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Sample records for cee region network

  1. CEE-ing is believing

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on. PMID:21869613

  2. CEE-ing is believing: bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-09-15

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on.

  3. Becoming Centered: CEE Membership and Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanAntwerp, Jill; Webb, Allen

    2006-01-01

    The authors argue that if the Conference on English Education (CEE) is to nurture and grow its membership in the coming years, we will need a more focused purpose related to the central mission of the organization: "the effective education and development of students and professionals in English language arts education." To that end, the authors…

  4. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  5. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  6. REGIONAL GROUND-WATER-QUALITY NETWORK DESIGN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, William E.; ,

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing a regional network to monitor the complex ground-water-quality conditions in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The actual network approximates the ideal network with the constraint of primarily using wells that are already being monitored by someone for some purpose. Further inventories of monitoring networks and installation of some specialized monitoring wells will be needed. Use of statistical network analysis techniques is also needed to make network improvements. Following these actions, the actual network will more closely approximate the ideal network in providing information on ground-water-quality trends, contaminant sources, prevention of future sources of contamination, monitoring well distributions, sampling frequencies, and constituents to be monitored.

  7. Management of osteoporosis in central and eastern Europe (CEE): conclusions of the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE", 21-22 November 2008, Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Roman S; Resch, Heinrich

    2009-12-01

    In November 2008, the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)" was held in Warsaw, Poland. Discussions at this meeting focused on the identification and discussion of diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic measures used in CEE. Evaluated information was used to identify issues regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis in these countries to facilitate the subsequent setup of appropriate support and development strategies. The main debate was structured according to the following five subjects: (1) present status and future perspectives for implementation of FRAX(R) into local (CEE) diagnostic algorithms, (2) principles of drug selection in osteoporosis treatment in CEE countries, (3) nonpharmacological interventions in osteoporosis treatment and prophylaxis in CEE countries, (4) treatment benefit evaluation, and (5) cost-effectiveness and evaluation of reimbursement policies in CEE countries. The most important and substantial comments of the delegates are summarized in the present article. The multinational panel of experts with representatives from many CEE countries as well as Austria and Switzerland made the "2nd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" a perfect platform to identify issues and needs regarding diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis as well as the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis management in CEE countries. The information gained will serve as a basis for the development of strategies to resolve the identified issues at the "3rd Summit on Osteoporosis-CEE" in November 2009.

  8. CEE-03-310 CeNeS pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Eder, Derek N

    2002-02-01

    CEE-03-310 is a selective dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist with no appreciable binding affinity for other receptors. Although originally developed by Novo Nordisk A/S as NNC-687 for the treatment of schizophrenia, the company changed its therapeutic focus in the mid-1990s and the full rights to CEE-03-310 and several related compounds were subsequently granted to CeNeS Pharmaceuticals in 1999. CeNeS is currently investigating the drug's potential in the treatment of insomnia and alcohol dependency [340965], [382293], [401496],[416026]. A phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CEE-03-310 demonstrated a dose-dependent enhancement of NREM sleep at the beginning of the night without any effects on the quantity of REM sleep [410739].

  9. The pillars of health management education: lessons from the CEE experience.

    PubMed

    Aaronson, W E; West, D J; Heshmat, S; Ramirez, B

    1998-01-01

    AUPHA faculty members have had the opportunity to provide health care executive training and to work in partnership with academic institutions in Central and Eastern Europe and in the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union. This article presents some observations on health management education that demonstrate the similarity in issues faced by programs in the U.S. and in CEE. The health management educational partnership program was designed to provide technical assistance to emerging health management programs in the CEE. The partnership program has been mutually beneficial for several reasons. The role of physicians in leadership and the management educational needs that result provide one example of an issue that health management educational programs must address. The emergence of the roles of other health professions and growing contribution that they will make has its parallel in the American ascendance of the role of interdisciplinary team in clinical decision making. The partnership and executive training experiences have caused U.S. partners to focus consciously on pedagogical methods. The nature of the issues faced by emerging CEE health management programs suggests that mutual support among programs in the region after the partnership program is necessary in order to provide a forum for debate. The focus of the debate should continue to be on the role of management in health reform, content of curriculum, research focus and pedagogical methods appropriate for health care management undergraduate and graduate programs. The result will be a strengthening of the health management academic discipline in the region. The future of the AUPHA should predicated on the same principles, the roots from which it has grown.

  10. Regional Use of Social Networking Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Tools 2 2.1 Social Networking Global Leaders 2 2.1.1 Facebook 2 2.1.2 Google+ 3 2.1.3 Twitter 3 2.1.4 LinkedIn 4 2.1.5 YouTube 4 2.1.6 Pinterest...for Top SNSs 2 Table 2: Facebook Penetration Among Internet Users by Region 3 Table 3: SNS Adoption in African Countries 7 Table 4: Rankings of the...social network. Table 1: Monthly Number of Active Users for Top SNSs Social Network Monthly Active Users Facebook 1.28 billion Google+ 540 million

  11. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  12. Oscillatory phenomena in a solar network region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiropoula, Georgia; Tziotziou, Kostas; Schwartz, Pavol; Heinzel, Petr

    2009-03-01

    We examine oscillatory phenomena in a solar network region from multi-wavelength, observations obtained by the ground-based Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), and by instruments on the spacecraft Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). The observations were obtained during a coordinated observing campaign on October 14, 2005. The temporal variations of the intensities and velocities in two distinct regions of the quiet Sun were investigated: one containing several dark mottles and the other several bright points defining the network boundaries (NB). The aim is to find similarities and/or differences in the oscillatory phenomena observed in these two regions and in different spectral lines formed from the chromosphere to the transition region, as well as propagation characteristics of waves.

  13. Regional seismic test network site descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Qualheim, B. J.

    1983-03-01

    The five regional seismic test network sites (RSTN) are described. The sites are characterized for their geological and geophysical setting. The geology section includes a description of the regional geology and an account of the geology in the immediate station vicinity. Stratigraphic columns and geophysical well logs of the seismometer hole are presented. The geophysics section for each site is divided into velocity structure and Q, regional seismicity and tectonics, and noise characteristics. Information is derived from a literature review. Data are analyzed from seismic stations at or near the sites and from preliminary analysis of actual RSTN data.

  14. Regional Seismic Test Network site descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.; Qualheim, B.J.

    1983-03-17

    Each of the five Regional Seismic Test Network sites (RSTN) are characterized in terms of their geological and geophysical setting. The geology section includes a description of the regional geology and a detailed account of the geology in the immediate station vicinity. Stratigraphic columns and geophysical well-logs of the seismometer hole are also presented when available. The geophysics section for each site is divided into velocity structure and Q, regional seismicity and tectonics, and noise characteristics. Much of the information is derived from a literature review. However, when available, data have been analyzed from seismic stations at or near the sites and from preliminary analysis of actual RSTN data.

  15. Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    keratinocytes. Task 2: Similar to HD, CEES induces oxidative stress in the skin cells resulting in ROS generation, DNA damaging, protein and lipid oxidation...W81XWH-05-2-0034 TITLE: Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage PRINCIPAL...NUMBER Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-2-0034 5c. PROGRAM

  16. Oscillatory Phenomena in a Solar Network Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, K.; Tsiropoula, G.; Schwartz, P.; Heinzel, P.

    2008-09-01

    Multi-wavelength, multi-instrument observations, obtained during a coordinated observing campaign on October 2005 by the ground-based Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), and by instruments on the spacecraft Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), are used to study oscillatory phenomena in a solar network region. Temporal variations of the intensities and velocities in a region of the quiet Sun containing several dark mottles and in a region with several bright points defining the network boundaries (NB) are investigated with the aim of finding similarities and/or differences in the oscillatory phenomena observed in these two regions and in different spectral lines formed from the chromosphere to the transition region, as well as propagation characteristics of waves. A wavelet, phase difference and coherence analyses were performed indicating a periodicity around 5 min in all considered lines for both regions. V-V phase differences in the NB region point to an upward propagation of, most probably, acoustic waves, while in the region of mottles they indicate a non vertical propagation of waves, due to the presence of several inclined mottles along the line-of-sight. In mottles, for periods of 250-400 s the phase difference is mainly negative suggesting that propagating waves encounter a boundary and are refracted and reflected. However, limitations arising from the complex topology of the magnetic field, the formation conditions and heights of the examined spectral lines and the low spatial resolution of the space instruments influence the exact interpretation of the phase differences.

  17. UNAVCO-PBO Southwest Region Network Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C. P.; Mann, D.; Basset, A.; Sklar, J.; Jarvis, C.; Pitcher, T.; Lawrence, S.; Greathouse, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    The UNAVCO Southwest region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 470 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas Fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (314), radio (100), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual download (1). Thirty-four stations have WXT520 metpacks. Sixty-four stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency. Over 650 maintenance activities were performed during 341 onsite visits out of approximately 346 engineer field days. Within the past year there have been 7 incidences of minor (attempted theft) to moderate vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to stream real-time GPS and met data from PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and high rate data communications. These streams support watershed and flood analyses for regional early-warning systems related to NOAA's work with California Department of Water Resources. Network-wide NOAA receives a total of 54 streams including stations in Cascadia. In 2008 PBO became the steward of 209 existing network stations ("Nucleus stations") of which 140 are in the SW region that included SCIGN, BARD, BARGEN stations. Due to the mix of incompatible equipment used between PBO and existing network stations a project was undertaken to standardize existing network GPS stations to PBO specifications by upgrading antenna cabling, power systems and enclosures. In 2012 the Nucleus upgrade project was completed.

  18. Creating Resource Agents for Collaborative Engineering Environment (CEE) Research Using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Clients, Servers, and ORBs to the CEE environment and/or an html based browser like Netscape or Explorer. 10. APPENDIX 10.1. This is the...server can share the same hard drive, or they can be networked i.e. through the World Wide Web . 5 1.6. The objective of this project is to...the ORBacus14 CORBA software, the files for the target platform must be downloaded. These files can be found at the ORBacus web page: http

  19. Access to biologic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries

    PubMed Central

    Orlewska, Ewa; Ancuta, Ioan; Anic, Branimir; Codrenau, Catalin; Damjanov, Nemanja; Djukic, Predrag; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Marinchev, Lubomir; Nasonov, Evgeny L.; Peets, Tonu; Praprotnik, Sonja; Rashkov, Rasho; Skoupa, Jana; Tlustochowicz, Witold; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Tomsic, Matija; Veldi, Tiina; Vojinovic, Jelena; Wiland, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess and compare patients’ access to biologic anti-RA drugs in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and to analyze the determinants of differences between countries. Material/Methods This is a multi-country survey study, based on a combination of desk research and direct contact with national RA stakeholders. Data was collected using a pre-defined questionnaire. Affordability was measured using an affordability index, calculated comparing the index of health care expenditures to the price index, using Poland as an index of 1. Results The percentage of patients on biologic treatment in 2009 was highest in Hungary (5% RA patients on biologic treatment), followed by Slovenia (4.5%), Slovakia (3.5%), Czech Republic (2.92%), Romania (2.2%), Estonia (1.8%), and Croatia, Serbia, Poland (below 1.5%). Infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab and rituximab were included in the reimbursement system in all countries, but abatacept and tocilizumab were included only in Slovakia. In Slovenia, public payer covered 75% of the price, and 25% is covered by supplementary health insurance; in Bulgaria public payer covered 50% of etanercept and adalimumab costs, and 75% of rituximab cost. In other countries, biologic drugs are reimbursed at 100%. Affordability index for biologic drugs was the lowest in Slovenia (0.4). In each country national guidelines define which patients are eligible for biologic treatment. Disease Activity Score (DAS28) of over 5.1 and failure of 2 or more disease-modifying anti-RA drugs, including methotrexate, are commonly used criteria. Conclusions The most important factors limiting access to biologic anti-RA treatment in the CEE region are macroeconomic conditions and restrictive treatment guidelines. PMID:21455121

  20. Climate variability and associated vegetation response throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) between 60 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, A.; Perşoiu, A.; Tanţău, I.; Stevens, T.; Magyari, E. K.; Onac, B. P.; Marković, S.; Andrič, M.; Connor, S.; Fărcaş, S.; Gałka, M.; Gaudeny, T.; Hoek, W.; Kolaczek, P.; Kuneš, P.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marinova, E.; Michczyńska, D. J.; Perşoiu, I.; Płóciennik, M.; Słowiński, M.; Stancikaite, M.; Sumegi, P.; Svensson, A.; Tămaş, T.; Timar, A.; Tonkov, S.; Toth, M.; Veski, S.; Willis, K. J.; Zernitskaya, V.

    2014-12-01

    Records of past climate variability and associated vegetation response exist in various regions throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). To date, there has been no coherent synthesis of the existing palaeo-records. During an INTIMATE meeting (Cluj Napoca, Romania) focused on identifying CEE paleo-records, it was decided to address this gap by presenting the palaeo-community with a compilation of high-quality climatic and vegetation records for the past 60-8 ka. The compilation should also serve as a reference point for the use in the modelling community working towards the INTIMATE project goals, and in data-model inter-comparison studies. This paper is therefore a compilation of up to date, best available quantitative and semi-quantitative records of past climate and biotic response from CEE covering this period. It first presents the proxy and archive used. Speleothems and loess mainly provide the evidences available for the 60-20 ka interval, whereas pollen records provide the main source of information for the Lateglacial and Holocene. It then examines the temporal and spatial patterns of climate variability inferred from different proxies, the temporal and spatial magnitude of the vegetation responses inferred from pollen records and highlights differences and similarities between proxies and sub-regions and the possible mechanisms behind this variability. Finally, it identifies weakness in the proxies and archives and their geographical distribution. This exercise also provides an opportunity to reflect on the status of research in the area and to identify future critical areas and subjects of research.

  1. 76 FR 46295 - The Regional Sports Network Marketplace

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION The Regional Sports Network Marketplace AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice... regarding regional sports network (RSN) access and carriage issues and committed to examine these matters... sports network (RSN) access and carriage to prepare a report as provided in the Adelphia Order,...

  2. The Roles of Jets: CF, CCSN, PN, CEE, GEE, ILOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, N.

    2015-12-01

    I review the roles of jet-inflated bubbles in determining the evolution of different astrophysical objects. I discuss astrophysical systems where jets are known to inflate bubbles (cooling flow [CF] clusters; young galaxies; intermediate luminosity optical transients [ILOTs]; bipolar planetary nebulae [PNe]), and systems that are speculated to have jet-inflated bubbles (core collapse supernovae [CCSNe]; common envelope evolution [CEE]; grazing envelope evolution [GEE]). The jets in many of these cases act through a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM). I discuss the outcomes when the JFM fizzle, or does not work at all. According to this perspective, some very interesting and energetic events owe their existence to the failure of the JFM, including stellar black holes, gamma ray bursts, and type Ia supernovae.

  3. Regional Educational Laboratory Electronic Network Phase 2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John

    1995-01-01

    The Far West Laboratory in collaboration with the other regional educational laboratories is establishing a regionally coordinated telecommunication network to electronically interconnect each of the ten regional laboratories with educators and education stakeholders from the school to the state level. For the national distributed information database, each lab is working with mid-level networks to establish a common interface for networking throughout the country and include topics of importance to education reform as assessment and technology planning.

  4. Farm broadcasters call for regional network.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) laid the groundwork for a 5 day symposium on farm broadcasting in Bangkok in November 1988. ESCAP Executive Secretary S.A.M.S. Kibria discussed in his statement the idea of a regional rural broadcasting network for Asia and the Pacific. Several other pertinent points stated the following: Government funding was needed to support rural broadcasting; special funding and attention needs to be devoted to disadvantaged groups and marginal farmers; broadcasting should play a more significant role in South Pacific islands where it would not educate but also bring the people together. It was suggested that a proposed training manual for basic radio operation be printed in the local languages. Since 1980, there have 14 seminar-training programs held throughout Asia and the Pacific. Workshops open dialogue on ways to coordinate government support and rural interests in radio programming. As well, rural broadcasters learn how to sharpen their skills and keep audiences interested. Correctly implemented and adequately funded, agricultural broadcast programs could improve the lives of millions in the Pacific and Asia.

  5. Water Regions Extraction From Radar Imagery Using a Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-16

    An artificial neural network concept is explored and developed for detecting and extracting water regions from radar imagery. A backpropagation... neural network consisting of three layers of processing elements (PEs) is selected for this application. The input layer is composed of nine PEs that are

  6. Performance of a Regional Aeronautical Telecommunications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ripamonti, Claudio; Konangi, Vijay K.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of the simulation of the ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network) for three typical average-sized U.S. airports and their associated air traffic patterns. The models of the protocols were designed to achieve the same functionality and meet the ATN specifications. The focus of this project is on the subnetwork and routing aspects of the simulation. To maintain continuous communication between the aircrafts and the ground facilities, a model based on mobile IP is used. The results indicate that continuous communication is indeed possible. The network can support two applications of significance in the immediate future FTP and HTTP traffic. Results from this simulation prove the feasibility of development of the ATN concept for AC/ATM (Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management).

  7. Prototype autonomous earthquake locator for regional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, V.

    2000-11-01

    A fully autonomous source location algorithm, which identifies the local earthquake P and S phases by finding the network seismogram envelope maxima Pmax and Smax, is designed. These picks are approximated to theoretical travel times of the wavefield intensity by varying epicenter and origin time, thus providing initial estimates for source coordinates, origin time and phase onsets. Then the onsets are improved by detection of the time-series discrepancy points with the subsequent fitting to the theoretical first arrival times for the final source location. Fitting is performed using a grid-search robust optimization procedure based on the bell-like factor functions. Application of the algorithm to 61 local earthquakes recorded by the Israel Seismic Network shows location accuracy of 3 km for epicenter and ±7 km for depth. For the four blasts from a quarry near the Dead Sea with known coordinates and ignition time the automatic locator provided accuracy of 0.3-1.7 km and even outperformed the analyst solutions.

  8. CEE interfacing for Khoros: visual interactive programming for enterprise research (VIPER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Kevin J.; Hwang, Jong S.

    2000-06-01

    Collaborative engineering and development are paramount to supporting new warfighter-driven programs like Simulation Based Acquisition and Simulation Based Design. The Collaborative Enterprise Environment (CEE), under development by AFRL, enhances Directorate research and development, exploration, evaluation, planning and transition of technologies by enabling collaboration and technology integration. A number of algorithms and models have been implemented under a variety of DoD programs using Khoros, a powerful software development and visual programming environment that facilitates the integration of legacy code as well as the development of new solutions. This paper discusses how Khoros is being extended to operate within the CEE, seamlessly supporting collaborative development and component reuse.

  9. Variation in the Width of Transition Region Network Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    The transition region network seen in solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines is the extension of the chromospheric network. The network appears as an irregular web-like pattern over the solar surface outside active regions. The average width of transition region network boundaries is obtained from the two-dimensional autocorrelation function of SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) synoptic images of the Sun in two emission lines, He i 586 Å and O v 630 Å during 1996 - 2012. The width of the network boundaries is found to be roughly correlated with the solar cycle variation with a lag of about ten months. A comparison of the widths in the two emission lines shows that they are larger for the He i line. The SOHO/CDS data also show large asymmetry in boundary widths in the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) image directions, which is shown to be caused by image distortions that are due to instrumental effects. Since the network boundary widths are related to the magnetic flux concentration along the boundaries, the results are expected to have implications on the flux transport on the solar surface, solar cycle, and the mass and energy budget of network loops and jets.

  10. [Role of university hospitals in regional infection control network].

    PubMed

    Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Saito, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Ayako; Tsutaya, Shoji; Akimoto, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Masahiko; Inoue, Fumio; Kondo, Jun; Akahira, Emi; Tachibana, Naoki; Okamura, Yuji; Takahashi, Shiori; Kojima, Keiya; Tamazawa, Naoki; Hayakari, Makoto

    2013-08-01

    Activities and the understanding of infection control in healthcare facilities have improved in the past decade since a certification system for medical personnel, such as infection control nurse and infection control doctor, were introduced in Japan. These specialists are distributed among tertiary general hospitals, while many small and mid-scale hospitals have no infection control specialists. In 2012, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare launched a new strategy for further improvement of infection control by supporting a regional network of infection control activities. Through the infection control network, small or mid-scaled hospitals can utilize infection control specialists in tertiary general hospitals, enter educational programs on infection control and consult in cases of nosocomial infection outbreaks. As part of the regional infection control network, we established an information network system, named ReNICS, to share the bacteriological test results of the hospitals in Akita prefecture. ReNICS offers epidemiological data on bacteria identified in the region. We can identify the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria and can roughly estimate the quality of infection control activities in each facility. As a similar information network is being prepared in Hirosaki University Hospital Infection Control Center in Aomori, a prefecture neighboring Akita, we discussed the roles of university hospitals for a regional infection control network.

  11. Broadband seismology and small regional seismic networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  12. Design of surface-water data networks for regional information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Marshall E.; Gilroy, E.J.; Tasker, Gary D.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a technique, Network Analysis of Regional Information (NARI), and the existing computer procedures that have been developed for the specification of the regional information-cost relation for several statistical parameters of streamflow. The measure of information used is the true standard error of estimate of a regional logarithmic regression. The cost is a function of the number of stations at which hydrologic data are collected and the number of years for which the data are collected. The technique can be used to obtain either (1) a minimum cost network that will attain a prespecified accuracy and reliability or (2) a network that maximizes information given a set of budgetary and time constraints.

  13. The CEE Sustainable Development Programme: A Two-Week Course for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article features the Centre for Environment Education (CEE) Sustainable Development Programme, a two-week course designed for university students from a wide variety of disciplines, with an interest in sustainability and cross-cultural studies. The two-week programme provides cross-disciplinary understanding and practical experience of…

  14. Acute Environmental Toxicity and Persistence of a Chemical Agent Simulant: 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide (CEES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Isolated Chloroplast Measurements Chloroplasts were isolated from commercially obtained spinach (Spinacea oleracea) leaves according to the methods of...showed an inhibition of photosynthetic capability and elevated respiration rates . Within the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts , those...Isolated Spinach Chloroplasts ........................................... 49 3.11 Effect of CEES on Dehydrogenase Activities in Burbank and Palouse Soils

  15. Reconstructing English Education for the 21st Century: A Report on the CEE Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M.; Fox, Dana L.

    2006-01-01

    The coeditors of the special Summit issue of English Education provide the context for the "crucial moment" that prompted the Conference on English Education (CEE) to take up the task of rethinking issues related to the preparation and continuing professional development of English language arts teachers and teacher educators. The process of…

  16. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  17. Evaluation of the RSTN (Regional Seismic Test Network) Network and Further Improvement to Automatic Association.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-30

    received at CSS and partly recorded at SCARS. A description of RSTN station localities is contained in Taylor and Qualheim (1983). All RSTN stations...Laboratory, Alexandria, Va. Taylor, S. R. and B. J. Qualheim (1983). Regional Seismic Test Network Site Descriptions , Lawrence Livermore Laboratory...RD-A146 395 EVALUATION OF THE RSTN (REGIONAL SEISMIC TEST NETWORK) 1/ NET44ORK AND FURTHE (U) TELEDYNE GEOTECH ALEXANDRIA VA ALEXANDRIA LABS R R

  18. The Piemonte Regional Allergy Network: a model of healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, M; Cadario, G; Belliero, B; Maspoli, M; Di Pietrantonj, C; Demicheli, V

    2011-12-01

    The Allergology Hospital Network and Regional Register for Severe Allergic Reactions (Regional Observatory) is the Piemonte Health Authority new challenge. It satisfied the need to promote and monitor the best practice among a variegated pool of specialists and to define both state of the art and evolution of efficiency and efficacy of standard working process. Harmonization in clinical daily activities and report of severe allergic reactions notified to Regional Observatory, had been gained by mean of a customized Information Technology (IT) solution. The overall target is to ensure a correct diagnostic treatment to patients with severe allergic reactions preventing possible future reactions. Statistics data as a whole, provide basilar epidemiological information to allocate both economical and human resources and to fulfill the rising of health diseases. Piemonte Allergology Medical Network with the Regional Register are an Italian unique and innovative project. It would represent a benchmark for other medical branches.

  19. Primary Health Care: care coordinator in regionalized networks?

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Patty Fidelis; dos Santos, Adriano Maia

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO OBJECTIVE To analyze the breadth of care coordination by Primary Health Care in three health regions. METHODS This is a quantitative and qualitative case study. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews with municipal, regional and state managers were carried out, besides a cross-sectional survey with the administration of questionnaires to physicians (74), nurses (127), and a representative sample of users (1,590) of Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) in three municipal centers of health regions in the state of Bahia. RESULTS Primary Health Care as first contact of preference faced strong competition from hospital outpatient and emergency services outside the network. Issues related to access to and provision of specialized care were aggravated by dependence on the private sector in the regions, despite progress observed in institutionalizing flows starting out from Primary Health Care. The counter-referral system was deficient and interprofessional communication was scarce, especially concerning services provided by the contracted network. CONCLUSIONS Coordination capacity is affected both by the fragmentation of the regional network and intrinsic problems in Primary Health Care, which poorly supported in its essential attributes. Although the health regions have common problems, Primary Health Care remains a subject confined to municipal boundaries. PMID:28099663

  20. Multi-wavelength Analysis of a Solar Network Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.; Schwartz, P.; Heinzel, P.

    We analyse co-temporal observations of a network region found near the solar disc centre, obtained by the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) and the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on-board SOHO during a coordinated observing campaign in October 2005. DOT obtained images in 5 wavelengths along the ha\\ profile, while CDS obtained sit-and-stare observations in several EUV spectral lines that span the upper solar atmosphere. After fitting the CDS spectral line profiles we obtained 2-D space-time maps of intensities, Doppler velocities and Doppler widths. We study the appearance of the network region in the different spectral lines and the temporal variations of the obtained physical parameters. We employ a wavelet analysis to examine the existence of oscillations at the network in the different solar layers.

  1. A climatological network for regional climate monitoring in Sardinia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the Region of Sardinia has been working to set-up a Regional Climatological Network of surface stations, in order to monitor climate (either stationary or changing) at sub-synoptic scale and in order to make robust climatological information available to researchers and to local stake-holders. In order to do that, an analysis of long climatological time series has been performed on the different historical networks of meteorological stations that existed over the past two centuries. A set of some hundreds of stations, with about a century of observations of daily precipitation, was identified. An important subset of them was also defined, having long series of observations of temperature, wind, pressure and other quantities. Specific investments were made on important stations sites where observations had been carried for decades, but where the climatological stations did not exist anymore. In the present talk, the Regional Climatological Network of Sardinia will be presented and its consistency discussed. Specific attention will be given to the most important climatological stations which have got more than a century of observations of meteorological quantities. Critical issues of the Regional Climatological Network, like relocation of stations and inhomogeneity of data due to instrumental changes or environmental modifications, will be discussed.

  2. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  3. Region growing with pulse-coupled neural networks: an alternative to seeded region growing.

    PubMed

    Stewart, R D; Fermin, I; Opper, M

    2002-01-01

    The seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm is a fast robust parameter-free method for segmenting intensity images given initial seed locations for each region. The requirement of predetermined seeds means that the model cannot operate fully autonomously. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel region growing variant of the pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN), which offers comparable performance to the SRG and is able to generate seed locations internally, opening the way to fully autonomous operation.

  4. Operations plan for the Regional Seismic Test Network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-15

    The Regional Seismic Test Network program was established to provide a capability for detection of extremely sensitive earth movements. Seismic signals from both natural and man-made earth motions will be analyzed with the ultimate objective of accurately locating underground nuclear explosions. The Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has designed an unattended seismic station capable of recording seismic information received at the location of the seismometers installed as part of that specific station. A network of stations is required to increase the capability of determining the source of the seismic signal and the location of the source. Current plans are to establish a five-station seismic network in the United States and Canada. The Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, has been assigned the responsibility for deploying, installing, and operating these remote stations. This Operation Plan provides the basic information and tasking to accomplish this assignment.

  5. IA-Regional-Radio - Social Network for Radio Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Grzegorz; Bougueroua, Lamine; Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna

    This chapter describes the functions of a system proposed for the music hit recommendation from social network data base. This system carries out the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of music reviewers and the possibility for listeners to rate musical hits and recommendations deduced from auditor's profiles in the form of regional Internet radio. First, the system searches and retrieves probable music reviews from the Internet. Subsequently, the system carries out an evaluation and rating of those reviews. From this list of music hits, the system directly allows notation from our application. Finally, the system automatically creates the record list diffused each day depending on the region, the year season, the day hours and the age of listeners. Our system uses linguistics and statistic methods for classifying music opinions and data mining techniques for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent radio adaptive on auditor's age and region - IA-Regional-Radio.

  6. Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidant’s for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    or EpiDerm tissues. Human skin cells will be treated with antioxidant liposomes containing both water- and lipid -soluble antioxidants (bi- functional...deliver both water- and lipid -soluble antioxidants to the skin cells. As liposomes are artificially made vehicles, the question of their long-term...W81XWH-05-2-0034 TITLE: Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage PRINCIPAL

  7. Predicting Regional Self-identification from Spatial Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Zack W.; Butts, Carter T.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists characterize social life as a hierarchy of environments, from the micro level of an individual’s knowledge and perceptions to the macro level of large-scale social networks. In accordance with this typology, individuals are typically thought to reside in micro- and macro-level structures, composed of multifaceted relations (e.g., acquaintanceship, friendship, and kinship). This article analyzes the effects of social structure on micro outcomes through the case of regional identification. Self identification occurs in many different domains, one of which is regional; i.e., the identification of oneself with a locationally-associated group (e.g., a “New Yorker” or “Parisian”). Here, regional self-identification is posited to result from an influence process based on the location of an individual’s alters (e.g., friends, kin or coworkers), such that one tends to identify with regions in which many of his or her alters reside. The structure of this paper is laid out as follows: initially, we begin with a discussion of the relevant social science literature for both social networks and identification. This discussion is followed with one about competing mechanisms for regional identification that are motivated first from the social network literature, and second by the social psychological and cognitive literature of decision making and heuristics. Next, the paper covers the data and methods employed to test the proposed mechanisms. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of its findings and further implications for the larger social science literature. PMID:25684791

  8. Assessment of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks for regional teleradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Andre J.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Grant, Edward G.; Rahbar, Darius; Kiszonas, Mike; Franco, Ricky; Shimabuku, Guy H.; Hagan, Girish T.; Melany, Michelle; Narin, Sherelle L.; Ragavendra, Nagesh

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ATM network capabilities on the clinical practice of regional teleradiology, by providing immediate interactive radiology consultations between subspecialists and general radiologists at affiliated academic institutions. PACS installed at three affiliated hospitals (UCLA Medical Center, West LA VAMC and UCLA Olive-View Medical Centers) were connected via an ATM network. Two commercial PACS (Agfa) systems, one at the VAMC and one in an ultrasound outpatient clinic at UCLA were connected via ATM switches (Newbridge, Inc.) and a Santa Monica GTE central office switch. We evaluated this initial system configuration and measured image transfer performance, including memory-to-memory, disk-to-disk, disk-to-archive with and without DICOM protocols. Although the memory-to-memory data rate was 25 Mbps, the average remote disk-to-disk image transfer performance, using DICOM 3.0 communications protocols on SUN SPARCstation 10 servers, was 3 to 5 Mbps. Using these capabilities, timely interactive subspecialty consultations between radiologists was successfully performed while both were at different physical locations. We present the use of ATM technology in a realistic clinical environment and evaluate its impact on patient care and clinical teaching within the radiology departments of 2 institutions. Image communications over a regional PACS using an ATM network can allow interactive consultations between different subspecialist and general radiologists or other specialized radiologist spread over three different medical centers.

  9. Networking environmental metadata: a pilot project for the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, N.; Benito, M.; Abou El-Magd, I.; Mazzetti, P.; Ndong, C.

    2012-04-01

    To better exploit any environmental dataset it is necessary to provide detailed information (metadata) capable to furnish the best data description. Operating environmental data and information networking requires the long-term investment of financial and human resources. As these resources are scarce, ensuring sustainability can be a struggle. Then, to use more effectively human and economic resources and to avoid duplication, it is essential to test existing models and, where appropriate, replicate strategies and experiences. For the above reasons, it has been programmed to pilot a project to implement and test a metadata catalogue's networking, involving Countries afferent the Mediterranean Region, to demonstrate that the adoption of open source and free software and international interoperability standards can contribute to the alignment of I&TC resources to achieve environmental information sharing. This pilot, planned in the frame of the EGIDA FP7 European Project, aims to support the implementation of a replication methodology for the establishment of national/regional environmental information nodes on the bases of the System of Systems architecture concept, to support the exchange of environmental information in the frame of the Barcelona Convention and to incept a Mediterranean scale joint contribution to GEOSS focusing on partnership, infrastructures and products. To establish the partnership and to conduce interoperability tests, this pilot project build on the Info-RAC (Information and Communication Activity Centre of the United Nation Environmental Programme - Mediterranean Action Plan) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations) networks.

  10. New York/New Jersey regional seismic network

    SciTech Connect

    Seeber, L.; Simpson, D.; Johnson, D.; Armbruster, J. . Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory)

    1991-09-01

    Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (L-DGO) continued operating a 31-station seismic network covering parts of New York and New Jersey. The network is being transformed into sub-networks with stations radio telemetered to smart'' recording stations. The sub-network approach is capable of providing improved data at reduced cost. The major research effort during the period of this report was centered about the Saguenay earthquake sequence in Quebec. L-DGO collaborated with the Canadian Geologic Survey in monitoring aftershocks with temporary local stations. Analysis of data from the 1985 Ardsley earthquake in Westchester county continued with a Green's function deconvolution approach to resolve the dimensions of the rupture of the main shock (Mb=4.0) and of the largest aftershock (Mb=3.0). The results corroborate the 1/2-1 km diameter inferred for the rupture and suggest that the segmentation of the Dobbs Ferry fault and of similar in the Manhattan Prong may be controlling the size of historic earthquakes in the New York City region. Finally, a portable seismograph survey was carried out in Palco, Kansas, which showed clearly that seismicity at Palco was induced. 51 refs,, 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Regional Localization with the Hawaii Island Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perttu, A. B.; Garces, M. A.; Thelen, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Big Island of Hawaii is home to an extensive network of infrasound arrays, with additional arrays in Maui and Kauai. Four of the six Hawaii arrays are focused on Kilauea volcano. This project examines several methods for estimating source location, onset time, duration, and source energetics from regional infrasonic signals, with an emphasis on improving signal characterization. Diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional sources provide a data set for addressing localization with the Hawaii network. Explosions at the Pohakuloa Training Area, rock falls within the Halema'uma'u vent, and a repetitive unknown signal off the coast of Maui supply transient signals with known and unknown locations. In addition, Halema'uma'u and Pu'u O'o vents both produce infrasonic tremor with known locations. Well-constrained signal discrimination and characterization is essential for good location results. This paper presents progress in signal processing, feature extraction, and event association with standardized, self-similar, logarithmic time-frequency multiresolution algorithms. The Infrasonic Energy, Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite of Garces (2013) is used in conjunction with the PMCC4 array processing algorithm to extract standardized signal features and parameters for improved regional association, localization, and source characterization.

  12. Virginia Regional Seismic Network. Final report (1986--1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, G.A.; Sibol, M.S.; Chapman, M.C.; Snoke, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    In 1986, the Virginia Regional Seismic Network was one of the few fully calibrated digital seismic networks in the United States. Continued operation has resulted in the archival of signals from 2,000+ local, regional and teleseismic sources. Seismotectonic studies of the central Virginia seismic zone showed the activity in the western part to be related to a large antiformal structure while seismicity in the eastern portion is associated spatially with dike swarms. The eastern Tennessee seismic zone extends over a 300x50 km area and is the result of a compressive stress field acting at the intersection between two large crustal blocks. Hydroseismicity, which proposes a significant role for meteoric water in intraplate seismogenesis, found support in the observation of common cyclicities between streamflow and earthquake strain data. Seismic hazard studies have provided the following results: (1) Damage areas in the eastern United States are three to five times larger than those observed in the west. (2) Judged solely on the basis of cataloged earthquake recurrence rates, the next major shock in the southeast region will probably occur outside the Charleston, South Carolina area. (3) Investigations yielded necessary hazard parameters (for example, maximum magnitudes) for several sites in the southeast. Basic to these investigations was the development and maintenance of several seismological data bases.

  13. Network Optimization of Functional Connectivity within Default Mode Network Regions to Detect Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha Art; Won, Daehan; Seref, Onur; Borghesani, Paul; Askren, Mary Katie; Willis, Sherry; Grabowski, Tom

    2017-03-07

    The rapid aging of the world's population is causing an increase in the prevalence of cognitive decline and degenerative brain disease in the elderly. Current diagnoses of amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which may represent early stage Alzheimer's disease or related degenerative conditions, are based on clinical grounds. The recent emergence of advanced network analyses of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data taken at cognitive rest has provided insight that declining functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) may be correlated with neurological disorders, and particularly prodromal Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this paper is to develop a network analysis technique using fMRI data to characterize transition stages from healthy brain aging to cognitive decline. Previous studies primarily focused on internodal connectivity of the DMN and often assume functional homogeneity within each DMN region. In this paper, we develop a technique that focuses on identifying critical intra-nodal DMN connectivity by incorporating sparsity into connectivity modeling of the k-cardinality tree (KCT) problem. Most biological networks are efficient and formed by sparse connections, and the KCT can potentially reveal sparse connectivity patterns that are biologically informative. The KCT problem is NP-hard, and existing solution approaches are mostly heuristic. Mathematical formulations of the KCT problem in the literature are not compact and do not provide good solution bounds. This paper presents new KCT formulations and a fast heuristic approach to efficiently solve the KCT models for large DMN regions. The results in this study demonstrate that traditional fMRI group analysis on DMN regions cannot detect any statistically significant connectivity differences between normal aging and cognitively impaired subjects in DMN regions, and the proposed KCT approaches are more sensitive than the state-of-the-art regional homogeneity

  14. A system's view of metro and regional optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cedric F.; Way, Winston I.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in fiber optic communications have been rejuvenated after the glut of the overcapacity at the turn of the century. The boom of video-centric network applications finally resulted in another wave of vast build-outs of broadband access networks such as FTTH, DOCSIS 3.0 and WI-FI systems, which in turn also drove up the bandwidth demands in metro and regional WDM networks. These new developments have rekindled research interests on technologies not only to meet the surging demand, but also to upgrade legacy network infrastructures in an evolutionary manner without disrupting existing services and incurring significant capital penalties. Standard bodies such as IEEE, ITU and OIF have formed task forces to ratify 100Gb/s interface standards. Thanks to the seemingly unlimited bandwidth in single-mode fibers, advances in optical networks has traditionally been fueled by more capable physical components such as more powerful laser, cleaner and wider bandwidth optical amplifier, faster modulator and photo-detectors, etc. In the meanwhile, the mainstream modulation technique for fiber optic communication systems has remained the most rudimentary form of on-off keying (OOK) and direct power detection for a very long period of time because spectral efficiency had never been a concern. This scenario, however, is no longer valid as demand for bandwidth is pushing the limit of current of current WDM technologies. In terms of spectral use, all the 100-GHz ITU grids in the C-band have been populated with 10Gb/s wavelengths in most of the WDM transport networks, and we are exhausting the power and bandwidth offered on existing fiber plant EDFAs. Beyond 10Gb/s, increasing the transmission to 40Gb/s by brute force OOK approach incurs significant penalties due to chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. With conventional modulation schemes, transmission impairments at 40Gb/s speed and above already become such difficult challenges that the efforts to manage these

  15. Ground Motion Simulations for Bursa Region (Turkey) Using Input Parameters derived from the Regional Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, B.; Askan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters in Turkey and it is important to assess seismicity in different regions with the use of seismic networks. Bursa is located in Marmara Region, Northwestern Turkey and to the south of the very active North Anatolian Fault Zone. With around three million inhabitants and key industrial facilities of the country, Bursa is the fourth largest city in Turkey. Since most of the focus is on North Anatolian Fault zone, despite its significant seismicity, Bursa area has not been investigated extensively until recently. For reliable seismic hazard estimations and seismic design of structures, assessment of potential ground motions in this region is essential using both recorded and simulated data. In this study, we employ stochastic finite-fault simulation with dynamic corner frequency approach to model previous events as well to assess potential earthquakes in Bursa. To ensure simulations with reliable synthetic ground motion outputs, the input parameters must be carefully derived from regional data. In this study, using strong motion data collected at 33 stations in the region, site-specific parameters such as near-surface high frequency attenuation parameter and amplifications are obtained. Similarly, source and path parameters are adopted from previous studies that as well employ regional data. Initially, major previous events in the region are verified by comparing the records with the corresponding synthetics. Then simulations of scenario events in the region are performed. We present the results in terms of spatial distribution of peak ground motion parameters and time histories at selected locations.

  16. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  17. Inferring cultural regions from correlation networks of given baby names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomorski, Mateusz; Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Kwapień, Jarosław; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We report investigations on the statistical characteristics of the baby names given between 1910 and 2010 in the United States of America. For each year, the 100 most frequent names in the USA are sorted out. For these names, the correlations between the names profiles are calculated for all pairs of states (minus Hawaii and Alaska). The correlations are used to form a weighted network which is found to vary mildly in time. In fact, the structure of communities in the network remains quite stable till about 1980. The goal is that the calculated structure approximately reproduces the usually accepted geopolitical regions: the Northeast, the South, and the "Midwest + West" as the third one. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that the name distribution satisfies the Zipf law, separately for each state and each year, i.e. the name frequency f ∝r-α, where r is the name rank. Between 1920 and 1980, the exponent α is the largest one for the set of states classified as 'the South', but the smallest one for the set of states classified as "Midwest + West". Our interpretation is that the pool of selected names was quite narrow in the Southern states. The data is compared with some related statistics of names in Belgium, a country also with different regions, but having quite a different scale than the USA. There, the Zipf exponent is low for young people and for the Brussels citizens.

  18. Characterization of image transfer patterns in a regional trauma network.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Philipp; Weber, Thomas; Dugas, Martin; Juhra, Christian; Breil, Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    Trauma Networks are currently founded in Germany to improve patient care of severely injured persons. To assure appropriate patient treatment in a short time, the transfer of radiological image data between the connected hospitals over the internet is an important method. This paper characterizes radiological image transfer patterns in a regional trauma network and analyzes various compression options. Within the "TraumaNetwork NorthWest" in Germany, the web-based platform "MedSix" was developed. MedSix is able to transfer DICOM-data quickly and easily between connected hospitals and can be directly connected to the local PACS. Audit data of the routine system between the 01.01.2012 and the 31.12.2012 were analyzed to identify typical characteristics of radiological image exchanges. Five different compression methods were compared by a simulation. MedSix has been used by 12 hospitals. 87 % of the transfers were uploaded within 15 min. Lossless compression is able to save about 50 % bandwidth. 82 % of the transfers have a data volume of less than 200 MB. Temporary accounts for non-regular users were used regularly. Most transfers were done from small to maximum care hospitals. It is feasible to substitute physical image exchange in a trauma network with electronic exchange of radiological images between the connected hospitals. Even large datasets are transferred within an acceptable time frame. Most transfers occur from small to large hospitals. The possibility of temporary accounts seems to be a key feature for the user acceptance.

  19. PBO Southwest Region: Baja Earthquake Response and Network Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Mann, D.; Lawrence, S.; Jarvis, C.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The SW region of the Plate Boundary Observatory consists of 455 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault and Eastern California Shear Zone. In the past year network uptime exceeded an average of 97% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (307), radio (92), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual downloads (1). Sixty-three stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency. Over 620 maintenance activities were performed during 316 onsite visits out of approximately 368 engineer field days. Within the past year there have been 7 incidences of minor (attempted theft) to moderate vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. In the past 12 months, 4 new stations were installed to replace removed stations or to augment the network at strategic locations. Following the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake CGPS station P796, a deep-drilled braced monument, was constructed in San Luis, AZ along the border within 5 weeks of the event. In addition, UNAVCO participated in a successful University of Arizona-led RAPID proposal for the installation of six continuous GPS stations for post-seismic observations. Six stations are installed and telemetered through a UNAM relay at the Sierra San Pedro Martir. Four of these stations have Vaisala WXT520 meteorological sensors. An additional site in the Sierra Cucapah (PTAX) that was built by CICESE, an Associate UNAVCO Member institution in Mexico, and Caltech has been integrated into PBO dataflow. The stations will be maintained as part of the PBO network in coordination with CICESE. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to upgrade PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and communications systems capable of streaming real-time GPS and met data. The real-time GPS and

  20. Bifurcation behaviors of synchronized regions in logistic map networks with coupling delay

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Longkun E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn; Wu, Xiaoqun E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jun-an; Lü, Jinhu

    2015-03-15

    Network synchronized regions play an extremely important role in network synchronization according to the master stability function framework. This paper focuses on network synchronous state stability via studying the effects of nodal dynamics, coupling delay, and coupling way on synchronized regions in Logistic map networks. Theoretical and numerical investigations show that (1) network synchronization is closely associated with its nodal dynamics. Particularly, the synchronized region bifurcation points through which the synchronized region switches from one type to another are in good agreement with those of the uncoupled node system, and chaotic nodal dynamics can greatly impede network synchronization. (2) The coupling delay generally impairs the synchronizability of Logistic map networks, which is also dominated by the parity of delay for some nodal parameters. (3) A simple nonlinear coupling facilitates network synchronization more than the linear one does. The results found in this paper will help to intensify our understanding for the synchronous state stability in discrete-time networks with coupling delay.

  1. Regional climate network analysis from irregularly sampled satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Sykioti, Olga; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Balasis, George; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of remote sensing data Earth System Analysis has taken a great step forward. This type of data, however, also harbors a variety of conceptual complications. First, depending on whether the satellite is orbiting on an ascending or descending path systematic biases are induced into the data, and both measurements cannot be evaluated simultaneously without an appropriate preprocessing. Second, remote sensing data are usually not produced with equidistant temporal sampling, but might contain huge gaps and irregular time steps. Third, the time period covered by the data is often too short to perform an appropriate seasonal detrending. Here, we propose a general framework to create homogeneous anomalized time series for a (multivariate) satellite data set by combining time series from ascending and descending satellite paths or even different missions using principal component and singular spectrum analysis. We then exemplarily apply our method to sea surface temperature data obtained from the SMOS satellite mission to study small-scale regional correlative patterns covering different parts of the Aegean Sea. To address the issue of irregular temporal sampling we utilize a kernel weighted version of the linear cross-correlation function to compute lagged correlations between all pairs of grid points in the data set. By binarizing the thus obtained matrices, we obtain a network representation of the system's similarity structure. Ultimately, we use tools from complex network theory to study regional interdependencies in the study area for different time lags of up to forty days. We find that the obtained networks represent well the observed average wind directions and speeds and display interaction structures between small regions in the Aegean Sea, which are in good agreement with earlier observations. In a second step, we extend the study area to the whole Mediterranean and Black Sea and investigate lagged interactions between these two

  2. Quality assurance and improvement: the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network.

    PubMed

    Polaner, David M; Martin, Lynn D

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and improvement (QA/QI) is a critical activity in medicine. The use of large-scale collaborative databases is increasingly essential to obtain enough reports with which to establish standards of practice and define the incidence of complications and risk/benefit ratios for rare events. Such projects can enhance local QA/QI endeavors by enabling institutions to obtain benchmark data against which to compare their performance and can be used for prospective analyses of inter-institutional differences to determine 'best practice'. The pediatric regional anesthesia network (PRAN) is such a project. The first data cohort is currently being analyzed and offers insight into how such data can be used to detect trends in adverse events and improve care.

  3. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... National Network Collaborative Research Projects AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative... and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program--Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects (DRRP)--ADA National Network Regional...

  4. Station corrections for the Katmai Region Seismic Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2003-01-01

    Most procedures for routinely locating earthquake hypocenters within a local network are constrained to using laterally homogeneous velocity models to represent the Earth's crustal velocity structure. As a result, earthquake location errors may arise due to actual lateral variations in the Earth's velocity structure. Station corrections can be used to compensate for heterogeneous velocity structure near individual stations (Douglas, 1967; Pujol, 1988). The HYPOELLIPSE program (Lahr, 1999) used by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) to locate earthquakes in Cook Inlet and the Aleutian Islands is a robust and efficient program that uses one-dimensional velocity models to determine hypocenters of local and regional earthquakes. This program does have the capability of utilizing station corrections within it's earthquake location proceedure. The velocity structures of Cook Inlet and Aleutian volcanoes very likely contain laterally varying heterogeneities. For this reason, the accuracy of earthquake locations in these areas will benefit from the determination and addition of station corrections. In this study, I determine corrections for each station in the Katmai region. The Katmai region is defined to lie between latitudes 57.5 degrees North and 59.00 degrees north and longitudes -154.00 and -156.00 (see Figure 1) and includes Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Mount Martin, Mount Mageik, Snowy Mountain, Mount Trident, and Mount Griggs volcanoes. Station corrections were determined using the computer program VELEST (Kissling, 1994). VELEST inverts arrival time data for one-dimensional velocity models and station corrections using a joint hypocenter determination technique. VELEST can also be used to locate single events.

  5. Regional medical information network using optical memory cards and integrated services for digital network.

    PubMed

    Ogushi, Y; Misawa, T; Hayashi, Y; Ohta, Y; Suzuki, S; Horie, M; Sakashita, Y

    1995-01-01

    Since 1986, we have been developing a regional health and welfare system using optical memory cards. We have expanded the system and performed model experiments and evaluations this time. There are approximately 3000 card-holders and 23 card-reader terminals in use. They cover 50 percent of the medical facilities in the city of Isehara. Two medical clinics within neighboring cities have joined our project. Standard Deviation Index (SDI) has been introduced to standardize the numeric results of examinations. The terminals are connected with Integrated Services for Digital Network (ISDN) allowing remote access to the optical memory cards. This enhanced connectivity has allowed greater cooperation in delivering quality medical services.

  6. Technology, Integration, and Learning Environments: CEE Monograph: The NAU Centennial Year of Education. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Gary, Ed.; Gunn, Cathy, Ed.; Lapan, Stephen D., Ed.

    This volume of the Center for Excellence in Education (CEE) monograph series describes Northern Arizona University's (NAU) commitment to education and innovation. Contained within this volume are discussions of professional development courses and programs in the area of educational technology. The articles in this monograph feature educational…

  7. Validation opportunities of DOAS Network in Moscow Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovski, Alexander; Postylyakov, Oleg; Elokhov, Alexander; Ivanov, Victor; Kanaya, Yugo

    A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of Russian Academy of Science developed a network of atmosphere composition measurements by DOAS method. Measurements sites of the network are located in the centre of Moscow at IAP (55.74N, 37.62E) south-east part of the city at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (55.70N 37.53E), and in background region at Zvenigorod Scientific Station of IAP (ZSS, 55.70N, 36.78E). Intensity of the scattered solar radiation is registered in ultra-violet and visible spectrum region. Three devices are mounted at ZSS: based on MDR-23 spectrometer (since 1990), JAMSTEC MAX-DOAS (since 2008), and based on ORIEL MS257 spectrometer (since 2008). ORIEL MS260i imaging spectrometers were mounted at city stations in 2010. Measurements are regular and continuous at all stations. Basing on performed measurements of spectral radiance, the vertical distribution at twilight, the total content and the integral content in the boundary layer (ABL) in daytime of NO2 are obtained. The quantities are obtained in clear sky and cloudy conditions. Besides that, the vertical distribution of aerosol and the total content (mainly contributed by ABL) of HCHO using MAX-DOAS are calculated. The HCHO total content is retrieved with error about 20 %. We analyzed the variability of the HCHO during clear sky conditions in 2010. The HCHO content is larger during east wind directions than during non-east wind directions. It can be associated with Moscow Megacity influence on air quality at Zvenigorod. The estimation of Moscow Megacity influence on HCHO abundance at Zvenigorod is around 2.5E14 mol/cm2 per 1 km length of trajectory path inside Moscow Ring Road. Our data show statistically significant positive temperature effect in HCHO for the background condition for temperatures from -5C to +33C. The temperature trend in HCHO data at ZSS is about (8.9±2.3)E14 mol/cm2/C. The increase of the HCHO VCD during increase of the air temperature can be explained by the

  8. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  9. Mustard gas surrogate, 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES), induces centrosome amplification and aneuploidy in human and mouse cells : 2-CEES induces centrosome amplification and chromosome instability.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard A; Behrens, Elizabeth; Zinn, Ashtyn; Duncheon, Christian; Lamkin, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    Mustard gas is a simple molecule with a deadly past. First used as a chemical weapon in World War I, its simple formulation has raised concerns over its use by terrorist organizations and unstable governments. Mustard gas is a powerful vesicant and alkylating agent that causes painful blisters on epithelial surfaces and increases the incidence of cancer in those exposed. The mechanism of mustard gas toxicity and tumorigenesis is not well understood but is thought to be mediated by its ability to induce oxidative stress and DNA damage. Interestingly, several proteins that have been shown to either be targets of mustard gas or mediate mustard gas toxicity have also been shown to regulate centrosome duplication. Centrosomes are small nonmembrane-bound organelles that direct the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis through the formation of the bipolar mitotic spindle. Cells with more or less than two centrosomes during mitosis can segregate their chromosomes unequally, resulting in chromosome instability, a common phenotype of cancer cells. In our studies, we show that subtoxic levels of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES), a mustard gas analog, induce centrosome amplification and chromosome instability in cells, which may hasten the mutation rate necessary for tumorigenesis. These data may explain why those exposed to mustard gas exhibit higher incidences of cancer than unexposed individuals of the same cohort.

  10. Mapping Individual Brain Networks Using Statistical Similarity in Regional Morphology from MRI.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-zhen; Liu, Zhaoguo; Huang, Lijie; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zetian; Zhou, Guangfu; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Representing brain morphology as a network has the advantage that the regional morphology of 'isolated' structures can be described statistically based on graph theory. However, very few studies have investigated brain morphology from the holistic perspective of complex networks, particularly in individual brains. We proposed a new network framework for individual brain morphology. Technically, in the new network, nodes are defined as regions based on a brain atlas, and edges are estimated using our newly-developed inter-regional relation measure based on regional morphological distributions. This implementation allows nodes in the brain network to be functionally/anatomically homogeneous but different with respect to shape and size. We first demonstrated the new network framework in a healthy sample. Thereafter, we studied the graph-theoretical properties of the networks obtained and compared the results with previous morphological, anatomical, and functional networks. The robustness of the method was assessed via measurement of the reliability of the network metrics using a test-retest dataset. Finally, to illustrate potential applications, the networks were used to measure age-related changes in commonly used network metrics. Results suggest that the proposed method could provide a concise description of brain organization at a network level and be used to investigate interindividual variability in brain morphology from the perspective of complex networks. Furthermore, the method could open a new window into modeling the complexly distributed brain and facilitate the emerging field of human connectomics.

  11. Network Sensitivity Solutions for Regional Moment Tensor Inversions

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R

    2009-06-05

    Well-resolved moment tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. Here we introduce a new way of assessing confidence in the regional full moment tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type region for a given set of stations, and with it one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source-types with the best-fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit where the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion since the data contains some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviatoric source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. The earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (M{sub W}4.1) is dominantly explosion.

  12. New Intervention Model of Regional Transfer Network System to Alleviate Crowding of Regional Emergency Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is a serious problem in most tertiary hospitals in Korea. Although several intervention models have been established to alleviate ED crowding, they are limited to a single hospital-based approach. This study was conducted to determine whether the new regional intervention model could alleviate ED crowding in a regional emergency medical center. This study was designed as a “before and after study” and included patients who visited the tertiary hospital ED from November 2011 to October 2013. One tertiary hospital and 32 secondary hospitals were included in the study. A transfer coordinator conducted inter-hospital transfers from a tertiary hospital to a secondary hospital for suitable patients. A total of 1,607 and 2,591 patients transferred from a tertiary hospital before and after the study, respectively (P < 0.001). We found that the median ED length of stay (LOS) decreased significantly from 3.68 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 1.85 to 9.73) to 3.20 hours (IQR, 1.62 to 8.33) in the patient group after implementation of the Regional Transfer Network System (RTNS) (P < 0.001). The results of multivariate analysis showed a negative association between implementation of the RTNS and ED LOS (beta coefficient -0.743; 95% confidence interval -0.914 to -0.572; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the ED LOS in the tertiary hospital decreased after implementation of the RTNS. PMID:27134506

  13. Modeling region-based interconnection for interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Kooij, Robert E.; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2016-10-01

    Various real-world networks interact with and depend on each other. The design of the interconnection between interacting networks is one of the main challenges to achieve a robust interdependent network. Due to cost considerations, network providers are inclined to interconnect nodes that are geographically close. Accordingly, we propose two topologies, the random geographic graph and the relative neighborhood graph, for the design of interconnection in interdependent networks that incorporates the geographic location of nodes. Differing from the one-to-one interconnection studied in the literature, one node in one network can depend on an arbitrary number of nodes in the other network. We derive the average number of interdependent links for the two topologies, which enables their comparison. For the two topologies, we evaluate the impact of the interconnection structure on the robustness of interdependent networks against cascading failures. The two topologies are assessed on the real-world coupled Italian Internet and the electric transmission network. Finally, we propose the derivative of the largest mutually connected component with respect to the fraction of failed nodes as a robustness metric. This robustness metric quantifies the damage of the network introduced by a small fraction of initial failures well before the critical fraction of failures at which the whole network collapses.

  14. Learning in networks: individual teacher learning versus organizational learning in a regional health-promoting schools network.

    PubMed

    Flaschberger, Edith; Gugglberger, Lisa; Dietscher, Christina

    2013-12-01

    To change a school into a health-promoting organization, organizational learning is required. The evaluation of an Austrian regional health-promoting schools network provides qualitative data on the views of the different stakeholders on learning in this network (steering group, network coordinator and representatives of the network schools; n = 26). Through thematic analysis and deep-structure analyses, the following three forms of learning in the network were identified: (A) individual learning through input offered by the network coordination, (B) individual learning between the network schools, i.e. through exchange between the representatives of different schools and (C) learning within the participating schools, i.e. organizational learning. Learning between (B) or within the participating schools (C) seems to be rare in the network; concepts of individual teacher learning are prevalent. Difficulties detected relating to the transfer of information from the network to the member schools included barriers to organizational learning such as the lack of collaboration, coordination and communication in the network schools, which might be effects of the school system in which the observed network is located. To ensure connectivity of the information offered by the network, more emphasis should be put on linking health promotion to school development and the core processes of schools.

  15. NuPyCEE: NuGrid Python Chemical Evolution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Christian; Côté, Benoit

    2016-10-01

    The NuGrid Python Chemical Evolution Environment (NuPyCEE) simulates the chemical enrichment and stellar feedback of stellar populations. It contains three modules. The Stellar Yields for Galactic Modeling Applications module (SYGMA) models the enrichment and feedback of simple stellar populations which can be included in hydrodynamic simulations and semi-analytic models of galaxies. It is the basic building block of the One-zone Model for the Evolution of GAlaxies (OMEGA) module which allows the modelling of the chemical evolution of galaxies such as the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The STELLAB (STELLar ABundances) module provides a library of observed stellar abundances useful for comparing predictions of SYGMA and OMEGA.

  16. [Treatment of acute ST Elevation myocardial infarction in a regional network ("Drip & Ship Network Rostock")].

    PubMed

    Schneider, Henrik; Ince, Hüseyin; Rehders, Tim; Körber, Thomas; Weber, Frank; Kische, Stephan; Chatterjee, Tuchaar; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2007-12-01

    Management of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) demands rapid and complete reperfusion of the infarct-related artery (IRA). With postinfarction prognosis depending on time delay from onset of symptoms to complete reperfusion (TIMI 3 flow) of the IRA, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed by an experienced team has been shown to be superior to thrombolytic therapy with lower mortality, less frequent occurrence of nonfatal reinfarction and stroke, and thus represents the preferred treatment strategy according to the national and international guidelines. For regional implementation of PPCI, particularly in rural areas, information and transfer logistics within networks of care and direct transport of an infarction patient to a PCI hospital rather than to the closest hospital are a challenge. With successful implementation of network logistics and standardized therapeutic pathways, current guidelines and requested timelines versus thrombolysis could be met. The implemented logistics comprised 24 h/7 days stand-by services of an experienced PCI team, direct telephone hotline contact between rescue service/emergency physician and interventional cardiologist on call, and direct open access to a catheterization laboratory at any time. Within the Drip&Ship network Rostock, to date (July 2007) 1,022 consecutive patients with PCI for STEMI were documented and analyzed over 5 years; of these, 490 patients were transferred from a community hospital to the PCI center and 532 patients were admitted directly to the interventional center. In 95.1% of all transferred and in 94.8% of all directly admitted patients, PCI was successfully accomplished upon arrival. A normalized flow to the IRA after PCI was documented in 96% of both groups, no patient was subjected to thrombolytic therapy. At 12-month follow-up, there were no differences between both groups with respect to infarct size and mortality. Moreover, there was no evidence of differences in

  17. Toward Regional Clusters: Networking Events, Collaborative Research, and the Business Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichling, Tim; Moos, Benjamin; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker

    Networks of regionally collocated organizations improve the competitiveness of their member companies. This is not only a result of lower transportation costs when delivering or purchasing physical goods but also other matters such as mutual trust or a higher diffusion of specialized knowledge among companies that have emerged as important aspects of regional networks. Even increased competition among collocated companies can lead to comparative advantages over externals as a result of an increased pressure for innovation. While the reasons why regional networks of companies offer comparative advantages has been widely investigated, the question arises as to how networks can be developed in terms of higher interconnectedness and deeper connections.

  18. Networking for the Region and beyond--Role of the Southeast Asian Geography Association (SEAGA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Giok Ling; Goh, Kim Chuan

    2008-01-01

    Networking among geographers in the Southeast Asian region is a challenge because of language and other barriers such as the costs of travel as well as keeping up communications and information flows. This networking effort however, is crucial to research and scholarship on issues that are relevant to the region. Many of these concern sustainable…

  19. Health impact assessment in CEE region: case of the former Czechoslovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Gulis, Gabriel

    2004-02-01

    This paper is based on the author's personnel experience in the Slovak Republic and on information gathered during a health impact assessment (HIA) workshop with participants from Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia. There is a long tradition of health impact assessment in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the former Czechoslovakia, legislation made in 1966, although it did not explicitly mention HIA, provided a legal basis and made the public hygiene service responsible for assessment of health impacts. However, political structures, prevalent values, reliance on limit-based comparisons, and lack of adequate training meant that HIA had little influence on decision making. Political changes since 1990 are allowing development of HIA. This experience highlights the importance of values and methods in undertaking HIA.

  20. Network sensitivity solutions for regional moment-tensor inversions

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Sean R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Walter, William R.

    2010-09-20

    Well-resolved moment-tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. In this paper,we introduce a newly of assessing confidence in the regional full moment-tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example, an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type distribution for a given set of stations; and with it, one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source types with the best fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit in which the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion because the data contain some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviator source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. As a result, the earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (Mw 4.1) is dominantly explosion.

  1. Network sensitivity solutions for regional moment-tensor inversions

    DOE PAGES

    Ford, Sean R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Walter, William R.

    2010-09-20

    Well-resolved moment-tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. In this paper,we introduce a newly of assessing confidence in the regional full moment-tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example, an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-typemore » distribution for a given set of stations; and with it, one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source types with the best fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit in which the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion because the data contain some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviator source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. As a result, the earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (Mw 4.1) is dominantly explosion.« less

  2. Comparison of sulfur measurements from a regional fine particle network with concurrent acid modes network results

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.L.; Stockburger, L.; Barnes, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fine Particle Network (FPN), a system of fine particle (less than 2.5 micrometers) samplers, was operated at 41 sites selected from the Enviromental Protection Agency Acid MODES program during the two year period in 1988-90. The 24-hour sample results included fine particle mass and the most predominant chemical element concentrations determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis. Statistical summaries of the fine mass and sulfur concentrations by site and season were prepared. The availability of simultaneous particulate sulfate measurements from independent collection and analytical procedures provided an opportunity to examine their agreement and provide a more reliable data base for evaluation of regional particulate models and estimation of contribution to urban aerosol concentration.

  3. Optical "Turn off" based selective detection and concomitant degradation of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via Mg-porphyrazine complex immobilized on glass.

    PubMed

    Neelam; Singh, Vikram; Gupta, Tarkeshwar

    2014-02-17

    Covalently assembled monolayers (CAMs) of Mg-porphyrazine complex on glass and silicon substrates were fabricated and employed as "Turn off" sensor for ppm level detection and degradation of a sulfur mustard analogue: 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The detection process was read-out optically via an off-the-shelf UV/Vis spectrophotometer in transmission mode. Monolayer based sensor system was shown to be quite robust and stable, sufficiently accurate and reversible under given experimental conditions. Notably, the sensor system exhibited marked selectivity for CEES when exposed exclusively or in mix to different potent analytes. Moreover, action of KMnO4 on monolayer-CEES complex lead to CEES degradation and resetting of the sensor to its native state for reuse.

  4. Functional Network Architecture of Reading-Related Regions across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Church, Jessica A.; Power, Jonathan D.; Miezin, Fran M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    Reading requires coordinated neural processing across a large number of brain regions. Studying relationships between reading-related regions informs the specificity of information processing performed in each region. Here, regions of interest were defined from a meta-analysis of reading studies, including a developmental study. Relationships…

  5. Regional information network systems on Scientific research - two examples of Ishikawa and Toyama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, Kenji

    Science and Technology Agency has been promoting regional information network systems on scientific research. The common purpose of the systems is to enhance good communications among various researchers in regions as well as between researchers in Tsukuba and researchers in regions, and accordingly to contribute to the evolution of the regional R&D. These network systems with the help of the pursonal computor communication system have been carried out as prototypes since 1988, in not only Tsukuba area, but four other regions. Two of them are in Ishikawa prefecture and Toyama prefecture. The situations and details of the two are explained.

  6. Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S. Alex; Andreeff, Michael; MacLeod, Michael C.; DiGiovanni, John

    2011-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by {approx} 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: > CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. > CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. > The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.

  7. Faster R-CNN: Towards Real-Time Object Detection with Region Proposal Networks.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shaoqing; He, Kaiming; Girshick, Ross; Sun, Jian

    2016-06-06

    State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet [1] and Fast R-CNN [2] have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. The RPN is trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. We further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutional features-using the recently popular terminology of neural networks with 'attention' mechanisms, the RPN component tells the unified network where to look. For the very deep VGG-16 model [3], our detection system has a frame rate of 5fps (including all steps) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012, and MS COCO datasets with only 300 proposals per image. In ILSVRC and COCO 2015 competitions, Faster R-CNN and RPN are the foundations of the 1st-place winning entries in several tracks. Code has been made publicly available.

  8. Data Communications and Networking. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, Diane

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college instructors and administrators in implementing a data communications networking course. A student course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required text, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A…

  9. Evaluation of the streamflow-gaging network of Alaska in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1906, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began operating a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska. The primary purpose of the streamflow- gaging network has been to provide peak flow, average flow, and low-flow characteristics to a variety of users. In 1993, the USGS began a study to evaluate the current network of 78 stations. The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the existing network in predicting selected regional flow characteristics and to determine if providing additional streamflow-gaging stations could improve the network's ability to predict these characteristics. Alaska was divided into six distinct hydrologic regions: Arctic, Northwest, Southcentral, Southeast, Southwest, and Yukon. For each region, historical and current streamflow data were compiled. In Arctic, Northwest, and Southwest Alaska, insufficient data were available to develop regional regression equations. In these areas, proposed locations of streamflow-gaging stations were selected by using clustering techniques to define similar areas within a region and by spatial visual analysis using the precipitation, physiographic, and hydrologic unit maps of Alaska. Sufficient data existed in Southcentral and Southeast Alaska to use generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to develop regional regression equations to estimate the 50-year peak flow, annual average flow, and a low-flow statistic. GLS procedures were also used for Yukon Alaska but the results should be used with caution because the data do not have an adequate spatial distribution. Network analysis procedures were used for the Southcentral, Southeast, and Yukon regions. Network analysis indicates the reduction in the sampling error of the regional regression equation that can be obtained given different scenarios. For Alaska, a 10-year planning period was used. One scenario showed the results of continuing the current network with no additional gaging stations and another scenario showed the results

  10. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0213, September 7, 2010. Vulnerability testing of EPA’s Region 4 network conducted in June 2010 identified Internet Protocol addresses with numerous high-risk and medium-risk vulnerabilities.

  11. Metadata Harvesting in Regional Digital Libraries in the PIONIER Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Cezary; Stroinski, Maciej; Werla, Marcin; Weglarz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present the concept of the functionality of metadata harvesting for regional digital libraries, based on the OAI-PMH protocol. This functionality is a part of regional digital libraries platform created in Poland. The platform was required to reach one of main objectives of the Polish PIONIER Programme--to enrich the…

  12. The structural robustness of geographical networks against regional failure and their pre-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Chaogeng; Shen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Failures of real-world infrastructure networks due to natural disasters often originate in a certain region, but this feature has seldom been considered in theoretical models. In this article, we introduce a possible failure pattern of geographical networks-"regional failure"-by which nodes and edges within a region malfunction. Based on a previous spatial network model (Louf et al., 2013), we study the robustness of geographical networks against regional failure, which is measured by the fraction of nodes that remain in the largest connected component, via simulations. A small-area failure results in a large reduction of their robustness measure. Furthermore, we investigate two pre-deployed mechanisms to enhance their robustness: One is to extend the cost-benefit growth mechanism of the original network model by adding more than one link in a growth step, and the other is to strengthen the interconnection of hubs in generated networks. We measure the robustness-enhancing effects of both mechanisms on the basis of their costs, i.e., the amount of excessive links and the induced geographical length. The latter mechanism is better than the former one if a normal level of costs is considered. When costs exceed a certain level, the former has an advantage. Because the costs of excessive links affect the investment decision of real-world infrastructure networks, it is practical to enhance their robustness by adding more links between hubs. These results might help design robust geographical networks economically.

  13. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    1992-01-01

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  14. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  15. Analysis of Swine Movement in Four Canadian Regions: Network Structure and Implications for Disease Spread.

    PubMed

    Thakur, K K; Revie, C W; Hurnik, D; Poljak, Z; Sanchez, J

    2016-02-01

    Direct and indirect contacts among animal holdings are important in the spread of infectious diseases. The objectives of this study were to describe networks of pig movements and the sharing of trucks used for those movements between swine farms in four Canadian regions using network analysis tools and to obtain contact parameters for infectious disease spread simulation models. Four months of swine movement data from a pilot pig traceability programme were used. Two types of networks were created using three time scales (weekly, monthly and the full study period): one-mode networks of farm-to-farm direct contact representing animal shipments and two-mode networks representing the sharing of trucks between farms. Contact patterns among farms were described by estimating a range of relevant network measures. The overall network neglecting the four regions consisted of 145 farms, which were connected by 261 distinct links. A total of 184 trucks were used to transport 2043 shipments of pigs during the study period. The median in- and out-degree for the overall one-mode network was 1 and ranged from 0 to 26 and 0 to 10, respectively. The overall one-mode network had heterogeneous degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient and shorter average path length than would be expected for randomly generated networks of similar size. On average one truck was shared by four farms in the overall network, or by three farms when considered the monthly and weekly networks. Degree distribution of the two-mode overall network demonstrated characteristics of power-law distribution. For more than 50% of shipments on any given day, the same truck was used for at least one other shipment. Findings from this study are in agreement with previous work, which suggested that swine movement networks exhibit small-world and scale-free topologies. Furthermore, trucks used for the shipment of pigs can play an important role in connecting otherwise unconnected farms and may increase the

  16. Regional myocardial flow heterogeneity explained with fractal networks

    PubMed Central

    VAN BEEK, JOHANNES H. G. M.; ROGER, STEPHEN A.; BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.

    2010-01-01

    There is explain how the distribution of flow broadens with an increase in the spatial resolution of the measurement, we developed fractal models for vascular networks. A dichotomous branching network of vessels represents the arterial tree and connects to a similar venous network. A small difference in vessel lengths and radii between the two daughter vessels, with the same degree of asymmetry at each branch generation, predicts the dependence of the relative dispersion (mean ± SD) on spatial resolution of the perfusion measurement reasonably well. When the degree of asymmetry increases with successive branching, a better fit to data on sheep and baboons results. When the asymmetry is random, a satisfactory fit is found. These models show that a difference in flow of 20% between the daughter vessels at a branch point gives a relative dispersion of flow of ~30% when the heart is divided into 100–200 pieces. Although these simple models do not represent anatomic features accurately, they provide valuable insight on the heterogeneity of flow within the heart. PMID:2589520

  17. [Network Analyses in Regional Health Care Research: Example of Dermatological Care in the Metropolitan Region of Hamburg].

    PubMed

    Augustin, J; Austermann, J; Erasmi, S

    2016-10-18

    Background: One of the overall objectives of the legislator is to ensure an overall "homogeneous", and easily accessible medical care for the population. The physician-patient ratio can be used to describe the regional health care situation. But this method does not provide information concerning the availability of, for instance, the nearest doctor. Therefore, further parameters such as accessibility must be taken into consideration. For this purpose, network analyses are an appropriate method. The objective of this study is to present methodological tools to evaluate the healthcare situation in the metropolitan region of Hamburg, primarily focusing on accessibility using dermatologists as an example. Methods: Analyzing data of 20 counties, the geographical distribution of N=357 dermatologists and the physician-patient ratio were calculated. In a second step, a network analysis regarding accessibility was performed. In order to calculate accessibility, address data (physicians) were transformed into coordinates, consisting of defined places (N=303) and restrictions (e. g. speed, turn restrictions) of the network. The calculation of population-based accessibility is based on grid cells for the population density. Results: Despite adequacy of the overall medical situation, differences in the availability of the nearest dermatologists in the metropolitan region are remarkable, particularly when use of public transport is taken into consideration. In some counties, over 60% of the population require at least one hour to get to the nearest dermatologist using public transportation. In rural regions within the metropolitan area are particularly affected. Conclusion: The network analysis has shown that the choice and availability of transportation in combination with the location (rural/urban) is essential for health care access. Especially elderly people in rural areas with restricted mobility are at a disadvantage. Therefore, modern health care approaches (e

  18. Test of the Use of Regional Networks for OPUS Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil D.; Ray, Jim R.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the performance of two processing methodologies for the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS), a web-based tool to process GPS data offered by the National Geodetic Survey, NOAA. The current operational implementation of OPUS (OPUS-S) uses reference station data from the U.S. National CORS Network and fixed IGS ephemerides to compute independent, double-differenced baseline solutions between the unknown and three neighboring CORS reference stations. All computations use relative antenna patterns, phase ambiguity integer fixing, relative troposphere modeling (GPT and GMF a priori models), and are performed in the ITRF2000 (IGb00) reference frame. The most accurate IGS orbits available at the time of processing are used. Although the three baselines are not strictly independent because of local biases, such as multipath at the rover, the solutions are analyzed to identify problems with any of the baselines before they are averaged to obtain a final set of coordinates and uncertainties. A new OPUS processing methodology has been tested using a network approach (OPUS-Net). Otherwise the analysis models and weighted least squares adjustment method are unchanged, except that models for absolute antenna patterns and ocean tide loading are also implemented. The network consists of a rover, three nearby CORS reference stations, and up to 10 reference stations from the global IGS network (IGS05). The multipliers for the a priori weights for the CORS and IGS reference station monument sigmas (meters) in the adjustment are 0.1 and 1000.0 respectively, mainly because the coordinates and velocities for the IGS05 stations are much more precisely known and monitored. To evaluate the positioning performance of the two OPUS approaches, GPS reference station data from three CORS stations (azco, brew, p036) were used as rovers. Approximately 360 daily datasets from each of the three stations collected in 2008 were submitted to each OPUS version for processing. The

  19. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Huai; Yao, Zhi-Jian; Qin, Jiao-Long; Yan, Rui; Hua, Ling-Ling; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear. This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients. Methods: The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls. The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed, and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology, but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found. Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions. Conclusions: All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients, including an impaired capability of local information processing, reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions. Thus, these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network. PMID:26960371

  20. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  1. The Ordered Network Structure and Prediction Summary for M≥7 Earthquakes in Xinjiang Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-12-01

    M ≥7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a × k (k = 1,2,3), 11 ~ 12 a, 41 ~ 43 a, 18 ~ 19 a, and 5 ~ 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019 - 2020 and 2025 - 2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  2. Functional connectivity analysis using whole brain and regional network metrics in MS patients.

    PubMed

    Chirumamilla, V C; Fleischer, V; Droby, A; Anjum, T; Muthuraman, M; Zipp, F; Groppa, S

    2016-08-01

    In the present study we investigated brain network connectivity differences between patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and healthy controls (HC) as derived from functional resonance magnetic imaging (fMRI) using graph theory. Resting state fMRI data of 18 RRMS patients (12 female, mean age ± SD: 42 ± 12.06 years) and 25 HC (8 female, 29.2 ± 5.38 years) were analyzed. In order to obtain information of differences in entire brain network, we focused on both, local and global network connectivity parameters. And the regional connectivity differences were assessed using regional network parameters. RRMS patients presented a significant increase of modularity in comparison to HC, pointing towards a network structure with densely interconnected nodes within one module, while the number of connections with other modules outside decreases. This higher decomposable network favours cost-efficient local information processing and promotes long-range disconnection. In addition, at the regional anatomical level, the network parameters clustering coefficient and local efficiency were increased in the insula, the superior parietal gyrus and the temporal pole. Our study indicates that modularity as derived from fMRI can be seen as a characteristic connectivity feature that is increased in MS patients compared to HC. Furthermore, specific anatomical regions linked to perception, motor function and cognition were mainly involved in the enhanced local information processing.

  3. The role of personal social networks on health inequalities across European regions.

    PubMed

    Craveiro, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    The role of personal social networks on health inequalities is little understood. Theoretically, the characteristics of social network features can contribute to, both, increase and attenuate health inequalities. Few empirical studies that focus on the interaction between socioeconomic position and social networks provide little insight on the topic. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this study analyses the moderation role of personal social networks on health inequalities in later life among northern, central, and southern European regions. Social advantages of higher socioeconomic individuals are re-enforced by the quality of social connections and the provision of social support. In turn, health inequality is attenuated by marital partnership and participation on social activities that benefits more the health of people at lower socioeconomic positions. Furthermore, results suggest that the influence of social network features on health inequalities is shaped by regions' different policy commitments to familiarization/defamilialization pressures.

  4. The Study of Development Strategy for Bank Distribution Network through the Analysis of Inter-regional Financial Transaction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jae Weon; Hong, Won Eui; Kwak, Yoon Sik

    This study attempts to shed light on the factors that influence the locations of bank branches in establishing a bank's distribution network from the angle of the network analysis. Whereas the previous studies analyzed the locations of bank branches on the basis of their geographical characteristics and image, the significance of this study rests upon the fact that it endeavors to explore the location factors from a new perspective of the movement path of financial customers. For this analysis, the network between administrative districts, which form the fundamental unit of a location, was analyzed based on the financial transactional data. The important findings of this study are as follows. First, in conformity with the previous studies, the income level, the spending level, the number of businesses, and the size of workforce in the pertinent region were all found to influence the size of a bank's market. Second, the centrality index extracted from the analysis of the network was found to have a significant effect on the locations of bank branches. In particular, the degree centrality was revealed to have a greater influence on the size of a bank's market than does the closeness centrality. Such results of this study clearly suggest the needs for a new approach from the perspective of network in furtherance of other factors that have been considered important in the previous studies of the distribution network strategies.

  5. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals.

  6. USING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING OF A REGIONAL COMMUNITY CANCER NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to reduce cancer health disparities. In order to describe the network characteristics of the TBCCN as part of our ongoing evaluation efforts, we conducted social network analysis surveys with our community partners in 2007 and 2008. One key finding showed that the mean trust value for the 20 community partners in the study increased from 1.8 to 2.1 (p<0.01), suggesting a trend toward increased trust in the network. These preliminary results suggest that TBCCN has led to greater collaboration among the community partners that were formed through its capacity-building and evidence-based dissemination activities for impacting cancer health disparities at the community level. PMID:24049217

  7. Regional Differences in the Developmental Trajectory of Lateralization of the Language Network

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Madison M.; Mayo, Jessica; Parks, Erin N.; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis

    2012-01-01

    The timing and developmental factors underlying the establishment of language dominance are poorly understood. We investigated the degree of lateralization of traditional fronto-temporal and modulatory prefrontal-cerebellar regions of the distributed language network in children (n=57) ages 4 to 12 – a critical period for language consolidation. We examined the relationship between the strength of language lateralization and neuropsychological measures and task performance. The fundamental language network is established by four with ongoing maturation of language functions as evidenced by strengthening of lateralization in the traditional frontotemporal language regions; temporal regions were strongly and consistently lateralized by seven, while frontal regions had greater variability and were less strongly lateralized through age ten. In contrast, the modulatory prefrontal-cerebellar regions were the least strongly lateralized and degree of lateralization was not associated with age. Stronger core language skills were significantly correlated with greater right lateralization in the cerebellum. PMID:23033058

  8. The “Picardie en Forme” Network: Federating Regional Health-enhancing Sports Resources

    PubMed

    Weissland, Thierry; Passavant, Éric; Allal, Aziz; Amiard, Valérie; Antczak, Boris; Manzo, Julie

    2016-06-08

    Initiated by the Regional Olympic and Sports Committee and the Regional Directorate of Youth, Sports and Social Cohesion, the “Picardie en Forme” network has been working since 2011 in favour of adults of all ages, with chronic noncommunicable or similar diseases, to encourage a gradual return to reassuring and perennial regular physical activity,. A first step consisted of organizing a care pathway based on two principles: inform general practitioners so that they can encourage their patients to be physically active by referring them to the network, develop a range of local sports by accrediting certain clubs with sports instructors who have been trained in the management of this specific population. In 2013, 121 users entered the network at the request of 61 doctors. 48 sports instructors were trained and 20 associations obtained the Picardie en Forme label. Comparison of the results of tests performed on entry in the network and then eight months later shows a general physical reconditioning of users, increasing their motivation and perceived physical value. However, despite these encouraging results, the network has difficulty retaining users, and maintaining the involvement of general practitioners and certain local partners. This article discusses the relevance of initial approaches and describes the changes made to sustain this regional network, which, for the first time, links sport, health and users.

  9. The social network-network: size is predicted by brain structure and function in the amygdala and paralimbic regions.

    PubMed

    Von Der Heide, Rebecca; Vyas, Govinda; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-12-01

    The social brain hypothesis proposes that the large size of the primate neocortex evolved to support complex and demanding social interactions. Accordingly, recent studies have reported correlations between the size of an individual's social network and the density of gray matter (GM) in regions of the brain implicated in social cognition. However, the reported relationships between GM density and social group size are somewhat inconsistent with studies reporting correlations in different brain regions. One factor that might account for these discrepancies is the use of different measures of social network size (SNS). This study used several measures of SNS to assess the relationships SNS and GM density. The second goal of this study was to test the relationship between social network measures and functional brain activity. Participants performed a social closeness task using photos of their friends and unknown people. Across the VBM and functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, individual differences in SNS were consistently related to structural and functional differences in three regions: the left amygdala, right amygdala and the right entorhinal/ventral anterior temporal cortex.

  10. Prediction of Biological Motion Perception Performance from Intrinsic Brain Network Regional Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengjian; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Bishan; Chang, Song; Pan, Jinghua; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biological motion perception (BMP) refers to the ability to perceive the moving form of a human figure from a limited amount of stimuli, such as from a few point lights located on the joints of a moving body. BMP is commonplace and important, but there is great inter-individual variability in this ability. This study used multiple regression model analysis to explore the association between BMP performance and intrinsic brain activity, in order to investigate the neural substrates underlying inter-individual variability of BMP performance. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and BMP performance data were collected from 24 healthy participants, for whom intrinsic brain networks were constructed, and a graph-based network efficiency metric was measured. Then, a multiple linear regression model was used to explore the association between network regional efficiency and BMP performance. We found that the local and global network efficiency of many regions was significantly correlated with BMP performance. Further analysis showed that the local efficiency rather than global efficiency could be used to explain most of the BMP inter-individual variability, and the regions involved were predominately located in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Additionally, discrimination analysis showed that the local efficiency of certain regions such as the thalamus could be used to classify BMP performance across participants. Notably, the association pattern between network nodal efficiency and BMP was different from the association pattern of static directional/gender information perception. Overall, these findings show that intrinsic brain network efficiency may be considered a neural factor that explains BMP inter-individual variability. PMID:27853427

  11. Regional Webgis User Access Patterns Based on a Weighted Bipartite Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Shen, Y.; Huang, W.; Wu, H.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of geographic information services, Web Geographic Information Systems (WebGIS) have become an indispensable part of everyday life; correspondingly, map search engines have become extremely popular with users and WebGIS sites receive a massive volume of requests for access. These WebGIS users and the content accessed have regional characteristics; to understand regional patterns, we mined regional WebGIS user access patterns based on a weighted bipartite network. We first established a weighted bipartite network model for regional user access to a WebGIS. Then, based on the massive user WebGIS access logs, we clustered geographic information accessed and thereby identified hot access areas. Finally we quantitatively analyzed the access interests of regional users and the visitation volume characteristics of regional user access to these hot access areas in terms of user access permeability, user usage rate, and user access viscosity. Our research results show that regional user access to WebGIS is spatially aggregated, and the hot access areas that regional users accessed are associated with specific periods of time. Most regional user contact with hot accessed areas is variable and intermittent but for some users, their access to certain areas is continuous as it is associated with ongoing or recurrent objectives. The weighted bipartite network model for regional user WebGIS access provides a valid analysis method for studying user behaviour in WebGIS and the proposed access pattern exhibits access interest of regional user is spatiotemporal aggregated and presents a heavy-tailed distribution. Understanding user access patterns is good for WebGIS providers and supports better operational decision-making, and helpful for developers when optimizing WebGIS system architecture and deployment, so as to improve the user experience and to expand the popularity of WebGIS.

  12. Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Senay Habtezion (shabtezion@start.org) / Hassan Virji (hvirji@start.org)Global Change SySTem for Analysis, Training and Research (START) (www.start.org) 2000 Florida Avenue NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20009 USA As part of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) project partnership effort to promote use of earth observations in advancing scientific knowledge, START works to bridge capacity needs related to earth observations (EOs) and their applications in the developing world. GOFC-GOLD regional networks, fostered through the support of regional and thematic workshops, have been successful in (1) enabling participation of scientists for developing countries and from the US to collaborate on key GOFC-GOLD and Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC) issues, including NASA Global Data Set validation and (2) training young developing country scientists to gain key skills in EOs data management and analysis. Members of the regional networks are also engaged and reengaged in other EOs programs (e.g. visiting scientists program; data initiative fellowship programs at the USGS EROS Center and Boston University), which has helped strengthen these networks. The presentation draws from these experiences in advocating for integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building through the lens of the GOFC-GOLD partnership effort. Specifically, this presentation describes the role of the GODC-GOLD partnership in nurturing organic networks of scientists and EOs practitioners in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

  13. Between-network connectivity occurs in brain regions lacking layer IV input.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Korey P; Kronberg, Eugene; Maharajh, Keeran; Smucny, Jason; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-08-01

    To better understand the cortical circuitry underlying connectivity between large-scale neural networks, we develop a novel, data-driven approach to identify potential integration subregions. Between-network connectivity (BNC) associated with any anatomical region is the amount of connectivity between that point and all large-scale networks, as measured using simple and multiple correlations. It is straightforward to calculate and applicable to functional networks identified using independent components analysis. We calculated BNC for all fMRI voxels within the brain and compared the results to known regional cytoarchitectural patterns. Based on previous observations of the relationship between macroscopic connectivity and microscopic cytoarchitecture, we predicted that areas with high BNC will be located in paralimbic subregions with an undifferentiated laminar structure. Results suggest that the anterior insula and dorsal posterior cingulate cortices play prominent roles in information integration. Cytoarchitecturely, these areas show agranular or dysgranular cytologies with absent or disrupted cortical layer IV. Since layer IV is the primary recipient of feed-forward thalamocortical connections, and due to the exclusive nature of driving connections to this layer, we suggest that the absence of cortical layer IV might allow for information to be exchanged across networks, and is an organizational characteristic of brain-subregions serving as inter-network communication hubs.

  14. Between-Network Connectivity occurs in brain regions lacking layer IV input

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Korey P.; Kronberg, Eugene; Maharajh, Keeran; Smucny, Jason; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Tregellas, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the cortical circuitry underlying connectivity between large-scale neural networks, we develop a novel, data-driven approach to identify potential integration subregions. Between-Network Connectivity (BNC) associated with any anatomical region is the amount of connectivity between that point and all large-scale networks, as measured using simple and multiple correlations. It is straightforward to calculate and applicable to functional networks identified using Independent Components Analysis. We calculated BNC for all fMRI voxels within the brain and compared the results to known regional cytoarchitectural patterns. Based on previous observations of the relationship between macroscopic connectivity and microscopic cytoarchitecture, we predicted that areas with high BNC will be located in paralimbic subregions with an undifferentiated laminar structure. Results suggest that the anterior insula and dorsal posterior cingulate cortices play prominent roles in information integration. Cytoarchitecturely, these areas show agranular or dysgranular cytologies with absent or disrupted cortical layer IV. Since layer IV is the primary recipient of feed-forward thalamocortical connections, and due to the exclusive nature of driving connections to this layer, we suggest that the absence of cortical layer IV might allow for information to be exchanged across networks, and is an organizational characteristic of brain-subregions serving as inter-network communication hubs. PMID:25979667

  15. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  16. Combined networked switching output feedback control with ?-region stability for performance improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, George; Dritsas, Leonidas; Delshad, Saleh S.

    2014-06-01

    In this article, a combined networked switching output feedback control scheme, with a ?-region stability performance improvement module is presented. The network induced time delays, that are considered to be time varying and integer multiples of the sampling period, are being embedded in the system model, by state augmentation. The resulting model of the overall networked closed-loop system is switching, with the current measured round-trip time delay acting as the switching rule. Based on this modelling approach, a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) tuned switching output feedback controller is designed. The proposed approach establishes robustness against time delays and is able to guarantee the overall stability of the switching closed-loop system. Integrated in the controlled synthesis phase, an LMI tuned performance improvement module is being introduced, based on ?-region stability. Multiple simulation results are being presented that prove the efficacy of the proposed scheme.

  17. Estimation of relative humidity based on artificial neural network approach in the Aegean Region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Abdulkadir; Simsek, Erdoğan; Bilgili, Mehmet; Yucel, Ahmet; Ilhan, Ilhami

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the monthly mean relative humidity (MRH) values in the Aegean Region of Turkey with the help of the topographical and meteorological parameters based on artificial neural network (ANN) approach. The monthly MRH values were calculated from the measurement in the meteorological observing stations established in Izmir, Mugla, Aydin, Denizli, Usak, Manisa, Kutahya and Afyonkarahisar provinces between 2000 and 2006. Latitude, longitude, altitude, precipitation and months of the year were used in the input layer of the ANN network, while the MRH was used in output layer of the network. The ANN model was developed using MATLAB software, and then actual values were compared with those obtained by ANN and multi-linear regression methods. It seemed that the obtained values were in the acceptable error limits. It is concluded that the determination of relative humidity values is possible at any target point of the region where the measurement cannot be performed.

  18. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pinnock, Farena; Parlar, Melissa; Hawco, Colin; Hanford, Lindsay; Hall, Geoffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite score (T = 50 ± 10) and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n = 39) had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n = 17) and below-normal range (n = 49) patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n = 24) or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment. PMID:28348889

  19. Networked Interactive Whiteboards: Rationale, Affordances and New Pedagogies for Regional Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an argument for the use of networked interactive whiteboards (NIWBs) in regional Australian higher education and identifies new pedagogies for this context. Most Australian universities operate multiple campuses, and many use video conference facilities to deliver courses across these sites. For students at remote video…

  20. Attention Performance Measured by Attention Network Test Is Correlated with Global and Regional Efficiency of Structural Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Min; Ge, Haitao; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S.; Xu, Junhai; Bezgin, Gleb; Leng, Yuan; Zhao, Lu; Tang, Yuchun; Ge, Xinting; Jeon, Seun; Xu, Wenjian; Evans, Alan C.; Liu, Shuwei

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of separate brain areas in three distinct attention systems: alerting, orienting, and executive control (EC). However, the structural correlates underlying attention remains unexplored. Here, we utilized graph theory to examine the neuroanatomical substrates of the three attention systems measured by attention network test (ANT) in 65 healthy subjects. White matter connectivity, assessed with diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography was modeled as a structural network comprising 90 nodes defined by the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) template. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between topological parameters and the three attentional effects. We found a significant positive correlation between EC function and global efficiency of the whole brain network. At the regional level, node-specific correlations were discovered between regional efficiency and all three ANT components, including dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus, thalamus and parahippocampal gyrus for EC, thalamus and inferior parietal gyrus for alerting, and paracentral lobule and inferior occipital gyrus for orienting. Our findings highlight the fundamental architecture of interregional structural connectivity involved in attention and could provide new insights into the anatomical basis underlying human behavior. PMID:27777556

  1. Antarctic VLNDEF Network for Regional Deformation Control in Absolute Reference Frame: Problems and Possible Solution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, A.; Gandolfi, S.; Mancini, F.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.

    2004-05-01

    VLNDEF (Victoria Land Network for DEFormationn control) Geodetic Program addresses the crustal deformation control of the Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) by means of geodetic GPS measurements. The project is within the activity of GIANT (Geodetic Infrastructure of Antarctica) SCAR Program and was established within the actions of ANTEC (ANTarctic NeoTECtonics) Group of Specialists. During 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 Italian expeditions a network of 27 stations was established and completely surveyed over an area extending from the southernmost points at 70 degrees latitude south to the Oates Coast region at 76°S, corresponding to a wideness of 700 km along the south-north and 300 km in the west to east directions. The average distance between stations is about of 70-80 km. During the field activities in the 2002-03 expedition the whole network was surveyed. During those expeditions long time sessions of connection between VLNDEF and TAMDEF networks performed. TAMDEF is a USA NSF program for crustal deformation control on southern Victoria Land. The dataset has been processed using different package such as Bernese and Gipsy in order to compare solutions and fix the better approach for the transition between reference frame. The first solution was initially constrained in the ITRF97 solution using the TNB1 GPS permanent station coordinate provided by the SCAR GPS Epoch solution. The approach to crustal deformation determination is relevant in terms of relative regional deformation, among the network stations, and the absolute deformation study, through the connection to international reference frame. Particularly important is the study of for VLNDEF in order to integrated evaluation with other continental and regional networks, as SCAR GPS Epoch and TAMDEF.Some aspects related to the data processing in the Antarctic region and the use of the ITRF2000 as reference frame will be discussed in the paper in addition to the analysis of the deformation in the area.

  2. Soy sauce classification by geographic region and fermentation based on artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Libin; Li, Yang; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong; Wang, Chao; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yueze; Chen, Shigui; Li, Dongsheng

    2014-12-24

    This work demonstrated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to classify soy sauce from China. The aroma profiles of different soy sauce samples were differentiated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The soy sauce samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 and 15 volatile aroma compounds were selected for sensitivity analysis to classify the samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively. The 15 selected samples can be classified by fermentation and geographic region with a prediction success rate of 100%. Furans and phenols represented the variables with the greatest contribution in classifying soy sauce samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively.

  3. Bayesian WLS/GLS regression for regional skewness analysis for regions with large crest stage gage networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes methodological advances in regional log-space skewness analyses that support flood-frequency analysis with the log Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution. A Bayesian Weighted Least Squares/Generalized Least Squares (B-WLS/B-GLS) methodology that relates observed skewness coefficient estimators to basin characteristics in conjunction with diagnostic statistics represents an extension of the previously developed B-GLS methodology. B-WLS/B-GLS has been shown to be effective in two California studies. B-WLS/B-GLS uses B-WLS to generate stable estimators of model parameters and B-GLS to estimate the precision of those B-WLS regression parameters, as well as the precision of the model. The study described here employs this methodology to develop a regional skewness model for the State of Iowa. To provide cost effective peak-flow data for smaller drainage basins in Iowa, the U.S. Geological Survey operates a large network of crest stage gages (CSGs) that only record flow values above an identified recording threshold (thus producing a censored data record). CSGs are different from continuous-record gages, which record almost all flow values and have been used in previous B-GLS and B-WLS/B-GLS regional skewness studies. The complexity of analyzing a large CSG network is addressed by using the B-WLS/B-GLS framework along with the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA). Because EMA allows for the censoring of low outliers, as well as the use of estimated interval discharges for missing, censored, and historic data, it complicates the calculations of effective record length (and effective concurrent record length) used to describe the precision of sample estimators because the peak discharges are no longer solely represented by single values. Thus new record length calculations were developed. The regional skewness analysis for the State of Iowa illustrates the value of the new B-WLS/BGLS methodology with these new extensions.

  4. [Regional network for patients with dementia--carrying out Kumamoto model for dementia].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese government has tried to establish 150 Medical Centers for Dementia (MCDs) since 2008 to overcome the dementia medical service shortage. MCDs are required to provide special medical services for dementia and connect with other community resources in order to contribute to building a comprehensive support network for demented patients. The main specific needs are as follows: 1) special medical consultation; 2) differential diagnosis and early intervention; 3) medical treatment for the acute stage of BPSD; 4) corresponding to serious physical complications of dementia; 5) education for general physicians (GPs) and other community professionals. According to the population rate, two dementia medical centers were planned in Kumamoto Prefecture. However, it seemed to be too few to cover the vast Kumamoto area. Therefore, the local government and I proposed to the Japanese government that we build up networks that consist of one core MCD in our university hospital and several regional MCDs in local mental hospitals. The local government selected seven (nine at present) centers according to the area balance and condition of equipment. The Japanese government has recommended and funded such networks between core and regional centers since 2010. The main roles of the core centers are as follows: 1) early diagnosis such as Mild cognitive impairment, very mild Alzheimer's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, and Frontotemporal lobar degeneration using comprehensive neuropsychological batteries and neuroimagings, such as MRI and SPECT scans; 2) education for GPs; 3) training for young consultants. The core center opens case conferences at least every one or two months for all staff of regional centers to maintain the quality of all centers and give training opportunities for standardized international assessment scales. While the main roles of the regional centers are differential diagnosis, intervention for BPSD, and management of general medical problems using

  5. On the Role of Hyper-arid Regions within the Virtual Water Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggrey, James; Alshamsi, Aamena; Molini, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, economic development, and population growth are bound to increasingly impact global water resources, posing a significant threat to the sustainable development of arid regions, where water consumption highly exceeds the natural carrying capacity, population growth rate is high, and climate variability is going to impact both water consumption and availability. Virtual Water Trade (VWT) - i.e. the international trade network of water-intensive products - has been proposed as a possible solution to optimize the allocation of water resources on the global scale. By increasing food availability and lowering food prices it may in fact help the rapid development of water-scarce regions. The structure of the VWT network has been analyzed by a number of authors both in connection with trade policies, socioeconomic constrains and agricultural efficiency. However a systematic analysis of the structure and the dynamics of the VWT network conditional to aridity, climatic forcing and energy availability, is still missing. Our goal is hence to analyze the role of arid and hyper-arid regions within the VWN under diverse climatic, demographic, and energy constraints with an aim to contribute to the ongoing Energy-Water-Food nexus discussion. In particular, we focus on the hyper-arid lands of the Arabian Peninsula, the role they play in the global network and the assessment of their specific criticalities, as reflected in the VWN resilience.

  6. Spatio-temporal filtering for determination of common mode error in regional GNSS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Gruszczynski, Maciej; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The spatial correlation between different stations for individual components in the regional GNSS networks seems to be significant. The mismodelling in satellite orbits, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), largescale atmospheric effects or satellite antenna phase centre corrections can all cause the regionally correlated errors. This kind of GPS time series errors are referred to as common mode errors (CMEs). They are usually estimated with the regional spatial filtering, such as the "stacking". In this paper, we show the stacking approach for the set of ASG-EUPOS permanent stations, assuming that spatial distribution of the CME is uniform over the whole region of Poland (more than 600 km extent). The ASG-EUPOS is a multifunctional precise positioning system based on the reference network designed for Poland. We used a 5- year span time series (2008-2012) of daily solutions in the ITRF2008 from Bernese 5.0 processed by the Military University of Technology EPN Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC). At the beginning of our analyses concerning spatial dependencies, the correlation coefficients between each pair of the stations in the GNSS network were calculated. This analysis shows that spatio-temporal behaviour of the GPS-derived time series is not purely random, but there is the evident uniform spatial response. In order to quantify the influence of filtering using CME, the norms L1 and L2 were determined. The values of these norms were calculated for the North, East and Up components twice: before performing the filtration and after stacking. The observed reduction of the L1 and L2 norms was up to 30% depending on the dimension of the network. However, the question how to define an optimal size of CME-analysed subnetwork remains unanswered in this research, due to the fact that our network is not extended enough.

  7. Nitrogen removal capacity of the river network in a high nitrogen loading region.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongqiang; Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; Shan, Jun; Li, Bolun; Xia, Longlong; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-02-03

    Denitrification is the primary process that regulates the removal of bioavailable nitrogen (N) from aquatic ecosystems. Quantifying the capacity of N removal from aquatic systems can provide a scientific basis for establishing the relationship between N reduction and water quality objectives, quantifying pollution contributions from different sources, as well as recommending control measures. The Lake Taihu region in China has a dense river network and heavy N pollution; however, the capacity for permanent N removal by the river network is unknown. Here, we concurrently examined environmental factors and net N2 flux from sediments of two rivers in the Lake Taihu region between July 2012 and May 2013, using membrane inlet mass spectrometry, and then established a regression model incorporating the highly correlated factors to predict the N removal capacity of the river network in the region. To test the applicability of the regression model, 21 additional rivers surrounding Lake Taihu were sampled between July and December 2013. The results suggested that water nitrate concentrations are still the primary controlling factor for net denitrification even in this high N loading river network, probably due to multicollinearity of other relevant factors, and thus can be used to predict N removal from aquatic systems. Our established model accounted for 78% of the variability in the measured net N2 flux in these 21 rivers, and the total N removed through N2 production by the river network was estimated at 4 × 10(4) t yr(-1), accounting for about 43% of the total aquatic N load to the river system. Our results indicate that the average total N content in the river water discharged into Lake Taihu would be around 5.9 mg of N L(-1) in the current situation, far higher than the target concentration of 2 mg of N L(-1), given the total N load and the N removal capacity. Therefore, a much stronger effort is required to control the N pollution of the surface water in the region.

  8. Prevalence of small-scale jets from the networks of the solar transition region and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Tian, H; DeLuca, E E; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W

    2014-10-17

    As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80 to 250 kilometers per second from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20 to 80 seconds and widths of ≤300 kilometers. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with amplitudes of ~20 kilometers per second. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~10(5) kelvin and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.

  9. Delineating geographical regions with networks of human interactions in an extensive set of countries.

    PubMed

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Szell, Michael; Campari, Riccardo; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Ratti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale networks of human interaction, in particular country-wide telephone call networks, can be used to redraw geographical maps by applying algorithms of topological community detection. The geographic projections of the emerging areas in a few recent studies on single regions have been suggested to share two distinct properties: first, they are cohesive, and second, they tend to closely follow socio-economic boundaries and are similar to existing political regions in size and number. Here we use an extended set of countries and clustering indices to quantify overlaps, providing ample additional evidence for these observations using phone data from countries of various scales across Europe, Asia, and Africa: France, the UK, Italy, Belgium, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, and Ivory Coast. In our analysis we use the known approach of partitioning country-wide networks, and an additional iterative partitioning of each of the first level communities into sub-communities, revealing that cohesiveness and matching of official regions can also be observed on a second level if spatial resolution of the data is high enough. The method has possible policy implications on the definition of the borderlines and sizes of administrative regions.

  10. A depression network of functionally connected regions discovered via multi-attribute canonical correlation graphs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jian; Bowman, F DuBois; Mayberg, Helen; Liu, Han

    2016-11-01

    To establish brain network properties associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) data, we develop a multi-attribute graph model to construct a region-level functional connectivity network that uses all voxel level information. For each region pair, we define the strength of the connectivity as the kernel canonical correlation coefficient between voxels in the two regions; and we develop a permutation test to assess the statistical significance. We also construct a network based classifier for making predictions on the risk of MDD. We apply our method to Rs-fMRI data from 20 MDD patients and 20 healthy control subjects in the Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study. Using this method, MDD patients can be distinguished from healthy control subjects based on significant differences in the strength of regional connectivity. We also demonstrate the performance of the proposed method using simulationstudies.

  11. Vehicle Detection in Aerial Images Based on Region Convolutional Neural Networks and Hard Negative Example Mining

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tianyu; Zhou, Shilin; Deng, Zhipeng; Zou, Huanxin; Lei, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Detecting vehicles in aerial imagery plays an important role in a wide range of applications. The current vehicle detection methods are mostly based on sliding-window search and handcrafted or shallow-learning-based features, having limited description capability and heavy computational costs. Recently, due to the powerful feature representations, region convolutional neural networks (CNN) based detection methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance in computer vision, especially Faster R-CNN. However, directly using it for vehicle detection in aerial images has many limitations: (1) region proposal network (RPN) in Faster R-CNN has poor performance for accurately locating small-sized vehicles, due to the relatively coarse feature maps; and (2) the classifier after RPN cannot distinguish vehicles and complex backgrounds well. In this study, an improved detection method based on Faster R-CNN is proposed in order to accomplish the two challenges mentioned above. Firstly, to improve the recall, we employ a hyper region proposal network (HRPN) to extract vehicle-like targets with a combination of hierarchical feature maps. Then, we replace the classifier after RPN by a cascade of boosted classifiers to verify the candidate regions, aiming at reducing false detection by negative example mining. We evaluate our method on the Munich vehicle dataset and the collected vehicle dataset, with improvements in accuracy and robustness compared to existing methods. PMID:28208587

  12. Vehicle Detection in Aerial Images Based on Region Convolutional Neural Networks and Hard Negative Example Mining.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tianyu; Zhou, Shilin; Deng, Zhipeng; Zou, Huanxin; Lei, Lin

    2017-02-10

    Detecting vehicles in aerial imagery plays an important role in a wide range of applications. The current vehicle detection methods are mostly based on sliding-window search and handcrafted or shallow-learning-based features, having limited description capability and heavy computational costs. Recently, due to the powerful feature representations, region convolutional neural networks (CNN) based detection methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance in computer vision, especially Faster R-CNN. However, directly using it for vehicle detection in aerial images has many limitations: (1) region proposal network (RPN) in Faster R-CNN has poor performance for accurately locating small-sized vehicles, due to the relatively coarse feature maps; and (2) the classifier after RPN cannot distinguish vehicles and complex backgrounds well. In this study, an improved detection method based on Faster R-CNN is proposed in order to accomplish the two challenges mentioned above. Firstly, to improve the recall, we employ a hyper region proposal network (HRPN) to extract vehicle-like targets with a combination of hierarchical feature maps. Then, we replace the classifier after RPN by a cascade of boosted classifiers to verify the candidate regions, aiming at reducing false detection by negative example mining. We evaluate our method on the Munich vehicle dataset and the collected vehicle dataset, with improvements in accuracy and robustness compared to existing methods.

  13. NOAA/NCEI/Regional Climate Services: Working with Partners and Stakeholders across a Wide Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecray, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Federal agencies all require plans to be prepared at the state level that outline the implementation of funding to address wildlife habitat, human health, transportation infrastructure, coastal zone management, environmental management, emergency management, and others. These plans are now requiring the consideration of changing climate conditions. So where does a state turn to discuss lessons learned, obtain tools and information to assess climate conditions, and to work with other states in their region? Regional networks and collaboratives are working to deliver this sector by sector. How do these networks work? Do they fit together in any way? What similarities and differences exist? Is anyone talking across these lines to find common climate information requirements? A sketch is forming that links these efforts, not by blending the sectors, but by finding the areas where coordination is critical, where information needs are common, and where delivery mechanisms can be streamlined. NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information's Regional Climate Services Directors have been working at the interface of stakeholder-driven information delivery since 2010. This talk will outline the regional climate services delivery framework for the Eastern Region, with examples of regional products and information.

  14. The Evolution and Expansion of Regional Disease Surveillance Networks and Their Role in Mitigating the Threat of Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Katherine C.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these “self-organizing” networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease

  15. The WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre Network - a support to users in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösner, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate, like weather, has no limits. Therefore the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a specialized United Nations organization, has established a three-level infrastructure to better serve its member countries. This structure comprises Global Producing Centres for Long-range Forecasts (GPCs), Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) and National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Services (NMHSs), in most cases representing their countries in WMO governance bodies. The elements of this infrastructure are also part of and contribute to the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) agreed to be established by World Climate Conference 3 (WCC-3) and last year's Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress (WMO Cg-XVI). RCCs are the core element of this infrastructure at the regional level and are being establish in all WMO Regional Associations (RAs), i.e. Africa (RA I); Asia (II); South America (III); North America, Central America and the Caribbean (IV); South-West Pacific (V); Europe (VI). Addressing inter-regional areas of common interest like the Mediterranean or the Polar Regions may require inter-regional RCCs. For each region the RCCs follow a user driven approach with regard to governance and structure as well as products generated for the users in the respective region. However, there are common guidelines all RCCs do have to follow. This is to make sure that services are provided based on best scientific standards, are routinely and reliably generated and made available in an operational mode. These guidelines are being developed within WMO and make use of decade-long experience gained in the business of operational weather forecast. Based on the requirements of the 50 member countries of WMO RA VI it was agreed to establish the WMO RCC as a network of centres of excellence that create regional products including long-range forecasts that support regional and national climate activities, and thereby strengthen the capacity of WMO Members in the region to

  16. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, E.; Zwaan, M.; Andreani, P.; Barta, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Brand, J.; Gueth, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Maercker, M.; Massardi, M.; Muehle, S.; Muxlow, Th.; Richards, A.; Schilke, P.; Tilanus, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Afonso, J.; Messias, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  17. Statistical Study of Network Jets Observed in the Solar Transition Region: a Comparison Between Coronal Holes and Quiet-Sun Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Nancy; Arbacher, Rebecca T.; Tian, Hui; Banerjee, Dipankar; Cranmer, Steven R.; DeLuca, Ed E.; McKillop, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Recent IRIS observations have revealed a prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with apparent speeds of 80 - 250 km s^{-1}, emanating from small-scale bright regions inside network boundaries of coronal holes. We find that these network jets appear not only in coronal holes but also in quiet-sun regions. Using IRIS 1330 Å (C II) slit-jaw images, we extracted several parameters of these network jets, e.g. apparent speed, length, lifetime, and increase in foot-point brightness. Using several observations, we find that some properties of the jets are very similar, but others are obviously different between the quiet Sun and coronal holes. For example, our study shows that the coronal-hole jets appear to be faster and longer than those in the quiet Sun. This can be directly attributed to a difference in the magnetic configuration of the two regions, with open magnetic field lines rooted in coronal holes and magnetic loops often present in the quiet Sun. We also detected compact bright loops that are most likely transition region loops and are mostly located in quiet-Sun regions. These small loop-like regions are generally devoid of network jets. In spite of different magnetic structures in the coronal hole and quiet Sun in the transition region, there appears to be no substantial difference for the increase in footpoint brightness of the jets, which suggests that the generation mechanism of these network jets is very likely the same in both regions.

  18. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  19. Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic Impacts to Regional Landslide Hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dixon, Neil; Dijkstra, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Slope instability represents a prevalent hazard to transport networks. In the UK regional road networks are frequently disrupted by multiple slope failures triggered during intense precipitation events; primarily due to a degree of regional homogeneity of slope materials, geomorphology and weather conditions. It is of interest to examine how different locations and combinations of slope failure impact road networks, particularly in the context of projected climate change and a 40% increase in UK road demand by 2040. In this study an extensive number (>50 000) of multiple failure event scenarios are simulated within a dynamic micro simulation to assess traffic impacts during peak flow (7 - 10 AM). Possible failure locations are selected within the county of Gloucestershire (3150 km2) using historic failure sites and British Geological Survey GeoSure data. Initial investigations employ a multiple linear regression analyses to consider the severity of traffic impacts, as measured by time, in respect of spatial and topographical network characteristics including connectivity, density and capacity in proximity to failure sites; the network distance between disruptions in multiple failure scenarios is used to consider the effects of spatial clustering. The UK Department of Transport road travel demand and UKCP09 weather projection data to 2080 provide a suitable basis for traffic simulations and probabilistic slope stability assessments. Future work will thus focus on the development of a catastrophe risk model to simulate traffic impacts under various narratives of future travel demand and slope instability under climatic change. The results of this investigation shall contribute to the understanding of road network vulnerabilities and traffic impacts from climate driven slope hazards.

  20. RADSS: an integration of GIS, spatial statistics, and network service for regional data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haitang; Bao, Shuming; Lin, Hui; Zhu, Qing

    2005-10-01

    Regional data mining, which aims at the discovery of knowledge about spatial patterns, clusters or association between regions, has widely applications nowadays in social science, such as sociology, economics, epidemiology, crime, and so on. Many applications in the regional or other social sciences are more concerned with the spatial relationship, rather than the precise geographical location. Based on the spatial continuity rule derived from Tobler's first law of geography: observations at two sites tend to be more similar to each other if the sites are close together than if far apart, spatial statistics, as an important means for spatial data mining, allow the users to extract the interesting and useful information like spatial pattern, spatial structure, spatial association, spatial outlier and spatial interaction, from the vast amount of spatial data or non-spatial data. Therefore, by integrating with the spatial statistical methods, the geographical information systems will become more powerful in gaining further insights into the nature of spatial structure of regional system, and help the researchers to be more careful when selecting appropriate models. However, the lack of such tools holds back the application of spatial data analysis techniques and development of new methods and models (e.g., spatio-temporal models). Herein, we make an attempt to develop such an integrated software and apply it into the complex system analysis for the Poyang Lake Basin. This paper presents a framework for integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service in regional data mining, as well as their implementation. After discussing the spatial statistics methods involved in regional complex system analysis, we introduce RADSS (Regional Analysis and Decision Support System), our new regional data mining tool, by integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service. RADSS includes the functions of spatial data visualization, exploratory spatial data analysis, and

  1. Towards a regional passive air sampling network and strategy for new POPs in the GRULAC region: Perspectives from the GAPS Network and first results for organophosphorus flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom; Schuster, Jasmin K; Quinto, Karen; Fillmann, Gilberto; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Fentanes, Oscar; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Rivadeneira, Isabel Moreno; Pozo, Karla; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Zuluaga, Beatriz Helena Aristizábal

    2016-12-15

    A discussion is presented on the limitations for air monitoring studies around the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC), highlighting key issues requiring further attention, and reports on how a special initiative is addressing these limitations. Preliminary results are presented for the first reported data on organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) concentrations in outdoor air from the GRULAC region. At the majority of sites the concentrations and the profile of the OPFRs detected were similar with tris (chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) dominating (regional passive sampling networks (such as GAPS) can provide important new information to support risk assessment of these and similar chemicals. Finally, the various challenges with implementing a regional monitoring program are discussed, including harmonizing data from various monitoring programs for reporting to the GMP.

  2. Antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects of a novel enhydrazinone ester (CEE-1): inhibition of activation of both mast cells and eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Renno, Waleed M; Edafiogho, Ivan O

    2014-08-01

    Activation of mast cells and eosinophils is a fundamental process in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. We have previously reported that the novel enhydrazinone ester CEE-1 (ethyl 4-phenylhydrazinocyclohex-3-en-2-oxo-6-phenyl-1-oate) possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. We have now tested whether the compound also possesses antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in vitro and in vivo. The compound significantly inhibited degranulation and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) release from activated human eosinophils, as well as IgE-dependent degranulation and LTC4 release from passively sensitized rat basophilic leukemia cells and bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells. In human eosinophils, the drug was more potent in inhibiting degranulation than LTC4 release {IC50 = 0.4 μM [confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.9] versus 3.8 μM (CI: 0.9-8.3)}, whereas in mast cells the reverse was essentially the case. The drug did not affect stimulus-induced calcium transients in eosinophils but significantly inhibited early phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). In vivo, topical application of 4.5-15 mg/kg of the compound significantly inhibited allergen-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. Similarly, in the mouse asthma model, the intranasal administration of 6.5-12.5 mg/kg of the compound significantly inhibited bronchial inflammation and eosinophil accumulation in bronchial lavage fluid, as well as abolishing airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine. These results show that CEE-1 inhibits the activation of both mast cells and eosinophils in vitro, probably by blocking MAPK-activation pathways, and that these effects are translated into antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in vivo. The compound, therefore, has potential application in the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases.

  3. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  4. Chronic ethanol exposure produces time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks.

    PubMed

    Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A; Becker, Howard C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Farris, Sean P; Tiwari, Gayatri R; Nunez, Yury O; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2015-01-01

    Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000) at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600). Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%). All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global 'rewiring' of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes.

  5. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400

  6. Prevalence of Micro-Jets from the Network Structures of the Solar Transition Region and Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, E. E.; Tian, H.; Cranmer, S. R.; Reeves, K.; Miralles, M. P.; McCauley, P.; McKillop, S.

    2014-12-01

    IRIS observations in the 1330Å, 1400Å and 2796Å passbands have revealed numerous small-scale jet-like features with speeds of ~80-250 km/s from the chromospheric network. These network jets occur in both the quiet Sun and coronal holes. Their widths are often ~300 km or less. Many of these jets show up as elongated features with enhanced line width in maps obtained with transition region (TR) lines, suggesting that these jets reach at least TR temperatures and they constitute an important element of TR structures. The ubiquitous presence of these high-reaching (often >10 Mm) jets also suggests that they may play a crucial role in the mass and energy budgets of the corona and solar wind. The generation of these jets in the network and the accompanying Alfven waves is also consistent with the "magnetic furnace model" of solar wind proposed by Axford & McKenzie (1992). The large speeds (greater than sound speed) suggest that the Lorentz force (perhaps related to reconnection) must play an important role in the generation and propagation of the network jets. We believe that many network jets are the on-disk counterparts and TR manifestation of type-II spicules.

  7. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-11-30

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network.

  8. The road to reorganization. A system keeps its regional network all in the family.

    PubMed

    Haglund, C

    1989-11-01

    One prominent strategy health-care institutions are pursuing today is the formation of regional networks providing comprehensive continuums of care. Regional activities can be organized according to several distinct geographical parameters: city, county, state, or multistate regions. Although the different types of regionalization may be beneficial, they will generate different types of activities and benefits. Another consideration is that regional structures can range from very loose affiliations to complete ownership. In 1987 the Sisters of Providence health system, Seattle, initiated efforts to create a functionally integrated regional healthcare system in the Portland, OR, market, which had a good framework in place for developing a vertically and horizontally linked comprehensive continuum of care. The Oregon Management Committee, composed of local administrators, was established to identify issues and develop common objectives. The group developed a regional strategic plan and identified eight key areas to begin regionally coordinated activities. It began creating working relationships among institutional counterparts and program integration in several outpatient service areas where duplication was evident. Another effort involved greater coordination of marketing activities.

  9. Evaluating Form and Function of Regional Partnerships: Applying Social Network Analysis to the "Network for a Healthy California", 2001-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregson, Jennifer; Sowa, Marcy; Flynn, Heather Kohler

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the partnership structure of the "Network for a Healthy California" ("Network"), a social marketing program, from 2001-2007, to determine if California's program was able to establish and maintain partnerships that (1) provided access to a local audience, (2) facilitated regional collaboration, (3)…

  10. KoFlux: Korean Regional Flux Network in AsiaFlux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.

    2002-12-01

    AsiaFlux, the Asian arm of FLUXNET, held the Second International Workshop on Advanced Flux Network and Flux Evaluation in Jeju Island, Korea on 9-11 January 2002. In order to facilitate comprehensive Asia-wide studies of ecosystem fluxes, the meeting launched KoFlux, a new Korean regional network of long-term micrometeorological flux sites. For a successful assessment of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, an accurate measurement of surface fluxes of energy and water is one of the prerequisites. During the 7th Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) held in Nagoya, Japan on 1-2 October 2001, the Implementation Committee of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) was established. One of the immediate tasks of CEOP was and is to identify the reference sites to monitor energy and water fluxes over the Asian continent. Subsequently, to advance the regional and global network of these reference sites in the context of both FLUXNET and CEOP, the Korean flux community has re-organized the available resources to establish a new regional network, KoFlux. We have built up domestic network sites (equipped with wind profiler and radiosonde measurements) over deciduous and coniferous forests, urban and rural rice paddies and coastal farmland. As an outreach through collaborations with research groups in Japan, China and Thailand, we also proposed international flux sites at ecologically and climatologically important locations such as a prairie on the Tibetan plateau, tropical forest with mixed and rapid land use change in northern Thailand. Several sites in KoFlux already begun to accumulate interesting data and some highlights are presented at the meeting. The sciences generated by flux networks in other continents have proven the worthiness of a global array of micrometeorological flux towers. It is our intent that the launch of KoFlux would encourage other scientists to initiate and

  11. Dense Regional GPS Networks for Real-Time Crustal Motion and Seismic Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.; Crowell, B. W.; Melgar Moctezuma, D.

    2010-12-01

    Dense regional GPS networks for real-time crustal deformation and seismic monitoring at high-rates have been under development over the last decade. Prominent examples are Japan’s nationwide GEONET consisting of about 1200 stations at nominal 20 km spacing, and about 425 stations in separate efforts in southern California, northern California, and the Cascadia region with nominal spacing of 10-40 km. These developments have piggy-backed on existing continuous GPS infrastructure of thousands of stations, which operates at lower sampling rates and whose primary focus has been longer-period crustal motion monitoring with post-processed daily or sub-daily positions. We focus on our experience with the on-the-fly analysis of more than 100 stations of the California Real Time Network during the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake and extrapolate lessons learned to networks with an order of magnitude more stations. Compared to the current state of the art in recording medium to large earthquakes, real-time high-rate displacement measurements have the advantages that they are measured directly, their signal-to-noise ratio increases with the intensity of shaking, and they include the static (permanent, coseismic) surface deformation as well as any post-seismic displacements and strain transients whether or not these are accompanied by seismic shaking. Although there will always be a role for post-processing of large time chunks of GPS (and soon GNSS) data, we believe that with robust data communications it will be more efficient to collect and analyze data on-the-fly in a continuous stream, and that this can be done with little practical loss in precision and accuracy. This is especially the case for networks of thousands of regional-scale stations. Furthermore, it is the only feasible option for the collection and analysis of high-rate data (1 Hz or greater), and in combination with seismic strong motion data, it is required for mitigating seismic hazards through

  12. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego–Tijuana Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjay R.; Wertheim, Joel O.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Wagner, Karla D.; Chaillon, Antoine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L.; Rangel, Maria G.; Vargas, Mlenka; Murrell, Ben; Garfein, Richard; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV sequence data can be used to reconstruct local transmission networks. Along international borders, like the San Diego–Tijuana region, understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission across reported risks, racial/ethnic groups, and geography can help direct effective prevention efforts on both sides of the border. Methods We gathered sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, and viral sequence data from HIV infected individuals participating in ten studies in the San Diego–Tijuana border region. Phylogenetic and network analysis was performed to infer putative relationships between HIV sequences. Correlates of identified clusters were evaluated and spatiotemporal relationships were explored using Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. Findings After quality filtering, 843 HIV sequences with associated demographic data and 263 background sequences from the region were analyzed, and 138 clusters were inferred (2–23 individuals). Overall, the rate of clustering did not differ by ethnicity, residence, or sex, but bisexuals were less likely to cluster than heterosexuals or men who have sex with men (p = 0.043), and individuals identifying as white (p ≤ 0.01) were more likely to cluster than other races. Clustering individuals were also 3.5 years younger than non-clustering individuals (p < 0.001). Although the sampled San Diego and Tijuana epidemics were phylogenetically compartmentalized, five clusters contained individuals residing on both sides of the border. Interpretation This study sampled ~ 7% of HIV infected individuals in the border region, and although the sampled networks on each side of the border were largely separate, there was evidence of persistent bidirectional cross-border transmissions that linked risk groups, thus highlighting the importance of the border region as a “melting pot” of risk groups. Funding NIH, VA, and Pendleton Foundation. PMID:26629540

  13. Isoscapes of tree-ring carbon-13 perform like meteorological networks in predicting regional precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Castillo, Jorge; Aguilera, Mònica; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Stable isotopes in tree rings provide climatic information with annual resolution dating back for centuries or even millennia. However, deriving spatially explicit climate models from isotope networks remains challenging. Here we propose a methodology to model regional precipitation from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in tree rings by (1) building regional spatial models of Δ13C (isoscapes), and (2) deriving precipitation maps from 13C-isoscapes, taking advantage of the response of Δ13C to precipitation in seasonally-dry climates. As a case study, we modeled the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, a region with complex orography and climate (MAP=303-1086 mm). We compiled wood Δ13C data for two Mediterranean species that exhibit complementary responses to seasonal precipitation (Pinus halepensis Mill., N=38; Quercus ilex L.; N=44; pooling period: 1975-2008). By combining multiple regression and geostatistical interpolation, we generated one 13C-isoscape for each species. A spatial model of MAP was then built as the sum of two complementary maps of seasonal precipitation, each one derived from the corresponding 13C-isoscape (September-November from Q. ilex; December-August from P. halepensis). Our approach showed a predictive power for MAP (RMSE=84 mm) nearly identical to that obtained by interpolating data directly from a similarly dense network of meteorological stations (RMSE=80-83 mm, N=65), being only outperformed when using a much denser meteorological network (RMSE=56-57 mm, N=340). This method offers new avenues for modeling spatial variability of past precipitation, exploiting the large amount of information currently available from tree-ring networks. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by MC-ERG-246725 (FP7, EU) and AGL 2012-40039-C02-02 (MINECO, Spain). JdC and JPF are supported by FPI fellowship (MCINN) and Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2008-02050, MINECO), respectively.

  14. Isoscapes of tree-ring carbon-13 perform like meteorological networks in predicting regional precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Jorge; Aguilera, Mònica; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-03-01

    isotopes in tree rings provide climatic information with annual resolution dating back for centuries or even millennia. However, deriving spatially explicit climate models from isotope networks remains challenging. Here we propose a methodology to model regional precipitation from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in tree rings by (1) building regional spatial models of Δ13C (isoscapes) and (2) deriving precipitation maps from Δ13C-isoscapes, taking advantage of the response of Δ13C to precipitation in seasonally dry climates. As a case study, we modeled the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, a region with complex topography and climate (MAP = 303-1086 mm). We compiled wood Δ13C data for two Mediterranean species that exhibit complementary responses to seasonal precipitation (Pinus halepensis Mill., N = 38; Quercus ilex L.; N = 44; pooling period: 1975-2008). By combining multiple regression and geostatistical interpolation, we generated one Δ13 C-isoscape for each species. A spatial model of MAP was then built as the sum of two complementary maps of seasonal precipitation, each one derived from the corresponding Δ13C-isoscape (September-November from Q. ilex; December-August from P. halepensis). Our approach showed a predictive power for MAP (RMSE = 84 mm) nearly identical to that obtained by interpolating data directly from a similarly dense network of meteorological stations (RMSE = 80-83 mm, N = 65), being only outperformed when using a much denser meteorological network (RMSE = 56-57 mm, N = 340). This method offers new avenues for modeling spatial variability of past precipitation, exploiting the large amount of information currently available from tree-ring networks.

  15. Recurrent synapses and circuits in the CA3 region of the hippocampus: an associative network.

    PubMed

    Le Duigou, Caroline; Simonnet, Jean; Teleñczuk, Maria T; Fricker, Desdemona; Miles, Richard

    2014-01-08

    In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, pyramidal cells excite other pyramidal cells and interneurons. The axons of CA3 pyramidal cells spread throughout most of the region to form an associative network. These connections were first drawn by Cajal and Lorente de No. Their physiological properties were explored to understand epileptiform discharges generated in the region. Synapses between pairs of pyramidal cells involve one or few release sites and are weaker than connections made by mossy fibers on CA3 pyramidal cells. Synapses with interneurons are rather effective, as needed to control unchecked excitation. We examine contributions of recurrent synapses to epileptiform synchrony, to the genesis of sharp waves in the CA3 region and to population oscillations at theta and gamma frequencies. Recurrent connections in CA3, as other associative cortices, have a lower connectivity spread over a larger area than in primary sensory cortices. This sparse, but wide-ranging connectivity serves the functions of an associative network, including acquisition of neuronal representations as activity in groups of CA3 cells and completion involving the recall from partial cues of these ensemble firing patterns.

  16. La Red Regional Replad: Una Estrategia Innovadora para la Capacitacion de Administradores Educacionales (The Regional Network Replad: An Innovative Strategy for the Training and Preparation of Educational Administrators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Espinoza, Jorge

    This document presents an overview, analysis, and historical assessment of the Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Conferences, regional meetings, and outcomes from the inception of the project in 1979 are described. This project stresses the establishment of a regional network for exchange of information, experiences,…

  17. Youth Transitions and Network Consolidation. Regional Workshop, 20-22 May 2014 in Gaborone, Botswana. Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This workshop was designed based on the following objectives: (1) to place youth employment and related issues on the regional political agenda; to highlight regional success stories; (2) to further strengthen the UNEVOC Network consolidation process in the region; (3) to provide a platform for learning and sharing experiences; and (4) to offer an…

  18. Effects of Beta-Amyloid on Resting State Functional Connectivity Within and Between Networks Reflect Known Patterns of Regional Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Elman, Jeremy A.; Madison, Cindee M.; Baker, Suzanne L.; Vogel, Jacob W.; Marks, Shawn M.; Crowley, Sam; O'Neil, James P.; Jagust, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is also present in some cognitively normal elderly adults and may represent a preclinical disease state. While AD patients exhibit disrupted functional connectivity (FC) both within and between resting-state networks, studies of preclinical cases have focused primarily on the default mode network (DMN). The extent to which Aβ-related effects occur outside of the DMN and between networks remains unclear. In the present study, we examine how within- and between-network FC are related to both global and regional Aβ deposition as measured by [11C]PIB-PET in 92 cognitively normal older people. We found that within-network FC changes occurred in multiple networks, including the DMN. Changes of between-network FC were also apparent, suggesting that regions maintaining connections to multiple networks may be particularly susceptible to Aβ-induced alterations. Cortical regions showing altered FC clustered in parietal and temporal cortex, areas known to be susceptible to AD pathology. These results likely represent a mix of local network disruption, compensatory reorganization, and impaired control network function. They indicate the presence of Aβ-related dysfunction of neural systems in cognitively normal people well before these areas become hypometabolic with the onset of cognitive decline. PMID:25405944

  19. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jaime C; Rebulanan, Carina L; Parungao, Nico Angelo C; Ramirez, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally.

  20. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally. PMID:24834349

  1. Plate Boundary Observatory Southwest Region Network Operations, Expansion and Communications Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, D.; Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Turner, R.; Lawrence, S.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southwest Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 480 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. In an effort to modernize the network, we have started to replace Trimble NETRS receivers with GNSS capable NETR9 receivers. Currently, we have 431 NetRS receivers deployed in the region, and 48 NetR9 receivers. In addition, 82 stations (17%) stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency and an average completeness of >92%. Based on their typical data download rates, approximately 252 (53%) of all stations are capable of streaming 1 Hz, but have not yet been added to the real time network because of lack of resources. In the immediate aftermath of the M8.2 Chile earthquake in April 2014, high rate data downloads from the entire SW network had a success rate of 95% and 71% for 1 Hz and 5 Hz data downloads respectively. We have continued to upgrade critical radio networks, including the San Francisco Bay Area, Anza Borrego, and Santa Barbara networks. These efforts are ongoing, but they have already significantly improved data download rates and dependability. We are also converting cell modem to radio communications whenever possible for increased reliability and cost savings. In December 2013 the 13-station Edison network expansion was completed through cost recovery contracts. These stations span coastal southern California in Orange, San Diego and Los Angeles counties including a hybrid site on the Elly oil platform. The primary purpose of the stations is to aid in the seismic source characterization of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and assess the strain field associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust and Newport Inglewood fault. The new stations fill a gap between SCIGN and PBO. Three sites have WXT520

  2. Adaptive Resonance Theory Neural Networks for Astronomical Region of Interest Detection and Noise Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R. J.; Ritthaler, M. Healy, M.; Caudell, T. P. Zimmer, P.; McGraw, J.

    2007-10-01

    While learning algorithms have been used for astronomical data analysis, the vast majority of those algorithms have used supervised learning. We examine the use of two types of Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) (Carpenter & Grossberg 1987) neural networks which use unsupervised learning for this task. Using synthetic astronomical data from SkyMaker which was designed to mimic the dynamic range of the CTI-II telescope, we compared the ability of the ART-1 neural network and the ART-1 neural network with a category theoretic modification to detect regions of interest and to characterize noise. We use the program SExtractor to pinpoint clusters that contain either many or no object hits. We then show that there are more targets in the clusters with many SExtractor hits than SExtractor finds. We also show that ART clusters together input regions that are dominated by noise that can be used to characterize the noise in an image. The results provided show that unsupervised learning algorithms should not be overlooked for astronomical data analysis.

  3. [Regional laboratory network for surveillance of invasive fungal infections and antifungal susceptibility in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Córdoba, Susana; Melhem, Marcia C; Szeszs, María W; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Martínez, Gerardo; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2008-02-01

    This article describes the general objectives of the Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America. Formation of the Network was coordinated by the Essential Medicines, Vaccines, and Health Technologies Unit of the Pan American Health Organization, with the technical and financial support of the National Center for Microbiology of the Carlos III Health Institute (Spain), and the technical support of the Microbiology Department of the Dr. C. Malbrán National Institute on Infectious Diseases (Argentina) and the Microbiology Unit of the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Brazil). The Network's principle objectives are epidemiological surveillance of invasive fungal infections through detection of antifungal resistance and identification of emergent, invasive fungal infections; establishment of norms and common protocols for early diagnosis of mycoses; and strengthening coordination, communications, and transference mechanisms among countries. The Network must be gradually implemented and must include staff training, a systematic process for sharing technology, evaluation of diagnostic techniques, identification of fungal species, and standardized tests for antifungal susceptibility.

  4. Distributive Computer Networking: Making It Work on a Regional Basis: Effective sharing through a network requires new management and resource distribution techniques.

    PubMed

    Cornew, R W; Morse, P M

    1975-08-15

    After 4 years of operation the NERComP network is now a self-supporting success. Some of the reasons for its success are that (i) the network started small and built up utilization; (ii) the members, through monthly trustee meetings, practiced "participatory management" from the outset; (iii) unlike some networks, NERComP appealed to individual academic and research users who were terminal-oriented and who controlled their own budgets; (iv) the compactness of the New England region made it an ideal laboratory for testing networking concepts; and (v) a dedicated staff was willing to work hard in the face of considerable uncertainty. While the major problems were "political, organizational and economic" (1) we have found that they can be solved if the network meets real needs. We have also found that it is difficult to proceed beyond a certain point without investing responsibility and authority in the networking organization. Conversely, there is a need to distribute some responsibilities such as marketing and user services back to the member institutions. By adopting a modest starting point and achieving limited goals the necessary trust and working relationships between institutions can be built. In our case the necessary planning has been facilitated by recognizing three distinct network functions: governance, user services, and technical operations. Separating out the three essential networing tasks and dealing with each individually through advisory committees, each with its own staff coordinator, has overcome a distracting tendency to address all issues at once. It has also provided an element of feedback between the end user and the supplier not usually present in networking activity. The success of NERComP demonstrates that a distributive-type network can work. Our experiences in New England-which, because of its numerous colleges and universities free from domination by any single institution, is a microcosm for academic computing in the United States

  5. The magnetic network location of explosive events observed in the solar transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. G.; Dere, K. P.

    1991-01-01

    Compact short-lived explosive events have been observed in solar transition region lines with the High-Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) flown by the Naval Research Laboratory on a series of rockets and on Spacelab 2. Data from Spacelab 2 are coaligned with a simultaneous magnetogram and near-simultaneous He I 10,380 -A spectroheliogram obtained at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak. The comparison shows that the explosive events occur in the solar magnetic network lanes at the boundaries of supergranular convective cells. However, the events occur away from the larger concentrations of magnetic flux in the network, in contradiction to the observed tendency of the more energetic solar phenomena to be associated with the stronger magnetic fields.

  6. Revealing the cerebral regions and networks mediating vulnerability to depression: oxidative metabolism mapping of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Kaart, Tanel; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Mällo, Tanel; Del Río, Joaquin; Tordera, Rosa M; Ramirez, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects.

  7. Southwest Region Educational Computer Network. Final Report 1969-1972. A Technical Report Submitted to the National Science Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlick, Charles H.; And Others

    Described herein are the activities of the Southwest Region Educational Computer Network (SRECN) which was established under funding from the National Science Foundation to provide, via a network, remote computing services to institutions lacking adequate facilities. The report details how SRECN sought to develop the teaching of computer science…

  8. Stress drop of earthquakes from the Multi-Window Spectral Ratio method in a regional network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, M. A.; Imanishi, K.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2006-12-01

    Insight into the mechanics of faulting comes from seismologically determined parameters such as earthquake stress drop. To produce higher precision estimates of stress drop on regional networks like the Parkfield HRSN borehole network, we use the multi-window spectral ratio (MWSR) method to determine the corner frequency and relative moment of earthquake pairs. This method assumes that the frequency distribution of spectral power is the same for direct arrivals and later arriving scattered energy. By taking the power spectra of individual time windows, we collect multiple, quasi-independent estimates of the power spectra for a given earthquake. For pairs of earthquakes located within a few hundred meters of one another, the ratio of their power spectra at a given station provides better estimates of their relative moments and corner frequencies by eliminating some of the path-dependent effects. We calculate the spectral ratio for each time window at each station in a regional borehole network and stack the ratios to cancel out noise and determine a robust estimate of the true power spectral ratio. Systematic differences between the spectral ratio at stations with different azimuths can be interpreted as evidence for directivity in the earthquake pulses or frequency- dependent attenuation along the source-receiver path. Because the method is based on a collection of quasi- independent spectral ratio observations, we can quantify the uncertainty in the estimates of corner frequency and moment for each earthquake pair. We use a bootstrap analysis with noise selected from the distribution of scatter from individual time windows about the mean spectral ratio to quantify the range of moment and corner frequencies that fit each station. By assuming that the earthquakes are simple circular cracks, we convert these parameters into stress drop with estimates of uncertainty. We evaluate the reliability of the technique in a regional network for different earthquake spacings

  9. Semi-supervised Convolutional Neural Networks for Text Categorization via Region Embedding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rie; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new semi-supervised framework with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for text categorization. Unlike the previous approaches that rely on word embeddings, our method learns embeddings of small text regions from unlabeled data for integration into a supervised CNN. The proposed scheme for embedding learning is based on the idea of two-view semi-supervised learning, which is intended to be useful for the task of interest even though the training is done on unlabeled data. Our models achieve better results than previous approaches on sentiment classification and topic classification tasks. PMID:27087766

  10. Dense seismic networks as a tool to characterize active faulting in regions of slow deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Arroucau, Pierre; Carrilho, Fernando; Cesca, Simone; Dias, Nuno; Matos, Catarina; Vales, Dina

    2016-04-01

    The theory of plate tectonics states that the relative motion between lithospheric plates is accommodated at plate boundaries, where earthquakes occur on long faults. However, earthquakes with a wide range of magnitudes also occur both off plate boundaries, in intra-plate settings, and along discontinuous, diffuse plate boundaries. These settings are characterized by low rates of lithospheric deformation. A fundamental limitation in the study of slowly deforming regions is the lack of high-quality observations. In these regions, earthquake catalogs have traditionally displayed diffuse seismicity patterns. The location, geometry and activity rate of faults - all basic parameters for understanding fault dynamics - are usually poorly known. The dense seismic networks deployed in the last years around the world have opened new windows in observational seismology. Although high-magnitude earthquakes are rare in regions of slow deformation, low-magnitude earthquakes are well observable on the time-scale of these deployments. In this presentation, we will show how data from dense seismic deployments can be used to characterize faulting in regions of slow deformation. In particular, we will present the case study of western Iberia, a region undergoing low-rate deformation and which has generated some of the largest earthquakes in Europe, both intraplate (mainland) and interplate (offshore). The methods that we employ include automated earthquake detection methods to lower the completeness magnitude of catalogs, earthquake relocations, focal mechanisms patterns, waveform similarity and clustering analysis.

  11. Epidemiological networks and drug resistance of HIV type 1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Rumyantseva, Olga A; Olkhovskiy, Igor A; Malysheva, Marina A; Ruzaeva, Ludmila A; Vasiliev, Alexander V; Kazennova, Elena V; Bobkova, Marina R; Lukashov, Vladimir V

    2009-09-01

    To study the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, where HIV-1 has spread rapidly since 2000, we obtained pol sequences from individuals living in this region (n = 67) as well as in the geographically closely related Altay region (n = 13). In both regions, subtype A viruses specific for the former Soviet Union (IDU-A strains) were dominant (92.5%). Virus sequences clustered according to the geographic origin of the infected individuals rather than to their risk group, demonstrating the role of geographically defined epidemiological networks in the propagation of the HIV-1 epidemic in the region. Six viruses belonged to subtype B. Three of them were phylogenetically (and therefore epidemiologically) closely related to each other, demonstrating that even though IDU-A viruses dominate the epidemic, the spread of other virus strains does occur. Most viruses (75%) had an A62V mutation in reverse transcriptase, specific for HIV-1 strains in Russia. Remarkably, 26 of 47 (55%) patients under HAART with detectable virus loads did not have any known drug-resistant mutation, indicating the need to increase compliance to therapy.

  12. Regional and local variations in atmospheric aerosols using ground-based sun photometry during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Nakata, Makiko; Holben, Brent N.

    2016-11-01

    Aerosol mass concentrations are affected by local emissions as well as long-range transboundary (LRT) aerosols. This work investigates regional and local variations of aerosols based on Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON). We constructed DRAGON-Japan and DRAGON-Osaka in spring of 2012. The former network covers almost all of Japan in order to obtain aerosol information in regional scale over Japanese islands. It was determined from the DRAGON-Japan campaign that the values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) decrease from west to east during an aerosol episode. In fact, the highest AOT was recorded at Fukue Island at the western end of the network, and the value was much higher than that of urban areas. The latter network (DRAGON-Osaka) was set as a dense instrument network in the megalopolis of Osaka, with a population of 12 million, to better understand local aerosol dynamics in urban areas. AOT was further measured with a mobile sun photometer attached to a car. This transect information showed that aerosol concentrations rapidly changed in time and space together when most of the Osaka area was covered with moderate LRT aerosols. The combined use of the dense instrument network (DRAGON-Osaka) and high-frequency measurements provides the motion of aerosol advection, which coincides with the wind vector around the layer between 700 and 850 hPa as provided by the reanalysis data of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).

  13. Regionalization of land-use impacts on streamflow using a network of paired catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Tocachi, Boris F.; Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the impact of land use and cover (LUC) change on catchment hydrological response is essential for land-use planning and management. Yet hydrologists are often not able to present consistent and reliable evidence to support such decision-making. The issue tends to be twofold: a scarcity of relevant observations, and the difficulty of regionalizing any existing observations. This study explores the potential of a paired catchment monitoring network to provide statistically robust, regionalized predictions of LUC change impact in an environment of high hydrological variability. We test the importance of LUC variables to explain hydrological responses and to improve regionalized predictions using 24 catchments distributed along the Tropical Andes. For this, we calculate first 50 physical catchment properties, and then select a subset based on correlation analysis. The reduced set is subsequently used to regionalize a selection of hydrological indices using multiple linear regression. Contrary to earlier studies, we find that incorporating LUC variables in the regional model structures increases significantly regression performance and predictive capacity for 66% of the indices. For the runoff ratio, baseflow index, and slope of the flow duration curve, the mean absolute error reduces by 53% and the variance of the residuals by 79%, on average. We attribute the explanatory capacity of LUC in the regional model to the pairwise monitoring setup, which increases the contrast of the land-use signal in the data set. As such, it may be a useful strategy to optimize data collection to support watershed management practices and improve decision-making in data-scarce regions.

  14. Loss of regional accent after damage to the speech production network

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Marcelo L.; Dávila, Guadalupe; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Beltrán-Corbellini, Álvaro; Santana-Moreno, Daniel; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María José; Massone, María Ignacia; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping studies reveal that selective damage to one or more components of the speech production network can be associated with foreign accent syndrome, changes in regional accent (e.g., from Parisian accent to Alsatian accent), stronger regional accent, or re-emergence of a previously learned and dormant regional accent. Here, we report loss of regional accent after rapidly regressive Broca’s aphasia in three Argentinean patients who had suffered unilateral or bilateral focal lesions in components of the speech production network. All patients were monolingual speakers with three different native Spanish accents (Cordobés or central, Guaranítico or northeast, and Bonaerense). Samples of speech production from the patient with native Córdoba accent were compared with previous recordings of his voice, whereas data from the patient with native Guaranítico accent were compared with speech samples from one healthy control matched for age, gender, and native accent. Speech samples from the patient with native Buenos Aires’s accent were compared with data obtained from four healthy control subjects with the same accent. Analysis of speech production revealed discrete slowing in speech rate, inappropriate long pauses, and monotonous intonation. Phonemic production remained similar to those of healthy Spanish speakers, but phonetic variants peculiar to each accent (e.g., intervocalic aspiration of /s/ in Córdoba accent) were absent. While basic normal prosodic features of Spanish prosody were preserved, features intrinsic to melody of certain geographical areas (e.g., rising end F0 excursion in declarative sentences intoned with Córdoba accent) were absent. All patients were also unable to produce sentences with different emotional prosody. Brain imaging disclosed focal left hemisphere lesions involving the middle part of the motor cortex, the post-central cortex, the posterior inferior and/or middle frontal cortices, insula, anterior putamen and

  15. Study of seismicity in the NW Himalaya and adjoining regions using IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Shanker, D.

    2016-08-01

    The Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) has been used in order to investigate the seismicity of the Northwest Himalaya and its neighboring region for the time period June 1999 to March 2015 within the geographical coordinates 25-40° N latitude and 65-85° E longitude. We have used a very precisely located earthquake dataset recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) Network containing 7,583 events with body wave magnitudes from 2.5 to 6.3. The study area has been subdivided into six regions based on the Flinn-Engdahl (F-E) seismic and geographical regionalization scheme, which was used as the region classifications of the International Data Center catalog. The examined region includes NW India, Pakistan, Nepal, Xizang, Kashmir, and Hindukush. For each region, Magnitudes of completeness (Mc) and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameters (a and b values) have been estimated. The Gutenberg-Richter analysis is preceded by an overview of the seismotectonics of the study area. The obtained Mc values vary from 3.5 to 3.9. The lower value of Mc was found mainly in Xizang region whereas the higher Mc threshold is evident in Pakistan region. However, the b values vary from 1.19 to 1.48. The lowest b value is recorded in Xizang region, which is mostly related to the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) fault, whereas the highest b values are recorded in NW India and Kashmir regions, which are mostly related to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault. The REB for the selected period has been compared to the most renowned bulletin of global seismicity, namely that issued by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A study of 4,821 events recorded by USGS in the study region indicates that about 36 % of seismic events were missed and the catalog is considered as complete for events with magnitudes ≥4.0. However, both a and b values are obviously higher than those of IMS catalog. The a

  16. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Maldjian, Joseph A; Brunner, Robert L; Kuller, Lewis H; Johnson, Karen C; Mysiw, W Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Resnick, Susan M

    2011-05-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years; however, it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine learning technique that combined Random Forest and logistic regression with L(1) penalty, was applied to identify patterns among regional volumes associated with therapy and whether patterns discriminate between treatment groups. The multivariate pattern analysis detected smaller regional volumes of normal tissue within the limbic and temporal lobes among women that had been assigned to CEE therapy. Mean decrements ranged as high as 7% in the left entorhinal cortex and 5% in the left perirhinal cortex, which exceeded the effect sizes reported previously in frontal lobe and hippocampus. Overall accuracy of classification based on these patterns, however, was projected to be only 54.5%. Prescription of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years is associated with lower regional brain volumes, but it does not induce a characteristic spatial pattern of changes in brain volumes of sufficient magnitude to discriminate users and nonusers.

  17. Estimation of regional recharge in the HOBE catchment using data from a distributed soil moisture network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasen, M.; Andreasen, L. A.; Bircher, S.; Sonnenborg, T.; Jensen, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    The regional variation of recharge of ground water is dependent on a larger number of variables and conditions and is therefore difficult to quantify. In this study we have estimated regional recharge using data from a distributed network of soil moisture stations within the HOBE catchment. The network has been designed in an arrangement of three clusters along a long-term precipitation gradient and the stations have been distributed according to respective fractions of classes combining the prevailing land use, top- and subsoil conditions. At each of the 30 stations water content has been measured at three depths (0-5cm, 20-25cm and 50-55cm) for the period 2009-2011 at a temporal resolution of 30 minutes. The 1D soil-plant-atmosphere system model DAISY has been applied to each of the field locations to simulate the water balance of the root zone and the associated components of evapotranspiration and recharge. The 30 models have been formulated and parameterized using specific information on local climate, soil texture, land use and management. Each model was calibrated to the measured soil water content from the distributed network using the PEST (Parameter ESTimation) software. The calibrated parameters were saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and van Genuchten parameter n as they were found most sensitive. The 30 sets of results were averaged to represent the mean conditions of the catchment. An effective parameterization was also determined by calibration against mean soil moisture and compared to the results obtained by using effective parameters using various averaging methods. The regional variation in groundwater recharge, actual evapotranspiration and soil water content in the catchment was dependent on land use. The simulated results showed that the largest recharge was found at the agricultural sites (554 mm/yr) and the lowest at the forested sites (257 mm/yr). Correspondingly, the highest actual evapotranspiration was found at the forested sites (614

  18. Regional shape-based feature space for segmenting biomedical images using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaramoorthy, Gopal; Hoford, John D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1993-07-01

    In biomedical images, structure of interest, particularly the soft tissue structures, such as the heart, airways, bronchial and arterial trees often have grey-scale and textural characteristics similar to other structures in the image, making it difficult to segment them using only gray- scale and texture information. However, these objects can be visually recognized by their unique shapes and sizes. In this paper we discuss, what we believe to be, a novel, simple scheme for extracting features based on regional shapes. To test the effectiveness of these features for image segmentation (classification), we use an artificial neural network and a statistical cluster analysis technique. The proposed shape-based feature extraction algorithm computes regional shape vectors (RSVs) for all pixels that meet a certain threshold criteria. The distance from each such pixel to a boundary is computed in 8 directions (or in 26 directions for a 3-D image). Together, these 8 (or 26) values represent the pixel's (or voxel's) RSV. All RSVs from an image are used to train a multi-layered perceptron neural network which uses these features to 'learn' a suitable classification strategy. To clearly distinguish the desired object from other objects within an image, several examples from inside and outside the desired object are used for training. Several examples are presented to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our algorithm. Both synthetic and actual biomedical images are considered. Future extensions to this algorithm are also discussed.

  19. Neural networks to simulate regional ground water levels affected by human activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaoyuan; Kang, Shaozhong; Huo, Zailin; Chen, Shaojun; Mao, Xiaomin

    2008-01-01

    In arid regions, human activities like agriculture and industry often require large ground water extractions. Under these circumstances, appropriate ground water management policies are essential for preventing aquifer overdraft, and thereby protecting critical ecologic and economic objectives. Identification of such policies requires accurate simulation capability of the ground water system in response to hydrological, meteorological, and human factors. In this research, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed and applied to investigate the effects of these factors on ground water levels in the Minqin oasis, located in the lower reach of Shiyang River Basin, in Northwest China. Using data spanning 1980 through 1997, two ANNs were developed to model and simulate dynamic ground water levels for the two subregions of Xinhe and Xiqu. The ANN models achieved high predictive accuracy, validating to 0.37 m or less mean absolute error. Sensitivity analyses were conducted with the models demonstrating that agricultural ground water extraction for irrigation is the predominant factor responsible for declining ground water levels exacerbated by a reduction in regional surface water inflows. ANN simulations indicate that it is necessary to reduce the size of the irrigation area to mitigate ground water level declines in the oasis. Unlike previous research, this study demonstrates that ANN modeling can capture important temporally and spatially distributed human factors like agricultural practices and water extraction patterns on a regional basin (or subbasin) scale, providing both high-accuracy prediction capability and enhanced understanding of the critical factors influencing regional ground water conditions.

  20. Observations of Global and Regional Ionospheric Irregularities and Scintillation Using GNSS Tracking Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Valant-Spaight, Bonnie; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Romans, Larry J.; Skone, Susan; Sparks, Lawrence; Hall, G. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The rate of TEC index (ROTI) is a measurement that characterizes ionospheric irregularities. It can be obtained from standard GNSS dual-frequency phase data collected using a geodetic type of GNSS receiver. By processing GPS data from ground-based networks of International GNSS Service and Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS), ROTI maps have been produced to observe global and regional scintillation activities. A major mid-latitude scintillation event in the contiguous United States is reported here that was captured in ROTI maps produced using CORS GPS data collected during a space weather storm. The analyses conducted in this work and previously by another group indicate that ROTI is a good occurrence indicator of both amplitude and phase scintillations of GPS L-band signals, even though the magnitudes of ROTI, S4, and sigma(sub phi) can be different. For example, our analysis indicates that prominent ROTI and the L1 phase scintillation (sigma(sub phi)) are well correlated temporally in the polar region while L1 amplitude scintillation rarely occurs. The differences are partially attributed to physics processes in different latitude regions, such as high-speed plasma convection in the polar region that can suppress the amplitude scintillation. An analysis of the impact of ionospheric scintillation on precise positioning, which requires use of dual-frequency phase data, is also conducted. The results indicate that significant (more than an order of magnitude) positioning errors can occur under phase scintillation conditions.

  1. Identifying streamgage networks for maximizing the effectiveness of regional water balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T. S.; Phanikumar, M. S.; Fortin, V.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2013-05-01

    One approach to regional water balance modeling is to constrain rainfall-runoff models with a synthetic regionalized hydrologic response. For example, the Large Basin Runoff Model (LBRM), a cornerstone of hydrologic forecasting in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, was calibrated to a synthetic discharge record resulting from a drainage area ratio method (ARM) for extrapolating beyond gaged areas. A challenge of such approaches is the declining availability of observations for development of synthetic records. To advance efficient use of the declining gage network in the context of regional water balance modeling, we present results from an assessment of ARM. All possible combinations of "most-downstream" gages were used to simulate runoff at the gaged outlet of Michigan's Clinton River watershed in order to determine the influence of gages' drainage area and other physical characteristics on model skill. For nearly all gage combinations, ARM simulations resulted in good model skill. However, the gages' catchment area relative to that of the outlet's catchment is not an unquestionable predictor of model performance. Results indicate that combinations representing less than 30% of the total catchment area (less than 10% in some cases) can provide very good discharge simulations, but that similarity of the gaged catchments' developed and cultivated area, stream density, and permeability relative to the outlet's catchment is also important for successful simulations. Recognition of thresholds on the relationship between the number of gages and their relative value in simulating flow over large area provides an opportunity for improving historical records for regional hydrologic modeling.

  2. Selective dissociation between core and extended regions of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Liu, Ning; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-06-01

    There is growing consensus that accurate and efficient face recognition is mediated by a neural circuit composed of a posterior "core" and an anterior "extended" set of regions. Here, we characterize the distributed face network in human individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP)-a lifelong impairment in face processing-relative to that of matched controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we first uncover largely normal activation patterns in the posterior core face patches in CP. We also document normal activity of the amygdala (emotion processing) as well as normal or even enhanced functional connectivity between the amygdala and the core regions. Critically, in the same individuals, activation of the anterior temporal cortex (identity processing) is reduced and connectivity between this region and the posterior core regions is disrupted. The dissociation between the neural profiles of the anterior temporal lobe and amygdala was evident both during a task-related face scan and during a resting state scan, in the absence of visual stimulation. Taken together, these findings elucidate selective disruptions in neural circuitry in CP and offer an explanation for the known differential difficulty in identity versus emotional expression recognition in many individuals with CP.

  3. Core and region-enriched networks of behaviorally regulated genes and the singing genome

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Osceola; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Howard, Jason T.; Blatti, Charles A; Liu, Fang; Ward, James M.; Wang, Rui; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Kellis, Manolis; Mukherjee, Sayan; Sinha, Saurabh; Hartemink, Alexander J.; West, Anne E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds represent an important model organism for elucidating molecular mechanisms that link genes with complex behaviors, in part because they have discrete vocal learning circuits that have parallels with those that mediate human speech. We found that ~10% of the genes in the avian genome were regulated by singing, and we found a striking regional diversity of both basal and singing-induced programs in the four key song nuclei of the zebra finch, a vocal learning songbird. The region-enriched patterns were a result of distinct combinations of region-enriched transcription factors (TFs), their binding motifs, and presinging acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) enhancer activity in the regulatory regions of the associated genes. RNA interference manipulations validated the role of the calcium-response transcription factor (CaRF) in regulating genes preferentially expressed in specific song nuclei in response to singing. Thus, differential combinatorial binding of a small group of activity-regulated TFs and predefined epigenetic enhancer activity influences the anatomical diversity of behaviorally regulated gene networks. PMID:25504732

  4. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  5. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayazi, Roya

    2013-04-01

    NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (Roya Ayazi, Secretary General NEREUS nereus.bruxelles@euroinbox.com) NEREUS currently unites 25 European regions and 39 Associate Members with the common objective to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe for the benefit of regions and their citizens. As voice of European Regions, NEREUS serves as an advocate for the regions in matters of space uses and also as a direct channel to the regional users of space technologies (such as local authorities, SMEs, universities and research institutes and citizens). EO/GMES, Global Satellite Navigation and Telecommunication are identified by the NEREUS Political Charta as core areas of cooperation. NEREUS holds the view that broad societal awareness and involvement is vital to fully exploit Euope's space systems. Understanding the potentials of Copernicus and EGNOS/Galileo is in the first place an essential step for the development of the downstream sector. Therefore NEREUS makes special efforts to contribute with numerous network activities to communicate and promote the added value of space uses for public policies but also as valuable new business opportunities. In economic terms space uses are suited to stimulate economic growth and innovation dynamics at regional level. The network community produced several illustrative communication tools (publications, video, web-based tools, mobile NEREUS-exhibition) portraying examples how regions already use space systems and the concrete benefits for the citizens. Most of the NEREUS-publications and video are online: www.nereus-regions.eu. Pooling a considerable wealth of capabilities and expertise, the network offers its members a dynamic platform to collaborate and share experiences and knowledge inter regionally. But these tools were not only the outcome of an intensive regional collaboration but

  6. Energy efficient data representation and aggregation with event region detection in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Torsha

    Unlike conventional networks, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are limited in power, have much smaller memory buffers, and possess relatively slower processing speeds. These characteristics necessitate minimum transfer and storage of information in order to prolong the network lifetime. In this dissertation, we exploit the spatio-temporal nature of sensor data to approximate the current values of the sensors based on readings obtained from neighboring sensors and itself. We propose a Tree based polynomial REGression algorithm, (TREG) that addresses the problem of data compression in wireless sensor networks. Instead of aggregated data, a polynomial function (P) is computed by the regression function, TREG. The coefficients of P are then passed to achieve the following goals: (i) The sink can get attribute values in the regions devoid of sensor nodes, and (ii) Readings over any portion of the region can be obtained at one time by querying the root of the tree. As the size of the data packet from each tree node to its parent remains constant, the proposed scheme scales very well with growing network density or increased coverage area. Since physical attributes exhibit a gradual change over time, we propose an iterative scheme, UPDATE_COEFF, which obviates the need to perform the regression function repeatedly and uses approximations based on previous readings. Extensive simulations are performed on real world data to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed aggregation algorithm, TREG. Results reveal that for a network density of 0.0025 nodes/m2, a complete binary tree of depth 4 could provide the absolute error to be less than 6%. A data compression ratio of about 0.02 is achieved using our proposed algorithm, which is almost independent of the tree depth. In addition, our proposed updating scheme makes the aggregation process faster while maintaining the desired error bounds. We also propose a Polynomial-based scheme that addresses the problem of Event Region

  7. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  8. Memphis Area Regional Seismic Network. Final report, October 1986--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, J.M.; Johnston, A.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Memphis Area Regional Seismic Network (MARSN) has provided important southern coverage of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). One of the most important contributions of MARSN is to provide essential data for the successful identification of the Crittenden County fault zone which is located to the east and parallel to the south-west segment of the NMSZ. In addition to felt reports and earthquake locations, MARSN data has also been added into database obtained by the PANDA (Portable Array for Numerical Data Acquisition) experiment for a comprehensive seismological study of the NMSZ. Results from the PANDA experiment combined with regional seismic network data clearly demonstrate that the seismogenic zone in the NMSZ is mainly confined within depths ranging from 3 to 15 km. The SW, NW, and NE segments of the NMSZ are characterized by narrow vertical strike-slip faults. The central NMSZ is, however, very complicated. The northcentral NMSZ is characterized by a well-defined planar feature dipping {approximately} 31{degree} SW which shows dominantly normal faulting. The southcentral NMSZ is characterized by a {approximately} 48{degree} SW dipping fault which shows dominantly reverse faulting. Although the east-west compressional regional stress may play an important role in fault movements in the NMSZ, the complication in focal mechanism along each segment may suggest that other factors including postseismic relaxation by one or more of the 1811--1812 earthquakes, or the interactions between adjacent fault segments, or other tectonic features such as the right-lateral strike-slip Crittenden County Fault can not be overlooked in future tectonic studies of the NMSZ.

  9. Efficiency of a protected-area network in a Mediterranean region: a multispecies assessment with raptors.

    PubMed

    Abellán, María D; Martínez, José E; Palazón, José A; Esteve, Miguel A; Calvo, José F

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km²), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  10. Utah's Regional/Urban ANSS Seismic Network---Strategies and Tools for Quality Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlacu, R.; Arabasz, W. J.; Pankow, K. L.; Pechmann, J. C.; Drobeck, D. L.; Moeinvaziri, A.; Roberson, P. M.; Rusho, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    The University of Utah's regional/urban seismic network (224 stations recorded: 39 broadband, 87 strong-motion, 98 short-period) has become a model for locally implementing the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) because of successes in integrating weak- and strong-motion recording and in developing an effective real-time earthquake information system. Early achievements included implementing ShakeMap, ShakeCast, point-to- multipoint digital telemetry, and an Earthworm Oracle database, as well as in-situ calibration of all broadband and strong-motion stations and submission of all data and metadata into the IRIS DMC. Regarding quality performance, our experience as a medium-size regional network affirms the fundamental importance of basics such as the following: for data acquisition, deliberate attention to high-quality field installations, signal quality, and computer operations; for operational efficiency, a consistent focus on professional project management and human resources; and for customer service, healthy partnerships---including constant interactions with emergency managers, engineers, public policy-makers, and other stakeholders as part of an effective state earthquake program. (Operational cost efficiencies almost invariably involve trade-offs between personnel costs and the quality of hardware and software.) Software tools that we currently rely on for quality performance include those developed by UUSS (e.g., SAC and shell scripts for estimating local magnitudes) and software developed by other organizations such as: USGS (Earthworm), University of Washington (interactive analysis software), ISTI (SeisNetWatch), and IRIS (PDCC, BUD tools). Although there are many pieces, there is little integration. One of the main challenges we face is the availability of a complete and coherent set of tools for automatic and post-processing to assist in achieving the goals/requirements set forth by ANSS. Taking our own network---and ANSS---to the next level

  11. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.

    2017-01-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links. PMID:28266589

  12. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. Dec.

    2017-03-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links.

  13. Detection of the Wenchuan aftershock sequence using waveform correlation with a composite regional network

    SciTech Connect

    Slinkard, Megan; Heck, Stephen; Schaff, David; Bonal, Nedra; Daily, David; Young, Christopher; Richards, Paul

    2016-06-28

    Using template waveforms from aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake (12 May 2008, Ms 8.0) listed in a global bulletin and continuous data from eight regional stations, we detected more than 6000 additional events in the mainshock source region from 1 May to 12 August 2008. These new detections obey Omori’s law, extend the magnitude of completeness downward by 1.1 magnitude units, and lead to a more than fivefold increase in number of known aftershocks compared with the global bulletins published by the International Data Centre and the Inter national Seismological Centre. Moreover, we detected more M > 2 events than were listed by the Sichuan Seismograph Network. Several clusters of these detections were then relocated using the double-difference method, yielding locations that reduced travel-time residuals by a factor of 32 compared with the initial bulletin locations. Finally, our results suggest that using waveform correlation on a few regional stations can find aftershock events very effectively and locate them with precision.

  14. Detection of the Wenchuan aftershock sequence using waveform correlation with a composite regional network

    DOE PAGES

    Slinkard, Megan; Heck, Stephen; Schaff, David; ...

    2016-06-28

    Using template waveforms from aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake (12 May 2008, Ms 8.0) listed in a global bulletin and continuous data from eight regional stations, we detected more than 6000 additional events in the mainshock source region from 1 May to 12 August 2008. These new detections obey Omori’s law, extend the magnitude of completeness downward by 1.1 magnitude units, and lead to a more than fivefold increase in number of known aftershocks compared with the global bulletins published by the International Data Centre and the Inter national Seismological Centre. Moreover, we detected more M > 2 events thanmore » were listed by the Sichuan Seismograph Network. Several clusters of these detections were then relocated using the double-difference method, yielding locations that reduced travel-time residuals by a factor of 32 compared with the initial bulletin locations. Finally, our results suggest that using waveform correlation on a few regional stations can find aftershock events very effectively and locate them with precision.« less

  15. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  16. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC

    2017-03-07

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links.

  17. A dense Black Carbon network in the region of Paris, France: Implementation, objectives, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Gros, Valérie; Pernot, Pierre; Ghersi, Véronique; Ampe, Christophe; Songeur, Charlotte; Brugge, Benjamin; Debert, Christophe; Favez, Olivier; Le Priol, Tiphaine; Mocnik, Grisa

    2013-04-01

    Motivations. Road traffic and domestic wood burning emissions are two major contributors of particulate pollution in our cities. These two sources emit ultra-fine, soot containing, particles in the atmosphere, affecting health adversely, increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and casing lung cancer. A better characterization of soot containing aerosol sources in our major cities provides useful information for policy makers for assessment, implementation and monitoring of strategies to tackle air pollution issues affecting human health with additional benefits for climate change. Objectives. This study on local sources of primary Particulate Matter (PM) in the megacity of Paris is a follow-up of several programs (incl. EU-FP7-MEGAPOLI) that have shown that fine PM - in the Paris background atmosphere - is mostly secondary and imported. A network of 14 stations of Black Carbon has been implemented in the larger region of Paris to provide highly spatially resolved long term survey of local combustion aerosols. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that such densely BC network is operating over a large urban area, providing novel information on the spatial/temporal distribution of combustion aerosols within a post-industrialized megacity. Experimental. As part of the PRIMEQUAL "PREQUALIF" project, a dense Black Carbon network (of 14 stations) has been installed over the city of Paris beginning of 2012 in order to produce spatially resolved Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentration maps with high time resolution through modeling and data assimilation. This network is composed of various real-time instruments (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, MAAP by THERMO; Multi-wavelength Aethalometers by MAGEE Scientific) implemented in contrasted sites (rural background, urban background, traffic) complementing the regulated measurements (PM, NOx) in the local air quality network AIRPARIF (http

  18. Spatiotemporal filtering for regional GPS network in China using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Feng; Yang, Yuanxi; Zeng, Anmin; Zhao, Bin

    2017-04-01

    Removal of the common mode error (CME) is a routine procedure in postprocessing regional GPS network observations, which is commonly performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decomposes a network time series into a group of modes, where each mode comprises a common temporal function and corresponding spatial response based on second-order statistics (variance and covariance). However, the probability distribution function of a GPS time series is non-Gaussian; therefore, the largest variances do not correspond to the meaningful axes, and the PCA-derived components may not have an obvious physical meaning. In this study, the CME was assumed statistically independent of other errors, and it was extracted using independent component analysis (ICA), which involves higher-order statistics. First, the ICA performance was tested using a simulated example and compared with PCA and stacking methods. The existence of strong local effects on some stations causes significant large spatial responses and, therefore, a strategy based on median and interquartile range statistics was proposed to identify abnormal sites. After discarding abnormal sites, two indices based on the analysis of the spatial responses of all sites in each independent component (east, north, and vertical) were used to define the CME quantitatively. Continuous GPS coordinate time series spanning ˜ 4.5 years obtained from 259 stations of the Tectonic and Environmental Observation Network of Mainland China (CMONOC II) were analyzed using both PCA and ICA methods and their results compared. The results suggest that PCA is susceptible to deriving an artificial spatial structure, whereas ICA separates the CME from other errors reliably. Our results demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of the CME for CMONOC II are not uniform for the east, north, and vertical components, but have an obvious north-south or east-west distribution. After discarding 84 abnormal sites and performing spatiotemporal

  19. Spatiotemporal filtering for regional GPS network in China using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Feng; Yang, Yuanxi; Zeng, Anmin; Zhao, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Removal of the common mode error (CME) is a routine procedure in postprocessing regional GPS network observations, which is commonly performed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decomposes a network time series into a group of modes, where each mode comprises a common temporal function and corresponding spatial response based on second-order statistics (variance and covariance). However, the probability distribution function of a GPS time series is non-Gaussian; therefore, the largest variances do not correspond to the meaningful axes, and the PCA-derived components may not have an obvious physical meaning. In this study, the CME was assumed statistically independent of other errors, and it was extracted using independent component analysis (ICA), which involves higher-order statistics. First, the ICA performance was tested using a simulated example and compared with PCA and stacking methods. The existence of strong local effects on some stations causes significant large spatial responses and, therefore, a strategy based on median and interquartile range statistics was proposed to identify abnormal sites. After discarding abnormal sites, two indices based on the analysis of the spatial responses of all sites in each independent component (east, north, and vertical) were used to define the CME quantitatively. Continuous GPS coordinate time series spanning ˜ 4.5 years obtained from 259 stations of the Tectonic and Environmental Observation Network of Mainland China (CMONOC II) were analyzed using both PCA and ICA methods and their results compared. The results suggest that PCA is susceptible to deriving an artificial spatial structure, whereas ICA separates the CME from other errors reliably. Our results demonstrate that the spatial characteristics of the CME for CMONOC II are not uniform for the east, north, and vertical components, but have an obvious north-south or east-west distribution. After discarding 84 abnormal sites and performing spatiotemporal

  20. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Jason S.; Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  1. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  2. The enerMENA meteorological network - Solar radiation measurements in the MENA region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, D.; Wilbert, S.; Geuder, N.; Affolter, R.; Wolfertstetter, F.; Prahl, C.; Röger, M.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Abdellatif, G.; Guizani, A. Allah; Balghouthi, M.; Khalil, A.; Mezrhab, A.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Yassaa, N.; Chellali, F.; Draou, D.; Blanc, P.; Dubranna, J.; Sabry, O. M. K.

    2016-05-01

    For solar resource assessment of solar power plants and adjustment of satellite data, high accuracy measurement data of irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is needed. For the MENA region (Middle East and Northern Africa), which is of high importance for concentrating solar power applications, so far merely 2 publicly available ground measurement stations existed (BSRN network). This gap has been filled by ten stations in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan. In this publication the data quality is analyzed by evaluating data completeness and the cleanliness of irradiance sensors in comparison for all of the stations. The pyrheliometers have an average cleanliness of 99.2 % for week-daily cleaning. This is a 5 times higher effort than for Rotating Shadowband Irradiometer (RSI) stations which even have a slightly higher average cleanliness of 99.3 % for weekly cleaning. Furthermore, RSI stations show a data completeness of 99.4 % compared to 93.6 % at the stations equipped with thermal sensors. The results of this analysis are used to derive conclusions concerning instrument choice and are hence also applicable to other solar radiation measurements outside the enerMENA network. It turns out that RSIs are the more reliable and robust choice in cases of high soiling, rare station visits for cleaning and maintenance, as usual in desert sites. Furthermore, annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation as well as average meteorological parameters are calculated for all of the stations.

  3. Genetic Dissection of a Regionally Differentiated Network for Exploratory Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Berni, Jimena

    2015-01-01

    Summary An efficient strategy to explore the environment for available resources involves the execution of random walks where straight line locomotion alternates with changes of direction. This strategy is highly conserved in the animal kingdom, from zooplankton to human hunter-gatherers [1–8]. Drosophila larvae execute a routine of this kind, performing straight line crawling interrupted at intervals by pause turns that halt crawling and redirect the trajectory of movement [9–11]. The execution of this routine depends solely on the activity of networks located in the thoracic and abdominal segments of the nervous system, while descending input from the brain serves to modify it in a context-dependent fashion [9]. I used a genetic method to investigate the location and function of the circuitry required for the different elements of exploratory crawling. By using the Slit-Robo axon guidance pathway to target neuronal midline crossing defects selectively to particular regions of the thoracic and abdominal networks, it has been possible to define at least three functions required for the performance of the exploratory routine: (1) symmetrical outputs in thoracic and abdominal segments that generate the crawls; (2) asymmetrical output that is uniquely initiated in the thoracic segments and generates the turns; and (3) an intermittent interruption to crawling that determines the time-dependent transition between crawls and turns. PMID:25959962

  4. Genetic dissection of a regionally differentiated network for exploratory behavior in Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Berni, Jimena

    2015-05-18

    An efficient strategy to explore the environment for available resources involves the execution of random walks where straight line locomotion alternates with changes of direction. This strategy is highly conserved in the animal kingdom, from zooplankton to human hunter-gatherers. Drosophila larvae execute a routine of this kind, performing straight line crawling interrupted at intervals by pause turns that halt crawling and redirect the trajectory of movement. The execution of this routine depends solely on the activity of networks located in the thoracic and abdominal segments of the nervous system, while descending input from the brain serves to modify it in a context-dependent fashion. I used a genetic method to investigate the location and function of the circuitry required for the different elements of exploratory crawling. By using the Slit-Robo axon guidance pathway to target neuronal midline crossing defects selectively to particular regions of the thoracic and abdominal networks, it has been possible to define at least three functions required for the performance of the exploratory routine: (1) symmetrical outputs in thoracic and abdominal segments that generate the crawls; (2) asymmetrical output that is uniquely initiated in the thoracic segments and generates the turns; and (3) an intermittent interruption to crawling that determines the time-dependent transition between crawls and turns.

  5. Memory impairment in aged primates is associated with region-specific network dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Alexander; Gray, Daniel T.; Erickson, Cynthia A.; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory result, in part, from declines in the integrity of medial temporal lobe structures, such as the hippocampus, but are not thought to be due to widespread loss of principal neurons. Studies in rodents suggest, however, that inhibitory interneurons may be particularly vulnerable in advanced age. Optimal encoding and retrieval of information depend on a balance of excitatory and inhibitory transmission. It is not known whether a disruption of this balance is observed in aging nonhuman primates, and whether such changes affect network function and behavior. To examine this question we combine large scale electrophysiological recordings with cell type-specific imaging in the medial temporal lobe of cognitively-assessed, aged rhesus macaques. We found that neuron excitability in hippocampal region CA3 is negatively correlated with the density of the somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the vicinity of the recording electrodes in stratum oriens. By contrast, no hyperexcitability or interneuron loss was observed in the perirhinal cortex of these aged, memory-impaired monkeys. These data provide a link, for the first time, between selective increases in principal cell excitability and declines in a molecularly-defined population of interneurons that regulate network inhibition. PMID:26503764

  6. Genomic and network patterns of schizophrenia genetic variation in human evolutionary accelerated regions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Schadt, Eric E; Pollard, Katherine S; Roussos, Panos; Dudley, Joel T

    2015-05-01

    The population persistence of schizophrenia despite associated reductions in fitness and fecundity suggests that the genetic basis of schizophrenia has a complex evolutionary history. A recent meta-analysis of schizophrenia genome-wide association studies offers novel opportunities for assessment of the evolutionary trajectories of schizophrenia-associated loci. In this study, we hypothesize that components of the genetic architecture of schizophrenia are attributable to human lineage-specific evolution. Our results suggest that schizophrenia-associated loci enrich in genes near previously identified human accelerated regions (HARs). Specifically, we find that genes near HARs conserved in nonhuman primates (pHARs) are enriched for schizophrenia-associated loci, and that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes are under stronger selective pressure than other schizophrenia genes and other pHAR-associated genes. We further evaluate pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes in regulatory network contexts to investigate associated molecular functions and mechanisms. We find that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes significantly enrich in a GABA-related coexpression module that was previously found to be differentially regulated in schizophrenia affected individuals versus healthy controls. In another two independent networks constructed from gene expression profiles from prefrontal cortex samples, we find that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes are located in more central positions and their average path lengths to the other nodes are significantly shorter than those of other schizophrenia genes. Together, our results suggest that HARs are associated with potentially important functional roles in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia.

  7. Designing Groundwater Monitoring Networks for Regional-Scale Water Quality Assessment: A Bayesian Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, M. J.; Wagner, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    The design of groundwater monitoring networks is an important concern of regional-scale water-quality assessment programs because of the high cost of data collection. The work presented here addresses regional-scale design issues using ground-water simulation and optimization set within a Bayesian framework. The regional-scale design approach focuses on reducing the uncertainty associated with a fundamental quantity: the proportion of a subsurface water resource which exceeds a specified threshold concentration, such as a mandated maximum contaminant level. This proportion is hereafter referred to as the threshold proportion. The goal is to identify optimal or near-optimal sampling designs that reduce the threshold proportion uncertainty to an acceptable level. In the Bayesian approach, there is a probability density function (pdf) associated with the unknown threshold proportion before sampling. This function is known as the prior pdf. The form of the prior pdf, which is dependent on the information available regarding the distribution of water quality within the aquifer system, controls the amount of sampling needed. In the absence of information, the form of the prior pdf is uniform; however, if a ground-water flow and transport model is available, a Monte Carlo analysis of ground-water flow and transport simulations can be used to generate a prior pdf which is non-uniform and which contains the information available regarding solute sources, pathways and transport. After sampling, the prior pdf is conditioned on the sampling data. The conditional distribution is known as the posterior pdf. In most cases there is a reduction in uncertainty associated with conditioning. The reduction in uncertainty achieved after collecting samples can be explored for different combinations of prior pdf distribution and sampling method. Three scenarios are considered: (i) uniform prior pdf with random sampling; (ii) non-uniform prior pdf with random sampling; and (iii) non

  8. Performance of Network Based EEW Systems in Marmara Region; VS, ElarmS-2 and PRESTo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyuk, H. S.; Pinar, A.; Comoglu, M.; Erdik, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Several earthquake early warning algorithms are in operation in various countries. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Engineering Institute (KOERI) implemented and recently running three different EEWS within KOERI network in Marmara Region. Due to high probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the next 30 years in the Marmara Sea, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing EEWS performance and to find out how reliable an EEW is in terms of calculating time, location, magnitude of an earthquake in the region. Here we assessed performance of Virtual Seismologist (VS), Earthquake Alarm System-2 (ElarmS-2) and PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem (PRESTo) which are developed at Caltech, UC Berkeley and University of Naples respectively and are being monitored for over six months. We choose four representative earthquakes that are detected by three algorithm and evaluated their performances. We found each algorithm has its own strengths and weakness in calculating source parameters. Even though, algorithms are not optimized, cities around the Marmara Sea could get up to 50 seconds warning time with existing infrastructure. First alert could be given in 12 seconds after origin time and blind-zone could get minimum 40 km radius. The main reason of delays on detecting earthquake is packet size of data (7 seconds in average). We confirm that SeisComp3 platform requires additional time to locate earthquakes and it needs to be optimized for EEWS. This study could help algorithm developer of three EEWS to optimize their systems in other seismically active region and different earthquake environment. We believe results derived from this study will provide precious information for both habitants in Marmara region and geo-scientist.

  9. Appetitive associative learning recruits a distinct network with cortical, striatal, and hypothalamic regions

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Sindy; Hobin, Michael P.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala, prefrontal cortex, striatum and other connected forebrain areas are important for reward-associated learning and subsequent behaviors. How these structurally and functionally dissociable regions are recruited during initial learning, however, is unclear. Recently, we showed amygdalar nuclei were differentially recruited across different stages of cue-food associations in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. Here, we systematically examined Fos induction in the forebrain, including areas associated with the amygdala, during early (day 1) and late (day 10) training sessions of cue-food conditioning. During training, rats in the conditioned group received tone-food pairings, while controls received presentations of the tone alone in the conditioning chamber followed by food delivery in their home cage. We found that a small subset of telencephalic and hypothalamic regions were differentially recruited during the early and late stages of training, suggesting evidence of learning induced plasticity. Initial tone-food pairings recruited solely the amygdala, while late tone-food pairings came to induce Fos in distinct areas within the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsal striatum, and the hypothalamus (lateral hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus). Furthermore, within the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, tone-food pairings selectively recruited neurons that produce the orexigenic neuropeptide orexin/hypocretin. These data show a functional map of the forebrain areas recruited by appetitive associative learning and dependent on experience. These selectively activated regions include interconnected prefrontal, striatal, and hypothalamic regions that form a discrete but distributed network that is well placed to simultaneously inform cortical (cognitive) processing and behavioral (motivational) control during cue-food learning. PMID:25463526

  10. eHealth vision towards cooperative patient care--domain fields and architectural challenges of regional health care networks.

    PubMed

    Gusew, Nathalie; Gerlach, Annekatrin; Bartkiewicz, Thomas; Goldapp, Michael; Haux, Reinhold; Heller, Ulrich; Hellrung, Nils; Kierdorf, Horst-P; Kleinschmidt, Thorsten; Markurth, Ulrich; Marschollek, Michael; Plischke, Maik; Schubert, Rainer; Seidel, Christoph; Wiegmann, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Numerous eHealth projects and efforts to establish inter-organizational communication and to build up regional health care networks could be observed in the last ten years. Nevertheless the success of such efforts is profoundly different. The aim of this paper is to introduce the lately started regional initiative eHealth.Braunschweig compounding of the major health care players (hospitals, physician offices, nursing services and nursing homes) in the region of Braunschweig, participants from research institutions and industry. We propose in this paper the main goals of the regional initiative eHealth.Braunschweig, its constitution and major approaches. Based on respective literature and our former projects as well as experiences in this field we discuss our vision of a patient-oriented cooperative health care by depicting regional distinctions, identifying the major domain fields in this context and discussing the architectural challenges for the regional health care network eHealth.Braunschweig. In our view this work can be considered as a systematical approach to the establishment of regional health care networks with lasting and sustainable effects on patient-centered health care in a region.

  11. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  12. New PBO GPS Station Construction: Eastern Region Network Enhancements and Multiple-Monument Stability Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network consists of 1100 continuously operating, permanent GPS stations throughout the United States. The majority of this network was constructed using NSF-MREFC funding as part of the EarthScope Project during FY2003-FY2008. Since FY2009, UNAVCO has operated and maintained PBO through a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF. Construction of new, permanent GPS monuments in the PBO network was the result of two change orders to the original PBO O&M CA. Change Order 33 (CO33) allocated funds to construct additional GPS stations at six locations in the Eastern Region of PBO. Three of these locations were designed to replace poorly performing existing GPS monuments in Georgia, Texas and New York. The remaining three new locations were selected to fill in gaps in network coverage in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Construction of all six new sites was completed in September 2013. Important scientific goals for CO33 include improvement of the stable North American reference frame, measurement of the vertical signal associated with the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment, and improved constraints on surface deformation and possible earthquakes, which occur in the low-strain tectonic setting of the eastern North American Plate. Change Order 35 (CO35) allocated funds to construct two additional geodetic monuments at five existing PBO stations in order to test and compare the long-term stability of various monument designs under near-identical geologic conditions. Sites were chosen to yield a variety of geographic, hydrologic and geologic conditions, including both fine-grained alluvium and crystalline bedrock. At each location, three different monuments (deep drill braced, short drill braced/driven-braced, mast/pillar) were built with 10 meter spacing, with shared power systems and data telemetry infrastructure. Construction of these multi-monument test locations began in October 2012 and finished in September 2013. See G010- Berglund

  13. Potential fault region detection in TFDS images based on convolutional neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junhua; Xiao, Zhongwen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, more than 300 sets of Trouble of Running Freight Train Detection System (TFDS) have been installed on railway to monitor the safety of running freight trains in China. However, TFDS is simply responsible for capturing, transmitting, and storing images, and fails to recognize faults automatically due to some difficulties such as such as the diversity and complexity of faults and some low quality images. To improve the performance of automatic fault recognition, it is of great importance to locate the potential fault areas. In this paper, we first introduce a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to TFDS and propose a potential fault region detection system (PFRDS) for simultaneously detecting four typical types of potential fault regions (PFRs). The experimental results show that this system has a higher performance of image detection to PFRs in TFDS. An average detection recall of 98.95% and precision of 100% are obtained, demonstrating the high detection ability and robustness against various poor imaging situations.

  14. The energy balance and pressure in the solar transition zone for network and active region features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, K. R.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.; Vanhoosier, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The electron pressure and energy balance in the solar transition zone are determined for about 125 network and active region features on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet spectra. Si III line intensity ratios obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory high-resolution telescope and spectrograph during a rocket flight are used as diagnostics of electron density and pressure for solar features near 3.5 x 10 to the 4th K. Observed ratios are compared with the calculated dependence of the 1301 A/1312 A and 1301 A/1296 A line intensity ratios on electron density, temperature and pressure. Electron densities ranging from 2 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm to 10 to the 12th/cu cm and active region pressures from 3 x 10 to the 15th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm K are obtained. Energy balance calculations reveal the balance of the divergence of the conductive flux and turbulent energy dissipation by radiative energy losses in a plane-parallel homogeneous transition zone (fill factor of 1), and an energy source requirement for a cylindrical zone geometry (fill factor less than 0.04).

  15. Regional GPS TEC modeling; Attempted spatial and temporal extrapolation of TEC using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, John Bosco; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Opperman, Ben D. L.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the potential extrapolation capabilities and limitations of artificial neural networks (ANNs) are investigated. This is primarily done by generating total electron content (TEC) predictions using the regional southern Africa total electron content prediction (SATECP) model based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) data and ANNs with the aid of multiple inputs intended to enable the software to learn and correlate the relationship between their variations and the target parameter, TEC. TEC values are predicted over regions that were not covered in the model's development, although it is difficult to validate their accuracy in some cases. The SATECP model is also used to forecast hourly TEC variability 1 year ahead in order to assess the forecasting capability of ANNs in generalizing TEC patterns. The developed SATECP model has also been independently validated by ionosonde data and TEC values derived from the adapted University of New Brunswick Ionospheric Mapping Technique (UNB-IMT) over southern Africa. From the comparison of prediction results with actual GPS data, it is observed that ANNs extrapolate relatively well during quiet periods while the accuracy is low during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. However, ANNs correctly identify both positive and negative storm effects observed in GPS TEC data analyzed within the input space.

  16. A Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network In The Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, B.; de Wekker, S.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    We have established a continuous CO2 observing network in the Rocky Mountains, building on technological and modeling advances made during the Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (CME), to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We will present a description of the Rocky RACCOON network and early results from the first three sites. There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. NACP aims to address these concerns through a dramatic expansion in observations and modeling capabilities over North America. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. However, plans for new continuous CO2 observing sites have omitted the mountain west. This resulted from expensive instrumentation in the face of limited resources, and a perception that current atmospheric transport models are not sophisticated enough to interpret CO2 measurements made in complex terrain. Through our efforts in CME, we have a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system and are developing mountain CO2 modeling tools that will help us to overcome these obstacles. Preliminary observational and modeling results give us confidence that continuous CO2 observations from mountain top observatories will provide useful constraints on regional carbon cycling and will be valuable in the continental inverse modeling efforts planned for NACP. We began at three Colorado sites in August 2005 and hope to add three to six sites in other western states in subsequent years, utilizing existing observatories to the maximum extent possible. The first three sites are at Niwot Ridge, allowing us to have an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA CMDL; at Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, allowing us to investigate comparisons between these

  17. A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for segmenting and classifying epithelial and stromal regions in histopathological images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Luo, Xiaofei; Wang, Guanhao; Gilmore, Hannah; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-05-26

    Epithelial (EP) and stromal (ST) are two types of tissues in histological images. Automated segmentation or classification of EP and ST tissues is important when developing computerized system for analyzing the tumor microenvironment. In this paper, a Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) based feature learning is presented to automatically segment or classify EP and ST regions from digitized tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Current approaches are based on handcraft feature representation, such as color, texture, and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) in classifying two regions. Compared to handcrafted feature based approaches, which involve task dependent representation, DCNN is an end-to-end feature extractor that may be directly learned from the raw pixel intensity value of EP and ST tissues in a data driven fashion. These high-level features contribute to the construction of a supervised classifier for discriminating the two types of tissues. In this work we compare DCNN based models with three handcraft feature extraction based approaches on two different datasets which consist of 157 Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained images of breast cancer and 1376 immunohistological (IHC) stained images of colorectal cancer, respectively. The DCNN based feature learning approach was shown to have a F1 classification score of 85%, 89%, and 100%, accuracy (ACC) of 84%, 88%, and 100%, and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 86%, 77%, and 100% on two H&E stained (NKI and VGH) and IHC stained data, respectively. Our DNN based approach was shown to outperform three handcraft feature extraction based approaches in terms of the classification of EP and ST regions.

  18. A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for segmenting and classifying epithelial and stromal regions in histopathological images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Luo, Xiaofei; Wang, Guanhao; Gilmore, Hannah; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial (EP) and stromal (ST) are two types of tissues in histological images. Automated segmentation or classification of EP and ST tissues is important when developing computerized system for analyzing the tumor microenvironment. In this paper, a Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) based feature learning is presented to automatically segment or classify EP and ST regions from digitized tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Current approaches are based on handcraft feature representation, such as color, texture, and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) in classifying two regions. Compared to handcrafted feature based approaches, which involve task dependent representation, DCNN is an end-to-end feature extractor that may be directly learned from the raw pixel intensity value of EP and ST tissues in a data driven fashion. These high-level features contribute to the construction of a supervised classifier for discriminating the two types of tissues. In this work we compare DCNN based models with three handcraft feature extraction based approaches on two different datasets which consist of 157 Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained images of breast cancer and 1376 immunohistological (IHC) stained images of colorectal cancer, respectively. The DCNN based feature learning approach was shown to have a F1 classification score of 85%, 89%, and 100%, accuracy (ACC) of 84%, 88%, and 100%, and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 86%, 77%, and 100% on two H&E stained (NKI and VGH) and IHC stained data, respectively. Our DNN based approach was shown to outperform three handcraft feature extraction based approaches in terms of the classification of EP and ST regions. PMID:28154470

  19. Bayesian Belief Network to support conflict analysis for groundwater protection: the case of the Apulia region.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Raffaele; D'Agostino, Daniela; Apollonio, Ciro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Vurro, Michele

    2013-01-30

    Water resource management is often characterized by conflicts, as a result of the heterogeneity of interests associated with a shared resource. Many water conflicts arise on a global scale and, in particular, an increasing level of conflicts can be observed in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by water scarcity. In the present work, in order to assist the conflict analysis process, and thus outline a proper groundwater management, stakeholders were involved in the process and suitable tools were used in a Mediterranean area (the Apulia region, in Italy). In particular, this paper seeks to elicit and structure farmers' mental models influencing their decision over the main water source for irrigation. The more crucial groundwater is for farmers' objectives, the more controversial is the groundwater protection strategy. Bayesian Belief Networks were developed to simulate farmers' behavior with regard to groundwater management and to assess the impacts of protection strategy. These results have been used to calculate the conflict degree in the study area, derived from the introduction of policies for the reduction of groundwater exploitation for irrigation purposes. The less acceptable the policy is, the more likely it is that conflict will develop between farmers and the Regional Authority. The results of conflict analysis were also used to contribute to the debate concerning potential conflict mitigation measures. The approach adopted in this work has been discussed with a number of experts in groundwater management policies and irrigation management, and its main strengths and weaknesses have been identified. Increasing awareness of the existence of potential conflicts and the need to deal with them can be seen as an interesting initial shift in the Apulia region's water management regime, which is still grounded in merely technical approaches.

  20. A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone

    2013-04-01

    satellite data largely improves the spatial and temporal information on the events, filling up the gaps of uneven data distribution; for this issue LaMMA has multi-year skills in the acquisition and processing of geostationary and polar satellites. The regional raingauge network and meteorological stations will be instead used to obtain useful information both to calibration (as those related to radar reflectivity - rain rate relationships) and validation processes. The radar system and its mosaicking will be presented, as well as some preliminary products.

  1. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  2. Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.

    PubMed Central

    Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). METHODS: We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. FINDINGS: Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. CONCLUSION: The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease. PMID:16462984

  3. The default mode network and EEG regional spectral power: a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Irene; Arrubla, Jorge; Werner, Cornelius J; Hitz, Konrad; Boers, Frank; Kawohl, Wolfram; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies have been linked to specific functions as an "electrophysiological signature" of a function. A combination of oscillatory rhythms has also been described for specific functions, with or without predominance of one specific frequency-band. In a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study at 3 T we studied the relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and the power of EEG frequency bands. As a methodological approach, we applied Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components (MELODIC) and dual regression analysis for fMRI resting state data. EEG power for the alpha, beta, delta and theta-bands were extracted from the structures forming the DMN in a region-of-interest approach by applying Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). A strong link between the spontaneous BOLD response of the left parahippocampal gyrus and the delta-band extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex was found. A positive correlation between the beta-1 frequency power extracted from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the spontaneous BOLD response of the right supplementary motor cortex was also established. The beta-2 frequency power extracted from the PCC and the precuneus showed a positive correlation with the BOLD response of the right frontal cortex. Our results support the notion of beta-band activity governing the "status quo" in cognitive and motor setup. The highly significant correlation found between the delta power within the DMN and the parahippocampal gyrus is in line with the association of delta frequencies with memory processes. We assumed "ongoing activity" during "resting state" in bringing events from the past to the mind, in which the parahippocampal gyrus is a relevant structure. Our data demonstrate that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations within the DMN are associated with different EEG-bands and strengthen the conclusion that this network is characterized by a specific

  4. The Default Mode Network and EEG Regional Spectral Power: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Cornelius J.; Hitz, Konrad; Boers, Frank; Kawohl, Wolfram; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies have been linked to specific functions as an “electrophysiological signature” of a function. A combination of oscillatory rhythms has also been described for specific functions, with or without predominance of one specific frequency-band. In a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study at 3 T we studied the relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and the power of EEG frequency bands. As a methodological approach, we applied Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components (MELODIC) and dual regression analysis for fMRI resting state data. EEG power for the alpha, beta, delta and theta-bands were extracted from the structures forming the DMN in a region-of-interest approach by applying Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). A strong link between the spontaneous BOLD response of the left parahippocampal gyrus and the delta-band extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex was found. A positive correlation between the beta-1 frequency power extracted from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the spontaneous BOLD response of the right supplementary motor cortex was also established. The beta-2 frequency power extracted from the PCC and the precuneus showed a positive correlation with the BOLD response of the right frontal cortex. Our results support the notion of beta-band activity governing the “status quo” in cognitive and motor setup. The highly significant correlation found between the delta power within the DMN and the parahippocampal gyrus is in line with the association of delta frequencies with memory processes. We assumed “ongoing activity” during “resting state” in bringing events from the past to the mind, in which the parahippocampal gyrus is a relevant structure. Our data demonstrate that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations within the DMN are associated with different EEG-bands and strengthen the conclusion that this network is characterized by a specific

  5. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    large population-based cohort (n = 602, 18–88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. PMID:26985024

  6. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  7. Results of APL rain gauge network measurements in mid-Atlantic coast region and comparisons of distributions with CCIR models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman; Rowland, John

    1988-01-01

    In this effort are described cumulative rain rate distributions for a network of nine tipping bucket rain gauge systems located in the mid-Atlantic coast region in the vicinity of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. The rain gauges are situated within a gridded region of dimensions of 47 km east-west by 70 km north-south. Distributions are presented for the individual site measurements and the network average for the year period June 1, 1986 through May 31, 1987. A previous six year average distribution derived from measurements at one of the site locations is also presented. Comparisons are given of the network average, the CCIR (International Radio Consultative Committee) climatic zone, and the CCIR functional model distributions, the latter of which approximates a log normal at the lower rain rate and a gamma function at the higher rates.

  8. Results of APL rain gauge network measurements in mid-Atlantic coast region and comparisons of distributions with CCIR models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman; Rowland, John

    1988-08-01

    In this effort are described cumulative rain rate distributions for a network of nine tipping bucket rain gauge systems located in the mid-Atlantic coast region in the vicinity of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. The rain gauges are situated within a gridded region of dimensions of 47 km east-west by 70 km north-south. Distributions are presented for the individual site measurements and the network average for the year period June 1, 1986 through May 31, 1987. A previous six year average distribution derived from measurements at one of the site locations is also presented. Comparisons are given of the network average, the CCIR (International Radio Consultative Committee) climatic zone, and the CCIR functional model distributions, the latter of which approximates a log normal at the lower rain rate and a gamma function at the higher rates.

  9. Mature-Aged Job Seekers' Experiences of Centrelink and the Job Network Services in an Australian Regional Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossen, Chris; Hammer, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Unemployment may be considered a normal, if not likely, experience of a person's lifelong career. This paper is based on a primary, qualitative study that focused on the way mature-aged unemployed citizens experience government unemployment and employment agencies: Centrelink and the Job Network in a large regional city. It contributes to existing…

  10. How a Regional Broker Can Improve Industry Demand for University Interaction: A Case Study of the London Technology Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter; Schofield, Matt

    2006-01-01

    UK university research produces highly cited publications (DTI, 2004), but demand from UK business for commercial ideas from academia is weak (HM Treasury, 2003). This paper reviews factors in the development of one regional UK technology broker, the London Technology Network (LTN), which has achieved significant and audited business demand. The…

  11. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ope, Maurice; Sonoiya, Stanley; Kariuki, James; Mboera, Leonard E.G.; Gandham, Ramana N.V.; Schneidman, Miriam; Kimura, Mwihaki

    2013-01-01

    The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC) partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC), EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP). The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities. PMID:23362409

  12. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R.; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources. PMID:26905402

  13. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L

    2016-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, "key players" often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources.

  14. EEG default mode network in the human brain: spectral regional field powers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C N; Feng, Weijia; Zhao, Huixuan; Yin, Yanling; Wang, Peipei

    2008-06-01

    .001) and theta (r=0.77, p<0.001) band. In addition, the great inter-individual variability (90 folds in alpha-1, 62 folds in alpha-2) in regional field power was largely observed in the EC state (10 folds) than the EO state in subjects. To summarize, our study depicts a network of spectral EEG activities simultaneously operative at well defined regional fields in the EC state, varying specifically between EC and EO states. In contrast to transient EEG spectral rhythmic dynamics, current study of long-lasting (e.g. 3 min) spectral field powers can characterize state features in EEG. The EEG default mode network (EEG-DMN) of spectral field powers at rest in the respective EC or EO state is valued to serve as the basal electrophysiological condition in human brain. In health, this EEG-DMN is deemed essential for evaluation of brain functions without task demands for gender difference, developmental change in age span, and brain response to task activation. It is expected to define brain dysfunction in disease at resting state and with consequences for sensory, affective and cognitive alteration in the human brain.

  15. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection from Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C A; Rodi, W; Myers, S C

    2003-07-24

    The objective of this project is to develop improved seismic event location techniques that can be used to generate more and better quality reference events using data from local and regional seismic networks. Their approach is to extend existing methods of multiple-event location with more general models of the errors affecting seismic arrival time data, including picking errors and errors in model-based travel-times (path corrections). Toward this end, they are integrating a grid-search based algorithm for multiple-event location (GMEL) with a new parameterization of travel-time corrections and new kriging method for estimating the correction parameters from observed travel-time residuals. Like several other multiple-event location algorithms, GMEL currently assumes event-independent path corrections and is thus restricted to small event clusters. The new parameterization assumes that travel-time corrections are a function of both the event and station location, and builds in source-receiver reciprocity and correlation between the corrections from proximate paths as constraints. The new kriging method simultaneously interpolates travel-time residuals from multiple stations and events to estimate the correction parameters as functions of position. They are currently developing the algorithmic extensions to GMEL needed to combine the new parameterization and kriging method with the simultaneous location of events. The result will be a multiple-event location method which is applicable to non-clustered, spatially well-distributed events. They are applying the existing components of the new multiple-event location method to a data set of regional and local arrival times from Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions with known origin parameters. Preliminary results show the feasibility and potential benefits of combining the location and kriging techniques. They also show some preliminary work on generalizing of the error model used in GMEL with the use of mixture

  16. Cortical rich club regions can organize state-dependent functional network formation by engaging in oscillatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Senden, Mario; Reuter, Niels; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Goebel, Rainer; Deco, Gustavo

    2017-02-01

    Cognition is hypothesized to require the globally coordinated, functionally relevant integration of otherwise segregated information processing carried out by specialized brain regions. Studies of the macroscopic connectome as well as recent neuroimaging and neuromodeling research have suggested a densely connected collective of cortical hubs, termed the rich club, to provide a central workspace for such integration. In order for rich club regions to fulfill this role they must dispose of a dynamic mechanism by which they can actively shape networks of brain regions whose information processing needs to be integrated. A potential candidate for such a mechanism comes in the form of oscillations which might be employed to establish communication channels among relevant brain regions. We explore this possibility using an integrative approach combining whole-brain computational modeling with neuroimaging, wherein we investigate the local dynamics model brain regions need to exhibit in order to fit (dynamic) network behavior empirically observed for resting as well as a range of task states. We find that rich club regions largely exhibit oscillations during task performance but not during rest. Furthermore, oscillations exhibited by rich club regions can harmonize a set of asynchronous brain regions thus supporting functional coupling among them. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that the rich club can actively shape integration using oscillations.

  17. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    PubMed

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network.

  18. An Optimal Hierarchical Decision Model for a Regional Logistics Network with Environmental Impact Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level. PMID:24977209

  19. A publicly available simulation of an enhanced network region of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo H.; Gudiksen, Boris V.; Leenaarts, Jorrit; De Pontieu, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Context. The solar chromosphere is the interface between the solar surface and the solar corona. Modelling of this region is difficult because it represents the transition from optically thick to thin radiation escape, from gas-pressure domination to magnetic-pressure domination, from a neutral to an ionised state, from MHD to plasma physics, and from near-equilibrium (LTE) to non-equilibrium conditions. Aims: Our aim is to provide the community with realistic simulations of the magnetic solar outer atmosphere. This will enable detailed comparison of existing and upcoming observations with synthetic observables from the simulations, thereby elucidating the complex interactions of magnetic fields and plasma that are crucial for our understanding of the dynamic outer atmosphere. Methods: We used the radiation magnetohydrodynamics code Bifrost to perform simulations of a computational volume with a magnetic field topology similar to an enhanced network area on the Sun. Results: The full simulation cubes are made available from the Hinode Science Data Centre Europe. The general properties of the simulation are discussed, and limitations are discussed. The Hinode Science Data Centre Europe (http://www.sdc.uio.no/search/simulations).

  20. An optimal hierarchical decision model for a regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan; Qin, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level.

  1. Building a regionally connected reserve network in a changing and uncertain world.

    PubMed

    Spring, Daniel; Baum, Jiri; Nally, Ralph Mac; Mackenzie, Michael; Sanchez-Azofeifa, A; Thomson, James R

    2010-06-01

    Habitat connectivity is required at large spatial scales to facilitate movement of biota in response to climatic changes and to maintain viable populations of wide-ranging species. Nevertheless, it may require decades to acquire habitat linkages at such scales, and areas that could provide linkages are often developed before they can be reserved. Reserve scheduling methods usually consider only current threats, but threats change over time as development spreads and reaches presently secure areas. We investigated the importance of considering future threats when implementing projects to maintain habitat connectivity at a regional scale. To do so, we compared forward-looking scheduling strategies with strategies that consider only current threats. The strategies were applied to a Costa Rican case study, where many reserves face imminent isolation and other reserves will probably become isolated in the more distant future. We evaluated strategies in terms of two landscape-scale connectivity metrics, a pure connectivity metric and a metric of connected habitat diversity. Those strategies that considered only current threats were unreliable because they often failed to complete planned habitat linkage projects. The most reliable and effective strategies considered the future spread of development and its impact on the likelihood of completing planned habitat linkage projects. Our analyses highlight the critical need to consider future threats when building connected reserve networks over time.

  2. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols. PMID:26057037

  3. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-06-05

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

  4. Location capability of a sparse regional network (RSTN) using a multi-phase earthquake location algorithm (REGLOC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) was deployed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether data recorded by a regional network could be used to detect and accurately locate seismic events that might be clandestine nuclear tests. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the location capability of the RSTN. A major part of this project was the development of the location algorithm REGLOC and application of Basian a prior statistics for determining the accuracy of the location estimates. REGLOC utilizes all identifiable phases, including backazimuth, in the location. Ninty-four events, distributed throughout the network area, detected by both the RSTN and located by local networks were used in the study. The location capability of the RSTN was evaluated by estimating the location accuracy, error ellipse accuracy, and the percentage of events that could be located, as a function of magnitude. The location accuracy was verified by comparing the RSTN results for the 94 events with published locations based on data from the local networks. The error ellipse accuracy was evaluated by determining whether the error ellipse includes the actual location. The percentage of events located was assessed by combining detection capability with location capability to determine the percentage of events that could be located within the study area. Events were located with both an average crustal model for the entire region, and with regional velocity models along with station corrections obtained from master events. Most events with a magnitude <3.0 can only be located with arrivals from one station. Their average location errors are 453 and 414 km for the average- and regional-velocity model locations, respectively. Single station locations are very unreliable because they depend on accurate backazimuth estimates, and backazimuth proved to be a very unreliable computation.

  5. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  6. From Networked Learning to Operational Practice: Constructing and Transferring Superintendent Knowledge in a Regional Instructional Rounds Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional rounds are an emerging network structure with processes and protocols designed to develop superintendents' knowledge and skills in leading large-scale improvement, to enable superintendents to build an infrastructure that supports the work of improvement, to assist superintendents in distributing leadership throughout their district,…

  7. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population.

    PubMed

    Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A; Amen, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individuals with psychiatric disease. Inclusion criteria were peacetime or wartime veterans regardless of branch of service and included those for whom the traumatic brain injury was not service related. SPECT imaging was performed on this group both at rest and during a concentration task. These measures, as well as the baseline-concentration difference, were then inputted from DMN regions into separate binary logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, race, clinic site, co-morbid psychiatric diseases, TBI severity, whether or not the TBI was service related, and branch of armed service. Predicted probabilities were then inputted into a receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared to PSTD, persons with TBI were older, male, and had higher rates of bipolar and major depressive disorder (p < 0.05). Baseline quantitative regions with SPECT separated PTSD from TBI in the veterans with 92 % sensitivity, 85 % specificity, and 94 % accuracy. With concentration scans, there was 85 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity and 89 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration (the difference metric between the two scans) scans were 85 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity, and 87 % accuracy. In separating TBI from PTSD/TBI visual readings of baseline scans had 85 % sensitivity, 81 % specificity, and 83 % accuracy. Concentration scans had 80 % sensitivity, 65 % specificity, and 79 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration scans had 82

  8. Surveillance of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: Tracking Molecular Epidemiology and Outcomes through a Regional Network

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Rudin, Susan D.; Cober, Eric; Hanrahan, Jennifer; Ziegler, Julie; Webber, Raymond; Fox, Jacqueline; Mason, Pamela; Richter, Sandra S.; Cline, Marianne; Hall, Geraldine S.; Kaye, Keith S.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Kalayjian, Robert C.; Salata, Robert A.; Segre, Julia A.; Conlan, Sean; Evans, Scott; Fowler, Vance G.

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is on the rise in the United States. A regional network was established to study microbiological and genetic determinants of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. To this end, predefined clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded and K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed for strain typing and resistance mechanism determination. In a 14-month period, 251 patients were included. While most of the patients were admitted from long-term care settings, 28% of them were admitted from home. Hospitalizations were prolonged and complicated. Nonsusceptibility to colistin and tigecycline occurred in isolates from 7 and 45% of the patients, respectively. Most of the CR K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) types A and B (both sequence type 258) and carried either blaKPC-2 (48%) or blaKPC-3 (51%). One isolate tested positive for blaNDM-1, a sentinel discovery in this region. Important differences between strain types were noted; rep-PCR type B strains were associated with blaKPC-3 (odds ratio [OR], 294; 95% confidence interval [CI], 58 to 2,552; P < 0.001), gentamicin nonsusceptibility (OR, 24; 95% CI, 8.39 to 79.38; P < 0.001), amikacin susceptibility (OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 3.21 to 42.42; P < 0.001), tigecycline nonsusceptibility (OR, 5.34; 95% CI, 1.30 to 36.41; P = 0.018), a shorter length of stay (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.00; P = 0.043), and admission from a skilled-nursing facility (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.26 to 8.08; P = 0.013). Our analysis shows that (i) CR K. pneumoniae is seen primarily in the elderly long-term care population and that (ii) regional monitoring of CR K. pneumoniae reveals insights into molecular characteristics. This work highlights the crucial role of ongoing surveillance of carbapenem resistance determinants. PMID:24798270

  9. Surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: tracking molecular epidemiology and outcomes through a regional network.

    PubMed

    van Duin, David; Perez, Federico; Rudin, Susan D; Cober, Eric; Hanrahan, Jennifer; Ziegler, Julie; Webber, Raymond; Fox, Jacqueline; Mason, Pamela; Richter, Sandra S; Cline, Marianne; Hall, Geraldine S; Kaye, Keith S; Jacobs, Michael R; Kalayjian, Robert C; Salata, Robert A; Segre, Julia A; Conlan, Sean; Evans, Scott; Fowler, Vance G; Bonomo, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is on the rise in the United States. A regional network was established to study microbiological and genetic determinants of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. To this end, predefined clinical characteristics and outcomes were recorded and K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed for strain typing and resistance mechanism determination. In a 14-month period, 251 patients were included. While most of the patients were admitted from long-term care settings, 28% of them were admitted from home. Hospitalizations were prolonged and complicated. Nonsusceptibility to colistin and tigecycline occurred in isolates from 7 and 45% of the patients, respectively. Most of the CR K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) types A and B (both sequence type 258) and carried either blaKPC-2 (48%) or blaKPC-3 (51%). One isolate tested positive for blaNDM-1, a sentinel discovery in this region. Important differences between strain types were noted; rep-PCR type B strains were associated with blaKPC-3 (odds ratio [OR], 294; 95% confidence interval [CI], 58 to 2,552; P < 0.001), gentamicin nonsusceptibility (OR, 24; 95% CI, 8.39 to 79.38; P < 0.001), amikacin susceptibility (OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 3.21 to 42.42; P < 0.001), tigecycline nonsusceptibility (OR, 5.34; 95% CI, 1.30 to 36.41; P = 0.018), a shorter length of stay (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.00; P = 0.043), and admission from a skilled-nursing facility (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.26 to 8.08; P = 0.013). Our analysis shows that (i) CR K. pneumoniae is seen primarily in the elderly long-term care population and that (ii) regional monitoring of CR K. pneumoniae reveals insights into molecular characteristics. This work highlights the crucial role of ongoing surveillance of carbapenem resistance determinants.

  10. Identifying a Network of Brain Regions Involved in Aversion-Related Processing: A Cross-Species Translational Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Dave J.; Northoff, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and respond appropriately to aversive stimuli is essential for all organisms, from fruit flies to humans. This suggests the existence of a core neural network which mediates aversion-related processing. Human imaging studies on aversion have highlighted the involvement of various cortical regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, while animal studies have focused largely on subcortical regions like the periaqueductal gray and hypothalamus. However, whether and how these regions form a core neural network of aversion remains unclear. To help determine this, a translational cross-species investigation in humans (i.e., meta-analysis) and other animals (i.e., systematic review of functional neuroanatomy) was performed. Our results highlighted the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex, the anterior insula, and the amygdala as well as other subcortical (e.g., thalamus, midbrain) and cortical (e.g., orbitofrontal) regions in both animals and humans. Importantly, involvement of these regions remained independent of sensory modality. This study provides evidence for a core neural network mediating aversion in both animals and humans. This not only contributes to our understanding of the trans-species neural correlates of aversion but may also carry important implications for psychiatric disorders where abnormal aversive behavior can often be observed. PMID:22102836

  11. The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet): Supporting Regional Development of Geoscience Research Across the Circum-Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.; Miller, M. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Wang, G.; Feaux, K.; Rowan, L.; La Femina, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded infrastructure project that stretches across the circum-Caribbean to include Central America and the northern portions of South America. Its objective is to develop a large-scale network of geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure to support a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science with direct relevance to geo-hazards. The network includes over 60 new and refurbished continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) and surface meterology stations. It will also include data from at least 60 existing stations that are being operated by one of our more than 40 regional partners. As COCONet approaches the completion of its build-out phase, it is appropriate to evaluate the activities associated with the project that facilitate capacity building. These activities include three workshops to solicit feedback from regional partners regarding science objectives, station location, and long-term network operation. COCONet graduate research fellowships have been used to support nine students, with seven from countries within the COCONet footprint. The establishment of three regional data and archive centers to foster access to data and promote free and open data standards. Lastly, two Pan American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) workshops on topics that are central to the main goals of COCONet were also organized to engage early career scientists who are interested in working on topics that are directly relevant to the region. Perhaps the most significant effort on expanding capacity in the region is the recent deployment of a station in Camaguey, Cuba with full support from both the U.S. and Cuban governments. This presentation summarizes the activities of the COCONet project to enhance and support both the human resource development and technical capabilities within the region.

  12. A Node Localization Algorithm Based on Multi-Granularity Regional Division and the Lagrange Multiplier Method in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Shang, Fengjun; Jiang, Yi; Xiong, Anping; Su, Wen; He, Li

    2016-11-18

    With the integrated development of the Internet, wireless sensor technology, cloud computing, and mobile Internet, there has been a lot of attention given to research about and applications of the Internet of Things. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is one of the important information technologies in the Internet of Things; it integrates multi-technology to detect and gather information in a network environment by mutual cooperation, using a variety of methods to process and analyze data, implement awareness, and perform tests. This paper mainly researches the localization algorithm of sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network. Firstly, a multi-granularity region partition is proposed to divide the location region. In the range-based method, the RSSI (Received Signal Strength indicator, RSSI) is used to estimate distance. The optimal RSSI value is computed by the Gaussian fitting method. Furthermore, a Voronoi diagram is characterized by the use of dividing region. Rach anchor node is regarded as the center of each region; the whole position region is divided into several regions and the sub-region of neighboring nodes is combined into triangles while the unknown node is locked in the ultimate area. Secondly, the multi-granularity regional division and Lagrange multiplier method are used to calculate the final coordinates. Because nodes are influenced by many factors in the practical application, two kinds of positioning methods are designed. When the unknown node is inside positioning unit, we use the method of vector similarity. Moreover, we use the centroid algorithm to calculate the ultimate coordinates of unknown node. When the unknown node is outside positioning unit, we establish a Lagrange equation containing the constraint condition to calculate the first coordinates. Furthermore, we use the Taylor expansion formula to correct the coordinates of the unknown node. In addition, this localization method has been validated by establishing the real environment.

  13. A Node Localization Algorithm Based on Multi-Granularity Regional Division and the Lagrange Multiplier Method in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Fengjun; Jiang, Yi; Xiong, Anping; Su, Wen; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    With the integrated development of the Internet, wireless sensor technology, cloud computing, and mobile Internet, there has been a lot of attention given to research about and applications of the Internet of Things. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is one of the important information technologies in the Internet of Things; it integrates multi-technology to detect and gather information in a network environment by mutual cooperation, using a variety of methods to process and analyze data, implement awareness, and perform tests. This paper mainly researches the localization algorithm of sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network. Firstly, a multi-granularity region partition is proposed to divide the location region. In the range-based method, the RSSI (Received Signal Strength indicator, RSSI) is used to estimate distance. The optimal RSSI value is computed by the Gaussian fitting method. Furthermore, a Voronoi diagram is characterized by the use of dividing region. Rach anchor node is regarded as the center of each region; the whole position region is divided into several regions and the sub-region of neighboring nodes is combined into triangles while the unknown node is locked in the ultimate area. Secondly, the multi-granularity regional division and Lagrange multiplier method are used to calculate the final coordinates. Because nodes are influenced by many factors in the practical application, two kinds of positioning methods are designed. When the unknown node is inside positioning unit, we use the method of vector similarity. Moreover, we use the centroid algorithm to calculate the ultimate coordinates of unknown node. When the unknown node is outside positioning unit, we establish a Lagrange equation containing the constraint condition to calculate the first coordinates. Furthermore, we use the Taylor expansion formula to correct the coordinates of the unknown node. In addition, this localization method has been validated by establishing the real environment

  14. Vertical and latitudinal wave forcing observed with network of Radars over Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunkara, Eswaraiah; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Sundararaman, Sathishkumar; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Karanam, Kishore Kumar; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, Sarangam; Eethamakula, Kosalendra

    It is well known that gravity waves and tides play an important role in delineating the middle atmospheric structure and dynamics. Significant advancement has been in recent days in understanding the role of gravity waves and tides using different techniques in the lower, middle and upper atmosphere. However, only few results are available with simultaneous observations of all the three regions mentioned above. Further, no effort has been made so far in dealing with the latitudinal forcing of these waves and tides. With the establishment of advanced meteor radar at Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati (13.63N, 79.4E) and up gradation of MF radar at Kolhapur (16.8N, 74.2E) together with existing MST radar at Gadanki (13.5N, 79.2E), Meteor radar at Thumba (8.5N, 77E) and MF radar located at Tirunalveli (8.7N, 77.8E) forms a unique network to address lower atmospheric forcing and its impact on middle and upper atmospheric structure and dynamics. All the above mentioned radars have been operated for few days simultaneously for investigating the short period gravity waves and tides (diurnal, semi-diurnal and ter-diurnal). Using simultaneous MST radar, Rayleigh lidar located at Gadanki and SVU meteor radar, lower atmospheric forcing and its impact of upper atmospheric is investigated. First results on short period gravity waves and tides are presented. Large day-to-day day variability in gravity waves and tides is observed within a station and among the stations providing insight on vertical and lateral coupling. Thus, long-term measurements with all the above mentioned instruments is planned to address effectively the vertical and latitudinal wave forcing.

  15. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

    2005-05-13

    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  16. Monitoring regional patterns of canopy-scale phenology with a network of digitial webcams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.; Braswell, B. H.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Jenkins, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    webcams offer an inexpensive means by which phenological changes in canopy state could be quantified using instrument-based "near" remote sensing. We describe a recently-established camera network (13 sites in the northeastern US and Canada, of which 5 sites are instrumented for eddy flux measurements) which will provide a regional perspective on both spatial and temporal variation in patterns of canopy phenology.

  17. Facilitating Phenological Assessments at Local, Regional and National Scales: Year Two Progress of the USA National Phenology Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    Patterns of phenology for plants and animals control ecosystem processes, determine land surface properties, control biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and affect food production, health, conservation, and recreation. Although directional climate change has already caused documented shifts in organismal, population, community and ecosystem-level patterns and processes, a national phenological assessment requires a comprehensive suite of standardized methodologies to track phenology across a range of spatial and temporal scales (e.g., organismal to landscapes). The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is an emerging and exciting partnership between federal agencies, the academic community, and the general public to establish a national science and monitoring initiative focused on phenology as a tool to understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to climate variation, and as a tool to facilitate human adaptation to ongoing and potential future climate change. USA-NPN will (1) integrate with other formal and informal science observation networks (e.g., NEON, LTER, Ameriflux, NPS I & M, OBFS, GEO, public gardens, conservation groups) including regional phenology networks; (2) utilize and enhance remote sensing products, emerging technologies and data management capabilities; and (3) capitalize on myriad educational opportunities and a new readiness of the public to participate in investigations of nature on a national scale. In its second year of operation, USA-NPN produced many new phenology products and venues for phenology research and citizen involvement that will facilitate local, regional or national assessments of phenology. A new web-page contains an advanced on-line user interface to facilitate entry of contemporary data into the National Phenology Database. The new plant phenology monitoring program provides standardized methodologies and monitoring protocols for 215 local, regional, and nationally distributed plant species

  18. Coupling of functional connectivity and regional cerebral blood flow reveals a physiological basis for network hubs of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xia; Zou, Qihong; He, Yong; Yang, Yihong

    2013-01-29

    Human brain functional networks contain a few densely connected hubs that play a vital role in transferring information across regions during resting and task states. However, the relationship of these functional hubs to measures of brain physiology, such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), remains incompletely understood. Here, we used functional MRI data of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent and arterial-spin-labeling perfusion contrasts to investigate the relationship between functional connectivity strength (FCS) and rCBF during resting and an N-back working-memory task. During resting state, functional brain hubs with higher FCS were identified, primarily in the default-mode, insula, and visual regions. The FCS showed a striking spatial correlation with rCBF, and the correlation was stronger in the default-mode network (DMN; including medial frontal-parietal cortices) and executive control network (ECN; including lateral frontal-parietal cortices) compared with visual and sensorimotor networks. Moreover, the relationship was connection-distance dependent; i.e., rCBF correlated stronger with long-range hubs than short-range ones. It is notable that several DMN and ECN regions exhibited higher rCBF per unit connectivity strength (rCBF/FCS ratio); whereas, this index was lower in posterior visual areas. During the working-memory experiment, both FCS-rCBF coupling and rCBF/FCS ratio were modulated by task load in the ECN and/or DMN regions. Finally, task-induced changes of FCS and rCBF in the lateral-parietal lobe positively correlated with behavioral performance. Together, our results indicate a tight coupling between blood supply and brain functional topology during rest and its modulation in response to task demands, which may shed light on the physiological basis of human brain functional connectome.

  19. Designing a low-cost effective network for monitoring large scale regional seismicity in a soft-soil region (Alsace, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Doubre, C.; Wodling, H.; Jund, H.; Hernandez, A.; Blumentritt, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Seismological Observatory of the North-East of France (ObSNEF) is developing its monitoring network within the framework of several projects. Among these project, RESIF (Réseau sismologique et géodésique français) allows the instrumentation of broad-band seismic stations, separated by 50-100 km. With the recent and future development of geothermal industrial projects in the Alsace region, the ObSNEF is responsible for designing, building and operating a dense regional seismic network in order to detect and localize earthquakes with both a completeness magnitude of 1.5 and no clipping for M6.0. The realization of the project has to be done prior to the summer 2016Several complex technical and financial constraints constitute such a projet. First, most of the Alsace Région (150x150 km2), particularly the whole Upper Rhine Graben, is a soft-soil plain where seismic signals are dominated by a high frequency noise level. Second, all the signals have to be transmitted in near real-time. And finally, the total cost of the project must not exceed $450,000.Regarding the noise level in Alsace, in order to make a reduction of 40 dB for frequencies above 1Hz, we program to instrument into 50m deep well with post-hole sensor for 5 stations out of 8 plane new stations. The 3 remaining would be located on bedrock along the Vosges piedmont. In order to be sensitive to low-magnitude regional events, we plan to install a low-noise short-period post-hole velocimeter. In order to avoid saturation for high potentiel local events (M6.0 at 10km), this velocimeter will be coupled with a surface strong-motion sensor. Regarding the connectivity, these stations will have no wired network, which reduces linking costs and delays. We will therefore use solar panels and a 3G/GPRS network. The infrastructure will be minimal and reduced to an outdoor box on a secured parcel of land. In addition to the data-logger, we will use a 12V ruggedized computer, hosting a seed-link server for near

  20. A Contribution to Mitigating Seismic Risk in the Bay Area: The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlie, N.; Romanowicz, B.; Hellweg, P.

    2007-05-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Geodetic measurements, which are especially useful for detecting deformation and strain on deep structures throughout the seismic cycle, show that Bay Area deformation is both spatially complex and varying with time. Increasingly, GPS data can also be used in real time to complement seismic data in providing robust real-time earthquake information, and, potentially, early warning. The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network of permanent, continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers monitors crustal deformation in the Bay Area and northern California. BARD is a network collocated with several seismic networks (BDSN, NHFN, mini-PBO) operating in Northern California. As the local determination of magnitude is problematic for large earthquakes, the GPS will provide strong constraints on rupture geometry and amount of slip along the slipping fault. Thus, the collocation of all the networks will help mitigate earthquake- related risks associated with an earthquake in the SFBA or in northern California.

  1. Network collaboration of organisations for homeless individuals in the Montreal region

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Lesage, Alain; Ma, Nan; Ngui, André Ngamini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We know little about the intensity and determinants of interorganisational collaboration within the homeless network. This study describes the characteristics and relationships (along with the variables predicting their degree of interorganisational collaboration) of 68 organisations of such a network in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Theory and methods Data were collected primarily through a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were conducted followed by social network and multivariate analyses. Results The Montreal homeless network has a high density (50.5%) and a decentralised structure and maintains a mostly informal collaboration with the public and cross-sectorial sectors. The network density showed more frequent contacts among four types of organisations which could point to the existence of cliques. Four variables predicted interorganisational collaboration: organisation type, number of services offered, volume of referrals and satisfaction with the relationships with public organisations. Conclusions and discussion The Montreal homeless network seems adequate to address non-complex homelessness problems. Considering, however, that most homeless individuals present chronic and complex profiles, it appears necessary to have a more formal and better integrated network of homeless organisations, particularly in the health and social service sectors, in order to improve services. PMID:24520216

  2. Intra-regional assortative sociality may be better explained by social network dynamics rather than pathogen risk avoidance.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Jacob M; Coulombe, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill's (F&T's) model is not entirely supported by common patterns of affect behaviors among people who live under varying climatic conditions and among people who endorse varying levels of (Western) religiosity and conservative political ideals. The authors' model is also unable to account for intra-regional heterogeneity in assortative sociality, which, we argue, can be better explained by a framework that emphasizes the differential expression of fundamental social cues for maintaining distinct social network structures.

  3. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  4. Resting-State Coupling between Core Regions within the Central-Executive and Salience Networks Contributes to Working Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Luqi; Li, Jin; Wang, Yulin; Friston, Karl J; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory (WM). However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to WM is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core WM regions by linking WM accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC; a principal region in the central-executive network, CEN). Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with WM accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and WM performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dLPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the right dLPFC and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex (FIC) were correlated with WM accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dACC to the bilateral dLPFC and from the right dLPFC to the left FIC could predict individual differences in WM. Because the dACC and FIC are core regions of the salience network (SN), we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the CEN and SN is functionally relevant for WM performance. In summary, the current study identified the dLPFC-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying WM and suggests that individual differences in cognitive ability could be characterized by resting-state effective connectivity.

  5. Abnormal regional activity and functional connectivity in resting-state brain networks associated with etiology confirmed unilateral pulsatile tinnitus in the early stage of disease.

    PubMed

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Peng; Yan, Fei; Liu, Liheng; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Li, Ting; Dong, Cheng; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal neural activities can be revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) using analyses of the regional activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the networks in the brain. This study was designed to demonstrate the functional network alterations in the patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In this study, we recruited 45 patients with unilateral PT in the early stage of disease (less than 48 months of disease duration) and 45 normal controls. We used regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC computational methods to reveal resting-state brain activity features associated with pulsatile tinnitus. Compared with healthy controls, PT patients showed regional abnormalities mainly in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC), precuneus and right anterior insula (AI). When these regions were defined as seeds, we demonstrated widespread modification of interaction between the auditory and non-auditory networks. The auditory network was positively connected with the cognitive control network (CCN), which may associate with tinnitus related distress. Both altered regional activity and changed FC were found in the visual network. The modification of interactions of higher order networks were mainly found in the DMN, CCN and limbic networks. Functional connectivity between the left MOG and left parahippocampal gyrus could also be an index to reflect the disease duration. This study helped us gain a better understanding of the characteristics of neural network modifications in patients with pulsatile tinnitus.

  6. Satellite- and epoch differenced precise point positioning based on a regional augmentation network.

    PubMed

    Li, Haojun; Chen, Junping; Wang, Jiexian; Wu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been demonstrated as a simple and effective approach for user positioning. The key issue in PPP is how to shorten convergence time and improve positioning efficiency. Recent researches mainly focus on the ambiguity resolution by correcting residual phase errors at a single station. The success of this approach (referred to hereafter as NORM-PPP) is subject to how rapidly one can fix wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. The convergence time of NORM-PPP is receiver type dependent, and normally takes 15-20 min. Different from the general algorithm and theory by which the float ambiguities are estimated and the integer ambiguities are fixed, we concentrate on a differential PPP approach: the satellite- and epoch differenced (SDED) approach. In general, the SDED approach eliminates receiver clocks and ambiguity parameters and thus avoids the complicated residual phase modeling procedure. As a further development of the SDED approach, we use a regional augmentation network to derive tropospheric delay and remaining un-modeled errors at user sites. By adding these corrections and applying the Robust estimation, the weak mathematic properties due to the ED operation is much improved. Implementing this new approach, we need only two epochs of data to achieve PPP positioning converging to centimeter-positioning accuracy. Using seven days of GPS data at six CORS stations in Shanghai, we demonstrate the success rate, defined as the case when three directions converging to desired positioning accuracy of 10 cm, reaches 100% when the interval between the two epochs is longer than 15 min. Comparing the results of 15 min' interval to that of 10 min', it is observed that the position RMS improves from 2.47, 3.95, 5.78 cm to 2.21, 3.93, 4.90 cm in the North, East and Up directions, respectively. Combining the SDED coordinates at the starting point and the ED relative coordinates thereafter, we

  7. Satellite- and Epoch Differenced Precise Point Positioning Based on a Regional Augmentation Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haojun; Chen, Junping; Wang, Jiexian; Wu, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has been demonstrated as a simple and effective approach for user positioning. The key issue in PPP is how to shorten convergence time and improve positioning efficiency. Recent researches mainly focus on the ambiguity resolution by correcting residual phase errors at a single station. The success of this approach (referred to hereafter as NORM-PPP) is subject to how rapidly one can fix wide-lane and narrow-lane ambiguities to achieve the first ambiguity-fixed solution. The convergence time of NORM-PPP is receiver type dependent, and normally takes 15–20 min. Different from the general algorithm and theory by which the float ambiguities are estimated and the integer ambiguities are fixed, we concentrate on a differential PPP approach: the satellite- and epoch differenced (SDED) approach. In general, the SDED approach eliminates receiver clocks and ambiguity parameters and thus avoids the complicated residual phase modeling procedure. As a further development of the SDED approach, we use a regional augmentation network to derive tropospheric delay and remaining un-modeled errors at user sites. By adding these corrections and applying the Robust estimation, the weak mathematic properties due to the ED operation is much improved. Implementing this new approach, we need only two epochs of data to achieve PPP positioning converging to centimeter-positioning accuracy. Using seven days of GPS data at six CORS stations in Shanghai, we demonstrate the success rate, defined as the case when three directions converging to desired positioning accuracy of 10 cm, reaches 100% when the interval between the two epochs is longer than 15 min. Comparing the results of 15 min' interval to that of 10 min', it is observed that the position RMS improves from 2.47, 3.95, 5.78 cm to 2.21, 3.93, 4.90 cm in the North, East and Up directions, respectively. Combining the SDED coordinates at the starting point and the ED relative coordinates thereafter, we

  8. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION WITH ANALYTICAL NETWORK PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A decision analysis method for integrating environmental indicators was developed. This was a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP). Being able to take into account interdependency among variables, the method was capable of ran...

  9. Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed

  10. A Robust and Resilient Network Design Paradigm for Region-Based Faults Inflicted by WMD Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...integrity in the face of WMD attack, and (ii) to maintain data integrity in the face of WMD attack. By network integrity we imply that (a) the network

  11. Decision Support Process for CO2 Monitoring Network Design, as applied to the North American Permafrost Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creelman, C. A.; Risk, D. A.; Nickerson, N. R.; Simpson, K.; Bourlon, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern regions of Canada and the United States hold vast reserves of soil organic matter (carbon), once protected from decomposition because of cool wet soils, and/or permafrost. Unfortunately, these Northern areas are changing rapidly because the rate of climate warming in the North has significantly outstripped the global average. As a result of permafrost melting and soil processes stimulated by higher temperatures, soil CO2 emissions in these high latitude areas are expected to accelerate. On an annual basis, it is conceivable that these natural Northern CO2 emissions could match or begin to exceed human industrial emissions. From a risk management perspective, the Northern region represents an important climate risk of international interest that should be monitored in a systematic long-term effort. Currently, there is almost no high latitude monitoring done due to limitation of instrumental techniques, remoteness, and other factors. While technology improvements will make this monitoring physically possible, it is critical that the conceptual framework for monitoring also be planned carefully. The monitoring network will need to make efficient use of funding to target high-risk areas, balance many possible emission predictions that vary spatially and temporally, allow for incremental network growth and take into account transportation costs and accessibility. To address these needs, we use a Simulated Annealing based algorithm that determines optimal sampling densities and distributions according to various risk factors. This network optimization makes use of several different potential CO2 emission estimates generated using the Canadian Regional Climate model forecasts and other spatial datasets. These estimates represent a wide range of potential evolutions of soil emissions based on factors such as expected climate change, the distribution of carbon storage, and carbon sensitivity to temperature and moisture changes. The calculated optimal network

  12. Wavelet neural networks using particle swarm optimization training in modeling regional ionospheric total electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-11-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) are a new class of neural networks (NNs) that has been developed using a combined method of multi-layer artificial neural networks and wavelet analysis (WA). In this paper, WNNs is used for modeling and prediction of total electron content (TEC) of ionosphere with high spatial and temporal resolution. Generally, back-propagation (BP) algorithm is used to train the neural network. While this algorithm proves to be very effective and robust in training many types of network structures, it suffers from certain disadvantages such as easy entrapment in a local minimum and slow convergence. To improve the performance of WNN in training step, the adjustment of network weights using particle swarm optimization (PSO) was proposed. The results obtained in this paper were compared with standard NN (SNN) by BP training algorithm (SNN-BP), SNN by PSO training algorithm (SNN-PSO) and WNN by BP training algorithm (WNN-BP). For numerical experiments, observations collected at 36 GPS stations in 5 days of 2012 from Iranian permanent GPS network (IPGN) are used. The average minimum relative errors in 5 test stations for WNN-PSO, WNN-BP, SNN-BP and SNN-PSO compared with GPS TEC are 10.59%, 12.85%, 13.18%, 13.75% and average maximum relative errors are 14.70%, 17.30%, 18.53% and 20.83%, respectively. Comparison of diurnal predicted TEC values from the WNN-PSO, SNN-BP, SNN-PSO and WNN-BP models with GPS TEC revealed that the WNN-PSO provides more accurate predictions than the other methods in the test area.

  13. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  14. Network mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the CA3 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hájos, Norbert; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-10-01

    Neural networks of the brain display multiple patterns of oscillatory activity. Some of these rhythms are generated intrinsically within the local network, and can therefore be studied in isolated preparations. Here we discuss local-circuit mechanisms involved in hippocampal CA3 gamma oscillations, one of the best understood locally generated network patterns in the mammalian brain. Perisomatic inhibitory cells are crucial players in gamma oscillogenesis. They provide prominent rhythmic inhibition to CA3 pyramidal cells and are themselves synchronized primarily by excitatory synaptic inputs derived from the local collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells. The recruitment of this recurrent excitatory-inhibitory feedback loop during hippocampal gamma oscillations suggests that local gamma oscillations not only control when, but also how many and which pyramidal cells will fire during each gamma cycle.

  15. The use of neural networks and texture analysis for rapid objective selection of regions of interest in cytoskeletal images.

    PubMed

    Derkacs, Amanda D Felder; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-02-01

    Understanding cytoskeletal dynamics in living tissue is prerequisite to understanding mechanisms of injury, mechanotransduction, and mechanical signaling. Real-time visualization is now possible using transfection with plasmids that encode fluorescent cytoskeletal proteins. Using this approach with the muscle-specific intermediate filament protein desmin, we found that a green fluorescent protein-desmin chimeric protein was unevenly distributed throughout the muscle fiber, resulting in some image areas that were saturated as well as others that lacked any signal. Our goal was to analyze the muscle fiber cytoskeletal network quantitatively in an unbiased fashion. To objectively select areas of the muscle fiber that are suitable for analysis, we devised a method that provides objective classification of regions of images of striated cytoskeletal structures into "usable" and "unusable" categories. This method consists of a combination of spatial analysis of the image using Fourier methods along with a boosted neural network that "decides" on the quality of the image based on previous training. We trained the neural network using the expert opinion of three scientists familiar with these types of images. We found that this method was over 300 times faster than manual classification and that it permitted objective and accurate classification of image regions.

  16. A regional monitoring network to investigate the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinental USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Previous state and national surveys conducted in the mid-continental USA have produced a wide range in results regarding the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater. At least some of these differences can be attributed to inconsistencies between the surveys, such as different analytical reporting limits. The US Geological Survey has designed a sampling network that is geographically and hydrogeologically representative of near-surface aquifers in the corn- and soybean-producing region of the midcontinental USA. More than 800 water quality samples have been collected from the network since 1991. Six of the seven most frequently detected compounds from this study were herbicide metabolites. A direct relation was determined between tritium content to herbicide and nitrate contamination. The unconsolidated aquifers sampled were found to be more susceptible to herbicide and nitrate contamination than the bedrock aquifers. Knowledge of the regional occurrence and distribution of agricultural chemicals acquired through the study of data collected at network sites will assist policy makers and planners with decisions regarding the protection of drinking-water supplies.

  17. [Optimization of conservation network system for inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Long; Li, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Dian-Lin; Zhang, Li-Na; Zhang, Gui-Long

    2012-02-01

    By using systematic conservation planning (SCP) method, and taking catchment as planning unit, an optimization of conservation network system for the inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region was conducted, with a comprehensive consideration of 3-dimensional (lateral, longitudinal and vertical) connectivity and Inter-basin Water Transfer Project and by the methods of irreplaceability analysis and gap identification. The efficacy of the optimized conservation network system was evaluated, as compared with the existing conservation network system. According to the principles of irreplaceability and connectivity, the wetland conservation gaps could be divided into two types, i.e. , be conserved in priority and in general. After the optimization, the conservation status of the inter-basin wetland ecosystem in Huang-Huai-Hai Region had an overall improvement. The conserved percentage of the wetland types was from about 20% up to 46.8%, and, for each wetland type, its conserved level increased to some extent, almost above 40%. Both in the near future and in the long term, more attention should be paid to the conservation of lake wetland. In addition, the integration of ecosystem service function and biodiversity and the combination of protection with restoration would be the main task for the wetland ecosystem conservation planning in the future.

  18. Using artificial neural networks to invert 2D DC resistivity imaging data for high resistivity contrast regions: A MATLAB application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyamadpour, Ahmad; Taib, Samsudin; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.

    2009-11-01

    MATLAB is a high-level matrix/array language with control flow statements and functions. MATLAB has several useful toolboxes to solve complex problems in various fields of science, such as geophysics. In geophysics, the inversion of 2D DC resistivity imaging data is complex due to its non-linearity, especially for high resistivity contrast regions. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of MATLAB to design, train and test a newly developed artificial neural network in inverting 2D DC resistivity imaging data. We used resilient propagation to train the network. The model used to produce synthetic data is a homogeneous medium of 100 Ω m resistivity with an embedded anomalous body of 1000 Ω m. The location of the anomalous body was moved to different positions within the homogeneous model mesh elements. The synthetic data were generated using a finite element forward modeling code by means of the RES2DMOD. The network was trained using 21 datasets and tested on another 16 synthetic datasets, as well as on real field data. In field data acquisition, the cable covers 120 m between the first and the last take-out, with a 3 m x-spacing. Three different electrode spacings were measured, which gave a dataset of 330 data points. The interpreted result shows that the trained network was able to invert 2D electrical resistivity imaging data obtained by a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration rapidly and accurately.

  19. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Atmospheric, Cryospheric, Ecological and Hydrological Change in the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins, Canada (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; DeBeer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The cold interior of Northwestern Canada has one of the world's most extreme and varied climates and, as with other regions across the Arctic, is experiencing rapid environmental change. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a new Canadian research network devoted to addressing key challenges and globally-important issues facing the Arctic by improving the understanding of past and ongoing changes in climate, land, vegetation, and water, and predicting their future integrated responses, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River Basins. The network is funded for 5 years (2013-18) by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and combines the unique expertise of 36 Canadian scientists representing 8 universities and 4 Federal government agencies, as well as 15 international researchers from the United States, China, Australia, the UK, France, and Germany. The network will also involve the World Climate Research Programme, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. CCRN will integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks, for Northwestern Canada's cold interior. It will use a network of world class observatories to study the detailed connections among changing climate, ecosystems and water in the permafrost regions of the Sub-arctic, the Boreal Forest, the Western Cordillera, and the Prairies. Specifically, the network will: 1. Document and evaluate observed Earth system change, including hydrological, ecological, cryospheric and atmospheric components over a range of scales from local observatories to biome and regional scales; 2. Improve understanding and diagnosis of local-scale change by developing new and integrative knowledge of Earth system processes, incorporating these processes into a suite of process-based integrative

  20. Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks for Maritime Interdiction Operations and Regional Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    which results in the coverage of every location of interest while other sensors of the network that do not possess vital data can hibernate to conserve...perform “sleep and wake up” and “ hibernation ” modes when there is no operational requirement. ARTEMIS has two platforms where sensors can be

  1. Differential Engagement of Brain Regions within a "Core" Network during Scene Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Jennifer J.; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2010-01-01

    Reliving past events and imagining potential future events engages a well-established "core" network of brain areas. How the brain constructs, or reconstructs, these experiences or scenes has been debated extensively in the literature, but remains poorly understood. Here we designed a novel task to investigate this (re)constructive process by…

  2. Geodetic networks in Al-Hoceima, Fez-Meknes and Ouarzazate regions (Morocco) to monitor local deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A. J.; Ruiz, A. M.; Lacy, M. C.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Anahnah, F.; Ruano, P.; Álvarez-Lobato, P. Ayarza, F.; Arboleya, A. Teixel, M. L.; Azzouz, O.; Ahmamou, A. Chalouan, M.; Kchikach, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of some interdisciplinary research projects, several geodetic studies have been initiated aiming to quantify ground deformation in some areas of Morocco: the Al-Hoceima region (Rif cordillera), the Fez-Meknes region and the Ouarzazate region (Atlas Mountains). The Al-Hoceima region, located in the central part of the Rif Cordilleras, has undergone an intense seismic activity, in which the most significant events occurred in 1994 and 2004 (M= 6.3). Although seismicity data support the presence of transcurrent faults, and available radar interferometry researches evidence surface deformations, geological data suggest that main seismogentic fault zone has not a surface expression. Anyway, a set of N-S oriented normal faults (Rouadi, Al-Hoceima, Trougout) determines the present-day geomorphology and seems to continue to be active in surface. In this area, a new non-permanent GPS network consisting of 6 sites has been installed and surveyed in June 2007 and September 2008. The repeated measurements of this network may allow to exactly determine the surface expression of deep tectonic deformations in this region, and to quantify the creep and the coseismic motions in the area, that will contribute to better understand the seismic hazard. The Prerif Ridges located in the Fez-Meknes region, constitute the active mountain front of the Rif cordillera that accommodates most of the recent convergence between Eurasia and African plates. South of the ridges, the Saïss foreland basin overlies the foreland rocks corresponding to the Middle Atlas. There are evidences of Quaternary uplift of the Prerif Ridges and deformation of recent sediments as consequence of the southwards propagation of reverse faults along the mountain front. In addition, the foreland basin undergoes a roughly N-S extensional regime. The region undergoes a moderate seismic activity, with catastrophic events like that occurred in 1755 which damaged Fez and Meknes. On September 2007, a non

  3. Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Betty

    Networking is an information giving and receiving system, a support system, and a means whereby women can get ahead in careers--either in new jobs or in current positions. Networking information can create many opportunities: women can talk about how other women handle situations and tasks, and previously established contacts can be used in…

  4. [A regional alliance in nutritional management-ten years of collaboration with an nutrition support team network].

    PubMed

    Ibata, Takeshi; Hidaka, Kumi; Shinoki, Keiji; Matsuoka, Mio; Hata, Akiko; Nakashita, Chisako; Mito, Saori; Doi, Seiko; Komuro, Ryutaro; Iijima, Shohei

    2012-12-01

    Ten years has passed since we began the nutrition support team(NST)to make a regional alliance between local institutions for construction of the NST network. The network was formed with the following aims: 1) regional joint conferences for learning about nutrition with family doctors, facilities, and hospitals; 2) open general meetings for information about nutrition within the suburbs of our city; 3) preparing and sending an NST manual about parenteral nutrition(PN)and enteral nutrition(EN); and 4) preparation of an NST summary of patient malnutrition to foster mutual understanding. We produced a questionnaire summarizing the completion of nutritional management in patients. The following positive benefits were observed: 1) improved nutritional motivation and technique; 2) reduced nutritional confusion after discharge from our hospital; and 3) lower levels of anxiety in the facilities, the patient, and among the patient's family. In addition, follow-upinquiries allowed us to estimate whether our nutritional strategy was adequate. A more widely open regional alliance is needed in the future to strengthen patient nutrition following hospital discharge.

  5. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  6. Building Regional Networking Capacity through Leadership Development: The Case of Leadership Northwest Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltsberger, Beverly; Majee, Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Through a case study analysis of a regional leadership development program, this article describes the impact on individual and group leadership skills and how the skills are employed to benefit individual communities and the region as a whole. Data were obtained through surveys. Through cooperation and collaboration between and among leadership…

  7. Integrative Gene Regulatory Network Analysis Reveals Light-Induced Regional Gene Expression Phase Shift Programs in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haisun; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Rafferty, Rachel; Gonye, Gregory E.; Weaver, David R.; Schwaber, James S.

    2012-01-01

    We use the multigenic pattern of gene expression across suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) regions and time to understand the dynamics within the SCN in response to a circadian phase-resetting light pulse. Global gene expression studies of the SCN indicate that circadian functions like phase resetting are complex multigenic processes. While the molecular dynamics of phase resetting are not well understood, it is clear they involve a “functional gene expression program”, e.g., the coordinated behavior of functionally related genes in space and time. In the present study we selected a set of 89 of these functionally related genes in order to further understand this multigenic program. By use of high-throughput qPCR we studied 52 small samples taken by anatomically precise laser capture from within the core and shell SCN regions, and taken at time points with and without phase resetting light exposure. The results show striking regional differences in light response to be present in the mouse SCN. By using network-based analyses, we are able to establish a highly specific multigenic correlation between genes expressed in response to light at night and genes normally activated during the day. The light pulse triggers a complex and highly coordinated network of gene regulation. The largest differences marking neuroanatomical location are in transmitter receptors, and the largest time-dependent differences occur in clock-related genes. Nighttime phase resetting appears to recruit transcriptional regulatory processes normally active in the day. This program, or mechanism, causes the pattern of core region gene expression to transiently shift to become more like that of the shell region. PMID:22662235

  8. Modeling land use and land cover changes in a vulnerable coastal region using artificial neural networks and cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Yi; Lam, Nina S N

    2015-03-01

    As one of the most vulnerable coasts in the continental USA, the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) region has endured numerous hazards over the past decades. The sustainability of this region has drawn great attention from the international, national, and local communities, wanting to understand how the region as a system develops under intense interplay between the natural and human factors. A major problem in this deltaic region is significant land loss over the years due to a combination of natural and human factors. The main scientific and management questions are what factors contribute to the land use land cover (LULC) changes in this region, can we model the changes, and how would the LULC look like in the future given the current factors? This study analyzed the LULC changes of the region between 1996 and 2006 by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) to derive the LULC change rules from 15 human and natural variables. The rules were then used to simulate future scenarios in a cellular automation model. A stochastic element was added in the model to represent factors that were not included in the current model. The analysis was conducted for two sub-regions in the study area for comparison. The results show that the derived ANN models could simulate the LULC changes with a high degree of accuracy (above 92 % on average). A total loss of 263 km(2) in wetlands from 2006 to 2016 was projected, whereas the trend of forest loss will cease. These scenarios provide useful information to decision makers for better planning and management of the region.

  9. Understanding the poultry trade network in Kenya: Implications for regional disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Margaret; Munyua, Peninah; Cheng, Po-Yung; Manga, Thomas; Wanjohi, Cathryn; Moen, Ann; Mounts, Anthony; Katz, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the

  10. Regional and seasonal characteristics of epipelagic mesozooplankton in the Mediterranean Sea based on an artificial neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocchi, M. G.; Siokou, I.; Tirelli, V.; Bandelj, V.; Fernandez de Puelles, M. L.; Ak Örek, Y.; de Olazabal, A.; Gubanova, A.; Kress, N.; Protopapa, M.; Solidoro, C.; Taglialatela, S.; Terbiyik Kurt, T.

    2014-07-01

    The cruises conducted in the spring and autumn of 2008 in the frame of the European project SESAME represented the first coordinated surveys that allowed acquiring a quasi-synoptic picture of epipelagic mesozooplankton in most regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Seasonal differences were recorded in biomass, total abundance, and community composition and structure. In both seasons, it did not appear a clear west-east decreasing gradient in total standing stock, but rather regional discontinuities. However, west or east preferences were observed in the distribution of some zooplanktonic groups and copepod species. An artificial neural network analysis (SOM) identified, in both seasons, a clear mesozooplankton regionalization, which resembled the autotrophic regimes based on color remote sensing data. The correspondence between the distribution of zooplankton communities and the trophic regimes appeared more precise in spring, when the increased concentration of chlorophyll a makes the Mediterranean Sea a more heterogeneous environment, but it was still visible in the more uniform oligotrophic autumn conditions. Three distinct types of mesozooplankton communities seem to flourish in the investigated regions: the first type is the most widespread and thrives in the "non-blooming" areas, the second type occurs in the "intermittently-blooming" areas, and the third type is a characteristic of areas with recurrent and intense phytoplankton blooms. Overall, the well defined regionalization of mesozooplankton that appears from our results corroborates the view of the Mediterranean Sea as a mosaic environment, as previously emerged from the analyses of different biological compartments.

  11. Present-Day Kinematics of the Central Mediterranean Plate Boundary Region from Large GPS Network Analysis Using the Ambizap Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anastasio, E.; D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Blewitt, G.

    2008-12-01

    The large, recent increase of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations in the Central Mediterranean plate boundary zone offers the opportunity to study in detail the present-day kinematics of this actively deforming region. CGPS data from scientific and commercial networks in the Italian region is now available from more than 350 stations, including more than 130 from the RING network deployed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The RING stations all have high quality GPS monuments and are co- located with broadband or very broadband seismometers and strong motion sensors. The analysis presented here also uses far-field data to provide reference frame control, bringing the total to over 580 CGPS stations. GPS ambiguity resolution of such a large amount of data presents a serious challenge in terms of processing time. Many scientific GPS data processing software packages address this problem by dividing the network into several clusters. In contrast, this analysis uses the new Ambizap GPS processing algorithm (Blewitt, 2008) to obtain unique, self-consistent daily ambiguity-fixed solutions for the entire network. Ambizap allows for a rapid and multiple reanalysis of large regional networks such the one presented in this work. Tests show that Ambizap reproduces solutions from time-prohibitive full-network ambiguity resolution to much less than 1 mm. Single station GPS data are first processed with the GIPSY-OASIS II software by the precise point positioning (PPP) strategy (Zumberge et al., 1997) using JPL products from ftp://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov. Integer ambiguity resolution is then applied using Ambizap. The resulting daily solutions are aligned to the ITRF2005 reference frame. Then, using the CATS software (Williams, 2007), time series are cleaned to remove outliers and are analyzed for their noise properties, linear velocities, periodic signals and antenna jumps. Stable plate reference frames are realized by minimizing the horizontal velocities at more

  12. A Matched Field Processing Framework for Coherent Detection Over Local and Regional Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Northern Finland Seismological Network, FN) and to the University of Helsinki for data from the VRF and HEF stations (part of the Finnish seismograph...could contribute to a slight worsening of performance:  Whereas the ARCES array has central timing, the ARA0, HEF , VRF, and RNF stations are part of...various sites as could be included following the P-arrival at HEF (the closest station). No alignment of the waveforms was attempted and no tapering of

  13. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008–2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083

  14. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  15. Regional application of multi-layer artificial neural networks in 3-D ionosphere tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-08-01

    Tomography is a very cost-effective method to study physical properties of the ionosphere. In this paper, residual minimization training neural network (RMTNN) is used in voxel-based tomography to reconstruct of 3-D ionosphere electron density with high spatial resolution. For numerical experiments, observations collected at 37 GPS stations from Iranian permanent GPS network (IPGN) are used. A smoothed TEC approach was used for absolute STEC recovery. To improve the vertical resolution, empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) obtained from international reference ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) used as object function in training neural network. Ionosonde observations is used for validate reliability of the proposed method. Minimum relative error for RMTNN is 1.64% and maximum relative error is 15.61%. Also root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 × 1011 (electrons/m3) is computed for RMTNN which is less than RMSE of IRI2012. The results show that RMTNN has higher accuracy and compiles speed than other ionosphere reconstruction methods.

  16. Advances in dynamic modeling of colorectal cancer signaling-network regions, a path toward targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Ambrosi, Cristina De; Barla, Annalisa; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Nencioni, Alessio; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Verri, Alessandro; Parodi, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The interconnected network of pathways downstream of the TGFβ, WNT and EGF-families of receptor ligands play an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. We studied and implemented dynamic simulations of multiple downstream pathways and described the section of the signaling network considered as a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our simulations used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), which involved 447 reactants and their interactions. Starting from an initial “physiologic condition”, the model can be adapted to simulate individual pathologic cancer conditions implementing alterations/mutations in relevant onco-proteins. We verified some salient model predictions using the mutated colorectal cancer lines HCT116 and HT29. We measured the amount of MYC and CCND1 mRNAs and AKT and ERK phosphorylated proteins, in response to individual or combination onco-protein inhibitor treatments. Experimental and simulation results were well correlated. Recent independently published results were also predicted by our model. Even in the presence of an approximate and incomplete signaling network information, a predictive dynamic modeling seems already possible. An important long term road seems to be open and can be pursued further, by incremental steps, toward even larger and better parameterized MIMs. Personalized treatment strategies with rational associations of signaling-proteins inhibitors, could become a realistic goal. PMID:25671297

  17. Advances in dynamic modeling of colorectal cancer signaling-network regions, a path toward targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Tortolina, Lorenzo; Duffy, David J; Maffei, Massimo; Castagnino, Nicoletta; Carmody, Aimée M; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N; De Ambrosi, Cristina; Barla, Annalisa; Biganzoli, Elia M; Nencioni, Alessio; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Verri, Alessandro; Parodi, Silvio

    2015-03-10

    The interconnected network of pathways downstream of the TGFβ, WNT and EGF-families of receptor ligands play an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis.We studied and implemented dynamic simulations of multiple downstream pathways and described the section of the signaling network considered as a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our simulations used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), which involved 447 reactants and their interactions.Starting from an initial "physiologic condition", the model can be adapted to simulate individual pathologic cancer conditions implementing alterations/mutations in relevant onco-proteins. We verified some salient model predictions using the mutated colorectal cancer lines HCT116 and HT29. We measured the amount of MYC and CCND1 mRNAs and AKT and ERK phosphorylated proteins, in response to individual or combination onco-protein inhibitor treatments. Experimental and simulation results were well correlated. Recent independently published results were also predicted by our model.Even in the presence of an approximate and incomplete signaling network information, a predictive dynamic modeling seems already possible. An important long term road seems to be open and can be pursued further, by incremental steps, toward even larger and better parameterized MIMs. Personalized treatment strategies with rational associations of signaling-proteins inhibitors, could become a realistic goal.

  18. Regional Geograhpic Network Partnerships Supporting Sustainable Landscapes - An Example: The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource management agencies, conservation organizations and other stakeholders are facing increasingly complex environmental challenges that require coordinated management actions at regional and landscape levels. To address these challenges, integrated multi-disciplina...

  19. Real-time fMRI brain computer interfaces: self-regulation of single brain regions to networks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sergio; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Rana, Mohit; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of brain computer interfaces based on real-time fMRI (rtfMRI-BCI), the possibility of performing neurofeedback based on brain hemodynamics has become a reality. In the early stage of the development of this field, studies have focused on the volitional control of activity in circumscribed brain regions. However, based on the understanding that the brain functions by coordinated activity of spatially distributed regions, there have recently been further developments to incorporate real-time feedback of functional connectivity and spatio-temporal patterns of brain activity. The present article reviews the principles of rtfMRI neurofeedback, its applications, benefits and limitations. A special emphasis is given to the discussion of novel developments that have enabled the use of this methodology to achieve self-regulation of the functional connectivity between different brain areas and of distributed brain networks, anticipating new and exciting applications for cognitive neuroscience and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Improved 2-D attenuation analysis for Northern Italy using a merged dataset from selected regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasca, Paola; Massa, Marco; Laprocina, Enrica; Mayeda, Kevin; Phillips, Scott; Malagnini, Luca; Spallarossa, Daniele; Costa, Giovanni; Augliera, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    A merged, high-quality waveform dataset from different seismic networks has been used to improve our understanding of lateral seismic attenuation for Northern Italy. In a previous study on the same region, Morasca et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98:1936-1946, 2008) were able to resolve only a small area due to limited data coverage. For this reason, the interpretation of the attenuation anomalies was difficult given the complexity of the region and the poor resolution of the available data. In order to better understand the lateral changes in the crustal structure and thickness of this region, we selected 770 earthquakes recorded by 54 stations for a total of almost 16,000 waveforms derived from seismic networks operating totally or partially in Northern Italy. Direct S-wave and coda attenuation images were obtained using an amplitude ratio technique that eliminates source terms from the formulation. Both direct and early-coda amplitudes are used as input for the inversions, and the results are compared. Results were obtained for various frequency bands ranging between 0.3 and 25.0 Hz and in all cases show significant improvement with respect to the previous study since the resolved area has been extended and more crossing paths have been used to image smaller scale anomalies. Quality-factor estimates are consistent with the regional tectonic structure exhibiting a general trend of low attenuation under the Po Plain basin and higher values for the Western Alps and Northern Apennines. The interpretation of the results for the Eastern Alps is not simple, possibly because our resolution for this area is still not adequate to resolve small-scale structures.

  1. Spatial Fingerprints of Community Structure in Human Interaction Network for an Extensive Set of Large-Scale Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization. PMID:25993329

  2. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  3. Regional Densification of the ITRF through the Integration of National Active GNSS Network Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyeres, Ambrus; Horvath, Tivadar; Stangl, Gunter; Garayt, Bruno; Hansen, Dionne; Valdes, Marcellino; Caporali, Alessandro; Figurski, Mariusz; Georgiev, Ivan; Droscak, Branislav; Franke, Peter; Jumare, Izolde; Nagl, Jaroslav; Pihlak, Priit; Huisman, Lennard

    2015-04-01

    The actual realization of the ITRS represents the most precise station positions and velocities at selected set of sites. The scientific and practical applications may require the access to the global 3D reference frame in a dense network without loss of consistency and reliability. Relying on the long term homogeneously analyzed data the dense national permanent GNSS networks shall be the ideal tool for such reference frame densification. In the frame of the ongoing EPN densification the national active networks are integrated and a homogeneous, dense position and velocity product is being derived based on the actual ITRS realization and using the EPN as backbone infrastructure. In order to minimize inconsistencies (e.g. site naming, discontinuities, constraint handling) the only way to get a uniform, homogeneous cumulative solution from national to global scales is the integration done relying on the weekly SINEX product level. The integration is being performed using the CATREF software (Altamimi et al, IGN) and based on the Minimum Constraint approach. The derived position and velocity product will be an essential material for various geokinematic studies (PGR, intraplate and plate boundary zone investigations), and also for the better definition and realization of ETRS89. This work is very well inline with the goals of relevant European initiatives in the frame of EPOS, EUREF (WG on Deformation Models), CEGRN, EUPOS, IAG (WG on Unified Dense Velocity Fields). The work is well in progress, up to 15 years of weekly SINEX files are already available and analyzed from 17 countries, and considering the countries in negotiation phase the full continental coverage will be reached within few years. The actual database contains more close to 3000 sites. In this presentation a status report is shown and the first version of the position/velocity product with related interpretation options are introduced as well.

  4. The Artificial Neural Network Estimation for Daily and Hourly Rice Evapotranspiration in the Region of Red Soil, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yuanshu; Ruthaikarn, Buaphean; Jin, Xinyi; Pang, Bo

    The evapotranspiration estimation is a key item for irrigation program. It has the important practical significance for high stable yield and water-saving in the region of red soil, South China. Penman-Monteith equation, recommended by FAO, is verified to be the most effective calculation to actual evaporation in many regions of the world. The only default is it has to use complete meteorological factors. To solve this problem, we are trying to find out a artificial neural network model (ANN) which can easily get its information and easy to calculate as well as guaranteed accuracy. A Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) system and automatic weather station were employed for simultaneous measurement of actual evapotranspiration above the rice field. The frequency of 20-min recording provided the possibility for the estimation of daily and hourly evapotranspiration. The determined coefficient from the artificial neural network model on daily scale R2 is 0.9642, while hourly scale R2 is 0.9880. The reason was that the hourly scale training samples was greater than the daily scale measures. In general, the model gives an effective and feasible way for the evaluation of paddy rice evapotranspiration by the conventional parameters.

  5. Modeling Causal Relationship Between Brain Regions Within the Drug-Cue Processing Network in Chronic Cocaine Smokers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Haney, Margaret; Hanson, Catherine; Biswal, Bharat; Hanson, Stephen José

    2015-12-01

    The cues associated with drugs of abuse have an essential role in perpetuating problematic use, yet effective connectivity or the causal interaction between brain regions mediating the processing of drug cues has not been defined. The aim of this fMRI study was to model the causal interaction between brain regions within the drug-cue processing network in chronic cocaine smokers and matched control participants during a cocaine-cue exposure task. Specifically, cocaine-smoking (15M; 5F) and healthy control (13M; 4F) participants viewed cocaine and neutral cues while in the scanner (a Siemens 3 T magnet). We examined whole brain activation, including activation related to drug-cue processing. Time series data extracted from ROIs determined through our General Linear Model (GLM) analysis and prior publications were used as input to IMaGES, a computationally powerful Bayesian search algorithm. During cocaine-cue exposure, cocaine users showed a particular feed-forward effective connectivity pattern between the ROIs of the drug-cue processing network (amygdala → hippocampus → dorsal striatum → insula → medial frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex) that was not present when the controls viewed the cocaine cues. Cocaine craving ratings positively correlated with the strength of the causal influence of the insula on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in cocaine users. This study is the first demonstration of a causal interaction between ROIs within the drug-cue processing network in cocaine users. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying continued substance use and has implications for monitoring treatment response.

  6. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  7. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  8. Regional Core-Mantle-Boundary modeling with PcP-P using high-density seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The spectrum of lateral variations in structure in the D" region at the base of the earth's mantle is not yet precisely known. There is also much controversy on the wavelengths of topography on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Dense high-quality seismic networks in combination with powerful seismic data-processing techniques can potentially provide accurate measurements over large portions of the globe that are currently poorly sampled, and contribute constraints on these questions. Here, we attempt to build high-resolution regional models of the CMB region from PcP-P travel-time differences and amplitude ratios observed at USArray and other nearby networks as well as a data-processing methodology that enhances our ability to accurately measure PcP in a wider distance range than is commonly done. Indeed, accurate measurements of PcP are still a challenge. PcP arrives in the coda of the P phase, there are interferences with pP and sP depth phases for shallow earthquakes, and its relatively low amplitude due to a relatively low reflection coefficient at CMB hinders its detection. We separate P and PcP locally in slowness, without compromising resolution, using dense high-quality seismic networks. Specifically, we employ the local slant-stack transform in the time-scale domain (Ventosa et al. 2011) to decompose each seismogram in slowness in many frequency bands. We then design adaptive filters, driven by coherence measures, to obtain clean measurements of P and PcP travel times and amplitudes. This allows a significant increase in the quantity and the quality of the PcP measurements available for modeling. The main sources of PcP-P travel-time differences, with respect to theoretical values from global 1D models, are due to heterogeneities in the mantle and in D'', or due to topography in CMB. We apply the above approach to study two different regions of CMB, Alaska and the north of Canada, which are far from the LLSVPs and documented ULVZ, and Central America, which

  9. Social Networks, Social Media and Absorptive Capacity in Regional Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosua, Rachelle; Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are major sources of prosperity and employment and are viewed as critical to regional development in Australia. A key factor to foster productivity and growth in SMEs is their ability to identify, acquire, transform and exploit external knowledge. This ability, referred to as the "absorptive capacity…

  10. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  11. Increasing ammonia concentration trends in large regions of the USA derived from the NADP/AMoN network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T.; Vermeylen, F.; Lehmann, C. M.; Likens, G. E.; Puchalski, M.

    2016-12-01

    Data from bi-weekly passive samplers from 18 of the longest operating National Atmospheric Deposition Program's (NADP) Ammonia Monitoring Network (AMoN) sites (most operating from 2008 to 2015) show that concentrations of NH3 have been increasing (p-value < 0.0001) over large regions of the USA. This trend is occurring at a seasonal and annual level of aggregation. Using random coefficient models (RCM), the mean slope for the 18 sites combined shows an increase of NH3 concentration of +7% per year, with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) from +5% to +9% per year. Travel blank corrected data using the same approach show increasing NH3 concentrations of +9% (95% C.I. +5% to +13%) per year. During a comparable period (2008-2014) NADP precipitation chemistry sites in the same regions show significant increasing (p-value = 0.0001) precipitation NH4+ concentrations trends for all sites combined of +5% (95% C.I. +3% to +7%) per year. Emissions inventory data for the study period show nearly constant rates of NH3 emissions, but large reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions. Seasonal air quality data from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) sites in these regions show significant declines in atmospheric particulate SO42- and NH4+, and particulate NO3- plus HNO3 (total NO3-) during the same period. Less formation of acidic SO4 and NO3, due to reduced SO2 and NOx emissions, provide less substrate to interact with NH3 and form particulate ammonium species. Thus, concentrations of NH3 can increase in the atmosphere even if emissions remain constant. A likely result may be more localized deposition of NH3, as opposed to the more long-range transport and deposition of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and sulfate (NH4)2SO4). Additionally, the spatial distribution of wet and dry acidic deposition will be impacted.

  12. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  13. Regional features of atmospheric manifestations of tropical cyclones according to ground-based GPS network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. I.; Kunitsyn, V. E.

    2012-07-01

    Using statistically significant data, we show that the GPS observation method is efficient for revealing the response of the upper atmosphere to global synoptic processes with the help of correlation techniques. The wave structures detected with the help of GPS interferometry in the given observational network were found to be geographically associated with places of orographic disturbances. For example, disturbances of acoustic gravity waves may arise along coastlines from typhoon-captured airflows. The excitation of these wave structures is most efficient at large rates of increase or decrease in the typhoon intensity. In this case, there occurs a sharp change in the structure (namely, the spectrum roll-off factor of wavelike disturbances). Our analysis revealed no statistically significant correlation between the emergence of wave structures and the core (eye) of a typhoon or cyclone.

  14. Uniting and networking the magnetic community in the northern Indian Ocean region - MAGNIO - a new initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Kusumita

    2015-04-01

    The North Indian Ocean (NIO) - a region of sparse data coverage - is a prime location for the measurement and study of variations of the geomagnetic field, where the effects of the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) and Solar quiet (Sq) currents as well as lithospheric configuration, are yet to be delineated. Ground based measurements of magnetic variations with a time resolution of one minute or better in the NIO region would provide an ideal window of opportunity to augment satellite measurements (SWARM). As the dip equator passes through the NIO, the magnetic field here can be subject to rapid change. Therefore it is felt that forging collaborative scientific links between the scientists and stakeholder communities of these nations is vital. In recognition of the significance of a regional initiative, the International Council of Science (ICSU) has awarded the MAGNIO project to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), to undertake activities necessary to put further medium and long term endeavors in place. The MAGNIO proposal aims to bring all NIO magnetic observatories and organisations using magnetic data together, along with relevant stakeholders. The line of action to be adopted for the fulfillment of MAGNIO objectives is presented. Critical issues of trust development, communication establishment, internet usage, role of mentors and policymankers, which could construct the requisite links to bring about such a collaborration and take it forward are discussed.

  15. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    PubMed

    Mielke, M

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under http://www.rki.de → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.

  16. Lower ionosphere monitoring by the South America VLF Network (SAVNET): C region occurrence and atmospheric temperature variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Fernando Celso Perin; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Gavilán, Hernán. Rivero; Kaufmann, Pierre; Rodriguez, Rodolfo; Clilverd, Mark; Cardenas, Jorge Samanes; Fernandez, Germán.

    2013-10-01

    profiles of phase measurements as observed on fixed VLF paths generally show a transient phase advance, followed by a phase delay, for about 90 min after sunrise hours. This is indicative of a reflecting ionospheric C region developing along the terminator line at an altitude below the normal D region. The suggested occurrence of a C region is consistent with rocket measurements made in the 1960s, showing a maximum of the electron density between 64 and 68 km, and by radio sounding in the 1980s. In order to correctly describe the properties of the phase effect associated with the presence of a C region, it is important to understand the subionospheric propagation characteristics of the VLF paths. In this paper, we analyze the variations presented by the temporal properties of the VLF narrowband phase effect and determined a parameter associated with the appearance of the C region at sunrise hours observed by receivers from the South America VLF Network. Periodic patterns emerge from the parameter curves. Two distinct temporal behavior regimes can be identified: one exhibiting slow variations between March and October, and another one exhibiting faster variations between October and March. Solar illumination conditions and the geometrical configuration of the VLF paths relative to the sunrise terminator partly explain the slow variation regime. During periods of faster variations, we have observed good association with atmospheric temperature variability found in the measurements of the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry satellite instrument, which we assume to be related to the winter anomaly atmospheric phenomenon. However, when comparing the parameter time series with temperature curves, no direct one-to-one correspondence was found for transient events.

  17. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  18. Model-based evaluation of subsurface monitoring networks for improved efficiency and predictive certainty of regional groundwater models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosses, M. J.; Wöhling, Th.; Moore, C. R.; Dann, R.; Scott, D. M.; Close, M.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater resources worldwide are increasingly under pressure. Demands from different local stakeholders add to the challenge of managing this resource. In response, groundwater models have become popular to make predictions about the impact of different management strategies and to estimate possible impacts of changes in climatic conditions. These models can assist to find optimal management strategies that comply with the various stakeholder needs. Observations of the states of the groundwater system are essential for the calibration and evaluation of groundwater flow models, particularly when they are used to guide the decision making process. On the other hand, installation and maintenance of observation networks are costly. Therefore it is important to design monitoring networks carefully and cost-efficiently. In this study, we analyse the Central Plains groundwater aquifer (~ 4000 km2) between the Rakaia and Waimakariri rivers on the Eastern side of the Southern Alps in New Zealand. The large sedimentary groundwater aquifer is fed by the two alpine rivers and by recharge from the land surface. The area is mainly under agricultural land use and large areas of the land are irrigated. The other major water use is the drinking water supply for the city of Christchurch. The local authority in the region, Environment Canterbury, maintains an extensive groundwater quantity and quality monitoring programme to monitor the effects of land use and discharges on groundwater quality, and the suitability of the groundwater for various uses, especially drinking-water supply. Current and projected irrigation water demand has raised concerns about possible impacts on groundwater-dependent lowland streams. We use predictive uncertainty analysis and the Central Plains steady-state groundwater flow model to evaluate the worth of pressure head observations in the existing groundwater well monitoring network. The data worth of particular observations is dependent on the problem

  19. Airborne, Balloon-borne and ground network measurements of aerosol BC over Indian region: Current understanding and possible implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Babu, Suresh, S.; Manoj, M. R.; Gogoi, Mukunda

    2012-07-01

    Though the role of BC aerosols in direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing is now well accepted and being extensively investigated, there is a large knowledge gap on its vertical distribution. Large amounts of BC, if present above and within the clouds, could significantly modify the atmospheric heating due to aerosol absorption. In the back drop of some of the recent measurements of strong BC layers in the middle and upper troposphere and even in the stratosphere, the knowledge of vertical distribution of BC becomes all the more relevant, especially over the tropics, with significant solar heating, cloud cover and BC hotspots. With a view to addressing this issue from comprehensive measurements over Indian region, extensive measurements using aircrafts, balloons, and a large network of ground-based observatories have been made as a part of the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment (RAWEX). These measurements were examined in the light of simulations made using the regional climate model (RegCM of ICTP) to understand the ability and biases of climate models. While the aircraft measurements revealed presence of strong BC layers above the atmospheric boundary layer, within which the BC concentration often exceeded those near the surface. These layers were more elevated and strong along the eastern coast and over Bay of Bengal, rather than on the west. The RegCM simulations were found to underestimate the BC concentrations, especially during the daytime probably owing to inadequate representation of ABL dynamics. The details would be presented and implications would be discussed

  20. Behind the data: Establishing the Network for Surveillance for Pneumococcal Diseases in the East African Region, netSPEAR

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Ben; Kisakye, Annet; Makewa, Douglas; Mudhune, Sandra; Mwamtemi, Hadija; Nansera, Dennis; Ngwiri, Thomas; Wamae, Maranga; English, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In a region with high rates of mortality among children aged <5 years, the underfunded health care systems of sub-Saharan Africa have few resources available to perform surveillance activities that can help determine the causes of morbidity and mortality in the region. At present, there are few examples of attempts to promote public health care surveillance that might inform current debates about how to expand and improve surveillance, particularly for bacterial diseases. Driven by this gap in knowledge, we attempted to explore the successes and failures of the Network for Surveillance of Pneumococcal Disease in the East African Region and to share the experiences of what are essentially non research public-sector hospitals in East Africa, with the hopes that surveillance systems for other diseases, especially those that require complex diagnostic support, may be informed by these experiences. The state of services essential for surveillance and the measures taken to overcome any shortcomings are described, as is the progress made in improving clinical diagnosis, laboratory processing, and data management. For surveillance to play a role in public health care, ministries of health and associated institutions must own and push forward the surveillance agenda, with support from global partners, and take advantage of the developments that have been achieved within the institutions. PMID:19191612

  1. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called “phase amplitude coupling.” PMID:27559180

  2. Brain regional networks active during the mismatch negativity vary with paradigm.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Shannon E; Blundon, Elizabeth G; Ward, Lawrence M

    2015-08-01

    We used independent component analysis (ICA) of high-density EEG recordings coupled with single dipole fitting to identify the dominant brain regions active during the MMN in two different versions of a passive oddball paradigm: a simple, monotic, frequency-deviant paradigm and a more complex, dichotic, frequency-deviant paradigm with deviants occurring in either ear alone or in both ears at the same time. In both paradigms we found brain regional sources in the temporal and frontal cortices active during the MMN period, consistent with some previous studies. In the simpler paradigm, the scalp-potential variance during the earlier (70-120 ms) MMN was mostly accounted for by a wide array of temporal, frontal, and parietal sources. In the more complex paradigm, however, a generator in the prefrontal cortex accounted for a substantial amount of the variance of the scalp potential during the somewhat later MMN period (120-200 ms). These findings are consistent with a more nuanced view of the MMN and its generators than has been held in the past.

  3. Building an interoperable regional health information network today with IHE integration profiles.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, John; Mussi, José; Parisot, Charles; Russler, Dan

    2006-01-01

    One of the key challenges of architecting electronic record sharing solutions that are scalable and can provide acceptable performance is how to create a longitudinal record for a patient when the desired data will be stored in several distributed point-of-service systems. This paper will review the design and standards selection process that has been made by Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise, a multi-national collaborative of care providers and developers that analyzed a variety of approaches. In particular, the requirements, issues, and alternative solutions for scalable, standards-based data locating services supporting regional and national health information exchange solutions will be discussed. Guidance will be offered to architects of regional health information organizations to take advantage of this experience and leverage the IHE Technical Framework, its testing processes, and tools to accelerate their projects and facilitate the interfacing of EHR systems serving different care settings from different vendors or developers. The implementation experience in 2005-2006 of the IHE Integration Profile specifications supporting an interoperable RHIO solution among various EHR systems from more than 30 vendors will be analyzed, with key lessons summarized.

  4. [Development of a microbiology data warehouse (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in a medical region].

    PubMed

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Noriko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tomoe; Obara, Toshikage; Takeda, Masahide; Moritoki, Yuki; Itoga, Masamichi; Ito, Wataru; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Kondoh, Katsuyuki; Chihara, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    The active involvement of hospital laboratory in surveillance is crucial to the success of nosocomial infection control. The recent dramatic increase of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their spread into the community suggest that the infection control strategy of independent medical institutions is insufficient. To share the clinical data and surveillance in our local medical region, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in Akita prefecture. This system, named Akita-ReNICS, is an easy-to-use information management system designed to compare, track, and report the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Participating laboratories routinely transfer their coded and formatted microbiology data to ReNICS server located at Akita University Hospital from their health care system's clinical computer applications over the internet. We established the system to automate the statistical processes, so that the participants can access the server to monitor graphical data in the manner they prefer, using their own computer's browser. Furthermore, our system also provides the documents server, microbiology and antimicrobiotic database, and space for long-term storage of microbiological samples. Akita-ReNICS could be a next generation network for quality improvement of infection control.

  5. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  6. Investigation of aerosol optical properties for remote sensing through DRAGON (distributed regional aerosol gridded observation networks) campaign in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Park, Jin-Soo; Hong, You-Deok; Han, Jin-Seok; Kim, Jhoon; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-11-01

    Aerosols in the atmosphere, including dust and pollutants, scatters/absorbs solar radiation and change the microphysics of clouds, thus influencing the Earth's energy budget, climate, air quality, visibility, agriculture and water circulation. Pollutants have also been reported to threaten the human health. The present research collaborated with the U.S. NASA and the U.S. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is to study the aerosol characteristics in East Asia and improve the long-distance transportation monitoring technology by analyzing the observations of aerosol characteristics in East Asia during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March 2012-May 2012). The sun photometers that measure the aerosol optical characteristics were placed evenly throughout the Korean Peninsula and concentrated in Seoul and the metropolitan area. Observation data are obtained from the DRAGON campaign and the first year (2012) observation data (aerosol optical depth and aerosol spatial distribution) are analyzed. Sun photometer observations, including aerosol optical depth (AOD), are utilized to validate satellite observations from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Additional analysis is performed associated with the Northeast Asia, the Korean Peninsula in particular, to determine the spatial distribution of the aerosol.

  7. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  8. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities. PMID:16896380

  9. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.; Aulenbach, S.

    2006-12-01

    We have established a Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. We have developed a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system (AIRCOA) and have deployed these systems at 4 sites: Niwot Ridge (NWR), near Ward, Colorado (August, 2005); Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado (September, 2005); Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), near Fraser Colorado (August, 2005); and Hidden Peak (HDP), near Snowbird, Utah (April, 2006). We will deploy a fifth site in Northeastern Arizona in September 2006. Measurements of surveillance gas cylinders, and an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA GMD at Niwot Ridge, show measurement biases of 0.2 ppm or better. Preliminary analysis of CO2 variability at our sites provides valuable information on the usefulness of mountaintop observations in data-assimilation and inverse modeling. Comparisons between our sites and to background sites can give direct regional-scale flux estimates, and analysis of the nocturnal CO2 build-ups at FEF provides unique insights into valley-scale respiration rates. We will present results of these preliminary analyses and plans for future integration with the NACP effort.

  10. Investigation and Quantification of Water Track Networks in Boreal Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendbayar, U.; Misra, D.; Gupta, T.; Ghosh, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water tracks are the most prominent drainage pathways that route water through the soil over permafrost in the polar environment and thus play a major role in hydrology, geomorphology, and geochemistry of the polar ecosystem. Existing literature on water tracks is limited and is largely confined to tundra areas devoid of vegetation. The objective of this study is to initiate the investigation of water tracks in thickly vegetated boreal regions, many of which contain predominant engineered infrastructures. The ancillary objectives include the development of methods for mapping the distribution of water tracks in boreal regions and a preliminary analysis of the geotechnical impacts of water track interception on infrastructures. The study area is Goldstream Road in Fairbanks, Alaska. This road experiences high amounts of damage, possibly due to interception of prominent water tracks. To investigate the road damage, the Alaska Department of Transportation has collected geophysical data in 2012. We plan to create a water track distribution map around the Goldstream Road using high-spatial-and-spectral-resolution remote sensing imagery and correlate it with the geophysical data from 2012. We have collected ground data from two water tracks: one in a residence in Fairbanks and the other besides the Goldstream Road. The two tracks vary greatly in size and features. Both water tracks revealed different yet quite promising characteristics. These findings will be used to extract other water tracks from remotely sensed images of the Goldstream Road area. So far, a 2010 SPOT 5 image (2.5m x 2.5 m), an aerial orthophoto (14 cm x 14 cm) and a DEM (57 cm x 57 cm) from September 2014 have been acquired. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) processing was performed on the 2010 SPOT 5 image. A detailed water track database was created and water tracks are being manually digitized from the available imagery and Web Mapping Services (WMS). As a test, using FLIR, handheld

  11. Hydraulic fracturing and the Crooked Lake Sequences: Insights gleaned from regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Stern, Virginia; Novakovic, Mark; Atkinson, Gail; Gu, Yu Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Within central Alberta, Canada, a new sequence of earthquakes has been recognized as of 1 December 2013 in a region of previous seismic quiescence near Crooked Lake, ~30 km west of the town of Fox Creek. We utilize a cross-correlation detection algorithm to detect more than 160 events to the end of 2014, which is temporally distinguished into five subsequences. This observation is corroborated by the uniqueness of waveforms clustered by subsequence. The Crooked Lake Sequences have come under scrutiny due to its strong temporal correlation (>99.99%) to the timing of hydraulic fracturing operations in the Duvernay Formation. We assert that individual subsequences are related to fracturing stimulation and, despite adverse initial station geometry, double-difference techniques allow us to spatially relate each cluster back to a unique horizontal well. Overall, we find that seismicity in the Crooked Lake Sequences is consistent with first-order observations of hydraulic fracturing induced seismicity.

  12. Drainage network extraction of Brazilian semiarid region with potential flood indication areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosim, Sergio; de Freitas Oliveira, João. Ricardo; de Oliveira Ortiz, Jussara; Cuellar, Miguel Zanic; Jardim, Alexandre Copertino

    2014-10-01

    This region has the particularity of, at the same time, coexisting with sporadic floods and scarcity of water. This situation requires complex studies involving water resources based on runoff of rain waters and on the courses of the rivers. For the extraction of drainage was carried out by using of the system for hydrological modeling treatment TerraHidro, developed by INPE's Image Processing Division. This system uses the PFS method for extraction of drainage, which has provided good results, enabling the reduction of the time spent on manual editing of drainage errors. TerraHidro has a tool called Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND) which gives information on potential flood areas. Elevation data were used in the Aster GDEM with spatial resolution of 30 meters for drainage extraction. A qualitative comparison was performed between drainage extracted by TerraHidro and drainage manually extracted by a specialist.

  13. Increased tree-ring network density reveals more precise estimations of sub-regional hydroclimate variability and climate dynamics in the Midwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Justin T.; Harley, Grant L.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the historic variability in the hydroclimate provides important information on possible extreme dry or wet periods that in turn inform water management plans. Tree rings have long provided historical context of hydroclimate variability of the U.S. However, the tree-ring network used to create these countrywide gridded reconstructions is sparse in certain locations, such as the Midwest. Here, we increase (n = 20) the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network in southern Indiana and compare a summer (June-August) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction to existing gridded reconstructions of PDSI for this region. We find both droughts and pluvials that were previously unknown that rival the most intense PDSI values during the instrumental period. Additionally, historical drought occurred in Indiana that eclipsed instrumental conditions with regard to severity and duration. During the period 1962-2004 CE, we find that teleconnections of drought conditions through the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have a strong influence (r = -0.60, p < 0.01) on secondary tree growth in this region for the late spring-early summer season. These findings highlight the importance of continuing to increase the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network used to infer past climate dynamics to capture the sub-regional spatial variability. Increasing the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network for a given region can better identify sub-regional variability, improve the accuracy of regional tree-ring PDSI reconstructions, and provide better information for climatic teleconnections.

  14. Regional expression of the MAPT gene is associated with loss of hubs in brain networks and cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Rittman, Timothy; Rubinov, Mikail; Vértes, Petra E; Patel, Ameera X; Ginestet, Cedric E; Ghosh, Boyd C P; Barker, Roger A; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Bullmore, Edward T; Rowe, James B

    2016-12-01

    Abnormalities of tau protein are central to the pathogenesis of progressive supranuclear palsy, whereas haplotype variation of the tau gene MAPT influences the risk of Parkinson disease and Parkinson's disease dementia. We assessed whether regional MAPT expression might be associated with selective vulnerability of global brain networks to neurodegenerative pathology. Using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson disease, and healthy subjects (n = 128), we examined functional brain networks and measured the connection strength between 471 gray matter regions. We obtained MAPT and SNCA microarray expression data in healthy subjects from the Allen brain atlas. Regional connectivity varied according to the normal expression of MAPT. The regional expression of MAPT correlated with the proportionate loss of regional connectivity in Parkinson's disease. Executive cognition was impaired in proportion to the loss of hub connectivity. These effects were not seen with SNCA, suggesting that alpha-synuclein pathology is not mediated through global network properties. The results establish a link between regional MAPT expression and selective vulnerability of functional brain networks to neurodegeneration.

  15. A review of the management of blunt splenic trauma in England and Wales: have regional trauma networks influenced management strategies and outcomes?

    PubMed

    Yiannoullou, P; Hall, C; Newton, K; Pearce, L; Bouamra, O; Jenks, T; Scrimshire, A B; Hughes, J; Lecky, F; Macdonald, Adh

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The spleen remains one of the most frequently injured organs following blunt abdominal trauma. In 2012, regional trauma networks were launched across England and Wales with the aim of improving outcomes following trauma. This retrospective cohort study investigated the management and outcomes of blunt splenic injuries before and after the establishment of regional trauma networks. METHODS A dataset was drawn from the Trauma Audit Research Network database of all splenic injuries admitted to English and Welsh hospitals from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014. Demographic data, injury severity, treatment modalities and outcomes were collected. Management and outcomes were compared before and after the launch of regional trauma networks. RESULTS There were 1457 blunt splenic injuries: 575 between 2010 and 2012 and 882 in 2012-14. Following the introduction of the regional trauma networks, use of splenic artery embolotherapy increased from 3.5% to 7.6% (P = 0.001) and splenectomy rates decreased from 20% to 14.85% (P = 0.012). Significantly more patients with polytrauma and blunt splenic injury were treated with splenic embolotherapy following 2012 (61.2% vs. 30%, P < 0.0001). Increasing age, injury severity score, polytrauma and Charlson Comorbidity Index above 10 were predictors of increased mortality (P < 0.001). Increasing systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, OR, 0.757, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.716-0.8) and Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 0.988, 95% CI 0.982-0.995) were protective. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates a reduction in splenectomy rate and an increased use of splenic artery embolotherapy since the introduction of the regional trauma networks. This may have resulted from improved access to specialist services and reduced practice variation since the establishment of these networks.

  16. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  17. Pole-equator difference and the variability of the brightness of the chromospheric CaII-K-network elements in quiet regions over the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kariyappa, R.

    1995-01-01

    The dependence of the brightness of chromospheric network elements on latitude was investigated for quiet solar regions. Calibrated photographic CaII K-spectroheliograms were used to compare the variation in brightness at the center of the disk with higher latitude of chromospheric network elements in a quiet region as a function of solar activity. It was found that there was no significant difference in brightness between the center of the solar disk and higher latitude. It is concluded that the brightness of the chromospheric network elements in a quiet region does not depend on the latitude, but that the variation in the intensity enhancement is related to the level of solar activity.

  18. Successful integration efforts in water quality from the integrated Ocean Observing System Regional Associations and the National Water Quality Monitoring Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, R.; Vowinkel, E.; Porter, D.; Hamilton, P.; Morrison, R.; Kohut, J.; Connell, B.; Kelsey, H.; Trowbridge, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  19. Why might regional vaccinology networks fail? The case of the Dutch-Nordic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Blume, Stuart

    2016-07-07

    We analyzed an attempt to develop and clinically test a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the developing world, undertaken by public health institutions from the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland: the Dutch Nordic Consortium (DNC), between 1990 and 2000. Our review shows that the premature termination of the project was due less to technological and scientific challenges and more to managerial challenges and institutional policies. Various impeding events, financial and managerial challenges gradually soured the initially enthusiastic collaborative spirit until near the end the consortium struggled to complete the minimum objectives of the project. By the end of 1998, a tetravalent prototype vaccine had been made that proved safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 trials in adults and toddlers in Finland. The planned next step, to test the vaccine in Asia in infants, did not meet approval by the local authorities in Vietnam nor later in the Philippines and the project eventually stopped.The Dutch DNC member, the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) learned important lessons, which subsequently were applied in a following vaccine technology transfer project, resulting in the availability at affordable prices for the developing world of a conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. We conclude that vaccine development in the public domain with technology transfer as its ultimate aim requires major front-end funding, committed leadership at the highest institutional level sustained for many years and a competent recipient-manufacturer, which needs to be involved at a very early stage of the development.At the national level, RIVM's policy to consolidate its national manufacturing task through securing a key global health position in support of a network of public vaccine manufacturers proved insufficiently supported by the relevant ministries of the Dutch government. Difficulties to keep up with high costs, high

  20. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S. L.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.

    2007-12-01

    We will present preliminary carbon flux estimates from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). In order to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West, we have developed and deployed autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analyzers (AIRCOA) at five sites throughout Colorado and Utah, and plan additional deployments on the Navajo Reservation, Arizona in September 2007 and atop Mount Kenya, Africa in November 2007. We have used a one- dimensional CO2 budget equation, following Bakwin et al. (2004), to estimate regional monthly-mean fluxes from our continuous CO2 concentrations. These comparisons between our measurements and estimates of free- tropospheric background concentrations reveal regional-scale CO2 flux signals that are generally consistent with one another across the Rocky RACCOON sites. We will compare the timing and magnitude of these estimates with expectations from local-scale eddy-correlation flux measurements and bottom-up ecosystem models. We will also interpret the differences in monthly-mean flux signals between our sites in terms of their varying upwind areas of influence and inferred regional variations in CO2 fluxes. Our measurements will be included in future CarbonTracker assimilation runs and other planned model-data fusion efforts. However, questions still exist concerning the ability of these models to accurately represent the various influences on CO2 concentrations in continental boundary layers, and at mountaintop sites in particular. We will present an analysis of the diurnal cycles in CO2 concentration and CO2 variability at our sites, and compare these to various model estimates. Several of our sites near major population centers reflect the influence of industrial CO2 sources in afternoon upslope flows, with CO2 concentration increasing and variable in the mid to late afternoon. Other more remote sites show more consistent and decreasing CO2

  1. A transfer network linking Eearth, Moon, and the triangular libration point regions in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdevila, Lucia R.

    In the near future, several space applications in the Earth-Moon system may require a spacecraft to hold a stable motion, but the transfer trajectory infrastructure to access such stable motions has not been fully investigated yet. The triangular libration points, L 4 and L5, in the Earth-Moon system have long been thought of as ideal locations for a communications satellite. Recently, Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) and Near-Rectilinear Halo Orbits (NRHOs) near the Moon have been identified as motion of interest for manned and unmanned missions with a focus on operations in cislunar space. The triangular libration points, as well as lunar DROs and NRHOs describe special types of possible motion for a spacecraft/satellite that is influenced solely by the gravitational fields of the Earth and the Moon. What is common to the tree types of solutions is that they are practically stable, that is, a spacecraft/satellite can naturally follow the solution for extended periods of time without requiring significant course adjustment maneuvers. This investigation contributes to the infrastructure of a network of transfer trajectories connecting regions of stability located near the Earth, Moon, and the triangular libration points in the Earth-Moon system. Several transfer options between regions of stability are presented and discussed, including transfer options between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and lunar DRO, lunar DRO and periodic orbits near L4 and L5, as well as lunar DRO and L 2 NRHOs.

  2. Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR. PMID:23362419

  3. Sustaining a regional emerging infectious disease research network: a trust-based approach.

    PubMed

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.

  4. Determination of Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of D-region Electron Density during Annular Solar Eclipse from VLF Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, T.; Hobara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A major part of the path of the annular solar eclipse of May 20, 2012 (magnitude 0.9439) was over southern Japan. The D-region ionospheric changes associated with that eclipse, led to several degree of observable perturbations of sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) radio signal. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) operates VLF observation network over Japan. The solar eclipse associated signal changes were recorded in several receiving stations (Rx) simultaneously for the VLF signals coming from NWC/19.8kHz, JJI/22.2kHz, JJY/40.0kHz, NLK/24.8kHz and other VLF transmitters (Tx). These temporal dependences of VLF signal perturbation have been analyzed and the spatio-temporal characteristics of respective sub-ionospheric perturbations has already been studied by earlier workers using 2D-Finite Difference Time Domain method of simulation. In this work, we determine the spatial scale, depth and temporal dependence of lower ionospheric perturbation in consistence with umbral and penumbral motion. We considered the 2-parameter D-region ionospheric model with exponential electron density profile. To model the solar obscuration effect over it, we assumed a generalized space-time dependent 2-dimensional elliptical Gaussian distribution for ionospheric parameters, such as, effective reflection height (h') and sharpness factor (β). The depth (△hmax, △βmax), center of shadow (lato(t), lono(t)) and spatial scale (σlat,lon) of that Gaussian distribution are used as model parameters. In the vicinity of the eclipse zone, we compute the VLF signal perturbations using Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code for several signal propagation paths. The propagation path characteristics, such as, ground and water conductivity and geomagnetic effect on ionosphere are considered from standard LWPC prescriptions. The model parameters are tuned to set an optimum agreement between our computation and observed positive and negative type of VLF perturbations. Thus

  5. α2-containing GABAA receptors expressed in hippocampal region CA3 control fast network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Heistek, Tim S; Ruiperez-Alonso, Marta; Timmerman, A Jaap; Brussaard, Arjen B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2013-02-15

    GABA(A) receptors are critically involved in hippocampal oscillations. GABA(A) receptor α1 and α2 subunits are differentially expressed throughout the hippocampal circuitry and thereby may have distinct contributions to oscillations. It is unknown which GABA(A) receptor α subunit controls hippocampal oscillations and where these receptors are expressed. To address these questions we used transgenic mice expressing GABA(A) receptor α1 and/or α2 subunits with point mutations (H101R) that render these receptors insensitive to allosteric modulation at the benzodiazepine binding site, and tested how increased or decreased function of α subunits affects hippocampal oscillations. Positive allosteric modulation by zolpidem prolonged decay kinetics of hippocampal GABAergic synaptic transmission and reduced the frequency of cholinergically induced oscillations. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors in CA3 altered oscillation frequency in CA1, while modulation of GABA receptors in CA1 did not affect oscillations. In mice having a point mutation (H101R) at the GABA(A) receptor α2 subunit, zolpidem effects on cholinergically induced oscillations were strongly reduced compared to wild-type animals, while zolpidem modulation was still present in mice with the H101R mutation at the α1 subunit. Furthermore, genetic knockout of α2 subunits strongly reduced oscillations, whereas knockout of α1 subunits had no effect. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors was strongly reduced in unitary connections between fast spiking interneurons and pyramidal neurons in CA3 of α2H101R mice, but not of α1H101R mice, suggesting that fast spiking interneuron to pyramidal neuron synapses in CA3 contain α2 subunits. These findings suggest that α2-containing GABA(A) receptors expressed in the CA3 region provide the inhibition that controls hippocampal rhythm during cholinergically induced oscillations.

  6. Analysis of the protein network of cholesterol homeostasis in different brain regions: an age and sex dependent perspective.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Marco; Di Giovanni, Annalaura; Marino, Maria; Pallottini, Valentina

    2013-07-01

    Although a great knowledge about the patho-physiological roles of cholesterol metabolism perturbation in several organs has been reached, scarce information is available on the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain where this lipid is involved in the maintenance of several of neuronal processes. Currently, no study is available in literature dealing how and if sex and age may modulate the major proteins involved in the regulatory network of cholesterol levels in different brain regions. Here, we investigated the behavior of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) in adult (3-month-old) and aged (12-month-old) male and female rats. The analyses were performed in four different brain regions: cortex, brain stem, hippocampus, and cerebellum which represent brain areas characterized by different neuronal cell types, metabolism, cytoarchitecture and white matter composition. The results show that in hippocampus HMGR is lower (30%) in adult female rats than in age-matched males. Differences in LDLr expression are also observable in old females with respect to age-matched males: the protein levels increase (40%) in hippocampus and decrease (20%) in cortex, displaying different mechanisms of regulation. The mechanism underlying the observed modifications are ascribable to Insig-1 and SREBP-1 modulation. The obtained data demonstrate that age- and sex-related differences in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance exist among brain regions, such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, important for learning, memory and affection. Some of these differences could be at the root of marked gender disparities observed in clinical disease incidence, manifestation, and prognosis.

  7. Regionalization and intersegmental coordination of rhythm-generating networks in the spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Ho, S; O'Donovan, M J

    1993-04-01

    We have examined the regionalization and coordination of rhythm-generating networks in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo between embryonic days 9 and 13, by recording the pattern of rhythmic activity recorded from muscle nerves and ventral roots following a variety of lesions. We found that the capacity for rhythmic activity is distributed along the rostrocaudal axis of the cord but can be expressed in a single, isolated segment. Specializations within the lumbosacral cord were investigated by isolating particular regions and recording their motor output. The rostral part of the lumbosacral cord generates more cycles than the caudal part, and this difference becomes more pronounced with development. In the unlesioned cord, motoneuron activity is synchronized along the rostrocaudal axis. Lesion experiments revealed that the synchronization of motoneuron activity and the synaptic drive to caudal motoneurons is mediated in part by propriospinal pathways traveling in the ventrolateral white matter tracts and by synaptic interactions within the gray matter. The dorsal fiber tracts may also be involved but their effects appear to be weak. Lesions in dorsal-ventral and mediolateral planes were used to localize regions critical for rhythmogenesis and for the alternation of flexor and extensor motoneurons. Rhythmic activity with alternation persisted in spinal cords in which the dorsal and medial half had been removed. Severe medial or dorsal lesions, resulting in a thin strip of lateral or ventral gray matter, altered the phasing of motoneuron activity from alternating to synchronous without effects on cycle timing. These results suggest that the critical neural components for alternation are located close to and dorsomedial to the lateral motor column, and that the capacity for rhythmogenesis is distributed widely throughout the ventral gray matter and is not localized to specific nuclei.

  8. Low-Cost Sensor Network for Stream Flow Monitoring in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, M. D.; Fry, L. M.; Mihelcic, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Lack of data is a persistent problem in hydrology and other field work in developing countries. Low cost monitoring devices allow investigators to maximize spatial coverage on a limited budget, as well as to minimize the financial risk of loss of instruments placed in vulnerable locations. This work contributes to an ongoing project to evaluate the sustainability of discharge from springs supplying gravity-fed potable water systems in the Alto Beni region of Bolivia where land use is rapidly changing from forest to agriculture. The approach is to estimate ground water recharge as a function of land use variables using a water balance model in several representative watersheds. Monthly stream discharge is currently estimated using monthly manual measurements of water level by a local technician. Continuous water level measurements will allow an improved estimate of the cumulative discharge, and generate data on statistical distribution of daily flow that may be useful to estimate discharge in similar, ungaged watersheds. Continuous water level measurements, along with available precipitation data, will allow analysis and comparison of the response of watersheds to individual precipitation events as a function of land use variables. We assembled a low cost level logging system for stream flow monitoring that measures and records distance up to 6 m to the nearest 25 mm every ten minutes, and runs for a month on six rechargeable AA batteries. The system consists of a sonic range finder sensor (MaxSonar-EZ2, Maxbotix Inc., Baxter, MN, 30), a temperature sensor (MCP9701, Microchip Technology Inc., Chandler, AZ, 0.25), and a datalogger (Hobo U12, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA, 104) along with a weather-resistant enclosure and common items for a total cost of 230 per unit. The level loggers were attached to bridges over three subject streams. A local technician visits the sites monthly to download data, replace the rechargeable batteries, and take a manual water level

  9. Evaluation of a partial genome screening of two asthma susceptibility regions using bayesian network based bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance.

    PubMed

    Ungvári, Ildikó; Hullám, Gábor; Antal, Péter; Kiszel, Petra Sz; Gézsi, András; Hadadi, Éva; Virág, Viktor; Hajós, Gergely; Millinghoffer, András; Nagy, Adrienne; Kiss, András; Semsei, Ágnes F; Temesi, Gergely; Melegh, Béla; Kisfali, Péter; Széll, Márta; Bikov, András; Gálffy, Gabriella; Tamási, Lilla; Falus, András; Szalai, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate high number of potential factors related to asthma. Based on earlier linkage analyses we selected the 11q13 and 14q22 asthma susceptibility regions, for which we designed a partial genome screening study using 145 SNPs in 1201 individuals (436 asthmatic children and 765 controls). The results were evaluated with traditional frequentist methods and we applied a new statistical method, called bayesian network based bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA). This method uses bayesian network representation to provide detailed characterization of the relevance of factors, such as joint significance, the type of dependency, and multi-target aspects. We estimated posteriors for these relations within the bayesian statistical framework, in order to estimate the posteriors whether a variable is directly relevant or its association is only mediated.With frequentist methods one SNP (rs3751464 in the FRMD6 gene) provided evidence for an association with asthma (OR = 1.43(1.2-1.8); p = 3×10(-4)). The possible role of the FRMD6 gene in asthma was also confirmed in an animal model and human asthmatics.In the BN-BMLA analysis altogether 5 SNPs in 4 genes were found relevant in connection with asthma phenotype: PRPF19 on chromosome 11, and FRMD6, PTGER2 and PTGDR on chromosome 14. In a subsequent step a partial dataset containing rhinitis and further clinical parameters was used, which allowed the analysis of relevance of SNPs for asthma and multiple targets. These analyses suggested that SNPs in the AHNAK and MS4A2 genes were indirectly associated with asthma. This paper indicates that BN-BMLA explores the relevant factors more comprehensively than traditional statistical methods and extends the scope of strong relevance based methods to include partial relevance, global characterization of relevance and multi-target relevance.

  10. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maren L; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R; Becker, Howard C; Miles, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  11. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maren L.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Archer, Kellie J.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Becker, Howard C.; Miles, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive ethanol consumption in rodents. Brain CIE-responsive expression networks were identified by microarray analysis across five regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system and extended amygdala with tissue harvested from 0-hours to 7-days following CIE. Weighted Gene Correlated Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify gene networks over-represented for CIE-induced temporal expression changes across brain regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed that long-lasting gene regulation occurred 7-days after the final cycle of ethanol exposure only in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Across all brain regions, however, ethanol-responsive expression changes occurred mainly within the first 8-hours after removal from ethanol. Bioinformatics analysis showed that neuroinflammatory responses were seen across multiple brain regions at early time-points, whereas co-expression modules related to neuroplasticity, chromatin remodeling, and neurodevelopment were seen at later time-points and in specific brain regions (PFC or HPC). In PFC a module containing Bdnf was identified as highly CIE responsive in a biphasic manner, with peak changes at 0 hours and 5 days following CIE, suggesting a possible role in mechanisms underlying long-term molecular and behavioral response to CIE. Bioinformatics analysis of this network and several other modules identified Let-7 family microRNAs as potential regulators of gene expression changes induced by CIE. Our results suggest a complex temporal

  12. Road-network-Based spatial allocation of on-road mobile source emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China, and comparisons with population-based approach.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Che, Wenwei; Wang, Xuemei; Louie, Peter; Zhong, Liuju

    2009-12-01

    Gridded air pollutant emission inventories are prerequisites for using air quality models to assess air pollution control strategies and predict air quality. A precise gridded emission inventory will help improve the accuracy of air quality simulation. Mobile source emissions are one of the major contributors to volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollutants, the precursors of ozone formation. However, because of the complexity of road networks and variations in traffic flows at different road types and locations, spatial allocation of emissions from mobile sources into grid cells is challenging. This paper proposes a new methodological framework, named as "the road-network-based approach," for spatially allocating regional mobile source emission inventories. The new approach utilizes the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based road network information and road-types-based traffic flow data to provide spatial surrogates for allocating Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional mobile source emission inventories. The results show that the new approach provides reasonable spatial distributions of mobile source emissions, and the distributions are in good agreement with PRD regional on-road emission line sources. Comparisons between using the population-based and the new road-network-based approaches are made. The air quality modeling results indicate that the new approach can obviously improve model predictions with increasing accuracy in mobile source emission allocations. Means of choosing appropriate approaches for spatially allocating regional mobile source emissions are discussed.

  13. Soil phosphorus forms and profile distributions in the tidal river network region in the Yellow River Delta estuary.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junbao; Qu, Fanzhu; Wu, Huifeng; Meng, Ling; Du, Siyao; Xie, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Modified Hedley fraction method was used to study the forms and profile distribution in the tidal river network region subjected to rapid deposition and hydrologic disturbance in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) estuary, eastern China. The results showed that the total P (Pt) ranged from 612.1 to 657.8 mg kg(-1). Dilute HCl extractable inorganic P (Pi) was the predominant form in all profiles, both as absolute values and as a percentage of total extracted Pi. The NaOH extractable organic P (Po) was the predominant form of total extracted Po, while Bicarb-Pi and C.HCl-Po were the lowest fractions of total extracted Pi and Po in all the P forms. The Resin-P concentrations were high in the top soil layer and decreased with depth. The Pearson correlation matrix indicated that Resin-P, Bicarb-Pi, NaOH-Pi, and C.HCl-Pi were strongly positively correlated with salinity, TOC, Ca, Al, and Fe but negatively correlated with pH. The significant correlation of any studied form of organic P (Bicarb-Po, NaOH-Po, and C.HCl-Po) with geochemical properties were not observed in the study. Duncan multiple-range test indicated that the P forms and distribution heterogeneity in the profiles could be attributed to the influences of vegetation cover and hydrologic disturbance.

  14. Using Regional GPS Network Atmospheric Models for Mitigating Errors in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Y.; Bock, Y.; Tong, X.; Moore, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements provide valuable information for obtaining Earth surface deformation and topography at high spatial resolution for crustal deformation studies. Similar to Global Positioning System (GPS), InSAR phase measurements are affected by the Earth's ionospheric and tropospheric layers as the electromagnetic signals significantly refract while propagating through the different layers. While electromagnetic signals propagating through the neutral atmosphere are affected primarily by the pressure, temperature, and water vapor content of atmospheric gases, the propagation through the ionosphere is mainly affected by the number of free electrons along the signal path. Here, we present the use of dense regional GPS networks for extracting tropospheric zenith delays and ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) maps in order to reduce the noise levels in the phase measurement of the InSAR images. The results show significant reduction in the RMS values when simultaneously combining the two corrections, both at short time periods where no surface deformation is expected, and at longer periods, where imaging of crustal deformation, such as the ground subsidence and aseismic fault creep, is enhanced.

  15. Implementation and utilization of a comprehensive information network in an integrated private not-for-profit regional health care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, James M., III

    1995-10-01

    The capacity to access, integrate, and analyze demographic, financial, and clinical data within a regional health care system represents an opportunity to ensure and enhance clinical quality and to reduce costs in a carefully planned and controlled manner. Properly used, such capability should improve health care delivery for local populations and provide the institution with a level of integration of services achieved by few health care organizations. The Baptist Health System (BHS), based in Birmingham, Alabama, is currently standardizing operating procedures among its various components and implementing a comprehensive, enterprise-wide information network. Clinical quality improvement and case management are being promulgated throughout the enterprise using a continuum-of-care model developed internally. Having successfully completed a pilot project using teleconferences for core lectures in internal medicine between two large teaching hospitals, BHS is taking advantage of enterprise- wide teleconference capability using a combination of fiberoptic (T3) and standard digital telephone (T1) transmission to speed installation and reduce the cost of implementation into two office buildings and eleven hospitals. The information system will serve to prepare BHS for the advent of managed care and other anticipated changes in health care, while ensuring continued ability to deliver high quality, cost-effective medical and health-related services.

  16. Estimation of monthly global solar radiation in the eastern Mediterranean region in Turkey by using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, Muhittin; Yakut, Emre

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was used to estimate monthly average global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for selected 5 locations in Mediterranean region for period of 18 years (1993-2010). Meteorological and geographical data were taken from Turkish State Meteorological Service. The ANN architecture designed is a feed-forward back-propagation model with one-hidden layer containing 21 neurons with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid as the transfer function and one output layer utilized a linear transfer function (purelin). The training algorithm used in ANN model was the Levenberg Marquand back propagation algorith (trainlm). Results obtained from ANN model were compared with measured meteorological values by using statistical methods. A correlation coefficient of 97.97 ( 98%) was obtained with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.852 MJ/m2, mean square error (MSE) of 0.725 MJ/m2, mean absolute bias error (MABE) 10.659MJ/m2, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 4.8%. Results show good agreement between the estimated and measured values of global solar radiation. We suggest that the developed ANN model can be used to predict solar radiation another location and conditions.

  17. The Changing Cold Regions Network: Improving the Understanding and Prediction of Changing Land, Water, and Climate in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Chun, K. P.; Shook, K.; Whitfield, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Within the cold interior of western and northern Canada, rapid and widespread environmental changes are taking place, which are of serious concern for society and have a range of implications from local to regional and global scales. From a scientific standpoint there is an urgent need to understand the changes and develop improved diagnostic and predictive modelling tools to deal with the uncertainty faced in the future. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a research consortium of over 50 Canadian university and government scientists and international researchers aimed at addressing these issues within the geographic domain of the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River Basins. CCRN's primary focus is to integrate existing and new experimental data with modelling and remote sensing products to understand, diagnose and predict changing land, water and climate, and their interactions and feedbacks. To support these activities, the network utilizes a suite of 14 world-class water, ecosystem, cryosphere and climate (WECC) observatories across this region that provide exceptional opportunities to observe change, investigate processes and their dynamics, and develop and test environmental models. This talk will briefly describe the CCRN thematic components and WECC observatories, and will then describe some of the observed environmental changes and their linkages across the northern and mountainous parts of the network study domain. In particular, this will include changes in permafrost, terrestrial vegetation, snowcover, glaciers, and river discharge in relation to observed climatic changes across the region. The observations draw on a wide range of literature sources and statistical analyses of federal and provincial regional monitoring network data, while more detailed observations at some of the WECC observatories help to show how these regional changes are manifested at local scales and vice versa. A coordinated special observation and analysis period across all

  18. Region-specific network plasticity in simulated and living cortical networks: comparison of the center of activity trajectory (CAT) with other statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2007-09-01

    Electrically interfaced cortical networks cultured in vitro can be used as a model for studying the network mechanisms of learning and memory. Lasting changes in functional connectivity have been difficult to detect with extracellular multi-electrode arrays using standard firing rate statistics. We used both simulated and living networks to compare the ability of various statistics to quantify functional plasticity at the network level. Using a simulated integrate-and-fire neural network, we compared five established statistical methods to one of our own design, called center of activity trajectory (CAT). CAT, which depicts dynamics of the location-weighted average of spatiotemporal patterns of action potentials across the physical space of the neuronal circuitry, was the most sensitive statistic for detecting tetanus-induced plasticity in both simulated and living networks. By reducing the dimensionality of multi-unit data while still including spatial information, CAT allows efficient real-time computation of spatiotemporal activity patterns. Thus, CAT will be useful for studies in vivo or in vitro in which the locations of recording sites on multi-electrode probes are important.

  19. Improving the network management of integrated primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural Australian region: protocol for a mixed methods case study

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Dawson, Suzanne; O'Kane, Deb; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; Gerace, Adam; Reed, Richard; Nosworthy, Ann; Galley, Philip; McPhail, Ruth; Cochrane, Eimear Muir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An integrated approach to the mental healthcare of older people is advocated across health, aged care and social care sectors. It is not clear, however, how the management of integrated servicing should occur, although interorganisational relations theory suggests a reflective network approach using evaluation feedback. This research will test a network management approach to help regional primary healthcare organisations improve mental health service integration. Methods and analysis This mixed methods case study in rural South Australia will test facilitated reflection within a network of health and social care services to determine if this leads to improved integration. Engagement of services will occur through a governance group and a series of three 1-day service stakeholder workshops. Facilitated reflection and evaluation feedback will use information from a review of health sector and local operational policies, a network survey about current service links, gaps and enablers and interviews with older people and their carers about their help seeking journeys. Quantitative and qualitative analysis will describe the policy enablers and explore the current and ideal links between services. The facilitated reflection will be developed to maximise engagement of senior management in the governance group and the service staff at the operational level in the workshops. Benefit will be assessed through indicators of improved service coordination, collective ownership of service problems, strengthened partnerships, agreed local protocols and the use of feedback for accountability. Ethics, benefits and dissemination Ethics approval will deal with the sensitivities of organisational network research where data anonymity is not preserved. The benefit will be the tested utility of a facilitated reflective process for a network of health and social care services to manage linked primary mental healthcare for older people in a rural region. Dissemination will

  20. Developmental profile and synaptic origin of early network oscillations in the CA1 region of rat neonatal hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Garaschuk, Olga; Hanse, Eric; Konnerth, Arthur

    1998-01-01

    By applying fura-2-based fluorometric calcium imaging to neonatal rat hippocampal slices we identified a developmentally regulated spontaneous neuronal activity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The activity consisted of bursts of intracellular Ca2+ transients recurring synchronously at a slow rate of 0.4–2 min−1 in the entire population of pyramidal neurones and interneurones. These early network oscillations (ENOs) were present during a restricted period of postnatal development. Thus, they were not detected at the day of birth (P0), at P1–P4 they consisted of bursts of large (up to 1.5 μm) Ca2+ transients, gradually transforming into regularly occurring, smaller Ca2+ transients during the subsequent week. Beyond P15–P16 no ENOs were detected. The ENOs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and by a reduction in temperature from 33–35°C to 20–22°C. By combining fluorometric imaging with whole-cell current-clamp recordings, we found that each ENO-related Ca2+ transient was associated with a high-frequency (up to 100 Hz) train of action potentials riding on a depolarizing wave. Recordings in the voltage-clamp mode revealed barrages of synaptic currents that were strictly correlated with the ENO-associated Ca2+ transients in neighbouring pyramidal neurones. Perfusing the cells with an intracellular solution that allowed for a discrimination between GABAA and glutamate receptor-mediated currents showed that these barrages of synaptic currents were predominantly of GABAergic origin. The ENOs were totally blocked by the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline and they were also substantially reduced by the glutamatergic antagonists d,l-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (d,l-APV) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). Synaptic stimulation and application of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol mimicked the spontaneous Ca2+ transients in pyramidal neurones. The efficacy of muscimol in evoking Ca2+ transients decreased during development in parallel

  1. Traveling planetary wave activity from mesopause region airglow temperatures determined by the Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change (NDMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisin, E. R.; Scheer, J.; Dyrland, M. E.; Sigernes, F.; Deehr, C. S.; Schmidt, C.; Höppner, K.; Bittner, M.; Ammosov, P. P.; Gavrilyeva, G. A.; Stegman, J.; Perminov, V. I.; Semenov, A. I.; Knieling, P.; Koppmann, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Lowe, R. P.; López-González, M. J.; Rodríguez, E.; Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.; Buriti, R. A.; Espy, P. J.; French, W. J. R.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Burrows, J. P.; von Savigny, C.

    2014-11-01

    The global distribution of traveling planetary wave (PW) activity in the mesopause region is estimated for the first time from ground-based airglow measurements. Monthly and total mean climatologies of PW power are determined from rotational temperatures measured at 19 sites from 78° N to 76° S which contribute to the Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change (NDMC). Wave power is expressed as the standard deviation of nocturnal mean temperature around the seasonal temperature variation. The results from 20° N confirm the SABER traveling PW proxy by Offermann et al. (2009, J. Geophys. Res. 114, D06110) at two altitudes. Most sites between 69° S and 69° N show total mean traveling PW activity of about 6 K, and only some high latitude sites have considerably higher activity levels. At the two tropical sites, there is practically no seasonal variation of PW activity. At 70% of the midlatitude sites, the seasonal variation is moderate for most of the year, but it is quite appreciable at all high latitude sites. Results about traveling PW activity at 87 km and 95 km available from several sites signal similar behavior at both altitudes. The total mean climatological results here obtained have further been used to separate the traveling PW contribution from the superposition of wave types contained in OH rotational temperature fluctuations measured by the SCIAMACHY instrument on Envisat. A narrow equatorial wave activity maximum is probably caused by gravity waves, while a tendency towards greater activity at higher northern latitudes may be due to stationary planetary waves.

  2. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  3. Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

    2014-07-01

    Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control

  4. Gravity waves in mesopause region induced by thunderstorms over Northern China observed by a no-gap OH airglow imager network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao

    2016-07-01

    A no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of 6 all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. A large number of gravity wave events in the mesopause region induced by thunderstorms were observed by the network during the past 4 years. A comparison of the observations in 2012, 2013, and 2014 are made, which shows that there were more strong thunderstorms take place in 2013 in the northern China and produce more Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events. Especially, a series of CGW events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were also observed by satellite sensors from FY-2, AIRS/Aqua, and VIIRS/Suomi NPP. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multi-level observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this talk, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail and movies of the two events are displayed. One is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths agree with the GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. A gravity wave with horizontal wavelength of about 20 km propagates horizontally to more than 800 km in the mesopause region, probably due to a ducting layer. Another CGW event was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 09 August 2013. Multi-scale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed. Many ripples were found, probably due to the breaking of strong gravity waves with large relative OH intensity perturbations of 10%.

  5. Cloud Classification in Polar and Desert Regions and Smoke Classification from Biomass Burning Using a Hierarchical Neural Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, June; Corwin, Edward; Lloyd, David; Logar, Antonette; Welch, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This research focuses on a new neural network scene classification technique. The task is to identify scene elements in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometry (AVHRR) data from three scene types: polar, desert and smoke from biomass burning in South America (smoke). The ultimate goal of this research is to design and implement a computer system which will identify the clouds present on a whole-Earth satellite view as a means of tracking global climate changes. Previous research has reported results for rule-based systems (Tovinkere et at 1992, 1993) for standard back propagation (Watters et at. 1993) and for a hierarchical approach (Corwin et al 1994) for polar data. This research uses a hierarchical neural network with don't care conditions and applies this technique to complex scenes. A hierarchical neural network consists of a switching network and a collection of leaf networks. The idea of the hierarchical neural network is that it is a simpler task to classify a certain pattern from a subset of patterns than it is to classify a pattern from the entire set. Therefore, the first task is to cluster the classes into groups. The switching, or decision network, performs an initial classification by selecting a leaf network. The leaf networks contain a reduced set of similar classes, and it is in the various leaf networks that the actual classification takes place. The grouping of classes in the various leaf networks is determined by applying an iterative clustering algorithm. Several clustering algorithms were investigated, but due to the size of the data sets, the exhaustive search algorithms were eliminated. A heuristic approach using a confusion matrix from a lightly trained neural network provided the basis for the clustering algorithm. Once the clusters have been identified, the hierarchical network can be trained. The approach of using don't care nodes results from the difficulty in generating extremely complex surfaces in order to separate one class from

  6. Regional seismic event identification and improved locations with small arrays and networks. Final report, 7 May 1993-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, F.L.; Minster, J.B.; Orcutt, J.A.

    1995-09-20

    This final report contains a summary of our work on the use of seismic networks and arrays to improve locations and identify small seismic event. We have developed techniques to migrate 3-component array records of local, regional and teleseismic wavetrains to directly image buried two- and three-dimensional heterogeneities (e.g. layer irregularities, volumetric heterogeneities) in the vicinity of the array. We have developed a technique to empirically characterize local and regional seismic code by binning and stacking network recordings of dense aftershock sequences. The principle motivation for this work was to look for robust coda phases dependent on source depth. We have extended our ripple-fired event discriminant (based on the time-independence of coda produced by ripple firing) by looking for an independence of the coda from the recording direction (also indicative of ripple-firing).

  7. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  8. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale.

  9. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  10. The changing status of hospital libraries 1984 to 1989: characteristics and services in Region 7 of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Glitz, B; Lovas, I; Flack, V

    1992-01-01

    Economic and political factors have had far-reaching effects on hospital libraries in the last decade, but quantitative evidence of these changes is not readily available. Through periodic evaluation surveys within its multistate region, the Pacific Southwest Regional Medical Library Service, the Regional Medical Library for Region 7 of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (formerly the Regional Medical Library Network) has monitored hospital library changes over the years. This paper compares data from a 1989 survey with similar information gathered in 1984. Longitudinal analysis was performed on responses from 188 hospitals that responded to both the 1984 and the 1989 survey, as was cross-sectional analysis of all responses from both surveys. Results showed a small decrease in the number of hospitals with separate library collections. Staffing patterns had changed considerably, with a drop of approximately one entire full-time salaried equivalent per library and a decrease in libraries managed by a librarian with an M.L.S. The libraries that provide all of a set of predefined core services and resources decreased from 61% in 1984 to 44% in 1989. Libraries with M.L.S. staff were more likely to have core services than those without professional staff. PMID:1600427

  11. Exploration of the dynamics between brain regions associated with the default-mode network and frontostriatal pathway with regards to task familiarity.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean-Sebastien; Monchi, Oury

    2015-03-01

    Specific brain regions have consistently been reported to be activated during resting state period, and they were described as being part of a particular network called the default-mode network (DMN). It has been shown that the DMN would deactivate during goal-directed tasks, but the actual relationship between them is still a matter of debate. In a previous study, we reported a specific pattern of activation of the frontostriatal regions during a set-shifting task in which these regions were increasing their activity as set-shifts were performed continuously and decreasing when the same rule was executed repeatedly. The present study aimed at assessing the relationship between the frontostriatal regions and the DMN. We hypothesized that the DMN would be anticorrelated with the frontostriatal regions so the DMN would be more deactivated as set-shifts are executed for a long period, but would start increasing when the same rule is being executed for a long period. Here, 15 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a card-sorting task. We observed increased activity in the frontostriatal regions as more set-shifts are being performed while the DMN gets more deactivated. Interestingly, as decreased activity was observed in the frontostriatal regions during the execution of the same rule for a long period, the DMN showed increasing activity. We argue that there is an anticorrelation between the frontostriatal regions and the DMN, but also that the DMN could show positive activation during performance of a familiar goal-directed task.

  12. Determination and mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity of natural spring water in the Eastern Black Sea Region by using artificial neural network method.

    PubMed

    Yeşilkanat, Cafer Mert; Kobya, Yaşar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, radiological distribution of gross alpha, gross beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs for a total of 40 natural spring water samples obtained from seven cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region was determined by artificial neural network (ANN) method. In the ANN method employed, the backpropagation algorithm, which estimates the backpropagation of the errors and results, was used. In the structure of ANN, five input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, major soil groups, and rainfall) were used for natural radionuclides and four input parameters (latitude, longitude, altitude, and rainfall) were used for artificial radionuclides, respectively. In addition, 75 % of the total data were used as the data of training and 25 % of them were used as test data in order to reveal the structure of each radionuclide. It has been seen that the results obtained explain the radiographic structure of the region very well. Spatial interpolation maps covering the whole region were created for each radionuclide including spots not measured by using these results. It has been determined that artificial neural network method can be used for mapping the spatial distribution of radioactivity with this study, which is conducted for the first time for the Black Sea Region.

  13. Keypoint Density-Based Region Proposal for Fine-Grained Object Detection and Classification Using Regions with Convolutional Neural Network Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-15

    Research in Artificial Intelligence ; Naval Research Laboratory (Code 5514); Washington, DC 20375 Abstract Although recent advances in regional...Note AIC-12). Washington, DC: Naval Research Laboratory, Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence . Simonyan, K., & Zisserman, A...Applications of image processing algorithms to Navy missions such as those involving intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), maritime

  14. Individual 3D region-of-interest atlas of the human brain: automatic training point extraction for neural-network-based classification of brain tissue types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Obladen, Thorsten; Sabri, Osama; Buell, Udalrich

    2000-04-01

    Individual region-of-interest atlas extraction consists of two main parts: T1-weighted MRI grayscale images are classified into brain tissues types (gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), scalp/bone (SB), background (BG)), followed by class image analysis to define automatically meaningful ROIs (e.g., cerebellum, cerebral lobes, etc.). The purpose of this algorithm is the automatic detection of training points for neural network-based classification of brain tissue types. One transaxial slice of the patient data set is analyzed. Background separation is done by simple region growing. A random generator extracts spatially uniformly distributed training points of class BG from that region. For WM training point extraction (TPE), the homogeneity operator is the most important. The most homogeneous voxels define the region for WM TPE. They are extracted by analyzing the cumulative histogram of the homogeneity operator response. Assuming a Gaussian gray value distribution in WM, a random number is used as a probabilistic threshold for TPE. Similarly, non-white matter and non-background regions are analyzed for GM and CSF training points. For SB TPE, the distance from the BG region is an additional feature. Simulated and real 3D MRI images are analyzed and error rates for TPE and classification calculated.

  15. Association of Cerebral Networks in Resting State with Sexual Preference of Homosexual Men: A Study of Regional Homogeneity and Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaohua; Xu, Dongrong; Peterson, Bradley; Wang, Qidong; He, Xiaofu; Hu, Jianbo; Xu, Xiaojun; Wei, Ning; Long, Dan; Huang, Manli; Zhou, Weihua; Xu, Weijuan

    2013-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have shown that brain morphology and neural activity during sexual arousal differ between homosexual and heterosexual men. However, functional differences in neural networks at the resting state is unknown. The study is to characterize the association of homosexual preference with measures of regional homogeneity and functional connectivity in the resting state. Participants were 26 healthy homosexual men and 26 age-matched healthy heterosexual men in whom we collected echo planar magnetic resonance imaging data in the resting state. The sexual orientation was evaluated using the Kinsey Scale. We first assessed group differences in regional homogeneity and then, taking the identified differences as seed regions, we compared groups in measures of functional connectivity from those seeds. The behavioral significances of the differences in regional homogeneity and functional connectivity were assessed by examining their associations with Kinsey Scores. Homosexual participants showed significantly reduced regional homogeneity in the left inferior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right superior occipital gyrus, left cuneus, right precuneus, and increased regional homogeneity in rectal gyrus, bilateral midbrain, and left temporal lobe. Regional homogeneity correlated positively with Kinsey scores in the left inferior occipital gyrus. The homosexual group also showed reduced functional connectivity between left middle temporal gyrus, left supra-marginal gyrus, right cuneus and the seed region, i.e. left inferior occipital gyrus. Additionly, the connection between the left inferior occipital gyrus and right thalamus correlated positively with Kinsey scores. These differences in regional homogeneity and functional connectivity may contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of male sexual orientation. PMID:23555670

  16. Assessment of second- and third-order ionospheric effects on regional networks: case study in China with longer CMONOC GPS coordinate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liansheng; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Chen, Hua; Wang, Kaihua; Ma, Yifang

    2017-02-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) delays are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system analysis and have been proposed to become a standard part of precise GPS data processing. In this research, we apply HOI delay corrections to the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China's (CMONOC) data processing (from January 2000 to December 2013) and furnish quantitative results for the effects of HOI on CMONOC coordinate time series. The results for both a regional reference frame and global reference frame are analyzed and compared to clarify the HOI effects on the CMONOC network. We find that HOI corrections can effectively reduce the semi-annual signals in the northern and vertical components. For sites with lower semi-annual amplitudes, the average decrease in magnitude can reach 30 and 10 % for the northern and vertical components, respectively. The noise amplitudes with HOI corrections and those without HOI corrections are not significantly different. Generally, the HOI effects on CMONOC networks in a global reference frame are less obvious than the results in the regional reference frame, probably because the HOI-induced errors are smaller in comparison to the higher noise levels seen when using a global reference frame. Furthermore, we investigate the combined contributions of environmental loading and HOI effects on the CMONOC stations. The largest loading effects on the vertical displacement are found in the mid- to high-latitude areas. The weighted root mean square differences between the corrected and original weekly GPS height time series of the loading model indicate that the mass loading adequately reduced the scatter on the CMONOC height time series, whereas the results in the global reference frame showed better agreements between the GPS coordinate time series and the environmental loading. When combining the effects of environmental loading and HOI corrections, the results with the HOI corrections reduced

  17. Assessment of second- and third-order ionospheric effects on regional networks: case study in China with longer CMONOC GPS coordinate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liansheng; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Chen, Hua; Wang, Kaihua; Ma, Yifang

    2016-09-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) delays are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system analysis and have been proposed to become a standard part of precise GPS data processing. In this research, we apply HOI delay corrections to the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China's (CMONOC) data processing (from January 2000 to December 2013) and furnish quantitative results for the effects of HOI on CMONOC coordinate time series. The results for both a regional reference frame and global reference frame are analyzed and compared to clarify the HOI effects on the CMONOC network. We find that HOI corrections can effectively reduce the semi-annual signals in the northern and vertical components. For sites with lower semi-annual amplitudes, the average decrease in magnitude can reach 30 and 10 % for the northern and vertical components, respectively. The noise amplitudes with HOI corrections and those without HOI corrections are not significantly different. Generally, the HOI effects on CMONOC networks in a global reference frame are less obvious than the results in the regional reference frame, probably because the HOI-induced errors are smaller in comparison to the higher noise levels seen when using a global reference frame. Furthermore, we investigate the combined contributions of environmental loading and HOI effects on the CMONOC stations. The largest loading effects on the vertical displacement are found in the mid- to high-latitude areas. The weighted root mean square differences between the corrected and original weekly GPS height time series of the loading model indicate that the mass loading adequately reduced the scatter on the CMONOC height time series, whereas the results in the global reference frame showed better agreements between the GPS coordinate time series and the environmental loading. When combining the effects of environmental loading and HOI corrections, the results with the HOI corrections reduced

  18. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  19. Comparative Analysis of University-Government-Enterprise Co-Authorship Networks in Three Scientific Domains in the Region of Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmeda-Gomez, Carlos; Perianes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Ovalle-Perandones, Maria Antonia; Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In an economy geared to innovation and competitiveness in research and development activities, inter-relationships between the university, private enterprise and government are of considerable interest. Networking constitutes a priority strategy to attain this strategic objective and a tool in knowledge-based economies. Method:…

  20. Transforming Your Regional Economy through Uncertainty and Surprise: Learning from Complexity Science, Network Theory and the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, June

    The field of regional development blossomed in the last decade, as researchers and practitioners increasingly asserted that the region was the most effective geographic unit for supporting the excellence and innovation of entrepreneurs. See, for example, the many studies by the European Union and the work by Michael Porter.

  1. NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory Network: Scientific results across the earth/ocean sciences from two years of continuous real-time data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Johnson, F.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Founding Scientists Of Neptune Canada

    2011-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada completed the installation and is now operating an 800 km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network that spans the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate and continental shelf/slope in the northeastern Pacific. The NEPTUNE Canada network is part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. Public data flow started in 2009 and interactive instruments continue to be added to this technically advanced system which provides continuous power and high bandwidth for enabling the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Here we present an overview and some initial results of the early installed real-time experiments, developed through workshops and international competitions, at five offshore locations. Inshore at Folger Passage, Barkley Sound, observations are focused on understanding biological productivity and the effects that marine processes have on fish and marine mammals. Experiments around Barkley Canyon allow quantification of changes in benthic activity with nutrient and sediment transport. There and north along the mid-continental slope near ODP Site 889, instruments are monitoring changes in the distribution, structure, related biotas and venting of gas hydrates. A Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) at our mid-plate site (ODP 1026) monitors real-time changes in crustal temperature and pressure, particularly related to events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hydrothermal convection; these data are also important for understanding regional plate strain. At Endeavour on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, complex interactions among volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal and biological processes are being observed. Across the NEPTUNE Canada network, high resolution acoustic and seismic monitoring elucidates tectonic processes such as earthquakes, and a tsunami detection system allows for the determination of open ocean

  2. Multi-temporal monitoring of a regional riparian buffer network (>12,000 km) with LiDAR and photogrammetric point clouds.

    PubMed

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lejeune, Philippe; Claessens, Hugues

    2017-02-24

    Riparian buffers are of major concern for land and water resource managers despite their relatively low spatial coverage. In Europe, this concern has been acknowledged by different environmental directives which recommend multi-scale monitoring (from local to regional scales). Remote sensing methods could be a cost-effective alternative to field-based monitoring, to build replicable "wall-to-wall" monitoring strategies of large river networks and associated riparian buffers. The main goal of our study is to extract and analyze various parameters of the riparian buffers of up to 12,000 km of river in southern Belgium (Wallonia) from three-dimensional (3D) point clouds based on LiDAR and photogrammetric surveys to i) map riparian buffers parameters on different scales, ii) interpret the regional patterns of the riparian buffers and iii) propose new riparian buffer management indicators. We propose different strategies to synthesize and visualize relevant information at different spatial scales ranging from local (<10 km) to regional scale (>12,000 km). Our results showed that the selected parameters had a clear regional pattern. The reaches of Ardenne ecoregion have channels with the highest flow widths and shallowest depths. In contrast, the reaches of the Loam ecoregion have the narrowest and deepest flow channels. Regional variability in channel width and depth is used to locate management units potentially affected by human impact. Riparian forest of the Loam ecoregion is characterized by the lowest longitudinal continuity and mean tree height, underlining significant human disturbance. As the availability of 3D point clouds at the regional scale is constantly growing, our study proposes reproducible methods which can be integrated into regional monitoring by land managers. With LiDAR still being relatively expensive to acquire, the use of photogrammetric point clouds combined with LiDAR data is a cost-effective means to update the characterization of the

  3. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  4. A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of Overlaps in Regional Specialization and Functional Connectivity across Subjective Value and Default Mode Networks

    PubMed Central

    Acikalin, M. Yavuz; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has provided qualitative evidence for overlap in a number of brain regions across the subjective value network (SVN) and the default mode network (DMN). In order to quantitatively assess this overlap, we conducted a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses (CBMA) of results from 466 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments on task-negative or subjective value-related activations in the human brain. In these analyses, we first identified significant overlaps and dissociations across activation foci related to SVN and DMN. Second, we investigated whether these overlapping subregions also showed similar patterns of functional connectivity, suggesting a shared functional subnetwork. We find considerable overlap between SVN and DMN in subregions of central ventromedial prefrontal cortex (cVMPFC) and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC). Further, our findings show that similar patterns of bidirectional functional connectivity between cVMPFC and dPCC are present in both networks. We discuss ways in which our understanding of how subjective value (SV) is computed and represented in the brain can be synthesized with what we know about the DMN, mind-wandering, and self-referential processing in light of our findings. PMID:28154520

  5. Integration of land-sharing and land-sparing conservation strategies through regional networking: the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor as a lifeline for carnivores in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Silvio J; García-Villalta, Jorge E

    2014-10-01

    Nations with little remaining natural habitat and small extent are challenged when trying to achieve biodiversity targets. We show that the Central American nation of El Salvador cannot viably sustain populations of 87 % of its extant carnivores, especially in the case of large-bodied species with low population densities. Current land-sparing strategies will not suffice; therefore we propose that land-sharing strategies be implemented in tandem with protected areas to expand current conservation efforts via new regional networks. In Central America such a network can be established by linking international protected area systems in a way that implements the existing vision for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. Specifically, we propose a re-envisioning of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in which land-sharing practices are adopted throughout the agricultural matrix while ensuring formal protection of the remaining natural habitat. Such an integration of land-sparing and land-sharing could result in the creation of an effective network of protected areas, thereby increasing the probability of safeguarding species with populations that overlap national borders.

  6. Evaluating the Development, Implementation and Dissemination of a Multi-Site Card Study in the WWAMI region Practice and Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Allison; Keppel, Gina A.; Linares, Adriana; Alto, William; Kriegsman, William; Reed, Alex; Holmes, John; Mohanachandran, Mathini; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2015-01-01

    Background Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs) promote the conduct of research in real-world settings by engaging primary care clinicians as champion research collaborators. Card studies are brief surveys administered to patients or clinicians at the point of care. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and evaluation of a card study methodology that the WWAMI region Practice and Research Network (WPRN) used to develop research partnerships across multiple member sites. Methods We used a collaborative model to develop, implement and disseminate the results of a network-wide card study to assess patient preferences for weight loss in primary care. After the card study data collection was completed, we conducted individual and focus group interviews and a brief survey of participating practice champions. Results Increased research engagement and personal and professional development were the primary motivators for participating in the development of the card study. Increasing research activity at practices and learning information about patients were motivators for implementing the study. Their participation resulted in champions reporting increased confidence in collaborating on research projects as well as the development of new clinical services for patients. Discussion This collaborative model positively influenced research capacity in the WPRN and may be a useful strategy for helping PBRNs conduct translational research. PMID:26177880

  7. Ground-based GNSS network and integrated water vapor mapping during the development of severe storms at the Cuyo region (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calori, A.; Santos, J. R.; Blanco, M.; Pessano, H.; Llamedo, P.; Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.

    2016-07-01

    Mendoza is a province of Argentina located between 32° S and 34° S at the leeside of the Andes Foothills. Very intense thunderstorms form between October and March (southern hemisphere summer), which produce large hail and damage in crops and properties. Although some hypotheses and conceptual models were proposed in order to identify key possible mechanisms that contribute to trigger convection, they are still waiting for the validation process. As moisture is the main ingredient for storms formation, the identification of its geographical distribution could be used together with other synoptic and mesoscale forcing features to forecast intense convective events. A novel technique in estimating moisture concentration and its geographical distribution has been introduced in order to observe the influx and variability of humidity at this region, during a 45-day period in midsummer. In doing so, we resort to the information provided by the ground-basedGlobal Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) network. More than 300 active stations constitute the continuously operating GNSS network over Southern and Central America (SIRGAS-CON, Sistema de Referencia Geocéntrico para las Américas de Operación Continua). This network allows to retrieve integrated water vapor (IWV) content, mapping this variable by the use of a digital model of terrain. In the period and region under study, a prevailing influx of humidity from N and NE and a high correlation between the accumulation/depletion of humidity and the hail/no hail precipitation days is observed. We discuss in particular the development of five storms detected by the S-Band radar network belonging to the Province of Mendoza. Although the results strongly suggest that IWV maps are capable to represent the humidity dynamics in the considered region, it is still important to highlight that the calculated values for IWV are unrealistic at some locations as the consequence of deep atmospheric gradients. These biases may be

  8. Non-Linearity Explanation in Artificial Neural Network Application with a Case Study of Fog Forecast Over Delhi Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurabh, K.; Dimri, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Fog affects human life in a number of ways by reducing the visibility, hence affecting critical infrastructure, transportation, tourism or by the formation of frost, thus harming the standing crops. Smog is becoming a regular phenomenon in urban areas which is highly toxic to humans. Delhi was chosen as the area of study as it encounters all these hazards of fog stated apart from other political and economic reasons. The complex relationship behind the parameters and processes behind the formation of fog makes it extremely difficult to model and forecast it accurately. It is attempted to forecast the fog and understand its dynamics through a statistical downscaling technique of artificial neural network which is deemed accurate for short-term forecasting and usually outperform time-series models. The backpropagation neural network, which is a gradient descent algorithm where the network weights are moved along the negative of the gradient of the performance function, has been used for our analysis. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) supported National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data had been used for carrying out the simulations. The model was found to have high accuracy but lacking in skill. An attempt has been made to present the data in a binary form by determining a threshold by the contingency table approach followed by its critical analysis. It is found that the calculation of an optimum threshold was also difficult to fix as the parameters of fog formation on which the model has been has been trained had shown some changes in their trend over a period of time.

  9. Multisensory Competition Is Modulated by Sensory Pathway Interactions with Fronto-Sensorimotor and Default-Mode Network Regions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sai; Li, You; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bao; Liu, Xingzhou; Mo, Lei; Chen, Qi

    2015-06-17

    Multisensory information competes for preferential access to consciousness. It remains unknown what neural processes cause one particular modality to win multisensory competition and eventually dominate behavior. Thus, in a paradigm in which human participants sought to make simultaneous auditory and visual detection responses, we sought to identify prestimulus and poststimulus neural signals that were associated with auditory and visual dominance on each trial. Behaviorally, visual detection responses preceded auditory responses more frequently than vice versa. Even when visual responses were preceded by auditory responses, they recovered more quickly from previous responses, indicating the dominance of vision over audition. Neurally, visual precedence was associated with increased prestimulus activity in the prefrontal cortex and reduced prestimulus activity in the default-mode network, and increased poststimulus connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the visual system. Moreover, the dorsal visual stream showed not only increased activity in post-perceptual phases but also enhanced connectivity with the sensorimotor cortex, indicating the functional role of the dorsal visual stream in prioritizing the flow of visual information into the motor system. In contrast, auditory precedence was associated with increased prestimulus activity in the auditory cortex and increased poststimulus neural coupling between the auditory and the sensorimotor cortex. Finally, whenever one modality lost multisensory competition, the corresponding sensory cortex showed enhanced connectivity with the default-mode network. Overall, the outcome of audiovisual competition depended on dynamic interactions between sensory systems and both the fronto-sensorimotor and the default-mode network. Together, these results revealed both the neural causes and the neural consequences of visual and auditory dominance during multisensory competition.

  10. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart.

  11. Are sinuous ridges and channel networks in the equatorial Rahway Vallis region of Mars fluvioglacial in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdale, J. D.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.; Gallagher, C.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied a network of channels and ridges that are key to understanding the extremely flat (sloping at 0.02° south-east) geomorphology of Rahway Vallis, south-west of Orcus Patera, Mars. The branching pattern of the ridge and channel system is consistent with a fluvial origin, with cross sections of the channel and banks being reminiscent of fluvial v-shaped valleys. Possible fluvial explanations for the sinuous ridges include inverted fluvial channels [e.g., 1] and eskers (sub-glacial, sediment-filled channels, e.g. [2]). Here, we present observations on the system and test the fluvial and fluvioglacial hypotheses.

  12. Offshore double-planed shallow seismic zone in the NE Japan forearc region revealed by sP depth phases recorded by regional networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamage, S.S.N.; Umino, N.; Hasegawa, A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    We detected the sP depth phase at small epicentral distances of about 150 km or more in the seismograms of shallow earthquakes in the NE Japan forearc region. The focal depths of 1078 M > 3 earthquakes that occurred from 2000 to 2006 were precisely determined using the time delay of the sP phase from the initial P-wave arrival. The distribution of relocated hypocentres clearly shows the configuration of a double-planed shallow seismic zone beneath the Pacific Ocean. The upper plane has a low dip angle near the Japan Trench, increasing gradually to ???30?? at approximately 100 km landward of the Japan Trench. The lower plane is approximately parallel to the upper plane, and appears to be the near-trench counterpart of the lower plane of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The distance between the upper and lower planes is 28-32 km, which is approximately the same as or slightly smaller than that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. Focal mechanism solutions of the relocated earthquakes are determined from P-wave initial motion data. Although P-wave initial motion data for these offshore events are not ideally distributed on the focal sphere, we found that the upper-plane events that occur near the Japan Trench are characterized by normal faulting, whereas lower-plane events are characterized by thrust faulting. This focal mechanism distribution is the opposite to that of the double-planed deep seismic zone beneath the land area. The characteristics of these focal mechanisms for the shallow and deep doubled-planed seismic zones can be explained by a bending-unbending model of the subducting Pacific plate. Some of relocated earthquakes took place in the source area of the 1933 Mw8.4 Sanriku earthquake at depths of 10-23 km. The available focal mechanisms for these events are characterized by normal faulting. Given that the 1933 event was a large normal-fault event that occurred along a fault plane dipping landward, the

  13. Synchronized network activity in developing rat hippocampus involves regional hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel function.

    PubMed

    Bender, Roland A; Galindo, Rafael; Mameli, Manuel; Gonzalez-Vega, Rebeca; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Baram, Tallie Z

    2005-11-01

    The principal form of synchronized network activity in neonatal hippocampus consists of low frequency 'giant depolarizing potentials' (GDPs). Whereas contribution of both GABA and glutamate to their generation has been demonstrated, full understanding of the mechanisms underlying these synchronized activity bursts remains incomplete. A contribution of the h-current, conducted by HCN channels, to GDPs has been a topic of substantial interest. Here we focus on HCN1, the prevalent HCN channel isoform in neonatal hippocampus, and demonstrate an HCN1 spatiotemporal expression pattern in both CA3 principal cells and interneurons that correlates with the developmental profile of GDPs. Abrogation of HCN physiological function in CA3, via the selective I(h)-blocker ZD7288, disrupts GDP generation. Furthermore, ZD7288 specifically abolishes spontaneous bursting of the CA3 pyramidal cells at frequencies typical of GDPs without major influence on interneuronal firing. These findings support a pivotal role for HCN channels expressed by CA3 neurons, and particularly CA3 pyramidal cells, in GDP-related network synchronization.

  14. Synchronized network activity in developing rat hippocampus involves regional hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel function

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Roland A.; Galindo, Rafael; Mameli, Manuel; Gonzalez-Vega, Rebeca; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    The principal form of synchronized network activity in neonatal hippocampus consists of low frequency ‘giant depolarizing potentials’ (GDPs). Whereas contribution of both GABA and glutamate to their generation has been demonstrated, full understanding of the mechanisms underlying these synchronized activity bursts remains incomplete. A contribution of the h-current, conducted by HCN channels, to GDPs has been a topic of substantial interest. Here we focus on HCN1, the prevalent HCN channel isoform in neonatal hippocampus, and demonstrate an HCN1 spatiotemporal expression pattern in both CA3 principal cells and interneurons that correlates with the developmental profile of GDPs. Abrogation of HCN physiological function in CA3, via the selective Ih-blocker ZD7288, disrupts GDP generation. Furthermore, ZD7288 specifically abolishes spontaneous bursting of the CA3 pyramidal cells at frequencies typical of GDPs without major influence on interneuronal firing. These findings support a pivotal role for HCN channels expressed by CA3 neurons, and particularly CA3 pyramidal cells, in GDP-related network synchronization. PMID:16307610

  15. Pilot projects of network wind power plants in the eisk region of Krasnodar krai: the state and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, I. G.; Ermolenko, G. V.; Nikomarova, A. V.; Ryzhenkov, M. A.; Tskhomariya, V. N.

    2012-11-01

    The market of electric energy in the Krasnodar krai and the specific features of electric power supply in the Eisk region are analyzed. The basic aspects of designing wind power plants are considered. The main technical, economic, and environmental indicators of the wind power plants being designed are presented.

  16. A Network for Educational Change in the Great Lakes Region: A View through the Lens of Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randal E.; Svedkauskaite, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The major purpose of this descriptive report is to provide an overview of the structure, capacity, and roles of educational service agencies (ESAs) across five states--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--in the Great Lakes region, within the context of the broader statewide systems of support for educational improvement and progress.…

  17. Effects of third trimester-equivalent ethanol exposure on Cl− co-transporter expression, network activity, and GABAergic transmission in the CA3 hippocampal region of neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Julie C.; Licón-Muñoz, Yamhilette; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are often associated with structural and functional hippocampal abnormalities, leading to long-lasting learning and memory deficits. The mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether ethanol exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent period alters spontaneous network activity that is involved in neuronal circuit development in the CA3 hippocampal region. This activity is driven by GABAA receptors, which can have excitatory actions in developing neurons as a consequence of greater expression of the Cl− importer, NKCC1, with respect to expression of the Cl− exporter, KCC2, resulting in high [Cl−]i. Rat pups were exposed to ethanol vapor from postnatal day (P) 2 to 16 (4 hr/day). Weight gain was significantly reduced in pups exposed to ethanol compared to control at P15 and 16. Brain slices were prepared immediately after the end of the 4-hr exposure on P4–16 and experiments were also performed under ethanol-free conditions at the end of the exposure paradigm (P17–22). Ethanol exposure did not significantly affect expression of KCC2 or NKCC1, nor did it affect network activity in the CA3 hippocampal region. Ethanol exposure significantly decreased the frequency (at P9–11) and increased the amplitude (at P5–8 and P17–21) of GABAA receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents. These data suggest that repeated in vivo exposure to ethanol during the 3rd trimester-equivalent period alters GABAergic transmission in the CA3 hippocampal region, an effect that could lead to abnormal circuit maturation and perhaps contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:22703993

  18. Effects of third trimester-equivalent ethanol exposure on Cl(-) co-transporter expression, network activity, and GABAergic transmission in the CA3 hippocampal region of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Everett, Julie C; Licón-Muñoz, Yamhilette; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2012-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are often associated with structural and functional hippocampal abnormalities, leading to long-lasting learning and memory deficits. The mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether ethanol exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent period alters spontaneous network activity that is involved in neuronal circuit development in the CA3 hippocampal region. This activity is driven by GABA(A) receptors, which can have excitatory actions in developing neurons as a consequence of greater expression of the Cl(-) importer, NKCC1, with respect to expression of the Cl(-) exporter, KCC2, resulting in high [Cl(-)](i). Rat pups were exposed to ethanol vapor from postnatal day (P) 2-16 (4 h/day). Weight gain was significantly reduced in pups exposed to ethanol compared to control at P15 and 16. Brain slices were prepared immediately after the end of the 4-h exposure on P4-16 and experiments were also performed under ethanol-free conditions at the end of the exposure paradigm (P17-22). Ethanol exposure did not significantly affect expression of KCC2 or NKCC1, nor did it affect network activity in the CA3 hippocampal region. Ethanol exposure significantly decreased the frequency (at P9-11) and increased the amplitude (at P5-8 and P17-21) of GABA(A) receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents. These data suggest that repeated in vivo exposure to ethanol during the 3rd trimester-equivalent period alters GABAergic transmission in the CA3 hippocampal region, an effect that could lead to abnormal circuit maturation and perhaps contribute to the pathophysiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  19. Forecasting and Reanalysis in the Monterey Bay/California Current Region for the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network-II Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-26

    2008). The ocean observations collected were qual- ity controlled and mapped by objective analysis daily. Boundary conditions and model parameters for...hydrodynamics estimates and evaluations, both qualitative and quantitative, of the forecast skills and features. The re- analysis methods and results are...region and a evaluation of the re- analysis skill. Conclusions are in Sect. 6. 2 Real-Time Approach, Constraints and Modeling System Com- ponents 2.1

  20. Establishing and Validating Empirically-Based Ground Truth Criteria for Seismic Events Recorded on Regional Networks (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-30

    against the existing global criteria for a range of tectonic settings (i.e., stable craton, plateau within a collisional zone, and an active rift). We...the global 2004 and 2009 criteria. Now that the EBGT criteria appropriate for each tectonic setting has been established, in the second part of this...Plateau resulted from a continent-continent collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates , creating an uplifted region (5km of topography in places

  1. NANOOS, the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems: a regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the Pacific Northwest US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Martin, D.; Kosro, M.

    2012-12-01

    NANOOS is the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, the Pacific Northwest Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS). User driven since its inception in 2003, this regional observing system is responding to a variety of scientific and societal needs across its coastal ocean, estuaries, and shorelines. Regional priorities have been solicited and re-affirmed through active engagement with users and stakeholders. NANOOS membership is composed of an even mix of academic, governmental, industry, and non-profit organizations, who appoint representatives to the NANOOS Governing Council who confirm the priority applications of the observing system. NANOOS regional priorities are: Maritime Operations, Regional Fisheries, Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal Hazards, and Climate. NANOOS' regional coastal ocean observing system is implemented by seven partners (three universities, three state agencies, and one industry). Together, these partners conduct the observations, modeling, data management and communication, analysis products, education and outreach activities of NANOOS. Observations, designed to span coastal ocean, shorelines, and estuaries, include physical, chemical, biological and geological measurements. To date, modeling has been more limited in scope, but has provided the system with increased coverage for some parameters. The data management and communication system for NANOOS, led by the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS) is the cornerstone of the user interaction with NANOOS. NVS gives users access to observational data, both real time and archived, as well as modeling output. Given the diversity of user needs, measurements, and the complexity of the coastal environment, the challenge for the system is large. NANOOS' successes take advantage of technological advances, including real-time data transmission, profiling buoys, gliders, HF radars, and modeling. The most profound challenges NANOOS faces stem

  2. Earthquake source imaging by high-resolution array analysis at regional distances: the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake as seen by the Venezuela National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Rendon, H.

    2010-12-01

    Back projection of teleseismic waves based on array processing has become a popular technique for earthquake source imaging,in particular to track the areas of the source that generate the strongest high frequency radiation. The technique has been previously applied to study the rupture process of the Sumatra earthquake and the supershear rupture of the Kunlun earthquakes. Here we attempt to image the Haiti earthquake using the data recorded by Venezuela National Seismic Network (VNSN). The network is composed of 22 broad-band stations with an East-West oriented geometry, and is located approximately 10 degrees away from Haiti in the perpendicular direction to the Enriquillo fault strike. This is the first opportunity to exploit the privileged position of the VNSN to study large earthquake ruptures in the Caribbean region. This is also a great opportunity to explore the back projection scheme of the crustal Pn phase at regional distances,which provides unique complementary insights to the teleseismic source inversions. The challenge in the analysis of the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake is its very compact source region, possibly shorter than 30km, which is below the resolution limit of standard back projection techniques based on beamforming. Results of back projection analysis using the teleseismic USarray data reveal little details of the rupture process. To overcome the classical resolution limit we explored the Multiple Signal Classification method (MUSIC), a high-resolution array processing technique based on the signal-noise orthognality in the eigen space of the data covariance, which achieves both enhanced resolution and better ability to resolve closely spaced sources. We experiment with various synthetic earthquake scenarios to test the resolution. We find that MUSIC provides at least 3 times higher resolution than beamforming. We also study the inherent bias due to the interferences of coherent Green’s functions, which leads to a potential quantification

  3. Neural networks combined with region growing techniques for tumor detection in [18F]-fluorothymidine dynamic positron emission tomography breast cancer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cseh, Zoltan; Kenny, Laura; Swingland, James; Bose, Subrata; Turheimer, Federico E.

    2013-03-01

    Early detection and precise localization of malignant tumors has been a primary challenge in medical imaging in recent years. Functional modalities play a continuously increasing role in these efforts. Image segmentation algorithms which enable automatic, accurate tumor visualization and quantification on noisy positron emission tomography (PET) images would significantly improve the quality of treatment planning processes and in turn, the success of treatments. In this work a novel multistep method has been applied in order to identify tumor regions in 4D dynamic [18F] fluorothymidine (FLT) PET studies of patients with locally advanced breast cancer. In order to eliminate the effect of inherently detectable high inhomogeneity inside tumors, specific voxel-kinetic classes were initially introduced by finding characteristic FLT-uptake curves with K-means algorithm on a set of voxels collected from each tumor. Image voxel sets were then split based on voxel time-activity curve (TAC) similarities, and models were generated separately on each voxel set. At first, artificial neural networks, in comparison with linear classification algorithms were applied to distinguish tumor and healthy regions relying on the characteristics of TACs of the individual voxels. The outputs of the best model with very high specificity were then used as input seeds for region shrinking and growing techniques, the application of which considerably enhanced the sensitivity and specificity (78.65% +/- 0.65% and 98.98% +/- 0.03%, respectively) of the final image segmentation model.

  4. International cooperation and networking in genetic health care provision: issues arising from the genetic services plan for the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, E; Baroncini, A

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this report are to describe the genetic plan for Emilia-Romagna, a region in Italy, and to contribute to the international exchange of information on developing and applying policy frameworks to provide high-quality and comprehensive genetic health care in the publicly funded health systems. At the present time there is no national policy for genetic medicine in Italy, and only two regions, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria, have formally agreed to a strategic plan for health care in genetics. The current provision of genetic services in Emilia-Romagna is described focusing on the intra- and inter-organizational linkages to ensure a comprehensive system of coordinated activities. Strengths and implementation areas are highlighted. Points that must be solved within the regional or national context are the definition of the level of assistance required in genetic medicine, the formal professional recognition of the genetic counselor and the adjustment of the billing mechanisms to the complexities of clinical genetic services. Issues that need to be addressed at a wider level include full assessment of genetic tests before their introduction into clinical practice, networking to provide tests for the rarest genetic diseases, consensus on fundamental terminology and clinical and administrative data sets to promote a cohesive framework for the flow of information throughout the health care systems with respect to genetics.

  5. Decision-to-Implement Worksheet for Evidence-based Interventions: From the WWAMI Region Practice and Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karin; Tuzzio, Leah; Renz, Anne; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Parchman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-related scientific discoveries are often not applied in clinical settings after publication, even when recommended by a trusted journal or professional association. This article describes an assessment tool we developed for use by primary care clinicians and practice administrators to evaluate whether to implement recommended evidence-based interventions in their practices. Methods We used dissemination and implementation theory to develop a worksheet to guide decision making about whether interventions are suitable for implementation in primary care practice settings. We tested the tool by analyzing how members of a primary care practice-based research network rated 4 evidence-based interventions. Results The median likelihood of implementation ranged from 2 to 3.5 on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Raters’ level of agreement with statements about 3 intervention characteristics was associated (P < .05) with a higher likelihood of implementation using Spearman rank-order correlation: simple to implement, testable before fully implementing, and modifiable to meet the needs of the practice. Raters found the worksheet helpful in thinking through potential implementation, especially the prompts about modifiability and relevance to the practice's patients and priorities. Conclusions The Decision-to-Implement Worksheet provides a new resource for primary care practices that want to assess whether evidence-based interventions are suitable to adopt or adapt to meet their needs. PMID:27613788

  6. Prediction of ionospheric scintillation using neural network over East African region during ascending phase of sunspot cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taabu, S. D.; D'ujanga, F. M.; Ssenyonga, T.

    2016-04-01

    VHF and GPS-SCINDA receivers located both at Nairobi (36.8°E, 1.3°S) in Kenya and at Kampala (32.57°E, 0.335°N) in Uganda were used to investigate ionospheric scintillation and forecast scintillations of a few hundred meter-scale irregularities associated with equatorial ionospheric irregularities for the period 2011 and 2012. VHF scintillations was characterized by long duration of activity and slow fading that lasted till early morning hours (05:00 LT). Furthermore, different percentage occurrence of scintillations in some months were observed, but found that weak scintillation (0.2 network and the modeled data for the occurrence of scintillations was found to match well with original data.

  7. Utilization of Optical Remote Sensing Data and GIS Tools for Regional Landslide Hazard Analysis Using an Artificial Neural Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswajeet, Pradhan; Saro, Lee

    The aim of this study is to evaluate landslide hazard analysis at Selangor area, Malaysia using optical remote sensing data and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed and constructed into a spatial database using GIS and image processing. A total of 10 landslide occurrence factors that were selected including topographic slope, topographic aspect, topographic curvature and distance from drainage; lithology and distance from lineament; land cover from TM satellite images; the vegetation index value from Landsat satellite images; precipitation data. These factors were analyzed using an advanced artificial neural network model to generate the landslide hazard map. Each factor's weight was determined by the back-propagation training method. Then the landslide hazard indices were calculated using the trained back-propagation weights, and finally the landslide hazard map was generated using GIS tools. Landslide locations were used to verify results of the landslide hazard map and the verification results showed 82.92% accuracy. The verification results showed sufficient agreement between the presumptive hazard map and the existing data on landslide areas.

  8. Processing the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and the surrounding area by the cellular neural network: application to the southwestern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogan, D.

    2007-04-01

    An image processing technique called the cellular neural network (CNN) approach is used in this study to locate geological features giving rise to gravity anomalies such as faults or the boundary of two geologic zones. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique based on template optimization using the neighborhood relationships of cells. These cells can be characterized by a functional block diagram that is typical of neural network theory. The functionality of CNN is described in its entirety by a number of small matrices (A, B and I) called the cloning template. CNN can also be considered to be a nonlinear convolution of these matrices. This template describes the strength of the nearest neighbor interconnections in the network. The recurrent perceptron learning algorithm (RPLA) is used in optimization of cloning template. The CNN and standard Canny algorithms were first tested on two sets of synthetic gravity data with the aim of checking the reliability of the proposed approach. The CNN method was compared with classical derivative techniques by applying the cross-correlation method (CC) to the same anomaly map as this latter approach can detect some features that are difficult to identify on the Bouguer anomaly maps. This approach was then applied to the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and its surrounding area, in Turkey. Structural features in the area between Bandirma, Biga, Yenice and Gonen in the southwest Marmara region are investigated by applying the CNN and CC to the Bouguer anomaly map. Faults identified by these algorithms are generally in accordance with previously mapped surface faults. These examples show that the geologic boundaries can be detected from Bouguer anomaly maps using the cloning template approach. A visual evaluation of the outputs of the CNN and CC approaches is carried out, and the results are compared with each other. This approach provides quantitative solutions based on just a few assumptions, which makes the method more

  9. Network Analysis of the Chronic Hepatitis C Virome Defines Hypervariable Region 1 Evolutionary Phenotypes in the Context of Humoral Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Brendan A.; Schmidt-Martin, Daniel; Dimitrova, Zoya; Skums, Pavel; Crosbie, Orla; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) comprises the first 27 N-terminal amino acid residues of E2. It is classically seen as the most heterogeneous region of the HCV genome. In this study, we assessed HVR1 evolution by using ultradeep pyrosequencing for a cohort of treatment-naive, chronically infected patients over a short, 16-week period. Organization of the sequence set into connected components that represented single nucleotide substitution events revealed a network dominated by highly connected, centrally positioned master sequences. HVR1 phenotypes were observed to be under strong purifying (stationary) and strong positive (antigenic drift) selection pressures, which were coincident with advancing patient age and cirrhosis of the liver. It followed that stationary viromes were dominated by a single HVR1 variant surrounded by minor variants comprised from conservative single amino acid substitution events. We present evidence to suggest that neutralization antibody efficacy was diminished for stationary-virome HVR1 variants. Our results identify the HVR1 network structure during chronic infection as the preferential dominance of a single variant within a narrow sequence space. IMPORTANCE HCV infection is often asymptomatic, and chronic infection is generally well established in advance of initial diagnosis and subsequent treatment. HVR1 can undergo rapid sequence evolution during acute infection, and the variant pool is typically seen to diverge away from ancestral sequences as infection progresses from the acute to the chronic phase. In this report, we describe HVR1 viromes in chronically infected patients that are defined by a dominant epitope located centrally within a narrow variant pool. Our findings suggest that weakened humoral immune activity, as a consequence of persistent chronic infection, allows for the acquisition and maintenance of host-specific adaptive mutations at HVR1 that reflect virus fitness. PMID:26719263

  10. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  11. Connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus pars interna to regions within the speech network: a meta-analytic connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Manes, Jordan L; Parkinson, Amy L; Larson, Charles R; Greenlee, Jeremy D; Eickhoff, Simon B; Corcos, Daniel M; Robin, Donald A

    2014-07-01

    Cortico-basal ganglia connections are involved in a range of behaviors within motor, cognitive, and emotional domains; however, the whole-brain functional connections of individual nuclei are poorly understood in humans. The first aim of this study was to characterize and compare the connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) using meta-analytic connectivity modeling. Structure-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed for STN and GPi seeds using archived functional imaging coordinates from the BrainMap database. Both regions coactivated with caudate, putamen, thalamus, STN, GPi, and GPe, SMA, IFG, and insula. Contrast analyses also revealed coactivation differences within SMA, IFG, insula, and premotor cortex. The second aim of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between the connectivity maps derived for STN and GPi and a functional activation map representing the speech network. To do this, we examined the intersection of coactivation maps and their respective contrasts (STN > GPi and GPi > STN) with a coordinate-based meta-analysis of speech function. In conjunction with the speech map, both STN and GPi coactivation maps revealed overlap in the anterior insula with GPi map additionally showing overlap in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Among cortical regions activated by speech tasks, STN was found to have stronger connectivity than GPi with regions involved in cognitive linguistic processes (pre-SMA, dorsal anterior insula, and inferior frontal gyrus), while GPi demonstrated stronger connectivity to regions involved in motor speech processes (middle insula, SMA, and premotor cortex).

  12. Different neural manifestations of two slow frequency bands in resting functional magnetic resonance imaging: a systemic survey at regional, interregional, and network levels.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shao-Wei; Li, Da; Weng, Xu-Chu; Northoff, Georg; Li, Dian-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Temporal and spectral perspectives are two fundamental facets in deciphering fluctuating signals. In resting state, the dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been proven to be strikingly informative (0.01-0.1 Hz). The distinction between slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) and slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) has been described, but the pertinent data have never been systematically investigated. This study used fMRI to measure spontaneous brain activity and to explore the different spectral characteristics of slow-4 and slow-5 at regional, interregional, and network levels, respectively assessed by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (mALFF), functional connectivity (FC) patterns, and graph theory. Results of paired t-tests supported/replicated recent research dividing low-frequency BOLD fluctuation into slow-4 and slow-5 for ReHo and mALFF. Interregional analyses showed that for brain regions reaching statistical significance, FC strengths at slow-4 were always weaker than those at slow-5. Community detection algorithm was applied to FC data and unveiled two modules sensitive to frequency effects: one comprised sensorimotor structure, and the other encompassed limbic/paralimbic system. Graph theoretical analysis verified that slow-4 and slow-5 differed in local segregation measures. Although the manifestation of frequency differences seemed complicated, the associated brain regions can be grossly categorized into limbic/paralimbic, midline, and sensorimotor systems. Our results suggest that future resting fMRI research addressing the three above systems either from neuropsychiatric or psychological perspectives may consider using spectrum-specific analytical strategies.

  13. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  14. Communications infrastructure requirements for telemedicine/telehealth in the context of planning for and responding to natural disasters: Considering the need for shared regional networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John Carver

    1991-01-01

    During the course of recent years the frequency and magnitude of major disasters - of natural, technological, or ecological origin - have made the world community dramatically aware of the immense losses of human life and economic resources that are caused regularly by such calamities. Particularly hard hit are developing countries, for whom the magnitude of disasters frequently outstrips the ability of the society to cope with them. In many cases this situation can be prevented, and the recent trend in disaster management has been to emphasize the importance of preparedness and mitigation as a means of prevention. In cases of disaster, a system is needed to respond to relief requirements, particularly the delivery of medical care. There is no generic telecommunications infrastructure appropriate for the variety of applications in medical care and disaster management. The need to integrate telemedicine/telehealth into shared regional disaster management telecommunications networks is discussed. Focus is on the development of infrastructure designed to serve the needs of disaster prone regions of the developing world.

  15. Cocaine addiction related reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network functional connectivity: a group ICA study with different model orders.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-08-26

    Model order selection in group independent component analysis (ICA) has a significant effect on the obtained components. This study investigated the reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity related with cocaine addiction through different model order settings in group ICA. Resting-state fMRI data from 24 cocaine addicts and 24 healthy controls were temporally concatenated and processed by group ICA using model orders of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50, respectively. For each model order, the group ICA approach was repeated 100 times using the ICASSO toolbox and after clustering the obtained components, centrotype-based anterior and posterior DMN components were selected for further analysis. Individual DMN components were obtained through back-reconstruction and converted to z-score maps. A whole brain mixed effects factorial ANOVA was performed to explore the differences in resting-state DMN functional connectivity between cocaine addicts and healthy controls. The hippocampus, which showed decreased functional connectivity in cocaine addicts for all the tested model orders, might be considered as a reproducible abnormal region in DMN associated with cocaine addiction. This finding suggests that using group ICA to examine the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in the resting-state DMN may provide an additional insight potentially relevant for cocaine-related diagnoses and treatments.

  16. [Landscape connectivity of waterbody network in the new reclamation region of Lianyungang based on effective distance model].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fu-Zhen; Zheng, Zhong-Ming; Li, Jia-Lin; Zheng, Wen-Bing

    2014-08-01

    Landscape connectivity is an important indicator to measure effectiveness of landscape ecological services. Waterbody connectivity in Lianyun New City, the new reclamation region of Lianyungang, was investigated based on GIS technology and effective distance model. The results showed that the total connectivity of waterbodies was poor in Lanyun New City. Connectivity of patches was related to characteristics of ecological process, ecological services value and spatial arrangement. The higher the ecosystem services value of patches was, the greater its contribution to the overall water landscape connectivity was. Some patches with long strip structure played a key role to improve the landscape connectivity. By classifying the importance of connectivity and functional groups of waterbody patches, planning of waterbodies in Lianyun New City conformed to the theory of non-substitutable pattern developed by Forman. Waterbody patches with corresponding functions should be considered with priority when planning and building a new city. The present study demonstrated that connectivity of patches should be an important factor to be considered in ecological landscape planning. Construction of ecological corridors should not only take the number of ecological landscapes into consideration, but also pay attention to spatial arrangement of landscapes in order to improve the overall landscape connectivity.

  17. Proterozoic structure, cambrian rifting, and younger faulting as revealed by a regional seismic reflection network in the Southern Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, C.J.; Drahovzal, J.A.; Sargent, M.L.; McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Four high-quality seismic reflection profiles through the southern Illinois Basin, totaling 245 km in length, provide an excellent regional subsurface stratigraphic and structural framework for evaluation of seismic risk, hydrocarbon occurrence, and other regional geologic studies. These data provide extensive subsurface information on the geometry of the intersection of the Cambrian Reelfoot and Rough Creek rifts, on extensive Proterozoic reflection sequences, and on structures (including the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex and Hicks Dome) that underlie a transitional area between the well-defined New Madrid seismic zone (to the southwest) and a more diffuse area of seismicity in the southern Illinois Basin. Our principal interpretations from these data are listed here in order of geologic age, from oldest to youngest: 1. Prominent Proterozoic layering, possibly equivalent to Proterozoic (???1 Ga) Middle Run Formation clastic strata and underlying (1.3-1.5 Ga) volcanic rocks of the East Continent rift basin, has been strongly deformed, probably as part of the Grenville foreland fold and thrust belt. 2. A well-defined angular unconformity is seen in many places between Proterozoic and Cambrian strata; a post-Grenville Proterozoic sequence is also apparent locally, directly beneath the base of the Cambrian. 3. We infer a major reversal in Cambrian rift polarity (accommodation zone) in the Rough Creek Graben in western Kentucky. 4. Seismic facies analysis suggests the presence of basin-floor fan complexes at and near the base of the Cambrian interval and within parts of a Proterozoic post-Grenville sequence in several parts of the Rough Creek Graben. 5. There is an abrupt pinchout of the Mount Simon Sandstone against crystalline basement beneath the Dale Dome (near the Texaco no. 1 Cuppy well, Hamilton County) in southeastern Illinois, and a more gradual Mount Simon pinchout to the southeast. 6. Where crossed by the seismic reflection line in southeast Illinois, some

  18. Costs of expanding the network of protected areas as a response to climate change in the Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Wise, Russell M; Reyers, Belinda; Guo, Chris; Midgley, Guy F; De Lange, Willem

    2012-06-01

    The expansion of protected areas is a critical component of strategies to promote the continued existence of biodiversity (i.e., life at all levels of biological organization) as climate changes, but scientific, social, and economic uncertainties associated with climate change are some of the major obstacles preventing such expansion. New models of climate change and species distribution and new methods of conservation planning now make it possible to explore the uncertainties associated with climate changes and species responses. Yet few reliable estimates of the costs of expanding protected areas and methods for determining these costs exist, largely because of the many (and uncertain) determinants of these costs. We developed a cost-accounting model to estimate the range in costs of various options for expanding protected areas and to explore the variables that drive these costs. Model development was informed by an existing plan to expand protected areas in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa to address species conservation under a scenario of climate change. The 50-year present value of total costs varied from US$260 million ($1077/ha) for an off-reserve option that involves agreements with landowners and no compensation of forgone production and associated revenue to $1020 million ($4228/ha) for an on-reserve option that involves land acquisition and protection. The costs of acquiring land or compensating landowners for forgone production and development opportunities were the major drivers of the total costs across all options because most of the area identified in the protected-area expansion plan consisted of urban and high-quality agricultural lands. Total costs were also affected by changes in protected area extent and discount rate. Model-generated outputs such as these may be useful for informing implementation strategies and the allocation of future efforts in monitoring, data collection, and model development.

  19. The foot and mouth disease network in the southern cone of South America: an example of regional governance.

    PubMed

    Corrales Irrazábal, H A

    2012-08-01

    The fact that foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, easily spread and of major commercial importance makes it a redoubtable challenge for animal health in South American countries and the world over. A number of factors impact directly on the effectiveness of national programmes to eradicate foot and mouth disease. Therefore, in order to meet the challenges posed by today's globalised world, it is of the utmost importance that national level eradication programmes be considered state policies and that they be the subject of broad political agreement at the highest level and consolidated as regional programmes between national Veterinary Services. The programmes, agreements and technical cooperation projects established jointly by Member Countries of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) were a key factor in building management capacity to control foot and mouth disease in the area. Another key factor has been a partnership with one of the most sensitive sectors--the private production sector. Its active and responsible participation in operational functions has done much to strengthen and ensure the competitive development of South American countries and consolidate their role as global beef exporters. However, to prevent further outbreaks it is essential to maintain and reinforce the structure of national programmes and to have strong and highly trained Veterinary Services and sufficient funding to ensure efficient and sustainable plans. These plans must enable Veterinary Services, by means of good governance, to implement effective measures in the areas of animal health and international trade in animals and animal products/by-products, thereby achieving rapid and more equitable social and economic development.

  20. Nodule Detection in a Lung Region that's Segmented with Using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks and 3D Template Matching with Fuzzy Rule Based Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Onur; Ucan, Osman N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for automated lung nodule detection in serial section CT images with using the characteristics of the 3D appearance of the nodules that distinguish themselves from the vessels. Materials and Methods Lung nodules were detected in four steps. First, to reduce the number of region of interests (ROIs) and the computation time, the lung regions of the CTs were segmented using Genetic Cellular Neural Networks (G-CNN). Then, for each lung region, ROIs were specified with using the 8 directional search; +1 or -1 values were assigned to each voxel. The 3D ROI image was obtained by combining all the 2-Dimensional (2D) ROI images. A 3D template was created to find the nodule-like structures on the 3D ROI image. Convolution of the 3D ROI image with the proposed template strengthens the shapes that are similar to those of the template and it weakens the other ones. Finally, fuzzy rule based thresholding was applied and the ROI's were found. To test the system's efficiency, we used 16 cases with a total of 425 slices, which were taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. Results The computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system achieved 100% sensitivity with 13.375 FPs per case when the nodule thickness was greater than or equal to 5.625 mm. Conclusion Our results indicate that the detection performance of our algorithm is satisfactory, and this may well improve the performance of computer-aided detection of lung nodules. PMID:18253070

  1. Fast increasing of surface ozone concentrations in Pearl River Delta characterized by a regional air quality monitoring network during 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinfeng; Lu, Keding; Lv, Wei; Li, Jun; Zhong, Liuju; Ou, Yubo; Chen, Duohong; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the observation by a Regional Air Quality Monitoring Network including 16 monitoring stations, temporal and spatial variations of ozone (O3), NO2 and total oxidant (O(x)) were analyzed by both linear regression and cluster analysis. A fast increase of regional O3 concentrations of 0.86 ppbV/yr was found for the annual averaged values from 2006 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Such fast O3 increase is accompanied by a correspondingly fast NO(x) reduction as indicated by a fast NO2 reduction rate of 0.61 ppbV/yr. Based on a cluster analysis, the monitoring stations were classified into two major categories--rural stations (non-urban) and suburban/urban stations. The O3 concentrations at rural stations were relatively conserved while those at suburban/urban stations showed a fast increase rate of 2.0 ppbV/yr accompanied by a NO2 reduction rate of 1.2 ppbV/yr. Moreover, a rapid increase of the averaged O3 concentrations in springtime (13%/yr referred to 2006 level) was observed, which may result from the increase of solar duration, reduction of precipitation in Guangdong and transport from Eastern Central China. Application of smog production algorithm showed that the photochemical O3 production is mainly volatile organic compounds (VOC)-controlled. However, the photochemical O3 production is sensitive to both NO(x) and VOC for O3 pollution episode. Accordingly, it is expected that a combined NO(x) and VOC reduction will be helpful for the reduction of the O3 pollution episodes in Pearl River Delta while stringent VOC emission control is in general required for the regional O3 pollution control.

  2. ERLN Regional Support

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional labs play important roles in the Environmental Response Laboratory Network. They can serve as point of contact; coordinate sample flow, special analytical service requests, or training exercises; and partner with regional emergency/disaster staff.

  3. Characterizing Information Flux Within the Distributed Pediatric Expressive Language Network: A Core Region Mapped Through fMRI-Constrained MEG Effective Connectivity Analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadis, Darren S; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Toro-Serey, Claudio A; Smith, Mary Lou; Holland, Scott K

    2016-02-01

    Using noninvasive neuroimaging, researchers have shown that young children have bilateral and diffuse language networks, which become increasingly left lateralized and focal with development. Connectivity within the distributed pediatric language network has been minimally studied, and conventional neuroimaging approaches do not distinguish task-related signal changes from those that are task essential. In this study, we propose a novel multimodal method to map core language sites from patterns of information flux. We retrospectively analyze neuroimaging data collected in two groups of children, ages 5-18 years, performing verb generation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 343) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) (n = 21). The fMRI data were conventionally analyzed and the group activation map parcellated to define node locations. Neuronal activity at each node was estimated from MEG data using a linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, and effective connectivity within canonical frequency bands was computed using the phase slope index metric. We observed significant (p ≤ 0.05) effective connections in all subjects. The number of suprathreshold connections was significantly and linearly correlated with participant's age (r = 0.50, n = 21, p ≤ 0.05), suggesting that core language sites emerge as part of the normal developmental trajectory. Across frequencies, we observed significant effective connectivity among proximal left frontal nodes. Within the low frequency bands, information flux was rostrally directed within a focal, left frontal region, approximating Broca's area. At higher frequencies, we observed increased connectivity involving bilateral perisylvian nodes. Frequency-specific differences in patterns of information flux were resolved through fast (i.e., MEG) neuroimaging.

  4. Characterizing Information Flux Within the Distributed Pediatric Expressive Language Network: A Core Region Mapped Through fMRI-Constrained MEG Effective Connectivity Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Toro-Serey, Claudio A.; Smith, Mary Lou; Holland, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Using noninvasive neuroimaging, researchers have shown that young children have bilateral and diffuse language networks, which become increasingly left lateralized and focal with development. Connectivity within the distributed pediatric language network has been minimally studied, and conventional neuroimaging approaches do not distinguish task-related signal changes from those that are task essential. In this study, we propose a novel multimodal method to map core language sites from patterns of information flux. We retrospectively analyze neuroimaging data collected in two groups of children, ages 5–18 years, performing verb generation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (n = 343) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) (n = 21). The fMRI data were conventionally analyzed and the group activation map parcellated to define node locations. Neuronal activity at each node was estimated from MEG data using a linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer, and effective connectivity within canonical frequency bands was computed using the phase slope index metric. We observed significant (p ≤ 0.05) effective connections in all subjects. The number of suprathreshold connections was significantly and linearly correlated with participant's age (r = 0.50, n = 21, p ≤ 0.05), suggesting that core language sites emerge as part of the normal developmental trajectory. Across frequencies, we observed significant effective connectivity among proximal left frontal nodes. Within the low frequency bands, information flux was rostrally directed within a focal, left frontal region, approximating Broca's area. At higher frequencies, we observed increased connectivity involving bilateral perisylvian nodes. Frequency-specific differences in patterns of information flux were resolved through fast (i.e., MEG) neuroimaging. PMID:26456242

  5. Making Knowledge from Numbers : The Shale Network as an Honest Broker for Evaluating and Educating about the Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, J.; Brantley, S.; Williams, J.; Dykhoff, S.; Brazil, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale Network is an NSF-funded project that investigates the impacts of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas development on water resources in and around the state of Pennsylvania. It is a collaborative effort that aims to be an honest broker in the shale gas conversation by involving multiple entities (including universities, government agencies, industry groups, nonprofits, etc.) to collect, analyze, and disseminate data that describe the past and current conditions of water in the Marcellus shale region. A critical component of this project has been to engage multiple types of stakeholders - academia, government agencies, industry, and citizen science groups - in annual workshops to present and discuss how to ensure the integrity of water resources in light of the challenges that natural gas extraction can present. Each workshop has included a hands-on activity that allows participants to access water quality data using the tools provided by the CUAHSI Water Data Center. One of these tools is HydroDesktop, which is an open source GIS application that can be used in formal and informal education settings as a geoscience research tool. In addition to being a GIS, HydroDesktop accesses CUAHSI's large catalog of water data thus enabling students, professional researchers, and citizen scientists to discover data that can expand the understanding of water quality issues in one's local environment and beyond. This presentation will highlight the goals of the Shale Network project and the stakeholders involved in addition to how cyberinfrastructure is being used to create a democratic, data-driven conversation about the relationship between energy production from shale gas and our water resources.

  6. Small repeating earthquake activity beneath the Kanto and Tokai region, central Japan, from 1979 to 2001 derived from NIED Kanto-Tokai seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, M.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.

    2006-12-01

    The interval of repeating earthquakes (REs) on small asperities has been used to determine the rate of slip on plate boundaries (Nadeau and Johnson, 1998; Igarashi et al., 2003, Uchida et al., 2003; Matsubara et al., 2005; Kimura et al., 2006). The Kanto and Tokai region is located in the central Japan where the Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates subducts beneath the Eurasian (EUR) plate. National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) operated the Kanto-Tokai seismic network (KT-net) there from 1979 and it was replaced to high-sensitivity seismograph network (NIED Hi-net) in 2002. We analyzed the RE activity beneath the Kanto and Tokai region to estimated the plate boundary slip. Earthquake pairs were defined as earthquakes with epicenter separations of less than 50 km. We analyzed 285,888 events from August 1979 to September 2001 observed by NIED KT-net. Vertical-component bandpass-filtered seismograms with a passband frequency of 1-8 Hz were used. REs were identified based on event pairs with waveform cross-correlation coefficients of larger than 0.95 at three or more seismic stations (Matsubara et al., 2005). A total of 6,408 groups of REs were identified, composed of 24,495 events. They are mainly located at the plate boundaries between EUR, PHS, and PAC plates as well as in the crust of the inland EUR plate. Many REs with low-angle thrust type on the PAC plate are distributed at depths of 20-100 km above the low-velocity layer at the uppermost part of the PAC plate (Matsubara et al, 2006) and many of them are concentrated at depths of 60-70 km. It is large difference from the RE activity beneath the northeastern Japan where they are distributed at 55 km depth at the most (Igarashi et al., 2003). Slip rates estimated with the assumption of Nadeau and Johnson (1997) are 2.5-9.0 cm/year. The relative rate of plate motion between the PAC and EUR plates is 7.6 cm/yr and that between the PAC and PHS plates is 6.5 cm/yr (Seno

  7. Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Since 1997 all current local geodynamic studies in the area of the Polish and Czech parts of the Sudeten and the Sudetic Foreland have been associated with annual periodic GPS campaigns, epoch measurements. The most epochs consisted of more than twelve observation hours and some of them kept on two or three 24-hour observations. Experience collected by international research teams carrying out geodynamic researches with the GPS technique in seismically active areas (USA, Japan) proved that more information can give permanent measurements. However, the Sudeten area, regarded as an area of the weak tectonic activity, can be hardly covered with the dense network of GNSS stations from economic reasons. Hence rational using of existing permanent GPS stations located in studied area and in its vicinity detects the coordinate changes that cannot be appointed from periodic campaign data and that, on the other hand, have rather regional than local character. Creating the spatial models of irregularities of the continuous signals should improve results of the epoch measurements. From this viewpoint, in this project authors used measurement data of chosen permanent GPS stations located in the area: the EPN stations, ASG-EUPOS stations, GEONAS stations and all epoch observations. These data were gained as part of research projects carried out within 1997-2009 period, as well as during new supplementing campaigns realized in the frame of the project N526278940 in the 2011 and 2012 years. Reprocessing of all the permanent and epoch data performed by the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software (V5.2) was performed using EPN guidelines for the processing, reference frame realization and the usage of physical models (atmosphere, Earth rotation, etc.). Standardized results of processing the aggregated GPS network, including permanent stations and all local networks on the area of research, serve for conducting new geodynamic interpretation. Further parameters that estimate the

  8. Building Multidisciplinary Training Networks for Rural Development. Report of the Regional Workshop for Pre-service Training of Members of Multidisciplinary Educational Teams in Rural Areas (Pune, India, July 16-20, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Papers designed to help build multidisciplinary training networks for rural development are collected in this document, an outgrowth of a regional training workshop attended by participants from Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and India. The six papers deal with the objectives of the workshop which were to:…

  9. Relationship between column aerosol optical properties and surface aerosol gravimetric concentrations during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network - Northeast ASIA 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, U.; Kim, J.; Seo, S.; Choi, M.; Kim, W. V.; Holben, B. N.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. This study aims to identify the important parameters that affecting the relationship between those variables during the DRAGON - northeast Asia 2012 campaign. Column aerosol optical properties from ten Cimel sun photometers at DRAGON sites in Seoul, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) and particulate matter (PM10) sampling from 40 NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research of South Korea) measurement sites in Seoul during the period of 1st March - 31th May 2012 were employed in this study. The key parameters in relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM are reported to be aerosol vertical profile and hygroscopicity of the aerosols. The meteorological conditions including relative humidity, surface temperature, and wind speed that could affect those parameters were investigated.

  10. Regional in-situ optical water quality sensor network quantifies influence of land use and seasonality on storm event nitrate and dissolved organic carbon loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, M.; Schroth, A. W.; Bowden, W. B.; Shanley, J. B.; Vermilyea, A.; Sleeper, R.; Gold, A.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Addy, K.; Inamdar, S. P.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Rowland, R. D.; Winters, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    High frequency optical water quality sensors were used to determine the influence of land use and seasonality on storm nutrient loads at nine stream sites in the North East Water Resources Network (NEWRnet). S::can spectrolysersTM were used to measure UV-Visible absorbance spectra at sub-hourly intervals in streams with primarily forested, urban, and agricultural watersheds. Calibrations for nitrate (NO3) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were developed for in-situ spectrophotometer measurements using multivariate statistical techniques applied to absorbance spectra and laboratory measurements. Calibrations were evaluated for predictive power and compared to assess applicability across multiple land uses and geographical areas. Calibrations were applied to sub-hourly absorbance spectra to determine NO3 and DOC loads for all storms in 2014 and 2015 for which data were available. Hydrographs were partitioned into direct runoff and baseflow components using a digital filter technique. In addition, the amount of biodegradable DOC (BDOC) was determined for a subset of samples and related to spectrophotometer measurements to determine influences of land use on BDOC content during storms. Comparing NO3 and DOC export per watershed area to storm runoff shows that storm severity, storm frequency, and land use have strong influences on regional NO3 and DOC storm export. This study highlights the value of high frequency continuous stream monitoring for land use and watershed management, particularly in the context of storm event loading.

  11. Logistic regression and artificial neural network models for mapping of regional-scale landslide susceptibility in volcanic mountains of West Java (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadisih, Bhandary, Netra P.; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Dahal, Ranjan K.

    2016-05-01

    West Java Province is the most landslide risky area in Indonesia owing to extreme geo-morphological conditions, climatic conditions and densely populated settlements with immense completed and ongoing development activities. So, a landslide susceptibility map at regional scale in this province is a fundamental tool for risk management and land-use planning. Logistic regression and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are the most frequently used tools for landslide susceptibility assessment, mainly because they are capable of handling the nature of landslide data. The main objective of this study is to apply logistic regression and ANN models and compare their performance for landslide susceptibility mapping in volcanic mountains of West Java Province. In addition, the model application is proposed to identify the most contributing factors to landslide events in the study area. The spatial database built in GIS platform consists of landslide inventory, four topographical parameters (slope, aspect, relief, distance to river), three geological parameters (distance to volcano crater, distance to thrust and fault, geological formation), and two anthropogenic parameters (distance to road, land use). The logistic regression model in this study revealed that slope, geological formations, distance to road and distance to volcano are the most influential factors of landslide events while, the ANN model revealed that distance to volcano crater, geological formation, distance to road, and land-use are the most important causal factors of landslides in the study area. Moreover, an evaluation of the model showed that the ANN model has a higher accuracy than the logistic regression model.

  12. Real-World Safety and Efficacy of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/+Dasabuvir±Ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r/+DSV±RBV) Therapy in Recurrent Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 1 Infection Post-Liver Transplant: AMBER-CEE Study.

    PubMed

    Tronina, Olga; Durlik, Magdalena; Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, Marta; Buivydiene, Arida; Katzarov, Krum; Kupcinskas, Limas; Tolmane, Ieva; Karpińska, Ewa; Pisula, Arkadiusz; Karwowska, Kornelia Magdalena; Bolewska, Beata; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Rostkowska, Karolina; Jakutiene, Jolita; Simonova, Marieta; Flisiak, Robert

    2017-04-07

    BACKGROUND The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has considerably improved therapeutic outcomes for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The AMBER-CEE study aimed to assess real-world efficacy and safety of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/+ dasabuvir ±ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r/ +DSV±RBV) in the treatment of post-transplant recurrence of HCV infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS Liver transplant recipients with recurrent HCV genotype 1 infection, scheduled for OBV/PTV/r/+DSV±RBV according to therapeutic guidelines, were eligible. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response (SVR) 12 weeks after the end of treatment (FU12). Clinical and laboratory adverse events (AEs) were recorded from baseline to FU12. RESULTS A total of 35 patients were included: 91.4% genotype 1b-infected, 94.3% treatment-experienced, and 77.1% at fibrosis stage ≥F2. SVR12 was achieved by all patients (35/35, 100%) including one patient with genotype 1a, one patient with detectable HCV RNA at the end of treatment, two patients with a history of first-generation DAA therapy, and two patients who prematurely discontinued the regimen. AEs were experienced by 22 patients (62.9%) and were mostly mild. No death, graft loss, or acute graft rejections were reported during the therapy. On-treatment hepatic decompensation occurred in three patients (8.6%). Anemia was observed in 29 patients (83.9%), with 21 (60%) requiring RBV dose reduction or discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS OBV/PTV/r/+DSV±RBV has excellent efficacy in post-transplant recurrence of HCV genotype 1-infection treated under real-world conditions. Excellent virologic outcomes were observed irrespective of prior treatment history or the degree of fibrosis, and AEs were mostly mild and transient.

  13. Role of socio-cultural and economic factors in cyprinid fish distribution networks and consumption in Lawa Lake region, Northeast Thailand: Novel perspectives on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christina Sunyoung; Smith, John F; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Echaubard, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-02-16

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in depth interviews (IDIs) were used to explore socio-cultural determinants underlying raw fish consumption practices, and global positioning system (GPS) devices to map local fish distribution networks. Qualitative data affirmed major socio-cultural and dietary lifestyle transitions occurring consequent on recent decades of modernization policies and practices, but also the persistence of Isaan traditional raw-fish eating practices and incorrect beliefs about infection risk avoidance. Fish traders/middlemen purchase most of the catch at the lakeshore and play the dominant role in district market fish distribution networks, at least for the larger and less likely infected, fish species. The lower economic value of the small potentially-infected cyprinid fish means local fishermen typically distribute them free, or sell cheaply, to family and friends, effectively concentrating infection risk in already highly Ov infected villages. Our study confirmed the persistence of traditional Isaan raw-fish meal practices, despite major ongoing socio-cultural lifestyle transitions and decades of Ov infection health education programs. We contend that diffuse socio-cultural drivers underpin this practice, including its role as a valued cultural identity marker. A "fish economics" factor was also evident in the concentration of more likely infected fish back into local villages due to their low economic value at

  14. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries.

  15. Vertical datum conversion process for the inland and coastal gage network located in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic-Gulf hydrologic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Noll, Michael L.

    2017-03-07

    Datum conversions from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 among inland and coastal gages throughout the hydrologic regions of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the South Atlantic-Gulf have implications among river and storm surge forecasting, general commerce, and water-control operations. The process of data conversions may involve the application of a recovered National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929–North American Vertical Datum of 1988 offset, a simplistic datum transformation using VDatum or VERTCON software, or a survey, depending on a gaging network datum evaluation, anticipated uncertainties for data use among the cooperative water community, and methods used to derive the conversion. Datum transformations from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 using VERTCON purport errors of ± 0.13 foot at the 95 percent confidence level among modeled points, claiming more consistency along the east coast. Survey methods involving differential and trigonometric leveling, along with observations using Global Navigation Satellite System technology, afford a variety of approaches to establish or perpetuate a datum during a survey. Uncertainties among leveling approaches are generally < 0.1 foot, and and Global Navigation Satellite System approaches may be categorized with uncertainties of ≤0.1 foot for a Level I quality category and ≥0.1 foot for Level II or III quality categories (defined by the U.S. Geological Survey) by observation and review of experienced practice. The conversion process is initiated with an evaluation of the inland and coastal gage network datum, beginning with altitude datum components and the history of those components queried through the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Site Inventory database. Subsequent edits to the Groundwater Site Inventory database may be required and a consensus reached among the U.S. Geological Survey Water

  16. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Beal, Deryk S; Gracco, Vincent L; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-09-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006).

  17. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness.

  18. Epidemics on interconnected networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickison, Mark; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.

    2012-06-01

    Populations are seldom completely isolated from their environment. Individuals in a particular geographic or social region may be considered a distinct network due to strong local ties but will also interact with individuals in other networks. We study the susceptible-infected-recovered process on interconnected network systems and find two distinct regimes. In strongly coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical infection strength βc, below which the disease does not spread. In contrast, in weakly coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below βc of the coupled network system, where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  19. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up…

  20. Regional transportation network blocked by snowdrifts: assessment of risk reduction strategies by the example of the wind event of February 2015 in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    201