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Sample records for cee region network

  1. CEE-ing is believing

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on. PMID:21869613

  2. CEE/CA: Report calls for decriminalization of sex work.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-04-01

    In December 2005, the Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network (CEEHRN) released a report calling for the decriminalization of sex work in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEE/CA). The report brings together a wealth of published and original information concerning sex work, laws regulating sex work, epidemiological data regarding HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), services available to sex workers, and human rights abuses faced by sex workers.

  3. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  4. Education & Mobility. CEE DP 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Pelkonen, Panu; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2008-01-01

    Regional labour mobility has long been viewed as a crucial component in the functioning of the labour markets of different countries. Indeed, the study of regional labour mobility has moved towards the top of the research agenda, especially in Europe, where regional unemployment differentials have been persistently larger than in the United…

  5. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  6. Jalisco Regional Seismic Network (RESAJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez Plascencia, C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive earthquakes. The Jalisco region is exposing to this natural hazard. Scientific knowledge constitutes the only way to avoid or at least to mitigate the negative effects of such events. Accordingly the study of geological and geophysical causes; structural, kinematics and dynamic characteristics; and destructive effects of such events is indispensable. The main objective of this project is to developed capability to monitor and to analyze the potential destructive earthquakes along the Jalisco region. This network will allows us to study the Rivera plate and the Jalisco block seismicity. Ten earthquakes greater than 7.4 occurred in the last 160 years, including the largest Mexican earthquake (8.2) producing considerable damage in the area. During this project we installed 20 telemetric seismic stations and we plan to deploy up to 30. The stations are component by 24 bit A/D, 6 channels Quanterra Q330-6 DAS, Lennartz Triaxial 1Hz wide band seismometer, a triaxial accelerometer episensor Model FBA ES-T from Kinemetrics and solar power supply. The data is transmitted using freewave Ethernet radios or wireless internet links. All stations will transmit the data in to the central at Puerto Vallarta where all data is processed using Antelope system to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events in almost real time and stored for future research. This network will produce high quality data enough to evaluate the eight previously identified seismic zones along Jalisco.

  7. Document Delivery Policy. Region 2 [Regional Medical Library Network].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library Services, Baltimore, MD.

    Standardized policies and procedures for interlibrary loan and resource sharing in the Southeastern/Atlantic Region of the Regional Medical Library (RML) Network are presented in this policy statement. RML network institutions, which are divided into categories based on their ability and willingness to assume responsibility for interlibrary…

  8. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-08-05

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution.

  9. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  10. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  11. Creating a Regional Healthcare Network: People First.

    PubMed

    Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B

    2016-01-01

    Care organizations in the Dutch region Apeldoorn want to collaborate more in order to improve the care provision to elderly and psychiatric patients living independently. In order to support the collaboration they intend to create a regional digital healthcare network. The research was focused on the relevance of a regional healthcare network for care providers. Eleven semi-structured interviews based on the USE IT-model, were conducted with care providers and staff members. Results show that care providers need to tune their activities for this target group and create an agreement on integrated care. The relevance of a digital communication and collaboration platform is high. The regional healthcare network should support the collaboration between care providers by: 1. Offering a communication platform to replace the time consuming communication by telephone; 2. Making patient information available for patient and care provider at patients' homes; 3. Giving insight in who is giving what care to whom; and 4. Giving access to knowledge about the target group: elderly and psychiatric patients living independently. PMID:27577356

  12. UNAVCO-PBO Southwest Region Network Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C. P.; Mann, D.; Basset, A.; Sklar, J.; Jarvis, C.; Pitcher, T.; Lawrence, S.; Greathouse, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    The UNAVCO Southwest region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 470 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas Fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (314), radio (100), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual download (1). Thirty-four stations have WXT520 metpacks. Sixty-four stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency. Over 650 maintenance activities were performed during 341 onsite visits out of approximately 346 engineer field days. Within the past year there have been 7 incidences of minor (attempted theft) to moderate vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to stream real-time GPS and met data from PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and high rate data communications. These streams support watershed and flood analyses for regional early-warning systems related to NOAA's work with California Department of Water Resources. Network-wide NOAA receives a total of 54 streams including stations in Cascadia. In 2008 PBO became the steward of 209 existing network stations ("Nucleus stations") of which 140 are in the SW region that included SCIGN, BARD, BARGEN stations. Due to the mix of incompatible equipment used between PBO and existing network stations a project was undertaken to standardize existing network GPS stations to PBO specifications by upgrading antenna cabling, power systems and enclosures. In 2012 the Nucleus upgrade project was completed.

  13. Regional Educational Laboratory Electronic Network Phase 2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John

    1995-01-01

    The Far West Laboratory in collaboration with the other regional educational laboratories is establishing a regionally coordinated telecommunication network to electronically interconnect each of the ten regional laboratories with educators and education stakeholders from the school to the state level. For the national distributed information database, each lab is working with mid-level networks to establish a common interface for networking throughout the country and include topics of importance to education reform as assessment and technology planning.

  14. 76 FR 46295 - The Regional Sports Network Marketplace

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...) by filing paper copies. See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121... COMMISSION The Regional Sports Network Marketplace AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice... regarding regional sports network (RSN) access and carriage issues and committed to examine these...

  15. The Roles of Jets: CF, CCSN, PN, CEE, GEE, ILOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, N.

    2015-12-01

    I review the roles of jet-inflated bubbles in determining the evolution of different astrophysical objects. I discuss astrophysical systems where jets are known to inflate bubbles (cooling flow [CF] clusters; young galaxies; intermediate luminosity optical transients [ILOTs]; bipolar planetary nebulae [PNe]), and systems that are speculated to have jet-inflated bubbles (core collapse supernovae [CCSNe]; common envelope evolution [CEE]; grazing envelope evolution [GEE]). The jets in many of these cases act through a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM). I discuss the outcomes when the JFM fizzle, or does not work at all. According to this perspective, some very interesting and energetic events owe their existence to the failure of the JFM, including stellar black holes, gamma ray bursts, and type Ia supernovae.

  16. Mental health network governance: comparative analysis across Canadian regions

    PubMed Central

    Wiktorowicz, Mary E; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Adair, Carol E; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot; Peters, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective Modes of governance were compared in ten local mental health networks in diverse contexts (rural/urban and regionalized/non-regionalized) to clarify the governance processes that foster inter-organizational collaboration and the conditions that support them. Methods Case studies of ten local mental health networks were developed using qualitative methods of document review, semi-structured interviews and focus groups that incorporated provincial policy, network and organizational levels of analysis. Results Mental health networks adopted either a corporate structure, mutual adjustment or an alliance governance model. A corporate structure supported by regionalization offered the most direct means for local governance to attain inter-organizational collaboration. The likelihood that networks with an alliance model developed coordination processes depended on the presence of the following conditions: a moderate number of organizations, goal consensus and trust among the organizations, and network-level competencies. In the small and mid-sized urban networks where these conditions were met their alliance realized the inter-organizational collaboration sought. In the large urban and rural networks where these conditions were not met, externally brokered forms of network governance were required to support alliance based models. Discussion In metropolitan and rural networks with such shared forms of network governance as an alliance or voluntary mutual adjustment, external mediation by a regional or provincial authority was an important lever to foster inter-organizational collaboration. PMID:21289999

  17. Performance of a Regional Aeronautical Telecommunications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ripamonti, Claudio; Konangi, Vijay K.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of the simulation of the ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network) for three typical average-sized U.S. airports and their associated air traffic patterns. The models of the protocols were designed to achieve the same functionality and meet the ATN specifications. The focus of this project is on the subnetwork and routing aspects of the simulation. To maintain continuous communication between the aircrafts and the ground facilities, a model based on mobile IP is used. The results indicate that continuous communication is indeed possible. The network can support two applications of significance in the immediate future FTP and HTTP traffic. Results from this simulation prove the feasibility of development of the ATN concept for AC/ATM (Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management).

  18. Identification and characterization of a periplasmic trilactone esterase, Cee, revealed unique features of ferric enterobactin acquisition in Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ximin; Mo, Yiming; Xu, Fuzhou; Lin, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) acquisition is a highly efficient and conserved iron scavenging system in Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, we have characterized two FeEnt receptors (CfrA and CfrB) in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, the enteric human pathogens that do not produce any siderophores. In this study, whole genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis identified a unique Ent trilactone esterase Cee (Cj1376) in C. jejuni. Genomic analysis and biochemical assay strongly suggested that Cee is the sole trilactone esterase in C. jejuni. Thin layer chromatography and HPLC analyses showed high efficiency of the purified Cee to hydrolyze Ent. Three Cee homologs previously characterized from other bacteria (IroE, IroD, and Fes) were also purified and analyzed together with Cee, indicating that Cee, Fes, and IroD displayed similar hydrolysis dynamics for both apo and ferric forms of Ent while IroE catalyzed Ent inefficiently. Unlike cytoplasmic Fes and IroD, Cee is localized in the periplasm as demonstrated by immunoblotting using Cee-specific antibodies. Genetic manipulation of diverse Campylobacter strains demonstrated that Cee is not only essential for CfrB-dependent FeEnt acquisition but also involved in CfrA-dependent pathway. Together, this study identified and characterized a novel periplasmic trilactone esterase and suggested a new model of FeEnt acquisition in Campylobacter. PMID:23278903

  19. Tracking Inter-Regional Carbon Flows: A Hybrid Network Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The mitigation of anthropogenic carbon emissions has moved beyond the local scale because they diffuse across boundaries, and the consumption that triggers emissions has become regional and global. A precondition of effective mitigation is to explicitly assess inter-regional transfer of emissions. This study presents a hybrid network model to track inter-regional carbon flows by combining network analysis and input-output analysis. The direct, embodied, and controlled emissions associated with regions are quantified for assessing various types of carbon flow. The network-oriented metrics called "controlled emissions" is proposed to cover the amount of carbon emissions that can be mitigated within a region by adjusting its consumption. The case study of the Jing-Jin-Ji Area suggests that CO2 emissions embodied in products are only partially controlled by a region from a network perspective. Controlled carbon accounted for about 70% of the total embodied carbon flows, while household consumption only controlled about 25% of Beijing's emissions, much lower than its proportion of total embodied carbon. In addition to quantifying emissions, the model can pinpoint the dominant processes and sectors of emissions transfer across regions. This technique is promising for searching efficient pathways of coordinated emissions control across various regions connected by trade. PMID:27063784

  20. Development through Information Networks in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarasuriya, Nimala R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for access to scientific and technical information to attain national development goals in the Asia Pacific region, and outlines the objectives and program areas of a regional information network established by Unesco. Problems with the current system and future needs are identified. (CLB)

  1. Georgia/Alabama Regional Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Long, L.T. . School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1990-11-01

    Data from the Georgia/Alabama network have contributed to a better understanding of the seismicity in the Southeast. Based on these data, a new theory explaining intraplate earthquakes was developed. The theory predicts that a decrease in strength of the lower crust (e.g. through a change in the fluid regime) leads to weakening and deformation of the stress channel in the mid-crustal zone. The weakening and stress concentration may lead to major earthquakes. Earthquake focal mechanisms in southeastern Tennessee are consistent with such a model. Conclusions reached from this and other studies suggest that major earthquakes have happened or could happen in southeastern Tennessee. Earthquakes in the Piedmont are of a different type, being mostly shallow, consistent with failure along joints and predominantly associated with reservoir impoundment. This mechanism may leave an upper magnitude limit of 5.7. In Alabama, except near southeastern Tennessee, the seismicity is largely induced by coal mine collapses. 3 figs.

  2. Effect of regional slope on drainage networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Loren F.; Schumm, S. A.

    1987-09-01

    Drainage networks that develop under conditions of no structural control and homogeneous lithology are generally dendritic, depending upon the shape and inclination of the surface on which they form. An experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of an increase of slope on the evolution and development of dendritic drainage patterns. As slope steepens, the pattern changes from dendritic at 1% slope, to subdendritic at 2%, to subparallel at 3%, to parallel at 5% and higher. The change from a dendritic-type pattern to a parallel-type pattern occurs at a low slope, between 2% and 3%, and primary channel junction angles decrease abruptly from about 60° to 43°. *Present address: U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Attn: HSHB-ME-WM, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5422

  3. Broadband seismology and small regional seismic networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  4. Design of surface-water data networks for regional information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Marshall E.; Gilroy, E.J.; Tasker, Gary D.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a technique, Network Analysis of Regional Information (NARI), and the existing computer procedures that have been developed for the specification of the regional information-cost relation for several statistical parameters of streamflow. The measure of information used is the true standard error of estimate of a regional logarithmic regression. The cost is a function of the number of stations at which hydrologic data are collected and the number of years for which the data are collected. The technique can be used to obtain either (1) a minimum cost network that will attain a prespecified accuracy and reliability or (2) a network that maximizes information given a set of budgetary and time constraints.

  5. Describing functional diversity of brain regions and brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michael L.; Kinnison, Josh; Pessoa, Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Despite the general acceptance that functional specialization plays an important role in brain function, there is little consensus about its extent in the brain. We sought to advance the understanding of this question by employing a data-driven approach that capitalizes on the existence of large databases of neuroimaging data. We quantified the diversity of activation in brain regions as a way to characterize the degree of functional specialization. To do so, brain activations were classified in terms of task domains, such as vision, attention, and language, which determined a region’s functional fingerprint. We found that the degree of diversity varied considerably across the brain. We also quantified novel properties of regions and of networks that inform our understanding of several task-positive and task-negative networks described in the literature, including defining functional fingerprints for entire networks and measuring their functional assortativity, namely the degree to which they are composed of regions with similar functional fingerprints. Our results demonstrate that some brain networks exhibit strong assortativity, whereas other networks consist of relatively heterogeneous parts. In sum, rather than characterizing the contributions of individual brain regions using task-based functional attributions, we instead quantified their dispositional tendencies, and related those to each region’s affiliative properties in both task-positive and task-negative contexts. PMID:23396162

  6. Western regional visibility monitoring: teleradiometer and camera network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The 1977 Clean Air Act Amendment provides for protection of visual air quality of certain federally managed lands. In support of these provisions the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the National Park Service, has sponsored a number of visibility research programs. One program involves development and operation of a western regional visibility monitoring network. The objectives of this network are to develop visibility monitoring methods, to characterize visibility in this region, and to provide data that can be used to identify sources of visibility impairment. This report describes the western network and methods used to collect and process data, the results for the period of record and quality assurance procedures. A visibility theory section is provided to define terms and concepts. Seasonal and monthly mean standard visual range values with 90 percent confidence intervals and cumulative frequency plots for each monitoring location are reported. This report covers the data collection period from summer of 1978 through fall of 1981.

  7. A climatological network for regional climate monitoring in Sardinia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the Region of Sardinia has been working to set-up a Regional Climatological Network of surface stations, in order to monitor climate (either stationary or changing) at sub-synoptic scale and in order to make robust climatological information available to researchers and to local stake-holders. In order to do that, an analysis of long climatological time series has been performed on the different historical networks of meteorological stations that existed over the past two centuries. A set of some hundreds of stations, with about a century of observations of daily precipitation, was identified. An important subset of them was also defined, having long series of observations of temperature, wind, pressure and other quantities. Specific investments were made on important stations sites where observations had been carried for decades, but where the climatological stations did not exist anymore. In the present talk, the Regional Climatological Network of Sardinia will be presented and its consistency discussed. Specific attention will be given to the most important climatological stations which have got more than a century of observations of meteorological quantities. Critical issues of the Regional Climatological Network, like relocation of stations and inhomogeneity of data due to instrumental changes or environmental modifications, will be discussed.

  8. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  9. The CEE Sustainable Development Programme: A Two-Week Course for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article features the Centre for Environment Education (CEE) Sustainable Development Programme, a two-week course designed for university students from a wide variety of disciplines, with an interest in sustainability and cross-cultural studies. The two-week programme provides cross-disciplinary understanding and practical experience of…

  10. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  11. Creation of a regional medical-nutrition education network.

    PubMed

    Feldman, E B; Borum, P R; DiGirolamo, M; Feldman, D S; Greene, J M; Leonard, S B; Morgan, S L; Moinuddin, J F; Read, M S; Weinsier, R L

    1989-01-01

    The Southeastern Regional Medical-Nutrition Education Network (SER-MEN) was developed to coordinate and improve nutrition education in a consortium of the medical schools in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. SERMEN's central office is at the Medical College of Georgia with the testing office at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Students, faculty, and consultants in nutrition, education, and computer networking work together on projects on each campus that are coordinated and planned through semiannual meetings. A standardized examination was developed with the Nutrition Test-Item Bank to assess nutrition knowledge at various years of medical students from network schools. Each SERMEN school is connected to a microcomputer system at the central office that provides access to a data base of nutrition education and resources on each campus for developing curricula and syllabi. Funding has been provided by societies, foundations, and government agencies.

  12. Creation of a regional medical-nutrition education network.

    PubMed

    Feldman, E B; Borum, P R; DiGirolamo, M; Feldman, D S; Greene, J M; Leonard, S B; Morgan, S L; Moinuddin, J F; Read, M S; Weinsier, R L

    1989-01-01

    The Southeastern Regional Medical-Nutrition Education Network (SER-MEN) was developed to coordinate and improve nutrition education in a consortium of the medical schools in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. SERMEN's central office is at the Medical College of Georgia with the testing office at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Students, faculty, and consultants in nutrition, education, and computer networking work together on projects on each campus that are coordinated and planned through semiannual meetings. A standardized examination was developed with the Nutrition Test-Item Bank to assess nutrition knowledge at various years of medical students from network schools. Each SERMEN school is connected to a microcomputer system at the central office that provides access to a data base of nutrition education and resources on each campus for developing curricula and syllabi. Funding has been provided by societies, foundations, and government agencies. PMID:2911995

  13. Inversion of parameters for semiarid regions by a neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurk, Lisa M.; Davis, Daniel; Njoku, Eni G.; Tsang, Leung; Hwang, Jenq-Neng

    1992-01-01

    Microwave brightness temperatures obtained from a passive radiative transfer model are inverted through use of a neural network. The model is applicable to semiarid regions and produces dual-polarized brightness temperatures for 6.6-, 10.7-, and 37-GHz frequencies. A range of temperatures is generated by varying three geophysical parameters over acceptable ranges: soil moisture, vegetation moisture, and soil temperature. A multilayered perceptron (MLP) neural network is trained with a subset of the generated temperatures, and the remaining temperatures are inverted using a backpropagation method. Several synthetic terrains are devised and inverted by the network under local constraints. All the inversions show good agreement with the original geophysical parameters, falling within 5 percent of the actual value of the parameter range.

  14. A Collaborative Network Model for Agrifood Transactions on Regional Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore

    The paper deals with a collaborative agrifood network in a regional scenario where producers of high typical and quality goods and consumer groups are involved in agrifood transactions as well as information and knowledge exchanges through an e-business platform. While producers are engaged in providing consumers with useful and timely information about healthiness, environmentally friendliness and most importantly, food quality of their products, consumers are engaged in giving prompt and understandable feedbacks to the producers. In this sense, the network is a form of proactive learning community. Starting from some basic socio-economic assumptions on a reference territory, we present an organizational model that can be adopted to foster the development of the regional area where it is applied. An instantiation of the model for a selected territory (the District of High Quality Productions in Sibari, Calabria, Italy) and first results, coming from two pilot tests, have been summarized as well.

  15. IA-Regional-Radio - Social Network for Radio Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Grzegorz; Bougueroua, Lamine; Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna

    This chapter describes the functions of a system proposed for the music hit recommendation from social network data base. This system carries out the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of music reviewers and the possibility for listeners to rate musical hits and recommendations deduced from auditor's profiles in the form of regional Internet radio. First, the system searches and retrieves probable music reviews from the Internet. Subsequently, the system carries out an evaluation and rating of those reviews. From this list of music hits, the system directly allows notation from our application. Finally, the system automatically creates the record list diffused each day depending on the region, the year season, the day hours and the age of listeners. Our system uses linguistics and statistic methods for classifying music opinions and data mining techniques for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent radio adaptive on auditor's age and region - IA-Regional-Radio.

  16. Southeastern Regional Pediatric Disaster Surge Network: a public health partnership.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Peter M; Rucks, Andrew C; Duncan, W Jack; Wingate, Martha S; Beeman, S Kenn; Reeves, Jane; West, Maury A

    2010-01-01

    In the event of a natural or man-made disaster involving large numbers of children, resources in the Southeastern U.S. are extremely limited. This article chronicles the efforts of the Alabama Department of Public Health, the Mississippi State Department of Health, and the South Central Center for Public Health Preparedness in conjunction with more than 40 organizations to develop a voluntary network of health-care providers, public health departments, volunteers, and emergency responders from Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The purpose of the Southeastern Regional Pediatric Disaster Surge Network (the Network) is to improve the pediatric preparedness response strategies of public health, emergency response, and pediatric providers in the event of large-scale emergencies or disasters that overwhelm local or state pediatric resources. The planning and development of the Network is proceeding through three general phases--information sharing, mutual goal setting and collective action, and long-term formal linkages. In Phase 1, critical planning tasks to be undertaken in the development of the Network were identified. In Phase 2, the agencies developed a draft operational handbook that served as the basis for a formal memorandum of understanding. In Phase 3, participants will engage in exercises and evaluations that will further identify and work out logistical and operational details.

  17. Predicting Regional Self-identification from Spatial Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Zack W.; Butts, Carter T.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists characterize social life as a hierarchy of environments, from the micro level of an individual’s knowledge and perceptions to the macro level of large-scale social networks. In accordance with this typology, individuals are typically thought to reside in micro- and macro-level structures, composed of multifaceted relations (e.g., acquaintanceship, friendship, and kinship). This article analyzes the effects of social structure on micro outcomes through the case of regional identification. Self identification occurs in many different domains, one of which is regional; i.e., the identification of oneself with a locationally-associated group (e.g., a “New Yorker” or “Parisian”). Here, regional self-identification is posited to result from an influence process based on the location of an individual’s alters (e.g., friends, kin or coworkers), such that one tends to identify with regions in which many of his or her alters reside. The structure of this paper is laid out as follows: initially, we begin with a discussion of the relevant social science literature for both social networks and identification. This discussion is followed with one about competing mechanisms for regional identification that are motivated first from the social network literature, and second by the social psychological and cognitive literature of decision making and heuristics. Next, the paper covers the data and methods employed to test the proposed mechanisms. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of its findings and further implications for the larger social science literature. PMID:25684791

  18. Networking environmental metadata: a pilot project for the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, N.; Benito, M.; Abou El-Magd, I.; Mazzetti, P.; Ndong, C.

    2012-04-01

    To better exploit any environmental dataset it is necessary to provide detailed information (metadata) capable to furnish the best data description. Operating environmental data and information networking requires the long-term investment of financial and human resources. As these resources are scarce, ensuring sustainability can be a struggle. Then, to use more effectively human and economic resources and to avoid duplication, it is essential to test existing models and, where appropriate, replicate strategies and experiences. For the above reasons, it has been programmed to pilot a project to implement and test a metadata catalogue's networking, involving Countries afferent the Mediterranean Region, to demonstrate that the adoption of open source and free software and international interoperability standards can contribute to the alignment of I&TC resources to achieve environmental information sharing. This pilot, planned in the frame of the EGIDA FP7 European Project, aims to support the implementation of a replication methodology for the establishment of national/regional environmental information nodes on the bases of the System of Systems architecture concept, to support the exchange of environmental information in the frame of the Barcelona Convention and to incept a Mediterranean scale joint contribution to GEOSS focusing on partnership, infrastructures and products. To establish the partnership and to conduce interoperability tests, this pilot project build on the Info-RAC (Information and Communication Activity Centre of the United Nation Environmental Programme - Mediterranean Action Plan) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations) networks.

  19. Virginia Regional Seismic Network. Final report (1986--1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, G.A.; Sibol, M.S.; Chapman, M.C.; Snoke, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    In 1986, the Virginia Regional Seismic Network was one of the few fully calibrated digital seismic networks in the United States. Continued operation has resulted in the archival of signals from 2,000+ local, regional and teleseismic sources. Seismotectonic studies of the central Virginia seismic zone showed the activity in the western part to be related to a large antiformal structure while seismicity in the eastern portion is associated spatially with dike swarms. The eastern Tennessee seismic zone extends over a 300x50 km area and is the result of a compressive stress field acting at the intersection between two large crustal blocks. Hydroseismicity, which proposes a significant role for meteoric water in intraplate seismogenesis, found support in the observation of common cyclicities between streamflow and earthquake strain data. Seismic hazard studies have provided the following results: (1) Damage areas in the eastern United States are three to five times larger than those observed in the west. (2) Judged solely on the basis of cataloged earthquake recurrence rates, the next major shock in the southeast region will probably occur outside the Charleston, South Carolina area. (3) Investigations yielded necessary hazard parameters (for example, maximum magnitudes) for several sites in the southeast. Basic to these investigations was the development and maintenance of several seismological data bases.

  20. A system's view of metro and regional optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cedric F.; Way, Winston I.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in fiber optic communications have been rejuvenated after the glut of the overcapacity at the turn of the century. The boom of video-centric network applications finally resulted in another wave of vast build-outs of broadband access networks such as FTTH, DOCSIS 3.0 and WI-FI systems, which in turn also drove up the bandwidth demands in metro and regional WDM networks. These new developments have rekindled research interests on technologies not only to meet the surging demand, but also to upgrade legacy network infrastructures in an evolutionary manner without disrupting existing services and incurring significant capital penalties. Standard bodies such as IEEE, ITU and OIF have formed task forces to ratify 100Gb/s interface standards. Thanks to the seemingly unlimited bandwidth in single-mode fibers, advances in optical networks has traditionally been fueled by more capable physical components such as more powerful laser, cleaner and wider bandwidth optical amplifier, faster modulator and photo-detectors, etc. In the meanwhile, the mainstream modulation technique for fiber optic communication systems has remained the most rudimentary form of on-off keying (OOK) and direct power detection for a very long period of time because spectral efficiency had never been a concern. This scenario, however, is no longer valid as demand for bandwidth is pushing the limit of current of current WDM technologies. In terms of spectral use, all the 100-GHz ITU grids in the C-band have been populated with 10Gb/s wavelengths in most of the WDM transport networks, and we are exhausting the power and bandwidth offered on existing fiber plant EDFAs. Beyond 10Gb/s, increasing the transmission to 40Gb/s by brute force OOK approach incurs significant penalties due to chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. With conventional modulation schemes, transmission impairments at 40Gb/s speed and above already become such difficult challenges that the efforts to manage these

  1. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  2. Inferring cultural regions from correlation networks of given baby names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomorski, Mateusz; Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Kwapień, Jarosław; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We report investigations on the statistical characteristics of the baby names given between 1910 and 2010 in the United States of America. For each year, the 100 most frequent names in the USA are sorted out. For these names, the correlations between the names profiles are calculated for all pairs of states (minus Hawaii and Alaska). The correlations are used to form a weighted network which is found to vary mildly in time. In fact, the structure of communities in the network remains quite stable till about 1980. The goal is that the calculated structure approximately reproduces the usually accepted geopolitical regions: the Northeast, the South, and the "Midwest + West" as the third one. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that the name distribution satisfies the Zipf law, separately for each state and each year, i.e. the name frequency f ∝r-α, where r is the name rank. Between 1920 and 1980, the exponent α is the largest one for the set of states classified as 'the South', but the smallest one for the set of states classified as "Midwest + West". Our interpretation is that the pool of selected names was quite narrow in the Southern states. The data is compared with some related statistics of names in Belgium, a country also with different regions, but having quite a different scale than the USA. There, the Zipf exponent is low for young people and for the Brussels citizens.

  3. PBO Southwest Region: Baja Earthquake Response and Network Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Mann, D.; Lawrence, S.; Jarvis, C.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The SW region of the Plate Boundary Observatory consists of 455 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault and Eastern California Shear Zone. In the past year network uptime exceeded an average of 97% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (307), radio (92), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual downloads (1). Sixty-three stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency. Over 620 maintenance activities were performed during 316 onsite visits out of approximately 368 engineer field days. Within the past year there have been 7 incidences of minor (attempted theft) to moderate vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. In the past 12 months, 4 new stations were installed to replace removed stations or to augment the network at strategic locations. Following the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake CGPS station P796, a deep-drilled braced monument, was constructed in San Luis, AZ along the border within 5 weeks of the event. In addition, UNAVCO participated in a successful University of Arizona-led RAPID proposal for the installation of six continuous GPS stations for post-seismic observations. Six stations are installed and telemetered through a UNAM relay at the Sierra San Pedro Martir. Four of these stations have Vaisala WXT520 meteorological sensors. An additional site in the Sierra Cucapah (PTAX) that was built by CICESE, an Associate UNAVCO Member institution in Mexico, and Caltech has been integrated into PBO dataflow. The stations will be maintained as part of the PBO network in coordination with CICESE. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to upgrade PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and communications systems capable of streaming real-time GPS and met data. The real-time GPS and

  4. Bifurcation behaviors of synchronized regions in logistic map networks with coupling delay

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Longkun E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn; Wu, Xiaoqun E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jun-an; Lü, Jinhu

    2015-03-15

    Network synchronized regions play an extremely important role in network synchronization according to the master stability function framework. This paper focuses on network synchronous state stability via studying the effects of nodal dynamics, coupling delay, and coupling way on synchronized regions in Logistic map networks. Theoretical and numerical investigations show that (1) network synchronization is closely associated with its nodal dynamics. Particularly, the synchronized region bifurcation points through which the synchronized region switches from one type to another are in good agreement with those of the uncoupled node system, and chaotic nodal dynamics can greatly impede network synchronization. (2) The coupling delay generally impairs the synchronizability of Logistic map networks, which is also dominated by the parity of delay for some nodal parameters. (3) A simple nonlinear coupling facilitates network synchronization more than the linear one does. The results found in this paper will help to intensify our understanding for the synchronous state stability in discrete-time networks with coupling delay.

  5. Reconstructing regional climate networks from irregularly sampled satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donner, Reik V.; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. Satellite data with high resolution in time and space allow for an in-depth analysis of small-scale processes in the climate as well as ecosystems. This data type, however, also harbors crucial conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the dataset and both measurements can not be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps, due to cloud cover or maintenance work and irregular time steps, due to the orbiting time of the satellite. In this work, we utilize sea surface temperature (SST) data obtained from the SMOS satellite as part of ESA's Earth Explorer Mission to study small-scale regional interactions between different parts of the Mediterranean, Aegean and Black Sea. In a first step, we create homogeneous time series for each grid point by combining data from ascending and descending satellite paths by utilizing principal component and singular spectrum analysis. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the dataset. By setting a threshold to the thus obtained correlation matrix we obtain a binary matrix which can be interpreted as the adjacency matrix of a complex network. We then use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. The methods presented

  6. Regional climate network analysis from irregularly sampled satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Balasis, George; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. This type of data, however, also harbors a variety of conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the data, and both measurements cannot be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps and irregular time steps. Third, the time period covered by the data is often too short to perform an appropriate seasonal detrending. Here, we propose a general framework to create homogeneous anomalized time series for a (multivariate) satellite data set by combining time series from ascending and descending satellite paths or even different missions using principal component and singular spectrum analysis. We then exemplarily apply our method to sea surface temperature data obtained from the SMOS satellite mission to study small-scale regional correlative patterns covering different parts of the Aegean Sea. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the data set. By binarizing the thus obtained matrices, we obtain a network representation of the system's similarity structure. Ultimately, we use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. In a second step, we extend the study area to the whole Mediterranean and Black Sea and investigate lagged interactions between these two

  7. Automatic classification of seismic events within a regional seismograph network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Kortström, Jari; Uski, Marja

    2015-04-01

    A fully automatic method for seismic event classification within a sparse regional seismograph network is presented. The tool is based on a supervised pattern recognition technique, Support Vector Machine (SVM), trained here to distinguish weak local earthquakes from a bulk of human-made or spurious seismic events. The classification rules rely on differences in signal energy distribution between natural and artificial seismic sources. Seismic records are divided into four windows, P, P coda, S, and S coda. For each signal window STA is computed in 20 narrow frequency bands between 1 and 41 Hz. The 80 discrimination parameters are used as a training data for the SVM. The SVM models are calculated for 19 on-line seismic stations in Finland. The event data are compiled mainly from fully automatic event solutions that are manually classified after automatic location process. The station-specific SVM training events include 11-302 positive (earthquake) and 227-1048 negative (non-earthquake) examples. The best voting rules for combining results from different stations are determined during an independent testing period. Finally, the network processing rules are applied to an independent evaluation period comprising 4681 fully automatic event determinations, of which 98 % have been manually identified as explosions or noise and 2 % as earthquakes. The SVM method correctly identifies 94 % of the non-earthquakes and all the earthquakes. The results imply that the SVM tool can identify and filter out blasts and spurious events from fully automatic event solutions with a high level of confidence. The tool helps to reduce work-load in manual seismic analysis by leaving only ~5 % of the automatic event determinations, i.e. the probable earthquakes for more detailed seismological analysis. The approach presented is easy to adjust to requirements of a denser or wider high-frequency network, once enough training examples for building a station-specific data set are available.

  8. Quality assurance and improvement: the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network.

    PubMed

    Polaner, David M; Martin, Lynn D

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and improvement (QA/QI) is a critical activity in medicine. The use of large-scale collaborative databases is increasingly essential to obtain enough reports with which to establish standards of practice and define the incidence of complications and risk/benefit ratios for rare events. Such projects can enhance local QA/QI endeavors by enabling institutions to obtain benchmark data against which to compare their performance and can be used for prospective analyses of inter-institutional differences to determine 'best practice'. The pediatric regional anesthesia network (PRAN) is such a project. The first data cohort is currently being analyzed and offers insight into how such data can be used to detect trends in adverse events and improve care.

  9. Station corrections for the Katmai Region Seismic Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2003-01-01

    Most procedures for routinely locating earthquake hypocenters within a local network are constrained to using laterally homogeneous velocity models to represent the Earth's crustal velocity structure. As a result, earthquake location errors may arise due to actual lateral variations in the Earth's velocity structure. Station corrections can be used to compensate for heterogeneous velocity structure near individual stations (Douglas, 1967; Pujol, 1988). The HYPOELLIPSE program (Lahr, 1999) used by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) to locate earthquakes in Cook Inlet and the Aleutian Islands is a robust and efficient program that uses one-dimensional velocity models to determine hypocenters of local and regional earthquakes. This program does have the capability of utilizing station corrections within it's earthquake location proceedure. The velocity structures of Cook Inlet and Aleutian volcanoes very likely contain laterally varying heterogeneities. For this reason, the accuracy of earthquake locations in these areas will benefit from the determination and addition of station corrections. In this study, I determine corrections for each station in the Katmai region. The Katmai region is defined to lie between latitudes 57.5 degrees North and 59.00 degrees north and longitudes -154.00 and -156.00 (see Figure 1) and includes Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Mount Martin, Mount Mageik, Snowy Mountain, Mount Trident, and Mount Griggs volcanoes. Station corrections were determined using the computer program VELEST (Kissling, 1994). VELEST inverts arrival time data for one-dimensional velocity models and station corrections using a joint hypocenter determination technique. VELEST can also be used to locate single events.

  10. Validation opportunities of DOAS Network in Moscow Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovski, Alexander; Postylyakov, Oleg; Elokhov, Alexander; Ivanov, Victor; Kanaya, Yugo

    A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of Russian Academy of Science developed a network of atmosphere composition measurements by DOAS method. Measurements sites of the network are located in the centre of Moscow at IAP (55.74N, 37.62E) south-east part of the city at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (55.70N 37.53E), and in background region at Zvenigorod Scientific Station of IAP (ZSS, 55.70N, 36.78E). Intensity of the scattered solar radiation is registered in ultra-violet and visible spectrum region. Three devices are mounted at ZSS: based on MDR-23 spectrometer (since 1990), JAMSTEC MAX-DOAS (since 2008), and based on ORIEL MS257 spectrometer (since 2008). ORIEL MS260i imaging spectrometers were mounted at city stations in 2010. Measurements are regular and continuous at all stations. Basing on performed measurements of spectral radiance, the vertical distribution at twilight, the total content and the integral content in the boundary layer (ABL) in daytime of NO2 are obtained. The quantities are obtained in clear sky and cloudy conditions. Besides that, the vertical distribution of aerosol and the total content (mainly contributed by ABL) of HCHO using MAX-DOAS are calculated. The HCHO total content is retrieved with error about 20 %. We analyzed the variability of the HCHO during clear sky conditions in 2010. The HCHO content is larger during east wind directions than during non-east wind directions. It can be associated with Moscow Megacity influence on air quality at Zvenigorod. The estimation of Moscow Megacity influence on HCHO abundance at Zvenigorod is around 2.5E14 mol/cm2 per 1 km length of trajectory path inside Moscow Ring Road. Our data show statistically significant positive temperature effect in HCHO for the background condition for temperatures from -5C to +33C. The temperature trend in HCHO data at ZSS is about (8.9±2.3)E14 mol/cm2/C. The increase of the HCHO VCD during increase of the air temperature can be explained by the

  11. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China.

  12. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  13. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  14. Mapping Individual Brain Networks Using Statistical Similarity in Regional Morphology from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-zhen; Liu, Zhaoguo; Huang, Lijie; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zetian; Zhou, Guangfu; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Representing brain morphology as a network has the advantage that the regional morphology of ‘isolated’ structures can be described statistically based on graph theory. However, very few studies have investigated brain morphology from the holistic perspective of complex networks, particularly in individual brains. We proposed a new network framework for individual brain morphology. Technically, in the new network, nodes are defined as regions based on a brain atlas, and edges are estimated using our newly-developed inter-regional relation measure based on regional morphological distributions. This implementation allows nodes in the brain network to be functionally/anatomically homogeneous but different with respect to shape and size. We first demonstrated the new network framework in a healthy sample. Thereafter, we studied the graph-theoretical properties of the networks obtained and compared the results with previous morphological, anatomical, and functional networks. The robustness of the method was assessed via measurement of the reliability of the network metrics using a test-retest dataset. Finally, to illustrate potential applications, the networks were used to measure age-related changes in commonly used network metrics. Results suggest that the proposed method could provide a concise description of brain organization at a network level and be used to investigate interindividual variability in brain morphology from the perspective of complex networks. Furthermore, the method could open a new window into modeling the complexly distributed brain and facilitate the emerging field of human connectomics. PMID:26536598

  15. Network Sensitivity Solutions for Regional Moment Tensor Inversions

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R

    2009-06-05

    Well-resolved moment tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. Here we introduce a new way of assessing confidence in the regional full moment tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type region for a given set of stations, and with it one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source-types with the best-fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit where the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion since the data contains some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviatoric source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. The earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (M{sub W}4.1) is dominantly explosion.

  16. New Intervention Model of Regional Transfer Network System to Alleviate Crowding of Regional Emergency Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is a serious problem in most tertiary hospitals in Korea. Although several intervention models have been established to alleviate ED crowding, they are limited to a single hospital-based approach. This study was conducted to determine whether the new regional intervention model could alleviate ED crowding in a regional emergency medical center. This study was designed as a “before and after study” and included patients who visited the tertiary hospital ED from November 2011 to October 2013. One tertiary hospital and 32 secondary hospitals were included in the study. A transfer coordinator conducted inter-hospital transfers from a tertiary hospital to a secondary hospital for suitable patients. A total of 1,607 and 2,591 patients transferred from a tertiary hospital before and after the study, respectively (P < 0.001). We found that the median ED length of stay (LOS) decreased significantly from 3.68 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 1.85 to 9.73) to 3.20 hours (IQR, 1.62 to 8.33) in the patient group after implementation of the Regional Transfer Network System (RTNS) (P < 0.001). The results of multivariate analysis showed a negative association between implementation of the RTNS and ED LOS (beta coefficient -0.743; 95% confidence interval -0.914 to -0.572; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the ED LOS in the tertiary hospital decreased after implementation of the RTNS. PMID:27134506

  17. Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) - Korea 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Choi, M.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Ghim, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Park, R.; Seo, M.; Song, C.; Yum, S.; Woo, J.; Yoon, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, M.; Lim, J.; Chang, I.; Jeong, M. J.; Bae, M.; Sorokin, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. Recently, with the cooperative efforts with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), Korean University research groups, and KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) / NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), DRAGON-Korea 2012 campaign was successfully performed from March to May 2012. The campaign sites were divided into two groups, the National scale sites and Seoul metropolitan sites. Thirteen Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at National scale sites including two metropolitan cities and several remote sites. Nine Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at Seoul Metropolitan sites including several residential sites and traffic source areas. The measured datasets are being analyzed in diverse fields of air quality communities including in-situ measurement groups, satellite remote sensing groups, chemical modeling groups, and airplane measurement groups. We will introduce several preliminary results of the analysis and discuss the future planes and corporations in Korea.

  18. Library Cooperation at the Grass Roots: A Regional Intertype Library Network in the San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, R. Dean

    1979-01-01

    A small academic library's experience in a regional intertype library network had positive effects on interlibrary loan procedures and improved and promoted cooperation at the local level. The regional network relieves the burden on large research libraries and enables libraries with inadequate resources to provide better service to patrons.…

  19. Networking for the Region and beyond--Role of the Southeast Asian Geography Association (SEAGA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Giok Ling; Goh, Kim Chuan

    2008-01-01

    Networking among geographers in the Southeast Asian region is a challenge because of language and other barriers such as the costs of travel as well as keeping up communications and information flows. This networking effort however, is crucial to research and scholarship on issues that are relevant to the region. Many of these concern sustainable…

  20. Comparison of sulfur measurements from a regional fine particle network with concurrent acid modes network results

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.L.; Stockburger, L.; Barnes, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fine Particle Network (FPN), a system of fine particle (less than 2.5 micrometers) samplers, was operated at 41 sites selected from the Enviromental Protection Agency Acid MODES program during the two year period in 1988-90. The 24-hour sample results included fine particle mass and the most predominant chemical element concentrations determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. Statistical summaries of the fine mass and sulfur concentrations by site and season were prepared. The availability of simultaneous particulate sulfate measurements from independent collection and analytical procedures provided an opportunity to examine their agreement and provide a more reliable data base for evaluation of regional particulate models and estimation of contribution to urban aerosol concentration.

  1. Technology, Integration, and Learning Environments: CEE Monograph: The NAU Centennial Year of Education. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Gary, Ed.; Gunn, Cathy, Ed.; Lapan, Stephen D., Ed.

    This volume of the Center for Excellence in Education (CEE) monograph series describes Northern Arizona University's (NAU) commitment to education and innovation. Contained within this volume are discussions of professional development courses and programs in the area of educational technology. The articles in this monograph feature educational…

  2. Functional Network Architecture of Reading-Related Regions across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Church, Jessica A.; Power, Jonathan D.; Miezin, Fran M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    Reading requires coordinated neural processing across a large number of brain regions. Studying relationships between reading-related regions informs the specificity of information processing performed in each region. Here, regions of interest were defined from a meta-analysis of reading studies, including a developmental study. Relationships…

  3. Regional information network systems on Scientific research - two examples of Ishikawa and Toyama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, Kenji

    Science and Technology Agency has been promoting regional information network systems on scientific research. The common purpose of the systems is to enhance good communications among various researchers in regions as well as between researchers in Tsukuba and researchers in regions, and accordingly to contribute to the evolution of the regional R&D. These network systems with the help of the pursonal computor communication system have been carried out as prototypes since 1988, in not only Tsukuba area, but four other regions. Two of them are in Ishikawa prefecture and Toyama prefecture. The situations and details of the two are explained.

  4. Evaluation of the streamflow-gaging network of Alaska in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1906, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began operating a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska. The primary purpose of the streamflow- gaging network has been to provide peak flow, average flow, and low-flow characteristics to a variety of users. In 1993, the USGS began a study to evaluate the current network of 78 stations. The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the existing network in predicting selected regional flow characteristics and to determine if providing additional streamflow-gaging stations could improve the network's ability to predict these characteristics. Alaska was divided into six distinct hydrologic regions: Arctic, Northwest, Southcentral, Southeast, Southwest, and Yukon. For each region, historical and current streamflow data were compiled. In Arctic, Northwest, and Southwest Alaska, insufficient data were available to develop regional regression equations. In these areas, proposed locations of streamflow-gaging stations were selected by using clustering techniques to define similar areas within a region and by spatial visual analysis using the precipitation, physiographic, and hydrologic unit maps of Alaska. Sufficient data existed in Southcentral and Southeast Alaska to use generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to develop regional regression equations to estimate the 50-year peak flow, annual average flow, and a low-flow statistic. GLS procedures were also used for Yukon Alaska but the results should be used with caution because the data do not have an adequate spatial distribution. Network analysis procedures were used for the Southcentral, Southeast, and Yukon regions. Network analysis indicates the reduction in the sampling error of the regional regression equation that can be obtained given different scenarios. For Alaska, a 10-year planning period was used. One scenario showed the results of continuing the current network with no additional gaging stations and another scenario showed the results

  5. Metadata Harvesting in Regional Digital Libraries in the PIONIER Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Cezary; Stroinski, Maciej; Werla, Marcin; Weglarz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present the concept of the functionality of metadata harvesting for regional digital libraries, based on the OAI-PMH protocol. This functionality is a part of regional digital libraries platform created in Poland. The platform was required to reach one of main objectives of the Polish PIONIER Programme--to enrich the…

  6. Overview of Regional Monitoring Networks to Detect Climate Change in Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    In partnership with states, tribes, and other organizations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has worked to establish regional monitoring networks (RMNs) at which biological, thermal, and hydrologic data are collected from freshwater wadeable streams to quantify and monit...

  7. The structural robustness of geographical networks against regional failure and their pre-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Chaogeng; Shen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Failures of real-world infrastructure networks due to natural disasters often originate in a certain region, but this feature has seldom been considered in theoretical models. In this article, we introduce a possible failure pattern of geographical networks-"regional failure"-by which nodes and edges within a region malfunction. Based on a previous spatial network model (Louf et al., 2013), we study the robustness of geographical networks against regional failure, which is measured by the fraction of nodes that remain in the largest connected component, via simulations. A small-area failure results in a large reduction of their robustness measure. Furthermore, we investigate two pre-deployed mechanisms to enhance their robustness: One is to extend the cost-benefit growth mechanism of the original network model by adding more than one link in a growth step, and the other is to strengthen the interconnection of hubs in generated networks. We measure the robustness-enhancing effects of both mechanisms on the basis of their costs, i.e., the amount of excessive links and the induced geographical length. The latter mechanism is better than the former one if a normal level of costs is considered. When costs exceed a certain level, the former has an advantage. Because the costs of excessive links affect the investment decision of real-world infrastructure networks, it is practical to enhance their robustness by adding more links between hubs. These results might help design robust geographical networks economically.

  8. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  9. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  10. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Huai; Yao, Zhi-Jian; Qin, Jiao-Long; Yan, Rui; Hua, Ling-Ling; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear. This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients. Methods: The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls. The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed, and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology, but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found. Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions. Conclusions: All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients, including an impaired capability of local information processing, reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions. Thus, these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network. PMID:26960371

  11. Developing a clinical research network: the Northern Region Endoscopy Group experience.

    PubMed

    Rajasekhar, Praveen; Rees, Colin; Rutter, Matthew; Hungin, Pali

    2014-04-01

    Research is central to the National Health Service. Clinical trial recruitment has been aided by the National Institute for Health Research's Comprehensive Research Network but these networks do not support development of research. The Northern Region Endoscopy Group (NREG) was founded in 2007, encompasses 17 endoscopy units and has become a highly successful collaborative research network. The network is now a major contributor to UK trials, has published over 20 papers (>60 abstracts) and holds grants totalling more than £1.5 million. The NREG provides an exemplar model of how collaborative working can contribute significantly to biomedical research.

  12. Future planning: default network activity couples with frontoparietal control network and reward-processing regions during process and outcome simulations.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Kathy D; Spreng, R Nathan; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-12-01

    We spend much of our daily lives imagining how we can reach future goals and what will happen when we attain them. Despite the prevalence of such goal-directed simulations, neuroimaging studies on planning have mainly focused on executive processes in the frontal lobe. This experiment examined the neural basis of process simulations, during which participants imagined themselves going through steps toward attaining a goal, and outcome simulations, during which participants imagined events they associated with achieving a goal. In the scanner, participants engaged in these simulation tasks and an odd/even control task. We hypothesized that process simulations would recruit default and frontoparietal control network regions, and that outcome simulations, which allow us to anticipate the affective consequences of achieving goals, would recruit default and reward-processing regions. Our analysis of brain activity that covaried with process and outcome simulations confirmed these hypotheses. A functional connectivity analysis with posterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior inferior parietal lobule seeds showed that their activity was correlated during process simulations and associated with a distributed network of default and frontoparietal control network regions. During outcome simulations, medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala seeds covaried together and formed a functional network with default and reward-processing regions.

  13. Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S. Alex; Andreeff, Michael; MacLeod, Michael C.; DiGiovanni, John

    2011-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by {approx} 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: > CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. > CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. > The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.

  14. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery.

  15. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  16. Implementation and Integration of Regional Health Care Data Networks in the Hellenic National Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Vidalis, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Christos; Vagelatos, Aristides

    2002-01-01

    Background Modern health care is provided with close cooperation among many different institutions and professionals, using their specialized expertise in a common effort to deliver best-quality and, at the same time, cost-effective services. Within this context of the growing need for information exchange, the demand for realization of data networks interconnecting various health care institutions at a regional level, as well as a national level, has become a practical necessity. Objectives To present the technical solution that is under consideration for implementing and interconnecting regional health care data networks in the Hellenic National Health System. Methods The most critical requirements for deploying such a regional health care data network were identified as: fast implementation, security, quality of service, availability, performance, and technical support. Results The solution proposed is the use of proper virtual private network technologies for implementing functionally-interconnected regional health care data networks. Conclusions The regional health care data network is considered to be a critical infrastructure for further development and penetration of information and communication technologies in the Hellenic National Health System. Therefore, a technical approach was planned, in order to have a fast cost-effective implementation, conforming to certain specifications. PMID:12554551

  17. Development of regional network for nuclear information in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    Among the recent INIS activities several interesting items are reported. In particular Latin America area where active movements have been seen recently is described in detail in terms of INIS information services. The author reports Latin America regional nuclear information project which has been implemented as 5-year project since 1985 supported by IAEA, and its progress, and describes information service system in Brazil which plays the core role in promoting this project.

  18. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    1992-01-01

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  19. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  20. The Study of Development Strategy for Bank Distribution Network through the Analysis of Inter-regional Financial Transaction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jae Weon; Hong, Won Eui; Kwak, Yoon Sik

    This study attempts to shed light on the factors that influence the locations of bank branches in establishing a bank's distribution network from the angle of the network analysis. Whereas the previous studies analyzed the locations of bank branches on the basis of their geographical characteristics and image, the significance of this study rests upon the fact that it endeavors to explore the location factors from a new perspective of the movement path of financial customers. For this analysis, the network between administrative districts, which form the fundamental unit of a location, was analyzed based on the financial transactional data. The important findings of this study are as follows. First, in conformity with the previous studies, the income level, the spending level, the number of businesses, and the size of workforce in the pertinent region were all found to influence the size of a bank's market. Second, the centrality index extracted from the analysis of the network was found to have a significant effect on the locations of bank branches. In particular, the degree centrality was revealed to have a greater influence on the size of a bank's market than does the closeness centrality. Such results of this study clearly suggest the needs for a new approach from the perspective of network in furtherance of other factors that have been considered important in the previous studies of the distribution network strategies.

  1. The Midwest Regional Library Network (MIDLNET): A Progress Report to the Library Community. Draft of Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markuson, Barbara Evans, Comp.

    A new organization is proposed that will serve as a regional library network for the midwestern United States: the Midwest Regional Library Network (MIDLNET). MIDLNET must meet four requirements in order to assure its success: it must meet the needs of the major academic research libraries in the area, it should be a limited sponsor network, it…

  2. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals.

  3. USING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING OF A REGIONAL COMMUNITY CANCER NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. In order to describe the network characteristics of the TBCCN as part of our ongoing evaluation efforts, we conducted social network analysis surveys with our community partners in 2007 and 2008. One key finding showed that the mean trust value for the 20 community partners in the study increased from 1.8 to 2.1 (p<0.01), suggesting a trend toward increased trust in the network. These preliminary results suggest that TBCCN has led to greater collaboration among the community partners that were formed through its capacity-building and evidence-based dissemination activities for impacting cancer health disparities at the community level. PMID:24049217

  4. Regional differences in the developmental trajectory of lateralization of the language network.

    PubMed

    Berl, Madison M; Mayo, Jessica; Parks, Erin N; Rosenberger, Lisa R; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis

    2014-01-01

    The timing and developmental factors underlying the establishment of language dominance are poorly understood. We investigated the degree of lateralization of traditional frontotemporal and modulatory prefrontal-cerebellar regions of the distributed language network in children (n = 57) ages 4 to 12--a critical period for language consolidation. We examined the relationship between the strength of language lateralization and neuropsychological measures and task performance. The fundamental language network is established by four with ongoing maturation of language functions as evidenced by strengthening of lateralization in the traditional frontotemporal language regions; temporal regions were strongly and consistently lateralized by age seven, while frontal regions had greater variability and were less strongly lateralized through age 10. In contrast, the modulatory prefrontal-cerebellar regions were the least strongly lateralized and degree of lateralization was not associated with age. Stronger core language skills were significantly correlated with greater right lateralization in the cerebellum.

  5. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  6. Coexpression networks identify brain region-specific enhancer RNAs in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pu; Lin, Peijie; Gokoolparsadh, Akira; Assareh, Amelia; Thang, Mike W C; Voineagu, Irina

    2015-08-01

    Despite major progress in identifying enhancer regions on a genome-wide scale, the majority of available data are limited to model organisms and human transformed cell lines. We have identified a robust set of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) expressed in the human brain and constructed networks assessing eRNA-gene coexpression interactions across human fetal brain and multiple adult brain regions. Our data identify brain region-specific eRNAs and show that enhancer regions expressing eRNAs are enriched for genetic variants associated with autism spectrum disorders.

  7. Genetic network properties of the human cortex based on regional thickness and surface area measures

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Anna R.; Sawyers, Chelsea K.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E.; Chen, Chi-Hua; McEvoy, Linda K.; Verhulst, Brad; Tsuang, Ming T.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined network properties of genetic covariance between average cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) within genetically-identified cortical parcellations that we previously derived from human cortical genetic maps using vertex-wise fuzzy clustering analysis with high spatial resolution. There were 24 hierarchical parcellations based on vertex-wise CT and 24 based on vertex-wise SA expansion/contraction; in both cases the 12 parcellations per hemisphere were largely symmetrical. We utilized three techniques—biometrical genetic modeling, cluster analysis, and graph theory—to examine genetic relationships and network properties within and between the 48 parcellation measures. Biometrical modeling indicated significant shared genetic covariance between size of several of the genetic parcellations. Cluster analysis suggested small distinct groupings of genetic covariance; networks highlighted several significant negative and positive genetic correlations between bilateral parcellations. Graph theoretical analysis suggested that small world, but not rich club, network properties may characterize the genetic relationships between these regional size measures. These findings suggest that cortical genetic parcellations exhibit short characteristic path lengths across a broad network of connections. This property may be protective against network failure. In contrast, previous research with structural data has observed strong rich club properties with tightly interconnected hub networks. Future studies of these genetic networks might provide powerful phenotypes for genetic studies of normal and pathological brain development, aging, and function. PMID:26347632

  8. EDCTP regional networks of excellence: initial merits for planned clinical trials in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and combating hotspots with escalating but preventable communicable diseases remain major challenges in Africa. The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) intervened to combat poverty-related diseases including malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and to conduct multi-centre clinical trials and multi-disciplinary health research through an innovative model of regional Networks of Excellence (NoEs). Methods We participated in a quasi-formative evaluation between October and December 2011 on the 4 regional-led research networks. These included the: Central Africa Network on Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria (CANTAM); East African Consortium for Clinical Research (EACCR); West African Network of Excellence for TB, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), and the Trials of Excellence for Southern Africa (TESA) launched between 2009 and 2010. We shared a participatory appraisal of field reports, progress reports and presentations from each network to jointly outline the initial experiences of the merits, outputs and lessons learnt. Results The self-regulating democratic networks, with 64 institutions in 21 African countries, have trained over 1, 000 African scientists, upgraded 36 sites for clinical trials, leveraged additional € 24 million and generated 38 peer-reviewed publications through networking and partnerships. Conclusions The shared initial merits and lessons learnt portray in part the strengthened capacity of these networks for improved research coordination and conduct of planned multi-center clinical trials in Africa. Increased funding by African agencies, governments and international health partners will ensure sustainability of these networks for research capacity development and demonstrate their commitment to achieving the MDGs in Africa. PMID:23517572

  9. Regional Webgis User Access Patterns Based on a Weighted Bipartite Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of geographic information services, Web Geographic Information Systems (WebGIS) have become an indispensable part of everyday life; correspondingly, map search engines have become extremely popular with users and WebGIS sites receive a massive volume of requests for access. These WebGIS users and the content accessed have regional characteristics; to understand regional patterns, we mined regional WebGIS user access patterns based on a weighted bipartite network. We first established a weighted bipartite network model for regional user access to a WebGIS. Then, based on the massive user WebGIS access logs, we clustered geographic information accessed and thereby identified hot access areas. Finally we quantitatively analyzed the access interests of regional users and the visitation volume characteristics of regional user access to these hot access areas in terms of user access permeability, user usage rate, and user access viscosity. Our research results show that regional user access to WebGIS is spatially aggregated, and the hot access areas that regional users accessed are associated with specific periods of time. Most regional user contact with hot accessed areas is variable and intermittent but for some users, their access to certain areas is continuous as it is associated with ongoing or recurrent objectives. The weighted bipartite network model for regional user WebGIS access provides a valid analysis method for studying user behaviour in WebGIS and the proposed access pattern exhibits access interest of regional user is spatiotemporal aggregated and presents a heavy-tailed distribution. Understanding user access patterns is good for WebGIS providers and supports better operational decision-making, and helpful for developers when optimizing WebGIS system architecture and deployment, so as to improve the user experience and to expand the popularity of WebGIS.

  10. Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Senay Habtezion (shabtezion@start.org) / Hassan Virji (hvirji@start.org)Global Change SySTem for Analysis, Training and Research (START) (www.start.org) 2000 Florida Avenue NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20009 USA As part of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) project partnership effort to promote use of earth observations in advancing scientific knowledge, START works to bridge capacity needs related to earth observations (EOs) and their applications in the developing world. GOFC-GOLD regional networks, fostered through the support of regional and thematic workshops, have been successful in (1) enabling participation of scientists for developing countries and from the US to collaborate on key GOFC-GOLD and Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC) issues, including NASA Global Data Set validation and (2) training young developing country scientists to gain key skills in EOs data management and analysis. Members of the regional networks are also engaged and reengaged in other EOs programs (e.g. visiting scientists program; data initiative fellowship programs at the USGS EROS Center and Boston University), which has helped strengthen these networks. The presentation draws from these experiences in advocating for integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building through the lens of the GOFC-GOLD partnership effort. Specifically, this presentation describes the role of the GODC-GOLD partnership in nurturing organic networks of scientists and EOs practitioners in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

  11. [Photocatalytic removing of a mustard gas analogue 2-CEES vapor over SO4(2-)/TiO2].

    PubMed

    Han, Shi-tong; Xi, Hai-ling; Wang, Xu-xu; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2005-05-01

    Disinfection with photocatalysis, compared to with the conventional cleanout, is both high efficient and non contaminative, but the simple TiO2 photocatalyst is showing to be of low activity and low active stability so to be hardly practical application. In the paper, SO4(2-)/TiO2 were papered by surface modification of TiO2 with dilute H2SO4, and the photocatalytic degradation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) on the samples was examined in a fixed-bed microreactor. The examination show that the acidic modification enhanced both the activity and the active stability of TiO2, and the sample ST200 prepared by calcination at 200 degrees C was better than ST400 by calcination at 400 degrees C. The effect of water vapor content and reaction temperature on the photocatalytic degradation of 2-CEES was also tested, showing that the sample ST200 had high activity and stability at 90 degrees C, and kept a constant activity when adding 30.5 mL/L water vapor into the reactive system in which 2-CEES initial concentration was low to < 61 microL x L(-1). In addition, it was found that supporting SO4(2-)/TiO2 on gamma-Al2O3, SiO2 and active carbon could improve on the activity and stability of SO4(2-)/TiO2, and on supports SiO2 is the best one.

  12. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  13. Effectiveness of the New Hampshire stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    The stream-gaging network in New Hampshire was analyzed for its effectiveness in providing regional information on peak-flood flow, mean-flow, and low-flow frequency. The data available for analysis were from stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and selected stations in adjacent States. The principles of generalized-least-squares regression analysis were applied to develop regional regression equations that relate streamflow-frequency characteristics to watershed characteristics. Regression equations were developed for (1) the instantaneous peak flow with a 100-year recurrence interval, (2) the mean-annual flow, and (3) the 7-day, 10-year low flow. Active and discontinued stream-gaging stations with 10 or more years of flow data were used to develop the regression equations. Each stream-gaging station in the network was evaluated and ranked on the basis of how much the data from that station contributed to the cost-weighted sampling-error component of the regression equation. The potential effect of data from proposed and new stream-gaging stations on the sampling error also was evaluated. The stream-gaging network was evaluated for conditions in water year 2000 and for estimated conditions under various network strategies if an additional 5 years and 20 years of streamflow data were collected. The effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow information could be improved for all three flow characteristics with the collection of additional flow data, both temporally and spatially. With additional years of data collection, the greatest reduction in the average sampling error of the regional regression equations was found for the peak- and low-flow characteristics. In general, additional data collection at stream-gaging stations with unregulated flow, relatively short-term record (less than 20 years), and drainage areas smaller than 45 square miles contributed the largest cost-weighted reduction to the average sampling error of the

  14. Attention Performance Measured by Attention Network Test Is Correlated with Global and Regional Efficiency of Structural Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Min; Ge, Haitao; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S.; Xu, Junhai; Bezgin, Gleb; Leng, Yuan; Zhao, Lu; Tang, Yuchun; Ge, Xinting; Jeon, Seun; Xu, Wenjian; Evans, Alan C.; Liu, Shuwei

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of separate brain areas in three distinct attention systems: alerting, orienting, and executive control (EC). However, the structural correlates underlying attention remains unexplored. Here, we utilized graph theory to examine the neuroanatomical substrates of the three attention systems measured by attention network test (ANT) in 65 healthy subjects. White matter connectivity, assessed with diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography was modeled as a structural network comprising 90 nodes defined by the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) template. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between topological parameters and the three attentional effects. We found a significant positive correlation between EC function and global efficiency of the whole brain network. At the regional level, node-specific correlations were discovered between regional efficiency and all three ANT components, including dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus, thalamus and parahippocampal gyrus for EC, thalamus and inferior parietal gyrus for alerting, and paracentral lobule and inferior occipital gyrus for orienting. Our findings highlight the fundamental architecture of interregional structural connectivity involved in attention and could provide new insights into the anatomical basis underlying human behavior. PMID:27777556

  15. Regional Centres of Expertise: Innovative Networking for Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadeeva, Zinaida; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    The concept of Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been enthusiastically embraced by a diverse array of actors since it was first introduced by the United Nations University (UNU) in 2004. An RCE is conceived of as a "network" of existing organisations of formal, nonformal and informal education,…

  16. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... and Centers Program, published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR 25472). The priorities... 350. (c) The notice of final priorities published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers and...

  17. Bayesian WLS/GLS regression for regional skewness analysis for regions with large crest stage gage networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes methodological advances in regional log-space skewness analyses that support flood-frequency analysis with the log Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution. A Bayesian Weighted Least Squares/Generalized Least Squares (B-WLS/B-GLS) methodology that relates observed skewness coefficient estimators to basin characteristics in conjunction with diagnostic statistics represents an extension of the previously developed B-GLS methodology. B-WLS/B-GLS has been shown to be effective in two California studies. B-WLS/B-GLS uses B-WLS to generate stable estimators of model parameters and B-GLS to estimate the precision of those B-WLS regression parameters, as well as the precision of the model. The study described here employs this methodology to develop a regional skewness model for the State of Iowa. To provide cost effective peak-flow data for smaller drainage basins in Iowa, the U.S. Geological Survey operates a large network of crest stage gages (CSGs) that only record flow values above an identified recording threshold (thus producing a censored data record). CSGs are different from continuous-record gages, which record almost all flow values and have been used in previous B-GLS and B-WLS/B-GLS regional skewness studies. The complexity of analyzing a large CSG network is addressed by using the B-WLS/B-GLS framework along with the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA). Because EMA allows for the censoring of low outliers, as well as the use of estimated interval discharges for missing, censored, and historic data, it complicates the calculations of effective record length (and effective concurrent record length) used to describe the precision of sample estimators because the peak discharges are no longer solely represented by single values. Thus new record length calculations were developed. The regional skewness analysis for the State of Iowa illustrates the value of the new B-WLS/BGLS methodology with these new extensions.

  18. On the Role of Hyper-arid Regions within the Virtual Water Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggrey, James; Alshamsi, Aamena; Molini, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, economic development, and population growth are bound to increasingly impact global water resources, posing a significant threat to the sustainable development of arid regions, where water consumption highly exceeds the natural carrying capacity, population growth rate is high, and climate variability is going to impact both water consumption and availability. Virtual Water Trade (VWT) - i.e. the international trade network of water-intensive products - has been proposed as a possible solution to optimize the allocation of water resources on the global scale. By increasing food availability and lowering food prices it may in fact help the rapid development of water-scarce regions. The structure of the VWT network has been analyzed by a number of authors both in connection with trade policies, socioeconomic constrains and agricultural efficiency. However a systematic analysis of the structure and the dynamics of the VWT network conditional to aridity, climatic forcing and energy availability, is still missing. Our goal is hence to analyze the role of arid and hyper-arid regions within the VWN under diverse climatic, demographic, and energy constraints with an aim to contribute to the ongoing Energy-Water-Food nexus discussion. In particular, we focus on the hyper-arid lands of the Arabian Peninsula, the role they play in the global network and the assessment of their specific criticalities, as reflected in the VWN resilience.

  19. Spatio-temporal filtering for determination of common mode error in regional GNSS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Gruszczynski, Maciej; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The spatial correlation between different stations for individual components in the regional GNSS networks seems to be significant. The mismodelling in satellite orbits, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), largescale atmospheric effects or satellite antenna phase centre corrections can all cause the regionally correlated errors. This kind of GPS time series errors are referred to as common mode errors (CMEs). They are usually estimated with the regional spatial filtering, such as the "stacking". In this paper, we show the stacking approach for the set of ASG-EUPOS permanent stations, assuming that spatial distribution of the CME is uniform over the whole region of Poland (more than 600 km extent). The ASG-EUPOS is a multifunctional precise positioning system based on the reference network designed for Poland. We used a 5- year span time series (2008-2012) of daily solutions in the ITRF2008 from Bernese 5.0 processed by the Military University of Technology EPN Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC). At the beginning of our analyses concerning spatial dependencies, the correlation coefficients between each pair of the stations in the GNSS network were calculated. This analysis shows that spatio-temporal behaviour of the GPS-derived time series is not purely random, but there is the evident uniform spatial response. In order to quantify the influence of filtering using CME, the norms L1 and L2 were determined. The values of these norms were calculated for the North, East and Up components twice: before performing the filtration and after stacking. The observed reduction of the L1 and L2 norms was up to 30% depending on the dimension of the network. However, the question how to define an optimal size of CME-analysed subnetwork remains unanswered in this research, due to the fact that our network is not extended enough.

  20. A preliminary risk assessment of the Australian region power network to space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, R. A.; Smith, E. A.; Francis, M. J.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.

    2011-10-01

    It is well documented that power networks at high latitudes are vulnerable to the effects of space weather. In recent years the eastern Australia state power networks have been connected across state boundaries in order to improve robustness under increasing load demands and deliver power at competitive prices. However, this interconnectivity is likely to increase susceptibility of the network to space weather. Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) flow in power transmission lines as the result of "geoelectric" fields and their associated geomagnetic field variations according to Faraday's Law. In this paper previously documented occurrences of GIC activity from regions around the world are investigated and categorized by their effects on nearby power networks. A frequency domain filter that produces an index representing GIC activity is applied to geomagnetic field data recorded at locations near the documented GIC activity to determine risk level "GIC index" thresholds. Geomagnetic field data from the Australian region are processed using the "GIC filter" to provide a preliminary risk assessment of space weather related GIC activity to the Australian power network. The analysis suggests lower limit threshold GICy indices of 50, 100, 250, and 600 corresponding to the risk levels of "low," "moderate," "high," and "extreme," respectively. Analysis of GICy indices derived from Australian magnetometer data shows that only southern Australian regions reached the "moderate" risk levels defined in this study with mainland southern Australia stations reaching this risk level twice over the previous two solar cycles. Southern Australian regions such as Tasmania reached moderate levels approximately 20 times during the previous solar cycle. Furthermore, elevated risk levels are typically only observed in Australia during solar maximum and its decline phase.

  1. Healthcare Supported by Data Mule Networks in Remote Communities of the Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Mauro Margalho; Efrat, Alon; Richa, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using boats as data mule nodes, carrying medical ultrasound videos from remote and isolated communities in the Amazon region in Brazil, to the main city of that area. The videos will be used by physicians to perform remote analysis and follow-up routine of prenatal examinations of pregnant women. Two open source simulators (the ONE and NS-2) were used to evaluate the results obtained utilizing a CoDPON (continuous displacement plan oriented network). The simulations took into account the connection times between the network nodes (boats) and the number of nodes on each boat route. PMID:27433519

  2. [Transfer of Care Innovations from the Hamburg Network for Mental Health to other Health Regions].

    PubMed

    Tokar, Oksana; Dörbecker, Regine; Böhmann, Tilo; Härter, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present the research conducted for systemizing network elements and analyzing their interconnection that emerged during the establishment and functioning of health care innovation project of psychenet - the Hamburg Network for Mental Health.Semi-structured manual-based face-to-face interviews with project researchers and leaders were conducted. The gathered data was validated and updated several times during the project duration. The results include a systematic description of 186 network elements developed during the overall project and respective subprojects. The elements were consolidated in a web-based database and integrated into the psychenet.de public website. A clustering of elements was conducted and modules of elements were generated based on the interconnection between the related elements.The systematic description of network elements as well as determination of their interconnection and dependency can play an important role in understanding the emergence and functioning of integrated mental health networks. The innovative medical networks prove to be complex service systems and urge for a grounded application of integration techniques in order to be successfully transferred and adopted in other regions.

  3. Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; DeLuca, E E; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-10-17

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ≤300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~10(5) kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind. PMID:25324395

  4. Assessment of micro-regional internal accessibility based on road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ting; Li, Manchun; Jiang, Zhixin; Huang, Kang

    2007-06-01

    Accessibility is an important indicator of regional land-use, social justice and quality of life. It means the convenience from one place to another in a specified kind of transportation system. Wide-region based, most of the present domestic accessibility research took the high-grade highway such as highway and railway as entirely open road, without considering the service that high-grade highway provides based on intersection and railway station. This study extended to put forward arithmetic to deal with this problem in a micro-regional study area. Taking New District, Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province as a study case, this study researched the assessment of micro-regional internal accessibility based on road network including closed road. This study provides a tool to regional economical and social decision, and introduces a new view for studying relationship between people and land-use in micro-district.

  5. Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; DeLuca, E E; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-10-17

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ≤300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~10(5) kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

  6. Report of the Regional and National Literacy Network of Research and Professional Organizations (1st, Naperville, Illinois, November 15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Righeimer, Jennie M.; Voss, Cathy

    The Center for Literacy (part of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory) established the Regional and National Network of Research and Professional Organizations, which examines current trends in literacy research on a national level. The first meeting of the Research Network was held in 2001, and featured a panel of expert researchers…

  7. Delineating Geographical Regions with Networks of Human Interactions in an Extensive Set of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Szell, Michael; Campari, Riccardo; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Ratti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale networks of human interaction, in particular country-wide telephone call networks, can be used to redraw geographical maps by applying algorithms of topological community detection. The geographic projections of the emerging areas in a few recent studies on single regions have been suggested to share two distinct properties: first, they are cohesive, and second, they tend to closely follow socio-economic boundaries and are similar to existing political regions in size and number. Here we use an extended set of countries and clustering indices to quantify overlaps, providing ample additional evidence for these observations using phone data from countries of various scales across Europe, Asia, and Africa: France, the UK, Italy, Belgium, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Ivory Coast. In our analysis we use the known approach of partitioning country-wide networks, and an additional iterative partitioning of each of the first level communities into sub-communities, revealing that cohesiveness and matching of official regions can also be observed on a second level if spatial resolution of the data is high enough. The method has possible policy implications on the definition of the borderlines and sizes of administrative regions. PMID:24367490

  8. Searchlight Correlation Detectors: Optimal Seismic Monitoring Using Regional and Global Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod; Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of correlation detectors increases greatly when the outputs from multiple seismic traces are considered. For single-array monitoring, a zero-offset stack of individual correlation traces will provide significant noise suppression and enhanced sensitivity for a source region surrounding the hypocenter of the master event. The extent of this region is limited only by the decrease in waveform similarity with increasing hypocenter separation. When a regional or global network of arrays and/or 3-component stations is employed, the zero-offset approach is only optimal when the master and detected events are co-located exactly. In many monitoring situations, including nuclear test sites and geothermal fields, events may be separated by up to many hundreds of meters while still retaining sufficient waveform similarity for correlation detection on single channels. However, the traveltime differences resulting from the hypocenter separation may result in significant beam loss on the zero-offset stack and a deployment of many beams for different hypothetical source locations in geographical space is required. The beam deployment necessary for optimal performance of the correlation detectors is determined by an empirical network response function which is most easily evaluated using the auto-correlation functions of the waveform templates from the master event. The correlation detector beam deployments for providing optimal network sensitivity for the North Korea nuclear test site are demonstrated for both regional and teleseismic monitoring configurations.

  9. A depression network of functionally connected regions discovered via multi-attribute canonical correlation graphs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Bowman, F DuBois; Mayberg, Helen; Liu, Han

    2016-11-01

    To establish brain network properties associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) data, we develop a multi-attribute graph model to construct a region-level functional connectivity network that uses all voxel level information. For each region pair, we define the strength of the connectivity as the kernel canonical correlation coefficient between voxels in the two regions; and we develop a permutation test to assess the statistical significance. We also construct a network based classifier for making predictions on the risk of MDD. We apply our method to Rs-fMRI data from 20 MDD patients and 20 healthy control subjects in the Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study. Using this method, MDD patients can be distinguished from healthy control subjects based on significant differences in the strength of regional connectivity. We also demonstrate the performance of the proposed method using simulationstudies. PMID:27474522

  10. Development of an Asia-Pacific regional network for public health.

    PubMed

    Loos, G P

    1995-01-01

    As public health by its very nature is multi-disciplinary, it may benefit individual programs to formulate a regional network, joining researchers and academics across programs. This approach may afford extended benefits, such as the establishment of regional health surveillance systems and collaborative funding initiatives. To explore this potential, member institutions comprising the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health provided data to form an aggregate profile of cross-institutional expertise and resources, which was presented to Health Specialists at the Asian Development Bank. The study provided a foundation for a planned regional network. A four-pronged approach was proffered detailing concurrent aspects of development: 1) network formation and expansion, 2) research coordination, 3) cross-institutional communication and instruction, and 4) promotion of self-sufficiency. The proposed plan affords the groundwork for an improved approach to public health research and practice that builds upon the established Consortium, and encourages new horizons. Regionalization is an increasing phenomenon world wide, and should be furthered as a concept for improved public health intervention and control.

  11. NOAA/NCEI/Regional Climate Services: Working with Partners and Stakeholders across a Wide Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecray, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Federal agencies all require plans to be prepared at the state level that outline the implementation of funding to address wildlife habitat, human health, transportation infrastructure, coastal zone management, environmental management, emergency management, and others. These plans are now requiring the consideration of changing climate conditions. So where does a state turn to discuss lessons learned, obtain tools and information to assess climate conditions, and to work with other states in their region? Regional networks and collaboratives are working to deliver this sector by sector. How do these networks work? Do they fit together in any way? What similarities and differences exist? Is anyone talking across these lines to find common climate information requirements? A sketch is forming that links these efforts, not by blending the sectors, but by finding the areas where coordination is critical, where information needs are common, and where delivery mechanisms can be streamlined. NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information's Regional Climate Services Directors have been working at the interface of stakeholder-driven information delivery since 2010. This talk will outline the regional climate services delivery framework for the Eastern Region, with examples of regional products and information.

  12. The evolution and expansion of regional disease surveillance networks and their role in mitigating the threat of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Bond, Katherine C; Macfarlane, Sarah B; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these "self-organizing" networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease surveillance

  13. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, E.; Zwaan, M.; Andreani, P.; Barta, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Brand, J.; Gueth, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Maercker, M.; Massardi, M.; Muehle, S.; Muxlow, Th.; Richards, A.; Schilke, P.; Tilanus, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Afonso, J.; Messias, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  14. Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic Impacts to Regional Landslide Hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dixon, Neil; Dijkstra, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Slope instability represents a prevalent hazard to transport networks. In the UK regional road networks are frequently disrupted by multiple slope failures triggered during intense precipitation events; primarily due to a degree of regional homogeneity of slope materials, geomorphology and weather conditions. It is of interest to examine how different locations and combinations of slope failure impact road networks, particularly in the context of projected climate change and a 40% increase in UK road demand by 2040. In this study an extensive number (>50 000) of multiple failure event scenarios are simulated within a dynamic micro simulation to assess traffic impacts during peak flow (7 - 10 AM). Possible failure locations are selected within the county of Gloucestershire (3150 km2) using historic failure sites and British Geological Survey GeoSure data. Initial investigations employ a multiple linear regression analyses to consider the severity of traffic impacts, as measured by time, in respect of spatial and topographical network characteristics including connectivity, density and capacity in proximity to failure sites; the network distance between disruptions in multiple failure scenarios is used to consider the effects of spatial clustering. The UK Department of Transport road travel demand and UKCP09 weather projection data to 2080 provide a suitable basis for traffic simulations and probabilistic slope stability assessments. Future work will thus focus on the development of a catastrophe risk model to simulate traffic impacts under various narratives of future travel demand and slope instability under climatic change. The results of this investigation shall contribute to the understanding of road network vulnerabilities and traffic impacts from climate driven slope hazards.

  15. Analysis of surface-water data network in Kansas for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medina, K.D.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1985-01-01

    The surface water data network in Kansas was analyzed using generalized least squares regression for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The correlation and time-sampling error of the streamflow characteristic are considered in the generalized least squares method. Unregulated medium-flow, low-flow and high-flow characteristics were selected to be representative of the regional information that can be obtained from streamflow gaging station records for use in evaluating the effectiveness of continuing the present network stations, discontinuing some stations; and/or adding new stations. The analysis used streamflow records for all currently operated stations that were not affected by regulation and discontinued stations for which unregulated flow characteristics , as well as physical and climatic characteristics, were available. The state was divided into three network areas, western, northeastern, and southeastern Kansas, and analysis was made for three streamflow characteristics in each area, using three planning horizons. The analysis showed that the maximum reduction of sampling mean square error for each cost level could be obtained by adding new stations and discontinuing some of the present network stations. Large reductions in sampling mean square error for low-flow information could be accomplished in all three network areas, with western Kansas having the most dramatic reduction. The addition of new stations would be most beneficial for man- flow information in western Kansas, and to lesser degrees in the other two areas. The reduction of sampling mean square error for high-flow information would benefit most from the addition of new stations in western Kansas, and the effect diminishes to lesser degrees in the other two areas. Southeastern Kansas showed the smallest error reduction in high-flow information. A comparison among all three network areas indicated that funding resources could be most effectively used by

  16. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  17. RADSS: an integration of GIS, spatial statistics, and network service for regional data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haitang; Bao, Shuming; Lin, Hui; Zhu, Qing

    2005-10-01

    Regional data mining, which aims at the discovery of knowledge about spatial patterns, clusters or association between regions, has widely applications nowadays in social science, such as sociology, economics, epidemiology, crime, and so on. Many applications in the regional or other social sciences are more concerned with the spatial relationship, rather than the precise geographical location. Based on the spatial continuity rule derived from Tobler's first law of geography: observations at two sites tend to be more similar to each other if the sites are close together than if far apart, spatial statistics, as an important means for spatial data mining, allow the users to extract the interesting and useful information like spatial pattern, spatial structure, spatial association, spatial outlier and spatial interaction, from the vast amount of spatial data or non-spatial data. Therefore, by integrating with the spatial statistical methods, the geographical information systems will become more powerful in gaining further insights into the nature of spatial structure of regional system, and help the researchers to be more careful when selecting appropriate models. However, the lack of such tools holds back the application of spatial data analysis techniques and development of new methods and models (e.g., spatio-temporal models). Herein, we make an attempt to develop such an integrated software and apply it into the complex system analysis for the Poyang Lake Basin. This paper presents a framework for integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service in regional data mining, as well as their implementation. After discussing the spatial statistics methods involved in regional complex system analysis, we introduce RADSS (Regional Analysis and Decision Support System), our new regional data mining tool, by integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service. RADSS includes the functions of spatial data visualization, exploratory spatial data analysis, and

  18. Statistical Study of Network Jets Observed in the Solar Transition Region: a Comparison Between Coronal Holes and Quiet-Sun Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Nancy; Arbacher, Rebecca T.; Tian, Hui; Banerjee, Dipankar; Cranmer, Steven R.; DeLuca, Ed E.; McKillop, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Recent IRIS observations have revealed a prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with apparent speeds of 80 - 250 km s^{-1}, emanating from small-scale bright regions inside network boundaries of coronal holes. We find that these network jets appear not only in coronal holes but also in quiet-sun regions. Using IRIS 1330 Å (C II) slit-jaw images, we extracted several parameters of these network jets, e.g. apparent speed, length, lifetime, and increase in foot-point brightness. Using several observations, we find that some properties of the jets are very similar, but others are obviously different between the quiet Sun and coronal holes. For example, our study shows that the coronal-hole jets appear to be faster and longer than those in the quiet Sun. This can be directly attributed to a difference in the magnetic configuration of the two regions, with open magnetic field lines rooted in coronal holes and magnetic loops often present in the quiet Sun. We also detected compact bright loops that are most likely transition region loops and are mostly located in quiet-Sun regions. These small loop-like regions are generally devoid of network jets. In spite of different magnetic structures in the coronal hole and quiet Sun in the transition region, there appears to be no substantial difference for the increase in footpoint brightness of the jets, which suggests that the generation mechanism of these network jets is very likely the same in both regions.

  19. Regional contraction of brain surface area involves three large-scale networks in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Mallikarjun, Pavan; Joseph, Verghese; White, Thomas P; Liddle, Peter F

    2011-07-01

    In schizophrenia, morphological changes in the cerebral cortex have been primarily investigated using volumetric or cortical thickness measurements. In healthy subjects, as the brain size increases, the surface area expands disproportionately when compared to the scaling of cortical thickness. In this structural MRI study, we investigated the changes in brain surface area in schizophrenia by constructing relative areal contraction/expansion maps showing group differences in surface area using Freesurfer software in 57 patients and 41 controls. We observed relative areal contraction affecting Default Mode Network, Central Executive Network and Salience Network, in addition to other regions in schizophrenia. We confirmed the surface area reduction across these three large-scale brain networks by undertaking further region-of-interest analysis of surface area. We also observed a significant hemispheric asymmetry in the surface area changes, with the left hemisphere showing a greater reduction in the areal contraction maps. Our findings suggest that a fundamental disturbance in cortical expansion is likely in individuals who develop schizophrenia. PMID:21497489

  20. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  1. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Produces Time- and Brain Region-Dependent Changes in Gene Coexpression Networks

    PubMed Central

    Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A.; Becker, Howard C.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Farris, Sean P.; Tiwari, Gayatri R.; Nunez, Yury O.; Harris, R. Adron; Mayfield, R. Dayne

    2015-01-01

    Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000) at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600). Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%). All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global ‘rewiring‘ of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes. PMID:25803291

  2. Chronic ethanol exposure produces time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks.

    PubMed

    Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A; Becker, Howard C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Farris, Sean P; Tiwari, Gayatri R; Nunez, Yury O; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2015-01-01

    Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000) at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600). Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%). All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global 'rewiring' of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes.

  3. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400

  4. Evaluating Form and Function of Regional Partnerships: Applying Social Network Analysis to the "Network for a Healthy California", 2001-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregson, Jennifer; Sowa, Marcy; Flynn, Heather Kohler

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the partnership structure of the "Network for a Healthy California" ("Network"), a social marketing program, from 2001-2007, to determine if California's program was able to establish and maintain partnerships that (1) provided access to a local audience, (2) facilitated regional collaboration, (3) included new and…

  5. KoFlux: Korean Regional Flux Network in AsiaFlux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.

    2002-12-01

    AsiaFlux, the Asian arm of FLUXNET, held the Second International Workshop on Advanced Flux Network and Flux Evaluation in Jeju Island, Korea on 9-11 January 2002. In order to facilitate comprehensive Asia-wide studies of ecosystem fluxes, the meeting launched KoFlux, a new Korean regional network of long-term micrometeorological flux sites. For a successful assessment of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, an accurate measurement of surface fluxes of energy and water is one of the prerequisites. During the 7th Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) held in Nagoya, Japan on 1-2 October 2001, the Implementation Committee of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) was established. One of the immediate tasks of CEOP was and is to identify the reference sites to monitor energy and water fluxes over the Asian continent. Subsequently, to advance the regional and global network of these reference sites in the context of both FLUXNET and CEOP, the Korean flux community has re-organized the available resources to establish a new regional network, KoFlux. We have built up domestic network sites (equipped with wind profiler and radiosonde measurements) over deciduous and coniferous forests, urban and rural rice paddies and coastal farmland. As an outreach through collaborations with research groups in Japan, China and Thailand, we also proposed international flux sites at ecologically and climatologically important locations such as a prairie on the Tibetan plateau, tropical forest with mixed and rapid land use change in northern Thailand. Several sites in KoFlux already begun to accumulate interesting data and some highlights are presented at the meeting. The sciences generated by flux networks in other continents have proven the worthiness of a global array of micrometeorological flux towers. It is our intent that the launch of KoFlux would encourage other scientists to initiate and

  6. A regional-scale network for geoid monitoring and satellite gravimetry validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D.; Kennedy, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the past two decades, improved measurements of acceleration due to gravity have allowed for accurate detection of temporal gravity change. Terrestrial absolute gravimeters (for example, Micro-g LaCoste FG5 or A-10) can sense changes of gravity induced by elevation or mass changes, including local effects that may bias regional studies. Satellite instrumentation (e.g. GRACE) can detect large scale mass changes on a regular basis. However, the Nyquist wave number for satellite observations is often much too small for the size of regional studies. Also, satellites are limited by their life of deployment. Both techniques are used to (in)validate change models generated from other geophysical observations including water storage(underground and glacial), geoid definition, isostatic adjustments and tectonic(magmatic and faulting)activity. The gap between terrestrial and satellite gravity observations (and between satellite missions) might be bridged by developing a terrestrial network of sites of various observation techniques that define a representative sample of a given, regional study area. This information could then be statistically extrapolated to the extent of the region. The Southern High Plains Aquifer is such a region, since it has widespread relatively uniform geology, has relatively flat topography, and is well monitored for groundwater levels and soil moisture. Each site would have extensive instrumentation for monitoring, at a minimum, gravity (periodic and continuous) using absolute and tidal gravimeters, soil moisture, precipitation, depths to water in wells, evapotranspiration, air pressure, and land surface (GPS). Where possible, the network would build upon existing, data collection infrastructure. Preferably, the region would also have seismic tomography or crustal seismic reflection observations to characterize Moho-depth mass changes and have regional Bouguer anomaly mapping. In addition to information on local hydrology and geology, data

  7. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego–Tijuana Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjay R.; Wertheim, Joel O.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Wagner, Karla D.; Chaillon, Antoine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L.; Rangel, Maria G.; Vargas, Mlenka; Murrell, Ben; Garfein, Richard; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV sequence data can be used to reconstruct local transmission networks. Along international borders, like the San Diego–Tijuana region, understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission across reported risks, racial/ethnic groups, and geography can help direct effective prevention efforts on both sides of the border. Methods We gathered sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, and viral sequence data from HIV infected individuals participating in ten studies in the San Diego–Tijuana border region. Phylogenetic and network analysis was performed to infer putative relationships between HIV sequences. Correlates of identified clusters were evaluated and spatiotemporal relationships were explored using Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. Findings After quality filtering, 843 HIV sequences with associated demographic data and 263 background sequences from the region were analyzed, and 138 clusters were inferred (2–23 individuals). Overall, the rate of clustering did not differ by ethnicity, residence, or sex, but bisexuals were less likely to cluster than heterosexuals or men who have sex with men (p = 0.043), and individuals identifying as white (p ≤ 0.01) were more likely to cluster than other races. Clustering individuals were also 3.5 years younger than non-clustering individuals (p < 0.001). Although the sampled San Diego and Tijuana epidemics were phylogenetically compartmentalized, five clusters contained individuals residing on both sides of the border. Interpretation This study sampled ~ 7% of HIV infected individuals in the border region, and although the sampled networks on each side of the border were largely separate, there was evidence of persistent bidirectional cross-border transmissions that linked risk groups, thus highlighting the importance of the border region as a “melting pot” of risk groups. Funding NIH, VA, and Pendleton Foundation. PMID:26629540

  8. Isoscapes of tree-ring carbon-13 perform like meteorological networks in predicting regional precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Jorge; Aguilera, Mònica; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-03-01

    isotopes in tree rings provide climatic information with annual resolution dating back for centuries or even millennia. However, deriving spatially explicit climate models from isotope networks remains challenging. Here we propose a methodology to model regional precipitation from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in tree rings by (1) building regional spatial models of Δ13C (isoscapes) and (2) deriving precipitation maps from Δ13C-isoscapes, taking advantage of the response of Δ13C to precipitation in seasonally dry climates. As a case study, we modeled the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, a region with complex topography and climate (MAP = 303-1086 mm). We compiled wood Δ13C data for two Mediterranean species that exhibit complementary responses to seasonal precipitation (Pinus halepensis Mill., N = 38; Quercus ilex L.; N = 44; pooling period: 1975-2008). By combining multiple regression and geostatistical interpolation, we generated one Δ13 C-isoscape for each species. A spatial model of MAP was then built as the sum of two complementary maps of seasonal precipitation, each one derived from the corresponding Δ13C-isoscape (September-November from Q. ilex; December-August from P. halepensis). Our approach showed a predictive power for MAP (RMSE = 84 mm) nearly identical to that obtained by interpolating data directly from a similarly dense network of meteorological stations (RMSE = 80-83 mm, N = 65), being only outperformed when using a much denser meteorological network (RMSE = 56-57 mm, N = 340). This method offers new avenues for modeling spatial variability of past precipitation, exploiting the large amount of information currently available from tree-ring networks.

  9. Isoscapes of tree-ring carbon-13 perform like meteorological networks in predicting regional precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Castillo, Jorge; Aguilera, Mònica; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Stable isotopes in tree rings provide climatic information with annual resolution dating back for centuries or even millennia. However, deriving spatially explicit climate models from isotope networks remains challenging. Here we propose a methodology to model regional precipitation from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in tree rings by (1) building regional spatial models of Δ13C (isoscapes), and (2) deriving precipitation maps from 13C-isoscapes, taking advantage of the response of Δ13C to precipitation in seasonally-dry climates. As a case study, we modeled the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, a region with complex orography and climate (MAP=303-1086 mm). We compiled wood Δ13C data for two Mediterranean species that exhibit complementary responses to seasonal precipitation (Pinus halepensis Mill., N=38; Quercus ilex L.; N=44; pooling period: 1975-2008). By combining multiple regression and geostatistical interpolation, we generated one 13C-isoscape for each species. A spatial model of MAP was then built as the sum of two complementary maps of seasonal precipitation, each one derived from the corresponding 13C-isoscape (September-November from Q. ilex; December-August from P. halepensis). Our approach showed a predictive power for MAP (RMSE=84 mm) nearly identical to that obtained by interpolating data directly from a similarly dense network of meteorological stations (RMSE=80-83 mm, N=65), being only outperformed when using a much denser meteorological network (RMSE=56-57 mm, N=340). This method offers new avenues for modeling spatial variability of past precipitation, exploiting the large amount of information currently available from tree-ring networks. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by MC-ERG-246725 (FP7, EU) and AGL 2012-40039-C02-02 (MINECO, Spain). JdC and JPF are supported by FPI fellowship (MCINN) and Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2008-02050, MINECO), respectively.

  10. Recurrent synapses and circuits in the CA3 region of the hippocampus: an associative network

    PubMed Central

    Le Duigou, Caroline; Simonnet, Jean; Teleñczuk, Maria T.; Fricker, Desdemona; Miles, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, pyramidal cells excite other pyramidal cells and interneurons. The axons of CA3 pyramidal cells spread throughout most of the region to form an associative network. These connections were first drawn by Cajal and Lorente de No. Their physiological properties were explored to understand epileptiform discharges generated in the region. Synapses between pairs of pyramidal cells involve one or few release sites and are weaker than connections made by mossy fibers on CA3 pyramidal cells. Synapses with interneurons are rather effective, as needed to control unchecked excitation. We examine contributions of recurrent synapses to epileptiform synchrony, to the genesis of sharp waves in the CA3 region and to population oscillations at theta and gamma frequencies. Recurrent connections in CA3, as other associative cortices, have a lower connectivity spread over a larger area than in primary sensory cortices. This sparse, but wide-ranging connectivity serves the functions of an associative network, including acquisition of neuronal representations as activity in groups of CA3 cells and completion involving the recall from partial cues of these ensemble firing patterns. PMID:24409118

  11. The collaborative experience of creating the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheri H; Holtry, Rekha S; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard; Hung, Lang; Lombardo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) implemented state and district surveillance nodes in a central aggregated node in the National Capital Region (NCR). Within this network, de-identified health information is integrated with other indicator data and is made available to local and state health departments for enhanced disease surveillance. Aggregated data made available to the central node enable public health practitioners to observe abnormal behavior of health indicators spanning jurisdictions and view geographical spread of outbreaks across regions.Forming a steering committee, the NCR Enhanced Surveillance Operating Group (ESOG), was key to overcoming several data-sharing issues. The committee was composed of epidemiologists and key public health practitioners from the 3 jurisdictions. The ESOG facilitated early system development and signing of the cross-jurisdictional data-sharing agreement. This agreement was the first of its kind at the time and provided the legal foundation for sharing aggregated health information across state/district boundaries for electronic disease surveillance.Electronic surveillance system for the early notification of community-based epidemics provides NCR users with a comprehensive regional view to ascertain the spread of disease, estimate resource needs, and implement control measures. This article aims to describe the creation of the NCR Disease Surveillance Network as an exceptional example of cooperation and potential that exists for regional surveillance activities.

  12. La Red Regional Replad: Una Estrategia Innovadora para la Capacitacion de Administradores Educacionales (The Regional Network Replad: An Innovative Strategy for the Training and Preparation of Educational Administrators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Espinoza, Jorge

    This document presents an overview, analysis, and historical assessment of the Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Conferences, regional meetings, and outcomes from the inception of the project in 1979 are described. This project stresses the establishment of a regional network for exchange of information, experiences,…

  13. Youth Transitions and Network Consolidation. Regional Workshop, 20-22 May 2014 in Gaborone, Botswana. Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This workshop was designed based on the following objectives: (1) to place youth employment and related issues on the regional political agenda; to highlight regional success stories; (2) to further strengthen the UNEVOC Network consolidation process in the region; (3) to provide a platform for learning and sharing experiences; and (4) to offer an…

  14. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally. PMID:24834349

  15. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jaime C; Rebulanan, Carina L; Parungao, Nico Angelo C; Ramirez, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally.

  16. Lg and Rg waves on the California regional networks from the December 23, 1985 Nahanni earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, L.A.; Heaton, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates Lg and Rg propagation in California using the central and southern California regional networks. The waveforms recorded from the December 23, 1985, Nahanni, Canada, earthquake are used to construct three profiles along the propagation path (almost N-S) and three perpendicular to the propagation path (almost E-W) to look at the nature of propagation of these two types of surface waves. Groups of records from stations in various geological and tectonic provinces in California are also examined in order to establish regional characteristics of the surface waves, it is found that the propagation characteristics of Lg differ from those of Rg across California; Lg waves are apparently more sensitive to crustal heterogeneities. The most striking observations are the similarity of coda for both the Lg and the Rg waves within geologic provinces and the marked difference in coda between regions. -from Authors

  17. Plate Boundary Observatory Southwest Region Network Operations, Expansion and Communications Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, D.; Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Turner, R.; Lawrence, S.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southwest Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 480 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. In an effort to modernize the network, we have started to replace Trimble NETRS receivers with GNSS capable NETR9 receivers. Currently, we have 431 NetRS receivers deployed in the region, and 48 NetR9 receivers. In addition, 82 stations (17%) stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency and an average completeness of >92%. Based on their typical data download rates, approximately 252 (53%) of all stations are capable of streaming 1 Hz, but have not yet been added to the real time network because of lack of resources. In the immediate aftermath of the M8.2 Chile earthquake in April 2014, high rate data downloads from the entire SW network had a success rate of 95% and 71% for 1 Hz and 5 Hz data downloads respectively. We have continued to upgrade critical radio networks, including the San Francisco Bay Area, Anza Borrego, and Santa Barbara networks. These efforts are ongoing, but they have already significantly improved data download rates and dependability. We are also converting cell modem to radio communications whenever possible for increased reliability and cost savings. In December 2013 the 13-station Edison network expansion was completed through cost recovery contracts. These stations span coastal southern California in Orange, San Diego and Los Angeles counties including a hybrid site on the Elly oil platform. The primary purpose of the stations is to aid in the seismic source characterization of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and assess the strain field associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust and Newport Inglewood fault. The new stations fill a gap between SCIGN and PBO. Three sites have WXT520

  18. Complex Networks Reveal Persistent Global / Regional Structure and Predictive Information Content in Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhaeuser, K.; Chawla, N. V.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    Recent articles have posited that the skills of climate model projections, particularly for variables and scales of interest to decision makers, may need to be significantly improved. Here we hypothesize that there is information content in variables that are projected more reliably, for example, sea surface temperatures, which is relevant for improving predictions of other variables at scales which may be more crucial, for example, regional land temperature and precipitation anomalies. While this hypothesis may be partially supported based on conceptual understanding, a key question to explore is whether the relevant information content can be meaningfully extracted from observations and model simulations. Here we use climate reconstructions from reanalysis datasets to examine the question in detail. Our tool of choice is complex networks, which have provided useful insights in the context of descriptive analysis and change detection for climate in the recent literature. We describe a new adaptation of complex networks based on computational approaches which provide additional descriptive insights at both global and regional scales, specifically sea surface variables, and provide a unified framework for data-guided predictive modeling, specifically for regional temperature and precipitation over land. Complex networks were constructed from historical data to study the properties of the global climate system and characterize behavior at the global scale. Clusters based on community detection, which leverage the network distance, were used to identify regional structures. Persistence and stability of these features over time were evaluated. Predictive information content of ocean indicators with respect to land climate was extracted using a suite of regression models and validated on held-out data. Our results suggest that the new adaptation of complex networks may be well-suited to provide a unified framework for exploring climate teleconnections or long

  19. Artificial neural network analysis for reliability prediction of regional runoff utilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Lin, H T; Yang, T Y

    2010-02-01

    Many factors in the reliability analysis of planning the regional rainwater utilization tank capacity need to be considered. Based on the historical daily rainfall data, the following four analyzing procedures will be conducted: the regional daily rainfall frequency, the amount of runoff, the water continuity, and the reliability. Thereafter, the suggested designed storage capacity can be obtained according to the conditions with the demand and supply reliability. By using the output data, two different types of artificial neural network models are used to build up small area rainfall-runoff supply systems for the simulation of reliability and the prediction model. They are also used for the testing of stability and learning speed assessment. Based on the result of this research, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model, using the Gaussian function that has a similar trend as the nature as basic function, has better stability than using the back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model. Despite the fact that RBFNN was more reliable than BPNN, it still made a conservative estimate for the actual monitoring data. The error rate of RBFNN was still higher than the correction of BPNN 4-3-1-1. This should have significant benefit in the future application of the instantaneous prediction or the development of related intelligent instantaneous control equipment.

  20. [Regional laboratory network for surveillance of invasive fungal infections and antifungal susceptibility in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Córdoba, Susana; Melhem, Marcia C; Szeszs, María W; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Martínez, Gerardo; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the general objectives of the Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America. Formation of the Network was coordinated by the Essential Medicines, Vaccines, and Health Technologies Unit of the Pan American Health Organization, with the technical and financial support of the National Center for Microbiology of the Carlos III Health Institute (Spain), and the technical support of the Microbiology Department of the Dr. C. Malbrán National Institute on Infectious Diseases (Argentina) and the Microbiology Unit of the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Brazil). The Network's principle objectives are epidemiological surveillance of invasive fungal infections through detection of antifungal resistance and identification of emergent, invasive fungal infections; establishment of norms and common protocols for early diagnosis of mycoses; and strengthening coordination, communications, and transference mechanisms among countries. The Network must be gradually implemented and must include staff training, a systematic process for sharing technology, evaluation of diagnostic techniques, identification of fungal species, and standardized tests for antifungal susceptibility.

  1. Distributive Computer Networking: Making It Work on a Regional Basis: Effective sharing through a network requires new management and resource distribution techniques.

    PubMed

    Cornew, R W; Morse, P M

    1975-08-15

    After 4 years of operation the NERComP network is now a self-supporting success. Some of the reasons for its success are that (i) the network started small and built up utilization; (ii) the members, through monthly trustee meetings, practiced "participatory management" from the outset; (iii) unlike some networks, NERComP appealed to individual academic and research users who were terminal-oriented and who controlled their own budgets; (iv) the compactness of the New England region made it an ideal laboratory for testing networking concepts; and (v) a dedicated staff was willing to work hard in the face of considerable uncertainty. While the major problems were "political, organizational and economic" (1) we have found that they can be solved if the network meets real needs. We have also found that it is difficult to proceed beyond a certain point without investing responsibility and authority in the networking organization. Conversely, there is a need to distribute some responsibilities such as marketing and user services back to the member institutions. By adopting a modest starting point and achieving limited goals the necessary trust and working relationships between institutions can be built. In our case the necessary planning has been facilitated by recognizing three distinct network functions: governance, user services, and technical operations. Separating out the three essential networing tasks and dealing with each individually through advisory committees, each with its own staff coordinator, has overcome a distracting tendency to address all issues at once. It has also provided an element of feedback between the end user and the supplier not usually present in networking activity. The success of NERComP demonstrates that a distributive-type network can work. Our experiences in New England-which, because of its numerous colleges and universities free from domination by any single institution, is a microcosm for academic computing in the United States

  2. Determining and classifying the region of interest in ultrasonic images of the breast using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Buller, D; Buller, A; Innocent, P R; Pawlak, W

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes how ultrasonic images of the female breast have been processed and neural nets used to aid the identification of malignant and benign areas in them. The images are windowed, filtered and pre-processed into suitable patterns for processing by a neural net. Two networks are trained and used: one for malignant cases and the other for benign cases. These are used to make predictions of regions of interest which are presented as circles overlaid on the image. The system has been prototyped and tested and experts agreed well with the classification and localisation. The system is usually weak when the evidence on the image is considered weak by the expert. It is concluded that the system is promising and should be developed further by providing more training to the network.

  3. The magnetic network location of explosive events observed in the solar transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. G.; Dere, K. P.

    1991-01-01

    Compact short-lived explosive events have been observed in solar transition region lines with the High-Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) flown by the Naval Research Laboratory on a series of rockets and on Spacelab 2. Data from Spacelab 2 are coaligned with a simultaneous magnetogram and near-simultaneous He I 10,380 -A spectroheliogram obtained at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak. The comparison shows that the explosive events occur in the solar magnetic network lanes at the boundaries of supergranular convective cells. However, the events occur away from the larger concentrations of magnetic flux in the network, in contradiction to the observed tendency of the more energetic solar phenomena to be associated with the stronger magnetic fields.

  4. Effectiveness of the streamflow-gaging network in Kentucky in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis of the effectiveness of the strearnflow-gaging network in Kentucky in providing regional streamflow information. The data available for analysis included streamflow-gaging stations in Kentucky and selected stations in adjoining States. One phase of the analysis determined the increased effectiveness of the network if hypothetical new stations were added to it. The analysis was based on the principles of generalized least squares regression. The results indicated that new stations having small drainage areas (less than 100 square miles) produced the greatest reduction in average sampling-error variance from current conditions in the mean-flow analysis. Only stations with drainage areas ranging from 200 to 450 square miles produced a significant effect on the low-flow analysis. Data from new stations having small drainage areas (less than 100 square miles) and fairly steep slopes (25 feet per mile) would make the greatest improvement in peak-flow information.

  5. Revealing the cerebral regions and networks mediating vulnerability to depression: oxidative metabolism mapping of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Kaart, Tanel; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Mällo, Tanel; Del Río, Joaquin; Tordera, Rosa M; Ramirez, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects.

  6. Region-Based Convolutional Networks for Accurate Object Detection and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Girshick, Ross; Donahue, Jeff; Darrell, Trevor; Malik, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    Object detection performance, as measured on the canonical PASCAL VOC Challenge datasets, plateaued in the final years of the competition. The best-performing methods were complex ensemble systems that typically combined multiple low-level image features with high-level context. In this paper, we propose a simple and scalable detection algorithm that improves mean average precision (mAP) by more than 50 percent relative to the previous best result on VOC 2012-achieving a mAP of 62.4 percent. Our approach combines two ideas: (1) one can apply high-capacity convolutional networks (CNNs) to bottom-up region proposals in order to localize and segment objects and (2) when labeled training data are scarce, supervised pre-training for an auxiliary task, followed by domain-specific fine-tuning, boosts performance significantly. Since we combine region proposals with CNNs, we call the resulting model an R-CNN or Region-based Convolutional Network. Source code for the complete system is available at http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~rbg/rcnn.

  7. Semi-supervised Convolutional Neural Networks for Text Categorization via Region Embedding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new semi-supervised framework with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for text categorization. Unlike the previous approaches that rely on word embeddings, our method learns embeddings of small text regions from unlabeled data for integration into a supervised CNN. The proposed scheme for embedding learning is based on the idea of two-view semi-supervised learning, which is intended to be useful for the task of interest even though the training is done on unlabeled data. Our models achieve better results than previous approaches on sentiment classification and topic classification tasks. PMID:27087766

  8. The 2007 Sumatra seismic sequence revealed by a regional seismic network in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, M.; Inoue, H.; Kumagai, H.; Yamashina, T.; Sunarjo; Fauzi; Suhardjono

    2007-12-01

    distributed in a region extending about 300 km along the subduction zone of the Indo-Australian Plate. The depths of aftershocks range from 15 to 60 km. In the off-Bengkulu region, the earthquakes with M8 or above occurred in 1381, 1608 and 1833, approximately every 230 years. Now 174 years have been passed since the last event in 1833. We did not experience M8 class earthquakes during the last 210 years in the off-Padang region, which is to the north of off-Bengkulu. The off-Padang region corresponds to a seismic gap between the source regions of the 2007 Sumatra seismic sequence and M8.7 Nias earthquake on March 2005. The sequence of the M8.4, M8.0, and M6.8 earthquakes moving towards the northwest from off-Bengkulu in the 2007 seismic activity suggests the imminency of a large earthquake off Padang. We have been deploying broadband seismograph networks in Indonesia, including JISNET, by an international cooperation among Indonesia, Germany, China, and Japan, aiming at improving the capabilities to monitor seismic activity and tsunami generation in Indonesia. The seismic networks are now in operation, and totally 150 seismic stations will be installed by the end of 2008. Seismic monitoring based on these regional networks would contribute to early notification of a large earthquake anticipated to occur in the off-Padang region.

  9. Reconstruction of regional mean sea level anomalies from tide gauges using the neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, M.; Schroeter, J.

    2009-04-01

    Regional mean sea level anomalies (SLA) are estimated from tide gauge values directly using the neural network approach. A neural network is an artificial neural system, a computational model inspired by the notion of neurophysical processes. It consists of several processing elements called neurons, which are interconnected with each other exchanging information. In this presentation a backpropagation network (BPN) is used. In this type of network the neurons are ordered into layers: an input layer on the top, one or more hidden layers below and an output layer at the bottom. The connection strength between the neurons are estimated in a training phase, i.e. the BNP learns from given examples. For our purpose 56 tide gauges are selected from the PSMSL data set that comply with the following conditions: 1) there are more than 11 annual mean values given in [1993,2005] 2) more than 50 annual mean values are given in [1900,2007] and 3) the tide gauge is neighboured by at least one ocean point on a 1x1 degree grid. The selected tide gauges are GIA corrected using the Peltier ICE5G_VM4_L90 dataset available on the PSMSL web site. For each ocean region (trop. Indian, ... South Atlantic to Global Ocean) a separate BPN is trained that uses all tide gauges to compute the regional mean SLA's. To avoid possible problems with the local reference frame all computations are done in the space of temporal derivatives. Beyond that, this makes the data more suitable for the BPN because it better limits the possible range of the numerical values. Furthermore, known regional mean target values are needed to train the BPN. These are derived from gridded satellite altimetry data either processed by GFZ Potsdam (TOPEX/Poseidon data only) and/or the dataset available on the CSIRO sea level web side (combined TOPEX and Jason data). Although every tide gauge has more then 50 years of data, many values are missing, especially prior to 1950. To fill these data gaps at the input layer of the

  10. Regional-technical information network system by PC-based communication 'Kougi Net Niigata'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Koichi; Kitagawa, Yoichi; Hoshino, Kimiaki

    'Regional-technical information' database was constructed by Industrial research institute of Niigata prefecture. This is available for industries in our prefecture with our PC-based communication network system. And also, it provides communication measures called BBS and electronic mail service with which they can communicate each other. This system is considered to give three effects. First of all, they can get technical information required in regional industries that is not provided by commercial database at their office or factory speedy and correctly. Secondly, they can easily survey technical background of local industries they want to take into partnership in their extension of work. Thirdly, since it provides a place where they can exchange information each other, it promotes their development of new commercial products and partnership.

  11. Loss of regional accent after damage to the speech production network.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Dávila, Guadalupe; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Beltrán-Corbellini, Álvaro; Santana-Moreno, Daniel; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María José; Massone, María Ignacia; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping studies reveal that selective damage to one or more components of the speech production network can be associated with foreign accent syndrome, changes in regional accent (e.g., from Parisian accent to Alsatian accent), stronger regional accent, or re-emergence of a previously learned and dormant regional accent. Here, we report loss of regional accent after rapidly regressive Broca's aphasia in three Argentinean patients who had suffered unilateral or bilateral focal lesions in components of the speech production network. All patients were monolingual speakers with three different native Spanish accents (Cordobés or central, Guaranítico or northeast, and Bonaerense). Samples of speech production from the patient with native Córdoba accent were compared with previous recordings of his voice, whereas data from the patient with native Guaranítico accent were compared with speech samples from one healthy control matched for age, gender, and native accent. Speech samples from the patient with native Buenos Aires's accent were compared with data obtained from four healthy control subjects with the same accent. Analysis of speech production revealed discrete slowing in speech rate, inappropriate long pauses, and monotonous intonation. Phonemic production remained similar to those of healthy Spanish speakers, but phonetic variants peculiar to each accent (e.g., intervocalic aspiration of /s/ in Córdoba accent) were absent. While basic normal prosodic features of Spanish prosody were preserved, features intrinsic to melody of certain geographical areas (e.g., rising end F0 excursion in declarative sentences intoned with Córdoba accent) were absent. All patients were also unable to produce sentences with different emotional prosody. Brain imaging disclosed focal left hemisphere lesions involving the middle part of the motor cortex, the post-central cortex, the posterior inferior and/or middle frontal cortices, insula, anterior putamen and

  12. Loss of regional accent after damage to the speech production network

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Marcelo L.; Dávila, Guadalupe; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Beltrán-Corbellini, Álvaro; Santana-Moreno, Daniel; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María José; Massone, María Ignacia; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping studies reveal that selective damage to one or more components of the speech production network can be associated with foreign accent syndrome, changes in regional accent (e.g., from Parisian accent to Alsatian accent), stronger regional accent, or re-emergence of a previously learned and dormant regional accent. Here, we report loss of regional accent after rapidly regressive Broca’s aphasia in three Argentinean patients who had suffered unilateral or bilateral focal lesions in components of the speech production network. All patients were monolingual speakers with three different native Spanish accents (Cordobés or central, Guaranítico or northeast, and Bonaerense). Samples of speech production from the patient with native Córdoba accent were compared with previous recordings of his voice, whereas data from the patient with native Guaranítico accent were compared with speech samples from one healthy control matched for age, gender, and native accent. Speech samples from the patient with native Buenos Aires’s accent were compared with data obtained from four healthy control subjects with the same accent. Analysis of speech production revealed discrete slowing in speech rate, inappropriate long pauses, and monotonous intonation. Phonemic production remained similar to those of healthy Spanish speakers, but phonetic variants peculiar to each accent (e.g., intervocalic aspiration of /s/ in Córdoba accent) were absent. While basic normal prosodic features of Spanish prosody were preserved, features intrinsic to melody of certain geographical areas (e.g., rising end F0 excursion in declarative sentences intoned with Córdoba accent) were absent. All patients were also unable to produce sentences with different emotional prosody. Brain imaging disclosed focal left hemisphere lesions involving the middle part of the motor cortex, the post-central cortex, the posterior inferior and/or middle frontal cortices, insula, anterior putamen and

  13. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Network in the PNW region of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, K.; Austin, K.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Fengler, K.; Doelger, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Region (PNW) of the United States contains a variety of geologic regions and tectonic problems. These include the Cascadia Subduction Zone, Mt. St. Helens and the transition to the Basin and Range province. Since September of 2003, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, has been installing a network of continuously operating GPS, strainmeter and tiltmeter instruments. There are currently 78 GPS, 13 strainmeter/borehole seismometers, and 4 tiltmeters operating in the PNW region. The data from this network has already been used to study Episodic Tremor Events (ETS) during September 2005 and January 2007, and renewed activity on Mt. St. Helens that began on September 23, 2004. The goal is have 134 continuously operating GPS stations by the end of September 2008. The locations of the GPS stations were determined by scientific committees. Whenever possible, multiple instruments are deployed at the same location, and share power and communications resources. Examples of this are GPS antennas mounted on top of strainmeter boreholes in the forearc region of western Washington and tiltmeters collecting data through GPS receivers on Mt. St. Helens. In addition, a number of stations provide real time kinematic data to professional surveyors within the region. During the fall of 2006, a 16 GPS and 4 tiltmeter station network was completed on Mt. St. Helens. Results from analysis of both PBO and USGS GPS stations on the mountain, show a radially inward and downward motion, with the maximum vertical offsets high on the mountain and the maximum horizontal offsets located at distances of 5-10km from the crater. Displacements are small over the 2004-present eruption with a maximum of 3cm of inward movement. GPS stations installed high on the mountain experience severe weather and heavy rime accumulations for approximately 6 months of the year. Ice build-up causes distortion of the GPS antenna phase

  14. Study of seismicity in the NW Himalaya and adjoining regions using IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Shanker, D.

    2016-08-01

    The Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) has been used in order to investigate the seismicity of the Northwest Himalaya and its neighboring region for the time period June 1999 to March 2015 within the geographical coordinates 25-40° N latitude and 65-85° E longitude. We have used a very precisely located earthquake dataset recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) Network containing 7,583 events with body wave magnitudes from 2.5 to 6.3. The study area has been subdivided into six regions based on the Flinn-Engdahl (F-E) seismic and geographical regionalization scheme, which was used as the region classifications of the International Data Center catalog. The examined region includes NW India, Pakistan, Nepal, Xizang, Kashmir, and Hindukush. For each region, Magnitudes of completeness (Mc) and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameters (a and b values) have been estimated. The Gutenberg-Richter analysis is preceded by an overview of the seismotectonics of the study area. The obtained Mc values vary from 3.5 to 3.9. The lower value of Mc was found mainly in Xizang region whereas the higher Mc threshold is evident in Pakistan region. However, the b values vary from 1.19 to 1.48. The lowest b value is recorded in Xizang region, which is mostly related to the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) fault, whereas the highest b values are recorded in NW India and Kashmir regions, which are mostly related to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault. The REB for the selected period has been compared to the most renowned bulletin of global seismicity, namely that issued by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A study of 4,821 events recorded by USGS in the study region indicates that about 36 % of seismic events were missed and the catalog is considered as complete for events with magnitudes ≥4.0. However, both a and b values are obviously higher than those of IMS catalog. The a

  15. Non-linear time series analysis of precipitation events using regional climate networks for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Boers, Niklas; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Peter; Gerstengarbe, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Werner, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Synchronous occurrences of heavy rainfall events and the study of their relation in time and space are of large socio-economical relevance, for instance for the agricultural and insurance sectors, but also for the general well-being of the population. In this study, the spatial synchronization structure is analyzed as a regional climate network constructed from precipitation event series. The similarity between event series is determined by the number of synchronous occurrences. We propose a novel standardization of this number that results in synchronization scores which are not biased by the number of events in the respective time series. Additionally, we introduce a new version of the network measure directionality that measures the spatial directionality of weighted links by also taking account of the effects of the spatial embedding of the network. This measure provides an estimate of heavy precipitation isochrones by pointing out directions along which rainfall events synchronize. We propose a climatological interpretation of this measure in terms of propagating fronts or event traces and confirm it for Germany by comparing our results to known atmospheric circulation patterns.

  16. Estimation of regional recharge in the HOBE catchment using data from a distributed soil moisture network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasen, M.; Andreasen, L. A.; Bircher, S.; Sonnenborg, T.; Jensen, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    The regional variation of recharge of ground water is dependent on a larger number of variables and conditions and is therefore difficult to quantify. In this study we have estimated regional recharge using data from a distributed network of soil moisture stations within the HOBE catchment. The network has been designed in an arrangement of three clusters along a long-term precipitation gradient and the stations have been distributed according to respective fractions of classes combining the prevailing land use, top- and subsoil conditions. At each of the 30 stations water content has been measured at three depths (0-5cm, 20-25cm and 50-55cm) for the period 2009-2011 at a temporal resolution of 30 minutes. The 1D soil-plant-atmosphere system model DAISY has been applied to each of the field locations to simulate the water balance of the root zone and the associated components of evapotranspiration and recharge. The 30 models have been formulated and parameterized using specific information on local climate, soil texture, land use and management. Each model was calibrated to the measured soil water content from the distributed network using the PEST (Parameter ESTimation) software. The calibrated parameters were saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and van Genuchten parameter n as they were found most sensitive. The 30 sets of results were averaged to represent the mean conditions of the catchment. An effective parameterization was also determined by calibration against mean soil moisture and compared to the results obtained by using effective parameters using various averaging methods. The regional variation in groundwater recharge, actual evapotranspiration and soil water content in the catchment was dependent on land use. The simulated results showed that the largest recharge was found at the agricultural sites (554 mm/yr) and the lowest at the forested sites (257 mm/yr). Correspondingly, the highest actual evapotranspiration was found at the forested sites (614

  17. Neural network approach to reference evapotranspiration modeling from limited climatic data in arid regions.

    PubMed

    Laaboudi, Abdelkader; Mouhouche, Brahim; Draoui, Belkacem

    2012-09-01

    In order to better manage the limited water resources in arid regions, accurate determination of plant water requirements is necessary. For that, the evaluation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0)--a basic component of the hydrological cycle--is essential. In this context, the Penman Monteith equation, known for its accuracy, requires a high number of climatic parameters that are not always fully available from most meteorological stations. Our study examines the effectiveness of the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) for the evaluation of ET0 using incomplete meteorological parameters. These neural networks use daily climatic data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and the insolation duration) as inputs, and ET0 values estimated by the Penman-Monteith formula as outputs. The results show that the proper choice of neural network architecture allows not only error minimization but also maximizes the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables. In fact, with a network of two hidden layers and eight neurons per layer, we obtained, during the test phase, values of 1, 1 and 0.01 for the determination coefficient, the criterion of Nash and the mean square error, respectively. Comparing results between multiple linear regression and the neural method revealed the good modeling quality and high performance of the latter, due to the possibility of improving performance criteria. In this work, we considered correlations between input variables that improve the accuracy of the model and do not pose problems of multi-collinearity. Furthermore, we succeeded in avoiding overfitting and could generalize the model for other similar areas.

  18. Selective dissociation between core and extended regions of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-06-01

    There is growing consensus that accurate and efficient face recognition is mediated by a neural circuit composed of a posterior "core" and an anterior "extended" set of regions. Here, we characterize the distributed face network in human individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP)-a lifelong impairment in face processing-relative to that of matched controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we first uncover largely normal activation patterns in the posterior core face patches in CP. We also document normal activity of the amygdala (emotion processing) as well as normal or even enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the core regions. Critically, in the same individuals, activation of the anterior temporal cortex (identity processing) is reduced and connectivity between this region and the posterior core regions is disrupted. The dissociation between the neural profiles of the anterior temporal lobe and amygdala was evident both during a task-related face scan and during a resting state scan, in the absence of visual stimulation. Taken together, these findings elucidate selective disruptions in neural circuitry in CP and offer an explanation for the known differential difficulty in identity versus emotional expression recognition in many individuals with CP.

  19. Propagation Loss for Trans-Horizon Interferences in the Regions Surrounding Deep Space Network Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.; Angkasa, K.; Kinman, P.; Peng, T.

    2005-08-01

    With potential future deployment of high-density terrestrial communication systems in metropolitan areas, it becomes necessary to estimate potential interference received at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Earth station from interfering sources distributed in the region. A fundamental parameter required for any realistic interference analysis is the propagation loss from the transmitter to the receiver, which depends in a statistical way on the atmospheric conditions. This article introduces a method of constructing a map of propagation losses covering almost every possible location in the region, taking the terrain into account. The losses were computed with a high-resolution terrain map of the region as input, together with the heights of the transmitting and receiving antennas. The calculation includes three clear-air propagation mechanisms: diffraction, tropospheric scattering, and atmospheric ducting, in accordance with the algorithms given in the International Telecommunication Union Recommendation ITU-R P.452. The resulting numerical database provides propagation-loss data necessary for interference calculations. To enhance visualization, these propagation-loss data are mapped in color. The color-coded propagation loss map provides a visible overview of the entire region of interest, indicating areas where emissions from the terrestrial sources would be effectively shielded by the terrain from reaching the DSN Earth stations, and where such emissions should be restricted for lack of terrain shielding.

  20. The importance of establishing an international network of tissue banks and regional tissue processing centers.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    During the past four decades, many tissue banks have been established across the world with the aim of supplying sterilized tissues for clinical use and research purposes. Between 1972 and 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported the establishment of more than sixty of these tissue banks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Eastern Europe; promoted the use of the ionizing radiation technique for the sterilization of the processed tissues; and encouraged cooperation between the established tissue banks during the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking at national, regional and international levels. Taking into account that several of the established tissue banks have gained a rich experience in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and medical use of sterilized tissues, it is time now to strengthen further international and regional cooperation among interested tissue banks located in different countries. The purpose of this cooperation is to share the experience gained by these banks in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and used of different types of tissues in certain medical treatments and research activities. This could be done through the establishment of a network of tissue banks and a limited number of regional tissue processing centers in different regions of the world. PMID:23765095

  1. Identifying streamgage networks for maximizing the effectiveness of regional water balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T. S.; Phanikumar, M. S.; Fortin, V.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2013-05-01

    One approach to regional water balance modeling is to constrain rainfall-runoff models with a synthetic regionalized hydrologic response. For example, the Large Basin Runoff Model (LBRM), a cornerstone of hydrologic forecasting in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, was calibrated to a synthetic discharge record resulting from a drainage area ratio method (ARM) for extrapolating beyond gaged areas. A challenge of such approaches is the declining availability of observations for development of synthetic records. To advance efficient use of the declining gage network in the context of regional water balance modeling, we present results from an assessment of ARM. All possible combinations of "most-downstream" gages were used to simulate runoff at the gaged outlet of Michigan's Clinton River watershed in order to determine the influence of gages' drainage area and other physical characteristics on model skill. For nearly all gage combinations, ARM simulations resulted in good model skill. However, the gages' catchment area relative to that of the outlet's catchment is not an unquestionable predictor of model performance. Results indicate that combinations representing less than 30% of the total catchment area (less than 10% in some cases) can provide very good discharge simulations, but that similarity of the gaged catchments' developed and cultivated area, stream density, and permeability relative to the outlet's catchment is also important for successful simulations. Recognition of thresholds on the relationship between the number of gages and their relative value in simulating flow over large area provides an opportunity for improving historical records for regional hydrologic modeling.

  2. Core and region-enriched networks of behaviorally regulated genes and the singing genome.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Osceola; Pfenning, Andreas R; Howard, Jason T; Blatti, Charles A; Liu, Fang; Ward, James M; Wang, Rui; Audet, Jean-Nicoles; Kellis, Manolis; Mukherjee, Sayan; Sinha, Saurabh; Hartemink, Alexander J; West, Anne E; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-12-12

    Songbirds represent an important model organism for elucidating molecular mechanisms that link genes with complex behaviors, in part because they have discrete vocal learning circuits that have parallels with those that mediate human speech. We found that ~10% of the genes in the avian genome were regulated by singing, and we found a striking regional diversity of both basal and singing-induced programs in the four key song nuclei of the zebra finch, a vocal learning songbird. The region-enriched patterns were a result of distinct combinations of region-enriched transcription factors (TFs), their binding motifs, and presinging acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) enhancer activity in the regulatory regions of the associated genes. RNA interference manipulations validated the role of the calcium-response transcription factor (CaRF) in regulating genes preferentially expressed in specific song nuclei in response to singing. Thus, differential combinatorial binding of a small group of activity-regulated TFs and predefined epigenetic enhancer activity influences the anatomical diversity of behaviorally regulated gene networks.

  3. The potential of cellular network infrastructures for sudden rainfall monitoring in dry climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring of precipitation and in particular sudden rain, in rural dry climate regions, is a subject of great significance in several weather related processes such as soil erosion, flash flooding, triggering epidemics and more. The rainfall monitoring facilities in these regions and as a result precipitation data are, however, commonly, severely lacking. As was recently shown, cellular networks infrastructures supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in dry areas, covering large parts of these climatic zones. The potential found in these systems to provide early monitoring and essential precipitation information, directly from arid regions, based on standard measurements of commercial microwave links, is exemplified here over the Negev and the Southern Judean desert, South Israel. We present the results of two different rainfall events occurred in these regions. It is shown that the microwave system measured precipitation between at least 50 min (in case 1) and at least 1 h and 40 min (in case 2) before each of the sparse rain gauges. During each case, the radar system, located relatively far from the arid sites, provided measurements from heights of at least 1500 m and 2000 m above surface, respectively. A third case study demonstrates a relative advantage of microwave links to measure precipitation intensity with respect to the radar system, over an area of complex topography located in northeastern Israel, which is relatively far (~ 150 km) from the radar.

  4. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayazi, Roya

    2013-04-01

    NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (Roya Ayazi, Secretary General NEREUS nereus.bruxelles@euroinbox.com) NEREUS currently unites 25 European regions and 39 Associate Members with the common objective to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe for the benefit of regions and their citizens. As voice of European Regions, NEREUS serves as an advocate for the regions in matters of space uses and also as a direct channel to the regional users of space technologies (such as local authorities, SMEs, universities and research institutes and citizens). EO/GMES, Global Satellite Navigation and Telecommunication are identified by the NEREUS Political Charta as core areas of cooperation. NEREUS holds the view that broad societal awareness and involvement is vital to fully exploit Euope's space systems. Understanding the potentials of Copernicus and EGNOS/Galileo is in the first place an essential step for the development of the downstream sector. Therefore NEREUS makes special efforts to contribute with numerous network activities to communicate and promote the added value of space uses for public policies but also as valuable new business opportunities. In economic terms space uses are suited to stimulate economic growth and innovation dynamics at regional level. The network community produced several illustrative communication tools (publications, video, web-based tools, mobile NEREUS-exhibition) portraying examples how regions already use space systems and the concrete benefits for the citizens. Most of the NEREUS-publications and video are online: www.nereus-regions.eu. Pooling a considerable wealth of capabilities and expertise, the network offers its members a dynamic platform to collaborate and share experiences and knowledge inter regionally. But these tools were not only the outcome of an intensive regional collaboration but

  5. Memphis Area Regional Seismic Network. Final report, October 1986--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, J.M.; Johnston, A.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Memphis Area Regional Seismic Network (MARSN) has provided important southern coverage of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). One of the most important contributions of MARSN is to provide essential data for the successful identification of the Crittenden County fault zone which is located to the east and parallel to the south-west segment of the NMSZ. In addition to felt reports and earthquake locations, MARSN data has also been added into database obtained by the PANDA (Portable Array for Numerical Data Acquisition) experiment for a comprehensive seismological study of the NMSZ. Results from the PANDA experiment combined with regional seismic network data clearly demonstrate that the seismogenic zone in the NMSZ is mainly confined within depths ranging from 3 to 15 km. The SW, NW, and NE segments of the NMSZ are characterized by narrow vertical strike-slip faults. The central NMSZ is, however, very complicated. The northcentral NMSZ is characterized by a well-defined planar feature dipping {approximately} 31{degree} SW which shows dominantly normal faulting. The southcentral NMSZ is characterized by a {approximately} 48{degree} SW dipping fault which shows dominantly reverse faulting. Although the east-west compressional regional stress may play an important role in fault movements in the NMSZ, the complication in focal mechanism along each segment may suggest that other factors including postseismic relaxation by one or more of the 1811--1812 earthquakes, or the interactions between adjacent fault segments, or other tectonic features such as the right-lateral strike-slip Crittenden County Fault can not be overlooked in future tectonic studies of the NMSZ.

  6. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  7. Efficiency of a protected-area network in a Mediterranean region: a multispecies assessment with raptors.

    PubMed

    Abellán, María D; Martínez, José E; Palazón, José A; Esteve, Miguel A; Calvo, José F

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km²), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  8. Young People in Changing Societies. Regional Monitoring Report, No. 7. The MONEE Project, CEE/CIS/Baltics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Migel; Fajth, Gaspar; Gantcheva, Roumiana; Kolev, Alexandre; Micklewright, John; Marnie, Sheila; Motivans, Albert

    This report covers countries in transition--the 27 nations of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States--that embarked on market and democratic reforms after the collapse of the Iron Curtain. The theme is a generation in transition--65 million young people aged 15-24. Are these youths better off? Are they healthier or…

  9. Utah's Regional/Urban ANSS Seismic Network---Strategies and Tools for Quality Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlacu, R.; Arabasz, W. J.; Pankow, K. L.; Pechmann, J. C.; Drobeck, D. L.; Moeinvaziri, A.; Roberson, P. M.; Rusho, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    The University of Utah's regional/urban seismic network (224 stations recorded: 39 broadband, 87 strong-motion, 98 short-period) has become a model for locally implementing the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) because of successes in integrating weak- and strong-motion recording and in developing an effective real-time earthquake information system. Early achievements included implementing ShakeMap, ShakeCast, point-to- multipoint digital telemetry, and an Earthworm Oracle database, as well as in-situ calibration of all broadband and strong-motion stations and submission of all data and metadata into the IRIS DMC. Regarding quality performance, our experience as a medium-size regional network affirms the fundamental importance of basics such as the following: for data acquisition, deliberate attention to high-quality field installations, signal quality, and computer operations; for operational efficiency, a consistent focus on professional project management and human resources; and for customer service, healthy partnerships---including constant interactions with emergency managers, engineers, public policy-makers, and other stakeholders as part of an effective state earthquake program. (Operational cost efficiencies almost invariably involve trade-offs between personnel costs and the quality of hardware and software.) Software tools that we currently rely on for quality performance include those developed by UUSS (e.g., SAC and shell scripts for estimating local magnitudes) and software developed by other organizations such as: USGS (Earthworm), University of Washington (interactive analysis software), ISTI (SeisNetWatch), and IRIS (PDCC, BUD tools). Although there are many pieces, there is little integration. One of the main challenges we face is the availability of a complete and coherent set of tools for automatic and post-processing to assist in achieving the goals/requirements set forth by ANSS. Taking our own network---and ANSS---to the next level

  10. Analysis of the streamflow-gaging station network in Ohio for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The streamflow-gaging station network in Ohio was evaluated for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The analysis involved application of the principles of generalized least squares regression between streamflow and climatic and basin characteristics. Regression equations were developed for three flow characteristics: (1) the instantaneous peak flow with a 100-year recurrence interval (P100), (2) the mean annual flow (Qa), and (3) the 7-day, 10-year low flow (7Q10). All active and discontinued gaging stations with 5 or more years of unregulated-streamflow data with respect to each flow characteristic were used to develop the regression equations. The gaging-station network was evaluated for the current (1996) condition of the network and estimated conditions of various network strategies if an additional 5 and 20 years of streamflow data were collected. Any active or discontinued gaging station with (1) less than 5 years of unregulated-streamflow record, (2) previously defined basin and climatic characteristics, and (3) the potential for collection of more unregulated-streamflow record were included in the network strategies involving the additional 5 and 20 years of data. The network analysis involved use of the regression equations, in combination with location, period of record, and cost of operation, to determine the contribution of the data for each gaging station to regional streamflow information. The contribution of each gaging station was based on a cost-weighted reduction of the mean square error (average sampling-error variance) associated with each regional estimating equation. All gaging stations included in the network analysis were then ranked according to their contribution to the regional information for each flow characteristic. The predictive ability of the regression equations developed from the gaging station network could be improved for all three flow characteristics with the collection of additional streamflow data

  11. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  12. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Maldjian, Joseph A; Brunner, Robert L; Kuller, Lewis H; Johnson, Karen C; Mysiw, W Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Resnick, Susan M

    2011-05-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years; however, it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine learning technique that combined Random Forest and logistic regression with L(1) penalty, was applied to identify patterns among regional volumes associated with therapy and whether patterns discriminate between treatment groups. The multivariate pattern analysis detected smaller regional volumes of normal tissue within the limbic and temporal lobes among women that had been assigned to CEE therapy. Mean decrements ranged as high as 7% in the left entorhinal cortex and 5% in the left perirhinal cortex, which exceeded the effect sizes reported previously in frontal lobe and hippocampus. Overall accuracy of classification based on these patterns, however, was projected to be only 54.5%. Prescription of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years is associated with lower regional brain volumes, but it does not induce a characteristic spatial pattern of changes in brain volumes of sufficient magnitude to discriminate users and nonusers.

  13. A dense Black Carbon network in the region of Paris, France: Implementation, objectives, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Gros, Valérie; Pernot, Pierre; Ghersi, Véronique; Ampe, Christophe; Songeur, Charlotte; Brugge, Benjamin; Debert, Christophe; Favez, Olivier; Le Priol, Tiphaine; Mocnik, Grisa

    2013-04-01

    Motivations. Road traffic and domestic wood burning emissions are two major contributors of particulate pollution in our cities. These two sources emit ultra-fine, soot containing, particles in the atmosphere, affecting health adversely, increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and casing lung cancer. A better characterization of soot containing aerosol sources in our major cities provides useful information for policy makers for assessment, implementation and monitoring of strategies to tackle air pollution issues affecting human health with additional benefits for climate change. Objectives. This study on local sources of primary Particulate Matter (PM) in the megacity of Paris is a follow-up of several programs (incl. EU-FP7-MEGAPOLI) that have shown that fine PM - in the Paris background atmosphere - is mostly secondary and imported. A network of 14 stations of Black Carbon has been implemented in the larger region of Paris to provide highly spatially resolved long term survey of local combustion aerosols. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that such densely BC network is operating over a large urban area, providing novel information on the spatial/temporal distribution of combustion aerosols within a post-industrialized megacity. Experimental. As part of the PRIMEQUAL "PREQUALIF" project, a dense Black Carbon network (of 14 stations) has been installed over the city of Paris beginning of 2012 in order to produce spatially resolved Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentration maps with high time resolution through modeling and data assimilation. This network is composed of various real-time instruments (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, MAAP by THERMO; Multi-wavelength Aethalometers by MAGEE Scientific) implemented in contrasted sites (rural background, urban background, traffic) complementing the regulated measurements (PM, NOx) in the local air quality network AIRPARIF (http

  14. The Consortium Ethics Program: an approach to establishing a permanent regional ethics network.

    PubMed

    Pinkus, R L; Aumann, G M; Kuczewski, M G; Medsger, A; Meisel, A; Parker, L S; Wicclair, M R

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the first three-year experience of the Consortium Ethics Program (CEP-1) of the University of Pittsburgh Center for Medical Ethics, and also outlines plans for the second three-year phase (CEP-2) of this experiment in continuing ethics education. In existence since 1990, the CEP has the primary goal of creating a cost-effective, permanent ethics resource network, by utilizing the educational resources of a university bioethics center and the practical expertise of a regional hospital council. The CEP's conception and specific components stem from recognition of the need to make each hospital a major focus of educational efforts, and to provide academic support for the in-house activities of the representatives from each institution.

  15. Simulated interaction of magnetohydrodynamic shock waves with a complex network-like region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, I. C.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; de Vicente, A.

    2016-05-01

    We provide estimates of the wave energy reaching the solar chromosphere and corona in a network-like magnetic field topology, including a coronal null point. The waves are excited by an instantaneous strong subphotospheric source and propagate through the subphotosphere, photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with the plasma beta and other atmospheric parameters varying by several orders of magnitude. We compare two regimes of the wave propagation: a linear and nonlinear regime. While the amount of energy reaching the corona is similar in both regimes, this energy is transmitted at different frequencies. In both cases the dominant periods of waves at each height strongly depend on the local magnetic field topology, but this distribution is only in accordance with observations in the nonlinear case. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Real-time detection, location, and characterization of rockslides using broadband regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Picozzi, Matteo; Coviello, Velio; De Santis, Francesca; Elia, Luca

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new real-time approach to detect, locate, and estimate the volume of rockslides by analyzing waveforms acquired from broadband regional seismic networks. The identification of signals generated by rockslides from other sources, such as natural and/or induced earthquakes, is accomplished by exploiting the ratio between local magnitudes (ML) and duration magnitudes (MD). We found that signals associated with rockslides have ML/MD < 0.8, while for earthquakes ML/MD ≅ 1. In addition, we derived an empirical relationship between MD and rockslide volumes, obtaining a preliminary characterization of rockslide volume within seconds after their occurrence. The key points of this study are presented by testing the hypothesis on a recent rockslide event that occurred in northern Italy. We discuss also the potential evolution of the methodology for early warning and/or rapid response purposes.

  17. [Regional networking of medical and vocational rehabilitation-- the bad Krozingen model].

    PubMed

    Kinne, G; Elsässer, D; Best, S; Jost, S; Zschache, R

    2002-10-01

    Regional networking facilitates flexible and individual integration of vocational programmes in medical rehabilitation. We present a pilot project of Theresienklinik II in cooperation with the Education centre for occupation and health (Bildungszentrum Beruf und Gesundheit) in Bad Krozingen. Orthopaedic and cardiac patients who are in danger to lose their capacity to work, participate in an integrated vocational reorientation programme during extended medical rehabilitation. The aim of the pilot project is an early assessment of motivation, work hardening, aptitude and interest, in order to accelerate vocational retraining and reintegration. Within one year 30 patients participated in the programme. Presented are the contents and course of the pilot project. First results show a high patient satisfaction with the programme.

  18. Memory impairment in aged primates is associated with region-specific network dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Alexander; Gray, Daniel T.; Erickson, Cynthia A.; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory result, in part, from declines in the integrity of medial temporal lobe structures, such as the hippocampus, but are not thought to be due to widespread loss of principal neurons. Studies in rodents suggest, however, that inhibitory interneurons may be particularly vulnerable in advanced age. Optimal encoding and retrieval of information depend on a balance of excitatory and inhibitory transmission. It is not known whether a disruption of this balance is observed in aging nonhuman primates, and whether such changes affect network function and behavior. To examine this question we combine large scale electrophysiological recordings with cell type-specific imaging in the medial temporal lobe of cognitively-assessed, aged rhesus macaques. We found that neuron excitability in hippocampal region CA3 is negatively correlated with the density of the somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the vicinity of the recording electrodes in stratum oriens. By contrast, no hyperexcitability or interneuron loss was observed in the perirhinal cortex of these aged, memory-impaired monkeys. These data provide a link, for the first time, between selective increases in principal cell excitability and declines in a molecularly-defined population of interneurons that regulate network inhibition. PMID:26503764

  19. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Jason S.; Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  20. Genomic and network patterns of schizophrenia genetic variation in human evolutionary accelerated regions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Schadt, Eric E; Pollard, Katherine S; Roussos, Panos; Dudley, Joel T

    2015-05-01

    The population persistence of schizophrenia despite associated reductions in fitness and fecundity suggests that the genetic basis of schizophrenia has a complex evolutionary history. A recent meta-analysis of schizophrenia genome-wide association studies offers novel opportunities for assessment of the evolutionary trajectories of schizophrenia-associated loci. In this study, we hypothesize that components of the genetic architecture of schizophrenia are attributable to human lineage-specific evolution. Our results suggest that schizophrenia-associated loci enrich in genes near previously identified human accelerated regions (HARs). Specifically, we find that genes near HARs conserved in nonhuman primates (pHARs) are enriched for schizophrenia-associated loci, and that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes are under stronger selective pressure than other schizophrenia genes and other pHAR-associated genes. We further evaluate pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes in regulatory network contexts to investigate associated molecular functions and mechanisms. We find that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes significantly enrich in a GABA-related coexpression module that was previously found to be differentially regulated in schizophrenia affected individuals versus healthy controls. In another two independent networks constructed from gene expression profiles from prefrontal cortex samples, we find that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes are located in more central positions and their average path lengths to the other nodes are significantly shorter than those of other schizophrenia genes. Together, our results suggest that HARs are associated with potentially important functional roles in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia.

  1. Privacy policy analysis for health information networks and regional health information organizations.

    PubMed

    Noblin, Alice M

    2007-01-01

    Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) are forming in response to President George W. Bush's 2004 mandate that medical information be made available electronically to facilitate continuity of care. Privacy concerns are a deterrent to widespread acceptance of RHIOs. The Health Information Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 provides some guidelines for privacy protection. However, most states have stricter guidelines, causing difficulty when RHIOs form across these jurisdictions. This article compares several RHIOs including their privacy policies where available. In addition, studies were reviewed considering privacy concerns of people in the United States and elsewhere. Surveys reveal that Americans are concerned about the privacy of their personal health information and ultimately feel it is the role of the government to provide protection. The purpose of this article is to look at the privacy issues and recommend a policy that may help to resolve some of the concerns of both providers and patients. Policy research and action are needed to move the National Health Information Network toward reality. Efforts to provide consistency in privacy laws are a necessary early step to facilitate the construction and maintenance of RHIOs and the National Health Information Network.

  2. Identification of intrinsically disordered regions in PTEN and delineation of its function via a network approach.

    PubMed

    Malaney, Prerna; Uversky, Vladimir N; Davé, Vrushank

    2015-05-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are proteins that lack stable higher order structures for the entire protein molecule or a significant portion of it. The discovery of IDPs evolved as an antithesis to the conventional structure-function paradigm wherein a higher order structure dictates protein function. Over the last decade, a number of proteins with functionally relevant unstructured regions have been discovered, which includes tumor suppressor PTEN. The protein domains that lack structure provide "hot-spots" for post-translational modifications (PTMs) and protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which facilitate their regulation and participation in multiple cellular processes. Consequently, dysregulation in IDPs contribute to aberrant cellular pathophysiology. Herein, we present PTEN and its translational isoform PTEN-L as a hybrid protein possessing ordered domain and intrinsically disordered C-terminal and an N-terminal tails. We review the role of intrinsic disorder in PTEN function and propose a methodology for the use of intrinsic disorder to study PTEN-regulated higher order protein-networks by associating basic principles of network biology to functional pathway analysis at the systems level. PMID:25449897

  3. The enerMENA meteorological network - Solar radiation measurements in the MENA region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, D.; Wilbert, S.; Geuder, N.; Affolter, R.; Wolfertstetter, F.; Prahl, C.; Röger, M.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Abdellatif, G.; Guizani, A. Allah; Balghouthi, M.; Khalil, A.; Mezrhab, A.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Yassaa, N.; Chellali, F.; Draou, D.; Blanc, P.; Dubranna, J.; Sabry, O. M. K.

    2016-05-01

    For solar resource assessment of solar power plants and adjustment of satellite data, high accuracy measurement data of irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is needed. For the MENA region (Middle East and Northern Africa), which is of high importance for concentrating solar power applications, so far merely 2 publicly available ground measurement stations existed (BSRN network). This gap has been filled by ten stations in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan. In this publication the data quality is analyzed by evaluating data completeness and the cleanliness of irradiance sensors in comparison for all of the stations. The pyrheliometers have an average cleanliness of 99.2 % for week-daily cleaning. This is a 5 times higher effort than for Rotating Shadowband Irradiometer (RSI) stations which even have a slightly higher average cleanliness of 99.3 % for weekly cleaning. Furthermore, RSI stations show a data completeness of 99.4 % compared to 93.6 % at the stations equipped with thermal sensors. The results of this analysis are used to derive conclusions concerning instrument choice and are hence also applicable to other solar radiation measurements outside the enerMENA network. It turns out that RSIs are the more reliable and robust choice in cases of high soiling, rare station visits for cleaning and maintenance, as usual in desert sites. Furthermore, annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation as well as average meteorological parameters are calculated for all of the stations.

  4. Monitoring of Regional Land Surface Temperature in city by Wireless Sensing Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, H.; Jin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important environmental factor. The precise monitoring data of LST can provide crucial support for further ecological researches such as the environment change and urban heat island. The Wireless Sensing Network (WSN) is a kind of modern information technology which integrates sensor technology, automatic control technology with data network transmission, storage, processing and analysis technology. As a new kind of data collection method, WSN is innovatively applied to monitor regional LST in different land cover types of city in this study. The LST data with high temporal resolution is obtained from temperature sensors of WSN. The land cover types of city are extracted from WorldView-II image with high resolution. The Southeast University Wuxi Branch campus and its surroundings which covers 2 km2 is chosen as the study area in Wuxi city, Jiangsu province, China. WSN is established to continuously monitor LST in real-time for one week. Then, the heterogeneous pattern of LST is investigated at a fine spatial and temporal scale based on different land cover types. The result shows LST of streets is higher than LST of campus in the daytime, but lower than LST of campus at night. The spatial heterogeneity of LST in the campus is not significant. This is because the number of vehicle was larger in the daytime than that at night, while the population of campus in day and night almost having little change. Notably, the influence of plant activities (e.g. photosynthesis and respiration) on LST can be detected by WSN. This study is a new attempt to monitor regional environment of city by WSN technology. Moreover, compared to traditional methods, WSN technology can improve the detection of LST with finer temporal and spatial resolution.

  5. Cortical networks for visual reaching: physiological and anatomical organization of frontal and parietal lobe arm regions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P B; Ferraina, S; Bianchi, L; Caminiti, R

    1996-01-01

    The functional and structural properties of the dorsolateral frontal lobe and posterior parietal proximal arm representations were studied in macaque monkeys. Physiological mapping of primary motor (MI), dorsal premotor (PMd), and posterior parietal (area 5) cortices was performed in behaving monkeys trained in an instructed-delay reaching task. The parietofrontal corticocortical connectivities of these same areas were subsequently examined anatomically by means of retrograde tracing techniques. Signal-, set-, movement-, and position-related directional neuronal activities were distributed nonuniformly within the task-related areas in both frontal and parietal cortices. Within the frontal lobe, moving caudally from PMd to the MI, the activity that signals for the visuo-spatial events leading to target localization decreased, while the activity more directly linked to movement generation increased. Physiological recordings in the superior parietal lobule revealed a gradient-like distribution of functional properties similar to that observed in the frontal lobe. Signal- and set-related activities were encountered more frequently in the intermediate and ventral part of the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), in area MIP. Movement-and position-related activities were distributed more uniformly within the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in both dorsal area 5 and in MIP. Frontal and parietal regions sharing similar functional properties were preferentially connected through their association pathways. As a result of this study, area MIP, and possibly areas MDP and 7m as well, emerge as the parietal nodes by which visual information may be relayed to the frontal lobe arm region. These parietal and frontal areas, along with their association connections, represent a potential cortical network for visual reaching. The architecture of this network is ideal for coding reaching as the result of a combination between visual and somatic information.

  6. Developing Empirically-Based Ground Truth Criteria for Varying Geological Complexity using Regional Seismic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, R. A.; O'Donnell, J.; Boomer, K.; Nyblade, A.; Kokoska, J.; Liu, S.

    2011-12-01

    We have extended the approaches of Bondár et al. (2004), Bondár and McLaughlin (2009), and Boomer et al. (2010) by developing new empirically based ground truth (EBGT) local criteria for a variety of geologic settings for which data sets containing GT0 events (explosions and mine tremors) are available, local crustal structure is well known, and hand-picked arrival times have been obtained. Boomer et al. (2010) describes the development of local criteria for the simple structure of the Archean Kaapvaal Craton in southern Africa. Continuing the development of local criteria in regions of varying geologic complexity, we now have criteria for the Main Ethiopian Rift and for the Tibetan plateau. In the geologically complex region of the Main Ethiopian Rift, we use the 2003 Ethiopia-Afar Geoscientific Lithosphere Experiment (EAGLE; Maguire et al., 2003) data to obtain EBGT595% criteria. Four of the 25 large refraction line shots were used as reference events to develop the criteria; the remainder of the shots are used for verification. We require an event to be recorded on at least 8 stations within the Pg/Pn crossover distance and a network quality metric (Bondár and McLaughlin, 2009) less than 0.43 for an event to be classified as EBGT595%. Using these criteria to identify GT events within the Ethiopian Broadband Seismic Experiment, we have identified ten events to add to the NNSA knowledge database. There are also 196 potential events from the EAGLE dataset from which we expect to yield an additional 20 GT events. The crust and upper mantle structure of the Tibetan plateau is arguably more complicated than for the Kaapvaal Craton and yet less complicated than the Main Ethiopian Rift, and includes a number of prominent suture zones. Five of the 11 larger shots from the International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya (INDEPTH III) refraction line were used to develop the criteria. The remaining 6 shots are used to validate the criteria. The criteria for Tibet

  7. Hybrid inversions of CO2 fluxes at regional scale applied to network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Panagiotis; Gerbig, Christoph; -Thomas Koch, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Long term observations of atmospheric greenhouse gas measuring stations, located at representative regions over the continent, improve our understanding of greenhouse gas sources and sinks. These mixing ratio measurements can be linked to surface fluxes by atmospheric transport inversions. Within the upcoming years new stations are to be deployed, which requires decision making tools with respect to the location and the density of the network. We are developing a method to assess potential greenhouse gas observing networks in terms of their ability to recover specific target quantities. As target quantities we use CO2 fluxes aggregated to specific spatial and temporal scales. We introduce a high resolution inverse modeling framework, which attempts to combine advantages from pixel based inversions with those of a carbon cycle data assimilation system (CCDAS). The hybrid inversion system consists of the Lagrangian transport model STILT, the diagnostic biosphere model VPRM and a Bayesian inversion scheme. We aim to retrieve the spatiotemporal distribution of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at a high spatial resolution (10 km x 10 km) by inverting for spatially and temporally varying scaling factors for gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) and respiration (R) rather than solving for the fluxes themselves. Thus the state space includes parameters for controlling photosynthesis and respiration, but unlike in a CCDAS it allows for spatial and temporal variations, which can be expressed as NEE(x,y,t) = λG(x,y,t) GEE(x,y,t) + λR(x,y,t) R(x,y,t) . We apply spatially and temporally correlated uncertainties by using error covariance matrices with non-zero off-diagonal elements. Synthetic experiments will test our system and select the optimal a priori error covariance by using different spatial and temporal correlation lengths on the error statistics of the a priori covariance and comparing the optimized fluxes against the 'known truth'. As 'known truth' we use independent fluxes

  8. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  9. Connectomic Profiles for Individualized Resting State Networks and Regions of Interest

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Langley, Jason; Li, Zhihao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional connectivity analysis of human brain resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data and resultant functional networks, or RSNs, have drawn increasing interest in both research and clinical applications. A fundamental yet challenging problem is to identify distinct functional regions or regions of interest (ROIs) that have accurate functional correspondence across subjects. This article presents an algorithmic framework to identify ROIs of common RSNs at the individual level. It first employed a dual-sparsity dictionary learning algorithm to extract group connectomic profiles of ROIs and RSNs from noisy and high-dimensional fMRI data, with special attention to the well-known inter-subject variability in anatomy and then identified the ROIs of a given individual by employing both anatomic and group connectomic profile constraints using an energy minimization approach. Applications of this framework demonstrated that it can identify individualized ROIs of RSNs with superior performance over commonly used registration methods in terms of functional correspondence, and a test–retest study revealed that the framework is robust and consistent across both short-interval and long-interval repeated sessions of the same population. These results indicate that our framework can provide accurate substrates for individualized rsfMRI analysis. PMID:25090040

  10. A Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network In The Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, B.; de Wekker, S.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    We have established a continuous CO2 observing network in the Rocky Mountains, building on technological and modeling advances made during the Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (CME), to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We will present a description of the Rocky RACCOON network and early results from the first three sites. There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. NACP aims to address these concerns through a dramatic expansion in observations and modeling capabilities over North America. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. However, plans for new continuous CO2 observing sites have omitted the mountain west. This resulted from expensive instrumentation in the face of limited resources, and a perception that current atmospheric transport models are not sophisticated enough to interpret CO2 measurements made in complex terrain. Through our efforts in CME, we have a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system and are developing mountain CO2 modeling tools that will help us to overcome these obstacles. Preliminary observational and modeling results give us confidence that continuous CO2 observations from mountain top observatories will provide useful constraints on regional carbon cycling and will be valuable in the continental inverse modeling efforts planned for NACP. We began at three Colorado sites in August 2005 and hope to add three to six sites in other western states in subsequent years, utilizing existing observatories to the maximum extent possible. The first three sites are at Niwot Ridge, allowing us to have an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA CMDL; at Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, allowing us to investigate comparisons between these

  11. [Trauma network of the German Association of Trauma Surgery (DGU). Establishment, organization, and quality assurance of a regional trauma network of the DGU].

    PubMed

    Ruchholtz, S; Kühne, C A; Siebert, H

    2007-04-01

    The quality of care in Germany for seriously injured patients varies greatly in individual hospitals due to geographic variations among States and differences in resource allocation and treatment concepts. To assure and enhance treatment quality it seems sensible to establish a structured, quality assured network of clinics, which participate in the management of seriously injured patients according to different specified assignments. The conditions necessary for this type of network on a regional scale and for the clinics charged with the care of the seriously injured were summarized in the White Paper entitled "Management of the Seriously Injured-Recommendations for the Structure and Organization of Facilities in Germany for the Treatment of Seriously Injured Persons." The goal of this action is to ensure that every seriously injured person in Germany receives the best possible round-the-clock care in adherence to standardized quality criteria. This requires specialized expertise and the willingness of all involved parties-care providers, cost bearers, and hospital owners-to cooperate in further improving existing treatment concepts. As a logical consequence of long years of experience and scientific knowledge, the German Association of Trauma Surgery has developed a concept for establishing a regional trauma network of clinics, adapted to local conditions, for management of seriously injured patients. The participating facilities assume different responsibilities in the network depending on their equipment and structure. This article describes the individual steps toward establishing and organizing a network.

  12. Query and Visualization of extremely large network datasets over the web using Quadtree based KML Regional Network Links

    SciTech Connect

    Dadi, Upendra; Liu, Cheng; Vatsavai, Raju

    2009-01-01

    Geographic data sets are often very large in size. Interactive visualization of such data at all scales is not easy because of the limited resolution of the monitors and inability of visualization applications to handle the volume of data. This is especially true for large vector datasets. The end user s experience is frequently unsatisfactory when exploring such data over the web using a naive application. Network bandwidth is another contributing factor to the low performance. In this paper, a Quadtree based technique to visualize extremely large spatial network datasets over the web is described. It involves using custom developed algorithms leveraging a PostGIS database as the data source and Google Earth as the visualization client. This methodology supports both point and range queries along with non-spatial queries. This methodology is demonstrated using a network dataset consisting of several million links. The methodology is based on using some of the powerful features of KML (Keyhole Markup Language). Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard for displaying geospatial data on Earth browsers. One of the features of KML is the notion of Network Links. Using network links, a wide range of geospatial data sources such as geodatabases, static files and geospatial data services can be simultaneously accessed and visualized seamlessly. Using the network links combined with Level of Detail principle, view based rendering and intelligent server and client-side caching, scalability in visualizing extremely large spatial datasets can be achieved.

  13. A nanoflare model for active region radiance: application of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazarghan, M.; Safari, H.; Innes, D. E.; Karami, E.; Solanki, S. K.

    2008-12-01

    Context: Nanoflares are small impulsive bursts of energy that blend with and possibly make up much of the solar background emission. Determining their frequency and energy input is central to understanding the heating of the solar corona. One method is to extrapolate the energy frequency distribution of larger individually observed flares to lower energies. Only if the power law exponent is greater than 2 is it considered possible that nanoflares contribute significantly to the energy input. Aims: Time sequences of ultraviolet line radiances observed in the corona of an active region are modelled with the aim of determining the power law exponent of the nanoflare energy distribution. Methods: A simple nanoflare model based on three key parameters (the flare rate, the flare duration, and the power law exponent of the flare energy frequency distribution) is used to simulate emission line radiances from the ions Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si III, observed by SUMER in the corona of an active region as it rotates around the east limb of the Sun. Light curve pattern recognition by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) scheme is used to determine the values. Results: The power law exponents, α≈2.8, 2.8, and 2.6 are obtained for Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si III respectively. Conclusions: The light curve simulations imply a power law exponent greater than the critical value of 2 for all ion species. This implies that if the energy of flare-like events is extrapolated to low energies, nanoflares could provide a significant contribution to the heating of active region coronae.

  14. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  15. A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone

    2013-04-01

    satellite data largely improves the spatial and temporal information on the events, filling up the gaps of uneven data distribution; for this issue LaMMA has multi-year skills in the acquisition and processing of geostationary and polar satellites. The regional raingauge network and meteorological stations will be instead used to obtain useful information both to calibration (as those related to radar reflectivity - rain rate relationships) and validation processes. The radar system and its mosaicking will be presented, as well as some preliminary products.

  16. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  17. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    large population-based cohort (n = 602, 18–88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. PMID:26985024

  18. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  19. Results of APL rain gauge network measurements in mid-Atlantic coast region and comparisons of distributions with CCIR models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman; Rowland, John

    1988-01-01

    In this effort are described cumulative rain rate distributions for a network of nine tipping bucket rain gauge systems located in the mid-Atlantic coast region in the vicinity of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. The rain gauges are situated within a gridded region of dimensions of 47 km east-west by 70 km north-south. Distributions are presented for the individual site measurements and the network average for the year period June 1, 1986 through May 31, 1987. A previous six year average distribution derived from measurements at one of the site locations is also presented. Comparisons are given of the network average, the CCIR (International Radio Consultative Committee) climatic zone, and the CCIR functional model distributions, the latter of which approximates a log normal at the lower rain rate and a gamma function at the higher rates.

  20. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R.; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources. PMID:26905402

  1. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L

    2016-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, "key players" often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources.

  2. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L

    2016-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, "key players" often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources. PMID:26905402

  3. Installation of a digital, wireless, strong-motion network for monitoring seismic activity in a western Colorado coal mining region

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Swanson; Collin Stewart; Wendell Koontz

    2007-01-15

    A seismic monitoring network has recently been installed in the North Fork Valley coal mining region of western Colorado as part of a NIOSH mine safety technology transfer project with two longwall coal mine operators. Data recorded with this network will be used to characterize mining related and natural seismic activity in the vicinity of the mines and examine potential hazards due to ground shaking near critical structures such as impoundment dams, reservoirs, and steep slopes. Ten triaxial strong-motion accelerometers have been installed on the surface to form the core of a network that covers approximately 250 square kilometers (100 sq. miles) of rugged canyon-mesa terrain. Spread-spectrum radio networks are used to telemeter continuous streams of seismic waveform data to a central location where they are converted to IP data streams and ported to the Internet for processing, archiving, and analysis. 4 refs.

  4. How a Regional Broker Can Improve Industry Demand for University Interaction: A Case Study of the London Technology Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter; Schofield, Matt

    2006-01-01

    UK university research produces highly cited publications (DTI, 2004), but demand from UK business for commercial ideas from academia is weak (HM Treasury, 2003). This paper reviews factors in the development of one regional UK technology broker, the London Technology Network (LTN), which has achieved significant and audited business demand. The…

  5. St. Louis Regional Library Network Manuals: Delivery System Manual, INFO-PASS Manual, Interlibrary Loan Protocol, Procedures and Policies Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Regional Library Network, MO.

    Included in this set of manuals are: (1) guidelines for document delivery to member libraries within the St. Louis Regional Library Network (SLRLN) in which eligible materials are described, addressing and packing are outlined, routing and deliveries are discussed, and a list of delivery system participants is provided; (2) a descriptive guide to…

  6. Regionalized variable theory and assessment of the consequences of uncertainty in optimal design of water-quality sampling networks

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    As the task of environmental planning and management becomes increasingly complex and costly, the amount and quality of data it requires grows accordingly. The vast-majority of water-quality sampling networks are designed through a ill-defined, qualitative approach. This dissertation develops the theoretical background for a quantitative approach to the design, testing, and enhancement of water-quality sampling and monitoring networks. The method uses a technique derived from regionalized variable theory known as universal kriging to provide a measure of the uncertainty of estimates at unsampled locations for a particular sampling network. Regionalized variable theory provides a powerful tool for the analysis of spatially auto correlated data. Essentially all aquatic parameters exhibit some degree of autocorrelation due to the nature of hydrodynamic mixing and advection processes. This allows for the adaptation of regionalized variable theory for use in the design of water-quality-sampling networks. By providing a variance for estimates at unsampled locations, kriging gives a measure of uncertainty. A curve depicting the relative severity of water quality in the region of interest is used in conjunction with the kriging variance to develop a function which describes the consequences of the uncertainty of these estimates.

  7. Regional initiatives in support of surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) Experience.

    PubMed

    Ope, Maurice; Sonoiya, Stanley; Kariuki, James; Mboera, Leonard E G; Gandham, Ramana N V; Schneidman, Miriam; Kimura, Mwihaki

    2013-01-01

    The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC) partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC), EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP). The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities. PMID:23362409

  8. Using W-phase for regional source inversion: An application to the data from the virtual seismic network in the Western Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.; Zhao, L.; Chen, P.; Yu, Y.; Liu, C.; Huang, B.; Kanamori, H.

    2009-12-01

    The W-phase inversion has been proven to be an efficient way to determine the magnitude and source mechanism of large earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes (Kanamori and Rivera, 2008). The Institute of Earth Sciences has exchanged seismic data in a real-time manner with other agencies in surrounding countries, including Japan, Vietnam, and Malaysia, to form a virtual seismic network in the western Pacific region. Any local organization may issue an earthquake report with its own data acquisition system individually. With the hypocentral information provided, we are able to apply this new technique to invert the data from this virtual regional network for the source mechanisms of large earthquakes which occurred on the major convergent plate boundary zones within 2-30 degrees. In this case, the W-phase will be completely retrieved in 1.5-12.5 minutes. To evaluate the reliability of inversion with this network geometry, we invert waveforms of scenario earthquakes synthesized by normal mode summation method. A series of examples were then studied to compare the difference between our results and the global CMT solutions. We hope this practical application will contribute to the tsunami mitigation and seismic hazard assessment in the Western Pacific and Southern Asia regions.

  9. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection from Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C A; Rodi, W; Myers, S C

    2003-07-24

    The objective of this project is to develop improved seismic event location techniques that can be used to generate more and better quality reference events using data from local and regional seismic networks. Their approach is to extend existing methods of multiple-event location with more general models of the errors affecting seismic arrival time data, including picking errors and errors in model-based travel-times (path corrections). Toward this end, they are integrating a grid-search based algorithm for multiple-event location (GMEL) with a new parameterization of travel-time corrections and new kriging method for estimating the correction parameters from observed travel-time residuals. Like several other multiple-event location algorithms, GMEL currently assumes event-independent path corrections and is thus restricted to small event clusters. The new parameterization assumes that travel-time corrections are a function of both the event and station location, and builds in source-receiver reciprocity and correlation between the corrections from proximate paths as constraints. The new kriging method simultaneously interpolates travel-time residuals from multiple stations and events to estimate the correction parameters as functions of position. They are currently developing the algorithmic extensions to GMEL needed to combine the new parameterization and kriging method with the simultaneous location of events. The result will be a multiple-event location method which is applicable to non-clustered, spatially well-distributed events. They are applying the existing components of the new multiple-event location method to a data set of regional and local arrival times from Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions with known origin parameters. Preliminary results show the feasibility and potential benefits of combining the location and kriging techniques. They also show some preliminary work on generalizing of the error model used in GMEL with the use of mixture

  10. Evaluation of Regional Pedotransfer Functions Based on the BP Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhongyi; Guanhua, Guanhua; Yang, Jingyu

    The unsaturated soil hydraulic properties, including soil water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity, are the crucial input parameters for simulating soil water and solute transport through the unsaturated zone at regional scales, and are expensive to measure. These properties are frequently predicted with pedotransfer functions (PTFs) using the routinely measured soil properties. 110 soil samples at 22 soil profiles from Jiefangzha Irrigation Scheme in the Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia, China were collected for the analysis of soil properties i.e. soil bulk density, soil texture, particle size distribution, organic content, and soil water retention curve (SWRC). The Brooks-Corey (BC) model and van Genuchten (VG) model were used to fit the measured SWRC data for each soil sample by using the RETC software. Pedo-transfer functions (PTFS), which describes relationship between the basic soil properties and the parameters of the BC and VG models, were then established with the artificial neural networks (ANN) model. It is found that the ANN model has better effect on the clay loam, loamy clay, loam soil and silty clay to simulate BC model. However, it has better effect on the loam soil, loamy clay and sandy clay to simulate VG model. So, we can draw the conclusion that the ANN model can conveniently establish PTFS between soil basic feature parameters and SWRC model and has reasonable precision. This will be a good method to estimate soil water characteristic curve model and soil hydraulic parameter in the regional soil water and salt movement simulation and water resources evaluation.

  11. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    PubMed

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network.

  12. An optimal hierarchical decision model for a regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan; Qin, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level. PMID:24977209

  13. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols. PMID:26057037

  14. An Optimal Hierarchical Decision Model for a Regional Logistics Network with Environmental Impact Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level. PMID:24977209

  15. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

  16. An optimal hierarchical decision model for a regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan; Qin, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level.

  17. From Networked Learning to Operational Practice: Constructing and Transferring Superintendent Knowledge in a Regional Instructional Rounds Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional rounds are an emerging network structure with processes and protocols designed to develop superintendents' knowledge and skills in leading large-scale improvement, to enable superintendents to build an infrastructure that supports the work of improvement, to assist superintendents in distributing leadership throughout their district,…

  18. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  19. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  20. Source Regions and Multiple Water Release Events in Valley Networks of the Libya Montes Region on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Roatsch, T.; Erkeling, G.; Friedrich, S.; Neukum, G.

    2007-07-01

    The morphology and topography of the source regions provide information about the origin of water on the surface. Furthermore, the analysis of internal valley structures in combination with crater counts allows reconstructing water release with time.

  1. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population.

    PubMed

    Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A; Amen, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individuals with psychiatric disease. Inclusion criteria were peacetime or wartime veterans regardless of branch of service and included those for whom the traumatic brain injury was not service related. SPECT imaging was performed on this group both at rest and during a concentration task. These measures, as well as the baseline-concentration difference, were then inputted from DMN regions into separate binary logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, race, clinic site, co-morbid psychiatric diseases, TBI severity, whether or not the TBI was service related, and branch of armed service. Predicted probabilities were then inputted into a receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared to PSTD, persons with TBI were older, male, and had higher rates of bipolar and major depressive disorder (p < 0.05). Baseline quantitative regions with SPECT separated PTSD from TBI in the veterans with 92 % sensitivity, 85 % specificity, and 94 % accuracy. With concentration scans, there was 85 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity and 89 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration (the difference metric between the two scans) scans were 85 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity, and 87 % accuracy. In separating TBI from PTSD/TBI visual readings of baseline scans had 85 % sensitivity, 81 % specificity, and 83 % accuracy. Concentration scans had 80 % sensitivity, 65 % specificity, and 79 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration scans had 82

  2. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population.

    PubMed

    Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A; Amen, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individuals with psychiatric disease. Inclusion criteria were peacetime or wartime veterans regardless of branch of service and included those for whom the traumatic brain injury was not service related. SPECT imaging was performed on this group both at rest and during a concentration task. These measures, as well as the baseline-concentration difference, were then inputted from DMN regions into separate binary logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, race, clinic site, co-morbid psychiatric diseases, TBI severity, whether or not the TBI was service related, and branch of armed service. Predicted probabilities were then inputted into a receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared to PSTD, persons with TBI were older, male, and had higher rates of bipolar and major depressive disorder (p < 0.05). Baseline quantitative regions with SPECT separated PTSD from TBI in the veterans with 92 % sensitivity, 85 % specificity, and 94 % accuracy. With concentration scans, there was 85 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity and 89 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration (the difference metric between the two scans) scans were 85 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity, and 87 % accuracy. In separating TBI from PTSD/TBI visual readings of baseline scans had 85 % sensitivity, 81 % specificity, and 83 % accuracy. Concentration scans had 80 % sensitivity, 65 % specificity, and 79 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration scans had 82

  3. Identifying a Network of Brain Regions Involved in Aversion-Related Processing: A Cross-Species Translational Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Dave J.; Northoff, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and respond appropriately to aversive stimuli is essential for all organisms, from fruit flies to humans. This suggests the existence of a core neural network which mediates aversion-related processing. Human imaging studies on aversion have highlighted the involvement of various cortical regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, while animal studies have focused largely on subcortical regions like the periaqueductal gray and hypothalamus. However, whether and how these regions form a core neural network of aversion remains unclear. To help determine this, a translational cross-species investigation in humans (i.e., meta-analysis) and other animals (i.e., systematic review of functional neuroanatomy) was performed. Our results highlighted the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex, the anterior insula, and the amygdala as well as other subcortical (e.g., thalamus, midbrain) and cortical (e.g., orbitofrontal) regions in both animals and humans. Importantly, involvement of these regions remained independent of sensory modality. This study provides evidence for a core neural network mediating aversion in both animals and humans. This not only contributes to our understanding of the trans-species neural correlates of aversion but may also carry important implications for psychiatric disorders where abnormal aversive behavior can often be observed. PMID:22102836

  4. Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.

    PubMed Central

    Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). METHODS: We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. FINDINGS: Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. CONCLUSION: The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease. PMID:16462984

  5. Spatiotemporal Filtering Using Principal Component Analysis and Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Approaches for Regional GPS Network Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, D.; Fang, P.; Bock, F.; Webb, F.; Prawirondirdjo, L.; Kedar, S.; Jamason, P.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial filtering is an effective way to improve the precision of coordinate time series for regional GPS networks by reducing so-called common mode errors, thereby providing better resolution for detecting weak or transient deformation signals. The commonly used approach to regional filtering assumes that the common mode error is spatially uniform, which is a good approximation for networks of hundreds of kilometers extent, but breaks down as the spatial extent increases. A more rigorous approach should remove the assumption of spatially uniform distribution and let the data themselves reveal the spatial distribution of the common mode error. The principal component analysis (PCA) and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) both decompose network time series into a set of temporally varying modes and their spatial responses. Therefore they provide a mathematical framework to perform spatiotemporal filtering.We apply the combination of PCA and KLE to daily station coordinate time series of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) for the period 2000 to 2004. We demonstrate that spatially and temporally correlated common mode errors are the dominant error source in daily GPS solutions. The spatial characteristics of the common mode errors are close to uniform for all east, north, and vertical components, which implies a very long wavelength source for the common mode errors, compared to the spatial extent of the GPS network in southern California. Furthermore, the common mode errors exhibit temporally nonrandom patterns.

  6. The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet): Supporting Regional Development of Geoscience Research Across the Circum-Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.; Miller, M. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Wang, G.; Feaux, K.; Rowan, L.; La Femina, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded infrastructure project that stretches across the circum-Caribbean to include Central America and the northern portions of South America. Its objective is to develop a large-scale network of geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure to support a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science with direct relevance to geo-hazards. The network includes over 60 new and refurbished continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) and surface meterology stations. It will also include data from at least 60 existing stations that are being operated by one of our more than 40 regional partners. As COCONet approaches the completion of its build-out phase, it is appropriate to evaluate the activities associated with the project that facilitate capacity building. These activities include three workshops to solicit feedback from regional partners regarding science objectives, station location, and long-term network operation. COCONet graduate research fellowships have been used to support nine students, with seven from countries within the COCONet footprint. The establishment of three regional data and archive centers to foster access to data and promote free and open data standards. Lastly, two Pan American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) workshops on topics that are central to the main goals of COCONet were also organized to engage early career scientists who are interested in working on topics that are directly relevant to the region. Perhaps the most significant effort on expanding capacity in the region is the recent deployment of a station in Camaguey, Cuba with full support from both the U.S. and Cuban governments. This presentation summarizes the activities of the COCONet project to enhance and support both the human resource development and technical capabilities within the region.

  7. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

    2005-05-13

    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  8. Monitoring regional patterns of canopy-scale phenology with a network of digitial webcams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.; Braswell, B. H.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Jenkins, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    webcams offer an inexpensive means by which phenological changes in canopy state could be quantified using instrument-based "near" remote sensing. We describe a recently-established camera network (13 sites in the northeastern US and Canada, of which 5 sites are instrumented for eddy flux measurements) which will provide a regional perspective on both spatial and temporal variation in patterns of canopy phenology.

  9. Facilitating Phenological Assessments at Local, Regional and National Scales: Year Two Progress of the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although directional climate change has already caused documented shifts in organismal, population, community and ecosystem-level patterns and processes, a national phenological assessment requires a comprehensive suite of standardized methodologies to track phenology across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., organismal to landscapes). The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. USA-NPN will (1) integrate with other formal and informal science observation networks (e.g., NEON, LTER, Ameriflux, NPS I & M, OBFS, GEO, public gardens, conservation groups) including regional phenology networks; (2) utilize and enhance remote sensing products, emerging technologies and data management capabilities; and (3) capitalize on myriad educational opportunities and a new readiness of the public to participate in investigations of nature on a national scale. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement that will facilitate local, regional or national assessments of phenology. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methodologies and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species

  10. Designing a low-cost effective network for monitoring large scale regional seismicity in a soft-soil region (Alsace, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Doubre, C.; Wodling, H.; Jund, H.; Hernandez, A.; Blumentritt, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Seismological Observatory of the North-East of France (ObSNEF) is developing its monitoring network within the framework of several projects. Among these project, RESIF (Réseau sismologique et géodésique français) allows the instrumentation of broad-band seismic stations, separated by 50-100 km. With the recent and future development of geothermal industrial projects in the Alsace region, the ObSNEF is responsible for designing, building and operating a dense regional seismic network in order to detect and localize earthquakes with both a completeness magnitude of 1.5 and no clipping for M6.0. The realization of the project has to be done prior to the summer 2016Several complex technical and financial constraints constitute such a projet. First, most of the Alsace Région (150x150 km2), particularly the whole Upper Rhine Graben, is a soft-soil plain where seismic signals are dominated by a high frequency noise level. Second, all the signals have to be transmitted in near real-time. And finally, the total cost of the project must not exceed $450,000.Regarding the noise level in Alsace, in order to make a reduction of 40 dB for frequencies above 1Hz, we program to instrument into 50m deep well with post-hole sensor for 5 stations out of 8 plane new stations. The 3 remaining would be located on bedrock along the Vosges piedmont. In order to be sensitive to low-magnitude regional events, we plan to install a low-noise short-period post-hole velocimeter. In order to avoid saturation for high potentiel local events (M6.0 at 10km), this velocimeter will be coupled with a surface strong-motion sensor. Regarding the connectivity, these stations will have no wired network, which reduces linking costs and delays. We will therefore use solar panels and a 3G/GPRS network. The infrastructure will be minimal and reduced to an outdoor box on a secured parcel of land. In addition to the data-logger, we will use a 12V ruggedized computer, hosting a seed-link server for near

  11. The Regional Resource Center (RRC) Network Accountability Report Executive Summary: The First RRC Network Performance Measurement Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Resource Center for Special Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Regional Resource Center (RRC) program mission is to strengthen the capacity of state systems of education and early intervention to improve results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities and their families. It is one of the longest and most successful technical assistance projects of the Office of Special Education…

  12. Neural network technique for identifying prognostic anomalies from low-frequency electromagnetic signals in the Kuril-Kamchatka region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, I.; Rozhnoi, A.; Solovieva, M.; Levin, B.; Chebrov, V.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we suggest a technique for forecasting seismic events based on the very low and low frequency (VLF and LF) signals in the 10 to 50 Hz band using the neural network approach, specifically, the error back-propagation method (EBPM). In this method, the solution of the problem has two main stages: training and recognition (forecasting). The training set is constructed from the combined data, including the amplitudes and phases of the VLF/LF signals measured in the monitoring of the Kuril-Kamchatka region and the corresponding parameters of regional seismicity. Training the neural network establishes the internal relationship between the characteristic changes in the VLF/LF signals a few days before a seismic event and the corresponding level of seismicity. The trained neural network is then applied in a prognostic mode for automated detection of the anomalous changes in the signal which are associated with seismic activity exceeding the assumed threshold level. By the example of several time intervals in 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007, we demonstrate the efficiency of the neural network approach in the short-term forecasting of earthquakes with magnitudes starting from M ≥ 5.5 from the nighttime variations in the amplitudes and phases of the LF signals on one radio path. We also discuss the results of the simultaneous analysis of the VLF/LF data measured on two partially overlapping paths aimed at revealing the correlations between the nighttime variations in the amplitude of the signal and seismic activity.

  13. Network collaboration of organisations for homeless individuals in the Montreal region

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Lesage, Alain; Ma, Nan; Ngui, André Ngamini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We know little about the intensity and determinants of interorganisational collaboration within the homeless network. This study describes the characteristics and relationships (along with the variables predicting their degree of interorganisational collaboration) of 68 organisations of such a network in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Theory and methods Data were collected primarily through a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were conducted followed by social network and multivariate analyses. Results The Montreal homeless network has a high density (50.5%) and a decentralised structure and maintains a mostly informal collaboration with the public and cross-sectorial sectors. The network density showed more frequent contacts among four types of organisations which could point to the existence of cliques. Four variables predicted interorganisational collaboration: organisation type, number of services offered, volume of referrals and satisfaction with the relationships with public organisations. Conclusions and discussion The Montreal homeless network seems adequate to address non-complex homelessness problems. Considering, however, that most homeless individuals present chronic and complex profiles, it appears necessary to have a more formal and better integrated network of homeless organisations, particularly in the health and social service sectors, in order to improve services. PMID:24520216

  14. Resting-State Coupling between Core Regions within the Central-Executive and Salience Networks Contributes to Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Luqi; Li, Jin; Wang, Yulin; Friston, Karl J.; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory (WM). However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to WM is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core WM regions by linking WM accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC; a principal region in the central-executive network, CEN). Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with WM accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and WM performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dLPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the right dLPFC and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex (FIC) were correlated with WM accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dACC to the bilateral dLPFC and from the right dLPFC to the left FIC could predict individual differences in WM. Because the dACC and FIC are core regions of the salience network (SN), we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the CEN and SN is functionally relevant for WM performance. In summary, the current study identified the dLPFC-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying WM and suggests that individual differences in cognitive ability could be characterized by resting-state effective connectivity. PMID:26941629

  15. Satellite- and Epoch Differenced Precise Point Positioning Based on a Regional Augmentation Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haojun; Chen, Junping; Wang, Jiexian; Wu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been demonstrated as a simple and effective approach for user positioning. The key issue in PPP is how to shorten convergence time and improve positioning efficiency. Recent researches mainly focus on the ambiguity resolution by correcting residual phase errors at a single station. The success of this approach (referred to hereafter as NORM-PPP) is subject to how rapidly one can fix wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. The convergence time of NORM-PPP is receiver type dependent, and normally takes 15–20 min. Different from the general algorithm and theory by which the float ambiguities are estimated and the integer ambiguities are fixed, we concentrate on a differential PPP approach: the satellite- and epoch differenced (SDED) approach. In general, the SDED approach eliminates receiver clocks and ambiguity parameters and thus avoids the complicated residual phase modeling procedure. As a further development of the SDED approach, we use a regional augmentation network to derive tropospheric delay and remaining un-modeled errors at user sites. By adding these corrections and applying the Robust estimation, the weak mathematic properties due to the ED operation is much improved. Implementing this new approach, we need only two epochs of data to achieve PPP positioning converging to centimeter-positioning accuracy. Using seven days of GPS data at six CORS stations in Shanghai, we demonstrate the success rate, defined as the case when three directions converging to desired positioning accuracy of 10 cm, reaches 100% when the interval between the two epochs is longer than 15 min. Comparing the results of 15 min' interval to that of 10 min', it is observed that the position RMS improves from 2.47, 3.95, 5.78 cm to 2.21, 3.93, 4.90 cm in the North, East and Up directions, respectively. Combining the SDED coordinates at the starting point and the ED relative coordinates thereafter, we

  16. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  17. Decision Support Process for CO2 Monitoring Network Design, as applied to the North American Permafrost Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creelman, C. A.; Risk, D. A.; Nickerson, N. R.; Simpson, K.; Bourlon, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern regions of Canada and the United States hold vast reserves of soil organic matter (carbon), once protected from decomposition because of cool wet soils, and/or permafrost. Unfortunately, these Northern areas are changing rapidly because the rate of climate warming in the North has significantly outstripped the global average. As a result of permafrost melting and soil processes stimulated by higher temperatures, soil CO2 emissions in these high latitude areas are expected to accelerate. On an annual basis, it is conceivable that these natural Northern CO2 emissions could match or begin to exceed human industrial emissions. From a risk management perspective, the Northern region represents an important climate risk of international interest that should be monitored in a systematic long-term effort. Currently, there is almost no high latitude monitoring done due to limitation of instrumental techniques, remoteness, and other factors. While technology improvements will make this monitoring physically possible, it is critical that the conceptual framework for monitoring also be planned carefully. The monitoring network will need to make efficient use of funding to target high-risk areas, balance many possible emission predictions that vary spatially and temporally, allow for incremental network growth and take into account transportation costs and accessibility. To address these needs, we use a Simulated Annealing based algorithm that determines optimal sampling densities and distributions according to various risk factors. This network optimization makes use of several different potential CO2 emission estimates generated using the Canadian Regional Climate model forecasts and other spatial datasets. These estimates represent a wide range of potential evolutions of soil emissions based on factors such as expected climate change, the distribution of carbon storage, and carbon sensitivity to temperature and moisture changes. The calculated optimal network

  18. Wavelet neural networks using particle swarm optimization training in modeling regional ionospheric total electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) are a new class of neural networks (NNs) that has been developed using a combined method of multi-layer artificial neural networks and wavelet analysis (WA). In this paper, WNNs is used for modeling and prediction of total electron content (TEC) of ionosphere with high spatial and temporal resolution. Generally, back-propagation (BP) algorithm is used to train the neural network. While this algorithm proves to be very effective and robust in training many types of network structures, it suffers from certain disadvantages such as easy entrapment in a local minimum and slow convergence. To improve the performance of WNN in training step, the adjustment of network weights using particle swarm optimization (PSO) was proposed. The results obtained in this paper were compared with standard NN (SNN) by BP training algorithm (SNN-BP), SNN by PSO training algorithm (SNN-PSO) and WNN by BP training algorithm (WNN-BP). For numerical experiments, observations collected at 36 GPS stations in 5 days of 2012 from Iranian permanent GPS network (IPGN) are used. The average minimum relative errors in 5 test stations for WNN-PSO, WNN-BP, SNN-BP and SNN-PSO compared with GPS TEC are 10.59%, 12.85%, 13.18%, 13.75% and average maximum relative errors are 14.70%, 17.30%, 18.53% and 20.83%, respectively. Comparison of diurnal predicted TEC values from the WNN-PSO, SNN-BP, SNN-PSO and WNN-BP models with GPS TEC revealed that the WNN-PSO provides more accurate predictions than the other methods in the test area.

  19. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  20. Network mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the CA3 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hájos, Norbert; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-10-01

    Neural networks of the brain display multiple patterns of oscillatory activity. Some of these rhythms are generated intrinsically within the local network, and can therefore be studied in isolated preparations. Here we discuss local-circuit mechanisms involved in hippocampal CA3 gamma oscillations, one of the best understood locally generated network patterns in the mammalian brain. Perisomatic inhibitory cells are crucial players in gamma oscillogenesis. They provide prominent rhythmic inhibition to CA3 pyramidal cells and are themselves synchronized primarily by excitatory synaptic inputs derived from the local collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells. The recruitment of this recurrent excitatory-inhibitory feedback loop during hippocampal gamma oscillations suggests that local gamma oscillations not only control when, but also how many and which pyramidal cells will fire during each gamma cycle.

  1. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity.

  2. A regional monitoring network to investigate the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinental USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Previous state and national surveys conducted in the mid-continental USA have produced a wide range in results regarding the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater. At least some of these differences can be attributed to inconsistencies between the surveys, such as different analytical reporting limits. The US Geological Survey has designed a sampling network that is geographically and hydrogeologically representative of near-surface aquifers in the corn- and soybean-producing region of the midcontinental USA. More than 800 water quality samples have been collected from the network since 1991. Six of the seven most frequently detected compounds from this study were herbicide metabolites. A direct relation was determined between tritium content to herbicide and nitrate contamination. The unconsolidated aquifers sampled were found to be more susceptible to herbicide and nitrate contamination than the bedrock aquifers. Knowledge of the regional occurrence and distribution of agricultural chemicals acquired through the study of data collected at network sites will assist policy makers and planners with decisions regarding the protection of drinking-water supplies.

  3. Rain gauge network evaluation and optimal design using spatial correlation approach in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaripour, Hamid; Mansouri Daneshvar, Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluation of a rain gauge network in order to optimize a network design. In this regard, point rainfall estimations were assessed using a spatial correlation approach in the Kerman region, Iran. This approach was implemented based on monthly rainfall data for existing 117 rain gauge stations in the study area. The results revealed that the regular arrangement of rain gauges could provide the reliable values for accurate rainfall estimation. Low density of rain gauge combined with the low rainfall values may result in strong increase of the interpolation errors. Based on the existing rain gauge network, the relative mean error of observed rainfalls (E a ) is less than 5 % over the study area. The spatial interpolation errors (E i ) were considered to optimize the design of rain gauge network at the confidence level of 85 %, where the mean errors were exhibited from 8.5 to 14 % in districts A and B, respectively. On this basis, about 46 locations were proposed for allocation of new stations. Therefore, it was suggested to relocate about 20 existing stations in order to achieve an accurate design.

  4. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  5. Differential Engagement of Brain Regions within a "Core" Network during Scene Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Jennifer J.; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2010-01-01

    Reliving past events and imagining potential future events engages a well-established "core" network of brain areas. How the brain constructs, or reconstructs, these experiences or scenes has been debated extensively in the literature, but remains poorly understood. Here we designed a novel task to investigate this (re)constructive process by…

  6. Increasing Family Support Capacity in Child Care Centers through Regional Networking and Information Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Karen L.

    Society as a whole has become more transient, creating a weakened network for families in need of assistance. The child care center has the ability to create a support system for families via referrals to outside agencies, support groups, and organizations. This practicum project assessed a strategy to address the difficulty a child care agency…

  7. Integrated verification experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Source Region program. Appendix F: Regional data from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.

    1993-06-11

    A dataset of regional seismograms assembled for a series of Integrated Verification Experiments conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Source Region program is described. The seismic data has been assembled from networks operated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory. Examples of the data are shown and basic recording characteristics of the network are described. The seismograms are available on a data tape in SAC format upon request.

  8. WaterNet: The NASA water cycle solutions network - Danubian regional applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Dave; Brilly, Mitja; Kobold, Mira; Zagar, Mark; Houser, Paul

    2008-11-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. This paper provides an overview and it discusses the concept of solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites Danubian research and applications teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team will develop WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research resources and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related Water Research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base and Community of Practice. WaterNet will then develop strategies to connect researchers and decision-makers via innovative communication strategies, improved user access to NASA and EU - Danubian resources, improved water cycle research community appreciation for user requirements, improved policymaker, management and stakeholder knowledge of research and application products, and improved identification of pathways for progress. Finally, WaterNet will develop relevant benchmarking and metrics, to understand the network's characteristics, to optimize its performance, and to establish sustainability. This paper provides examples of several NASA products based on remote sensing and land data assimilation systems that integrate remotely sensed and in

  9. Geodetic networks in Al-Hoceima, Fez-Meknes and Ouarzazate regions (Morocco) to monitor local deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A. J.; Ruiz, A. M.; Lacy, M. C.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Anahnah, F.; Ruano, P.; Álvarez-Lobato, P. Ayarza, F.; Arboleya, A. Teixel, M. L.; Azzouz, O.; Ahmamou, A. Chalouan, M.; Kchikach, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of some interdisciplinary research projects, several geodetic studies have been initiated aiming to quantify ground deformation in some areas of Morocco: the Al-Hoceima region (Rif cordillera), the Fez-Meknes region and the Ouarzazate region (Atlas Mountains). The Al-Hoceima region, located in the central part of the Rif Cordilleras, has undergone an intense seismic activity, in which the most significant events occurred in 1994 and 2004 (M= 6.3). Although seismicity data support the presence of transcurrent faults, and available radar interferometry researches evidence surface deformations, geological data suggest that main seismogentic fault zone has not a surface expression. Anyway, a set of N-S oriented normal faults (Rouadi, Al-Hoceima, Trougout) determines the present-day geomorphology and seems to continue to be active in surface. In this area, a new non-permanent GPS network consisting of 6 sites has been installed and surveyed in June 2007 and September 2008. The repeated measurements of this network may allow to exactly determine the surface expression of deep tectonic deformations in this region, and to quantify the creep and the coseismic motions in the area, that will contribute to better understand the seismic hazard. The Prerif Ridges located in the Fez-Meknes region, constitute the active mountain front of the Rif cordillera that accommodates most of the recent convergence between Eurasia and African plates. South of the ridges, the Saïss foreland basin overlies the foreland rocks corresponding to the Middle Atlas. There are evidences of Quaternary uplift of the Prerif Ridges and deformation of recent sediments as consequence of the southwards propagation of reverse faults along the mountain front. In addition, the foreland basin undergoes a roughly N-S extensional regime. The region undergoes a moderate seismic activity, with catastrophic events like that occurred in 1755 which damaged Fez and Meknes. On September 2007, a non

  10. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  11. Building Regional Networking Capacity through Leadership Development: The Case of Leadership Northwest Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltsberger, Beverly; Majee, Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Through a case study analysis of a regional leadership development program, this article describes the impact on individual and group leadership skills and how the skills are employed to benefit individual communities and the region as a whole. Data were obtained through surveys. Through cooperation and collaboration between and among leadership…

  12. Understanding the poultry trade network in Kenya: Implications for regional disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Margaret; Munyua, Peninah; Cheng, Po-Yung; Manga, Thomas; Wanjohi, Cathryn; Moen, Ann; Mounts, Anthony; Katz, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the

  13. Understanding the poultry trade network in Kenya: Implications for regional disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Margaret; Munyua, Peninah; Cheng, Po-Yung; Manga, Thomas; Wanjohi, Cathryn; Moen, Ann; Mounts, Anthony; Katz, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the

  14. Modeling land use and land cover changes in a vulnerable coastal region using artificial neural networks and cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region. PMID:25647797

  15. Modeling land use and land cover changes in a vulnerable coastal region using artificial neural networks and cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region.

  16. Using discharge abstracts to evaluate a regional perinatal network: assessment of the linkage procedure of anonymous data.

    PubMed

    Quantin, Catherine; Gouyon, Béatrice; Avillach, Paul; Ferdynus, Cyril; Sagot, Paul; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard

    2009-01-01

    To assess the Burgundy perinatal network (18 obstetrical units; 18 500 births per year), discharge abstracts and additional data were collected for all mothers and newborns. In accordance with French law, data were rendered anonymous before statistical analysis, and were linked to patients using a specific procedure. This procedure allowed data concerning each mother to be linked to those for her newborn(s). This study showed that all mothers and newborns were included in the regional database; the data for all mothers were linked to those for their infant(s) in all cases. Additional data (gestational age) were obtained for 99.9% of newborns.

  17. Using Discharge Abstracts to Evaluate a Regional Perinatal Network: Assessment of the Linkage Procedure of Anonymous Data

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Gouyon, Béatrice; Avillach, Paul; Ferdynus, Cyril; Sagot, Paul; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard

    2009-01-01

    To assess the Burgundy perinatal network (18 obstetrical units; 18 500 births per year), discharge abstracts and additional data were collected for all mothers and newborns. In accordance with French law, data were rendered anonymous before statistical analysis, and were linked to patients using a specific procedure. This procedure allowed data concerning each mother to be linked to those for her newborn(s). This study showed that all mothers and newborns were included in the regional database; the data for all mothers were linked to those for their infant(s) in all cases. Additional data (gestational age) were obtained for 99.9% of newborns. PMID:19125196

  18. Regional and seasonal characteristics of epipelagic mesozooplankton in the Mediterranean Sea based on an artificial neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocchi, M. G.; Siokou, I.; Tirelli, V.; Bandelj, V.; Fernandez de Puelles, M. L.; Ak Örek, Y.; de Olazabal, A.; Gubanova, A.; Kress, N.; Protopapa, M.; Solidoro, C.; Taglialatela, S.; Terbiyik Kurt, T.

    2014-07-01

    The cruises conducted in the spring and autumn of 2008 in the frame of the European project SESAME represented the first coordinated surveys that allowed acquiring a quasi-synoptic picture of epipelagic mesozooplankton in most regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Seasonal differences were recorded in biomass, total abundance, and community composition and structure. In both seasons, it did not appear a clear west-east decreasing gradient in total standing stock, but rather regional discontinuities. However, west or east preferences were observed in the distribution of some zooplanktonic groups and copepod species. An artificial neural network analysis (SOM) identified, in both seasons, a clear mesozooplankton regionalization, which resembled the autotrophic regimes based on color remote sensing data. The correspondence between the distribution of zooplankton communities and the trophic regimes appeared more precise in spring, when the increased concentration of chlorophyll a makes the Mediterranean Sea a more heterogeneous environment, but it was still visible in the more uniform oligotrophic autumn conditions. Three distinct types of mesozooplankton communities seem to flourish in the investigated regions: the first type is the most widespread and thrives in the "non-blooming" areas, the second type occurs in the "intermittently-blooming" areas, and the third type is a characteristic of areas with recurrent and intense phytoplankton blooms. Overall, the well defined regionalization of mesozooplankton that appears from our results corroborates the view of the Mediterranean Sea as a mosaic environment, as previously emerged from the analyses of different biological compartments.

  19. Regional application of multi-layer artificial neural networks in 3-D ionosphere tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-08-01

    Tomography is a very cost-effective method to study physical properties of the ionosphere. In this paper, residual minimization training neural network (RMTNN) is used in voxel-based tomography to reconstruct of 3-D ionosphere electron density with high spatial resolution. For numerical experiments, observations collected at 37 GPS stations from Iranian permanent GPS network (IPGN) are used. A smoothed TEC approach was used for absolute STEC recovery. To improve the vertical resolution, empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) obtained from international reference ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) used as object function in training neural network. Ionosonde observations is used for validate reliability of the proposed method. Minimum relative error for RMTNN is 1.64% and maximum relative error is 15.61%. Also root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 × 1011 (electrons/m3) is computed for RMTNN which is less than RMSE of IRI2012. The results show that RMTNN has higher accuracy and compiles speed than other ionosphere reconstruction methods.

  20. Advances in dynamic modeling of colorectal cancer signaling-network regions, a path toward targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Ambrosi, Cristina De; Barla, Annalisa; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Nencioni, Alessio; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Verri, Alessandro; Parodi, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The interconnected network of pathways downstream of the TGFβ, WNT and EGF-families of receptor ligands play an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. We studied and implemented dynamic simulations of multiple downstream pathways and described the section of the signaling network considered as a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our simulations used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), which involved 447 reactants and their interactions. Starting from an initial “physiologic condition”, the model can be adapted to simulate individual pathologic cancer conditions implementing alterations/mutations in relevant onco-proteins. We verified some salient model predictions using the mutated colorectal cancer lines HCT116 and HT29. We measured the amount of MYC and CCND1 mRNAs and AKT and ERK phosphorylated proteins, in response to individual or combination onco-protein inhibitor treatments. Experimental and simulation results were well correlated. Recent independently published results were also predicted by our model. Even in the presence of an approximate and incomplete signaling network information, a predictive dynamic modeling seems already possible. An important long term road seems to be open and can be pursued further, by incremental steps, toward even larger and better parameterized MIMs. Personalized treatment strategies with rational associations of signaling-proteins inhibitors, could become a realistic goal. PMID:25671297

  1. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008–2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083

  2. Regional Geograhpic Network Partnerships Supporting Sustainable Landscapes - An Example: The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource management agencies, conservation organizations and other stakeholders are facing increasingly complex environmental challenges that require coordinated management actions at regional and landscape levels. To address these challenges, integrated multi-disciplina...

  3. Regional flood inundation nowcast using hybrid SOM and dynamic neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Li-Chiu; Shen, Hung-Yu; Chang, Fi-John

    2014-11-01

    This study proposes a hybrid SOM-R-NARX methodology for nowcasting multi-step-ahead regional flood inundation maps during typhoon events. The core idea is to form a meaningful topology of inundation maps and then real-time update the selected inundation map according to a forecasted total inundated volume. The methodology includes three major schemes: (1) configuring the self-organizing map (SOM) to categorize a large number of regional inundation maps into a meaningful topology; (2) building a recurrent configuration of nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (R-NARX) to forecast the total inundated volume; and (3) adjusting the weights of the selected neuron in the constructed SOM based on the forecasted total inundated volume to obtain a real-time adapted regional inundation map. The proposed models are trained and tested based on a large number of inundation data sets collected in an inundation-prone region (270 km2) in the Yilan County, Taiwan. The results show that (1) the SOM-R-NARX model can suitably forecast multi-step-ahead regional inundation maps; and (2) the SOM-R-NARX model consistently outperforms the comparative model in providing regional inundation maps with smaller forecast errors and higher correlation (RMSE < 0.1 m and R2 > 0.9 in most cases). The proposed modelling approach offers an insightful and promising methodology for real-time forecasting 2-dimensional visible inundation maps during storm events.

  4. Real-time fMRI brain computer interfaces: self-regulation of single brain regions to networks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sergio; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Rana, Mohit; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of brain computer interfaces based on real-time fMRI (rtfMRI-BCI), the possibility of performing neurofeedback based on brain hemodynamics has become a reality. In the early stage of the development of this field, studies have focused on the volitional control of activity in circumscribed brain regions. However, based on the understanding that the brain functions by coordinated activity of spatially distributed regions, there have recently been further developments to incorporate real-time feedback of functional connectivity and spatio-temporal patterns of brain activity. The present article reviews the principles of rtfMRI neurofeedback, its applications, benefits and limitations. A special emphasis is given to the discussion of novel developments that have enabled the use of this methodology to achieve self-regulation of the functional connectivity between different brain areas and of distributed brain networks, anticipating new and exciting applications for cognitive neuroscience and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  6. Spatial Fingerprints of Community Structure in Human Interaction Network for an Extensive Set of Large-Scale Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization. PMID:25993329

  7. Spatial fingerprints of community structure in human interaction network for an extensive set of large-scale regions.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization. PMID:25993329

  8. Regional Densification of the ITRF through the Integration of National Active GNSS Network Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, Ambrus; Horvath, Tivadar; Stangl, Gunter; Garayt, Bruno; Hansen, Dionne; Valdes, Marcellino; Caporali, Alessandro; Figurski, Mariusz; Georgiev, Ivan; Droscak, Branislav; Franke, Peter; Jumare, Izolde; Nagl, Jaroslav; Pihlak, Priit; Huisman, Lennard

    2015-04-01

    The actual realization of the ITRS represents the most precise station positions and velocities at selected set of sites. The scientific and practical applications may require the access to the global 3D reference frame in a dense network without loss of consistency and reliability. Relying on the long term homogeneously analyzed data the dense national permanent GNSS networks shall be the ideal tool for such reference frame densification. In the frame of the ongoing EPN densification the national active networks are integrated and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is being derived based on the actual ITRS realization and using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. In order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities, constraint handling) the only way to get a uniform, homogeneous cumulative solution from national to global scales is the integration done relying on the weekly SINEX product level. The integration is being performed using the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) and based on the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better definition and realization of ETRS89. This work is very well inline with the goals of relevant European initiatives in the frame of EPOS, EUREF (WG on Deformation Models), CEGRN, EUPOS, IAG (WG on Unified Dense Velocity Fields). The work is well in progress, up to 15 years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed from 17 countries, and considering the countries in negotiation phase the full continental coverage will be reached within few years. The actual database contains more close to 3000 sites. In this presentation a status report is shown and the first version of the position/velocity product with related interpretation options are introduced as well.

  9. Temporal and spatial variation of water level in urbanizing plain river network region.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guanglai; Xu, Youpeng; Luo, Xian; Xu, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaohua; Hu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most developed regions in China, the plain of East China is undergoing gradually increased flooding under the obvious urbanization process. This paper mainly analyses the trend of water level time series in the region during the past decades, and assesses the temporal and spatial variation of water level and indicators of hydrological alteration. The results show that there is a trend of increasing water level. Bigger slope and higher significant level can be observed in monthly minimum than in monthly maximum water level, in peri-urban than in urban areas. Meanwhile, it is observed that the mean monthly minimum and maximum water level increased in both urban and peri-urban regions, while decreased coefficients of variation (Cv) in urban and increased Cv in peri-urban regions were calculated. Most indicators of hydrologic alteration in urban stations are concentrated to the range of variability approach target, while most indicators are discrete in peri-urban stations. And the degree of hydrologic alteration is higher in peri-urban than in urban regions. PMID:24901612

  10. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response.

  11. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response. PMID:26038158

  12. Mutations in RNA Polymerase Bridge Helix and Switch Regions Affect Active-Site Networks and Transcript-Assisted Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Schäfer, Jorrit; Sharma, Amit; Rayner, Lucy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter; Buck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), the bridge helix and switch regions form an intricate network with the catalytic active centre and the main channel. These interactions are important for catalysis, hydrolysis and clamp domain movement. By targeting conserved residues in Escherichia coli RNAP, we are able to show that functions of these regions are differentially required during σ70-dependent and the contrasting σ54-dependent transcription activations and thus potentially underlie the key mechanistic differences between the two transcription paradigms. We further demonstrate that the transcription factor DksA directly regulates σ54-dependent activation both positively and negatively. This finding is consistent with the observed impacts of DksA on σ70-dependent promoters. DksA does not seem to significantly affect RNAP binding to a pre-melted promoter DNA but affects extensively activity at the stage of initial RNA synthesis on σ54-regulated promoters. Strikingly, removal of the σ54 Region I is sufficient to invert the action of DksA (from stimulation to inhibition or vice versa) at two test promoters. The RNAP mutants we generated also show a strong propensity to backtrack. These mutants increase the rate of transcript-hydrolysis cleavage to a level comparable to that seen in the Thermus aquaticus RNAP even in the absence of a non-complementary nucleotide. These novel phenotypes imply an important function of the bridge helix and switch regions as an anti-backtracking ratchet and an RNA hydrolysis regulator. PMID:26365052

  13. Mutations in RNA Polymerase Bridge Helix and Switch Regions Affect Active-Site Networks and Transcript-Assisted Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Schäfer, Jorrit; Sharma, Amit; Rayner, Lucy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter; Buck, Martin

    2015-11-01

    In bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), the bridge helix and switch regions form an intricate network with the catalytic active centre and the main channel. These interactions are important for catalysis, hydrolysis and clamp domain movement. By targeting conserved residues in Escherichia coli RNAP, we are able to show that functions of these regions are differentially required during σ(70)-dependent and the contrasting σ(54)-dependent transcription activations and thus potentially underlie the key mechanistic differences between the two transcription paradigms. We further demonstrate that the transcription factor DksA directly regulates σ(54)-dependent activation both positively and negatively. This finding is consistent with the observed impacts of DksA on σ(70)-dependent promoters. DksA does not seem to significantly affect RNAP binding to a pre-melted promoter DNA but affects extensively activity at the stage of initial RNA synthesis on σ(54)-regulated promoters. Strikingly, removal of the σ(54) Region I is sufficient to invert the action of DksA (from stimulation to inhibition or vice versa) at two test promoters. The RNAP mutants we generated also show a strong propensity to backtrack. These mutants increase the rate of transcript-hydrolysis cleavage to a level comparable to that seen in the Thermus aquaticus RNAP even in the absence of a non-complementary nucleotide. These novel phenotypes imply an important function of the bridge helix and switch regions as an anti-backtracking ratchet and an RNA hydrolysis regulator.

  14. Mutations in RNA Polymerase Bridge Helix and Switch Regions Affect Active-Site Networks and Transcript-Assisted Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Schäfer, Jorrit; Sharma, Amit; Rayner, Lucy; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter; Buck, Martin

    2015-11-01

    In bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), the bridge helix and switch regions form an intricate network with the catalytic active centre and the main channel. These interactions are important for catalysis, hydrolysis and clamp domain movement. By targeting conserved residues in Escherichia coli RNAP, we are able to show that functions of these regions are differentially required during σ(70)-dependent and the contrasting σ(54)-dependent transcription activations and thus potentially underlie the key mechanistic differences between the two transcription paradigms. We further demonstrate that the transcription factor DksA directly regulates σ(54)-dependent activation both positively and negatively. This finding is consistent with the observed impacts of DksA on σ(70)-dependent promoters. DksA does not seem to significantly affect RNAP binding to a pre-melted promoter DNA but affects extensively activity at the stage of initial RNA synthesis on σ(54)-regulated promoters. Strikingly, removal of the σ(54) Region I is sufficient to invert the action of DksA (from stimulation to inhibition or vice versa) at two test promoters. The RNAP mutants we generated also show a strong propensity to backtrack. These mutants increase the rate of transcript-hydrolysis cleavage to a level comparable to that seen in the Thermus aquaticus RNAP even in the absence of a non-complementary nucleotide. These novel phenotypes imply an important function of the bridge helix and switch regions as an anti-backtracking ratchet and an RNA hydrolysis regulator. PMID:26365052

  15. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  16. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  17. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  18. [Current status and issues of regional clinic network for hip fractures in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-01

    I investigated presence of taking medicine and a taking medicine continuation rate to evaluate how to use the regional post-referral treatment plan about the osteoporosis treatment for the secondary hip fractures prevention. I evaluated the present conditions of the regional post-referral treatment plan that I considered from acute care hospital points of view. The osteoporosis treatment that continued and expanse of the osteoporosis liaison service are necessary to quit the chain of the osteoporotic fracture. It is necessary to improve a taking medicine continuation rate.

  19. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerf, Vinton G.

    1991-01-01

    The demands placed on the networks transporting the information and knowledge generated by the increased diversity and sophistication of computational machinery are described. What is needed to support this increased flow, the structures already in place, and what must be built are topics of discussion. (KR)

  20. Sports Shorts. [A Product of] the Regional Math Network: A Teacher Invigoration and Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    This middle school mathematics unit is organized around themes relating to sports activities in the Boston (Massachusetts) region and has a content focus on decimals and percents. The activities follow a story line which features a sports reporter (the student) and his/her assignments and adventures. Each activity begins with a headline, defines a…

  1. Legal Aspects of Establishing a Regional Interstate Library Network in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harry S.

    In order to identify an appropriate legal structure for an interstate library agency in the southwest region of the United States the variety of existing organizational patterns actually used by various interstate service operations or potentially available for use were surveyed. Attention was paid to the legal requirements which influence the…

  2. Social Networks, Social Media and Absorptive Capacity in Regional Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosua, Rachelle; Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are major sources of prosperity and employment and are viewed as critical to regional development in Australia. A key factor to foster productivity and growth in SMEs is their ability to identify, acquire, transform and exploit external knowledge. This ability, referred to as the "absorptive capacity…

  3. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  4. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  5. Uniting and networking the magnetic community in the northern Indian Ocean region - MAGNIO - a new initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Kusumita

    2015-04-01

    The North Indian Ocean (NIO) - a region of sparse data coverage - is a prime location for the measurement and study of variations of the geomagnetic field, where the effects of the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) and Solar quiet (Sq) currents as well as lithospheric configuration, are yet to be delineated. Ground based measurements of magnetic variations with a time resolution of one minute or better in the NIO region would provide an ideal window of opportunity to augment satellite measurements (SWARM). As the dip equator passes through the NIO, the magnetic field here can be subject to rapid change. Therefore it is felt that forging collaborative scientific links between the scientists and stakeholder communities of these nations is vital. In recognition of the significance of a regional initiative, the International Council of Science (ICSU) has awarded the MAGNIO project to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), to undertake activities necessary to put further medium and long term endeavors in place. The MAGNIO proposal aims to bring all NIO magnetic observatories and organisations using magnetic data together, along with relevant stakeholders. The line of action to be adopted for the fulfillment of MAGNIO objectives is presented. Critical issues of trust development, communication establishment, internet usage, role of mentors and policymankers, which could construct the requisite links to bring about such a collaborration and take it forward are discussed.

  6. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    PubMed

    Mielke, M

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under http://www.rki.de → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.

  7. Model-based evaluation of subsurface monitoring networks for improved efficiency and predictive certainty of regional groundwater models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosses, M. J.; Wöhling, Th.; Moore, C. R.; Dann, R.; Scott, D. M.; Close, M.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater resources worldwide are increasingly under pressure. Demands from different local stakeholders add to the challenge of managing this resource. In response, groundwater models have become popular to make predictions about the impact of different management strategies and to estimate possible impacts of changes in climatic conditions. These models can assist to find optimal management strategies that comply with the various stakeholder needs. Observations of the states of the groundwater system are essential for the calibration and evaluation of groundwater flow models, particularly when they are used to guide the decision making process. On the other hand, installation and maintenance of observation networks are costly. Therefore it is important to design monitoring networks carefully and cost-efficiently. In this study, we analyse the Central Plains groundwater aquifer (~ 4000 km2) between the Rakaia and Waimakariri rivers on the Eastern side of the Southern Alps in New Zealand. The large sedimentary groundwater aquifer is fed by the two alpine rivers and by recharge from the land surface. The area is mainly under agricultural land use and large areas of the land are irrigated. The other major water use is the drinking water supply for the city of Christchurch. The local authority in the region, Environment Canterbury, maintains an extensive groundwater quantity and quality monitoring programme to monitor the effects of land use and discharges on groundwater quality, and the suitability of the groundwater for various uses, especially drinking-water supply. Current and projected irrigation water demand has raised concerns about possible impacts on groundwater-dependent lowland streams. We use predictive uncertainty analysis and the Central Plains steady-state groundwater flow model to evaluate the worth of pressure head observations in the existing groundwater well monitoring network. The data worth of particular observations is dependent on the problem

  8. Airborne, Balloon-borne and ground network measurements of aerosol BC over Indian region: Current understanding and possible implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, Suresh, S.; Manoj, M. R.; Gogoi, Mukunda

    2012-07-01

    Though the role of BC aerosols in direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing is now well accepted and being extensively investigated, there is a large knowledge gap on its vertical distribution. Large amounts of BC, if present above and within the clouds, could significantly modify the atmospheric heating due to aerosol absorption. In the back drop of some of the recent measurements of strong BC layers in the middle and upper troposphere and even in the stratosphere, the knowledge of vertical distribution of BC becomes all the more relevant, especially over the tropics, with significant solar heating, cloud cover and BC hotspots. With a view to addressing this issue from comprehensive measurements over Indian region, extensive measurements using aircrafts, balloons, and a large network of ground-based observatories have been made as a part of the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX). These measurements were examined in the light of simulations made using the regional climate model (RegCM of ICTP) to understand the ability and biases of climate models. While the aircraft measurements revealed presence of strong BC layers above the atmospheric boundary layer, within which the BC concentration often exceeded those near the surface. These layers were more elevated and strong along the eastern coast and over Bay of Bengal, rather than on the west. The RegCM simulations were found to underestimate the BC concentrations, especially during the daytime probably owing to inadequate representation of ABL dynamics. The details would be presented and implications would be discussed

  9. Behind the data: Establishing the Network for Surveillance for Pneumococcal Diseases in the East African Region, netSPEAR

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Ben; Kisakye, Annet; Makewa, Douglas; Mudhune, Sandra; Mwamtemi, Hadija; Nansera, Dennis; Ngwiri, Thomas; Wamae, Maranga; English, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In a region with high rates of mortality among children aged <5 years, the underfunded health care systems of sub-Saharan Africa have few resources available to perform surveillance activities that can help determine the causes of morbidity and mortality in the region. At present, there are few examples of attempts to promote public health care surveillance that might inform current debates about how to expand and improve surveillance, particularly for bacterial diseases. Driven by this gap in knowledge, we attempted to explore the successes and failures of the Network for Surveillance of Pneumococcal Disease in the East African Region and to share the experiences of what are essentially non research public-sector hospitals in East Africa, with the hopes that surveillance systems for other diseases, especially those that require complex diagnostic support, may be informed by these experiences. The state of services essential for surveillance and the measures taken to overcome any shortcomings are described, as is the progress made in improving clinical diagnosis, laboratory processing, and data management. For surveillance to play a role in public health care, ministries of health and associated institutions must own and push forward the surveillance agenda, with support from global partners, and take advantage of the developments that have been achieved within the institutions. PMID:19191612

  10. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called “phase amplitude coupling.” PMID:27559180

  11. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  12. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  13. [Development of a microbiology data warehouse (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in a medical region].

    PubMed

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Noriko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tomoe; Obara, Toshikage; Takeda, Masahide; Moritoki, Yuki; Itoga, Masamichi; Ito, Wataru; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Kondoh, Katsuyuki; Chihara, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    The active involvement of hospital laboratory in surveillance is crucial to the success of nosocomial infection control. The recent dramatic increase of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their spread into the community suggest that the infection control strategy of independent medical institutions is insufficient. To share the clinical data and surveillance in our local medical region, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in Akita prefecture. This system, named Akita-ReNICS, is an easy-to-use information management system designed to compare, track, and report the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Participating laboratories routinely transfer their coded and formatted microbiology data to ReNICS server located at Akita University Hospital from their health care system's clinical computer applications over the internet. We established the system to automate the statistical processes, so that the participants can access the server to monitor graphical data in the manner they prefer, using their own computer's browser. Furthermore, our system also provides the documents server, microbiology and antimicrobiotic database, and space for long-term storage of microbiological samples. Akita-ReNICS could be a next generation network for quality improvement of infection control.

  14. Investigation and Quantification of Water Track Networks in Boreal Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendbayar, U.; Misra, D.; Gupta, T.; Ghosh, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water tracks are the most prominent drainage pathways that route water through the soil over permafrost in the polar environment and thus play a major role in hydrology, geomorphology, and geochemistry of the polar ecosystem. Existing literature on water tracks is limited and is largely confined to tundra areas devoid of vegetation. The objective of this study is to initiate the investigation of water tracks in thickly vegetated boreal regions, many of which contain predominant engineered infrastructures. The ancillary objectives include the development of methods for mapping the distribution of water tracks in boreal regions and a preliminary analysis of the geotechnical impacts of water track interception on infrastructures. The study area is Goldstream Road in Fairbanks, Alaska. This road experiences high amounts of damage, possibly due to interception of prominent water tracks. To investigate the road damage, the Alaska Department of Transportation has collected geophysical data in 2012. We plan to create a water track distribution map around the Goldstream Road using high-spatial-and-spectral-resolution remote sensing imagery and correlate it with the geophysical data from 2012. We have collected ground data from two water tracks: one in a residence in Fairbanks and the other besides the Goldstream Road. The two tracks vary greatly in size and features. Both water tracks revealed different yet quite promising characteristics. These findings will be used to extract other water tracks from remotely sensed images of the Goldstream Road area. So far, a 2010 SPOT 5 image (2.5m x 2.5 m), an aerial orthophoto (14 cm x 14 cm) and a DEM (57 cm x 57 cm) from September 2014 have been acquired. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) processing was performed on the 2010 SPOT 5 image. A detailed water track database was created and water tracks are being manually digitized from the available imagery and Web Mapping Services (WMS). As a test, using FLIR, handheld

  15. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.; Aulenbach, S.

    2006-12-01

    We have established a Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. We have developed a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system (AIRCOA) and have deployed these systems at 4 sites: Niwot Ridge (NWR), near Ward, Colorado (August, 2005); Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado (September, 2005); Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), near Fraser Colorado (August, 2005); and Hidden Peak (HDP), near Snowbird, Utah (April, 2006). We will deploy a fifth site in Northeastern Arizona in September 2006. Measurements of surveillance gas cylinders, and an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA GMD at Niwot Ridge, show measurement biases of 0.2 ppm or better. Preliminary analysis of CO2 variability at our sites provides valuable information on the usefulness of mountaintop observations in data-assimilation and inverse modeling. Comparisons between our sites and to background sites can give direct regional-scale flux estimates, and analysis of the nocturnal CO2 build-ups at FEF provides unique insights into valley-scale respiration rates. We will present results of these preliminary analyses and plans for future integration with the NACP effort.

  16. Metacommunity structuring in stream networks: roles of dispersal mode, distance type, and regional environmental context

    PubMed Central

    Grönroos, Mira; Heino, Jani; Siqueira, Tadeu; Landeiro, Victor L; Kotanen, Juho; Bini, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Within a metacommunity, both environmental and spatial processes regulate variation in local community structure. The strength of these processes may vary depending on species traits (e.g., dispersal mode) or the characteristics of the regions studied (e.g., spatial extent, environmental heterogeneity). We studied the metacommunity structuring of three groups of stream macroinvertebrates differing in their overland dispersal mode (passive dispersers with aquatic adults; passive dispersers with terrestrial adults; active dispersers with terrestrial adults). We predicted that environmental structuring should be more important for active dispersers, because of their better ability to track environmental variability, and that spatial structuring should be more important for species with aquatic adults, because of stronger dispersal limitation. We sampled a total of 70 stream riffle sites in three drainage basins. Environmental heterogeneity was unrelated to spatial extent among our study regions, allowing us to examine the effects of these two factors on metacommunity structuring. We used partial redundancy analysis and Moran's eigenvector maps based on overland and watercourse distances to study the relative importance of environmental control and spatial structuring. We found that, compared with environmental control, spatial structuring was generally negligible, and it did not vary according to our predictions. In general, active dispersers with terrestrial adults showed stronger environmental control than the two passively dispersing groups, suggesting that the species dispersing actively are better able to track environmental variability. There were no clear differences in the results based on watercourse and overland distances. The variability in metacommunity structuring among basins was not related to the differences in the environmental heterogeneity and spatial extent. Our study emphasized that (1) environmental control is prevailing in stream metacommunities

  17. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  18. Successful integration efforts in water quality from the integrated Ocean Observing System Regional Associations and the National Water Quality Monitoring Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, R.; Vowinkel, E.; Porter, D.; Hamilton, P.; Morrison, R.; Kohut, J.; Connell, B.; Kelsey, H.; Trowbridge, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  19. Pole-equator difference and the variability of the brightness of the chromospheric CaII-K-network elements in quiet regions over the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kariyappa, R.

    1995-01-01

    The dependence of the brightness of chromospheric network elements on latitude was investigated for quiet solar regions. Calibrated photographic CaII K-spectroheliograms were used to compare the variation in brightness at the center of the disk with higher latitude of chromospheric network elements in a quiet region as a function of solar activity. It was found that there was no significant difference in brightness between the center of the solar disk and higher latitude. It is concluded that the brightness of the chromospheric network elements in a quiet region does not depend on the latitude, but that the variation in the intensity enhancement is related to the level of solar activity.

  20. Why might regional vaccinology networks fail? The case of the Dutch-Nordic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Blume, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed an attempt to develop and clinically test a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the developing world, undertaken by public health institutions from the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland: the Dutch Nordic Consortium (DNC), between 1990 and 2000. Our review shows that the premature termination of the project was due less to technological and scientific challenges and more to managerial challenges and institutional policies. Various impeding events, financial and managerial challenges gradually soured the initially enthusiastic collaborative spirit until near the end the consortium struggled to complete the minimum objectives of the project. By the end of 1998, a tetravalent prototype vaccine had been made that proved safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 trials in adults and toddlers in Finland. The planned next step, to test the vaccine in Asia in infants, did not meet approval by the local authorities in Vietnam nor later in the Philippines and the project eventually stopped.The Dutch DNC member, the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) learned important lessons, which subsequently were applied in a following vaccine technology transfer project, resulting in the availability at affordable prices for the developing world of a conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. We conclude that vaccine development in the public domain with technology transfer as its ultimate aim requires major front-end funding, committed leadership at the highest institutional level sustained for many years and a competent recipient-manufacturer, which needs to be involved at a very early stage of the development.At the national level, RIVM's policy to consolidate its national manufacturing task through securing a key global health position in support of a network of public vaccine manufacturers proved insufficiently supported by the relevant ministries of the Dutch government. Difficulties to keep up with high costs, high

  1. Use of hierarchical cluster analysis to assess the representativeness of a baseline groundwater quality monitoring network: comparison of New Zealand's national and regional groundwater monitoring programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughney, Christopher J.; Raiber, Matthias; Moreau-Fournier, Magali; Morgenstern, Uwe; van der Raaij, Rob

    2012-02-01

    Baseline monitoring of groundwater quality aims to characterize the ambient condition of the resource and identify spatial or temporal trends. Sites comprising any baseline monitoring network must be selected to provide a representative perspective of groundwater quality across the aquifer(s) of interest. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) has been used as a means of assessing the representativeness of a groundwater quality monitoring network, using example datasets from New Zealand. HCA allows New Zealand's national and regional monitoring networks to be compared in terms of the number of water-quality categories identified in each network, the hydrochemistry at the centroids of these water-quality categories, the proportions of monitoring sites assigned to each water-quality category, and the range of concentrations for each analyte within each water-quality category. Through the HCA approach, the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (117 sites) is shown to provide a highly representative perspective of groundwater quality across New Zealand, relative to the amalgamated regional monitoring networks operated by 15 different regional authorities (680 sites have sufficient data for inclusion in HCA). This methodology can be applied to evaluate the representativeness of any subset of monitoring sites taken from a larger network.

  2. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S. L.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.

    2007-12-01

    We will present preliminary carbon flux estimates from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). In order to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West, we have developed and deployed autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analyzers (AIRCOA) at five sites throughout Colorado and Utah, and plan additional deployments on the Navajo Reservation, Arizona in September 2007 and atop Mount Kenya, Africa in November 2007. We have used a one- dimensional CO2 budget equation, following Bakwin et al. (2004), to estimate regional monthly-mean fluxes from our continuous CO2 concentrations. These comparisons between our measurements and estimates of free- tropospheric background concentrations reveal regional-scale CO2 flux signals that are generally consistent with one another across the Rocky RACCOON sites. We will compare the timing and magnitude of these estimates with expectations from local-scale eddy-correlation flux measurements and bottom-up ecosystem models. We will also interpret the differences in monthly-mean flux signals between our sites in terms of their varying upwind areas of influence and inferred regional variations in CO2 fluxes. Our measurements will be included in future CarbonTracker assimilation runs and other planned model-data fusion efforts. However, questions still exist concerning the ability of these models to accurately represent the various influences on CO2 concentrations in continental boundary layers, and at mountaintop sites in particular. We will present an analysis of the diurnal cycles in CO2 concentration and CO2 variability at our sites, and compare these to various model estimates. Several of our sites near major population centers reflect the influence of industrial CO2 sources in afternoon upslope flows, with CO2 concentration increasing and variable in the mid to late afternoon. Other more remote sites show more consistent and decreasing CO2

  3. Asthma care in community health centers: a study by the southeast regional clinicians' network.

    PubMed Central

    Rust, G. S.; Murray, V.; Octaviani, H.; Schmidt, E. D.; Howard, J. P.; Anderson-Grant, V.; Willard-Jelks, K.

    1999-01-01

    Federally funded community health centers (CHCs) were surveyed to assess their ability to serve low-income asthma patients in the southeastern United States. Data were collected on CHC clinicians, pharmacy services, and patient characteristics. Twenty-six (74%) of 35 participating CHCs provided data on 83 distinct clinic sites in eight states, representing 898,977 billable patient visits to 318,920 people during the one-year study period. Participating CHCs provided 23% of all CHC patient visits in Region IV in 1995. Sixty-two percent of patients had a family income below poverty level. Almost 75% of the patients were uninsured or receiving Medicaid. Asthma was the diagnosis code for 2.04% of all medical encounters. Twenty-nine percent of sites were unable to provide medications for uninsured asthma patients, while 66% could provide drug samples. Thirty-three percent of CHCs had in-house pharmacies and 33% offered pharmacy vouchers. Eighty-two percent could provide beta-agonist inhalers, 54% could provide steroid inhalers, and 17% could provide peak flow meters. Federally funded CHCs provide care to many asthma patients from the highest risk segments of the population, but often do not have the resources needed to follow current clinical guidelines. PMID:10643212

  4. Engaging undergraduate summer research students and faculty in a regional neuroscience network.

    PubMed

    Yates, Jennifer R; Stavnezer, Amy Jo

    2014-01-01

    Students who engage in experiential research programs and who form communities of learning are more likely to persist in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) programs. Faculty who collaborate are more likely to publish and to stay engaged in their field. With funding from the Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA) Expanding Collaboration Initiative, we engaged in a series of summer seminars with neuroscience faculty and their research students at five regional institutions, the College of Wooster, Ohio Wesleyan University, Earlham College, Oberlin College and Kenyon College. Our goals were to provide an opportunity for faculty and students to learn about the methods used in the labs at these institutions, to increase collaborative relationships across these institutions, to develop a community of learning among participating students, and to provide students with professional development opportunities. Pre- and post-assessment data indicate knowledge gains in demonstrated methods and increased comfort performing the methods with supervision or collaboration. In addition, several collaborative relationships were formed and significant assistance with planning, materials, and/or apparatus was provided across institutions. In open-ended post-experience questions, students indicated valuing the relationships formed with other students in this community of learning. We will continue this program with continued funding through the GLCA Expanding Collaboration Initiative and submission of a multi-center National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates grant and encourage others to engage in similar practices at their own institutions.

  5. Sustaining a regional emerging infectious disease research network: a trust-based approach.

    PubMed

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR. PMID:23362419

  6. Prototyping an artificial neural network for burned area mapping on a regional scale in Mediterranean areas using MODIS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Israel; Martín, M. Pilar

    2011-10-01

    Each year thousands of ha of forest land are affected by forest fires in Southern European countries such as Spain. Burned area maps are a valuable instrument for designing prevention and recovery policies. Remote sensing has increasingly become the most widely used tool for this purpose on regional and global scales, where a large variety of techniques and data has been applied. This paper proposes a semiautomatic method for burned area mapping on a regional scale in Mediterranean areas (the Iberian Peninsula has been used as a study case). A Multi-layer Perceptron Network (MLPN) has been designed and applied to MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 500m SIN Grid multitemporal composite monthly images. The compositing criterion was based on maximum surface temperature. The research covered a six year period (2001-2006) from June to September, when most of the forest fires occur. The resulting burned area maps have been validated using official fire perimeters and compared with MODIS Collection 5 Burned Area Product (MCD45A1). The MLPN shown as an effective method, with a commission error of 29.1%, in the classification of the burned areas, while the omission error was of 14.9%. The results were compared with the MCD45A1 product, which had a slightly higher commission error (30.2%) and a considerably higher omission error (26.2%), indicating a high underestimation of the burned area.

  7. Determination of Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of D-region Electron Density during Annular Solar Eclipse from VLF Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, T.; Hobara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A major part of the path of the annular solar eclipse of May 20, 2012 (magnitude 0.9439) was over southern Japan. The D-region ionospheric changes associated with that eclipse, led to several degree of observable perturbations of sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) radio signal. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) operates VLF observation network over Japan. The solar eclipse associated signal changes were recorded in several receiving stations (Rx) simultaneously for the VLF signals coming from NWC/19.8kHz, JJI/22.2kHz, JJY/40.0kHz, NLK/24.8kHz and other VLF transmitters (Tx). These temporal dependences of VLF signal perturbation have been analyzed and the spatio-temporal characteristics of respective sub-ionospheric perturbations has already been studied by earlier workers using 2D-Finite Difference Time Domain method of simulation. In this work, we determine the spatial scale, depth and temporal dependence of lower ionospheric perturbation in consistence with umbral and penumbral motion. We considered the 2-parameter D-region ionospheric model with exponential electron density profile. To model the solar obscuration effect over it, we assumed a generalized space-time dependent 2-dimensional elliptical Gaussian distribution for ionospheric parameters, such as, effective reflection height (h') and sharpness factor (β). The depth (△hmax, △βmax), center of shadow (lato(t), lono(t)) and spatial scale (σlat,lon) of that Gaussian distribution are used as model parameters. In the vicinity of the eclipse zone, we compute the VLF signal perturbations using Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code for several signal propagation paths. The propagation path characteristics, such as, ground and water conductivity and geomagnetic effect on ionosphere are considered from standard LWPC prescriptions. The model parameters are tuned to set an optimum agreement between our computation and observed positive and negative type of VLF perturbations. Thus

  8. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  9. Low-Cost Sensor Network for Stream Flow Monitoring in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. D.; Fry, L. M.; Mihelcic, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Lack of data is a persistent problem in hydrology and other field work in developing countries. Low cost monitoring devices allow investigators to maximize spatial coverage on a limited budget, as well as to minimize the financial risk of loss of instruments placed in vulnerable locations. This work contributes to an ongoing project to evaluate the sustainability of discharge from springs supplying gravity-fed potable water systems in the Alto Beni region of Bolivia where land use is rapidly changing from forest to agriculture. The approach is to estimate ground water recharge as a function of land use variables using a water balance model in several representative watersheds. Monthly stream discharge is currently estimated using monthly manual measurements of water level by a local technician. Continuous water level measurements will allow an improved estimate of the cumulative discharge, and generate data on statistical distribution of daily flow that may be useful to estimate discharge in similar, ungaged watersheds. Continuous water level measurements, along with available precipitation data, will allow analysis and comparison of the response of watersheds to individual precipitation events as a function of land use variables. We assembled a low cost level logging system for stream flow monitoring that measures and records distance up to 6 m to the nearest 25 mm every ten minutes, and runs for a month on six rechargeable AA batteries. The system consists of a sonic range finder sensor (MaxSonar-EZ2, Maxbotix Inc., Baxter, MN, 30), a temperature sensor (MCP9701, Microchip Technology Inc., Chandler, AZ, 0.25), and a datalogger (Hobo U12, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA, 104) along with a weather-resistant enclosure and common items for a total cost of 230 per unit. The level loggers were attached to bridges over three subject streams. A local technician visits the sites monthly to download data, replace the rechargeable batteries, and take a manual water level

  10. Network interactions within the canine intrinsic cardiac nervous system: implications for reflex control of regional cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Salavatian, Siamak; Southerland, E Marie; Vinet, Alain; Jacquemet, Vincent; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine how aggregates of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons transduce the cardiovascular milieu versus responding to changes in central neuronal drive and to determine IC network interactions subsequent to induced neural imbalances in the genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Activity from multiple IC neurons in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was recorded in eight anaesthetized canines using a 16-channel linear microelectrode array. Induced changes in IC neuronal activity were evaluated in response to: (1) focal cardiac mechanical distortion; (2) electrical activation of cervical vagi or stellate ganglia; (3) occlusion of the inferior vena cava or thoracic aorta; (4) transient ventricular ischaemia, and (5) neurally induced AF. Low level activity (ranging from 0 to 2.7 Hz) generated by 92 neurons was identified in basal states, activities that displayed functional interconnectivity. The majority (56%) of IC neurons so identified received indirect central inputs (vagus alone: 25%; stellate ganglion alone: 27%; both: 48%). Fifty per cent transduced the cardiac milieu responding to multimodal stressors applied to the great vessels or heart. Fifty per cent of IC neurons exhibited cardiac cycle periodicity, with activity occurring primarily in late diastole into isovolumetric contraction. Cardiac-related activity in IC neurons was primarily related to direct cardiac mechano-sensory inputs and indirect autonomic efferent inputs. In response to mediastinal nerve stimulation, most IC neurons became excessively activated; such network behaviour preceded and persisted throughout AF. It was concluded that stochastic interactions occur among IC local circuit neuronal populations in the control of regional cardiac function. Modulation of IC local circuit neuronal recruitment may represent a novel approach for the treatment of cardiac disease, including atrial arrhythmias. PMID:23818689

  11. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maren L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  12. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maren L.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Archer, Kellie J.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Becker, Howard C.; Miles, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  13. Assessment of the sources and transformations of nitrogen in a plain river network region using a stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Xu, Qigong; Su, Jing; Huo, Shouliang; Liu, Hongliang; Yu, Yijun; Zhang, Yanbo

    2015-04-01

    The great spatial and temporal variability in hydrological conditions and nitrogen (N) processing introduces large uncertainties to the identification of N sources and quantifying N cycles in plain river network regions. By combining isotopic data with chemical and hydrologic measurements, we determined the relative importance of N sources and biogeochemical N processes in the Taige River in the East Plain Region of China. The river was polluted more seriously by anthropogenic inputs in winter than in summer. Manure and urban sewage effluent were the main nitrate (NO3-) sources, with the nitrification of N-containing organic materials serving as another important source of NO3-. In the downstream, with minor variations in hydrological conditions, nitrification played a more important role than assimilation for the decreasing ammonium (NH4+-N) concentrations. The N isotopic enrichment factors (ε) during NH4+ utilization ranged from -13.88‰ in March to -29.00‰ in July. The ratio of the increase in δ18O and δ15N of river NO3- in the downstream was 1.04 in January and 0.92 in March. This ratio indicated that NO3- assimilation by phytoplankton was responsible for the increasing δ15N and δ18O values of NO3- in winter. The relationships between δ15N of particulate organic nitrogen and isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen indicated that the phytoplankton in the Taige River probably utilized NH4+ preferentially and mainly in summer, while in winter, NO3- assimilation by phytoplankton was dominant.

  14. Task-Related, Low-Frequency Task-Residual, and Resting State Activity in the Default Mode Network Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis of a default mode network (DMN) of brain function is based on observations of task-independent decreases of brain activity during effort as participants are engaged in tasks in contrast to resting. On the other hand, studies also showed that DMN regions activate rather than deactivate in response to task-related events. Thus, does DMN “deactivate” during effort as compared to resting? We hypothesized that, with high-frequency event-related signals removed, the task-residual activities of the DMN would decrease as compared to resting. We addressed this hypothesis with two approaches. First, we examined DMN activities during resting, task residuals, and task conditions in the stop signal task using independent component analysis (ICA). Second, we compared the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) signals of DMN in resting, task residuals, and task data. In the results of ICA of 76 subjects, the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) showed increased activation during task as compared to resting and task residuals, indicating DMN responses to task events. Precuneus but not the PCC showed decreased activity during task residual as compared to resting. The latter finding was mirrored by fALFF, which is decreased in the precuneus during task residuals, as compared to resting and task. These results suggested that the low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent signals of the precuneus may represent a useful index of effort during cognitive performance. PMID:22661964

  15. Analysis of broadband seismic noise at the German Regional Seismic Network and search for improved alternative station sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, P.; Wylegalla, K.; Klinge, K.

    The German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) comprizes now 16 digital broadband stations equipped with Wieland-Streckeisen STS-2 seismometers, 24-bit dataloggers and a seismological data center at Erlangen. It covers the whole territory of Germany with station-spacings between 80 km to 240 km. The stations are sited in very different environments ranging from near shore at the Baltic Sea coast up to distances of about 700 km from the coast, both within cities and up to about 10 km away from any major settlement, industry or traffic roads. The underground varies from outcropping hard rocks in Hercynian mountain areas, sedimentary rocks in areas of Mesozoic platform cover to up to 1.5 km unconsolidated Quarternary and Tertiary subsoil. Accordingly, seismic background noise varies in a wide range between the upper and lower bounds of the new global noise model. The noise conditions at the GRSN have been investigated systematically by means of displacement power spectral analysis within the frequency range 10-2 5 for RUE and > 10 for BSEG have been confirmed for frequencies between about 0.6 Hz 3 Hz. Strong lateral velocity and impedance contrasts between the outcropping Triassic/Permian sedimentary rocks and the surrounding unconsolidated Quarternary/Tertiary sediments are shown to be the main cause for the strong noise reduction and signal-to-noise ratio improvement at RUE and can account for about 50% of the noise reduction at BSEG.

  16. Anisotropy of the Earth's inner inner core from autocorrelations of earthquake coda in China Regional Seismic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Song, X.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's inner core possesses strong cylindrical anisotropy with the fast symmetry axis parallel to the rotation axis. However, recent study has suggested that the inner part of the inner core has a fast symmetry axis near the equator with a different form of anisotropy from the outer part (Wang et al., this session). To confirm the observation, we use data from dense seismic arrays of the China Regional Seismic Networks. We perform autocorrelation (ACC) of the coda after major earthquakes (Mw>=7.0) at each station and then stack the ACCs at each cluster of stations. The PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases (round-trip phase from the Earth's surface reflections) can be clearly extracted from the stacked empirical Green's functions. We observe systematic variation of the differential times between PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases, which are sensitive to the bulk anisotropy of the inner core. The differential times show large variations with both latitudes and longitudes, even though our ray paths are not polar (with our stations at mid-range latitudes of about 20 to 45 degrees). The observations cannot be explained by an averaged anisotropy model with the fast axis along the rotation axis. The pattern appears consistent with an inner inner core that has a fast axis near the equator.

  17. Using Regional GPS Network Atmospheric Models for Mitigating Errors in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Y.; Bock, Y.; Tong, X.; Moore, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements provide valuable information for obtaining Earth surface deformation and topography at high spatial resolution for crustal deformation studies. Similar to Global Positioning System (GPS), InSAR phase measurements are affected by the Earth's ionospheric and tropospheric layers as the electromagnetic signals significantly refract while propagating through the different layers. While electromagnetic signals propagating through the neutral atmosphere are affected primarily by the pressure, temperature, and water vapor content of atmospheric gases, the propagation through the ionosphere is mainly affected by the number of free electrons along the signal path. Here, we present the use of dense regional GPS networks for extracting tropospheric zenith delays and ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) maps in order to reduce the noise levels in the phase measurement of the InSAR images. The results show significant reduction in the RMS values when simultaneously combining the two corrections, both at short time periods where no surface deformation is expected, and at longer periods, where imaging of crustal deformation, such as the ground subsidence and aseismic fault creep, is enhanced.

  18. A topological restricted maximum likelihood (TopREML) approach to regionalize trended runoff signatures in stream networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M. F.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce TopREML as a method to predict runoff signatures in ungauged basins. The approach is based on the use of linear mixed models with spatially correlated random effects. The nested nature of streamflow networks is taken into account by using water balance considerations to constrain the covariance structure of runoff and to account for the stronger spatial correlation between flow-connected basins. The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) framework generates the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of both the predicted variable and the associated prediction uncertainty, even when incorporating observable covariates into the model. The method was successfully tested in cross validation analyses on mean streamflow and runoff frequency in Nepal (sparsely gauged) and Austria (densely gauged), where it matched the performance of comparable methods in the prediction of the considered runoff signature, while significantly outperforming them in the prediction of the associated modeling uncertainty. TopREML's ability to combine deterministic and stochastic information to generate BLUPs of the prediction variable and its uncertainty makes it a particularly versatile method that can readily be applied in both densely gauged basins, where it takes advantage of spatial covariance information, and data-scarce regions, where it can rely on covariates, which are increasingly observable thanks to remote sensing technology.

  19. TopREML: a topological restricted maximum likelihood approach to regionalize trended runoff signatures in stream networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M. F.; Thompson, S. E.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce topological restricted maximum likelihood (TopREML) as a method to predict runoff signatures in ungauged basins. The approach is based on the use of linear mixed models with spatially correlated random effects. The nested nature of streamflow networks is taken into account by using water balance considerations to constrain the covariance structure of runoff and to account for the stronger spatial correlation between flow-connected basins. The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) framework generates the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of both the predicted variable and the associated prediction uncertainty, even when incorporating observable covariates into the model. The method was successfully tested in cross-validation analyses on mean streamflow and runoff frequency in Nepal (sparsely gauged) and Austria (densely gauged), where it matched the performance of comparable methods in the prediction of the considered runoff signature, while significantly outperforming them in the prediction of the associated modeling uncertainty. The ability of TopREML to combine deterministic and stochastic information to generate BLUPs of the prediction variable and its uncertainty makes it a particularly versatile method that can readily be applied in both densely gauged basins, where it takes advantage of spatial covariance information, and data-scarce regions, where it can rely on covariates, which are increasingly observable via remote-sensing technology.

  20. Soil Phosphorus Forms and Profile Distributions in the Tidal River Network Region in the Yellow River Delta Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junbao; Qu, Fanzhu; Wu, Huifeng; Meng, Ling; Du, Siyao; Xie, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Modified Hedley fraction method was used to study the forms and profile distribution in the tidal river network region subjected to rapid deposition and hydrologic disturbance in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) estuary, eastern China. The results showed that the total P (Pt) ranged from 612.1 to 657.8 mg kg−1. Dilute HCl extractable inorganic P (Pi) was the predominant form in all profiles, both as absolute values and as a percentage of total extracted Pi. The NaOH extractable organic P (Po) was the predominant form of total extracted Po, while Bicarb-Pi and C.HCl-Po were the lowest fractions of total extracted Pi and Po in all the P forms. The Resin-P concentrations were high in the top soil layer and decreased with depth. The Pearson correlation matrix indicated that Resin-P, Bicarb-Pi, NaOH-Pi, and C.HCl-Pi were strongly positively correlated with salinity, TOC, Ca, Al, and Fe but negatively correlated with pH. The significant correlation of any studied form of organic P (Bicarb-Po, NaOH-Po, and C.HCl-Po) with geochemical properties were not observed in the study. Duncan multiple-range test indicated that the P forms and distribution heterogeneity in the profiles could be attributed to the influences of vegetation cover and hydrologic disturbance. PMID:24971393

  1. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lamara, S.; Egelados Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except in volcanic areas, where both

  2. Region-specific network plasticity in simulated and living cortical networks: comparison of the center of activity trajectory (CAT) with other statistics.

    PubMed

    Chao, Zenas C; Bakkum, Douglas J; Potter, Steve M

    2007-09-01

    Electrically interfaced cortical networks cultured in vitro can be used as a model for studying the network mechanisms of learning and memory. Lasting changes in functional connectivity have been difficult to detect with extracellular multi-electrode arrays using standard firing rate statistics. We used both simulated and living networks to compare the ability of various statistics to quantify functional plasticity at the network level. Using a simulated integrate-and-fire neural network, we compared five established statistical methods to one of our own design, called center of activity trajectory (CAT). CAT, which depicts dynamics of the location-weighted average of spatiotemporal patterns of action potentials across the physical space of the neuronal circuitry, was the most sensitive statistic for detecting tetanus-induced plasticity in both simulated and living networks. By reducing the dimensionality of multi-unit data while still including spatial information, CAT allows efficient real-time computation of spatiotemporal activity patterns. Thus, CAT will be useful for studies in vivo or in vitro in which the locations of recording sites on multi-electrode probes are important. PMID:17873432

  3. Region-specific network plasticity in simulated and living cortical networks: comparison of the center of activity trajectory (CAT) with other statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2007-09-01

    Electrically interfaced cortical networks cultured in vitro can be used as a model for studying the network mechanisms of learning and memory. Lasting changes in functional connectivity have been difficult to detect with extracellular multi-electrode arrays using standard firing rate statistics. We used both simulated and living networks to compare the ability of various statistics to quantify functional plasticity at the network level. Using a simulated integrate-and-fire neural network, we compared five established statistical methods to one of our own design, called center of activity trajectory (CAT). CAT, which depicts dynamics of the location-weighted average of spatiotemporal patterns of action potentials across the physical space of the neuronal circuitry, was the most sensitive statistic for detecting tetanus-induced plasticity in both simulated and living networks. By reducing the dimensionality of multi-unit data while still including spatial information, CAT allows efficient real-time computation of spatiotemporal activity patterns. Thus, CAT will be useful for studies in vivo or in vitro in which the locations of recording sites on multi-electrode probes are important.

  4. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  5. [EUREGIO-projekt MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland. Creation of a regional network to combat MRSA].

    PubMed

    Daniels-Haardt, I; Verhoeven, F; Mellmann, A; Hendrix, M G R; Gemert-Pijnen, J E C; Friedrich, A W

    2006-11-01

    Over the last years, Germany has observed an increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRSA) in all S. aureus isolates from 2 % to about 25 % whereas in The Netherlands this proportion has continuously been kept below 1 % thanks to a consistent "search & destroy" policy. Both countries increasingly register so-called community-acquired (CA) MRSA which are a threat also to the healthy population without any known risk factor for MRSA carriership. The EUREGIO project "MRSA-net Twente/Münsterland" has made it its main goal to set up a German-Dutch network serving as a basis for a quality association which includes all those who are actively involved in health care provision on both sides of the border and to implement a coordinated strategy for MRSA control and prevention. The project is being carried out with the financial support of the European Union under the INTERREG-IIIA Community initiative and of the Ministry of Economics of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The epidemiological backbone of the MRSA-net is a genetic-based MRSA typing strategy (spa-typing) which has been developed by the Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital, Münster and which allows regional and cross-border comparability of laboratory results. The Faculty of Behavioural Sciences of the University of Twente examines MRSA hygiene protocols with regard to their acceptability and realisability with the intention of developing user-friendly, target group-oriented MRSA protocols for the EUREGIO. The health departments involved in the project play a central role in the coordination of the network partners in the municipalities. By performing their function of surveillance in accordance with Sections 23 and 36 of the Infectious Disease Control Act they provide an important contribution to enhancing MRSA control and prevention strategies. Thanks to its cross-border cooperation and exchange of knowledge and technology the EUREGIO project "MRSA-net" contributes to

  6. Analysis of surface-water data network in Kansas for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information; with a section on theory and application of generalized least squares

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medina, K.D.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of the surface-water data network in Kansas for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The network was analyzed using generalized least squares regression. The correlation and time-sampling error of the streamflow characteristic are considered in the generalized least squares method. Unregulated medium-, low-, and high-flow characteristics were selected to be representative of the regional information that can be obtained from streamflow-gaging-station records for use in evaluating the effectiveness of continuing the present network stations, discontinuing some stations, and (or) adding new stations. The analysis used streamflow records for all currently operated stations that were not affected by regulation and for discontinued stations for which unregulated flow characteristics, as well as physical and climatic characteristics, were available. The State was divided into three network areas, western, northeastern, and southeastern Kansas, and analysis was made for the three streamflow characteristics in each area, using three planning horizons. The analysis showed that the maximum reduction of sampling mean-square error for each cost level could be obtained by adding new stations and discontinuing some current network stations. Large reductions in sampling mean-square error for low-flow information could be achieved in all three network areas, the reduction in western Kansas being the most dramatic. The addition of new stations would be most beneficial for mean-flow information in western Kansas. The reduction of sampling mean-square error for high-flow information would benefit most from the addition of new stations in western Kansas. Southeastern Kansas showed the smallest error reduction in high-flow information. A comparison among all three network areas indicated that funding resources could be most effectively used by discontinuing more stations in northeastern and southeastern Kansas

  7. Estimate of inner core rotation rate from United Kingdom regional seismic network data and consequences for inner core dynamical behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Jonathan D.; Helffrich, George

    2001-12-01

    We analyse over 12 500 records of southwest Pacific earthquakes recorded by the UK network for PKP BC and PKP DF phases to seek constraints on the inner core's rotation rate. Careful analysis and strict rejection criteria yield 655 PKP BC-PKP DF differential travel time residuals computed with respect to the AK135 reference model, densely sampling a small region of the inner core over a time period of 15 years. The data images both lateral and radial velocity heterogeneity in the inner core located geographically beneath the north Pacific between radii of 870 and 1080 km. The dominant feature is a longitudinal wave speed gradient centred at about 180° longitude. In combination with different earthquake catalogues and inner core anisotropy models, we explore different techniques to use this gradient to constrain the rotation rate. Our estimates range from 0.45±0.25 to 0.74±0.29°/yr relative to the mantle, with two of four estimates including zero rotation at the 95% (2σ) confidence level, indicating that rotation is marginally detectable. As an alternative to monotonic rotation, we find weak evidence for rotational oscillation of the inner core on time scales of about 280 days. In consequence, these observations suggest that: (1) viscous coupling between the outer and inner core simulated using viscous hyperdiffusivity is not appropriate for modelling inner core rotation; (2) temperature gradients between the interior and exterior of the tangent cylinder in the core are also small; (3) gravitational torques coupling the inner core to the mantle are large, on the order of 2×10 21 Nm; and (4) the inner core's viscosity is high, 3.9×10 19 Pas.

  8. Cerebral blood flow in posterior cortical nodes of the default mode network decreases with task engagement but remains higher than in most brain regions.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence for existence of intrinsic brain networks activated during resting states and deactivated with selective cognitive demands. Whether task-related deactivation of the default mode network signifies depressed activity relative to the remaining brain or simply lower activity relative to its resting state remains controversial. We employed 3D arterial spin labeling imaging to examine regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during rest, a spatial working memory task, and a second rest. Change in regional CBF from rest to task showed significant normalized and absolute CBF reductions in posterior cingulate, posterior-inferior precuneus, and medial frontal lobes . A Statistical Parametric Mapping connectivity analysis, with an a priori seed in the posterior cingulate cortex, produced deactivation connectivity patterns consistent with the classic "default mode network" and activation connectivity anatomically consistent with engagement in visuospatial tasks. The large task-related CBF decrease in posterior-inferior precuneus relative to its anterior and middle portions adds evidence for the precuneus' heterogeneity. The posterior cingulate and posterior-inferior precuneus were also regions of the highest CBF at rest and during task performance. The difference in regional CBF between intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) activity levels may represent functional readiness or reserve vulnerable to diminution by conditions affecting perfusion.

  9. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  10. Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

    2014-07-01

    Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control

  11. Cloud Classification in Polar and Desert Regions and Smoke Classification from Biomass Burning Using a Hierarchical Neural Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, June; Corwin, Edward; Lloyd, David; Logar, Antonette; Welch, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This research focuses on a new neural network scene classification technique. The task is to identify scene elements in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometry (AVHRR) data from three scene types: polar, desert and smoke from biomass burning in South America (smoke). The ultimate goal of this research is to design and implement a computer system which will identify the clouds present on a whole-Earth satellite view as a means of tracking global climate changes. Previous research has reported results for rule-based systems (Tovinkere et at 1992, 1993) for standard back propagation (Watters et at. 1993) and for a hierarchical approach (Corwin et al 1994) for polar data. This research uses a hierarchical neural network with don't care conditions and applies this technique to complex scenes. A hierarchical neural network consists of a switching network and a collection of leaf networks. The idea of the hierarchical neural network is that it is a simpler task to classify a certain pattern from a subset of patterns than it is to classify a pattern from the entire set. Therefore, the first task is to cluster the classes into groups. The switching, or decision network, performs an initial classification by selecting a leaf network. The leaf networks contain a reduced set of similar classes, and it is in the various leaf networks that the actual classification takes place. The grouping of classes in the various leaf networks is determined by applying an iterative clustering algorithm. Several clustering algorithms were investigated, but due to the size of the data sets, the exhaustive search algorithms were eliminated. A heuristic approach using a confusion matrix from a lightly trained neural network provided the basis for the clustering algorithm. Once the clusters have been identified, the hierarchical network can be trained. The approach of using don't care nodes results from the difficulty in generating extremely complex surfaces in order to separate one class from

  12. Gravity waves in mesopause region induced by thunderstorms over Northern China observed by a no-gap OH airglow imager network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao

    2016-07-01

    A no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of 6 all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. A large number of gravity wave events in the mesopause region induced by thunderstorms were observed by the network during the past 4 years. A comparison of the observations in 2012, 2013, and 2014 are made, which shows that there were more strong thunderstorms take place in 2013 in the northern China and produce more Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events. Especially, a series of CGW events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were also observed by satellite sensors from FY-2, AIRS/Aqua, and VIIRS/Suomi NPP. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multi-level observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this talk, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail and movies of the two events are displayed. One is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths agree with the GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. A gravity wave with horizontal wavelength of about 20 km propagates horizontally to more than 800 km in the mesopause region, probably due to a ducting layer. Another CGW event was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 09 August 2013. Multi-scale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed. Many ripples were found, probably due to the breaking of strong gravity waves with large relative OH intensity perturbations of 10%.

  13. Regional seismic event identification and improved locations with small arrays and networks. Final report, 7 May 1993-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, F.L.; Minster, J.B.; Orcutt, J.A.

    1995-09-20

    This final report contains a summary of our work on the use of seismic networks and arrays to improve locations and identify small seismic event. We have developed techniques to migrate 3-component array records of local, regional and teleseismic wavetrains to directly image buried two- and three-dimensional heterogeneities (e.g. layer irregularities, volumetric heterogeneities) in the vicinity of the array. We have developed a technique to empirically characterize local and regional seismic code by binning and stacking network recordings of dense aftershock sequences. The principle motivation for this work was to look for robust coda phases dependent on source depth. We have extended our ripple-fired event discriminant (based on the time-independence of coda produced by ripple firing) by looking for an independence of the coda from the recording direction (also indicative of ripple-firing).

  14. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  15. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  16. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  17. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale.

  18. [Improving practice in breast pathology: 34-months experience of the regional SENOPATH network and webinars as a tool for diagnosis of difficult lesions of the breast].

    PubMed

    Quintyn-Ranty, Marie-Laure; Gordien, Karine; Caveriviere, Paul; Mery, Éliane; Jamme-Lallemand, Muriel; Wuithier, Pascal; Palasse, Julien; Reyre, Joelle; Laborie, Vincent; Despax, Brigitte; Rolland, Véronique; Thibaut, Isabelle; Maissongrosse, Véronique; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Duprez-Paumier, Raphaëlle; Bauvin, Éric; Jacob, Michel; Lacroix-Triki, Magali

    2015-10-01

    Pathologists commonly face breast lesions that are difficult to diagnose. To reduce second opinion delay, erase geographical barrier and provide continuing education, we aimed to develop a telepathology-based regional network of pathologists. With the support of ONCOMIP network, we founded a peer-group named SENOPATH, composed of experienced breast pathologists practising in private laboratories, university hospitals or comprehensive cancer center in the region of Midi-Pyrénées in France. Submitted cases are digitalized at the University Hospital, stored in a shared space with a possible access via Internet prior to the SENOPATH sessions. The group meets monthly, via a synchronized webinar and multihead microscope session. A consensual diagnosis and final pathology report is issued for each case, and sent to the referring clinician via the patient medical file securely hosted by ONCOMIP. Between 2012 and 2014, 142 cases were reviewed, for either diagnostic 'routine' difficulty or rare histological type. The SENOPATH group, also regularly called by oncologists to solve difficult cases, has considerably improved the pathologist network in Southern France. Supported by the webinar tool, its educational impact is prominent, with a considerable progress in the region with regards to standardization of pathology processes, literature review and knowledge sharing.

  19. [Improving practice in breast pathology: 34-months experience of the regional SENOPATH network and webinars as a tool for diagnosis of difficult lesions of the breast].

    PubMed

    Quintyn-Ranty, Marie-Laure; Gordien, Karine; Caveriviere, Paul; Mery, Éliane; Jamme-Lallemand, Muriel; Wuithier, Pascal; Palasse, Julien; Reyre, Joelle; Laborie, Vincent; Despax, Brigitte; Rolland, Véronique; Thibaut, Isabelle; Maissongrosse, Véronique; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Duprez-Paumier, Raphaëlle; Bauvin, Éric; Jacob, Michel; Lacroix-Triki, Magali

    2015-10-01

    Pathologists commonly face breast lesions that are difficult to diagnose. To reduce second opinion delay, erase geographical barrier and provide continuing education, we aimed to develop a telepathology-based regional network of pathologists. With the support of ONCOMIP network, we founded a peer-group named SENOPATH, composed of experienced breast pathologists practising in private laboratories, university hospitals or comprehensive cancer center in the region of Midi-Pyrénées in France. Submitted cases are digitalized at the University Hospital, stored in a shared space with a possible access via Internet prior to the SENOPATH sessions. The group meets monthly, via a synchronized webinar and multihead microscope session. A consensual diagnosis and final pathology report is issued for each case, and sent to the referring clinician via the patient medical file securely hosted by ONCOMIP. Between 2012 and 2014, 142 cases were reviewed, for either diagnostic 'routine' difficulty or rare histological type. The SENOPATH group, also regularly called by oncologists to solve difficult cases, has considerably improved the pathologist network in Southern France. Supported by the webinar tool, its educational impact is prominent, with a considerable progress in the region with regards to standardization of pathology processes, literature review and knowledge sharing. PMID:26384691

  20. National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and Clearinghouse: Supporting the Improvement of Mathematics and Science in America's Schools. Evaluation Summary Report for 1995-2000 with In-Depth Evaluation of Training and Technical Assistance, Dissemination, and Collaboration and Networking Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and National Clearinghouse.

    This report, addressed to sponsors and partners of the Eisenhower consortia and clearinghouse network as well as the staff of those organizations, contains the evaluation summary report of the National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and Clearinghouse. It summarizes network outcomes over the 5-year period between 1995-2000. The report…

  1. Saharan-dust events characterization as example of Operational Oceanography product from a multidisciplinary real-time monitoring network in the Macaronesian region (Red ACOMAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, C.; Gelado, M. D.; Rueda, M. J.; Moran, R.; Llerandi, C.; Cardona, L.; Llinas, O.

    2009-04-01

    To detect and predict changes in coastal and open-ocean ecosystems is a huge requirement monitoring in detail and real-time their baseline physical, geological and chemical properties. In these regards and following the trends and general objectives established by GOOS (Global Ocean Observing System) through its coastal ecosystems module COOP (Coastal Ocean Observations Panel), the present paper describes the design, first development stages and some derived results of a monitoring network, named Red ACOMAR Canarias (Red de Alerta, Control y Observación MARina de Canarias, in English: Network for Marine Surveillance, Control and Observation in the Canaries) developed in the Macaronesia region.Since 1999, the Red ACOMAR is based in a core project supported throughout several proposals at the same time, developed in the coastal and open-ocean areas around the Canary Islands archipelago. The network integrates a wide group of devices and monitoring systems (moored and drifting buoys, gliders, remote sensing, turtles, land based meteorological stations, research vessels,…) working in real-time. The network has a control centre that manages communications and data processing, and provides real-time information in a functional form to end-users from socio-economic important sectors, which make an exhaustive use of the coastal area in the region. The access to the information by the users is done through a web site. The Red ACOMAR is nowadays directly linked with other similar proposals existing in the area, mainly from scientist groups in Azores and Madeira archipelagos, as well as from other European countries, working all together with the aim to bring out a regional contribution in Operational Oceanography to the end-users requirements.

  2. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region. PMID:26307690

  3. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region.

  4. Ground Validation of IMERG and TMPA 3B42 Rainfall Products Based on an Ultra-High Density Network of Rain Gauges over Mountainous Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R.; Tian, F.; Yang, L.; He, Z.; Hu, H.; Lu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite precipitation begins a new era since the first release of IMERG products. The finer spatio-temporal resolution of IMERG rainfall products has great potentials for the improvement of regional hydrology studies related to flood forecast and water resources management, especially over regions with sparsely gauged observations, e.g., mountainous regions. However, previous studies found large discrepancy among satellite rainfall products over regions with high altitudes. The main objective of this study is to provide a first evaluation of IMERG products (Final run, with a latency of 18 hours) over mountainous region and its inter-comparison with its predecessor TMPA 3B42 (V7). We center this study over Yarlung Tsangbo River Basin in Tibetan Plateau region (with mean altitude exceeding 4600m). Over 500 rain gauges are distributed over the basin, constituting an ultra-high density network of rain gauges, which enables us to evaluate the performance of satellite rainfall products (IMERG and TMPA) in capturing space-time rainfall structure in this region. We focus on the warm season (May to October) in 2014. Preliminary results show that IMERG resemble TMPA in spatial rainfall distribution over downstream region, whereas IMPEG present a remarkable smaller estimation than TMPA over upstream region. IMERG outperforms TMPA in all statistical indices (mean bias, correlation coefficient, root mean square error, etc.) used in this study. There is a general dependency of IMERG performance on altitude. The consistency (correlation coefficient) between IMERG and rain gauge improves with increased altitude (over 5000 m.a.s.l), but at the cost of increasing mean bias in the meantime. We evaluate the conditional bias of IMERG products on rainfall intensity and time of the day (daytime and nighttime). Results in this study provide useful reference for the improvement of IMERG rainfall calibration algorithm over high-altitude regions.

  5. Assessment of second- and third-order ionospheric effects on regional networks: case study in China with longer CMONOC GPS coordinate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liansheng; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Chen, Hua; Wang, Kaihua; Ma, Yifang

    2016-09-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) delays are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system analysis and have been proposed to become a standard part of precise GPS data processing. In this research, we apply HOI delay corrections to the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China's (CMONOC) data processing (from January 2000 to December 2013) and furnish quantitative results for the effects of HOI on CMONOC coordinate time series. The results for both a regional reference frame and global reference frame are analyzed and compared to clarify the HOI effects on the CMONOC network. We find that HOI corrections can effectively reduce the semi-annual signals in the northern and vertical components. For sites with lower semi-annual amplitudes, the average decrease in magnitude can reach 30 and 10 % for the northern and vertical components, respectively. The noise amplitudes with HOI corrections and those without HOI corrections are not significantly different. Generally, the HOI effects on CMONOC networks in a global reference frame are less obvious than the results in the regional reference frame, probably because the HOI-induced errors are smaller in comparison to the higher noise levels seen when using a global reference frame. Furthermore, we investigate the combined contributions of environmental loading and HOI effects on the CMONOC stations. The largest loading effects on the vertical displacement are found in the mid- to high-latitude areas. The weighted root mean square differences between the corrected and original weekly GPS height time series of the loading model indicate that the mass loading adequately reduced the scatter on the CMONOC height time series, whereas the results in the global reference frame showed better agreements between the GPS coordinate time series and the environmental loading. When combining the effects of environmental loading and HOI corrections, the results with the HOI corrections reduced

  6. Comparative Analysis of University-Government-Enterprise Co-Authorship Networks in Three Scientific Domains in the Region of Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmeda-Gomez, Carlos; Perianes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Ovalle-Perandones, Maria Antonia; Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In an economy geared to innovation and competitiveness in research and development activities, inter-relationships between the university, private enterprise and government are of considerable interest. Networking constitutes a priority strategy to attain this strategic objective and a tool in knowledge-based economies. Method:…

  7. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  8. Alteration of Regional Homogeneity within the Sensorimotor Network after Spinal Cord Decompression in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongming; Zhou, Fuqing; Wu, Lin; Liu, Zhili; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan; He, Laichang

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of longitudinal research to evaluate the function of neurons' adaptive changes within the sensorimotor network (SMN) following recovery after cervical cord decompression. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) may provide information that is critical to fully understand CSM-related functional neural synchrony alterations. The purpose of this study was to assess the ReHo alterations of resting state-functional MRI (rs-fMRI) within pre- and postdecompression CSM and healthy controls (HC) and its correlations with clinical indices. Predecompression CSM demonstrated a significantly lower ReHo in the left primary sensory cortex and primary motor cortex (PostG/PreG) but enhanced ReHo in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) compared with HC. In comparison with predecompression CSM, the postdecompression CSM showed increased ReHo in the left PostG/PreG but significantly lower ReHo in the right SPL compared with HC patients. Abnormal ReHo regions in pre- or postdecompression CSM showed no significant correlation with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, and disease duration (P > 0.05). This result demonstrated disrupted regional homogeneity within SMN in CSM. This adaptive change in the brain may favor the preservation of sensorimotor networks before and after cervical cord decompression and clinical symptoms independent of ReHo within SMN. PMID:26605335

  9. NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory Network: Scientific results across the earth/ocean sciences from two years of continuous real-time data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Johnson, F.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Founding Scientists Of Neptune Canada

    2011-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada completed the installation and is now operating an 800 km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network that spans the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate and continental shelf/slope in the northeastern Pacific. The NEPTUNE Canada network is part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. Public data flow started in 2009 and interactive instruments continue to be added to this technically advanced system which provides continuous power and high bandwidth for enabling the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Here we present an overview and some initial results of the early installed real-time experiments, developed through workshops and international competitions, at five offshore locations. Inshore at Folger Passage, Barkley Sound, observations are focused on understanding biological productivity and the effects that marine processes have on fish and marine mammals. Experiments around Barkley Canyon allow quantification of changes in benthic activity with nutrient and sediment transport. There and north along the mid-continental slope near ODP Site 889, instruments are monitoring changes in the distribution, structure, related biotas and venting of gas hydrates. A Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) at our mid-plate site (ODP 1026) monitors real-time changes in crustal temperature and pressure, particularly related to events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hydrothermal convection; these data are also important for understanding regional plate strain. At Endeavour on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, complex interactions among volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal and biological processes are being observed. Across the NEPTUNE Canada network, high resolution acoustic and seismic monitoring elucidates tectonic processes such as earthquakes, and a tsunami detection system allows for the determination of open ocean

  10. Comprehensive analysis of regional human-driven environmental change with multitemporal remote sensing images using observed object-specified dynamic Bayesian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Hua, Yi; Ren, Qinglong; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Traditional remote sensing change-detection algorithms only generate change-detection map and few quantitative evaluation indicators as the results, but they are unable to provide comprehensive analysis and further understanding of the detected changes. Aiming to assess regional development, we develop a comprehensive analysis method for human-driven environmental change by multitemporal remote sensing images. In order to adapt to analyze the time-varying multiple changed objects, an observed object-specified dynamic Bayesian network (i.e., OOS-DBN) is first proposed to adjust DBN structure and variables. Using semantic analysis for the relationship between multiple changed objects and regional development, all levels of situations and evidences (i.e., detected attributes of changed objects) are extracted as hidden variables and observed variables and inputted to OOS-DBN. Furthermore, conditional probabilities are computed by levels and time slices in OOS-DBN, resulting in the comprehensive analysis results. The experiments on the coastal region in Huludao, China, from 2003 to 2014 demonstrate that comprehensive analysis of changes reflecting that reclamation, construction of infrastructure, and New Huludao port contributed to the regional development. During four time slices, this region experienced rapid and medium-speed development, whose corresponding probabilities are 0.90, 0.87, 0.41, and 0.54, respectively, which is consistent with our field surveys.

  11. Regional Coseiemic Deformation From the June 28, 1992, Landers, California, Earthquake: Results From the Mojave GPS Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.; Webb, F.; Townsend, D.; Golombek, M.; Dokka, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the GPS-determined, far-field coseismic displacements that differ significantly from elastic half-space models, offering new insight on the role of regional scale heterogeneity in crustal structure.

  12. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  13. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology. PMID:26666122

  14. Integration of land-sharing and land-sparing conservation strategies through regional networking: the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor as a lifeline for carnivores in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Silvio J; García-Villalta, Jorge E

    2014-10-01

    Nations with little remaining natural habitat and small extent are challenged when trying to achieve biodiversity targets. We show that the Central American nation of El Salvador cannot viably sustain populations of 87 % of its extant carnivores, especially in the case of large-bodied species with low population densities. Current land-sparing strategies will not suffice; therefore we propose that land-sharing strategies be implemented in tandem with protected areas to expand current conservation efforts via new regional networks. In Central America such a network can be established by linking international protected area systems in a way that implements the existing vision for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. Specifically, we propose a re-envisioning of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in which land-sharing practices are adopted throughout the agricultural matrix while ensuring formal protection of the remaining natural habitat. Such an integration of land-sparing and land-sharing could result in the creation of an effective network of protected areas, thereby increasing the probability of safeguarding species with populations that overlap national borders.

  15. Non-Linearity Explanation in Artificial Neural Network Application with a Case Study of Fog Forecast Over Delhi Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, K.; Dimri, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Fog affects human life in a number of ways by reducing the visibility, hence affecting critical infrastructure, transportation, tourism or by the formation of frost, thus harming the standing crops. Smog is becoming a regular phenomenon in urban areas which is highly toxic to humans. Delhi was chosen as the area of study as it encounters all these hazards of fog stated apart from other political and economic reasons. The complex relationship behind the parameters and processes behind the formation of fog makes it extremely difficult to model and forecast it accurately. It is attempted to forecast the fog and understand its dynamics through a statistical downscaling technique of artificial neural network which is deemed accurate for short-term forecasting and usually outperform time-series models. The backpropagation neural network, which is a gradient descent algorithm where the network weights are moved along the negative of the gradient of the performance function, has been used for our analysis. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) supported National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data had been used for carrying out the simulations. The model was found to have high accuracy but lacking in skill. An attempt has been made to present the data in a binary form by determining a threshold by the contingency table approach followed by its critical analysis. It is found that the calculation of an optimum threshold was also difficult to fix as the parameters of fog formation on which the model has been has been trained had shown some changes in their trend over a period of time.

  16. Ground-based GNSS network and integrated water vapor mapping during the development of severe storms at the Cuyo region (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calori, A.; Santos, J. R.; Blanco, M.; Pessano, H.; Llamedo, P.; Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.

    2016-07-01

    Mendoza is a province of Argentina located between 32° S and 34° S at the leeside of the Andes Foothills. Very intense thunderstorms form between October and March (southern hemisphere summer), which produce large hail and damage in crops and properties. Although some hypotheses and conceptual models were proposed in order to identify key possible mechanisms that contribute to trigger convection, they are still waiting for the validation process. As moisture is the main ingredient for storms formation, the identification of its geographical distribution could be used together with other synoptic and mesoscale forcing features to forecast intense convective events. A novel technique in estimating moisture concentration and its geographical distribution has been introduced in order to observe the influx and variability of humidity at this region, during a 45-day period in midsummer. In doing so, we resort to the information provided by the ground-basedGlobal Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) network. More than 300 active stations constitute the continuously operating GNSS network over Southern and Central America (SIRGAS-CON, Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas de Operación Continua). This network allows to retrieve integrated water vapor (IWV) content, mapping this variable by the use of a digital model of terrain. In the period and region under study, a prevailing influx of humidity from N and NE and a high correlation between the accumulation/depletion of humidity and the hail/no hail precipitation days is observed. We discuss in particular the development of five storms detected by the S-Band radar network belonging to the Province of Mendoza. Although the results strongly suggest that IWV maps are capable to represent the humidity dynamics in the considered region, it is still important to highlight that the calculated values for IWV are unrealistic at some locations as the consequence of deep atmospheric gradients. These biases may be

  17. Are sinuous ridges and channel networks in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied a network of channels and ridges that are key to understanding the extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) geomorphology of Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. The branching pattern of the ridge and channel system is consistent with a fluvial origin, with cross sections of the channel and banks being reminiscent of fluvial v-shaped valleys. Possible fluvial explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels [e.g., 1] and eskers (sub-glacial, sediment-filled channels, e.g. [2]). Here, we present observations on the system and test the fluvial and fluvioglacial hypotheses.

  18. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart.

  19. Differential effects of rumination and distraction on ketamine induced modulation of resting state functional connectivity and reactivity of regions within the default-mode network.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Mick; Seifritz, Erich; Henning, Anke; Walter, Martin; Böker, Heinz; Scheidegger, Milan; Grimm, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Distraction and rumination are distinct response styles that determine how an individual deals with negative thoughts and feelings. Rumination is accompanied by an elevated self-focus, which is associated with increased resting state functional connectivity and decreased reactivity within the default mode network. Interestingly, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine reduces functional connectivity in this network, while its effects on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses during stimulus perception are not known. Ketamine might lead to a more variable processing of the external world with an attenuated self-focus by reducing the resting state connectivity. Here, we used an emotional picture-viewing task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that a single ketamine administration to healthy subjects increases BOLD reactivity to negative stimuli. We found a region specific increase in BOLD reactivity in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and not in a posterior control region after ketamine compared with placebo administration. Moreover, a linear regression revealed that the increase in BOLD reactivity was more pronounced for subjects with a low ability to apply distraction during negative experiences. Our results implicate that ketamine attenuates a potentially pathological increased self-focus during negative experiences. PMID:27075438

  20. Orbit and clock determination of BDS regional navigation satellite system based on IGS M-GEX and WHU BETS tracking network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GENG, T.; Zhao, Q.; Shi, C.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Su, X.

    2013-12-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) began to provide the regional open service on December 27th 2012 and will provide the global open service by the end of 2020. Compared to GPS, the space segment of BDS Regional System consists of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Since 2011, IGS Multiple-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) focuses on tracking the newly available GNSS signals. This includes all signals from the modernized satellites of the GPS and GLONASS systems, as well as signals of the BDS, Galileo and QZSS systems. Up to now, BDS satellites are tracked by around 25 stations with a variety of different antennas and receivers from different GNSS manufacture communities in M-GEX network. Meanwhile, there are 17 stations with Unicore Communications Incorporation's GPS/BDS receivers in BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) network by Wuhan University. In addition, 5 BDS satellites have been tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). BDS performance is expected to be further studied by the GNSS communities. Following an introduction of the BDS system and above different tracking network, this paper discusses the achieved BDS characterization and performance assessment. Firstly, the BDS signal and measurement quality are analyzed with different antennas and receivers in detail compared to GPS. This includes depth of coverage for satellite observation, carrier-to-noise-density ratios, code noise and multipath, carrier phase errors. Secondly, BDS Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is processed. Different arc lengths and sets of orbit parameters are tested using Position And Navigation Data Analysis software (PANDA) which is developed at the Wuhan University. GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites orbit quality will be assessed using overlap comparison, 2-day orbit fit and external validations with Satellite Laser Range (SLR). Then BDS satellites are equipped

  1. Network Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jocelyn A.; Batey, Anne

    This Network Directory is part of the effort by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) School Improvement Program to promote communication among educational professionals about school improvement. Specifically, the directory is designed to provide information for networking among schools involved in systematic, long-term…

  2. Offshore double-planed shallow seismic zone in the NE Japan forearc region revealed by sP depth phases recorded by regional networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamage, S.S.N.; Umino, N.; Hasegawa, A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    We detected the sP depth phase at small epicentral distances of about 150 km or more in the seismograms of shallow earthquakes in the NE Japan forearc region. The focal depths of 1078 M > 3 earthquakes that occurred from 2000 to 2006 were precisely determined using the time delay of the sP phase from the initial P-wave arrival. The distribution of relocated hypocentres clearly shows the configuration of a double-planed shallow seismic zone beneath the Pacific Ocean. The upper plane has a low dip angle near the Japan Trench, increasing gradually to ???30?? at approximately 100 km landward of the Japan Trench. The lower plane is approximately parallel to the upper plane, and appears to be the near-trench counterpart of the lower plane of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The distance between the upper and lower planes is 28-32 km, which is approximately the same as or slightly smaller than that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. Focal mechanism solutions of the relocated earthquakes are determined from P-wave initial motion data. Although P-wave initial motion data for these offshore events are not ideally distributed on the focal sphere, we found that the upper-plane events that occur near the Japan Trench are characterized by normal faulting, whereas lower-plane events are characterized by thrust faulting. This focal mechanism distribution is the opposite to that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The characteristics of these focal mechanisms for the shallow and deep doubled-planed seismic zones can be explained by a bending-unbending model of the subducting Pacific plate. Some of relocated earthquakes took place in the source area of the 1933 Mw8.4 Sanriku earthquake at depths of 10-23 km. The available focal mechanisms for these events are characterized by normal faulting. Given that the 1933 event was a large normal-fault event that occurred along a fault plane dipping landward, the

  3. Offshore double-planed shallow seismic zone in the NE Japan forearc region revealed by sP depth phases recorded by regional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamage, Shantha S. N.; Umino, Norihito; Hasegawa, Akira; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2009-07-01

    We detected the sP depth phase at small epicentral distances of about 150 km or more in the seismograms of shallow earthquakes in the NE Japan forearc region. The focal depths of 1078 M > 3 earthquakes that occurred from 2000 to 2006 were precisely determined using the time delay of the sP phase from the initial P-wave arrival. The distribution of relocated hypocentres clearly shows the configuration of a double-planed shallow seismic zone beneath the Pacific Ocean. The upper plane has a low dip angle near the Japan Trench, increasing gradually to ~30° at approximately 100 km landward of the Japan Trench. The lower plane is approximately parallel to the upper plane, and appears to be the near-trench counterpart of the lower plane of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The distance between the upper and lower planes is 28-32 km, which is approximately the same as or slightly smaller than that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. Focal mechanism solutions of the relocated earthquakes are determined from P-wave initial motion data. Although P-wave initial motion data for these offshore events are not ideally distributed on the focal sphere, we found that the upper-plane events that occur near the Japan Trench are characterized by normal faulting, whereas lower-plane events are characterized by thrust faulting. This focal mechanism distribution is the opposite to that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The characteristics of these focal mechanisms for the shallow and deep doubled-planed seismic zones can be explained by a bending-unbending model of the subducting Pacific plate. Some of relocated earthquakes took place in the source area of the 1933 Mw8.4 Sanriku earthquake at depths of 10-23 km. The available focal mechanisms for these events are characterized by normal faulting. Given that the 1933 event was a large normal-fault event that occurred along a fault plane dipping landward, the

  4. A Network for Educational Change in the Great Lakes Region: A View through the Lens of Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randal E.; Svedkauskaite, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The major purpose of this descriptive report is to provide an overview of the structure, capacity, and roles of educational service agencies (ESAs) across five states--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--in the Great Lakes region, within the context of the broader statewide systems of support for educational improvement and progress.…

  5. Earthquake source imaging by high-resolution array analysis at regional distances: the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake as seen by the Venezuela National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Rendon, H.

    2010-12-01

    Back projection of teleseismic waves based on array processing has become a popular technique for earthquake source imaging,in particular to track the areas of the source that generate the strongest high frequency radiation. The technique has been previously applied to study the rupture process of the Sumatra earthquake and the supershear rupture of the Kunlun earthquakes. Here we attempt to image the Haiti earthquake using the data recorded by Venezuela National Seismic Network (VNSN). The network is composed of 22 broad-band stations with an East-West oriented geometry, and is located approximately 10 degrees away from Haiti in the perpendicular direction to the Enriquillo fault strike. This is the first opportunity to exploit the privileged position of the VNSN to study large earthquake ruptures in the Caribbean region. This is also a great opportunity to explore the back projection scheme of the crustal Pn phase at regional distances,which provides unique complementary insights to the teleseismic source inversions. The challenge in the analysis of the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake is its very compact source region, possibly shorter than 30km, which is below the resolution limit of standard back projection techniques based on beamforming. Results of back projection analysis using the teleseismic USarray data reveal little details of the rupture process. To overcome the classical resolution limit we explored the Multiple Signal Classification method (MUSIC), a high-resolution array processing technique based on the signal-noise orthognality in the eigen space of the data covariance, which achieves both enhanced resolution and better ability to resolve closely spaced sources. We experiment with various synthetic earthquake scenarios to test the resolution. We find that MUSIC provides at least 3 times higher resolution than beamforming. We also study the inherent bias due to the interferences of coherent Green’s functions, which leads to a potential quantification

  6. NANOOS, the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems: a regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the Pacific Northwest US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Martin, D.; Kosro, M.

    2012-12-01

    NANOOS is the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, the Pacific Northwest Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS). User driven since its inception in 2003, this regional observing system is responding to a variety of scientific and societal needs across its coastal ocean, estuaries, and shorelines. Regional priorities have been solicited and re-affirmed through active engagement with users and stakeholders. NANOOS membership is composed of an even mix of academic, governmental, industry, and non-profit organizations, who appoint representatives to the NANOOS Governing Council who confirm the priority applications of the observing system. NANOOS regional priorities are: Maritime Operations, Regional Fisheries, Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal Hazards, and Climate. NANOOS' regional coastal ocean observing system is implemented by seven partners (three universities, three state agencies, and one industry). Together, these partners conduct the observations, modeling, data management and communication, analysis products, education and outreach activities of NANOOS. Observations, designed to span coastal ocean, shorelines, and estuaries, include physical, chemical, biological and geological measurements. To date, modeling has been more limited in scope, but has provided the system with increased coverage for some parameters. The data management and communication system for NANOOS, led by the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS) is the cornerstone of the user interaction with NANOOS. NVS gives users access to observational data, both real time and archived, as well as modeling output. Given the diversity of user needs, measurements, and the complexity of the coastal environment, the challenge for the system is large. NANOOS' successes take advantage of technological advances, including real-time data transmission, profiling buoys, gliders, HF radars, and modeling. The most profound challenges NANOOS faces stem

  7. Reduced-Median-Network Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial DNA Coding-Region Sequences for the Major African, Asian, and European Haplogroups

    PubMed Central

    Herrnstadt, Corinna; Elson, Joanna L.; Fahy, Eoin; Preston, Gwen; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Anderson, Christen; Ghosh, Soumitra S.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Beal, M. Flint; Davis, Robert E.; Howell, Neil

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of the human mitochondrial genome is characterized by the emergence of ethnically distinct lineages or haplogroups. Nine European, seven Asian (including Native American), and three African mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups have been identified previously on the basis of the presence or absence of a relatively small number of restriction-enzyme recognition sites or on the basis of nucleotide sequences of the D-loop region. We have used reduced-median-network approaches to analyze 560 complete European, Asian, and African mtDNA coding-region sequences from unrelated individuals to develop a more complete understanding of sequence diversity both within and between haplogroups. A total of 497 haplogroup-associated polymorphisms were identified, 323 (65%) of which were associated with one haplogroup and 174 (35%) of which were associated with two or more haplogroups. Approximately one-half of these polymorphisms are reported for the first time here. Our results confirm and substantially extend the phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial genomes described elsewhere from the major human ethnic groups. Another important result is that there were numerous instances both of parallel mutations at the same site and of reversion (i.e., homoplasy). It is likely that homoplasy in the coding region will confound evolutionary analysis of small sequence sets. By a linkage-disequilibrium approach, additional evidence for the absence of human mtDNA recombination is presented here. PMID:11938495

  8. Prediction of ionospheric scintillation using neural network over East African region during ascending phase of sunspot cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taabu, S. D.; D'ujanga, F. M.; Ssenyonga, T.

    2016-04-01

    VHF and GPS-SCINDA receivers located both at Nairobi (36.8°E, 1.3°S) in Kenya and at Kampala (32.57°E, 0.335°N) in Uganda were used to investigate ionospheric scintillation and forecast scintillations of a few hundred meter-scale irregularities associated with equatorial ionospheric irregularities for the period 2011 and 2012. VHF scintillations was characterized by long duration of activity and slow fading that lasted till early morning hours (05:00 LT). Furthermore, different percentage occurrence of scintillations in some months were observed, but found that weak scintillation (0.2 network and the modeled data for the occurrence of scintillations was found to match well with original data.

  9. Decision-to-Implement Worksheet for Evidence-based Interventions: From the WWAMI Region Practice and Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karin; Tuzzio, Leah; Renz, Anne; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Parchman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-related scientific discoveries are often not applied in clinical settings after publication, even when recommended by a trusted journal or professional association. This article describes an assessment tool we developed for use by primary care clinicians and practice administrators to evaluate whether to implement recommended evidence-based interventions in their practices. Methods We used dissemination and implementation theory to develop a worksheet to guide decision making about whether interventions are suitable for implementation in primary care practice settings. We tested the tool by analyzing how members of a primary care practice-based research network rated 4 evidence-based interventions. Results The median likelihood of implementation ranged from 2 to 3.5 on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Raters’ level of agreement with statements about 3 intervention characteristics was associated (P < .05) with a higher likelihood of implementation using Spearman rank-order correlation: simple to implement, testable before fully implementing, and modifiable to meet the needs of the practice. Raters found the worksheet helpful in thinking through potential implementation, especially the prompts about modifiability and relevance to the practice's patients and priorities. Conclusions The Decision-to-Implement Worksheet provides a new resource for primary care practices that want to assess whether evidence-based interventions are suitable to adopt or adapt to meet their needs. PMID:27613788

  10. A training network for introducing telemedicine, telecare and hospital informatics in the Adriatic-Danube-Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Anogeianaki, Antonia; Ilonidis, George; Anogianakis, George; Lianguris, John; Katsaros, Kyriakos; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Klisarova, Anelia; Negrev, Negrin

    2004-01-01

    DIMNET is a training mechanism for a region of central Europe. The aim is to upgrade the information technology skills of local hospital personnel and preserve their employability following the introduction of medical informatics. DIMNET uses Internet-based virtual classrooms to provide a 200-hour training course in medical informatics. Training takes place in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi and Varna. So far, more than 600 people have benefited from the programme. Initial results are encouraging. DIMNET promotes a new vocational training culture in the Balkans and is supported by local governments that perceive health-care as a fulcrum for economic development.

  11. Processing the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and the surrounding area by the cellular neural network: application to the southwestern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogan, D.

    2007-04-01

    An image processing technique called the cellular neural network (CNN) approach is used in this study to locate geological features giving rise to gravity anomalies such as faults or the boundary of two geologic zones. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique based on template optimization using the neighborhood relationships of cells. These cells can be characterized by a functional block diagram that is typical of neural network theory. The functionality of CNN is described in its entirety by a number of small matrices (A, B and I) called the cloning template. CNN can also be considered to be a nonlinear convolution of these matrices. This template describes the strength of the nearest neighbor interconnections in the network. The recurrent perceptron learning algorithm (RPLA) is used in optimization of cloning template. The CNN and standard Canny algorithms were first tested on two sets of synthetic gravity data with the aim of checking the reliability of the proposed approach. The CNN method was compared with classical derivative techniques by applying the cross-correlation method (CC) to the same anomaly map as this latter approach can detect some features that are difficult to identify on the Bouguer anomaly maps. This approach was then applied to the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and its surrounding area, in Turkey. Structural features in the area between Bandirma, Biga, Yenice and Gonen in the southwest Marmara region are investigated by applying the CNN and CC to the Bouguer anomaly map. Faults identified by these algorithms are generally in accordance with previously mapped surface faults. These examples show that the geologic boundaries can be detected from Bouguer anomaly maps using the cloning template approach. A visual evaluation of the outputs of the CNN and CC approaches is carried out, and the results are compared with each other. This approach provides quantitative solutions based on just a few assumptions, which makes the method more

  12. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  13. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  14. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential. PMID:24243879

  15. Connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus pars interna to regions within the speech network: a meta-analytic connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Manes, Jordan L; Parkinson, Amy L; Larson, Charles R; Greenlee, Jeremy D; Eickhoff, Simon B; Corcos, Daniel M; Robin, Donald A

    2014-07-01

    Cortico-basal ganglia connections are involved in a range of behaviors within motor, cognitive, and emotional domains; however, the whole-brain functional connections of individual nuclei are poorly understood in humans. The first aim of this study was to characterize and compare the connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) using meta-analytic connectivity modeling. Structure-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed for STN and GPi seeds using archived functional imaging coordinates from the BrainMap database. Both regions coactivated with caudate, putamen, thalamus, STN, GPi, and GPe, SMA, IFG, and insula. Contrast analyses also revealed coactivation differences within SMA, IFG, insula, and premotor cortex. The second aim of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between the connectivity maps derived for STN and GPi and a functional activation map representing the speech network. To do this, we examined the intersection of coactivation maps and their respective contrasts (STN > GPi and GPi > STN) with a coordinate-based meta-analysis of speech function. In conjunction with the speech map, both STN and GPi coactivation maps revealed overlap in the anterior insula with GPi map additionally showing overlap in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Among cortical regions activated by speech tasks, STN was found to have stronger connectivity than GPi with regions involved in cognitive linguistic processes (pre-SMA, dorsal anterior insula, and inferior frontal gyrus), while GPi demonstrated stronger connectivity to regions involved in motor speech processes (middle insula, SMA, and premotor cortex). PMID:25050431

  16. Different neural manifestations of two slow frequency bands in resting functional magnetic resonance imaging: a systemic survey at regional, interregional, and network levels.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shao-Wei; Li, Da; Weng, Xu-Chu; Northoff, Georg; Li, Dian-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Temporal and spectral perspectives are two fundamental facets in deciphering fluctuating signals. In resting state, the dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been proven to be strikingly informative (0.01-0.1 Hz). The distinction between slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) has been described, but the pertinent data have never been systematically investigated. This study used fMRI to measure spontaneous brain activity and to explore the different spectral characteristics of slow-4 and slow-5 at regional, interregional, and network levels, respectively assessed by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (mALFF), functional connectivity (FC) patterns, and graph theory. Results of paired t-tests supported/replicated recent research dividing low-frequency BOLD fluctuation into slow-4 and slow-5 for ReHo and mALFF. Interregional analyses showed that for brain regions reaching statistical significance, FC strengths at slow-4 were always weaker than those at slow-5. Community detection algorithm was applied to FC data and unveiled two modules sensitive to frequency effects: one comprised sensorimotor structure, and the other encompassed limbic/paralimbic system. Graph theoretical analysis verified that slow-4 and slow-5 differed in local segregation measures. Although the manifestation of frequency differences seemed complicated, the associated brain regions can be grossly categorized into limbic/paralimbic, midline, and sensorimotor systems. Our results suggest that future resting fMRI research addressing the three above systems either from neuropsychiatric or psychological perspectives may consider using spectrum-specific analytical strategies. PMID:24456196

  17. The awareness of postexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection following sexual exposure in emergency departments in a regional HIV network.

    PubMed

    Rutland, E; Sundaram, S; Mani, R

    2010-09-01

    The introduction of UK clinical guidelines in 2006 set clear standards for the provision of postexposure prophylaxis for HIV following sexual exposure (PEPSE) to patients who present to health-care settings. However, some patients have reported wide inequities in provision of PEPSE. We used a questionnaire to evaluate staff awareness and provision of PEPSE in various clinical situations in three major emergency departments (EDs) in the Wessex region of the UK. Thirty-three doctors and 50 nurses completed the questionnaire. There was a general lack of awareness regarding local protocols, availability of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) packs and whom to contact for advice. Knowledge about PEP provision varied according to clinical scenario but was better among senior medical staff. The deficits in awareness and knowledge of PEPSE among ED staff highlighted in this study raises concerns about patients' access to this intervention. We plan to implement local training to address these issues and raise awareness of the local genitourinary medicine/HIV services as a source of advice. PMID:21097736

  18. [Landscape connectivity of waterbody network in the new reclamation region of Lianyungang based on effective distance model].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fu-Zhen; Zheng, Zhong-Ming; Li, Jia-Lin; Zheng, Wen-Bing

    2014-08-01

    Landscape connectivity is an important indicator to measure effectiveness of landscape ecological services. Waterbody connectivity in Lianyun New City, the new reclamation region of Lianyungang, was investigated based on GIS technology and effective distance model. The results showed that the total connectivity of waterbodies was poor in Lanyun New City. Connectivity of patches was related to characteristics of ecological process, ecological services value and spatial arrangement. The higher the ecosystem services value of patches was, the greater its contribution to the overall water landscape connectivity was. Some patches with long strip structure played a key role to improve the landscape connectivity. By classifying the importance of connectivity and functional groups of waterbody patches, planning of waterbodies in Lianyun New City conformed to the theory of non-substitutable pattern developed by Forman. Waterbody patches with corresponding functions should be considered with priority when planning and building a new city. The present study demonstrated that connectivity of patches should be an important factor to be considered in ecological landscape planning. Construction of ecological corridors should not only take the number of ecological landscapes into consideration, but also pay attention to spatial arrangement of landscapes in order to improve the overall landscape connectivity.

  19. Communications infrastructure requirements for telemedicine/telehealth in the context of planning for and responding to natural disasters: Considering the need for shared regional networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John Carver

    1991-01-01

    During the course of recent years the frequency and magnitude of major disasters - of natural, technological, or ecological origin - have made the world community dramatically aware of the immense losses of human life and economic resources that are caused regularly by such calamities. Particularly hard hit are developing countries, for whom the magnitude of disasters frequently outstrips the ability of the society to cope with them. In many cases this situation can be prevented, and the recent trend in disaster management has been to emphasize the importance of preparedness and mitigation as a means of prevention. In cases of disaster, a system is needed to respond to relief requirements, particularly the delivery of medical care. There is no generic telecommunications infrastructure appropriate for the variety of applications in medical care and disaster management. The need to integrate telemedicine/telehealth into shared regional disaster management telecommunications networks is discussed. Focus is on the development of infrastructure designed to serve the needs of disaster prone regions of the developing world.

  20. Cocaine addiction related reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network functional connectivity: a group ICA study with different model orders.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-08-26

    Model order selection in group independent component analysis (ICA) has a significant effect on the obtained components. This study investigated the reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity related with cocaine addiction through different model order settings in group ICA. Resting-state fMRI data from 24 cocaine addicts and 24 healthy controls were temporally concatenated and processed by group ICA using model orders of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50, respectively. For each model order, the group ICA approach was repeated 100 times using the ICASSO toolbox and after clustering the obtained components, centrotype-based anterior and posterior DMN components were selected for further analysis. Individual DMN components were obtained through back-reconstruction and converted to z-score maps. A whole brain mixed effects factorial ANOVA was performed to explore the differences in resting-state DMN functional connectivity between cocaine addicts and healthy controls. The hippocampus, which showed decreased functional connectivity in cocaine addicts for all the tested model orders, might be considered as a reproducible abnormal region in DMN associated with cocaine addiction. This finding suggests that using group ICA to examine the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in the resting-state DMN may provide an additional insight potentially relevant for cocaine-related diagnoses and treatments. PMID:23707901

  1. MicroRNAs in the Imprinted DLK1-DIO3 Region Repress the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by Targeting the TWIST1 Protein Signaling Network*

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Christopher L.; Phinney, Donald G.

    2012-01-01

    Development of metastatic disease accounts for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths. Nevertheless, few treatments exist that are designed to specifically inhibit processes that drive tumor metastasis. The imprinted DLK1-DIO3 region contains tumor-suppressing miRNAs, but their identity and function remain indeterminate. In this study we identify seven miRNAs in the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 region that function cooperatively to repress the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a critical step that drives tumor metastasis, as well as proliferation of carcinoma cells. These seven miRNAs (miRs 300, 382, 494, 495, 539, 543, and 544) repress a signaling network comprising TWIST1, BMI1, ZEB1/2, and miR-200 family miRNAs and silencing of the cluster, which occurs via hypermethylation of upstream CpG islands in human ductal carcinomas, confers morphological, molecular, and function changes consistent with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-544 independently inhibited proliferation of numerous tumor cell lines by inducing the ATM cell cycle checkpoint pathway. These results establish the DLKI-DIO3 miRNA cluster as a critical checkpoint regulating tumor growth and metastasis and implicate epigenetic modification of the cluster in driving tumor progression. These results also suggest that promoter methylation status and miRNA expression levels represent new diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets to predict and inhibit, respectively, tumor metastasis in carcinoma patients. PMID:23105110

  2. MicroRNAs in the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 region repress the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting the TWIST1 protein signaling network.

    PubMed

    Haga, Christopher L; Phinney, Donald G

    2012-12-14

    Development of metastatic disease accounts for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths. Nevertheless, few treatments exist that are designed to specifically inhibit processes that drive tumor metastasis. The imprinted DLK1-DIO3 region contains tumor-suppressing miRNAs, but their identity and function remain indeterminate. In this study we identify seven miRNAs in the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 region that function cooperatively to repress the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a critical step that drives tumor metastasis, as well as proliferation of carcinoma cells. These seven miRNAs (miRs 300, 382, 494, 495, 539, 543, and 544) repress a signaling network comprising TWIST1, BMI1, ZEB1/2, and miR-200 family miRNAs and silencing of the cluster, which occurs via hypermethylation of upstream CpG islands in human ductal carcinomas, confers morphological, molecular, and function changes consistent with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-544 independently inhibited proliferation of numerous tumor cell lines by inducing the ATM cell cycle checkpoint pathway. These results establish the DLKI-DIO3 miRNA cluster as a critical checkpoint regulating tumor growth and metastasis and implicate epigenetic modification of the cluster in driving tumor progression. These results also suggest that promoter methylation status and miRNA expression levels represent new diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets to predict and inhibit, respectively, tumor metastasis in carcinoma patients.

  3. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda.

  4. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda. PMID:19965334

  5. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, J.A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  6. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    PubMed

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  7. A comparative study of artificial neural network, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and support vector machine for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhibin; Wen, Xiaohu; Liu, Hu; Du, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Data driven models are very useful for river flow forecasting when the underlying physical relationships are not fully understand, but it is not clear whether these data driven models still have a good performance in the small river basin of semiarid mountain regions where have complicated topography. In this study, the potential of three different data driven methods, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region, northwestern China. The models analyzed different combinations of antecedent river flow values and the appropriate input vector has been selected based on the analysis of residuals. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in training and validation sets are compared with the observed data. The model which consists of three antecedent values of flow has been selected as the best fit model for river flow forecasting. To get more accurate evaluation of the results of ANN, ANFIS and SVM models, the four quantitative standard statistical performance evaluation measures, the coefficient of correlation (R), root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) and mean absolute relative error (MARE), were employed to evaluate the performances of various models developed. The results indicate that the performance obtained by ANN, ANFIS and SVM in terms of different evaluation criteria during the training and validation period does not vary substantially; the performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in river flow forecasting was satisfactory. A detailed comparison of the overall performance indicated that the SVM model performed better than ANN and ANFIS in river flow forecasting for the validation data sets. The results also suggest that ANN, ANFIS and SVM method can be successfully applied to establish river flow with complicated topography forecasting models in the semiarid mountain regions.

  8. Characterizing Information Flux Within the Distributed Pediatric Expressive Language Network: A Core Region Mapped Through fMRI-Constrained MEG Effective Connectivity Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Toro-Serey, Claudio A.; Smith, Mary Lou; Holland, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using noninvasive neuroimaging, researchers have shown that young children have bilateral and diffuse language networks, which become increasingly left lateralized and focal with development. Connectivity within the distributed pediatric language network has been minimally studied, and conventional neuroimaging approaches do not distinguish task-related signal changes from those that are task essential. In this study, we propose a novel multimodal method to map core language sites from patterns of information flux. We retrospectively analyze neuroimaging data collected in two groups of children, ages 5–18 years, performing verb generation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 343) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) (n = 21). The fMRI data were conventionally analyzed and the group activation map parcellated to define node locations. Neuronal activity at each node was estimated from MEG data using a linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, and effective connectivity within canonical frequency bands was computed using the phase slope index metric. We observed significant (p ≤ 0.05) effective connections in all subjects. The number of suprathreshold connections was significantly and linearly correlated with participant's age (r = 0.50, n = 21, p ≤ 0.05), suggesting that core language sites emerge as part of the normal developmental trajectory. Across frequencies, we observed significant effective connectivity among proximal left frontal nodes. Within the low frequency bands, information flux was rostrally directed within a focal, left frontal region, approximating Broca's area. At higher frequencies, we observed increased connectivity involving bilateral perisylvian nodes. Frequency-specific differences in patterns of information flux were resolved through fast (i.e., MEG) neuroimaging. PMID:26456242

  9. Characterizing Information Flux Within the Distributed Pediatric Expressive Language Network: A Core Region Mapped Through fMRI-Constrained MEG Effective Connectivity Analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadis, Darren S; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Toro-Serey, Claudio A; Smith, Mary Lou; Holland, Scott K

    2016-02-01

    Using noninvasive neuroimaging, researchers have shown that young children have bilateral and diffuse language networks, which become increasingly left lateralized and focal with development. Connectivity within the distributed pediatric language network has been minimally studied, and conventional neuroimaging approaches do not distinguish task-related signal changes from those that are task essential. In this study, we propose a novel multimodal method to map core language sites from patterns of information flux. We retrospectively analyze neuroimaging data collected in two groups of children, ages 5-18 years, performing verb generation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 343) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) (n = 21). The fMRI data were conventionally analyzed and the group activation map parcellated to define node locations. Neuronal activity at each node was estimated from MEG data using a linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, and effective connectivity within canonical frequency bands was computed using the phase slope index metric. We observed significant (p ≤ 0.05) effective connections in all subjects. The number of suprathreshold connections was significantly and linearly correlated with participant's age (r = 0.50, n = 21, p ≤ 0.05), suggesting that core language sites emerge as part of the normal developmental trajectory. Across frequencies, we observed significant effective connectivity among proximal left frontal nodes. Within the low frequency bands, information flux was rostrally directed within a focal, left frontal region, approximating Broca's area. At higher frequencies, we observed increased connectivity involving bilateral perisylvian nodes. Frequency-specific differences in patterns of information flux were resolved through fast (i.e., MEG) neuroimaging. PMID:26456242

  10. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: a view on local climate and extremes at 1 km-scale resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabas, Thomas; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Leuprecht, Armin; Stieb, Christoph; Bichler, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    The WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach (WegenerNet) is a pioneering weather and climate observation experiment at very high resolution in Eastern Styria near the city of Feldbach, Austria. The network comprises 151 meteorological stations, which measure temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other parameters with high accuracy. Data is provided every 5 minutes in a tightly spaced grid (one station per ~2 km² ; ~1.4 km x 1.4 km grid within an ~20 km x 15 km area). The WegenerNet project so far spanned a pilot and a demonstration phase. The pilot phase, October 2005 - December 2007, covered the construction of the in situ station and the data base infrastructure. Since January 2007 regular measurements from the entire grid are provided as part of an automatic processing system including data transfer, quality control, preparation, and visualization. The demonstration phase, January 2008 - December 2009, introduced weather and climate data products on various temporal scales (from 5 minutes to annual) for single stations as well as interpolated regular grids. Gridded data sets are realized for the main parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation) in UTM (1 km x 1 km) and latitude/longitude (0.01° x 0.01°) coordinates. Furthermore, the quality control system has been improved by an inter-station comparison scheme and maintenance procedures have been advanced. For application purposes, all data is available for visualization and download via the WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). The presentation demonstrates the benefits of the highly resolved WegenerNet data to capture variations in local climate conditions. Also, selected small-scale extreme events are analyzed tracking their spatial and temporal development based on the standard WegenerNet visualization tools.

  11. Making Knowledge from Numbers : The Shale Network as an Honest Broker for Evaluating and Educating about the Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, J.; Brantley, S.; Williams, J.; Dykhoff, S.; Brazil, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale Network is an NSF-funded project that investigates the impacts of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas development on water resources in and around the state of Pennsylvania. It is a collaborative effort that aims to be an honest broker in the shale gas conversation by involving multiple entities (including universities, government agencies, industry groups, nonprofits, etc.) to collect, analyze, and disseminate data that describe the past and current conditions of water in the Marcellus shale region. A critical component of this project has been to engage multiple types of stakeholders - academia, government agencies, industry, and citizen science groups - in annual workshops to present and discuss how to ensure the integrity of water resources in light of the challenges that natural gas extraction can present. Each workshop has included a hands-on activity that allows participants to access water quality data using the tools provided by the CUAHSI Water Data Center. One of these tools is HydroDesktop, which is an open source GIS application that can be used in formal and informal education settings as a geoscience research tool. In addition to being a GIS, HydroDesktop accesses CUAHSI's large catalog of water data thus enabling students, professional researchers, and citizen scientists to discover data that can expand the understanding of water quality issues in one's local environment and beyond. This presentation will highlight the goals of the Shale Network project and the stakeholders involved in addition to how cyberinfrastructure is being used to create a democratic, data-driven conversation about the relationship between energy production from shale gas and our water resources.

  12. Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Since 1997 all current local geodynamic studies in the area of the Polish and Czech parts of the Sudeten and the Sudetic Foreland have been associated with annual periodic GPS campaigns, epoch measurements. The most epochs consisted of more than twelve observation hours and some of them kept on two or three 24-hour observations. Experience collected by international research teams carrying out geodynamic researches with the GPS technique in seismically active areas (USA, Japan) proved that more information can give permanent measurements. However, the Sudeten area, regarded as an area of the weak tectonic activity, can be hardly covered with the dense network of GNSS stations from economic reasons. Hence rational using of existing permanent GPS stations located in studied area and in its vicinity detects the coordinate changes that cannot be appointed from periodic campaign data and that, on the other hand, have rather regional than local character. Creating the spatial models of irregularities of the continuous signals should improve results of the epoch measurements. From this viewpoint, in this project authors used measurement data of chosen permanent GPS stations located in the area: the EPN stations, ASG-EUPOS stations, GEONAS stations and all epoch observations. These data were gained as part of research projects carried out within 1997-2009 period, as well as during new supplementing campaigns realized in the frame of the project N526278940 in the 2011 and 2012 years. Reprocessing of all the permanent and epoch data performed by the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software (V5.2) was performed using EPN guidelines for the processing, reference frame realization and the usage of physical models (atmosphere, Earth rotation, etc.). Standardized results of processing the aggregated GPS network, including permanent stations and all local networks on the area of research, serve for conducting new geodynamic interpretation. Further parameters that estimate the

  13. Prospects of the New Science and Outreach Network Baltic Earth with Results of the Second Climate Change Assessment for the Baltic Sea Region (BACC II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, M.; Von Storch, H.; Omstedt, A. T.; Meier, M.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Baltic Sea region in Northern Europe spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most intensively studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. A major outcome of Baltic Earth will be the update of the BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC II). This new study after 5 years finds the results of BACC I still valid. Climate change can be detected at the regional scale but attribution is still weak. The effect of changing atmospheric aerosol loads and land use change is largely unknown so far and needs further attention in the coming years. For the observed changes in biogeochemical and ecological systems, multiple drivers are at work of which climate change is one. Their relative importance still needs to be evaluated. When addressing climate change impacts on e.g. forestry, agriculture, urban

  14. Building Multidisciplinary Training Networks for Rural Development. Report of the Regional Workshop for Pre-service Training of Members of Multidisciplinary Educational Teams in Rural Areas (Pune, India, July 16-20, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Papers designed to help build multidisciplinary training networks for rural development are collected in this document, an outgrowth of a regional training workshop attended by participants from Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and India. The six papers deal with the objectives of the workshop which were to:…

  15. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Deryk S.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M.; De Nil, Luc F.

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006). PMID:23140891

  16. How the human brain goes virtual: distinct cortical regions of the person-processing network are involved in self-identification with virtual agents.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Shanti; van Schie, Hein T; de Lange, Floris P; Thompson, Evan; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2012-07-01

    Millions of people worldwide engage in online role-playing with their avatar, a virtual agent that represents the self. Previous behavioral studies have indicated that many gamers identify more strongly with their avatar than with their biological self. Through their avatar, gamers develop social networks and learn new social-cognitive skills. The cognitive neurosciences have yet to identify the neural processes that underlie self-identification with these virtual agents. We applied functional neuroimaging to 22 long-term online gamers and 21 nongaming controls, while they rated personality traits of self, avatar, and familiar others. Strikingly, neuroimaging data revealed greater avatar-referential cortical activity in the left inferior parietal lobe, a region associated with self-identification from a third-person perspective. The magnitude of this brain activity correlated positively with the propensity to incorporate external body enhancements into one's bodily identity. Avatar-referencing furthermore recruited greater activity in the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus, suggesting relatively greater emotional self-involvement with one's avatar. Post-scanning behavioral data revealed superior recognition memory for avatar relative to others. Interestingly, memory for avatar positively covaried with play duration. These findings significantly advance our knowledge about the brain's plasticity to self-identify with virtual agents and the human cognitive-affective potential to live and learn in virtual worlds.

  17. Logistic regression and artificial neural network models for mapping of regional-scale landslide susceptibility in volcanic mountains of West Java (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadisih, Bhandary, Netra P.; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Dahal, Ranjan K.

    2016-05-01

    West Java Province is the most landslide risky area in Indonesia owing to extreme geo-morphological conditions, climatic conditions and densely populated settlements with immense completed and ongoing development activities. So, a landslide susceptibility map at regional scale in this province is a fundamental tool for risk management and land-use planning. Logistic regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are the most frequently used tools for landslide susceptibility assessment, mainly because they are capable of handling the nature of landslide data. The main objective of this study is to apply logistic regression and ANN models and compare their performance for landslide susceptibility mapping in volcanic mountains of West Java Province. In addition, the model application is proposed to identify the most contributing factors to landslide events in the study area. The spatial database built in GIS platform consists of landslide inventory, four topographical parameters (slope, aspect, relief, distance to river), three geological parameters (distance to volcano crater, distance to thrust and fault, geological formation), and two anthropogenic parameters (distance to road, land use). The logistic regression model in this study revealed that slope, geological formations, distance to road and distance to volcano are the most influential factors of landslide events while, the ANN model revealed that distance to volcano crater, geological formation, distance to road, and land-use are the most important causal factors of landslides in the study area. Moreover, an evaluation of the model showed that the ANN model has a higher accuracy than the logistic regression model.

  18. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Beal, Deryk S; Gracco, Vincent L; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-09-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006).

  19. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries.

  20. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  1. Ephemeral regions versus pseudo ephemeral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. F.; Livi, S. H. B.; Wang, J.; Shi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    New studies of the quiet Sun reveal that ephemeral active regions constitute minority rather than a majority of all the short lived, small scale bipolar features on the Sun. In contrast to the recognized patterns of growth and decay of ephemeral regions, various examples of the creation of other temporary bipoles nicknamed pseudo ephemeral regions are illustrated. The pseudo ephemeral regions are the consequence of combinations of small scale dynamic processes of the quiet Sun including: (1) fragmentation of network magnetic fields, (2) the separation of opposite polarity halves of ephemeral regions as they grow and evolve, and (3) the coalescence of weak network or intranetwork magnetic fields. New observations offer the possibility of resolving the discrepancies that have arisen in the association of ephemeral regions with X-ray bright points. Many X-ray bright points may be related to those pseudo ephemeral regions which have begun to exhibit magnetic flux loss.

  2. Regional transportation network blocked by snowdrifts: assessment of risk reduction strategies by the example of the wind event of February 2015 in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2016-04-01

    The 5-8th February, a meteorological situation characterized by a strong wind coming from the North generated many snowdrifts on roads and railways in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. The affected region, about 900 km2, is located on the Swiss Plateau. More than thirty roads and few railways were blocked during the event. On some areas, too many roads and railways tracks were closed to assure the school transports making obligatory the total closure of seven schools and the partial closure of three schools affecting 8'000 students, which is almost 10% of students of the Canton of Vaud. Over hundred vehicles blocked in the snowdrifts had to be unobstructed. Over 150 snowplows drivers were requisitioned but the wind with gusts of over 80 km/h was too strong to release the roads from the snow accumulation. The boat transport on the Lake Geneva was interrupted during three days because of the danger generated by the strong wind during the berths. This interruption generated up to 100 km deviation for commuting traffic. The county police recommended to the population to limit their travels on the road. The last roads closures due to snowdrifts in the Canton of Vaud occurred ten years ago, in 2005. This particular event that affected considerably the accessibility of a large area of the Canton of Vaud is interesting because results of a "simple" meteorological situation that strongly reduced the accessibility during four days of an area with a population of about 340'000. It raises several questions as for examples: how the emergency services accessibility is assured; what are the tools that can reduce the roads closures; what is the best road management to follow during such an event (which roads must be priority cleaned, which roads can be left covered by snow); how to prevent such an event, are snow fences enough to avoid snowdrifts or is there another way to limit their creation? To try obtaining answers to those questions, we assess the most critical infrastructures

  3. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integration of OMI and TES Aerosol Products into the EPA Regional Planning Organizations' FASTNET Aerosol Tracking and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.

    2006-01-01

    Every year, more than 280 million visitors tour our Nation s most treasured parks and wilderness areas. Unfortunately, many visitors are unable to see the spectacular vistas they expect because of white or brown haze in the air. Most of this haze is not natural; it is air pollution, carried by the wind often hundreds of miles from its origin. Some of the pollutants have been linked to serious health problems, such as asthma and other lung disorders, and even premature death. In addition, nitrates and sulfates contribute to acid rain formation, which contaminates rivers and lakes and erodes buildings and historical monuments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RPOs (Regional Planning Organizations) have been tasked with monitoring and determining the nature and origin of haze in Class I scenic areas, and finding ways to reduce haze in order to improve visibility in these areas. The RPOs have developed an Internet-based air quality DST (Decision Support Tool) called FASTNET (Fast Aerosol Sensing Tools for Natural Event Tracking). While FASTNET incorporates a few satellite datasets, most of the data utilized by this DST comes from ground-based instrument networks. The problem is that in many areas the sensors are sparsely located, with long distances between them, causing difficulties in tracking haze over the United States, determining its source, and analyzing its content. Satellite data could help to fill in the data gaps and to supplement and verify ground-recorded air quality data. Although satellite data are now being used for air quality research applications, such data are not routinely used for environmental decision support, in part because of limited resources, difficulties with interdisciplinary data interpretation, and the need for advanced inter-agency partnerships. As a result, the validation and verification of satellite data for air quality operational system applications has been limited This candidate solution evaluates the usefulness of OMI

  4. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up their…

  5. Discrete-network versus modal representations of brain activity: Why a sparse regions-of-interest approach can work for analysis of continuous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy of the common practice of tracking brain dynamics using a few key regions of interest is explained via the fact that these regions are sensitive to underlying extended modes of activity, not just local dynamics. This underlines the inseparable interplay between modes and regions and reflects the reality that brain functions range from highly localized to highly extended.

  6. The Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 Nra-Ralp3 transcriptional regulatory network and its control of virulence factor expression from the novel eno ralp3 epf sagA pathogenicity region.

    PubMed

    Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Nakata, Masanobu; Köller, Thomas; Hildisch, Hendrikje; Kourakos, Vassilios; Standar, Kerstin; Kawabata, Shigetada; Glocker, Michael O; Podbielski, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    Many Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) virulence factor- and transcriptional regulator-encoding genes cluster together in discrete genomic regions. Nra is a central regulator of the FCT region. Previous studies exclusively described Nra as a transcriptional repressor of adhesin and toxin genes. Here transcriptome and proteome analysis of a serotype M49 GAS strain and an isogenic Nra mutant of this strain revealed the complete Nra regulon profile. Nra is active in all growth phases tested, with the largest regulon in the transition phase. Almost exclusively, virulence factor-encoding genes are repressed by Nra; these genes include the GAS pilus operon, the capsule synthesis operon, the cytolysin-mediated translocation system genes, all Mga region core virulence genes, and genes encoding other regulators, like the Ihk/Irr system, Rgg, and two additional RofA-like protein family regulators. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed that Nra additionally acts as a positive regulator, mostly for genes encoding proteins and enzymes with metabolic functions. Epidemiological investigations revealed strong genetic linkage of one particular Nra-repressed regulator, Ralp3 (SPy0735), with a gene encoding Epf (extracellular protein factor from Streptococcus suis). In a serotype-specific fashion, this ralp3 epf gene block is integrated, most likely via transposition, into the eno sagA virulence gene block, which is present in all GAS serotypes. In GAS serotypes M1, M4, M12, M28, and M49 this novel discrete genetic region is therefore designated the eno ralp3 epf sagA (ERES) pathogenicity region. Functional experiments showed that Epf is a novel GAS plasminogen-binding protein and revealed that Ralp3 activity counteracts Nra and MsmR regulatory activity. In addition to the Mga and FCT regions, the ERES region is the third discrete chromosomal pathogenicity region. All of these regions are transcriptionally linked, adding another level of complexity to the known

  7. Pennsylvania Action Research Network (PA-ARN) Staff Development through Five Regional Staff Development Centers. Final Report, July 1998-June 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.

    With the existence of 67 monographs and approximately 60 practitioners trained in action research in the western and central parts of Pennsylvania from project years 1995-98, the 1998-99 Section 353 project expanded the action research network (ARN) to include teachers, administrators, and researchers in the northeastern and southeastern parts of…

  8. Pennsylvania Action Research Network (PA-ARN) Staff Development through Five Regional Staff Development Centers. Final Report. July 1997-June 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.

    The Pennsylvania Action Research Network project was initiated in 1995-1996 to provide Pennsylvania literacy educators with the following: a better method for taking published research findings and testing and adapting them in their own classrooms; a way to study their own research ideas on a daily-action basis; and a systematic way to share and…

  9. Are there global shifts in the world science base? Analysing the catching up and falling behind of world regions.

    PubMed

    Radosevic, Slavo; Yoruk, Esin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the changing role of world regions (North America, EU15, South EU, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Former-USSR, Latin America, Asia Pacific and the Middle East) in science from 1981 to 2011. We use bibliometric data extracted from Thomson Reuter's National Science Indicators (2011) for 21 broad disciplines, and aggregated the data into the four major science areas: life, fundamental, applied and social sciences. Comparing three sub-periods (1981-1989, 1990-2000 and 2001-2011), we investigate (i) over time changes in descriptive indicators such as publications, citations, and relative impact; (ii) static specialization measured by revealed comparative advantage (RCA) in citations and papers; and (iii) dynamic specialization measured by absolute growth in papers. Descriptive results show a global shift in science largely in quantity (papers) and much less in impact (citations). We argue this should be interpreted as a shift in science's absorptive capacity but not necessarily a shift of knowledge generation at the world science frontier, which reflects the nature of science systems operating with high inertia and path dependency in areas of their historically inherited advantages and disadvantages. In view of their common historical legacy in science we are particularly interested in the process of convergence/divergence of the catching-up/transition regions with the world frontier regions. We implement an interpretative framework to compare regions in terms of their static and dynamic specialization from 1981-1989 to 2001-2011. Again, our analysis shows that while science systems are mostly characterised by strong inertia and historically inherited (dis)advantages, Asia Pacific, Latin America and CEE show strong catching-up characteristics but largely in the absorptive capacity of science.

  10. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, www.arcus.org/search-program. The AON goals continue with CRIOS (www.ariesnonprofit.com/ARIESprojects.php) and coastal erosion research (www.ariesnonprofit.com/webinarCoastalErosion.php) led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  11. The Century of Education. CEE DP 109

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisson, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Global economic transformations have never been as dramatic as in the twentieth century. Most countries have experienced radical changes in the standards of income per capita, technology, fertility, mortality, income inequality and the extent of democracy in the course of the past century. It is the goal of many disciplines--economics, history,…

  12. Interictal networks in magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Urszula; Badier, Jean-Michel; Gavaret, Martine; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Chauvel, Patrick; Bénar, Christian-George

    2014-06-01

    Epileptic networks involve complex relationships across several brain areas. Such networks have been shown on intracerebral EEG (stereotaxic EEG, SEEG), an invasive technique. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive tool, which was recently proven to be efficient for localizing the generators of epileptiform discharges. However, despite the importance of characterizing non-invasively network aspects in partial epilepsies, only few studies have attempted to retrieve fine spatiotemporal dynamics of interictal discharges with MEG. Our goal was to assess the relevance of magnetoencephalography for detecting and characterizing the brain networks involved in interictal epileptic discharges. We propose here a semi-automatic method based on independent component analysis (ICA) and on co-occurrence of events across components. The method was evaluated in a series of seven patients by comparing its results with networks identified in SEEG. On both MEG and SEEG, we found that interictal discharges can involve remote regions which are acting in synchrony. More regions were identified in SEEG (38 in total) than in MEG (20). All MEG regions were confirmed by SEEG when an electrode was present in the vicinity. In all patients, at least one region could be identified as leading according to our criteria. A majority (71%) of MEG leaders were confirmed by SEEG. We have therefore shown that MEG measurements can extract a significant proportion of the networks visible in SEEG. This suggests that MEG can be a useful tool for defining noninvasively interictal epileptic networks, in terms of regions and patterns of connectivity, in search for a "primary irritative zone".

  13. Improving Conservation of Florida Manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris): Conceptualization and Contributions Toward a Regional Warm-Water Network Management Strategy for Sustainable Winter Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  14. Improving conservation of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): conceptualization and contributions toward a regional warm-water network management strategy for sustainable winter habitat.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  15. Improving conservation of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): conceptualization and contributions toward a regional warm-water network management strategy for sustainable winter habitat.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision. PMID:23161252

  16. From network structure to network reorganization: implications for adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.; Parent, Jack M.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Zochowski, Michal R.; Sander, Leonard M.

    2010-12-01

    Networks can be dynamical systems that undergo functional and structural reorganization. One example of such a process is adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new cells are continuously born and incorporate into the existing network of the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus. Many of these introduced cells mature and become indistinguishable from established neurons, joining the existing network. Activity in the network environment is known to promote birth, survival and incorporation of new cells. However, after epileptogenic injury, changes to the connectivity structure around the neurogenic niche are known to correlate with aberrant neurogenesis. The possible role of network-level changes in the development of epilepsy is not well understood. In this paper, we use a computational model to investigate how the structural and functional outcomes of network reorganization, driven by addition of new cells during neurogenesis, depend on the original network structure. We find that there is a stable network topology that allows the network to incorporate new neurons in a manner that enhances activity of the persistently active region, but maintains global network properties. In networks having other connectivity structures, new cells can greatly alter the distribution of firing activity and destroy the initial activity patterns. We thus find that new cells are able to provide focused enhancement of network only for small-world networks with sufficient inhibition. Network-level deviations from this topology, such as those caused by epileptogenic injury, can set the network down a path that develops toward pathological dynamics and aberrant structural integration of new cells.

  17. The Implementation of Project and Research Activities in Working with Gifted Children in Terms of School-University Network Cooperation (Regional Aspect)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdrafikova, Albina R.; Akhmadullina, Rimma M.; Singatullova, Aliya A.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with regional experience in using modern strategies in teaching gifted children. The value of project and research activity is actualized as one of the most effective educational technologies in work with gifted children. The article shows examples of organization of combined project and research activities of student-teachers…

  18. Decentralization of the National Biomedical Communications Network; Development of Regional and State Plans. North Dakota Library Notes, Vol. 5, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Elizabeth W.

    1974-01-01

    The current trend in biomedical information systems is to decentralization. Starting with the Medical Library Assistance Act of 1965, various plans of organization have been tried for improving the national diffusion of medical information. In 1968 the John Crerar Library became the Midwest Regional Medical Library, serving as an intermediary…

  19. Exploring spatial patterns of particulate sulfur and OMH from the Project MOHAVE summer intensive regional network using analyses of variance techniques and meteorological parameters as sort determinants.

    PubMed

    Farber, R J; Murray, L C; Moran, W A

    2000-05-01

    Project MOHAVE (Measurements of Haze and Visual Effects) encompassed a 1-yr field study in the southwestern United States from September 1991 through August 1992. The congressionally mandated study was a joint partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Southern California Edison, and the National Park Service. A major objective of this study was to quantify the potential haze impacts on the nearby Grand Canyon National Park from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP). Any regional impacts from MPP were from secondary fine sulfate. In this paper, we explore the temporal and spatial patterns of particulate sulfur (Sp) and "organic mass by hydrogen" (OMH) during the summer intensive, conducted from mid-July through the end of August 1992. Using an innovative hierarchical pattern recognition classification scheme, we developed 6 groups of Sp and 8 groups of OMH temporally similar behaving patterns in the sampling region. From a regional understanding of synoptic meteorology, these Sp patterns were explainable. We observed two regional gradients. One gradient was a west-to-east decreasing gradient, most likely the result of major sources from urban southern California, including the San Joaquin Valley. The other decreasing gradient was from south-to-north, perhaps the result of emissions emanating from the large urban centers in northern Mexico. The patterns for OMH were not as regionally homogeneous as the patterns for Sp. A west-to-east decreasing gradient was observed for OMH, along with reduced values in the lower Colorado River Valley and some higher values in central and eastern Arizona. The west-to-east decreasing gradient suggests the presence of the Los Angeles urban plume, while the higher values in central and eastern Arizona may be due to biogenic emissions and increased seasonal fires. PMID:10842937

  20. Surface wave tomography of North America and the Caribbean using global and regional broad-band networks: Phase velocity maps and limitations of ray theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godey, S.; Snieder, R.; Villasenor, A.; Benz, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    We present phase velocity maps of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves across the North American and Caribbean plates. Our data set consists of 1846 waveforms from 172 events recorded at 91 broad-band stations operating in North America. We compute phase velocity maps in four narrow period bands between 50 and 150 s using a non-linear waveform inversion method that solves for phase velocity perturbations relative to a reference Earth model (PREM). Our results show a strong velocity contrast between high velocities beneath the stable North American craton, and lower velocities in the tectonically active western margin, in agreement with other regional and global surface wave tomography studies. We perform detailed comparisons with global model results, which display good agreement between phase velocity maps in the location and amplitude of the anomalies. However, forward modelling shows that regional maps are more accurate for predicting waveforms. In addition, at long periods, the amplitude of the velocity anomalies imaged in our regional phase velocity maps is three time larger than in global phase velocity models. This amplitude factor is necessary to explain the data accurately, showing that regional models provide a better image of velocity structures. Synthetic tests show that the raypath coverage used in this study enables one to resolve velocity features of the order of 800-1000 km. However, only larger length-scale features are observed in the phase velocity maps. The limitation in resolution of our maps can be attributed to the wave propagation theory used in the inversion. Ray theory does not account for off-great-circle ray propagation effects, such as ray bending or scattering. For wavelengths less than 1000 km, scattering effects are significant and may need to be considered.

  1. Dominating Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Milenković, Tijana; Memišević, Vesna; Bonato, Anthony; Pržulj, Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of “biologically central (BC)” genes (i.e., their protein products), such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network. To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC) role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs) in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its “spine” that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks. PMID:21887225

  2. Regional variation of PKP C-diff slowness observed by high-dense network -implication for lateral velocity variation of the lowermost outer core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtaki, T.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2004-12-01

    Clear core phases are observed at a recently deployed Japanese seismic network (Hi-net) for two intermediate depth events which occurred beneath S. Bolivia on 2001/06/29 and beneath Argentina on 2002/09/24. The epicentral distances are between 144 and 161 degrees, and between 150 and 164 degrees, respectively. The differential travel times of PKP(BC) or PKP(Cdiff) minus PKP(DF) for the S. Bolivia event suit calculated results using by the previous model of Kaneshima et al. (1994). The differential travel time residuals for the Argentina event show positive value, and become larger as the epicentral distance becomes large. Although the above results suggest that there is anomalous structure in the inner or outer core along the ray paths for the Argentina event, it is unclear which T(DF) or T(BC or Cdiff) is anomalous. Hi-net is a dense short-period seismic network which consists of about 700 stations in almost whole extent of Japan. Close look at core phases can be carried out using data from Hi-net. We checked the slowness of PKP(DF) and PKP(Cdiff) for the events. We select data whose epicentral distance is greater than 153 degree. The slowness of PKP(DF) and PKP(Cdiff) for the S. Bolivia event, and that of PKP(DF) for the Argentina event are almost same as those of PREM. However, the slowness of PKP(Cdiff) for the Argentina event is 7 percent larger than that of PREM. Thus we can conclude that the large slowness of PKP(Cdiff) is a main cause of the large differential residuals. This result suggests that a low velocity anomaly exists in the lowermost outer core which the PKP(Cdiff) for the Argentina event samples, and that the velocity structure in the inner core along the rays for the two events and in the outer core along the rays for the Argentina event sample is close to the normal, although the influence of the heterogeneous structure beneath stations and D_h cannot be ruled out yet. The central points of the diffracted rays on the inner core boundary are

  3. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  4. Piloting a Social Networks Strategy to Increase HIV Testing and Counseling Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Greater Accra and Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Girault, Philippe; Green, Kimberly; Clement, Nana Fosua; Rahman, Yussif Ahmed Abdul; Adams, Bashiru; Wambugu, Samuel

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Ghana Men's Study identified a high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Accra/Tema (34.4 %) and in Kumasi (13.6 %), whereas the HIV rate among MSM referred through peer educators (PEs) to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services in these two sites was substantially lower (8.4 %). These findings raised questions about possible limitations of the peer-education strategy to reach high-risk MSM. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a social network strategy (SNS) to identify and refer MSM to HTC services. Within 3 months, 166 MSM were reached and referred to HTC services: 62.7 % reported no recent exposure to PEs; 61.5 % were unaware of their recent HIV serostatus; and 32.9 % were newly diagnosed HIV positive. This pilot study suggests that an SNS could be an important strategy to reach MSM and to increase the uptake of HTC.

  5. [Mortality aftermyocardial infarction: when the health local organization network has a role in interpreting themarkers of theNational Agency for RegionalHealth Services].

    PubMed

    Virgili, Gianni; Barchielli, Alessandro; Balzi, Daniela; Matarrese, Daniela; Paci, Eugenio; Gusinu, Roberto; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2013-01-01

    The Italian National Outcome Programme has assessed the performance of Italian hospitals regarding several clinical performance indicators, including 30-daymortality after admission for acute myocardial infarction. Risk adjustment was obtained using demographic and comorbidity data based on the hospital discharge databases in the index admission, as well as in those of the previous two years. Noticeably, the ICD-9-CM 410.7* classification coding for NSTEMI (Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction)myocardial infarction, i.e. the less severe form, was not used, due to known variability in its use. We found that hospital-specific adjusted relative risk of death versus the national mean, as computed by the programme, is negatively associated with the proportion of NSTEMI infarctions at each Tuscan and Florentine hospital, coherently with the hypothesis of a selection by the emergency network, which addresses STEMI (ST elevation myocardial infarction) patients to hospitals offering haemodynamic laboratory with reperfusive services. Individual level clinical data of 3,200 patients in the AMI-Florence study in the period April 2008-March 2010 found that ICD-9-CM410.7* is underused. The analysis based on hospital discharge diagnoses (410.7* vs. other 410* codes) cannot explain differences in mortality among Florentine hospitals, as opposed to the use of a classification of myocardial infarction type (STEMI vs. NSTEMI) based on clinical data collected in AMI-Florence.

  6. Analysis of regional scale risk to whirling disease in populations of Colorado and Rio Grande cutthroat trout using Bayesian belief network model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolb Ayre, Kimberley; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and spread of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, has contributed to the collapse of wild trout populations throughout the intermountain west. Of concern is the risk the disease may have on conservation and recovery of native cutthroat trout. We employed a Bayesian belief network to assess probability of whirling disease in Colorado River and Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus and Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis, respectively) within their current ranges in the southwest United States. Available habitat (as defined by gradient and elevation) for intermediate oligochaete worm host, Tubifex tubifex, exerted the greatest influence on the likelihood of infection, yet prevalence of stream barriers also affected the risk outcome. Management areas that had the highest likelihood of infected Colorado River cutthroat trout were in the eastern portion of their range, although the probability of infection was highest for populations in the southern, San Juan subbasin. Rio Grande cutthroat trout had a relatively low likelihood of infection, with populations in the southernmost Pecos management area predicted to be at greatest risk. The Bayesian risk assessment model predicted the likelihood of whirling disease infection from its principal transmission vector, fish movement, and suggested that barriers may be effective in reducing risk of exposure to native trout populations. Data gaps, especially with regard to location of spawning, highlighted the importance in developing monitoring plans that support future risk assessments and adaptive management for subspecies of cutthroat trout.

  7. Effects of road network on diversiform forest cover changes in the highest coverage region in China: An analysis of sampling strategies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xisheng; Wu, Zhilong; Wu, Chengzhen; Ye, Limin; Lan, Chaofeng; Tang, Kun; Xu, Lu; Qiu, Rongzu

    2016-09-15

    Forest cover changes are of global concern due to their roles in global warming and biodiversity. However, many previous studies have ignored the fact that forest loss and forest gain are different processes that may respond to distinct factors by stressing forest loss more than gain or viewing forest cover change as a whole. It behooves us to carefully examine the patterns and drivers of the change by subdividing it into several categories. Our study includes areas of forest loss (4.8% of the study area), forest gain (1.3% of the study area) and forest loss and gain (2.0% of the study area) from 2000 to 2012 in Fujian Province, China. In the study area, approximately 65% and 90% of these changes occurred within 2000m of the nearest road and under road densities of 0.6km/km(2), respectively. We compared two sampling techniques (systematic sampling and random sampling) and four intensities for each technique to investigate the driving patterns underlying the changes using multinomial logistic regression. The results indicated the lack of pronounced differences in the regressions between the two sampling designs, although the sample size had a great impact on the regression outcome. The application of multi-model inference indicated that the low level road density had a negative significant association with forest loss and forest loss and gain, the expressway density had a positive significant impact on forest loss, and the road network was insignificantly related to forest gain. The model including socioeconomic and biophysical variables illuminated potentially different predictors of the different forest change categories. Moreover, the multiple comparisons tested by Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) were a good compensation for the multinomial logistic model to enrich the interpretation of the regression results. PMID:27156213

  8. Volcano-tectonic deformation in the Kivu Region, Central Africa: Results from multi-year InSAR time series analysis and continuous GNSS observations of the Kivu Geodetic Network (KivuGNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor; D'Oreye, Nicolas; Smets, Benoît; Nobile, Adriano; Samsonov, Sergey; De Rauw, Dominique; Mashagiro, Niche; Kervyn, Francois

    2016-04-01

    The Kivu Region in Central Africa is a topographic dome cut by the depression of the western branch of the East African Rift, where the Nubia plate and the Victoria micro-plate are diverging by approximately 2-3 mm/yr (Stamps et al. 2008). Two closely spaced and frequently active volcanoes, Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira, are located at the plate boundary. Here, deformation signals from transient deformation events (i.e. earthquakes, eruptions, rifting episodes, intrusions or other subsurface mass movements) are intertwined with the more perpetual nature of inter-seismic strain accumulation and gradual magma accumulation. Here, we present deformation results from six years of operation of the 15- station KivuGNet (Kivu Geodetic Network) in the Kivu Region and multi-year InSAR time series of the region using the MSBAS approach (Samsonov & d'Oreye, 2012). Since 2009, KivuGNet has captured transient deformation from a) the 2010 eruption of Nyamulagira, b) the 2011-2012 eruption of Nyamulagira c) the Mw5.8 August 7, 2015 Katana earthquake at the western border of Lake Kivu. Importantly, the GPS data also show an ongoing deformation signal, which is most readily explained by long-term magma accumulation under the volcanic region. We use the GPS and InSAR deformation signals to constrain and compare source parameters of simplistic elastic models for the different time periods. Although not well constrained, most of the time periods indicate the presence of a deep (~15-30 km) magmatic source centered approximately under Nyamulagira or to the southeast of Nyamulagira, that inflates between eruptions and deflates during eruptions.

  9. Waveform through the subducted plate under the Tokyo region in Japan observed by a ultra-dense seismic network (MeSO-net) and seismic activity around mega-thrust earthquakes area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nanjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Morita, Y.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Hirata, N.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Sekine, S.; Kurashimo, E.

    2009-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. We had started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area (2007-2012). Under this project, the construction of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) that consists of about 400 observation sites was started [Kasahara et al., 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2008]. Now, we had 178 observation sites. The correlation of the wave is high because the observation point is deployed at about 2 km intervals, and the identification of the later phase is recognized easily thought artificial noise is very large. We also discuss the relation between a deformation of PSP and intra-plate M7+ earthquakes: the PSP is subducting beneath the Honshu arc and also colliding with the Pacific plate. The subduction and collision both contribute active seismicity in the Kanto region. We are going to present a high resolution tomographic image to show low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the plate; a source region of the M7+ intra-plate earthquake. Our study will contribute a new assessment of the seismic hazard at the Metropolitan area in Japan. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  10. Retrieval Assimilation and Modeling of Atmospheric Water Vapor from Ground- and Space-Based GPS Networks: Investigation of the Global and Regional Hydrological Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1999-01-01

    Uncertainty over the response of the atmospheric hydrological cycle (particularly the distribution of water vapor and cloudiness) to anthropogenic forcing is a primary source of doubt in current estimates of global climate sensitivity, which raises severe difficulties in evaluating its likely societal impact. Fortunately, a variety of advanced techniques and sensors are beginning to shed new light on the atmospheric hydrological cycle. One of the most promising makes use of the sensitivity of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to the thermodynamic state, and in particular the water vapor content, of the atmosphere through which the radio signals propagate. Our strategy to derive the maximum benefit for hydrological studies from the rapidly increasing GPS data stream will proceed in three stages: (1) systematically analyze and archive quality-controlled retrievals using state-of-the-art techniques; (2) employ both currently available and innovative assimilation procedures to incorporate these determinations into advanced regional and global atmospheric models and assess their effects; and (3) apply the results to investigate selected scientific issues of relevance to regional and global hydrological studies. An archive of GPS-based estimation of total zenith delay (TZD) data and water vapor where applicable has been established with expanded automated quality control. The accuracy of the GPS estimates is being monitored; the investigation of systematic errors is ongoing using comparisons with water vapor radiometers. Meteorological packages have been implemented. The accuracy and utilization of the TZD estimates has been improved by implementing a troposphere gradient model. GPS-based gradients have been validated as real atmospheric moisture gradients, establishing a link between the estimated gradients and the passage of weather fronts. We have developed a generalized ray tracing inversion scheme that can be used to analyze occultation data acquired from space

  11. Identifying Determinants of Oncomelania hupensis Habitats and Assessing the Effects of Environmental Control Strategies in the Plain Regions with the Waterway Network of China at the Microscale

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Juan; Li, Rendong; Xu, Xingjian; Yu, Chuanhua; Xia, Xin; Hong, Xicheng; Chang, Bianrong; Yi, Fengjia; Shi, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the landscape ecological determinants related to Oncomelania hupensis distribution, map the potential high risk of O. hupensis habitats at the microscale, and assess the effects of two environmental control strategies. Sampling was performed on 242 snail sites and 726 non-snail sites throughout Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, China. An integrated approach of landscape pattern analysis coupled with multiple logistic regression modeling was applied to investigate the effects of environmental factors on snail habitats. The risk probability of snail habitats positively correlated with patch fractal dimension (FD), paddy farm land proportion, and wetness index but inversely correlated with categorized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation. These findings indicate that FD can identify irregular features (e.g., irrigation ditches) in plain regions and that a moderate NDVI increases the microscale risk probability. Basing on the observed determinants, we predicted a map showing high-risk areas of snail habitats and simulated the effects of conduit hardening and paddy farming land rotation to dry farming land. The two approaches were confirmed effective for snail control. These findings provide an empirical basis for health professionals in local schistosomiasis control stations to identify priority areas and promising environmental control strategies for snail control and prevention. PMID:25003174

  12. [An example of a hub and spoke network system in Plastic Surgery: the Regional reference center for non-healing wounds in Ancona (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alessandro; Pierangeli, Marina; Calamita, Roberto; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Grassetti, Luca; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds cause morbidity due to local infections, sepsis, osteomyelitis, but also increase mortality in the most severe cases and in patients with multiple comorbidities. Their increasing prevalence, associated disabilities and relevant health costs make chronic wounds a real social disease. At a time in which we hear more and more about spending reviews and reduction of health care costs, the natural evolution of Medicine and Health Care is increasingly directed towards the achievement of high quality standards while at the same time, reducing costs. It is in this framework that a hub and spoke model was used for organizing Plastic Surgery services in Ancona (Italy). In order to ensure appropriate clinical and organizational management of services, the activities of reference centres need to be widely integrated, by functional interconnections with activities of peripheral hospitals and local centres. Through a careful analysis of the Regional Reference Center for non - healing wounds in Ancona, the authors make some considerations regarding appropriate diagnostic-therapeutic-healthcare pathways and the correct use of human, material and technological resources in the area of wound healing.

  13. Distinct contributions of lateral orbito-frontal cortex, striatum, and fronto-parietal network regions for rule encoding and control of memory-based implementation during instructed reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2016-01-15

    A key element of behavioral flexibility is to quickly learn to modify or reverse previously acquired stimulus-response associations. Such reversal learning (RL) can either be driven by feedback or by explicit instruction, informing either retrospectively or prospectively about the changed response requirements. Neuroimaging studies have thus far exclusively focused either on feedback-driven RL or on instructed initial learning of novel rules. The present study examined the neural basis of instructed RL as compared to instructed initial learning, separately assessing reversal-related instruction-based encoding processes and reversal-related control processes required for implementing reversed rules under competition from the initially learned rules. We found that instructed RL is partly supported by similar regions as feedback-driven RL, including lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) and anterior dorsal caudate. Encoding-related activation in both regions determined resilience against response competition during subsequent memory-based reversal implementation. Different from feedback-driven RL, instruction-based RL relied heavily on the generic fronto-parietal cognitive control network--not for encoding but for reversal-related control processes during memory-based implementation. These findings are consistent with a model of partly decoupled, yet interacting, systems of (i) symbolic rule representations that are instantaneously updated upon instruction and (ii) pragmatic representations of reward-associated S-R links mediating the enduring competition from initially learned rules.

  14. Use of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) P band for detection of the Moche and Lambayeque canal networks in the Apurlec region, Perù

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Santovito, Maria Rosaria; Pica, Giulia; Catapano, Ilaria; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Lanari, Riccardo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Wester La Torre, Carlos; Fernandez Manayalle, Marco Antonio; Longo, Francesco; Facchinetti, Claudia; Formaro, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    , glaciers investigation, biomass monitoring, detection of buried targets. Its extension to non-civil application concerns sub-surface target detection and foliage penetration (FOPEN). In order to achieve the flexibility to face all the above mentioned fields of application, the CORISTA system has been designed as a multi-mode and multi-frequency radar. Multimode stands for the functionality of the system both as Sounder and Imager. In addition, P-band radar is a multi-frequency instrument, since it is designed to work in three different frequency bands, as mentioned above: lower frequency band is used in sounder operative mode, higher frequency in imager operative mode. In the Imager operative mode, low resolution and high resolution capabilities are implemented. The data collected by the radar system have been processed using a model-based microwave tomographic approach, recently developed by IREA-CNR, with the aim to enhance the interpretability of the raw-data radar images. Currently, the non-invasive SAR P band application is under evaluation for testing in the Northern Coast of Perù, in collaboration with the Museo Arqueológico Nacional Brüning. The project will aim to recognize the subsurface ancient Moche (100-700 d.C.) and Lambayeque (700-1375 d.C.) canal networks, whose water supply comes from the Canal Taymi, started to be dug by the Mochicas, still in use by local communities.

  15. A critical assessment of oral care protocols for patients under radiation therapy in the regional University Hospital Network of Madrid (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Lanzós, Isabel; Lanzós, Eduardo; Sanz, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Background This research was aimed to critically evaluate, under the light of the available scientific evidence, the oral care protocols recommended by different hospitals in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients under radiation therapy. Material and Methods A questionnaire requesting all the relevant information for the oral care of these patients was sent to the 9 University Hospitals in Madrid. The answers were categorized and analyzed. In addition, an electronic search was conducted to identify the most relevant papers (systematic reviews [SR] and randomized clinical trials [RCTs]) assessing oral care protocols for patients treated for HNC with radiation therapy. Results Eight out of nine centers answered the questionnaire and the retrieved information was tabulated and compared. These recommendations were analyzed by a computerized search on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Oral Health Collaboration Database. The results of the analysis clearly shown a great heterogeneity, in terms of oral health care protocols, regarding the management of irradiated patients (for HNC) within the Hospitals of Madrid region. In addition, some of the recommendations lack solid scientific support. Conclusions The present survey revealed that the recommendations provided by the different hospitals were clearly different. The available evidence, supported by SR and RCTs, suggested the need of an oral assessment before cancer treatment, in order to prevent and treat dental pathologies and avoiding potential complications; during cancer treatment, it is relevant monitoring the patient in order to decrease the severity of the side effects, and to avoid any tooth extraction or surgery and special attention should be paid to mucositis, xerostomia and candidiasis; after cancer treatment, the following are relevant aspects: the risk of osteoradionecrosis, trismus, caries and the risks associated to dental implants. Key words:Head and neck cancer, supportive care in cancer, radiotherapy

  16. Networks model of the East Turkistan terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ben-xian; Zhu, Jun-fang; Wang, Shun-guo

    2015-02-01

    The presence of the East Turkistan terrorist network in China can be traced back to the rebellions on the BAREN region in Xinjiang in April 1990. This article intends to research the East Turkistan networks in China and offer a panoramic view. The events, terrorists and their relationship are described using matrices. Then social network analysis is adopted to reveal the network type and the network structure characteristics. We also find the crucial terrorist leader. Ultimately, some results show that the East Turkistan network has big hub nodes and small shortest path, and that the network follows a pattern of small world network with hierarchical structure.

  17. Network discovery with DCM

    PubMed Central

    Friston, Karl J.; Li, Baojuan; Daunizeau, Jean; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about inferring or discovering the functional architecture of distributed systems using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM). We describe a scheme that recovers the (dynamic) Bayesian dependency graph (connections in a network) using observed network activity. This network discovery uses Bayesian model selection to identify the sparsity structure (absence of edges or connections) in a graph that best explains observed time-series. The implicit adjacency matrix specifies the form of the network (e.g., cyclic or acyclic) and its graph-theoretical attributes (e.g., degree distribution). The scheme is illustrated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series to discover functional brain networks. Crucially, it can be applied to experimentally evoked responses (activation studies) or endogenous activity in task-free (resting state) fMRI studies. Unlike conventional approaches to network discovery, DCM permits the analysis of directed and cyclic graphs. Furthermore, it eschews (implausible) Markovian assumptions about the serial independence of random fluctuations. The scheme furnishes a network description of distributed activity in the brain that is optimal in the sense of having the greatest conditional probability, relative to other networks. The networks are characterised in terms of their connectivity or adjacency matrices and conditional distributions over the directed (and reciprocal) effective connectivity between connected nodes or regions. We envisage that this approach will provide a useful complement to current analyses of functional connectivity for both activation and resting-state studies. PMID:21182971

  18. Future Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahony, Michael J.; Politi, Christina; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Nejabati, Reza; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents views on the future of optical networking. A historical look at the emergence of optical networking is first taken, followed by a discussion on the drivers pushing for a new and pervasive network, which is based on photonics and can satisfy the needs of a broadening base of residential, business, and scientific users. Regional plans and targets for optical networking are reviewed to understand which current approaches are judged important. Today, two thrusts are driving separate optical network infrastructure models, namely 1) the need by nations to provide a ubiquitous network infrastructure to support all the future services and telecommunication needs of residential and business users and 2) increasing demands by the scientific community for networks to support their requirements with respect to large-scale data transport and processing. This paper discusses these network models together with the key enabling technologies currently being considered for future implementation, including optical circuit, burst and packet switching, and optical code-division multiplexing. Critical subsystem functionalities are also reviewed. The discussion considers how these separate models might eventually merge to form a global optical network infrastructure.

  19. Network Cosmology

    PubMed Central

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  20. Network cosmology.

    PubMed

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  1. Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013 Mutated Genes in Schizophrenia Map to Brain Networks Schizophrenia networks in the prefrontal cortex area of the brain. ... of spontaneous mutations in genes that form a network in the front region of the brain. The ...

  2. Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietzke, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This special section explains the latest developments in networking technologies, profiles school districts benefiting from successful implementations, and reviews new products for building networks. Highlights include ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), cable modems, networking switches, Internet screening software, file servers, network management…

  3. Assessing the Impacts of Land-Use Change and Ecological Restoration on CH4 and CO2 Fluxes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: Findings from a Regional Network of Eddy Covariance Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Matthes, J. H.; Koteen, L. E.; Anderson, F. E.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The new generation of open-path, low power, laser spectrometers has allowed us to measure methane (CH4) fluxes continuously in remote regions and answer new and exciting questions on the spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes using networks of eddy covariance (EC) towers. Our research is focused in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta where we have installed a regional network of flux towers to assess the impacts of land-use change and ecological restoration on CH4 and CO2 fluxes. The Delta was drained for agriculture over a century ago and has since has experienced high rates of subsidence. It is recognized that agriculture on drained peat soils in the Delta is unsustainable in the long-term, and to help reverse subsidence and capture carbon (C) there is an interest in restoring drained land-use types to flooded conditions. However, flooding increases CH4 emissions. We conducted multiple years of simultaneous EC measurements at drained agricultural peatlands (a pasture, a corn field and an alfalfa field) and flooded land-use types (a rice paddy and 3 restored wetlands) to assess the impact of drained to flooded land-use change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Since these sites are all within 20 km of each other, they share the same basic meteorology, enabling a direct comparison of differences in the C and GHG budgets between sites. Using a multi-tower approach we found that converting drained agricultural peatlands to flooded land-use types can help reverse soil subsidence and reduce GHG emissions from the Delta. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in wetland restoration in California to generate C credits for both the voluntary C market and the state's cap-and-trade program. However, information on GHG fluxes from restored wetlands is lacking. Using multi-year measurements of GHG fluxes from restored wetlands of varying ages, our research also aims to understand how CO2 and CH4 fluxes from restored wetlands vary during ecosystem development

  4. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  5. The ubiquity of small-world networks.

    PubMed

    Telesford, Qawi K; Joyce, Karen E; Hayasaka, Satoru; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Small-world networks, according to Watts and Strogatz, are a class of networks that are "highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs." These characteristics result in networks with unique properties of regional specialization with efficient information transfer. Social networks are intuitive examples of this organization, in which cliques or clusters of friends being interconnected but each person is really only five or six people away from anyone else. Although this qualitative definition has prevailed in network science theory, in application, the standard quantitative application is to compare path length (a surrogate measure of distributed processing) and clustering (a surrogate measure of regional specialization) to an equivalent random network. It is demonstrated here that comparing network clustering to that of a random network can result in aberrant findings and that networks once thought to exhibit small-world properties may not. We propose a new small-world metric, ω (omega), which compares network clustering to an equivalent lattice network and path length to a random network, as Watts and Strogatz originally described. Example networks are presented that would be interpreted as small-world when clustering is compared to a random network but are not small-world according to ω. These findings have important implications in network science because small-world networks have unique topological properties, and it is critical to accurately distinguish them from networks without simultaneous high clustering and short path length. PMID:22432451

  6. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jakob; Kleidon, Axel; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha) and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks.

  7. Thermodynamics of random reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jakob; Kleidon, Axel; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reaction networks are useful for analyzing reaction systems occurring in chemistry, systems biology, or Earth system science. Despite the importance of thermodynamic disequilibrium for many of those systems, the general thermodynamic properties of reaction networks are poorly understood. To circumvent the problem of sparse thermodynamic data, we generate artificial reaction networks and investigate their non-equilibrium steady state for various boundary fluxes. We generate linear and nonlinear networks using four different complex network models (Erdős-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, Watts-Strogatz, Pan-Sinha) and compare their topological properties with real reaction networks. For similar boundary conditions the steady state flow through the linear networks is about one order of magnitude higher than the flow through comparable nonlinear networks. In all networks, the flow decreases with the distance between the inflow and outflow boundary species, with Watts-Strogatz networks showing a significantly smaller slope compared to the three other network types. The distribution of entropy production of the individual reactions inside the network follows a power law in the intermediate region with an exponent of circa -1.5 for linear and -1.66 for nonlinear networks. An elevated entropy production rate is found in reactions associated with weakly connected species. This effect is stronger in nonlinear networks than in the linear ones. Increasing the flow through the nonlinear networks also increases the number of cycles and leads to a narrower distribution of chemical potentials. We conclude that the relation between distribution of dissipation, network topology and strength of disequilibrium is nontrivial and can be studied systematically by artificial reaction networks. PMID:25723751

  8. Fermionic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2016-08-01

    We study the structure of fermionic networks, i.e. a model of networks based on the behavior of fermionic gases, and we analyze dynamical processes over them. In this model, particle dynamics have been mapped to the domain of networks, hence a parameter representing the temperature controls the evolution of the system. In doing so, it is possible to generate adaptive networks, i.e. networks whose structure varies over time. As shown in previous works, networks generated by quantum statistics can undergo critical phenomena as phase transitions and, moreover, they can be considered as thermodynamic systems. In this study, we analyze fermionic networks and opinion dynamics processes over them, framing this network model as a computational model useful to represent complex and adaptive systems. Results highlight that a strong relation holds between the gas temperature and the structure of the achieved networks. Notably, both the degree distribution and the assortativity vary as the temperature varies, hence we can state that fermionic networks behave as adaptive networks. On the other hand, it is worth to highlight that we did not finding relation between outcomes of opinion dynamics processes and the gas temperature. Therefore, although the latter plays a fundamental role in gas dynamics, on the network domain, its importance is related only to structural properties of fermionic networks.

  9. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Andrew J.; Brennan, Sean N.; Sauer, Timothy D.; Schiff, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We quantify observability in small (3 node) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and symmetry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3) the nodal dynamics (linear and nonlinear). We find that typical observability metrics for 3 neuron motifs range over several orders of magnitude, depending upon topology, and for motifs containing symmetry the network observability decreases when observing from particularly confounded nodes. Nonlinearities in the nodal equations generally decrease the average network observability and full network information becomes available only in limited regions of the system phase space. Our findings demonstrate that such networks are partially observable, and suggest their potential efficacy in reconstructing network dynamics from limited measurement data. How well such strategies can be used to reconstruct and control network dynamics in experimental settings is a subject for future experimental work. PMID:25909092

  10. Network Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    1992-01-01

    Explains how users can find and access information resources available on the Internet. Highlights include network information centers (NICs); lists, both formal and informal; computer networking protocols, including international standards; electronic mail; remote log-in; and file transfer. (LRW)

  11. Network science.

    PubMed

    Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-03-28

    Professor Barabási's talk described how the tools of network science can help understand the Web's structure, development and weaknesses. The Web is an information network, in which the nodes are documents (at the time of writing over one trillion of them), connected by links. Other well-known network structures include the Internet, a physical network where the nodes are routers and the links are physical connections, and organizations, where the nodes are people and the links represent communications.

  12. Superelastic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Obukhov, S.P.; Rubinstein, M.; Colby, R.H.

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses the elastic modulus, swelling, and deswelling behavior of networks as a function of their concentration and the preparation state. Based on these results, the authors expect that networks prepared by crosslinking long chains at low concentration, followed by removal of solvent, will have superelastic properties - the deswollen networks will have low modulus and will be capable of stretching by enormous amounts without breaking. This is because deswelling introduces only temporary entanglements. These temporary entanglements change the static configuration of the network strands. The authors discuss the non-Gaussian nature of these strands and the linear viscoelastic response of the superelastic networks.

  13. Networking computers.

    PubMed

    McBride, D C

    1997-03-01

    This decade the role of the personal computer has shifted dramatically from a desktop device designed to increase individual productivity and efficiency to an instrument of communication linking people and machines in different places with one another. A computer in one city can communicate with another that may be thousands of miles away. Networking is how this is accomplished. Just like the voice network used by the telephone, computer networks transmit data and other information via modems over these same telephone lines. A network can be created over both short and long distances. Networks can be established within a hospital or medical building or over many hospitals or buildings covering many geographic areas. Those confined to one location are called LANs, local area networks. Those that link computers in one building to those at other locations are known as WANs, or wide area networks. The ultimate wide area network is the one we've all been hearing so much about these days--the Internet, and its World Wide Web. Setting up a network is a process that requires careful planning and commitment. To avoid potential pitfalls and to make certain the network you establish meets your needs today and several years down the road, several steps need to be followed. This article reviews the initial steps involved in getting ready to network.

  14. Vulnerability of network of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  15. Spontaneous Calcium Changes in Micro Neuronal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Aki; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Iwabuchi, Shin; Goto, Miho; Takayama, Yuzo; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    We have developed a practical experimental method to mass-produce and maintain a variation of minimal neuronal networks (“micro neuronal networks”) consisted of a single to several neurons in culture using spray-patterning technique. In this paper, we could maintain the micro-cultures for one month or more by adding conditioned medium and carried out optical recording of spontaneous activity in micro neuronal networks and considered the interactions between them. To determine the interactions between micro neuronal networks, fluorescence changes in several small networks were simultaneously measured using calcium indicator dye fluo-4 AM, and time-series analysis was carried out using surrogate arrangements. By using the spray-patterning method, a large number of cell-adhesive micro regions were formed. Neurons extended neurites along the edge of the cell-adhesive micro regions and form micro neuronal networks. In part of micro regions, some neurite was protruded from the region, and thus micro neuronal networks were connected with synapses. In these networks, a single neuron-induced network activity was observed. On the other hand, even in morphologically non-connected micro neuronal networks, synchronous oscillations between micro neuronal networks were observed. Our micro-patterning methods and results provide the possibility that synchronous activity is occurred between morphologically non-connected neuronal networks. This suggest that the humoral factor is also a important component for network-wide dynamics.

  16. Issues in packet radio network design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiner, Barry M.; Nielson, Donald L.; Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1987-01-01

    The physical aspects of a packet radio network design, the automated management of the network, and the interface of the network to the users are examined. The networks provide data communications to users located over a broad geographic region where direct radio or wire connection between the source and destination user is not practical; the network consists of a radio, antenna, and digital controller. The physical connectivity, bandwidth-time-space management, channel access, and data link control of the network are analyzed. Consideration is given to link determination and control, routing and packet forwarding, congestion and flow control, and supported users management. The operation and management of a packet radio network, in particular network deployment and maintenance, network access methods, and its effect on the radio spectrum, are discussed. The performance and cost of a packet radio network are evaluated.

  17. An Adaptive Complex Network Model for Brain Functional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio J.; Gleiser, Pablo M.

    2009-01-01

    Brain functional networks are graph representations of activity in the brain, where the vertices represent anatomical regions and the edges their functional connectivity. These networks present a robust small world topological structure, characterized by highly integrated modules connected sparsely by long range links. Recent studies showed that other topological properties such as the degree distribution and the presence (or absence) of a hierarchical structure are not robust, and show different intriguing behaviors. In order to understand the basic ingredients necessary for the emergence of these complex network structures we present an adaptive complex network model for human brain functional networks. The microscopic units of the model are dynamical nodes that represent active regions of the brain, whose interaction gives rise to complex network structures. The links between the nodes are chosen following an adaptive algorithm that establishes connections between dynamical elements with similar internal states. We show that the model is able to describe topological characteristics of human brain networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. In particular, when the dynamical rules of the model allow for integrated processing over the entire network scale-free non-hierarchical networks with well defined communities emerge. On the other hand, when the dynamical rules restrict the information to a local neighborhood, communities cluster together into larger ones, giving rise to a hierarchical structure, with a truncated power law degree distribution. PMID:19738902

  18. The language network.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D; Gierhan, Sarah M E

    2013-04-01

    Language processing is supported by different regions located in separate parts of the brain. A crucial condition for these regions to function as a network is the information transfer between them. This is guaranteed by dorsal and ventral pathways connecting prefrontal and temporal language-relevant regions. Based on functional brain imaging studies, these pathways' language functions can be assigned indirectly. Dorsally, one pathway connecting the temporal cortex (TC) and premotor cortex supports speech repetition, another one connecting the TC and posterior Broca's area supports complex syntactic processes. Ventrally, the uncinate fascile and the inferior fronto-occipital fascile subserve semantic and basic syntactic processes. Thus, the available evidence points towards a neural language network with at least two dorsal and two ventral pathways. PMID:23146876

  19. The State-of-the-Network: An Evaluation of NLS, the Regional Libraries, and the Multistate Centers in Relation to ALA Standards of Service for Blind and Physically Handicapped Readers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Ann Walker; Mendenhall, Kathryn

    This report is a state-of-the-network summary of the data collected for a systematic application of the standards developed by the American Library Association in 1979 to the agencies involved in a cooperative network by the Library of Congress, National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS). Based on a synthesis of the…

  20. The ANTARES observation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogliotti, Ana I.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Muller-Karger, Frank; Hu, Chuanmin; Murch, Brock; Taylor, Charles; Yuras, Gabriel; Kampel, Milton; Lutz, Vivian; Gaeta, Salvador; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.; Klein, Eduardo; Helbling, Walter; Varela, Ramon; Barbieri, Elena; Negri, Ruben; Frouin, Robert; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor

    2005-08-01

    The ANTARES network seeks to understand the variability of the coastal environment on a continental scale and the local, regional, and global factors and processes that effect this change. The focus are coastal zones of South America and the Caribbean Sea. The initial approach includes developing time series of in situ and satellite-based environmental observations in coastal and oceanic regions. The network is constituted by experts that seek to exchange ideas, develop an infrastructure for mutual logistical and knowledge support, and link in situ time series of observations located around the Americas with real-time and historical satellite-derived time series of relevant products. A major objective is to generate information that will be distributed publicly and openly in the service of coastal ocean research, resource management, science-based policy making and education in the Americas. As a first stage, the network has linked oceanographic time series located in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Venezuela. The group has also developed an online tool to examine satellite data collected with sensors such as NASA's MODIS. Specifically, continental-scale high-resolution (1 km) maps of chlorophyll and of sea surface temperature are generated and served daily over the web according to specifications of users within the ANTARES network. Other satellite-derived variables will be added as support for the network is solidified. ANTARES serves data and offers simple analysis tools that anyone can use with the ultimate goal of improving coastal assessments, management and policies.

  1. Computer Networks As Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellman, Barry

    2001-09-01

    Computer networks are inherently social networks, linking people, organizations, and knowledge. They are social institutions that should not be studied in isolation but as integrated into everyday lives. The proliferation of computer networks has facilitated a deemphasis on group solidarities at work and in the community and afforded a turn to networked societies that are loosely bounded and sparsely knit. The Internet increases people's social capital, increasing contact with friends and relatives who live nearby and far away. New tools must be developed to help people navigate and find knowledge in complex, fragmented, networked societies.

  2. National law enforcement telecommunications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, N. B.; Garrison, G. W.; Sohn, R. L.; Gallop, D. L.; Goldstein, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    Alternative approaches are analyzed to a National Law Enforcement Telecommunications Network (NALECOM) designed to service all state-to-state and state-to-national criminal justice communications traffic needs in the United States. Network topology options were analyzed, and equipment and personnel requirements for each option were defined in accordance with NALECOM functional specifications and design guidelines. Evaluation criteria were developed and applied to each of the options leading to specific conclusions. Detailed treatments of methods for determining traffic requirements, communication line costs, switcher configurations and costs, microwave costs, satellite system configurations and costs, facilities, operations and engineering costs, network delay analysis and network availability analysis are presented. It is concluded that a single regional switcher configuration is the optimum choice based on cost and technical factors. A two-region configuration is competitive. Multiple-region configurations are less competitive due to increasing costs without attending benefits.

  3. [Network analyses in neuroimaging studies].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shigeki; Yamada, Makiko

    2013-06-01

    Neurons are anatomically and physiologically connected to each other, and these connections are involved in various neuronal functions. Multiple important neural networks involved in neurodegenerative diseases can be detected using network analyses in functional neuroimaging. First, the basic methods and theories of voxel-based