. The infection was confirmed by sequencing a small fragment of 18SSU rRNA. The results highlight the possibility of infection by P. simium in other species of non-human primates whose impact could be significant for the malaria epidemiology among non-human primates and, if it becomes clear that this P. simium is able to infect monkeys and, eventually, man, also for the maintenance of transmission of human malaria in

  7. Respiratory Pathogens in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Good, Robert C.; May, Bessie D.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory disease in a dynamic colony of nonhuman primates during a 4-year period was due primarily to infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and Haemophilus influenzae. The principal secondary invaders were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and streptococci. A high fatality rate was associated with infections caused by each of the primary pathogens, and females appeared to be more susceptible than males. Incidence of respiratory disease was greatest in the fall and early winter; however, at all times newly colonized monkeys had a higher infection rate than conditioned monkeys. Infections were occasionally confined only to the lungs and were sometimes present without grossly observable lung lesions. The information given on susceptibility of 10 species of nonhuman primates to respiratory infections provides a basis for developing disease models. PMID:16557951

  8. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  9. Pathology of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Timothy G.; Stookey, James L.; Eddy, Gerald A.; Kastello, Michael D.

    1973-01-01

    Gross and microscopic lesions associated with Bolivan hemorrhagic fever virus infection in the rhesus monkey were studied in 10 animals which died following inoculation. Gross lesions included skin rash, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, meningeal edema, hydropericardium and enlarged friable livers. Hemorrhagic manifestations of the infection were not consistently observed, but hemorrhages were present in the skin, heart, brain and nares in some monkeys. Histopathologic lesions were fairly consistent. Hepatic necrosis with the presence of acidophilic hyaline bodies, necrotizing enteritis, epithelial necrosis and adrenal cortical necrosis were present in all monkeys. Those monkeys which died after the seventeenth day of infection had nonsupurative meningoencephalitis; lymphoid necrosis was present in 3 monkeys that died after day 18. Other microscopic lesions included myocardial degeneration, lymphoid and reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia and lymphoid depletion. Most of the histopathologic lesions described in human autopsy material were reproduced; however, the necrosis in the skin and oral mucosa, mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and the adrenal cortex have not been described in man. Despite these apparent discrepancies the results of this investigation indicate that the rhesus monkey is a good experimental model for the study of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever infection. ImagesFig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4202335

  10. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Schroeder, Gabriel R.; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals “succeed” in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory. PMID:25365530

  11. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  12. Autonomic concomitants of discriminative avoidance and punishment training in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Raich, M S; Kimmel, H D

    1979-01-01

    Two Cebus albifrons monkeys were trained to press a back-lighted panel to postpone a brief electric shock to the tail using a Sidman avoidance schedule (SS = 40 sec, RS = 40 sec). After 25 training sessions, a discriminative schedule was introduced, with the Sidman avoidance continuing in the presence of one discriminative stimulus and punishment introduced in the presence of the other. The discriminative stimuli were colors on the panel. Discriminative training also involved 25 sessions, each with a random sequence of 6 avoidance and 6 punishment segments, with 30 sec intervals between the segments. Plantar skin conductance and heart rate were recorded along with the panel-pressing behavior. The two monkeys adjusted to the discriminative schedule quite differently from one another. One animal responded at a high level and avoided very well (during avoidance) but was punished frequently (during punishment). The other animal responded less frequently and received many shocks during avoidance but almost none during punishment. The animal that showed less ability to inhibit responding (and received about four times as many shocks overall) appeared to have discriminated better temporally in spacing its responses during avoidance training. The monkey whose panel-pressing behavior resulted in more shocks also tended to show a higher tonic level of autonomic arousal. However, within-animal differences in shock frequency (between avoidance and punishment) were not similarly related to autonomic arousal. The animal that received fewer shocks overall (but more during avoidance) showed greater arousal during punishment. The animal that received more shocks overall (but fewer during avoidance) showed no arousal differences between avoidance and punishment.

  13. Which senses play a role in nonhuman primate food selection? A comparison between squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias; Freist, Pamela; Krause, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    In order to optimize foraging efficiency and avoid toxicosis, animals must be able to detect, discriminate, and learn about the predictive signals of potential food. Primates are typically regarded as animals that rely mainly on their highly developed visual systems, and little is known about the role that the other senses may play in food selection. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess which senses are involved in the evaluation of food by two species of New World primates: the squirrel monkey and the spider monkey. To this end, six animals per species were repeatedly presented with both familiar and novel food items, and their behavior was videotaped and analyzed. To obtain a further indication of the relative importance of visual and chemosensory cues, the animals were also presented with familiar food items that were experimentally modified in color, odor, or both color and odor. The results demonstrate that squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys use olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues in addition to visual information to evaluate novel food, whereas they mainly inspect familiar food items visually prior to consumption. Our findings also show that in both species the use of nonvisual cues decreased rapidly with repeated presentations of novel food, suggesting a fast multimodal learning process. Further, the two species clearly differ in their relative use of nonvisual cues when evaluating novel or modified food, with spider monkeys relying more on olfactory cues than squirrel monkeys, and squirrel monkeys relying more on tactile cues compared to spider monkeys. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. On the occurrence of Cebus flavius (Schreber 1774) in the Caatinga, and the use of semi-arid environments by Cebus species in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Renata G; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Silva, Thiago César Farias; de Souza Fialho, Marcos; de Araújo Roque, Alan; Fernandes, Adalberto; Arruda, Fátima

    2009-10-01

    Cebus flavius is a recently rediscovered species and a candidate for the 25 most endangered primate species list. It was hypothesized that the distribution of C. flavius was limited to the Atlantic Forest, while the occurrence of C. libidinosus in the Rio Grande do Norte (RN) Caatinga was inferred, given its occurrence in neighboring states. As a result of a survey in ten areas of the RN Caatinga, this paper reports on four Cebus populations, including the first occurrence of C. flavius in the Caatinga, and an expansion of the northwestern limits of distribution for the species. This C. flavius population may be a rare example of a process of geographic distribution retraction, and is probably the most endangered population of this species. New areas of occurrence of C. libidinosus are also described. Tool use sites were observed in association with reports of the presence of both capuchin species.

  15. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) discriminate between knowing and not knowing and collect information as needed before acting.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Robert R; Zivin, Aaron; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-10-01

    Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before acting, as when we determine whether we know a phone number before dialing. Such metacognition, or thinking about thinking, can improve selection of appropriate behavior. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta) are capable of a simple form of metacognitive access to the contents of short-term memory. Monkeys chose among four opaque tubes, one of which concealed food. The tube containing the reward varied randomly from trial to trial. On half the trials the monkeys observed the experimenter baiting the tube, whereas on the remaining trials their view of the baiting was blocked. On each trial, monkeys were allowed a single chance to select the tube containing the reward. During the choice period the monkeys had the opportunity to look down the length of each tube, to determine if it contained food. When they knew the location of the reward, most monkeys chose without looking. In contrast, when ignorant, monkeys often made the effort required to look, thereby learning the location of the reward before choosing. Looking improved accuracy on trials on which monkeys had not observed the baiting. The difference in looking behavior between trials on which the monkeys knew, and trials on which they were ignorant, suggests that rhesus monkeys discriminate between knowing and not knowing. This result extends similar observations made of children and apes to a species of Old World monkey, suggesting that the underlying cognitive capacities may be widely distributed among primates.

  16. Scleral Biomechanics in the Aging Monkey Eye

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Michaël J. A.; Suh, J-K. Francis; Bottlang, Michael; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the age-related differences in the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear biomechanical properties of posterior sclera from old (22.9 ± 5.3 years) and young (1.5 ± 0.7 years) rhesus monkeys. Methods The posterior scleral shell of each eye was mounted on a custom-built pressurization apparatus, then intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated from 5 to 45 mmHg while the 3D displacements of the scleral surface were measured using speckle interferometry. Each scleral shell geometry was digitally reconstructed from data generated by a 3D digitizer (topography) and 20 MHz ultrasounds (thickness). An inverse finite element (FE) method incorporating a fiber-reinforced constitutive model was used to extract a unique set of biomechanical properties for each eye. Displacements, thickness, stress, strain, tangent modulus, structural stiffness, and preferred collagen fiber orientation were mapped for each posterior sclera. Results The model yielded 3-D deformations of posterior sclera that matched well with those observed experimentally. The posterior sclera exhibited inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear mechanical behavior. The sclera was significantly thinner (p = 0.038), and tangent modulus and structural stiffness were significantly higher in old monkeys (p < 0.0001). On average, scleral collagen fibers were circumferentially oriented around the optic nerve head (ONH). We found no difference in the preferred collagen fiber orientation and fiber concentration factor between age groups. Conclusions Posterior sclera from old monkeys is significantly stiffer than that from young monkeys and is therefore subject to higher stresses but lower strains at all levels of IOP. Age-related stiffening of the sclera may significantly influence ONH biomechanics, and potentially contribute to age-related susceptibility to glaucomatous vision loss. PMID:19494203

  17. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  18. Observational learning in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Myers, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Observer monkeys were housed next to demonstrator monkeys that were conditioned to respond on a multiple reinforcement schedule whose components were fixed-ratio 32, variable-interval 3-min, and extinction 5-min followed by an additional 30 sec of extinction during which every response started a new 30-sec interval. After observational periods from 113 to 210 hr long, during which observers could not perform the response and were given no extrinsic reinforcers, their first-response latencies to fixed ratio and variable interval were as short as the demonstrators; and their rates of responding were well above pre-observational baseline levels. About 8 hr later, a temporal pattern of responding appropriate to the multiple schedule emerged, including non-emission of responses during extinction. Controls lacking the chance to observe did not develop typically patterned responding after 60 hr in one case and, in two other cases, after 80 hr during which, on two occasions, every one of 50 responses was reinforced. In a second experiment, the stimulus lights associated with fixed ratio and variable interval were presented simultaneously. Subjects chose one of the schedules by responding to one of the levers beneath the lights. All subjects initially chose fixed ratio. Seeing the demonstrators switch to variable interval, due to increases in the fixed-ratio requirement, had no effect upon observers, which continued to choose fixed ratio. PMID:16811470

  19. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias.

    PubMed

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-Su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development.

  20. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  1. Do Social Conditions Affect Capuchin Monkeys’ (Cebus apella) Choices in a Quantity Judgment Task?

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Beran et al. (2012) reported that capuchin monkeys closely matched the performance of humans in a quantity judgment test in which information was incomplete but a judgment still had to be made. In each test session, subjects first made quantity judgments between two known options. Then, they made choices where only one option was visible. Both humans and capuchin monkeys were guided by past outcomes, as they shifted from selecting a known option to selecting an unknown option at the point at which the known option went from being more than the average rate of return to less than the average rate of return from earlier choices in the test session. Here, we expanded this assessment of what guides quantity judgment choice behavior in the face of incomplete information to include manipulations to the unselected quantity. We manipulated the unchosen set in two ways: first, we showed the monkeys what they did not get (the unchosen set), anticipating that “losses” would weigh heavily on subsequent trials in which the same known quantity was presented. Second, we sometimes gave the unchosen set to another monkey, anticipating that this social manipulation might influence the risk-taking responses of the focal monkey when faced with incomplete information. However, neither manipulation caused difficulty for the monkeys who instead continued to use the rational strategy of choosing known sets when they were as large as or larger than the average rate of return in the session, and choosing the unknown (riskier) set when the known set was not sufficiently large. As in past experiments, this was true across a variety of daily ranges of quantities, indicating that monkeys were not using some absolute quantity as a threshold for selecting (or not) the known set, but instead continued to use the daily average rate of return to determine when to choose the known versus the unknown quantity. PMID:23181038

  2. Exposure to Macaque Monkey Bite.

    PubMed

    Johnston, William F; Yeh, Jesson; Nierenberg, Richard; Procopio, Gabrielle

    2015-11-01

    The herpes B virus is a zoonotic agent that is endemic among macaque monkeys only, but can cause fatal encephalomyelitis in humans. A 26-year-old female presented to a U.S. emergency department after being bitten by a wild macaque monkey. The emergency medicine team administered rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine. The team also prescribed acyclovir for prophylactic coverage against herpes B, a deadly zoonotic agent that is endemic among macaque monkeys. A discussion of background, exposure, transmission, symptoms, treatment for herpes B, including latest data available, literature, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines are included. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Zoonotic exposures can cause infectious diseases, which are unfamiliar and deadly. The emergency physician's knowledge of the association between the deadly herpes B infection and wild macaque monkey may expedite treatment and be instrumental in patient morbidity and survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Do Monkeys Choose to Choose?

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Beran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    There is empirical and anecdotal support that choice is preferred by humans. Previous research has demonstrated that this preference extends to nonhuman animals, but it remains largely unknown whether animals will actively seek out or prefer opportunities to choose. Here we explored the issue of whether capuchin and rhesus monkeys will choose to choose. We used a modified version of the SELECT task – a computer program in which monkeys can choose the order of completion of various psychomotor and cognitive tasks. In the current experiments, each trial began with a choice between two icons, one of which allowed the monkey to select the order of task completion, and the other icon led to assignment of task order by the computer. In either case, subjects still had to complete the same number of tasks and the same number of task trials. Tasks were relatively easy, and the monkeys responded correctly on most trials. Thus, global reinforcement rates were approximately equated across conditions. The only difference was whether the monkey chose the task order or it was assigned, thus isolating the act of choosing. Given sufficient experience with the task icons, all monkeys showed a significant preference for choice when the alternative was a randomly assigned order of tasks. To a lesser extent, some of the monkeys maintained a preference for choice over a preferred, but computer assigned task order that was yoked to their own previous choice selection. The results indicate that monkeys prefer to choose when all other aspects of the task are equated. PMID:24567075

  4. Acute physiological responses of squirrel monkeys exposed to hyperdynamic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral responses to a hyperdynamic environment were examined in four adult male squirrel monkeys. After baseline monitoring at 1 G, monkeys were exposed to one of three conditions: (1) +2 Gz for 60 minutes, (2) +2.9 Gz max for 8 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle launch), or (3) +1.7 Gz max for 19 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle reentry). During all experimental conditions, heart rate rose, and colonic temperature began to decline within the first ten minutes of centrifugation and decreased by as much as 2 C in some instances. Behaviorally, during centrifugation, the monkeys seemed to exhibit drowsiness and fall asleep, an observation not made during the control period. It is concluded that primates are susceptible to acute hyperdynamic field exposure.

  5. Acute physiological responses of squirrel monkeys exposed to hyperdynamic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral responses to a hyperdynamic environment were examined in four adult male squirrel monkeys. After baseline monitoring at 1 G, monkeys were exposed to one of three conditions: (1) +2 Gz for 60 minutes, (2) +2.9 Gz max for 8 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle launch), or (3) +1.7 Gz max for 19 minutes (simulating Space Shuttle reentry). During all experimental conditions, heart rate rose, and colonic temperature began to decline within the first ten minutes of centrifugation and decreased by as much as 2 C in some instances. Behaviorally, during centrifugation, the monkeys seemed to exhibit drowsiness and fall asleep, an observation not made during the control period. It is concluded that primates are susceptible to acute hyperdynamic field exposure.

  6. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research. PMID:25657726

  7. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research.

  8. Lassa virus infection of rhesus monkeys: pathogenesis and treatment with ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Jahrling, P B; Hesse, R A; Eddy, G A; Johnson, K M; Callis, R T; Stephen, E L

    1980-05-01

    Rhesus monkeys were experimentally infected with Lassa virus to establish their suitability as a nonhuman primate model for the human disease and to test the protective efficacy of ribavirin, an antiviral drug. Six of 10 untreated control monkeys died after subcutaneous inoculation of 10(6.1) plaque-forming units of Lassa virus (strain Josiah). Infectivity titrations of tissue homogenates from the six dead monkeys indicated significant replication in all tissues tested except the central nervous system. This distribution of virus was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence examination of cryostat-sectioned tissues. Ribavirin was beneficial in the treatment of two groups of infected monkeys. Four monkeys first treated on the day of viral inoculation experienced only mild clinical disease; four monkeys first treated five days later experienced a more severe illness. None of the eight monkeys treated with ribavirin died. Viremia titers and elevations of levels of serum transaminases in treated monkeys were significantly lower than in controls. Ribavirin may be beneficial in the treatment of humans exposed to this life-threatening virus.

  9. Subtoxic hepatic vitamin A concentrations in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Penniston, K L; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2001-11-01

    Although the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is a widely used experimental animal, its exact vitamin A requirement is unknown. An amount of 430-3600 IU/d [129-1080 retinol equivalents (RE)] is recommended, largely on the basis of depletion studies. Normal hepatic vitamin A appears to be 1 micromol/g liver. Our goal was to determine hepatic vitamin A concentrations of captive monkeys. Liver autopsy samples from rhesus and marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys were obtained from the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. The rhesus monkeys consumed a diet with 40 IU (12 RE) retinyl acetate/g. Male and female monkeys consumed an estimated 250 and 175 g diet/d, respectively. Marmosets were fed a powder-based diet consisting of 20 IU (6 RE) retinyl acetate/g. The marmosets consumed an estimated 25 g of the diet/d. Liver samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC. The vitamin A concentration of the rhesus monkey livers was very high at 17.0 +/- 6.3 micromol/g. The hepatic vitamin A of the marmosets was 1.25 +/- 0.58 micromol/g liver. Histologic examination of the livers revealed Ito cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the rhesus monkeys compared with the marmosets. Considering that the natural diet of the rhesus monkey (fruits, seeds, roots and insects) is not high in preformed vitamin A, the vitamin A content of the diet appears excessive, supplying four times the NRC recommendation and resulting in high liver stores.

  10. Monkey Able Being Ready for preflight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Able, is being ready for placement into a capsule for a preflight test of Jupiter, AM-18 mission. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959 and also carried a rhesus monkey, Baker, into suborbit.

  11. Anatomical aspects of the lacrimal gland of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella).

    PubMed Central

    Veiga Neto, E R; Tamega, O J; Zorzetto, N L; Dall Pai, V

    1992-01-01

    In the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) the main lacrimal gland is composed of 2 distinct portions with an intraorbital and extraorbital localisation, interconnected by a bridge of glandular tissue which crosses the lateral orbital wall through the lateral orbital fissure located in the sphenozygomatic suture. The intraorbital lacrimal gland is flattened and extremely thin, with a variable outline. It lies on the upper and outer third of the globe of the eye, and the aponeurosis and the belly of the lateral rectus muscle, extending antero-posteriorly from the upper lateral angle of the orbit midway along the orbital cavity. The extraorbital lacrimal gland is compact, halfmoon-shaped, with 3 surfaces, 3 borders and 2 extremities. It lies in the temporal fossa between the temporalis muscle and the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone, fitting into a depression in this bone, and totally surrounded by adipose tissue. The secretory cells have a flocculent appearance and either low or high density. They possess a basal region containing the nucleus and rich in granular endoplasmic reticulum, and an apical region filled with secretory granules varying in size, form and density. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1452484

  12. Spatial selectivity to manipulate portable objects in wedge-capped capuchins (Cebus olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Dubois, Michel Jean; Gerard, Jean-François; Pontes, Fernando

    2005-04-01

    We studied the manipulative activity of five wedge-capped capuchins (Cebus olivaceus) confronted with different types of unfamiliar and portable objects: wooden blocks, plastic rings, spoons, and coconuts. Combinatorial manipulations involving two portable objects of the same type were quite frequent. The lately introduced objects, whatever their kind, appeared as the most attractive. Nevertheless, some objects remained very attractive throughout the overall experiment, especially the wooden blocks which elicited more combinatorial and striking behaviors than the other objects. Concerning space, we observed that the individuals choose specific locations to perform their manipulative acts. The spatial distributions of these acts were more concentrated, and less concordant between individuals, in the present study than in two others conducted with the same group but involving the manipulation of familiar objects. This suggests that individual differences were more marked when the subjects manipulated unfamiliar objects than when they manipulated familiar ones. This finding may have applications when the members of a group have to benefit from an enrichment of their environment.

  13. Precocious quantitative cognition in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2016-02-01

    Basic quantitative abilities are thought to have an innate basis in humans partly because the ability to discriminate quantities emerges early in child development. If humans and nonhuman primates share this developmentally primitive foundation of quantitative reasoning, then this ability should be present early in development across species and should emerge earlier in monkeys than in humans because monkeys mature faster than humans. We report that monkeys spontaneously make accurate quantity choices by 1 year of age in a task that human children begin to perform only at 2.5 to 3 years of age. Additionally, we report that the quantitative sensitivity of infant monkeys is equal to that of the adult animals in their group and that rates of learning do not differ between infant and adult animals. This novel evidence of precocious quantitative reasoning in infant monkeys suggests that human quantitative reasoning shares its early developing foundation with other primates. The data further suggest that early developing components of primate quantitative reasoning are constrained by maturational factors related to genetic development as opposed to learning experience alone.

  14. Stereopsis and disparity vergence in monkeys with subnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1997-02-01

    The surgical treatment for strabismus in infants generally results in microtropia or subnormal binocular vision. Although the clinical characteristics of these conditions are well established, there are important questions about the mechanisms of binocular vision in these patients that can best be investigated in an appropriate animal model. In the present psychophysical investigations, spatial frequency response functions for disparity-induced fusional vergence and for local stereopsis were studied in macaque monkeys, who demonstrated many of the major visual characteristics of patients whose eyes were surgically aligned during infancy. In six rhesus monkeys, unilateral esotropia was surgically induced at various ages (30-184 days of age). However, over the next 12 months, all of the monkeys recovered normal eye alignment. Behavioral measurements at 4-6 years of age showed that the monkeys' prism-induced fusional vergence responses were indistinguishable from those of control monkeys or humans with normal binocular vision. Investigations of stereo-depth discrimination demonstrated that each of the experimental monkeys also had stereoscopic vision, but their stereoacuities varied from being essentially normal to severely stereo-deficient. The degree of stereo-deficiency was not related to the age at which surgical esotropia was induced, or to the presence or absence of amblyopia, and was not dependent on the spatial frequency of the test stimulus. Altogether, these experiments demonstrate that a temporary, early esotropia can affect the binocular disparity responses of motor and sensory components of binocular vision differently, probably because of different sensitive periods of development for the two components.

  15. Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Timothy E; Janes, Amy C; Kaufman, Marc J

    2012-08-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N = 14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on four tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2 ± 2.6 days (range: 50-70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 min per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within 2 months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful in reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys.

  16. Behavioral Determinants of Cannabinoid Self-Administration in Old World Monkeys.

    PubMed

    John, William S; Martin, Thomas J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Reinforcing effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active ingredient in marijuana, as assessed with self-administration (SA), has only been established in New World primates (squirrel monkeys). The objective of this study was to investigate some experimental factors that may enhance intravenous SA of THC and the cannabinoid receptor (CBR) agonist CP 55 940 in Old World monkeys (rhesus and cynomolgus), a species that has been used extensively in biomedical research. In one experiment, male rhesus monkeys (N=9) were trained to respond under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The effects of CP 55 940 (1.0-10 μg/kg, i.v.) and THC (3.0-300 μg/kg, i.v.) on food-maintained responding and body temperature were determined in these subjects prior to giving them access to self-administer each drug. Both drugs dose-dependently decreased food-maintained responding. CP 55 940 (0.001-3.0 μg/kg) functioned as a reinforcer in three monkeys, whereas THC (0.01-10 μg/kg) did not have reinforcing effects in any subject. CP 55 940 was least potent to decrease food-maintained responding in the monkeys in which CP 55 940 functioned as a reinforcer. Next, THC was administered daily to monkeys until tolerance developed to rate-decreasing effects. When THC SA was reexamined, it functioned as a reinforcer in three monkeys. In a group of cocaine-experienced male cynomolgus monkeys (N=4), THC SA was examined under a second-order schedule of reinforcement; THC functioned as reinforcer in two monkeys. These data suggest that SA of CBR agonists may be relatively independent of their rate-decreasing effects in Old World monkeys. Understanding individual differences in vulnerability to THC SA may lead to novel treatment strategies for marijuana abuse.

  17. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  18. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  19. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  20. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  1. Monkey Baker in bio-pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Baker, in bio-pack couch being readied for Jupiter (AM-18 flight). Jupiter, AM-18 mission, also carried an American-born rhesus monkey, Able into suborbit. The flight was successful and both monkeys were recovered in good condition. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959.

  2. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  3. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  4. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  5. Systems Biology of the Vervet Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Service, Susan K.; Cantor, Rita M.; Dewar, Ken; Jentsch, James D.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Turner, Trudy R.; Warren, Wesley C.; Weinstock, George M.; Woods, Roger P.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an international collaboration to develop the vervet monkey as the most comprehensively phenotypically and genomically characterized NHP, a process that will enable the scientific community to employ this model for systems biology investigations. PMID:24174437

  6. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  7. Lassa Virus Infection of Rhesus Monkeys: Pathogenesis and Treatment with Ribavirin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    viruses [5, 61, is effective in treating severe The views of the authors do not purport to reflect the posi- Lassa virus disease in rhesus monkeys...THE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES - VOL. 141, NO. 5 MAY 1980 1980 by The University of Chicago. 0022-1899/80/410500 .95 ECr C- Lassa Virus Infection...Atlanta, Georgia Rhesus monkeys were experimentally infected with Lassa virus to establish their suita- bility as a nonhuman primate model for the human

  8. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kouji; Nagata, Noriyo; Ami, Yasushi; Seki, Fumio; Suzaki, Yuriko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Komase, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Takeda, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, 46 monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.

  9. Polioencephalomalacia secondary to hypernatremia in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Macri, S M Cummings; Masek-Hammerman, K; Crowell, A M; Fenn, M S; Knight, H L; Westmoreland, S V; Miller, A D

    2014-05-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp) are one of the most consistently used New World primates in biomedical research and are increasingly being used in neuroscience research, including models of drug abuse and addiction. Spontaneous neurologic disease in the squirrel monkey is uncommonly reported but includes various infectious diseases as well as cerebral amyloidosis. Hypernatremia is an extremely serious condition of hyperosmolarity that occurs as a result of water loss, adipsia, or excess sodium intake. Neurologic effects of hypernatremia reflect the cellular dehydration produced by the shift of water from the intracellular fluid space into the hypertonic extracellular fluid space. Severe hypernatremia may result in cerebrocortical laminar necrosis (polioencephalomalacia) in human patients as well as in a number of domestic species, including pigs, poultry, and ruminants. We report the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of polioencephalomalacia in 13 squirrel monkeys. Polioencephalomalacia in these animals was associated with hypernatremia that was confirmed by serum levels of sodium greater than 180 mmol/L (reference range, 134.0-154.0 mmol/L [mEq/L]). All animals had concurrent diseases or experimental manipulation that predisposed to adipsia. Immunohistochemical investigation using antibodies to neuronal nuclei (NeuN), CNPase, Iba-1, and CD31 revealed necrosis of predominantly cerebral cortical layers 3, 4, and 5 characterized by neuronal degeneration and loss, oligodendrocytic loss, microglial proliferation, and vascular reactivity. The squirrel monkey is exquisitely sensitive to hyperosmolar metabolic disruption and it is associated with laminar cortical necrosis.

  10. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  11. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  12. A Markerless 3D Computerized Motion Capture System Incorporating a Skeleton Model for Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Takamura, Yusaku; Hori, Etsuro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a novel markerless motion capture system (MCS) for monkeys, in which 3D surface images of monkeys were reconstructed by integrating data from four depth cameras, and a skeleton model of the monkey was fitted onto 3D images of monkeys in each frame of the video. To validate the MCS, first, estimated 3D positions of body parts were compared between the 3D MCS-assisted estimation and manual estimation based on visual inspection when a monkey performed a shuttling behavior in which it had to avoid obstacles in various positions. The mean estimation error of the positions of body parts (3–14 cm) and of head rotation (35–43°) between the 3D MCS-assisted and manual estimation were comparable to the errors between two different experimenters performing manual estimation. Furthermore, the MCS could identify specific monkey actions, and there was no false positive nor false negative detection of actions compared with those in manual estimation. Second, to check the reproducibility of MCS-assisted estimation, the same analyses of the above experiments were repeated by a different user. The estimation errors of positions of most body parts between the two experimenters were significantly smaller in the MCS-assisted estimation than in the manual estimation. Third, effects of methamphetamine (MAP) administration on the spontaneous behaviors of four monkeys were analyzed using the MCS. MAP significantly increased head movements, tended to decrease locomotion speed, and had no significant effect on total path length. The results were comparable to previous human clinical data. Furthermore, estimated data following MAP injection (total path length, walking speed, and speed of head rotation) correlated significantly between the two experimenters in the MCS-assisted estimation (r = 0.863 to 0.999). The results suggest that the presented MCS in monkeys is useful in investigating neural mechanisms underlying various psychiatric disorders and developing

  13. A Markerless 3D Computerized Motion Capture System Incorporating a Skeleton Model for Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Takamura, Yusaku; Hori, Etsuro; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a novel markerless motion capture system (MCS) for monkeys, in which 3D surface images of monkeys were reconstructed by integrating data from four depth cameras, and a skeleton model of the monkey was fitted onto 3D images of monkeys in each frame of the video. To validate the MCS, first, estimated 3D positions of body parts were compared between the 3D MCS-assisted estimation and manual estimation based on visual inspection when a monkey performed a shuttling behavior in which it had to avoid obstacles in various positions. The mean estimation error of the positions of body parts (3-14 cm) and of head rotation (35-43°) between the 3D MCS-assisted and manual estimation were comparable to the errors between two different experimenters performing manual estimation. Furthermore, the MCS could identify specific monkey actions, and there was no false positive nor false negative detection of actions compared with those in manual estimation. Second, to check the reproducibility of MCS-assisted estimation, the same analyses of the above experiments were repeated by a different user. The estimation errors of positions of most body parts between the two experimenters were significantly smaller in the MCS-assisted estimation than in the manual estimation. Third, effects of methamphetamine (MAP) administration on the spontaneous behaviors of four monkeys were analyzed using the MCS. MAP significantly increased head movements, tended to decrease locomotion speed, and had no significant effect on total path length. The results were comparable to previous human clinical data. Furthermore, estimated data following MAP injection (total path length, walking speed, and speed of head rotation) correlated significantly between the two experimenters in the MCS-assisted estimation (r = 0.863 to 0.999). The results suggest that the presented MCS in monkeys is useful in investigating neural mechanisms underlying various psychiatric disorders and developing

  14. Experimental maternal and neonatal folate status relationships in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Blocker, D E; Ausman, L M; Meadows, C A; Thenen, S W

    1989-07-01

    The influence of maternal dietary folic acid intake on folate status was studied in Cebus albifrons monkeys by feeding 10 or 250 micrograms/100 kcal dietary folic acid during pregnancy and 4 wk postpartum. Maternal, infant, and nonpregnant hematologic indices; blood and liver folate concentrations; and urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion all varied with dietary folate intake and pregnancy status as did milk folate concentration in lactating dams. Maternal folate status, determined by plasma, red blood cell, and milk folate concentrations, as well as urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion, all were correlated significantly with liver folate concentrations in neonates (r = 0.740, r = 0.919, r = 0.936, and r = -0.851, respectively). Results in these primates showed that neonatal folate status was related significantly to the dietary folate intake and folate status of the mother during pregnancy and lactation.

  15. Effect of Pulsed 5.62 GHz Microwaves on Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) Performing a Repeated Acquisition Task.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-28

    Bioelectromagnetics 1: 149-160, 1980. 12. Premack, D., and Bahwell, R., Operant-level lever pressing by a monkey as a function of intertest interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior , 2

  16. Herpesvirus saimiri-induced lymphoproliferative disease in howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rangan, S R; Martin, L N; Enright, F M; Abee, C R

    1977-07-01

    Four of 5 howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) experimentally infected with Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) developed a rapidly fatal malignant lymphoma accompanied by peripheral T-cell lymphocytosis. HVS was isolated from fresh and tissue cultured blood and tissue lymphocytes and from cell cultures derived from nonlymphoid organs. Humoral antibodies against HVS-induced antigens were detected in the sera of the animals. The in vitro response of the peripheral blood lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulants was depressed following HVS infection.

  17. Incidence of ketamine-induced emesis in cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used for staphylococcal enterotoxin bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Adesiyun, A. A.; Tatini, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ten (24%) of 41 cynomologus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) showed emetic response to 2.5-20 mg/Kg of ketamine injected i.m. Reduction of the levels of ketamine to one half or less of the emetic level resulted in faster recovery from sedation yet provided adequate time for intubation and subsequent intragastric feeding of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) in only 6 of the 10 monkeys without emesis. The onset of the first emetic episode with ketamine was similar to that induced by staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). Cynomologus monkeys showing emetic response to ketamine could still be used for SE bioassay if an experimentally determined non-emetic dose for individual monkeys is employed for sedation. PMID:7093145

  18. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    de Blois, S T; Novak, M A; Bond, M

    1998-06-01

    The authors tested orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) on object permanence tasks. In Experiment 1, orangutans solved all visible displacements and most invisible displacements except those involving movements into 2 boxes successively. In Experiment 2, performance of orangutans on double invisible displacements and control displacements (assessing simple strategies) was compared. Orangutans did not use the simple strategy of selecting the box visited last by the experimenter. Instead, poorer performance on double invisible displacements may have been related to increased memory requirements. In Experiment 3, squirrel monkeys were tested using the procedure of Experiment 1. Squirrel monkeys solved visible but did not comprehend invisible displacements. Results suggest that orangutans but not squirrel monkeys possess Stage 6 object permanence capabilities.

  19. Chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in the milk of six species of New and Old world monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kohta; Fukuda, Kenji; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Kimura, Kazumasa; Glander, Kenneth E.; Hinde, Katie; Dittus, Wolfgang; Milligan, Lauren A.; Power, Michael L.; Oftedal, Olav T.

    2010-01-01

    Human and great ape milks contain a diverse array of milk oligosaccharides, but little is known about the milk oligosaccharides of other primates, and how they differ among taxa. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk of three species of Old World or catarrhine monkeys (Cercopithecidae: rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), toque macaque (Macaca sinica) and Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas)) and three of New World or platyrrhine monkeys (Cebidae: tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) and Bolivian squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis); Atelidae: mantled howler (Alouatta palliata)). The milks of these species contained 6–8% total sugar, most of which was lactose: the estimated ratio of oligosaccharides to lactose in Old World monkeys (1:4 to 1:6) was greater than in New World monkeys (1:12 to 1:23). The chemical structures of the oligosaccharides were determined mainly by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc) were found in the milk of the rhesus macaque, toque macaque, Hamadryas baboon and tufted capuchin, but oligosaccharides containing the type I unit (Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc), which have been found in human and many great ape milks, were absent from the milk of all species studied. Oligosaccharides containing Lewis x (Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc) and 3-fucosyl lactose (3-FL, Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc) were found in the milk of the three cercopithecid monkey species, while 2-fucosyl lactose (5'-FL, Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc) was absent from all species studied. All of these milks contained acidic oligosaccharides that had N-acetylneuraminic acid as part of their structures, but did not contain oligosaccharides that had N-glycolylneuraminic acid, in contrast to the milk or colostrum of great apes which contain both types of acidic oligosaccharides. Two GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides, lactose 3′-O-sulfate and lacto-N-novopentaose I (Gal(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc) were found only in the

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation for Substrate Selectivity of Cynomolgus Monkey Cytochrome P450 2C9, a New Efavirenz Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Shinya; Murayama, Norie; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Iwano, Shunsuke; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies, because of their evolutionary closeness to humans. In humans, the cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C enzymes are important drug-metabolizing enzymes and highly expressed in livers. The CYP2C enzymes, including CYP2C9, are also expressed abundantly in cynomolgus monkey liver and metabolize some endogenous and exogenous substances like testosterone, S-mephenytoin, and diclofenac. However, comprehensive evaluation regarding substrate specificity of monkey CYP2C9 has not been conducted. In the present study, 89 commercially available drugs were examined to find potential monkey CYP2C9 substrates. Among the compounds screened, 20 drugs were metabolized by monkey CYP2C9 at a relatively high rates. Seventeen of these compounds were substrates or inhibitors of human CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, whereas three drugs were not, indicating that substrate specificity of monkey CYP2C9 resembled those of human CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, with some differences in substrate specificities. Although efavirenz is known as a marker substrate for human CYP2B6, efavirenz was not oxidized by CYP2B6 but by CYP2C9 in monkeys. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that monkey CYP2C9 and human CYP2B6 formed the same mono- and di-oxidized metabolites of efavirenz at 8 and 14 positions. These results suggest that the efavirenz 8-oxidation could be one of the selective markers for cynomolgus monkey CYP2C9 among the major three CYP2C enzymes tested. Therefore, monkey CYP2C9 has the possibility of contributing to limited specific differences in drug oxidative metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of peri-implant bone of immediate or delayed occlusal-loaded non-splinted implants in the posterior mandible--an experimental study in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Rie; Isidor, Flemming; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare the bone reaction around immediate-loaded non-splinted single implants vs. delayed loaded non-splinted single implants placed in healed ridges in the posterior mandible. Six adult Macaca Fascicularis monkeys were used in this study. The first and second premolars and the first molar were extracted in both sides of the mandible. After 3 months of healing, four implants (Replace Select Tapered; Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) with a moderately rough surface (TiUnite, Nobel Biocare) were placed in the edentulous areas of each monkey, two in each side. The implants had a length of 10 mm and a diameter of 3.5 mm. Four groups of varying time and occlusal loading aspects were created: (i) control group: implant placed non-loaded for 3 months; (ii) immediate loaded: implant placed and loaded immediately for 3 months; (iii) immediate loaded: implant placed and loaded immediately for 6 months; and (iv) delayed loaded: implant placed submerged for 3 months and then loaded for 3 months. At the loaded implants, after a second stage surgery, a composite crown was made directly on an abutment mounted on the implant reinsuring simultaneous occlusal contact on the implant crown and the neighboring teeth. After euthanization of the animals, histologic specimens were quantified in the light microscope. All implants were clinically, radiographically, and histologically osseointegrated at the time of euthanization and with only mild signs of inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa. The histologic marginal bone level was located on average 1.14-1.74 mm apical to the margin of the implants in the various groups. The average bone-to-implant contact (BIC) varied between 55% and 65% and the average bone density (i.e., the proportion of mineralized bone tissue from the implant surface and to a distance of 1 mm lateral to the implant) varied between 30.6% and 34.2%. No statistical significant differences between groups were observed in

  2. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    PubMed

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  3. CXCR4 homologues of gibbon ape, African green monkey, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top marmoset.

    PubMed

    Zubair, S; Metzenberg, S

    2000-08-10

    CXCR4 gene homologues were isolated from an ape (gibbon), an Old World monkey (African green monkey), and two New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and cotton-top marmoset), and their DNA sequences determined. The squirrel monkey and cotton-top marmoset CXCR4 sequences more closely resemble homologues from apes than Old World monkeys, a pattern not seen for the related chemokine receptor CCR5. The African green monkey CXCR4 gene is similar to its homologue in baboon, a pattern that has also been seen among CCR5 homologues. The gibbon CXCR4 contains the first polymorphisms recognized in ape homologues, the human and chimpanzee CXCR4 proteins being identical, and two of these three differences are also observed in one or more Old World monkey homologues. While 18 positions within CXCR4 are now known to be polymorphic in primates, 7 of these polymorphisms have been observed in multiple examples and 11 have been observed only once.

  4. Testing of Compounds for Efficacy against Schistosomiasis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-25

    of compound BL23702 in primates. Protocol WRHN-IIIMc was established to study the use of Marmoset monkeys as antipenetrant models . The monkeys used in...antipentrant models . The monkeys used in each of these protocols have been exposed and no data is available at this time. Investigation of the non...Cebus apl ... 95 Section III Protocol WRHN-IIIMc Marmoset Penetration Model ..... 96 Table 5 Experimental Design for Marmoset Experiment ......... 99

  5. Turnover of human and monkey plasma kininogens in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, T; Wing, D A; Pierce, J V; Pettit, G W

    1979-01-01

    The normal metabolic turnover of plasma kininogens was studied by measuring the disappearance of intravenously administered radiolabeled human and monkey plasma kininogens from the circulation of healthy adult rhesus monkeys. Curves obtained by plotting log radioactivity against time could be expressed as double exponential equations, with the first term representing diffusion, and the second, catabolism. No significant difference between the turnovers of human and monkey kininogens was observed. The difference between the t1/2 of high molecular weight kininogen (25.95 +/- 1.60 h) (mean +/- SEM) and that of low molecular weight kininogen (18.94 +/- 1.93 h) was only marginally significant (P less than 0.05). In contrast, a highly significant (P less than 0.001) difference in their mean catabolic rates (1.12 +/- 0.08 d-1 for high molecular weight kininogen vs. 2.07 +/- 0.09 d-1 for low molecular weight kininogen) was observed. These differences between the two kininogens were attributed to differences in their distribution between the intra- and extravascular pools. Studies of kininogen turnover will be useful in elucidating the in vivo functions of the various kininogens in health as well as during clinical illness. PMID:105015

  6. Development of Object Concepts in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Scott P.; Price, Tracy A.; Vance, Jayme A.; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    One of the most interesting questions in cognitive development is how we acquire and mentally represent knowledge about objects. We investigated the development of object concepts in macaque monkeys. Monkeys viewed trajectory occlusion movies in which a ball followed a linear path that was occluded for some portion of the display while their point of gaze was recorded with a corneal-reflection eye tracker. We analyzed the pattern of eye movements as an indicator of object representation. A majority of eye movements of adult monkeys were anticipatory, implying a functional internal object representation that guided oculomotor behavior. The youngest monkeys lacked this strong internal representation of objects. Longitudinal testing showed that this ability develops over time providing compelling evidence that object concepts develop similarly in monkeys and humans. Therefore, the macaque monkey provides an animal model with which to examine neural mechanisms underlying the development of object representations. PMID:18335495

  7. Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Ott, Torben; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Jacob, Simon N; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Awake, behaving rhesus monkeys are widely used in neurophysiological research. Neural signals are typically measured from monkeys trained with operant conditioning techniques to perform a variety of behavioral tasks in exchange for rewards. Over the past years, monkeys' psychological well-being during experimentation has become an increasingly important concern. We suggest objective criteria to explore whether training sessions during which the monkeys work under controlled water intake over many days might affect their behavior. With that aim, we analyzed a broad range of species-specific behaviors over several months ('ethogram') and used these ethograms as a proxy for the monkeys' well-being. Our results show that monkeys' behavior during training sessions is unaffected by the duration of training-free days in-between. Independently of the number of training-free days (two or nine days) with ad libitum food and water supply, the monkeys were equally active and alert in their home group cages during training phases. This indicates that the monkeys were well habituated to prolonged working schedules and that their well-being was stably ensured during the training sessions.

  8. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported.

  9. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  10. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Erin A.; Olson, Carl R.

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system. PMID:26067532

  11. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  12. Monkeys represent others' knowledge but not their beliefs.

    PubMed

    Marticorena, Drew C W; Ruiz, April M; Mukerji, Cora; Goddu, Anna; Santos, Laurie R

    2011-11-01

    The capacity to reason about the false beliefs of others is classically considered the benchmark for a fully fledged understanding of the mental lives of others. Although much is known about the developmental origins of our understanding of others' beliefs, we still know much less about the evolutionary origins of this capacity. Here, we examine whether non-human primates - specifically, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) - share this developmental achievement. We presented macaques with a looking-time measure of false belief understanding, one that had recently been developed for use with 15-month-old human infants. Like human infants, monkeys look longer when a human experimenter fails to search in the correct location when she has accurate knowledge. In contrast to infants, however, monkeys appear to make no prediction about how a human experimenter will act when she has a false belief. Across three studies, macaques' pattern of results is consistent with the view that monkeys can represent the knowledge and ignorance of others, but not their beliefs. The capacity to represent beliefs may therefore be a unique hallmark of human cognition. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    PubMed Central

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  14. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    PubMed

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  15. Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource: Banking Tissues for Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Daunais, JB; Davenport, AT; Helms, CM; Gonzales, SW; Hemby, SE; Friedman, DP; Farro, JP; Baker, EJ; Grant, KA

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is co-morbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of EtOH and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. Methods The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates (NHPs), specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent/day) over long periods of time (12–30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the ethanol-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. Results The MATRR is a unique post-mortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer ethanol using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. Conclusions This resource provides a translational

  16. Variability in food-processing behavior among white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Robert C; Fedigan, Linda

    2005-09-01

    Observed patterns of variability in the food-processing behavior of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) across populations may reflect foraging traditions. However, there has been relatively little attention given to intrapopulation variability in food processing among groups and age/sex classes, making recent cross-population comparisons difficult to interpret. In this paper, we provide data on patterns of object use in foraging that we observed at Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica, for comparison with published data from a neighboring research site, Palo Verde National Park. We also describe the techniques used to process two food items consumed by Cebus capucinus at Santa Rosa, and discuss the factors that may underlie observed variability. We conducted a 6-month study on two groups of capuchins in 2001, and collected data on general activity and feeding patterns, rates and forms of object use, and distinctive processing techniques employed for two specific foods (Sloanea terniflora and Luehea candida). Rates of object-use behavior at Santa Rosa were considerably higher than those reported for Palo Verde and showed significant variation between groups and age/sex classes, as did patterns of Sloanea and Luehea processing. Observed differences in feeding rates between groups may reflect food availability or relative profitability, whereas variation between age/sex classes seems to reflect differences in the physical capabilities, foraging strategies, and the relative experience of mature and immature animals. Further research is needed to identify how a social context may influence the acquisition of food-processing techniques in juveniles and the development of foraging traditions in social groups. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The enhanced tool-kit of two groups of wild bearded capuchin monkeys in the Caatinga: tool making, associative use, and secondary tools.

    PubMed

    Mannu, Massimo; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2009-03-01

    The use of stones to crack open encapsulated fruit is widespread among wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) inhabiting savanna-like environments. Some populations in Serra da Capivara National Park (Piauí, Brazil), though, exhibit a seemingly broader toolkit, using wooden sticks as probes, and employing stone tools for a variety of purposes. Over the course of 701.5 hr of visual contact of two wild capuchin groups we recorded 677 tool use episodes. Five hundred and seventeen of these involved the use of stones, and 160 involved the use of sticks (or other plant parts) as probes to access water, arthropods, or the contents of insects' nests. Stones were mostly used as "hammers"--not only to open fruit or seeds, or smash other food items, but also to break dead wood, conglomerate rock, or cement in search of arthropods, to dislodge bigger stones, and to pulverize embedded quartz pebbles (licking, sniffing, or rubbing the body with the powder produced). Stones also were used in a "hammer-like" fashion to loosen the soil for digging out roots and arthropods, and sometimes as "hoes" to pull the loosened soil. In a few cases, we observed the re-utilization of stone tools for different purposes (N=3), or the combined use of two tools-stones and sticks (N=4) or two stones (N=5), as sequential or associative tools. On three occasions, the monkeys used smaller stones to loosen bigger quartz pebbles embedded in conglomerate rock, which were subsequently used as tools. These could be considered the first reports of secondary tool use by wild capuchin monkeys.

  18. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. An automated food delivery system for behavioral and neurophysiological studies of learning and memory in freely moving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Fraser A W; Kim, Byoung-Hoon; Ryou, Jae-Wook; Ma, Yuan-Ye

    2005-05-01

    We describe a custom-built feeder based on stepping motor technology controlled by a laboratory computer. The feeder dispenses a wide range of foods: any fruit, vegetable, or nut. The feeder allows the investigator to reward monkeys with different foods within a single experimental day. The monkey's motivation to perform tasks is high and does not rely upon food regulation. The avoidance of regulation, as well as the palatability and variety of the rewards dispensed by our device, distinguishes it from commercially available products. We also describe the use of the feeder in the context of novel behavioral and neurophysiological studies in freely moving monkeys.

  20. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  1. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  2. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  3. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  4. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  5. Pneumococcal Meningitis in a Rhesus Monkey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-17

    REFERENCES 1. Fox JG, Soave OH: Pneumococcic meningoencephalitis in a rhesus monkey. JAm Vet Med Assoc 159: 1595—1597, 1971 2. Fox JG, Wikse SE...Bacterial meningoencephalitis in rhesus monkeys: clinical and pathological features. Lab Anim Sd 21: 558—563, 1971 ¶ 3. Kaufmann AF , Quist KD: Pneumococcal

  6. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  7. Test monkeys anesthetized by routine procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Test monkeys are safely anesthetized for five minutes by confining them for less than six minutes in enclosures containing a controlled volume of ether. Thus the monkeys can be properly and safely positioned on test couches and fitted with electrodes or other devices prior to physiological tests.

  8. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  9. Orientation perception in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masumi

    2008-07-01

    It was previously demonstrated that monkeys divide the orientation continuum into cardinal and oblique categories. However, it is still unclear how monkeys perceive within-category orientations. To better understand monkeys' perception of orientation, two experiments were conducted using five monkeys. In experiment 1, they were trained to identify either one cardinal or one oblique target orientation out of six orientations. The results showed that they readily identified the cardinal target whether it was oriented horizontally or vertically. However, a longer training period was needed to identify the oblique target orientation regardless of its degree and direction of tilt. In experiment 2, the same monkeys were trained to identify two-oblique target orientations out of six orientations. These orientations were paired, either sharing the degree of tilt, direction of tilt, or neither property. The results showed that the monkeys readily identified oblique orientations when they had either the same degree or direction of tilt. However, when the target orientations had neither the same degree nor direction of tilt, the animals had difficulty in identifying them. In summary, horizontal and vertical orientations are individually processed, indicating that monkeys do not have a category for cardinal orientation, but they may recognize cardinal orientations as non-obliques. In addition, monkeys efficiently abstract either the degree or the direction of tilt from oblique orientations, but they have difficulty combining these features to identify an oblique orientation. Thus, not all orientations within the oblique category are equally perceived.

  10. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Cebus spp in the Santa Fe Zoological Park of Medellín, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Cadavid, A P; Cañas, L; Estrada, J J; Ramirez, L E

    1991-07-01

    The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was studied in 47 nonhuman primates of the Cebus species in the Santa Fe Zoological Park in Medellín, Colombia. Specific IgG titers (greater than 1/64) were detected in 40.9% of C. albifrons studied (n = 22), 13.3% of C. capucinus (n = 15), and 0% of C. apella (n = 10). Specific IgM was not detected in any of the animals studied.

  11. Seeing Beyond the Monkey Head

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-20

    Scores of baby stars shrouded by dust are revealed in this infrared image of the star-forming region NGC 2174, as seen by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Found in the constellation Orion, NGC 2174 is located around 6,400 light-years away. Some of the clouds in the region resemble the face of a monkey in visible-light images, hence the nebula's nickname: the "Monkey Head." However, in infrared images such as this, the monkey disappears. That's because different clouds are highlighted in infrared and visible-light images. Found in the northern reaches of the constellation Orion, NGC 2174 is located around 6,400 light-years away. Columns of dust, slightly to the right of center in the image, are being carved out of the dust by radiation and stellar winds from the hottest young stars recently born in the area. Spitzer's infrared view provides us with a preview of the next clusters of stars that will be born in the coming millennia. The reddish spots of light scattered through the darker filaments are infant stars swaddled by blankets of warm dust. The warm dust glows brightly at infrared wavelengths. Eventually, these stars will pop out of their dusty envelopes and their light will carve away at the dust clouds surrounding them. In this image, infrared wavelengths have been assigned visible colors we see with our eyes. Light with a wavelength of 3.5 microns is shown in blue, 8.0 microns is green, and 24 microns in red. The greens show the organic molecules in the dust clouds, illuminated by starlight. Reds are caused by the thermal radiation emitted from the very hottest areas of dust. Areas around the edges that were not observed by Spitzer have been filled in using infrared observations from NASA's Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19836

  12. Direct demonstration of retroviral recombination in a rhesus monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Wooley, D P; Smith, R A; Czajak, S; Desrosiers, R C

    1997-01-01

    Recombination may be an important mechanism for increasing variation in retroviral populations. Retroviral recombination has been demonstrated in tissue culture systems by artificially creating doubly infected cells. Evidence for retroviral recombination in vivo is indirect and is based principally on the identification of apparently mosaic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences. We infected a rhesus monkey with two different molecularly cloned strains of simian immunodeficiency virus. One strain of virus had a deletion in vpx and vpr, and the other strain had a deletion in nef. Each strain on its own induced low virus loads and was nonpathogenic in rhesus monkeys. When injected simultaneously into separate legs of the same monkey, persistent high virus loads and declines in CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations were observed. Analysis of proviral DNA isolated directly from peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that full-length, nondeleted SIVmac239 predominated by 2 weeks after infection. These results provide direct experimental evidence for genetic recombination between two different retroviral strains in an infected host. The results illustrate the ease and rapidity with which recombination can occur in an infected animal and the selection that can occur for variants generated by genetic recombination. PMID:9371629

  13. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 {mu}g/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  14. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy develop tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, P; Cervenak, J; Yakovleva, O; Gregori, L; Pomeroy, K; Cook, A; Muhammad, F S; Seuberlich, T; Cervenakova, L; Asher, D M

    2012-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were infected experimentally with the agent of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two to four years later, six of the monkeys developed alterations in interactive behaviour and cognition and other neurological signs typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At necropsy examination, the brains from all of the monkeys showed pathological changes similar to those described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) of man, except that the squirrel monkey brains contained no PrP-amyloid plaques typical of that disease. Constant neuropathological features included spongiform degeneration, gliosis, deposition of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) and many deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) in several areas of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Western blots showed large amounts of proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the central nervous system. The striking absence of PrP plaques (prominent in brains of cynomolgus macaques [Macaca fascicularis] with experimentally-induced BSE and vCJD and in human patients with vCJD) reinforces the conclusion that the host plays a major role in determining the neuropathology of TSEs. Results of this study suggest that p-Tau, found in the brains of all BSE-infected monkeys, might play a role in the pathogenesis of TSEs. Whether p-Tau contributes to development of disease or appears as a secondary change late in the course of illness remains to be determined. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Macaque monkeys discriminate pitch relationships.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Michael; Selezneva, Elena; Bucks, Cornelia; Scheich, Henning

    2004-04-01

    This study demonstrates that non-human primates can categorize the direction of the pitch change of tones in a sequence. Two Macaca fascicularis were trained in a positive-reinforcement behavioral paradigm in which they listened to sequences of a variable number of different acoustic items. The training of discriminating pitch direction was divided into three phases with increasing task complexity. In the first two phases, subjects learned to employ a same/different rule. In phase 1, they discriminated acoustic items of different sound quality. Subjects had to respond when there was a change from repeating noise bursts to repeating click trains or vice versa. In phase II, acoustic items differed along one physical dimension only. Subjects had to respond to a change of the frequency of a repeating series of pure tones. In phase III, sequences consisted of three series of repeating tones of different frequency. Subjects were required to respond when the frequency of the tones changed in a downward direction and to refrain from responding when the frequency remained constant or increased. After several ten thousand trials, subjects categorized pitch direction well above chance level. The discrimination was performed over a 4.5-octave range of frequencies and was largely independent of the temporal and ordinal position of the downward pitch direction within the sequence. These results demonstrate that monkeys can recognize pitch relationships and thus that monkeys have the concept of ordinal relations between acoustic items.

  16. Transplantation of Adult Monkey Neural Stem Cells into A Contusion Spinal Cord Injury Model in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hajinasrollah, Mostafa; Zare Mehrjerdi, Nargess; Azizi, Hossein; Hemmesi, Katayoun; Moghiminasr, Reza; Azhdari, Zahra; Talebi, Ardeshir; Mohitmafi, Soroush; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad; Sharifi, Giuve; Baharvand, Hossein; Rezaee, Omidvar; Kiani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months. Results Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based on Tarlov’s scale and our established behavioral tests for monkeys. Conclusion Our findings have indicated that mNSCs can facilitate recovery in contusion SCI models in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additional studies are necessary to determine the im- provement mechanisms after cell transplantation. PMID:24567941

  17. The monkey puzzle: a systematic review of studies of stress, social hierarchies, and heart disease in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Petticrew, Mark; Davey Smith, George

    2012-01-01

    It is often suggested that psychosocial factors, such as stress, or one's social position, may play an important role in producing social gradients in human disease. Evidence in favour of this model of health inequalities has relied, in part, on studies of the health effects of the natural social hierarchies found among non-human primates. This study aimed to assess the strength of this evidence. A systematic review was carried out to identify all studies of psychosocial factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) in non-human primates. We searched databases (MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Primatelit from inception to November 2010) to identify experimental and observational studies of the impact of social reorganisation, social instability, and disruption of dominance hierarchies on primate CAD outcomes. We also handsearched bibliographies and examined the citations to those studies in public health articles. Fourteen studies were found which presented evidence on CAD and social status and/or psychosocial stress. These suggested that the association between social status and disease may be sex-specific: in female monkeys dominant status may be protective, with subordinate females having a greater extent of atherosclerosis. In male monkeys the reverse may be the case. Overall, non-human primate studies present only limited evidence for an association between social status and CAD, Despite this, there is selective citation of individual non-human primate studies in reviews and commentaries relating to human disease aetiology. Such generalisation of data from monkey studies to human societies does not appear warranted.

  18. Human plasma concentrations of cytochrome P450 probes extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Shida, Satomi; Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    1. Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used in preclinical studies as non-human primate species. Pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes determined in cynomolgus monkeys after single oral or intravenous administrations were extrapolated to give human plasma concentrations. 2. Plasma concentrations of slowly eliminated caffeine and R-/S-warfarin and rapidly eliminated omeprazole and midazolam previously observed in cynomolgus monkeys were scaled to human oral biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Results of the simplified human PBPK models were consistent with reported experimental PK data in humans or with values simulated by a fully constructed population-based simulator (Simcyp). 3. Oral administrations of metoprolol and dextromethorphan (human P450 2D probes) in monkeys reportedly yielded plasma concentrations similar to their quantitative detection limits. Consequently, ratios of in vitro hepatic intrinsic clearances of metoprolol and dextromethorphan determined in monkeys and humans were used with simplified PBPK models to extrapolate intravenous PK in monkeys to oral PK in humans. 4. These results suggest that cynomolgus monkeys, despite their rapid clearance of some human P450 substrates, could be a suitable model for humans, especially when used in conjunction with simple PBPK models.

  19. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a psoralen-inactivated dengue-1 virus vaccine candidate in Aotus nancymaae monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maves, Ryan C; Oré, Roger M Castillo; Porter, Kevin R; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2011-03-24

    Psoralens are photoreactive compounds that cross-link pyrimidines after exposure to UVA radiation. In this experiment, we tested the protective efficacy of a psoralen-inactivated dengue vaccine candidate in non-human primates. Two groups of 7 Aotus nancymaae monkeys received either 10ng per dose of inactivated DENV1 plus alum adjuvant or alum alone (controls). Doses were injected intradermally on days 0, 14, and 28. Monkeys then received a challenge inoculation of 1.1 × 10(4)PFUs of WestPac 74 DENV-1 on day 132. At 62 days, only 1/7 vaccinated monkeys had detectable IgM, but IgG and neutralizing antibody remained detectable in 7/7. No IgM, IgG, or neutralizing antibody was detectable in control monkeys. DENV-1 viremia was detected after challenge in 3/7 vaccinated monkeys and 5/6 control monkeys (with one removed due to pregnancy) (p=0.27), but days of viremia were reduced from 3.67 days/animal among controls to 0.71 days/animal among vaccinated monkeys (p=0.051). Psoralen-inactivated DENV1 is immunogenic in Aotus nancymaae with a trend towards a reduction in days of viremia following experimental challenge.

  20. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    PubMed

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  1. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Owl Monkeys (Aotus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly. PMID:23759531

  2. [Squirrel monkey--an ideal primate (correction of prmate) model of space physiology].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, K

    1997-06-01

    Investigation of the vestibulo-ocular system of the squirrel monkey was reviewed in consideration of space motion sickness (SMS), or which is recently more often termed as space adaptation syndrome (SAS). Since the first launching of the space satellite, Sputnik [correction of Sputonik] in October 1957, many experiments were carried out in biological and medical fields. A various kind of creatures were used as experimental models from protozoa to human beings. Rats and monkeys are most favorite animals, particularly the non-human primate seems to be the one, because of its phylogenetic relatives akin to the human beings. Chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, pig tailed-monkeys, red-faced monkeys and squirrel monkeys have been used mostly in American space experiments. Russian used rhesus monkeys. Among these, however, the squirrel monkey has an advantage of the small size of the body, ranging from 600- l000g in adult. This small size as a primate is very advantageous in experiments conducted in a narrow room of the space satellite or shuttle because of its space-saving. The squirrel monkey has another advantage to rear easily as is demonstrated to keep it as a pet. Accordingly, this petit animal provides us a good animal model in biological and medical experiments in space craft. The size of the brain of the squirrel monkey is extraordinary large relative to the body size, which is even superior to that of the human beings. This is partly owed to enlargement of the occipito-temporal cortices, which are forced to well develop for processing a huge amount of audio-visual information indispensable to the arboreal habitant to survive in tropical forest. The vestibular system of the squirrel monkey seems to be the most superior as well, when judged from it relative size of the vestibular nuclear complex. Balancing on swinging twigs or jumping from tree to tree developed the capability of this equilibrium system. Fernandez, Goldberg and his collaborators used the squirrel monkey

  3. A deficit in face-voice integration in developing vervet monkeys exposed to ethanol during gestation.

    PubMed

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders display behavioural and intellectual impairments that strongly implicate dysfunction within the frontal cortex. Deficits in social behaviour and cognition are amongst the most pervasive outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure. Our naturalistic vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey concurrently presenting two different calls along with a single audio track matching the content of one of the calls, they were not able to match the correct video to the single audio track. This was manifest by their average looking time being equally spent towards both the matching and non-matching videos. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration.

  4. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey) by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues.

    PubMed

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Rival, Pierrick; Prades, Catherine; Mariet, Claire; Léonard, Jean-François; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Zhou, Xiaobing; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo; Ozoux, Marie-Laure; Boitier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys.

  5. Identification of microRNAs in Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus Monkey) by Homology Search and Experimental Validation by Small RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR Using Kidney Cortex Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Rival, Pierrick; Prades, Catherine; Mariet, Claire; Léonard, Jean-François; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Zhou, Xiaobing; Wang, Jufeng; Li, Bo; Ozoux, Marie-Laure; Boitier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) present in tissues and biofluids are emerging as sensitive and specific safety biomarkers. MiRNAs have not been thoroughly described in M. fascicularis, an animal model used in pharmaceutical industry especially in drug safety evaluation. Here we investigated the miRNAs in M. fascicularis. For Macaca mulatta, a closely related species of M. fascicularis, 619 stem-loop precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and 914 mature miRNAs are available in miRBase version 21. Using M. mulatta miRNAs as a reference list and homology search tools, we identified 604 pre-miRNAs and 913 mature miRNAs in the genome of M. fascicularis. In order to validate the miRNAs identified by homology search we attempted to sequence miRNAs expressed in kidney cortex from M. fascicularis. MiRNAs expressed in kidney cortex may indeed be released in urine upon kidney cortex damage and be potentially used to monitor drug induced kidney injury. Hence small RNA sequencing libraries were prepared using kidney cortex tissues obtained from three naive M. fascicularis and sequenced. Analysis of sequencing data indicated that 432 out of 913 mature miRNAs were expressed in kidney cortex tissues. Assigning these 432 miRNAs to pre-miRNAs revealed that 273 were expressed from both the -5p and -3p arms of 150 pre-miRNAs and 159 miRNAs expressed from either the -5p or -3p arm of 176 pre-miRNAs. Mapping sequencing reads to pre-miRNAs also facilitated the detection of twenty-two new miRNAs. To substantiate miRNAs identified by small RNA sequencing, 313 miRNAs were examined by RT-qPCR. Expression of 262 miRNAs in kidney cortex tissues ware confirmed by TaqMan microRNA RT-qPCR assays. Analysis of kidney cortex miRNA targeted genes suggested that they play important role in kidney development and function. Data presented in this study may serve as a valuable resource to assess the renal safety biomarker potential of miRNAs in Cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:26562842

  6. A genetic system for rhesus monkey rhadinovirus: use of recombinant virus to quantitate antibody-mediated neutralization.

    PubMed

    Bilello, John P; Morgan, Jennifer S; Damania, Blossom; Lang, Sabine M; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2006-02-01

    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a simian gamma-2 herpesvirus closely related to the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, replicates lytically in cultured rhesus monkey fibroblasts and establishes persistence in B cells. Overlapping cosmid clones were generated that encompass the entire 130-kilobase-pair genome of RRV strain 26-95, including the terminal repeat regions required for its replication. Cloned RRV that was produced by cotransfection of overlapping cosmids spanning the entire RRV26-95 genome replicated with growth kinetics and to titers similar to those of the parental, uncloned, wild-type RRV26-95. Expression cassettes for secreted-engineered alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were inserted upstream of the R1 gene, and the cosmid-based system for RRV genome reconstitution was used to generate replication-competent, recombinant RRV that expressed either the SEAP or GFP reporter gene. Using the SEAP and GFP recombinant RRVs, assays were developed to monitor RRV infection, neutralization, and replication. Heat-inactivated sera from rhesus monkeys that were naturally or experimentally infected with RRV were assayed for their ability to neutralize RRV-SEAP and RRV-GFP infectivity using rhesus monkey fibroblasts. Sera from RRV-positive monkeys, but not RRV-negative monkeys, were consistently able to neutralize RRV infectivity when assayed by the production of SEAP activity or by the ability to express GFP. The neutralizing activity was present in the immunoglobulin fraction. Of the 17 rhesus monkeys tested, sera from rhesus monkey 26-95, i.e., the monkey that yielded the RRV 26-95 isolate, had the highest titer of neutralizing activity against RRV26-95. This cosmid-based genetic system and the reporter virus neutralization assay will facilitate study of the contribution of individual RRV glycoproteins to entry into different cell types, particularly fibroblasts and B cells.

  7. Acquisition of Cocaine Self-Administration with Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Woods, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Six experimentally naive rhesus monkeys produced 0.01 mg/kg/infusion cocaine by lever pressing under a tandem fixed-ratio 1 differential-reinforcement-of-other- behavior schedule. One lever press initiated an unsignaled 15- or 30-s delay culminating in cocaine delivery. Each press made during the delay reset the delay interval. With two…

  8. Acquisition of Cocaine Self-Administration with Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Woods, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Six experimentally naive rhesus monkeys produced 0.01 mg/kg/infusion cocaine by lever pressing under a tandem fixed-ratio 1 differential-reinforcement-of-other- behavior schedule. One lever press initiated an unsignaled 15- or 30-s delay culminating in cocaine delivery. Each press made during the delay reset the delay interval. With two…

  9. Social Behavior in Interacting Squirrel Monkeys with Differential Nutritional and Environmental Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Patricia F.

    This paper reports an observational study of the effects of handling on the social behavior of squirrel monkeys who received a protein deficient diet. After birth, experimental animals received a low-protein diet for a 6-week period. A subgroup of these animals were handled between 3 and 12 weeks of age. All of the animals interacted (in four…

  10. Radiographic evidence of disuse osteoporosis in the monkey /M. nemestrina/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. R.; Schneider, V. S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiological techniques were utilized for monitoring progressive changes in compact bone in the tibia of monkeys during experimentally induced osteopenia. Bone mass loss in the tibia during restraint was evaluated from radiographs, from bone mineral analysis, and from images reconstructed from gamma ray computerized tomography. The losses during 6 months of restraint tended to occur predominantly in the proximal tibia and were characterized by subperiosteal bone loss, intracortical striations, and scalloped endosteal surfaces. Bone mineral content in the cross section of the tibia declined 17-21%. In 6 months of recovery, the mineral content of the proximal tibia remained depressed.

  11. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) complex learning skills reassessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    An automated computerized testing facility is employed to study basic learning and transfer in rhesus monkeys including discrimination learning set and mediational learning. The data show higher performance levels than those predicted from other tests that involved compromised learning with analogous conditions. Advanced transfer-index ratios and positive transfer of learning are identified, and indications of mediational learning strategies are noted. It is suggested that these data are evidence of the effectiveness of the present experimental apparatus for enhancing learning in nonhuman primates.

  12. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  13. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  14. Blood typing in Saimiri sciureus monkeys: influence of anti-red blood cell alloantibodies on Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in vivo.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Claude; Behr, Charlotte; Morales-Betoulle, Maria Eugenia; Jouin, Hélène; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Contamin, Hugues

    2005-06-01

    The Saimiri sciureus monkey is a well-established host for experimental studies with human malaria parasites. During the course of iterative inoculations with Plasmodium falciparum parasitised red blood cells (RBC), anti-RBC alloantibodies were detected in the sera of two of eight Saimiri monkeys. These anti-RBC antibodies were further used to investigate RBC phenotypes in 35 colony-reared Saimiri monkeys by flow cytometry. Three RBC phenotypes (named I-III) were observed. Their distribution was I (86%), II (11%) and III (3%). Using the Palo Alto FUP-2 strain, a variant P. falciparum line insensitive to hyperimmune serum and the passive transfer of anti-RBC alloantibodies, a dramatic drop in parasite growth was documented in an incompatible monkey.

  15. Simian varicella virus reactivation in cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Mahalingam, Ravi Traina-Dorge, Vicki Wellish, Mary Lorino, Rebecca Sanford, Robert Ribka, Erin P. Alleman, Scott J. Brazeau, Elizabeth Gilden, Donald H.

    2007-11-10

    SVV infection of primates closely resembles VZV infection of humans. Like VZV, SVV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons. We used this model to study the effect of immunosuppression on varicella reactivation. Cynomolgus monkeys latently infected with SVV were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus and prednisone. Of four latently infected monkeys that were immunosuppressed and subjected to the stress of transportation and isolation, one developed zoster, and three others developed features of subclinical reactivation. Another non-immunosuppressed latently infected monkey that was subjected to the same stress of travel and isolation showed features of subclinical reactivation. Virus reactivation was confirmed not only by the occurrence of zoster in one monkey, but also by the presence of late SVV RNA in ganglia, and the detection of SVV DNA in non-ganglionic tissue, and SVV antigens in skin, ganglia and lung.

  16. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  17. Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

    SciTech Connect

    La Vail, M.M.; Rapaport, D.H.; Rakic, P. )

    1991-07-01

    Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2- to 6-month-old animals, each of which was exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) on a single embryonic (E) or postnatal (P) day. Cell birth in the monkey retina begins just after E27, and approximately 96% of cells are generated by E120. The remaining cells are produced during the last (approximately 45) prenatal days and into the first several weeks after birth. Cell genesis begins near the fovea, and proceeds towards the periphery. Cell division largely ceases in the foveal and perifoveal regions by E56. Despite extensive overlap, a class-specific sequence of cell birth was observed. Ganglion and horizontal cells, which are born first, have largely congruent periods of cell genesis with the peak between E38 and E43, and termination around E70. The first labeled cones were apparent by E33, and their highest density was achieved between E43 and E56, tapering to low values at E70, although some cones are generated in the far periphery as late as E110. Amacrine cells are next in the cell birth sequence and begin genesis at E43, reach a peak production between E56 and E85, and cease by E110. Bipolar cell birth begins at the same time as amacrines, but appears to be separate from them temporally since their production reaches a peak between E56 and E102, and persists beyond the day of birth. Mueller cells and rod photoreceptors, which begin to be generated at E45, achieve a peak, and decrease in density at the same time as bipolar cells, but continue genesis at low density on the day of birth. Thus, bipolar, Mueller, and rod cells have a similar time of origin.

  18. Validation of an auditory sensory reinforcement paradigm: Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) do not prefer consonant over dissonant sounds.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Basile, Muriel; Olivier, Marion; Remeuf, Kevin; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-08-01

    The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies conducted with organisms at different levels of the primate lineage are needed to understand the evolutionary scenario under which this phenomenon emerged. Although previous research found no preference for consonance in a New World monkey species, the question remained opened for Old World monkeys. We used an experimental paradigm based on a sensory reinforcement procedure to test auditory preferences for consonant sounds in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli), an Old World monkey species. Although a systematic preference for soft (70 dB) over loud (90 dB) control white noise was found, Campbell's monkeys showed no preference for either consonant or dissonant sounds. The preference for soft white noise validates our noninvasive experimental paradigm, which can be easily reused in any captive facility to test for auditory preferences. This would suggest that human preference for consonant sounds is not systematically shared with New and Old World monkeys. The sensitivity for harmonic musical intervals emerged probably very late in the primate lineage.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Field-Isolate and Monkey-Adapted Plasmodium vivax Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ernest R.; Barnwell, John W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Serre, David

    2015-01-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology. PMID:25768941

  20. Comparative analysis of field-isolate and monkey-adapted Plasmodium vivax genomes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ernest R; Barnwell, John W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2015-03-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology.

  1. The Moral Lives of Laboratory Monkeys: Television and the Ethics of Care.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Lesley A

    2017-04-04

    Why do lab monkeys watch TV? This essay examines the preponderance of televisions in primate housing units based in academic research laboratories. Within such labs, television and related visual media are glossed as part-and-parcel of welfare or species-specific enrichment practices intended for research monkeys, a logic that is simultaneously historically- and ontologically-based. In many research centers, television figures prominently in the two inseparable domains of a lab monkey's life: as a research tool employed during experiments, and in housing units where captive monkeys are said to enjoy watching TV during "down time." My purpose is not to determine whether monkeys do indeed enjoy, or need, television; rather, I employ visual media as a means to uncover, and decipher, the moral logic of an ethics of care directed specifically at highly sentient creatures who serve as human proxies in a range of experimental contexts. I suggest that this specialized ethics of animal care materializes Mattingly's notion of "moral laboratories" (Mattingly in Moral laboratories: family peril and the struggle for a good life, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2014), where television mediates the troublesome boundary of species difference among the simian and human subjects who cohabit laboratory worlds.

  2. Endocrine and pharmacological factors which influence the onset of labour in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Novy, M J

    1977-01-01

    Indomethacin administration in late pregnancy prolonged gestation in caged rhesus monkeys and inhibited premature labour and postponed delivery in chronically catheterized monkey fetuses. Chronic indomethacin treatment was associated with a reduction in the urinary excretion of a prostaglandin metabolite, a potent inhibitory effect on myometrial cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, and severe oligohydramnios in pre-term and post-term fetuses. Experimental anencephaly (functional hypophysectomy) of the rhesus fetus results in lowered concentrations of maternal oestradiol and loss of the precise control of gestational length, with 40% of fetuses delivering beyond term. Corticotropin (ACTH) infused into the fetus results in raised concentrations of fetal and maternal cortisol, progesterone and oestrogens. Progesterone concentrations in peripheral blood apparently have little bearing on uterine quiescence in the rhesus monkey, since the concentrations of progesterone in maternal and fetal blood vary directly with uterine activity. The results of chronic infusion of corticotropin in the fetal monkey support the theory that in the monkey parturition is mediated by increased oestrogen production by the fetoplacental unit and by a rise in the concentrations of oestrone and prostaglandin in the amniotic fluid.

  3. Hybrid bioartificial liver support in cynomolgus monkeys with D-galactosamine-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Zhao, Yi-Chao; Cheng, Yuan; Jian, Guo-Deng; Pan, Ming-Xin; Gao, Yi

    2014-12-14

    To evaluate a hybrid bioartificial liver support system (HBALSS) in cynomolgus monkeys with acute liver failure. To establish a model of acute liver failure, 0.3 g/kg of D-galactosamine was injected intravenously into cynomolgus monkeys. Chinese human liver cells were introduced into a perfusion bioreactor to carry out hybrid bioartificial liver support treatment. Forty-eight hours after the injection, one group of cynomolgus monkeys received HBALSS care, and a second experimental group received no treatment. Clinical manifestations of all animals, survival time, liver and kidney functions and serum biochemistry changes were recorded. Simultaneous detection of the number, viability and function of hepatocytes in the hybrid bioartificial liver were also performed. Forty-eight hours after the injection of D-galactosamine, serum biochemistry levels were significantly increased, whereas albumin levels and the Fischer index were significantly reduced compared to baseline (all Ps < 0.05). Of the ten monkeys in the HBALSS treatment group, five survived, with an average duration of survival of 128 ± 3 h. All cynomolgus monkeys in the control group died, with a duration of survival of 112 ± 2 h. Survival time was significantly longer with HBALSS treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number, viability and function of hepatocytes were maintained at a high level with HBALSS. The novel hybrid bioartificial liver plays a significant role in liver support by significantly reducing serum biochemistry levels and extending animal survival time.

  4. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  5. Third-party social evaluations of humans by monkeys and dogs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Kuroshima, Hika; Takimoto, Ayaka; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-01-07

    Developmental psychologists are increasingly interested in young children's evaluations of individuals based on third-party interactions. Studies have shown that infants react negatively to agents who display harmful intentions toward others, and to those who behave unfairly. We describe experimental studies of capuchin monkeys' and pet dogs' differential reactions to people who are helpful or unhelpful in third-party contexts, and monkeys' responses to people who behave unfairly in exchanges of objects with a third party. We also present evidence that capuchin monkeys monitor the context of failures to help and violations of reciprocity, and that intentionality is one factor underlying their social evaluations of individuals whom they see interacting with others. We conclude by proposing some questions for studies of nonhuman species' third party-based social evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, V.; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S. F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins. PMID:24347756

  7. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella).

    PubMed

    Wilson, V; Lefevre, C E; Morton, F B; Brosnan, S F; Paukner, A; Bates, T C

    2014-02-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one's personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins.

  8. Seasonal importance of flowers to Costa Rican capuchins (Cebus capucinus imitator): Implications for plant and primate.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jeremy D; Melin, Amanda D; Mosdossy, Krisztina N; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-12-01

    Our goal is to investigate flower foraging by capuchin monkeys, a behavior rarely studied in wild primates. We ask what drives seasonal variation in florivory rates: flower quality and abundance or fluctuations in fruit and invertebrate abundances. We explore how capuchins affect the reproductive success of flower food species by quantifying the potential pollination rate. We followed capuchin groups from dawn to dusk and recorded all flower foraging bouts. Flower food nutritional composition was compared to fruit and invertebrate foods. We recorded overall flower, fruit, and invertebrate abundances and compared the rate of flower foraging to these. We estimated the likelihood of pollination from the proportion of flower patch visits to each plant species that satisfied minimum behavioral requirements. Flower eating was highly seasonal, and was significantly negatively related to overall fruit and invertebrate abundance but not flower abundance. Although smaller than most fruits, flowers were nutritionally comparable to fruit foods by dry mass and contained higher average concentrations of protein. Capuchins are likely pollinators for Luehea speciosa; most foraging visits to this species occurred in a manner that makes outcrossing or geitonogamous pollination likely. Flowers are an important seasonal resource for capuchins. Flowers likely act as fallback foods during periods of reduced fruit and invertebrate abundance, and may exert evolutionary pressure disproportionate to their consumption. Capuchin florivory likely affects the reproductive success of some plants, potentially shaping forest structure. Our study illustrates the value of assessing the importance of rare foods in the primate diet. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  10. Ranking Cognitive Flexibility in a Group Setting of Rhesus Monkeys with a Set-Shifting Procedure.

    PubMed

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Allen, Daicia C; Gonzales, Steven W; Walter, Nicole A R; Grant, Kathleen A

    2017-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability is an executive function underling cognitive flexibility in humans and animals. In humans, this function is typically observed during a single experimental session where dimensions of playing cards are used to measure flexibility in the face of changing rules for reinforcement (i.e., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)). In laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, variants of the WCST involve extensive training and testing on a series of dimensional discriminations, usually in social isolation. In the present study, a novel experimental approach was used to assess attentional set-shifting simultaneously in 12 rhesus monkeys. Specifically, monkeys living in individual cages but in the same room were trained at the same time each day in a set-shifting task in the same housing environment. As opposed to the previous studies, each daily session began with a simple single-dimension discrimination regardless of the animal's performance on the previous session. A total of eight increasingly difficult, discriminations (sets) were possible in each daily 45 min session. Correct responses were reinforced under a second-order schedule of flavored food pellet delivery, and criteria for completing a set was 12 correct trials out of a running total of 15 trials. Monkeys progressed through the sets at their own pace and abilities. The results demonstrate that all 12 monkeys acquired the simple discrimination (the first set), but individual differences in the ability to progress through all eight sets were apparent. A performance index (PI) that encompassed progression through the sets, errors and session duration was calculated and used to rank each monkey's performance in relation to each other. Overall, this version of a set-shifting task results in an efficient assessment of reliable differences in cognitive flexibility in a group of monkeys.

  11. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis, erythrarchus) through patch use.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-10-26

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys' use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilize secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection.

  12. An MRI based average macaque monkey stereotaxic atlas and space (MNI monkey space).

    PubMed

    Frey, Stephen; Pandya, Deepak N; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Bailey, Lara; Petrides, Michael; Collins, D Louis

    2011-04-15

    In studies of the human brain, a standard stereotaxic space such as the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI space) is widely used to provide a common reference for the three-dimensional localization of functional activation foci and anatomical structures, enabling the comparison of results obtained across different studies. Here we present a standard macaque monkey brain MRI template that offers a common stereotaxic reference frame to localize anatomical and functional information in an organized and reliable way for comparison across individual monkeys and studies. We have used MRI volumes from a group of 25 normal adult macaque monkeys (18 cynomolgus and 7 rhesus) to create a common standard macaque monkey brain as well as atlases for each of these species separately. In addition, the digital macaque monkey volume was subjected to 3D volumetric analysis and comparison of brain structures between the individual brains and the average atlas. Furthermore, we provide a means of transforming any macaque MRI volume into MNI monkey space coordinates in 3D using simple web based tools. Coordinates in MNI monkey space can also be transformed into the coordinate system of a detailed neuroanatomical paper atlas (Paxinos et al., 2008), enabling researchers to identify and delineate cortical and subcortical structures in their individual macaque monkey brains.

  13. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  14. Heterochromatin and chromosome evolution: a FISH probe of Cebus apella paraguayanus (Primate: Platyrrhini) developed by chromosome microdissection.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Mariela; Mühlmann, María; Mudry, Marta Dolores

    2005-12-30

    Neotropical Primate karyotypes are highly variable, particularly in the heterochromatic regions, not only regarding the amount of heterochromatin, but also the composition. G and C banding and FISH techniques provide useful information to characterize interspecific relationships. We used chromosome microdissection to develop a FISH probe of the chromosome 11 heterochromatic block (11qHe+) of Cebus apella paraguayanus (CAPp). Fragments of the 11qHe+ microdissected from fibroblast cell culture were collected in a PCR tube, amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide primer-PCR and subsequently labeled. The specificity of the FISH probe was confirmed in metaphases of some Ceboidea species. Signals were located in the He+ of chromosomes 4, 11, 12, 13, and 19 of CAPp and in the He+ of chromosomes 4, 12 and 13 of C. a. nigritus (CAPn); no signals were observed when other Ceboidea species were analyzed. We propose that the heterochromatin observed in CAPp and CAPn is specific for these species. We consider this C. apella heterochromatin identity as a possible key for the interpretation of chromosomal evolution in these Ceboidea.

  15. Mental transformations of spatial stimuli in humans and in monkeys: rotation vs. translocation.

    PubMed

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Rokyta, Richard; Bures, Jan

    2013-03-01

    according to the map presented in the other spatial frame depended on the type of stimulus manipulation. We demonstrated that for monkeys there was a difference between solving "mental rotation" and "mental translocation" in this experimental design. We showed that humans were able both to mentally rotate and translocate the displayed stimuli. However, the mental rotation was more difficult than mental translocation also for them. These experiments help us to understand how the monkeys perceive the abstract spatial information, create the representation of space and how they transform the information about the position obtained from one spatial frame into another. The comparison between humans and monkeys allows us to study this cognitive ability in phylogeny.

  16. Susceptibility of the squirrel monkey to different motion conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Coleman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The exact stimulus eliciting vomiting in animal studies of motion sickness is difficult to specify because the vestibular stimulation produced by many motion conditions is confounded by voluntary movements with animals. This is an important problem because experiments with animal models of motion sickness can provide useful information about antimotion sickness drugs or the role of neural mechanisms, only when animals are exposed to the same motion stimuli in each experimental session. A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of 15 adult squirrel monkeys to motion sickness in freely moving and restrained test conditions. Canal stimulation was varied by exposing the monkey in freely moving conditions to varying degrees of angular velocity (60, 90, 120, 150 deg/sec), and in restrained conditions to one angular velocity (150 deg/sec) and to cross-coupling effects of whole-body roll movements during rotation. Otolith stimulation was investigated by using sinusoidal vertical linear acceleration during free movement conditions, and off-vertical rotation and earth-horizontal (BBQ) rotation while restrained. The percentage of freely moving animal vomiting during vertical axis rotation was 27, 93, 86, and 92 for the angular velocities of 60, 90, 120, and 150 deg/sec respectively. None of the monkeys vomited during vertical axis rotation or cross-coupled rotation when restrained. Otolith stimulation appears to be a less provocative stimulus for the squirrel monkey as the percentage of animals vomiting were 13, 0, and 7 for the conditions of free movement during oscillation, restraint during off-vertical, and BBQ rotation respectively. Motion sickness to the point of vomiting occurred regularly only in conditions where self-motion was possible. Such effects could occur because voluntary movement during motion augments vestibular effects by producing self-inflicted cross-coupling, but the failure to elicit vomiting with experimenter-coupling cross

  17. Immune and airway effects of house dust mite aeroallergen exposures during postnatal development of the infant rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Miller, L A; Plopper, C G; Hyde, D M; Gerriets, J E; Pieczarka, E M; Tyler, N K; Evans, M J; Gershwin, L J; Schelegle, E S; Van Winkle, L S

    2003-12-01

    The effect of chronic environmental aeroallergen exposure on the immune system and airways has not been experimentally defined in very young children. The purpose of this study was to determine the immunophenotype of peripheral blood and airway leucocytes in the newborn rhesus macaque monkey, following recurrent aerosol exposure to house dust mite (HDM) (Dermatophagoides farinae). A regimen of HDM aerosolization was initiated for 2 h per day, three times per week, starting when rhesus macaque monkeys were 1 week of age. All monkeys were inoculated with diptheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine at 5 weeks of age to simulate human infant vaccination schedules. Following 8 weeks of HDM aeroallergen exposure, infant monkeys exhibited a significant reduction in the total peripheral blood lymphocyte numbers and a decreased frequency of peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes with a CD45RA-'memory' immunophenotype. Lavage CD4+ T lymphocytes from HDM-exposed monkeys showed elevated expression of CD25, as well as an increase in CD45RA-/CD62L-/CD11ahigh immunophenotype. Eosinophils were more abundant within airways of HDM-exposed monkeys, accumulating maximally within the trachea. These data demonstrate the development of immunological responses following chronic inhalation of a common environmental allergen during postnatal maturation in the non-human primate.

  18. Circadian phase relationships in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Wekstein, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two adult male pigtail monkeys were placed in an isolated, soundproofed chamber (entered for cleaning only) for a period of six months, during which time their deep body temperatures T sub DB, telemetered from transmitters implanted in the abdominal cavity), fluid intake, urinary output (UV), urinary sodium and potassium were continuously monitored. During the first 3 1/2 months, lights (L) were turned on at 0000 hours, off at 1200 hours. Photoperiod phase was then delayed (light span prolonged) 6 hours to a new schedule: L on at 0600 hours, off at 1800 hours. Six weeks later, photoperiod phase was advanced 6 hours to return to the original schedule. Prior to shift, T sub DB typically began a steep rise 0-5 hours prior to L on, a steep fall 3-4 hours prior to L off, relative plateaus in between. Urinary Na typically peaks 2 hours prior to L off, has a minimum 2-4 hours prior to L on; K tends both to peak and show a minimum 2-8 hours earlier than Na; in contrast, UV peaks at L on, has a minimum 2-6 hours after L off. Upon delaying photoperiod phase, T sub DB shift was completed in 8 days. UV shifted more rapidly but tended to overshoot the new phase. Within 5 days, UV and K completed their shifts, although Na did not fully resynchronize within the 6 week period monitored.

  19. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  20. SLO angiography: arterio-venous filling times in monkey and minipig.

    PubMed

    Rosolen, Serge G; Saint-Macary, Gérard; Gautier, Vincent; Le Gargasson, Jean-François

    2002-03-01

    Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) is a new technique which enables ocular fundus image recording and dynamic retinal angiography to be performed. The ocular fundus image is acquired sequentially, point by point, and is reconstructed on a video monitor at the rate of 25 images per second. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring retinal arterio-venous filling times (AVFT) with a I + Tech cSLO. Three young adult cynomolgus monkeys and three young adult Göttingen minipigs were used as experimental models. All animals were anesthetized using a zolazepam + tiletamine mixture injected intramuscularly; heart rate and rectal temperature were monitored and corneal irrigation was regularly performed. For all subjects, prior to examination, hematocrit and globe axial length were measured. The images were recorded, stabilized and analyzed. The retinal examination consisted of retinal images with 40 degrees field cSLO, retinal fluorescein angiography and arterio-venous 50% filling time measurements. For each subject all images were easily recorded while keeping the animals in a normally lighted room without having to use any additional optical device. AVFT using an I + Tech cSLO is easily performed in monkeys and minipigs. AVFT measurements in minipigs and monkeys are similar. These results suggest that minipigs can replace monkeys as an experimental species for AVFT investigations.

  1. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    PubMed

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  3. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  4. Antimalaria Drug Screen in Monkeys: Chemotherapy of Selected Compounds in Trophozoite Induced Plasmodium knowlesi Infections in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) Monkeys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTIMALARIALS, BIOASSAY, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, MONKEYS, PARASITIC DISEASES, CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS, PHARMACOLOGY, TOXICITY, BENZENE, ACRIDINES, QUINOLINE ALKALOIDS , HYDRAZONES, GUANIDINES , THIOPHENES, ANTIMETABOLITES, DOSAGE.

  5. The Monkey Puzzle: A Systematic Review of Studies of Stress, Social Hierarchies, and Heart Disease in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Petticrew, Mark; Davey Smith, George

    2012-01-01

    Background It is often suggested that psychosocial factors, such as stress, or one's social position, may play an important role in producing social gradients in human disease. Evidence in favour of this model of health inequalities has relied, in part, on studies of the health effects of the natural social hierarchies found among non-human primates. This study aimed to assess the strength of this evidence. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review was carried out to identify all studies of psychosocial factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) in non-human primates. We searched databases (MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Primatelit from inception to November 2010) to identify experimental and observational studies of the impact of social reorganisation, social instability, and disruption of dominance hierarchies on primate CAD outcomes. We also handsearched bibliographies and examined the citations to those studies in public health articles. Fourteen studies were found which presented evidence on CAD and social status and/or psychosocial stress. These suggested that the association between social status and disease may be sex-specific: in female monkeys dominant status may be protective, with subordinate females having a greater extent of atherosclerosis. In male monkeys the reverse may be the case. Conclusions/Significance Overall, non-human primate studies present only limited evidence for an association between social status and CAD, Despite this, there is selective citation of individual non-human primate studies in reviews and commentaries relating to human disease aetiology. Such generalisation of data from monkey studies to human societies does not appear warranted. PMID:22470414

  6. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    PubMed

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses

    PubMed Central

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category and feature selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging. PMID:25102559

  8. Default Mode of Brain Function in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions—the default-mode network (DMN)—that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment. PMID:21900574

  9. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  10. A MEG investigation of somatosensory processing in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tony W; Godwin, Dwayne W; Czoty, Paul W; Nader, Michael A; Kraft, Robert A; Buchheimer, Nancy C; Daunais, James B

    2009-07-15

    use current human whole-head MEG instrumentation to record neuromagnetic responses in adult rhesus monkeys. Nonhuman primate models of human disease provide the closest phylogenetic link to humans. The present, non-invasive imaging study could promote exciting translational integration of invasive animal studies and non-invasive human studies, allowing experimentally induced deficits and pharmacological treatments to be interpreted in light of resulting brain network interactions.

  11. A MEG investigation of somatosensory processing in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tony W.; Godwin, Dwayne W.; Czoty, Paul W.; Nader, Michael A.; Kraft, Robert A.; Buchheimer, Nancy C.; Daunais, James B.

    2009-01-01

    -head MEG instrumentation to record neuromagnetic responses in adult rhesus monkeys. Nonhuman primate models of human disease provide the closest phylogenetic link to humans. The present, non-invasive imaging study could promote exciting links between invasive animal studies and non-invasive human studies, allowing experimentally induced deficits and pharmacological treatments to be interpreted in light of resulting brain network interactions. PMID:19306931

  12. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  13. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of the white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons; Cebidae, Primates) by means of mtCOII gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, M; Castillo, M I; Vásquez, C; Rodriguez, K; Pinedo-Castro, M; Shostell, J; Leguizamon, N

    2010-12-01

    A total of 696 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial COII gene were sequenced from 118 individuals of Cebus albifrons (plus an individual of Cebus olivaceus) sampled from diverse geographical areas of Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. These animals represented all of the C. albifrons's taxa described by Hershkovitz (1949) in Colombia and Peru (10 out of 13 subspecies are described by this author). The sequences analyzed demonstrate the existence of three well defined groups in northern Colombia (trans-Andean): malitosus, versicolor-pleei-cesarae and leucocephalus. They arose from at least, three distinct migrations from different Amazonian groups. Five different Amazonian and Eastern Llanos C. albifrons's groups (I, II, III, IV, and V) were also found. In many Amazonian localities, some of these groups live in sympatry probably by secondary expansion after their respective formations. Amazonian group I is closely related to the versicolor-pleei-cesarae group, malitosus is closely related to Amazonian group V, while leucocephalus is closely related to Amazonian group IV. Nevertheless, our genetic analysis could not resolve the genetic relationships among the main C. albifrons groups. The ρ-statistic applied to the median-joining network yielded that the major part of the temporal splits estimated occurred in the Pleistocene, reinforcing the importance of the Pleistocene refugia during the evolution of C. albifrons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Fragment and Vegetation Structure on the Population Abundance of Ateles hybridus, Alouatta seniculus and Cebus albifrons in Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Christopher; Link, Andres; King-Bailey, Gillian; Donati, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Many primate species currently subsist in fragmented and anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Different threats arise depending on the species' life history strategy, dietary requirements and habitat preference. Additionally, anthropogenic disturbance is far from uniform and may affect individual forest fragments in a single landscape in differing ways. We studied the effects of fragmentation on three species of diurnal primate, Cebus albifrons, Alouatta seniculus and Ateles hybridus, in Magdalena Valley, Colombia. We tested the assumption that generalist species are more resilient than specialist species to habitat degradation by examining the fragments' vegetation and spatial structure and how these affected primate presence and abundance patterns. We found C. albifrons, a generalist, to be the most abundant species in 9 of 10 forest fragments, regardless of the level of habitat disturbance. A. hybridus, a large-bodied primate with a specialist diet, was either absent or low in abundance in fragments that had experienced recent disturbances and was found only in higher-quality fragments, regardless of the fragment size. A. seniculus, a species considered to have a highly flexible diet and the ability to survive in degraded habitat, was found in intermediate abundances between those of Cebus spp. and Ateles spp., and was more frequently found in high-quality fragments. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  17. Diffusion dynamics of socially learned foraging techniques in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Claidière, Nicolas; Messer, Emily J E; Hoppitt, William; Whiten, Andrew

    2013-07-08

    Social network analyses and experimental studies of social learning have each become important domains of animal behavior research in recent years yet have remained largely separate. Here we bring them together, providing the first demonstration of how social networks may shape the diffusion of socially learned foraging techniques. One technique for opening an artificial fruit was seeded in the dominant male of a group of squirrel monkeys and an alternative technique in the dominant male of a second group. We show that the two techniques spread preferentially in the groups in which they were initially seeded and that this process was influenced by monkeys' association patterns. Eigenvector centrality predicted both the speed with which an individual would first succeed in opening the artificial fruit and the probability that they would acquire the cultural variant seeded in their group. These findings demonstrate a positive role of social networks in determining how a new foraging technique diffuses through a population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Movement Limitation and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-alpha (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CDB+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  19. Meaningful gesture in monkeys? Investigating whether mandrills create social culture.

    PubMed

    Laidre, Mark E

    2011-02-02

    Human societies exhibit a rich array of gestures with cultural origins. Often these gestures are found exclusively in local populations, where their meaning has been crafted by a community into a shared convention. In nonhuman primates like African monkeys, little evidence exists for such culturally-conventionalized gestures. Here I report a striking gesture unique to a single community of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) among nineteen studied across North America, Africa, and Europe. The gesture was found within a community of 23 mandrills where individuals old and young, female and male covered their eyes with their hands for periods which could exceed 30 min, often while simultaneously raising their elbow prominently into the air. This 'Eye covering' gesture has been performed within the community for a decade, enduring deaths, removals, and births, and it persists into the present. Differential responses to Eye covering versus controls suggested that the gesture might have a locally-respected meaning, potentially functioning over a distance to inhibit interruptions as a 'do not disturb' sign operates. The creation of this gesture by monkeys suggests that the ability to cultivate shared meanings using novel manual acts may be distributed more broadly beyond the human species. Although logistically difficult with primates, the translocation of gesturers between communities remains critical to experimentally establishing the possible cultural origin and transmission of nonhuman gestures.

  20. Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

  1. Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

  2. Ranking Cognitive Flexibility in a Group Setting of Rhesus Monkeys with a Set-Shifting Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Shnitko, Tatiana A.; Allen, Daicia C.; Gonzales, Steven W.; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability is an executive function underling cognitive flexibility in humans and animals. In humans, this function is typically observed during a single experimental session where dimensions of playing cards are used to measure flexibility in the face of changing rules for reinforcement (i.e., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)). In laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, variants of the WCST involve extensive training and testing on a series of dimensional discriminations, usually in social isolation. In the present study, a novel experimental approach was used to assess attentional set-shifting simultaneously in 12 rhesus monkeys. Specifically, monkeys living in individual cages but in the same room were trained at the same time each day in a set-shifting task in the same housing environment. As opposed to the previous studies, each daily session began with a simple single-dimension discrimination regardless of the animal’s performance on the previous session. A total of eight increasingly difficult, discriminations (sets) were possible in each daily 45 min session. Correct responses were reinforced under a second-order schedule of flavored food pellet delivery, and criteria for completing a set was 12 correct trials out of a running total of 15 trials. Monkeys progressed through the sets at their own pace and abilities. The results demonstrate that all 12 monkeys acquired the simple discrimination (the first set), but individual differences in the ability to progress through all eight sets were apparent. A performance index (PI) that encompassed progression through the sets, errors and session duration was calculated and used to rank each monkey’s performance in relation to each other. Overall, this version of a set-shifting task results in an efficient assessment of reliable differences in cognitive flexibility in a group of monkeys. PMID:28386222

  3. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) through patch use.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-11-01

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys’ use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilise secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection.

  4. Experimental leprosy in monkeys. II. Longitudinal serological observations in sooty mangabey monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gormus, B J; Xu, K; Cho, S N; Baskin, G B; Bohm, R P; Martin, L N; Blanchard, J L; Mack, P A; Ratterree, M S; Meyers, W M

    1995-06-01

    In this study, 11 SMM were grouped and inoculated with differing doses of SMM-origin Mycobacterium leprae (ML) between 4.5 x 10(8) and 1 x 10(9) by either combined IV/IC routes or by IV or IC route alone. The combined route was the most effective in eliciting progressive, disseminated LL leprosy. In all, 6 of 7 SMM inoculated by the combined routes developed leprosy requiring treatment at some point. Only 1 of 4 inoculated by a single route developed persisting leprosy requiring chemotherapy. Either no disease or spontaneous regression of initial disease occurred in the other 3 animals inoculated by a single route. Doses in excess of 1 x 10(9) ML were more effective than lesser doses. An association was observed between the development of IgG anti-PGL-I ELISA OD values and resistance to leprosy and between IgM anti-PGL-I and leprosy progression or susceptibility. Serum PGL-I antigen levels, determined by dot ELISA, paralleled disease severity longitudinally. High positive OD values of anti-LAM IgG prior to ML inoculation were observed in the majority of leprosy-susceptible SMM in contrast to negative levels in more resistant animals. Anti-LAM IgG OD values exceeded the positive cut-off point after inoculation in 5 of 11 SMM; 3 of these 5 had concurrent detectable serum levels of PGL-I antigen.

  5. [Studies on virulence of HIV and development of non-virulent live AIDS vaccine using monkeys].

    PubMed

    Hayami, Masanori; Horiuchi, Reii

    2004-06-01

    A great effort for developing AIDS vaccine has been carried out in the world, designed by various new ideas based on basic research information obtained in recent virology and immunology. Withall it, to obtain effective AIDS vaccine is considered skeptical. One of the reasons of its difficulty is a lack of experimental animals susceptible to HIV-1. In our laboratory, we have succeeded in developing chimeric SIV having 3' half of HIV-1 genome including env (SHIV), which is infectious to macaque monkeys. One of SHIVs has been proved nonpathogenic in monkeys from various aspects and it afforded protective immunity to monkeys against pathogenic SHIV challenge infection. Now, we are trying to develop anti-HIV live attenuated vaccines using the nonpathogenic SHIV as a starting material. In the history of virus vaccine, live attenuated vaccines have been proved most effective in measles and polio-myelitis. However, it is not clear whether nonpathogenic HIV exists or not. Futhermore, even if nonpathogenic HIV could be obtained, there is possibility that it will easily mutate to pathogenic one. Therefore, to develop live attenuated AIDS vaccine is considered dangerous. In this article, We will introduce our research on SHIV pathogenicity using monkeys and hypothesize possibility to obtain nonpathogenic HIV which is speculated from the origin and evolution of HIV/SIV. To clarify virulence and nonvirulence of HIV and to obtain nonpathogenic virus are not only applied research but also basic science to dissolve the fundemental question why HIV can induce the disease.

  6. Cervical carotid and circle of willis arterial anatomy of macaque monkeys: a comparative anatomy study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nishant; Lee, John J; Perlmutter, Joel S; Derdeyn, Colin P

    2009-07-01

    Macaque monkeys are used in many research applications, including cerebrovascular investigations. However, detailed catalogs of the relevant vascular anatomy are scarce. We present our experience with macaque vessel patterns as determined by digital subtraction angiography of 34 different monkeys. We retrospectively analyzed digital subtraction angiograms obtained during experimental internal carotid artery (ICA) catheterization and subsequent injection of 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Results were catalogued according to vascular distribution and variants observed. Macaque monkeys have a bovine aortic arch. The carotid vessels generally bifurcate, but are occasionally observed to divide into three vessels. The external carotid gives rise primarily to two trunks: an occipital branch and a common vessel that subsequently gives off the lingual, facial, and superior thyroid arteries. The internal maxillary artery may be present as a terminal branch of the external carotid or as a branch of the occipital artery. The ICA is similar in course to that of the human. The anterior circle of Willis was intact in all monkeys in our study. Its primary difference from that of the human is the union of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries as a single (azygous) median vessel. Macaque cervical carotid and circle of Willis arterial anatomy differs from humans in a couple of specific patterns. Knowledge of these differences and similarities between human and macaque anatomy is important in developing endovascular macaque models of human diseases, such as ischemic stroke.

  7. Use of the feed additive sodium hexametaphosphate to prevent dental calculus in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.).

    PubMed

    Brady, A G; Williams, L E; Haught, D; Abee, C R

    2000-03-01

    Dental calculus and associated periodontal disease are serious clinical problems in captive squirrel monkeys. Calculus begins to appear as early as 2 years of age, with subsequent development of periodontal disease, dental abscessation, tooth loss and other sequelae. When used as a feed additive, sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) retards the growth of calculus on previously cleaned teeth in rhesus monkeys, lemurs, and other species. We wanted to determine whether HMP would reduce dental calculus in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) whose teeth had not been pre-cleaned. The study animals were divided into two groups. One received a standard diet; the other received an identical diet containing the HMP additive at a concentration effective in other primate and non-primate species that had received dental cleaning prior to treatment with HMP. Teeth were graded for extent of calculus formation at the start of the study and at 3 and 6 months during HMP treatment. We compared the results from the two groups both by total score per animal and according to tooth type (e.g., incisors versus incisors in test and control groups). At the end of 6 months, dental calculus did not differ significantly between the experimental groups. Therefore, we conclude that HMP is ineffective in squirrel monkeys with preexisting dental calculus.

  8. Morphometric and ultrastructural analysis of different pituitary cell populations in undernourished monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cónsole, G M; Jurado, S B; Oyhenart, E; Ferese, C; Pucciarelli, H; Gómez Dumm, C L

    2001-01-01

    Undernutrition elicited by a low-protein diet determines a marked reduction of hypophyseal activity and affects the function of the respective target organs. The objective of the present investigation was to study the ultrastructural and quantitative immunohistochemical changes of the different pituitary cell populations in undernourished monkeys that had been previously shown to have significant changes in craniofacial growth. Twenty Saimiri sciureus boliviensis monkeys of both sexes were used. The animals were born in captivity and were separated into two groups at one year of age, i.e., control and undernourished animals. The monkeys were fed ad libitum a 20% (control group) and a 10% (experimental group) protein diet for two years. Pituitaries were processed for light and electron microscopy. The former was immunolabeled with anti-GH, -PRL, -LH, -FSH, -ACTH, and -TSH sera. Volume density and cell density were measured using an image analyzer. Quantitative immunohistochemistry revealed a decrease in these parameters with regard to somatotrophs, lactotrophs, gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs from undernourished animals compared to control ones. In these populations, the ultrastructural study showed changes suggesting compensatory hyperfunction. On the contrary, no significant changes were found in the morphometric parameters or the ultrastructure of the corticotroph population. We conclude that in undernourished monkeys the somatotroph, lactotroph, gonadotroph, and thyrotroph cell populations showed quantitative immunohistochemical changes that can be correlated with ultrastructural findings.

  9. Wild vervet monkeys copy alternative methods for opening an artificial fruit.

    PubMed

    van de Waal, Erica; Claidière, Nicolas; Whiten, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Experimental studies of animal social learning in the wild remain rare, especially those that employ the most discriminating tests in which alternative means to complete naturalistic tasks are seeded in different groups. We applied this approach to wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) using an artificial fruit ('vervetable') opened by either lifting a door panel or sliding it left or right. In one group, a trained model lifted the door, and in two others, the model slid it either left or right. Members of each group then watched their model before being given access to multiple baited vervetables with all opening techniques possible. Thirteen of these monkeys opened vervetables, displaying a significant tendency to use the seeded technique on their first opening and over the course of the experiment. The option preferred in these monkeys' first successful manipulation session was also highly correlated with the proportional frequency of the option they had previously witnessed. The social learning effects thus documented go beyond mere stimulus enhancement insofar as the same door knob was grasped for either technique. Results thus suggest that through imitation, emulation or both, new foraging techniques will spread across groups of wild vervet monkeys to create incipient foraging traditions.

  10. Spatial memory and the monkey hippocampus: not all space is created equal.

    PubMed

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the role of the monkey hippocampus in spatial learning and memory, however few, have reliably produced inconsistent results. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory has been clearly established in rodents, studies in nonhuman primates have made a variety of claims that range from the involvement of the hippocampus in spatial memory only at relatively longer memory delays, to no role for the hippocampus in spatial memory at all. In contrast, we have shown that selective damage restricted to the hippocampus (CA regions) prevents the learning or use of allocentric, spatial relational representations of the environment in freely behaving adult monkeys tested in an open-field arena. In this commentary, we discuss a unifying framework that explains these apparently discrepant results regarding the role of the monkey hippocampus in spatial learning and memory. We describe clear and strict criteria to interpret the findings from previous studies and guide future investigations of spatial memory in monkeys. Specifically, we affirm that, as in the rodent, the primate hippocampus is critical for spatial relational learning and memory, and in a time-independent manner. We describe how claims to the contrary are the result of experimental designs that fail to recognize, and control for, egocentric (hippocampus-independent) and allocentric (hippocampus-dependent) spatial frames of reference. Finally, we conclude that the available data demonstrate unequivocally that the central role of the hippocampus in allocentric, spatial relational learning and memory is conserved among vertebrates, including nonhuman primates.

  11. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  12. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  13. Lung deposition of droplet aerosols in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Irshad, H; Kuehl, P; Holmes, T D; Sherwood, R; Hobbs, C H

    2008-09-01

    Nonhuman primates are often the animal models of choice to study the infectivity and therapy of inhaled infectious agents. Most animal models for inhaled infectious diseases use aerosol/droplets generated by an atomization technique such as a Collison nebulizer that produces particles in the size range of 1 to 3 microm in diameter. There are few data in the literature on deposition patterns in monkeys. Our study was designed to measure the deposition pattern in monkeys using droplets having diameters of 2 and 5 microm using an exposure system designed to expose monkeys to aerosols of infectious agents. Six cynomolgus monkeys were exposed to droplets. The aerosol solution was generated from a Vero cell supernate containing DMEM + 10% fetal bovine serum tagged with Tc-99m radiolabel. Collison and Retec nebulizers were used to generate small and large droplets, respectively. The particle size (as determined from a cascade impactor) showed an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 2.3 and 5.1 microm for the Collison and Retec nebulizer, respectively. The animals were anesthetized, placed in a plethysmography box, and exposed to the aerosol. The deposition pattern was determined using a gamma camera. Deposition in the head airways was 39% and 58% for 2.3- and 5.1-microm particle aerosols, respectively, whereas the deposition in the deep lung was 12% and 8%, respectively. This information will be useful in developing animal models for inhaled infectious agents.

  14. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J.; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Woo Byun, Yoon; Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal. PMID:26158523

  15. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  16. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  17. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    PubMed

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  18. GROUP C ARBOVIRUS INFECTIONS IN RHESUS MONKEYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    demonstrated by monkeys that recovered from one virus infection and challenged with related heterotypic viruses .... infected with any of the group C viruses used were limited to fevers, which were detected in only a few animals. Infections with these viruses appeared to...Macaca mulatta were found to be susceptible to infections with group C arboviruses following subcutaneous inoculation. Infections engendered by

  19. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Lima, Larissa S; Campos, Rafael K; Guedes, Maria I M C; Cota, Marcela M G; Assis, Felipe L; Borges, Iara A; Souza-Júnior, Milton F; Lobato, Zélia I P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil.

  20. Mycobacterium marinum infection from sea monkeys

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Jaclyn; Webster, Duncan; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Chiu, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    A case of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection acquired from Artemia nyos (sea monkeys) is presented. The infection was unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapies. A biopsy of a lesion revealed granulomatous inflammation with cultures that subsequently grew M marinum. A three-month course of clarithromycin provided complete resolution. PMID:24294280

  1. Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, André T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Júnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zélia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

    2010-01-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

  2. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 4