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Sample records for cee region network

  1. CEE-ing is believing

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on. PMID:21869613

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Bee Cee Manufacturing Co., Malden, MO, September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    This decision document presents the remedial action selected to cleanup groundwater contaminant at the Bee Cee Manufacturing site in Malden, Missouri. The remedy selected to remediate contaminated groundwater at the Bee Cee Manufacturing site is natural attenuation, groundwater monitoring and institutional controls.

  3. Health assessment for Bee Cee Manufacturing Company, Malden, Missouri, Region 7. CERCLIS No. MOD980860522. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The Bee Cee Manufacturing site (BCM) is listed on the National Priorities List. The 2-acre site is located in Malden (Dunklin County), Missouri. BCM is a former manufacturer of aluminum storm windows and doors. Preliminary on-site sludge sampling results have identified chromium (9 ppm) and aluminum (3 ppm). Off-site sampling results have identified chromium (32 ppb) and aluminum (1 ppm) in ground water from a residential well. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because area residents may increase their risk of exposure through ingestion of contaminated water and possibly through direct contact of contaminated soil.

  4. Collaborative engagement experiment (CEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Robert L.; Reames, Joseph M.

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned ground and air systems operating in collaboration have the potential to provide future Joint Forces a significant capability for operations in complex terrain. Ground and air collaborative engagements potentially offer force conservation, perform timely acquisition and dissemination of essential combat information, and can eliminate high value and time critical targets. These engagements can also add considerably to force survivability by reducing soldier and equipment exposure during critical operations. The Office of the Secretary of Defense, Joint Robotics Program (JRP) sponsored Collaborative Engagement Experiment (CEE) is a consolidation of separate Air Force, Army and Navy collaborative efforts to provide a Joint capability. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Material and Manufacturing Directorate, Aerospace Expeditionary Force Division, Force Protection Branch (AFRLMLQF), The Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) Joint Technology Center (JTC)/Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center-San Diego (SSC San Diego) are conducting technical research and proof of principle for an envisioned operational concept for extended range, three dimensional, collaborative operations between unmanned systems, with enhanced situational awareness for lethal operations in complex terrain. This program will assess information requirements and conduct experiments to identify and resolve technical risks for collaborative engagements using Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It will research, develop and physically integrate multiple unmanned systems and conduct live collaborative experiments. Modeling and Simulation systems will be upgraded to reflect engineering fidelity levels to greater understand technical challenges to operate as a team. This paper will provide an update of a multi-year program and will concentrate primarily on the JTC

  5. CEE/CA: Report calls for decriminalization of sex work.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-04-01

    In December 2005, the Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network (CEEHRN) released a report calling for the decriminalization of sex work in the 27 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEE/CA). The report brings together a wealth of published and original information concerning sex work, laws regulating sex work, epidemiological data regarding HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), services available to sex workers, and human rights abuses faced by sex workers.

  6. Becoming Centered: CEE Membership and Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanAntwerp, Jill; Webb, Allen

    2006-01-01

    The authors argue that if the Conference on English Education (CEE) is to nurture and grow its membership in the coming years, we will need a more focused purpose related to the central mission of the organization: "the effective education and development of students and professionals in English language arts education." To that end, the authors…

  7. Education & Mobility. CEE DP 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Pelkonen, Panu; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2008-01-01

    Regional labour mobility has long been viewed as a crucial component in the functioning of the labour markets of different countries. Indeed, the study of regional labour mobility has moved towards the top of the research agenda, especially in Europe, where regional unemployment differentials have been persistently larger than in the United…

  8. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even withmore » its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.« less

  9. Railway project design and construction (CEE 411) course updates.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-01-20

    Course CEE 411 "Railway Project Design and Construction" is a cornerstone of the railway : engineering education program developed by the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center : (RailTEC) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)....

  10. Creating a Regional Healthcare Network: People First.

    PubMed

    Michel-Verkerke, Margreet B

    2016-01-01

    Care organizations in the Dutch region Apeldoorn want to collaborate more in order to improve the care provision to elderly and psychiatric patients living independently. In order to support the collaboration they intend to create a regional digital healthcare network. The research was focused on the relevance of a regional healthcare network for care providers. Eleven semi-structured interviews based on the USE IT-model, were conducted with care providers and staff members. Results show that care providers need to tune their activities for this target group and create an agreement on integrated care. The relevance of a digital communication and collaboration platform is high. The regional healthcare network should support the collaboration between care providers by: 1. Offering a communication platform to replace the time consuming communication by telephone; 2. Making patient information available for patient and care provider at patients' homes; 3. Giving insight in who is giving what care to whom; and 4. Giving access to knowledge about the target group: elderly and psychiatric patients living independently.

  11. UNAVCO-PBO Southwest Region Network Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C. P.; Mann, D.; Basset, A.; Sklar, J.; Jarvis, C.; Pitcher, T.; Lawrence, S.; Greathouse, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    The UNAVCO Southwest region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 470 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas Fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (314), radio (100), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual download (1). Thirty-four stations have WXT520 metpacks. Sixty-four stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency. Over 650 maintenance activities were performed during 341 onsite visits out of approximately 346 engineer field days. Within the past year there have been 7 incidences of minor (attempted theft) to moderate vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to stream real-time GPS and met data from PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and high rate data communications. These streams support watershed and flood analyses for regional early-warning systems related to NOAA's work with California Department of Water Resources. Network-wide NOAA receives a total of 54 streams including stations in Cascadia. In 2008 PBO became the steward of 209 existing network stations ("Nucleus stations") of which 140 are in the SW region that included SCIGN, BARD, BARGEN stations. Due to the mix of incompatible equipment used between PBO and existing network stations a project was undertaken to standardize existing network GPS stations to PBO specifications by upgrading antenna cabling, power systems and enclosures. In 2012 the Nucleus upgrade project was completed.

  12. Drawing road networks with focus regions.

    PubMed

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidant’s for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    14. ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to develop an effective prophylactic therapy against an analog of mustard gas, 2-chloroethylethyl...sulfide (CEES). The therapy for CEES-induced skin damage will be based on the topical application of antioxidant liposomes. We will use EpiDerm cultured...to develop an effective prophylactic therapy against CEES-induced skin damage (analogous to HD effect) based on the topical application of

  14. Brain Network Regional Synchrony Analysis in Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Liang, Mao-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Deafness, the most common auditory disease, has greatly affected people for a long time. The major treatment for deafness is cochlear implantation (CI). However, till today, there is still a lack of objective and precise indicator serving as evaluation of the effectiveness of the cochlear implantation. The goal of this EEG-based study is to effectively distinguish CI children from those prelingual deafened children without cochlear implantation. The proposed method is based on the functional connectivity analysis, which focuses on the brain network regional synchrony. Specifically, we compute the functional connectivity between each channel pair first. Then, we quantify the brain network synchrony among regions of interests (ROIs), where both intraregional synchrony and interregional synchrony are computed. And finally the synchrony values are concatenated to form the feature vector for the SVM classifier. What is more, we develop a new ROI partition method of 128-channel EEG recording system. That is, both the existing ROI partition method and the proposed ROI partition method are used in the experiments. Compared with the existing EEG signal classification methods, our proposed method has achieved significant improvements as large as 87.20% and 86.30% when the existing ROI partition method and the proposed ROI partition method are used, respectively. It further demonstrates that the new ROI partition method is comparable to the existing ROI partition method. PMID:29854776

  15. 76 FR 46295 - The Regional Sports Network Marketplace

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION [MB Docket No. 11-128; DA 11-1238] The Regional Sports Network... network (RSN) access and carriage issues and committed to examine these matters before the expiration of... this Public Notice, the Media Bureau seeks comment on issues related to regional sports network (RSN...

  16. Regional Educational Laboratory Electronic Network Phase 2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John

    1995-01-01

    The Far West Laboratory in collaboration with the other regional educational laboratories is establishing a regionally coordinated telecommunication network to electronically interconnect each of the ten regional laboratories with educators and education stakeholders from the school to the state level. For the national distributed information database, each lab is working with mid-level networks to establish a common interface for networking throughout the country and include topics of importance to education reform as assessment and technology planning.

  17. FUNCTIONAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE OF READING-RELATED REGIONS ACROSS DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Church, Jessica A.; Power, Jonathan D.; Miezin, Fran M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    Reading requires coordinated neural processing across a large number of brain regions. Studying relationships between reading-related regions informs the specificity of information processing performed in each region. Here, regions of interest were defined from a meta-analysis of reading studies, including a developmental study. Relationships between regions were defined as temporal correlations in spontaneous fMRI signal; i.e., resting state functional connectivity MRI (RSFC). Graph theory based network analysis defined the community structure of the “reading-related” regions. Regions sorted into previously defined communities, such as the fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular control networks, and the default mode network. This structure was similar in children, and no apparent “reading” community was defined in any age group. These results argue against regions, or sets of regions, being specific or preferential for reading, instead indicating that regions used in reading are also used in a number of other tasks. PMID:23506969

  18. [Establishment of regional active neonatal transport network].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-yong; Gao, Xin; Yin, Xiao-juan; Hong, Xiao-yang; Fang, Huan-sheng; Wang, Zi-zhen; Li, Ai-hua; Luo, Fen-ping; Feng, Zhi-chun

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical function and significance of establishing a regional active neonatal transport network (ANTN) in Beijing. The authors retrospectively studied intensive care and the role of ANTN system in management of critically ill neonates and compared the outcome of newborn infants transported to our NICU before and after we established standardized NICU and ANTN system (phase 1: July 2004 to June 2006 vs phase 2: July 2006 to May 2008). The number of neonatal transport significantly increased from 587 during phase 1 to 2797 during phase 2. Success rate of transport and the total cure rate in phase 2 were 97.85% and 91.99% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in phase 1 (94.36% and 88.69%, respectively, P < 0.01). The neonatal mortality significantly decreased in phase 2 compared with that in phase 1 (2.29% vs 4.31%, P < 0.01). The capacity of our NICU was enlarged following the development of ANTN. There are 200 beds for level 3 infants in phase 2, but there were only 20 beds in phase 1. Significantly less patients in the phase 2 had hypothermia, acidosis and the blood glucose instability than those in phase 1 (P < 0.01, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). The proportion of preterm infants transported to our NICU were higher in phase 2 compared with that in phase 1, especially infants whose gestational age was below 32 weeks. The proportions of asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were lower in phase 2 than that in phase 1, but the total cure rates of these two diseases had no significant changes between the two phases. The most important finding was that the improvement of outcome of premature infants and those with asphyxia and aspiration syndrome was noted following the development of ANTN. Establishing regional ANTN for a tertiary hospital is very important to elevate the total level in management of critically ill newborn infants. It plays a very important role in reducing mortality and improving total outcomes of newborn

  19. Mental health network governance: comparative analysis across Canadian regions

    PubMed Central

    Wiktorowicz, Mary E; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Adair, Carol E; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot; Peters, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Objective Modes of governance were compared in ten local mental health networks in diverse contexts (rural/urban and regionalized/non-regionalized) to clarify the governance processes that foster inter-organizational collaboration and the conditions that support them. Methods Case studies of ten local mental health networks were developed using qualitative methods of document review, semi-structured interviews and focus groups that incorporated provincial policy, network and organizational levels of analysis. Results Mental health networks adopted either a corporate structure, mutual adjustment or an alliance governance model. A corporate structure supported by regionalization offered the most direct means for local governance to attain inter-organizational collaboration. The likelihood that networks with an alliance model developed coordination processes depended on the presence of the following conditions: a moderate number of organizations, goal consensus and trust among the organizations, and network-level competencies. In the small and mid-sized urban networks where these conditions were met their alliance realized the inter-organizational collaboration sought. In the large urban and rural networks where these conditions were not met, externally brokered forms of network governance were required to support alliance based models. Discussion In metropolitan and rural networks with such shared forms of network governance as an alliance or voluntary mutual adjustment, external mediation by a regional or provincial authority was an important lever to foster inter-organizational collaboration. PMID:21289999

  20. Mental health network governance: comparative analysis across Canadian regions.

    PubMed

    Wiktorowicz, Mary E; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Adair, Carol E; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot; Peters, Suzanne

    2010-10-26

    Modes of governance were compared in ten local mental health networks in diverse contexts (rural/urban and regionalized/non-regionalized) to clarify the governance processes that foster inter-organizational collaboration and the conditions that support them. Case studies of ten local mental health networks were developed using qualitative methods of document review, semi-structured interviews and focus groups that incorporated provincial policy, network and organizational levels of analysis. Mental health networks adopted either a corporate structure, mutual adjustment or an alliance governance model. A corporate structure supported by regionalization offered the most direct means for local governance to attain inter-organizational collaboration. The likelihood that networks with an alliance model developed coordination processes depended on the presence of the following conditions: a moderate number of organizations, goal consensus and trust among the organizations, and network-level competencies. In the small and mid-sized urban networks where these conditions were met their alliance realized the inter-organizational collaboration sought. In the large urban and rural networks where these conditions were not met, externally brokered forms of network governance were required to support alliance based models. In metropolitan and rural networks with such shared forms of network governance as an alliance or voluntary mutual adjustment, external mediation by a regional or provincial authority was an important lever to foster inter-organizational collaboration.

  1. Towards integrated crisis support of regional emergency networks.

    PubMed

    Caro, D H

    1999-01-01

    Emergency and crisis management pose multidimensional information systems challenges for communities across North America. In the quest to reduce mortality and morbidity risks and to increase the level of crisis preparedness, regional emergency management networks have evolved. Integrated Crisis Support Systems (ICSS) are enabling information technologies that assist emergency managers by enhancing the ability to strategically manage and control these regional emergency networks efficiently and effectively. This article underscores the ICCS development, control and leadership issues and their promising implications for regional emergency management networks.

  2. Performance of a Regional Aeronautical Telecommunications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ripamonti, Claudio; Konangi, Vijay K.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of the simulation of the ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network) for three typical average-sized U.S. airports and their associated air traffic patterns. The models of the protocols were designed to achieve the same functionality and meet the ATN specifications. The focus of this project is on the subnetwork and routing aspects of the simulation. To maintain continuous communication between the aircrafts and the ground facilities, a model based on mobile IP is used. The results indicate that continuous communication is indeed possible. The network can support two applications of significance in the immediate future FTP and HTTP traffic. Results from this simulation prove the feasibility of development of the ATN concept for AC/ATM (Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management).

  3. Regional Use of Social Networking Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    VKontakte (a Russian social network) retains its grip on Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus [We Are Social 2014]. A few... VKontakte and Odnoklassniki Russian social net- works have a pronounced presence in several Eastern European countries. Table 10 highlights how VKontakte ...Median Rank 5.5 10 4 2 23 33 Source: alexa.com VKontakte , which has been described as Russia’s version of Facebook with over 44 million users across

  4. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...) National Network Regional Centers and ADA National Network Collaborative Research Projects AGENCY: Office... National Network Regional Centers (formerly the Disability Business Technical Assistance Centers (DBTACs), and ADA National Network Collaborative Research Projects. Notice inviting applications for new awards...

  5. Effect of regional slope on drainage networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Loren F.; Schumm, S. A.

    1987-09-01

    Drainage networks that develop under conditions of no structural control and homogeneous lithology are generally dendritic, depending upon the shape and inclination of the surface on which they form. An experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of an increase of slope on the evolution and development of dendritic drainage patterns. As slope steepens, the pattern changes from dendritic at 1% slope, to subdendritic at 2%, to subparallel at 3%, to parallel at 5% and higher. The change from a dendritic-type pattern to a parallel-type pattern occurs at a low slope, between 2% and 3%, and primary channel junction angles decrease abruptly from about 60° to 43°. *Present address: U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Attn: HSHB-ME-WM, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5422

  6. Settlement Networks in Polish Spatial Development Regional Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołtys, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    In 1999, ten years after the great political changes in Poland, 16 self-governed regions (in Polish: voivodeship) were created. According to Polish law, voivodeship spatial development plans, or regional plans in short, determine basic elements of the settlement network. No detailed regulations indicate the specific elements of the settlement network or what features of these elements should be determined. For this reason, centres as elements of the settlement network are variously named in different regions and take the form of various models. The purposes of the research described in this article are: (1) recognition and systematization of settlement network models determined in regional plans; and (2) assessment of the readability of determination in planning and its usefulness in the practice of regional policy. Six models of settlement networks in regional plans have been identified and classified into types and sub-types. Names of specific levels of centres indicate that they were classified according to two criteria: (1) level of services, which concerns only 5 voivodships; and (2) importance in development, which concerns the 11 other voivodships. The hierarchical model referring to the importance of development is less understandable than the one related to services. In the text of most plans, centres of services and centres of development are treated independently from their names. In some plans the functional types of towns and cities are indicated. In some voivodships, specifications in the plan text are too general and seem to be rather useless in the practice of regional policy. The author suggests that regional plans should determine two kinds of centres: hierarchical service centres and non-hierarchical centres of development. These centres should be further distinguished according to: (1) their role in the activation of surroundings; (2) their level of development and the necessity of action for their development; and (3) the types of actions

  7. Design of surface-water data networks for regional information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Marshall E.; Gilroy, E.J.; Tasker, Gary D.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a technique, Network Analysis of Regional Information (NARI), and the existing computer procedures that have been developed for the specification of the regional information-cost relation for several statistical parameters of streamflow. The measure of information used is the true standard error of estimate of a regional logarithmic regression. The cost is a function of the number of stations at which hydrologic data are collected and the number of years for which the data are collected. The technique can be used to obtain either (1) a minimum cost network that will attain a prespecified accuracy and reliability or (2) a network that maximizes information given a set of budgetary and time constraints.

  8. Network representations of angular regions for electromagnetic scattering

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Network modeling in electromagnetics is an effective technique in treating scattering problems by canonical and complex structures. Geometries constituted of angular regions (wedges) together with planar layers can now be approached with the Generalized Wiener-Hopf Technique supported by network representation in spectral domain. Even if the network representations in spectral planes are of great importance by themselves, the aim of this paper is to present a theoretical base and a general procedure for the formulation of complex scattering problems using network representation for the Generalized Wiener Hopf Technique starting basically from the wave equation. In particular while the spectral network representations are relatively well known for planar layers, the network modelling for an angular region requires a new theory that will be developed in this paper. With this theory we complete the formulation of a network methodology whose effectiveness is demonstrated by the application to a complex scattering problem with practical solutions given in terms of GTD/UTD diffraction coefficients and total far fields for engineering applications. The methodology can be applied to other physics fields. PMID:28817573

  9. Cognitive and emotional impairments after cutaneous intoxication by CEES (a sulfur mustard analog) in mice.

    PubMed

    Gros-Désormeaux, Fanny; Béracochéa, Daniel; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Piérard, Christophe

    2018-09-01

    Cognitive and emotional disorders have been reported in veterans intoxicated with sulfur mustard (SM) a chemical weapon belonging to the category of vesicating agents. However, the intense stress associated with the SM intoxication may render difficult determining the exact role played by SM intoxication itself on the emergence and maintaining of cognitive disorders. Animal's model would allow overcoming this issue. So far, we presently investigated the cognitive and emotional impact of an acute cutaneous intoxication with CEES (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide), a SM analog in C57/Bl6 mice. Our study evidenced that up to 5days after a single acute neat CEES skin exposure, compared to controls, mice exhibited i) a significant increase in anxiety-like reactivity in an elevated plus-maze and in an open-field tasks and ii) an alteration of working memory in a sequential alternation task. In contrast, mice submitted to intoxication with a diluted CEES solution or hydrochloric acid (HCl) did not show any memory or emotional impairments. Given that, Our data shows that a single local cutaneous intoxication with neat CEES induced long-lasting cognitive and emotional pejorative effects, in accordance with the epidemiological observations in veterans. Thus, the single acute neat CEES cutaneous intoxication in mice could allow studying the sulfur mustard-induced cognitive and emotional disorders and their further counter-measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Describing functional diversity of brain regions and brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michael L.; Kinnison, Josh; Pessoa, Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Despite the general acceptance that functional specialization plays an important role in brain function, there is little consensus about its extent in the brain. We sought to advance the understanding of this question by employing a data-driven approach that capitalizes on the existence of large databases of neuroimaging data. We quantified the diversity of activation in brain regions as a way to characterize the degree of functional specialization. To do so, brain activations were classified in terms of task domains, such as vision, attention, and language, which determined a region’s functional fingerprint. We found that the degree of diversity varied considerably across the brain. We also quantified novel properties of regions and of networks that inform our understanding of several task-positive and task-negative networks described in the literature, including defining functional fingerprints for entire networks and measuring their functional assortativity, namely the degree to which they are composed of regions with similar functional fingerprints. Our results demonstrate that some brain networks exhibit strong assortativity, whereas other networks consist of relatively heterogeneous parts. In sum, rather than characterizing the contributions of individual brain regions using task-based functional attributions, we instead quantified their dispositional tendencies, and related those to each region’s affiliative properties in both task-positive and task-negative contexts. PMID:23396162

  11. Integrative network alignment reveals large regions of global network similarity in yeast and human.

    PubMed

    Kuchaiev, Oleksii; Przulj, Natasa

    2011-05-15

    High-throughput methods for detecting molecular interactions have produced large sets of biological network data with much more yet to come. Analogous to sequence alignment, efficient and reliable network alignment methods are expected to improve our understanding of biological systems. Unlike sequence alignment, network alignment is computationally intractable. Hence, devising efficient network alignment heuristics is currently a foremost challenge in computational biology. We introduce a novel network alignment algorithm, called Matching-based Integrative GRAph ALigner (MI-GRAAL), which can integrate any number and type of similarity measures between network nodes (e.g. proteins), including, but not limited to, any topological network similarity measure, sequence similarity, functional similarity and structural similarity. Hence, we resolve the ties in similarity measures and find a combination of similarity measures yielding the largest contiguous (i.e. connected) and biologically sound alignments. MI-GRAAL exposes the largest functional, connected regions of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network similarity to date: surprisingly, it reveals that 77.7% of proteins in the baker's yeast high-confidence PPI network participate in such a subnetwork that is fully contained in the human high-confidence PPI network. This is the first demonstration that species as diverse as yeast and human contain so large, continuous regions of global network similarity. We apply MI-GRAAL's alignments to predict functions of un-annotated proteins in yeast, human and bacteria validating our predictions in the literature. Furthermore, using network alignment scores for PPI networks of different herpes viruses, we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationship. This is the first time that phylogeny is exactly reconstructed from purely topological alignments of PPI networks. Supplementary files and MI-GRAAL executables: http://bio-nets.doc.ic.ac.uk/MI-GRAAL/.

  12. Primary Health Care: care coordinator in regionalized networks?

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Patty Fidelis; dos Santos, Adriano Maia

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO OBJECTIVE To analyze the breadth of care coordination by Primary Health Care in three health regions. METHODS This is a quantitative and qualitative case study. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews with municipal, regional and state managers were carried out, besides a cross-sectional survey with the administration of questionnaires to physicians (74), nurses (127), and a representative sample of users (1,590) of Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) in three municipal centers of health regions in the state of Bahia. RESULTS Primary Health Care as first contact of preference faced strong competition from hospital outpatient and emergency services outside the network. Issues related to access to and provision of specialized care were aggravated by dependence on the private sector in the regions, despite progress observed in institutionalizing flows starting out from Primary Health Care. The counter-referral system was deficient and interprofessional communication was scarce, especially concerning services provided by the contracted network. CONCLUSIONS Coordination capacity is affected both by the fragmentation of the regional network and intrinsic problems in Primary Health Care, which poorly supported in its essential attributes. Although the health regions have common problems, Primary Health Care remains a subject confined to municipal boundaries. PMID:28099663

  13. Regional Industry Workforce Development: The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgin, Johnette; Muha, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Petrochemical Information Network (GC-PIN) is a workforce development partnership among industry businesses and area institutions of higher education in the four-county Gulf Coast region. GC-PIN partners develop new industry-specific curricula, foster industry career awareness, and retrain existing employees in new technologies.

  14. [Regional ecological planning and ecological network construction: a case study of "Ji Triangle" Region].

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2009-05-01

    By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built.

  15. Venus - Complex Network of Narrow Fractures Near Hestia Rupes Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-10-23

    This image from NASA Magellan spacecraft covers region near Hestia Rupes on the northwestern corner of Aphrodite Terra. The complex network of narrow (<1 kilometer) fractures in the center of the image extends for approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles). This network exhibits tributary-like branches similar to those observed in river systems on Earth. However, the angular intersections of tributaries suggest tectonic control. These features appear to be due to drainage of lava along preexisting fractures and subsequent collapse of the surface. The underlying tectonic fabric can be observed in the northeast trending ridges which predate the plains. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00469

  16. Inversion of parameters for semiarid regions by a neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurk, Lisa M.; Davis, Daniel; Njoku, Eni G.; Tsang, Leung; Hwang, Jenq-Neng

    1992-01-01

    Microwave brightness temperatures obtained from a passive radiative transfer model are inverted through use of a neural network. The model is applicable to semiarid regions and produces dual-polarized brightness temperatures for 6.6-, 10.7-, and 37-GHz frequencies. A range of temperatures is generated by varying three geophysical parameters over acceptable ranges: soil moisture, vegetation moisture, and soil temperature. A multilayered perceptron (MLP) neural network is trained with a subset of the generated temperatures, and the remaining temperatures are inverted using a backpropagation method. Several synthetic terrains are devised and inverted by the network under local constraints. All the inversions show good agreement with the original geophysical parameters, falling within 5 percent of the actual value of the parameter range.

  17. Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    alveolar macrophages. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1999, 45:675-686. 13. Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha CV: Influence of alpha - lipoic acid on lipid...33 4 ABBREVIATIONS: ALA, α- Lipoic acid AT, α-tocopherol CEES, half mustard or 2...Vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and lipoic acid are very effective antioxidants. Their antioxidative potential

  18. The CEE Sustainable Development Programme: A Two-Week Course for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article features the Centre for Environment Education (CEE) Sustainable Development Programme, a two-week course designed for university students from a wide variety of disciplines, with an interest in sustainability and cross-cultural studies. The two-week programme provides cross-disciplinary understanding and practical experience of…

  19. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  20. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban

    PubMed Central

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B.; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global. PMID:29181443

  1. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    PubMed

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  2. IA-Regional-Radio - Social Network for Radio Recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziczkowski, Grzegorz; Bougueroua, Lamine; Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna

    This chapter describes the functions of a system proposed for the music hit recommendation from social network data base. This system carries out the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of music reviewers and the possibility for listeners to rate musical hits and recommendations deduced from auditor's profiles in the form of regional Internet radio. First, the system searches and retrieves probable music reviews from the Internet. Subsequently, the system carries out an evaluation and rating of those reviews. From this list of music hits, the system directly allows notation from our application. Finally, the system automatically creates the record list diffused each day depending on the region, the year season, the day hours and the age of listeners. Our system uses linguistics and statistic methods for classifying music opinions and data mining techniques for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent radio adaptive on auditor's age and region - IA-Regional-Radio.

  3. The Great Lakes Information Network: the region's Internet information service.

    PubMed

    Ratza, C A

    1996-01-01

    Communication is the cornerstone of ecosystem protection and sustainable development efforts in the binational Great Lakes region of North America. Great Lakes environmental protection, remediation, and pollution prevention efforts bring together individuals from across the public sector, business and industry, citizens groups, and academia. The region is now working to enhance communications between these groups and the rest of the world, through the Internet-based Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN). Diverse regional data, information, and human resources located at key agencies and organizations are accessible via GLIN. These online resources span environmental quality, human health effects and other research, resource management, transportation, demographic, and economic data, as well as other resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada. Federal, state, provincial, and regional agencies and a range of citizen, business, and research organizations are cooperating with the lead agency, the Great Lakes Commission, in developing GLIN into the region's shared Internet resource. GLIN resources are accessible to users of ubiquitous Internet research tools including World Wide Web and Gopher. Statistical information on usage and the region's response to ongoing efforts to build the GLIN system and solicit contributions of data and information indicate that we can continue to build GLIN into a truly regional resource which enhances communication among researchers, policy makers, students, and the general public.

  4. Predicting Regional Self-identification from Spatial Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Zack W.; Butts, Carter T.

    2014-01-01

    Social scientists characterize social life as a hierarchy of environments, from the micro level of an individual’s knowledge and perceptions to the macro level of large-scale social networks. In accordance with this typology, individuals are typically thought to reside in micro- and macro-level structures, composed of multifaceted relations (e.g., acquaintanceship, friendship, and kinship). This article analyzes the effects of social structure on micro outcomes through the case of regional identification. Self identification occurs in many different domains, one of which is regional; i.e., the identification of oneself with a locationally-associated group (e.g., a “New Yorker” or “Parisian”). Here, regional self-identification is posited to result from an influence process based on the location of an individual’s alters (e.g., friends, kin or coworkers), such that one tends to identify with regions in which many of his or her alters reside. The structure of this paper is laid out as follows: initially, we begin with a discussion of the relevant social science literature for both social networks and identification. This discussion is followed with one about competing mechanisms for regional identification that are motivated first from the social network literature, and second by the social psychological and cognitive literature of decision making and heuristics. Next, the paper covers the data and methods employed to test the proposed mechanisms. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of its findings and further implications for the larger social science literature. PMID:25684791

  5. A network approach for identifying and delimiting biogeographical regions.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Daril A; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-04-24

    Biogeographical regions (geographically distinct assemblages of species and communities) constitute a cornerstone for ecology, biogeography, evolution and conservation biology. Species turnover measures are often used to quantify spatial biodiversity patterns, but algorithms based on similarity can be sensitive to common sampling biases in species distribution data. Here we apply a community detection approach from network theory that incorporates complex, higher-order presence-absence patterns. We demonstrate the performance of the method by applying it to all amphibian species in the world (c. 6,100 species), all vascular plant species of the USA (c. 17,600) and a hypothetical data set containing a zone of biotic transition. In comparison with current methods, our approach tackles the challenges posed by transition zones and succeeds in retrieving a larger number of commonly recognized biogeographical regions. This method can be applied to generate objective, data-derived identification and delimitation of the world's biogeographical regions.

  6. A system's view of metro and regional optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cedric F.; Way, Winston I.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in fiber optic communications have been rejuvenated after the glut of the overcapacity at the turn of the century. The boom of video-centric network applications finally resulted in another wave of vast build-outs of broadband access networks such as FTTH, DOCSIS 3.0 and WI-FI systems, which in turn also drove up the bandwidth demands in metro and regional WDM networks. These new developments have rekindled research interests on technologies not only to meet the surging demand, but also to upgrade legacy network infrastructures in an evolutionary manner without disrupting existing services and incurring significant capital penalties. Standard bodies such as IEEE, ITU and OIF have formed task forces to ratify 100Gb/s interface standards. Thanks to the seemingly unlimited bandwidth in single-mode fibers, advances in optical networks has traditionally been fueled by more capable physical components such as more powerful laser, cleaner and wider bandwidth optical amplifier, faster modulator and photo-detectors, etc. In the meanwhile, the mainstream modulation technique for fiber optic communication systems has remained the most rudimentary form of on-off keying (OOK) and direct power detection for a very long period of time because spectral efficiency had never been a concern. This scenario, however, is no longer valid as demand for bandwidth is pushing the limit of current of current WDM technologies. In terms of spectral use, all the 100-GHz ITU grids in the C-band have been populated with 10Gb/s wavelengths in most of the WDM transport networks, and we are exhausting the power and bandwidth offered on existing fiber plant EDFAs. Beyond 10Gb/s, increasing the transmission to 40Gb/s by brute force OOK approach incurs significant penalties due to chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. With conventional modulation schemes, transmission impairments at 40Gb/s speed and above already become such difficult challenges that the efforts to manage these

  7. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  8. Inferring cultural regions from correlation networks of given baby names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomorski, Mateusz; Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Kwapień, Jarosław; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We report investigations on the statistical characteristics of the baby names given between 1910 and 2010 in the United States of America. For each year, the 100 most frequent names in the USA are sorted out. For these names, the correlations between the names profiles are calculated for all pairs of states (minus Hawaii and Alaska). The correlations are used to form a weighted network which is found to vary mildly in time. In fact, the structure of communities in the network remains quite stable till about 1980. The goal is that the calculated structure approximately reproduces the usually accepted geopolitical regions: the Northeast, the South, and the "Midwest + West" as the third one. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that the name distribution satisfies the Zipf law, separately for each state and each year, i.e. the name frequency f ∝r-α, where r is the name rank. Between 1920 and 1980, the exponent α is the largest one for the set of states classified as 'the South', but the smallest one for the set of states classified as "Midwest + West". Our interpretation is that the pool of selected names was quite narrow in the Southern states. The data is compared with some related statistics of names in Belgium, a country also with different regions, but having quite a different scale than the USA. There, the Zipf exponent is low for young people and for the Brussels citizens.

  9. PBO Southwest Region: Baja Earthquake Response and Network Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Mann, D.; Lawrence, S.; Jarvis, C.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The SW region of the Plate Boundary Observatory consists of 455 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault and Eastern California Shear Zone. In the past year network uptime exceeded an average of 97% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (307), radio (92), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual downloads (1). Sixty-three stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency. Over 620 maintenance activities were performed during 316 onsite visits out of approximately 368 engineer field days. Within the past year there have been 7 incidences of minor (attempted theft) to moderate vandalism (solar panel stolen) with one total loss of receiver and communications gear. Security was enhanced at these sites through fencing and more secure station configurations. In the past 12 months, 4 new stations were installed to replace removed stations or to augment the network at strategic locations. Following the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake CGPS station P796, a deep-drilled braced monument, was constructed in San Luis, AZ along the border within 5 weeks of the event. In addition, UNAVCO participated in a successful University of Arizona-led RAPID proposal for the installation of six continuous GPS stations for post-seismic observations. Six stations are installed and telemetered through a UNAM relay at the Sierra San Pedro Martir. Four of these stations have Vaisala WXT520 meteorological sensors. An additional site in the Sierra Cucapah (PTAX) that was built by CICESE, an Associate UNAVCO Member institution in Mexico, and Caltech has been integrated into PBO dataflow. The stations will be maintained as part of the PBO network in coordination with CICESE. UNAVCO is working with NOAA to upgrade PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and communications systems capable of streaming real-time GPS and met data. The real-time GPS and

  10. Primary Health Care: care coordinator in regionalized networks?

    PubMed

    Almeida, Patty Fidelis de; Santos, Adriano Maia Dos

    2016-12-22

    To analyze the breadth of care coordination by Primary Health Care in three health regions. This is a quantitative and qualitative case study. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews with municipal, regional and state managers were carried out, besides a cross-sectional survey with the administration of questionnaires to physicians (74), nurses (127), and a representative sample of users (1,590) of Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) in three municipal centers of health regions in the state of Bahia. Primary Health Care as first contact of preference faced strong competition from hospital outpatient and emergency services outside the network. Issues related to access to and provision of specialized care were aggravated by dependence on the private sector in the regions, despite progress observed in institutionalizing flows starting out from Primary Health Care. The counter-referral system was deficient and interprofessional communication was scarce, especially concerning services provided by the contracted network. Coordination capacity is affected both by the fragmentation of the regional network and intrinsic problems in Primary Health Care, which poorly supported in its essential attributes. Although the health regions have common problems, Primary Health Care remains a subject confined to municipal boundaries. Analisar o alcance da coordenação do cuidado pela Atenção Primária à Saúde em três regiões de saúde. Trata-se de estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa. Foram realizadas 31 entrevistas semiestruturadas com gestores municipais, regionais e estaduais e estudo transversal com aplicação de questionários para médicos (74), enfermeiros (127) e amostra representativa de usuários (1.590) da Estratégia Saúde da Família em três municípios-sede de regiões de saúde do estado da Bahia. A função de porta de entrada preferencial pela Atenção Primária à Saúde deparava-se com forte concorrência de servi

  11. Automatic classification of seismic events within a regional seismograph network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Kortström, Jari; Uski, Marja

    2015-04-01

    A fully automatic method for seismic event classification within a sparse regional seismograph network is presented. The tool is based on a supervised pattern recognition technique, Support Vector Machine (SVM), trained here to distinguish weak local earthquakes from a bulk of human-made or spurious seismic events. The classification rules rely on differences in signal energy distribution between natural and artificial seismic sources. Seismic records are divided into four windows, P, P coda, S, and S coda. For each signal window STA is computed in 20 narrow frequency bands between 1 and 41 Hz. The 80 discrimination parameters are used as a training data for the SVM. The SVM models are calculated for 19 on-line seismic stations in Finland. The event data are compiled mainly from fully automatic event solutions that are manually classified after automatic location process. The station-specific SVM training events include 11-302 positive (earthquake) and 227-1048 negative (non-earthquake) examples. The best voting rules for combining results from different stations are determined during an independent testing period. Finally, the network processing rules are applied to an independent evaluation period comprising 4681 fully automatic event determinations, of which 98 % have been manually identified as explosions or noise and 2 % as earthquakes. The SVM method correctly identifies 94 % of the non-earthquakes and all the earthquakes. The results imply that the SVM tool can identify and filter out blasts and spurious events from fully automatic event solutions with a high level of confidence. The tool helps to reduce work-load in manual seismic analysis by leaving only ~5 % of the automatic event determinations, i.e. the probable earthquakes for more detailed seismological analysis. The approach presented is easy to adjust to requirements of a denser or wider high-frequency network, once enough training examples for building a station-specific data set are available.

  12. Quality assurance and improvement: the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network.

    PubMed

    Polaner, David M; Martin, Lynn D

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and improvement (QA/QI) is a critical activity in medicine. The use of large-scale collaborative databases is increasingly essential to obtain enough reports with which to establish standards of practice and define the incidence of complications and risk/benefit ratios for rare events. Such projects can enhance local QA/QI endeavors by enabling institutions to obtain benchmark data against which to compare their performance and can be used for prospective analyses of inter-institutional differences to determine 'best practice'. The pediatric regional anesthesia network (PRAN) is such a project. The first data cohort is currently being analyzed and offers insight into how such data can be used to detect trends in adverse events and improve care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. The Raam regional soil moisture monitoring network in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninga, Harm-Jan F.; Carranza, Coleen D. U.; Pezij, Michiel; van Santen, Pim; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Augustijn, Denie C. M.; van der Velde, Rogier

    2018-01-01

    We have established a soil moisture profile monitoring network in the Raam region in the Netherlands. This region faces water shortages during summers and excess of water during winters and after extreme precipitation events. Water management can benefit from reliable information on the soil water availability and water storing capacity in the unsaturated zone. In situ measurements provide a direct source of information on which water managers can base their decisions. Moreover, these measurements are commonly used as a reference for the calibration and validation of soil moisture content products derived from earth observations or obtained by model simulations. Distributed over the Raam region, we have equipped 14 agricultural fields and 1 natural grass field with soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring instrumentation, consisting of Decagon 5TM sensors installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 cm. In total, 12 stations are located within the Raam catchment (catchment area of 223 km2), and 5 of these stations are located within the closed sub-catchment Hooge Raam (catchment area of 41 km2). Soil-specific calibration functions that have been developed for the 5TM sensors under laboratory conditions lead to an accuracy of 0.02 m3 m-3. The first set of measurements has been retrieved for the period 5 April 2016-4 April 2017. In this paper, we describe the Raam monitoring network and instrumentation, the soil-specific calibration of the sensors, the first year of measurements, and additional measurements (soil temperature, phreatic groundwater levels and meteorological data) and information (elevation, soil physical characteristics, land cover and a geohydrological model) available for performing scientific research. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:dc364e97-d44a-403f-82a7-121902deeb56.

  14. Station corrections for the Katmai Region Seismic Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, Cheryl K.

    2003-01-01

    Most procedures for routinely locating earthquake hypocenters within a local network are constrained to using laterally homogeneous velocity models to represent the Earth's crustal velocity structure. As a result, earthquake location errors may arise due to actual lateral variations in the Earth's velocity structure. Station corrections can be used to compensate for heterogeneous velocity structure near individual stations (Douglas, 1967; Pujol, 1988). The HYPOELLIPSE program (Lahr, 1999) used by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) to locate earthquakes in Cook Inlet and the Aleutian Islands is a robust and efficient program that uses one-dimensional velocity models to determine hypocenters of local and regional earthquakes. This program does have the capability of utilizing station corrections within it's earthquake location proceedure. The velocity structures of Cook Inlet and Aleutian volcanoes very likely contain laterally varying heterogeneities. For this reason, the accuracy of earthquake locations in these areas will benefit from the determination and addition of station corrections. In this study, I determine corrections for each station in the Katmai region. The Katmai region is defined to lie between latitudes 57.5 degrees North and 59.00 degrees north and longitudes -154.00 and -156.00 (see Figure 1) and includes Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Mount Martin, Mount Mageik, Snowy Mountain, Mount Trident, and Mount Griggs volcanoes. Station corrections were determined using the computer program VELEST (Kissling, 1994). VELEST inverts arrival time data for one-dimensional velocity models and station corrections using a joint hypocenter determination technique. VELEST can also be used to locate single events.

  15. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China.

  16. Characteristics of Venture Capital Network and Its Correlation with Regional Economy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yonghong; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Lifei; Li, Sai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Financial networks have been extensively studied as examples of real world complex networks. In this paper, we establish and study the network of venture capital (VC) firms in China. We compute and analyze the statistical properties of the network, including parameters such as degrees, mean lengths of the shortest paths, clustering coefficient and robustness. We further study the topology of the network and find that it has small-world behavior. A multiple linear regression model is introduced to study the relation between network parameters and major regional economic indices in China. From the result of regression, we find that, economic aggregate (including the total GDP, investment, consumption and net export), upgrade of industrial structure, employment and remuneration of a region are all positively correlated with the degree and the clustering coefficient of the VC sub-network of the region, which suggests that the development of the VC industry has substantial effects on regional economy in China. PMID:26340555

  17. Regional Monitoring Networks (RMN) to Detect Changing Baselines in Freshwater Wadeable Streams (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is working with its regional offices, states, tribes, and other entities to establish Regional Monitoring Networks (RMNs) at which biological, thermal, and hydrologic data are collected from freshwater wadeable streams ...

  18. [Treatment of acute ST Elevation myocardial infarction in a regional network ("Drip & Ship Network Rostock")].

    PubMed

    Schneider, Henrik; Ince, Hüseyin; Rehders, Tim; Körber, Thomas; Weber, Frank; Kische, Stephan; Chatterjee, Tuchaar; Nienaber, Christoph A

    2007-12-01

    Management of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) demands rapid and complete reperfusion of the infarct-related artery (IRA). With postinfarction prognosis depending on time delay from onset of symptoms to complete reperfusion (TIMI 3 flow) of the IRA, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed by an experienced team has been shown to be superior to thrombolytic therapy with lower mortality, less frequent occurrence of nonfatal reinfarction and stroke, and thus represents the preferred treatment strategy according to the national and international guidelines. For regional implementation of PPCI, particularly in rural areas, information and transfer logistics within networks of care and direct transport of an infarction patient to a PCI hospital rather than to the closest hospital are a challenge. With successful implementation of network logistics and standardized therapeutic pathways, current guidelines and requested timelines versus thrombolysis could be met. The implemented logistics comprised 24 h/7 days stand-by services of an experienced PCI team, direct telephone hotline contact between rescue service/emergency physician and interventional cardiologist on call, and direct open access to a catheterization laboratory at any time. Within the Drip&Ship network Rostock, to date (July 2007) 1,022 consecutive patients with PCI for STEMI were documented and analyzed over 5 years; of these, 490 patients were transferred from a community hospital to the PCI center and 532 patients were admitted directly to the interventional center. In 95.1% of all transferred and in 94.8% of all directly admitted patients, PCI was successfully accomplished upon arrival. A normalized flow to the IRA after PCI was documented in 96% of both groups, no patient was subjected to thrombolytic therapy. At 12-month follow-up, there were no differences between both groups with respect to infarct size and mortality. Moreover, there was no evidence of differences in

  19. Learning in networks: individual teacher learning versus organizational learning in a regional health-promoting schools network.

    PubMed

    Flaschberger, Edith; Gugglberger, Lisa; Dietscher, Christina

    2013-12-01

    To change a school into a health-promoting organization, organizational learning is required. The evaluation of an Austrian regional health-promoting schools network provides qualitative data on the views of the different stakeholders on learning in this network (steering group, network coordinator and representatives of the network schools; n = 26). Through thematic analysis and deep-structure analyses, the following three forms of learning in the network were identified: (A) individual learning through input offered by the network coordination, (B) individual learning between the network schools, i.e. through exchange between the representatives of different schools and (C) learning within the participating schools, i.e. organizational learning. Learning between (B) or within the participating schools (C) seems to be rare in the network; concepts of individual teacher learning are prevalent. Difficulties detected relating to the transfer of information from the network to the member schools included barriers to organizational learning such as the lack of collaboration, coordination and communication in the network schools, which might be effects of the school system in which the observed network is located. To ensure connectivity of the information offered by the network, more emphasis should be put on linking health promotion to school development and the core processes of schools.

  20. Detection of rainfall-induced landslides on regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Coviello, Velio; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Picozzi, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Seismic techniques are increasingly adopted to detect signals induced by mass movements and to quantitatively evaluate geo-hydrological hazards at different spatial and temporal scales. By analyzing landslide-induced seismicity, it is possible obtaining significant information on the source of the mass wasting, as well as on its dynamics. However, currently only few studies have performed a systematic back analysis on comprehensive catalogues of events to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithms. In this work, we analyze a catalogue of 1058 landslides induced by rainfall in Italy. Among these phenomena, there are 234 rock falls, 55 debris flows, 54 mud flows, and 715 unspecified shallow landslides. This is a subset of a larger catalogue collected by the Italian research institute for geo-hydrological protection (CNR IRPI) during the period 2000-2014 (Brunetti et al., 2015). For each record, the following information are available: the type of landslide; the geographical location of the landslide (coordinates, site, municipality, province, and 3 classes of geographic accuracy); the temporal information on the landslide occurrence (day, month, year, time, date, and 3 classes of temporal accuracy); the rainfall conditions (rainfall duration and cumulated event rainfall) that have resulted in the landslide. We consider here only rainfall-induced landslides for which exact date and time were known from chronicle information. The analysis of coeval seismic data acquired by regional seismic networks show clear signals in at least 3 stations for 64 events (6% of the total dataset). Among them, 20 are associated to local earthquakes and 2 to teleseisms; 10 are anomalous signals characterized by irregular and impulsive waveforms in both time and frequency domains; 33 signals are likely associated to the landslide occurrence, as they have a cigar-shaped waveform characterized by emerging onsets, duration of several tens of seconds, and low frequencies (1-10 Hz). For

  1. Network sensitivity solutions for regional moment-tensor inversions

    DOE PAGES

    Ford, Sean R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Walter, William R.

    2010-09-20

    Well-resolved moment-tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. In this paper,we introduce a newly of assessing confidence in the regional full moment-tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example, an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-typemore » distribution for a given set of stations; and with it, one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source types with the best fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit in which the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion because the data contain some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviator source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. As a result, the earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (M w 4.1) is dominantly explosion.« less

  2. Toward Regional Clusters: Networking Events, Collaborative Research, and the Business Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichling, Tim; Moos, Benjamin; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker

    Networks of regionally collocated organizations improve the competitiveness of their member companies. This is not only a result of lower transportation costs when delivering or purchasing physical goods but also other matters such as mutual trust or a higher diffusion of specialized knowledge among companies that have emerged as important aspects of regional networks. Even increased competition among collocated companies can lead to comparative advantages over externals as a result of an increased pressure for innovation. While the reasons why regional networks of companies offer comparative advantages has been widely investigated, the question arises as to how networks can be developed in terms of higher interconnectedness and deeper connections.

  3. Networking for the Region and beyond--Role of the Southeast Asian Geography Association (SEAGA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooi, Giok Ling; Goh, Kim Chuan

    2008-01-01

    Networking among geographers in the Southeast Asian region is a challenge because of language and other barriers such as the costs of travel as well as keeping up communications and information flows. This networking effort however, is crucial to research and scholarship on issues that are relevant to the region. Many of these concern sustainable…

  4. Goal-oriented networks and capacity building for natural hazards - examples in the Dresden region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, G.

    2014-01-01

    Networks and networking are important for building social capacities for natural hazards. However, up to now, it has been an open question which types of networks contribute to capacity building under certain circumstances. The paper focuses on the type of a goal-oriented network. The distinction between goal orientation and goal directedness is used to show the following: goal directedness of networks to build capacities for natural hazards involves intensive and continuous processes of "sensemaking" (Weick, 1995) to specify the network goal. This process of specifying an initial goal statement is important in small and large networks at the regional level. The governance form of a lead organization network facilitates goal specification. The paper illustrates these findings through evidence from two case studies conducted in the Dresden region in Germany.

  5. Functional Network Architecture of Reading-Related Regions across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Alecia C.; Church, Jessica A.; Power, Jonathan D.; Miezin, Fran M.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2013-01-01

    Reading requires coordinated neural processing across a large number of brain regions. Studying relationships between reading-related regions informs the specificity of information processing performed in each region. Here, regions of interest were defined from a meta-analysis of reading studies, including a developmental study. Relationships…

  6. Technology, Integration, and Learning Environments: CEE Monograph: The NAU Centennial Year of Education. Monograph Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Gary, Ed.; Gunn, Cathy, Ed.; Lapan, Stephen D., Ed.

    This volume of the Center for Excellence in Education (CEE) monograph series describes Northern Arizona University's (NAU) commitment to education and innovation. Contained within this volume are discussions of professional development courses and programs in the area of educational technology. The articles in this monograph feature educational…

  7. Constructing regional climate networks in the Amazonia during recent drought events.

    PubMed

    Guo, Heng; Ramos, Antônio M T; Macau, Elbert E N; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    Climate networks are powerful approaches to disclose tele-connections in climate systems and to predict severe climate events. Here we construct regional climate networks from precipitation data in the Amazonian region and focus on network properties under the recent drought events in 2005 and 2010. Both the networks of the entire Amazon region and the extreme networks resulted from locations severely affected by drought events suggest that network characteristics show slight difference between the two drought events. Based on network degrees of extreme drought events and that without drought conditions, we identify regions of interest that are correlated to longer expected drought period length. Moreover, we show that the spatial correlation length to the regions of interest decayed much faster in 2010 than in 2005, which is because of the dual roles played by both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The results suggest that hub nodes in the regional climate network of Amazonia have fewer long-range connections when more severe drought conditions appeared in 2010 than that in 2005.

  8. Robust network data envelopment analysis approach to evaluate the efficiency of regional electricity power networks under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Fathollah Bayati, Mohsen; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, new Network Data Envelopment Analysis (NDEA) models are developed to evaluate the efficiency of regional electricity power networks. The primary objective of this paper is to consider perturbation in data and develop new NDEA models based on the adaptation of robust optimization methodology. Furthermore, in this paper, the efficiency of the entire networks of electricity power, involving generation, transmission and distribution stages is measured. While DEA has been widely used to evaluate the efficiency of the components of electricity power networks during the past two decades, there is no study to evaluate the efficiency of the electricity power networks as a whole. The proposed models are applied to evaluate the efficiency of 16 regional electricity power networks in Iran and the effect of data uncertainty is also investigated. The results are compared with the traditional network DEA and parametric SFA methods. Validity and verification of the proposed models are also investigated. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed models were more reliable than the traditional Network DEA model.

  9. Robust network data envelopment analysis approach to evaluate the efficiency of regional electricity power networks under uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, new Network Data Envelopment Analysis (NDEA) models are developed to evaluate the efficiency of regional electricity power networks. The primary objective of this paper is to consider perturbation in data and develop new NDEA models based on the adaptation of robust optimization methodology. Furthermore, in this paper, the efficiency of the entire networks of electricity power, involving generation, transmission and distribution stages is measured. While DEA has been widely used to evaluate the efficiency of the components of electricity power networks during the past two decades, there is no study to evaluate the efficiency of the electricity power networks as a whole. The proposed models are applied to evaluate the efficiency of 16 regional electricity power networks in Iran and the effect of data uncertainty is also investigated. The results are compared with the traditional network DEA and parametric SFA methods. Validity and verification of the proposed models are also investigated. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed models were more reliable than the traditional Network DEA model. PMID:28953900

  10. Self-organizing map network-based precipitation regionalization for the Tibetan Plateau and regional precipitation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nini; Yin, Jianchuan

    2017-12-01

    A precipitation-based regionalization for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) was investigated for regional precipitation trend analysis and frequency analysis using data from 1113 grid points covering the period 1900-2014. The results utilizing self-organizing map (SOM) network suggest that four clusters of precipitation coherent zones can be identified, including the southwestern edge, the southern edge, the southeastern region, and the north central region. Regionalization results of the SOM network satisfactorily represent the influences of the atmospheric circulation systems such as the East Asian summer monsoon, the south Asian summer monsoon, and the mid-latitude westerlies. Regionalization results also well display the direct impacts of physical geographical features of the TP such as orography, topography, and land-sea distribution. Regional-scale annual precipitation trend as well as regional differences of annual and seasonal total precipitation were investigated by precipitation index such as precipitation concentration index (PCI) and Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI). Results demonstrate significant negative long-term linear trends in southeastern TP and the north central part of the TP, indicating arid and semi-arid regions in the TP are getting drier. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method shows an evolution of the main cycle with 4 and 12 months for all the representative grids of four sub-regions. The cross-wavelet analysis suggests that predominant and effective period of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on monthly precipitation is around ˜12 months, except for the representative grid of the northwestern region.

  11. Goal-oriented networks and capacity building for natural hazards - examples in the Dresden region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, G.

    2013-04-01

    Networks and networking are important to build social capacities for natural hazards. However, up to now, it is an open question which types of networks contribute to capacity building under certain circumstances. The paper focuses on the type of a goal-oriented network. The distinction between goal orientation and goal directedness is used to show the following: goal directedness of networks to build capacities for natural hazards involves intensive and continuous processes of sensemaking (Weick, 1995) to specify the network goal. This process of specifying an initial goal statement is important in small and large networks. The governance form of a lead organization network facilitates goal specification. The paper illustrates these findings through evidence from two case studies conducted in the Dresden region in Germany.

  12. Salient regions detection using convolutional neural networks and color volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang-Hai; Hou, Yingkun

    2018-03-01

    Convolutional neural network is an important technique in machine learning, pattern recognition and image processing. In order to reduce the computational burden and extend the classical LeNet-5 model to the field of saliency detection, we propose a simple and novel computing model based on LeNet-5 network. In the proposed model, hue, saturation and intensity are utilized to extract depth cues, and then we integrate depth cues and color volume to saliency detection following the basic structure of the feature integration theory. Experimental results show that the proposed computing model outperforms some existing state-of-the-art methods on MSRA1000 and ECSSD datasets.

  13. Bifurcation behaviors of synchronized regions in logistic map networks with coupling delay

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Longkun, E-mail: tomlk@hqu.edu.cn, E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn; Wu, Xiaoqun, E-mail: tomlk@hqu.edu.cn, E-mail: xqwu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jun-an, E-mail: jalu@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Network synchronized regions play an extremely important role in network synchronization according to the master stability function framework. This paper focuses on network synchronous state stability via studying the effects of nodal dynamics, coupling delay, and coupling way on synchronized regions in Logistic map networks. Theoretical and numerical investigations show that (1) network synchronization is closely associated with its nodal dynamics. Particularly, the synchronized region bifurcation points through which the synchronized region switches from one type to another are in good agreement with those of the uncoupled node system, and chaotic nodal dynamics can greatly impede network synchronization. (2) Themore » coupling delay generally impairs the synchronizability of Logistic map networks, which is also dominated by the parity of delay for some nodal parameters. (3) A simple nonlinear coupling facilitates network synchronization more than the linear one does. The results found in this paper will help to intensify our understanding for the synchronous state stability in discrete-time networks with coupling delay.« less

  14. Faster R-CNN: Towards Real-Time Object Detection with Region Proposal Networks.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shaoqing; He, Kaiming; Girshick, Ross; Sun, Jian

    2017-06-01

    State-of-the-art object detection networks depend on region proposal algorithms to hypothesize object locations. Advances like SPPnet [1] and Fast R-CNN [2] have reduced the running time of these detection networks, exposing region proposal computation as a bottleneck. In this work, we introduce a Region Proposal Network (RPN) that shares full-image convolutional features with the detection network, thus enabling nearly cost-free region proposals. An RPN is a fully convolutional network that simultaneously predicts object bounds and objectness scores at each position. The RPN is trained end-to-end to generate high-quality region proposals, which are used by Fast R-CNN for detection. We further merge RPN and Fast R-CNN into a single network by sharing their convolutional features-using the recently popular terminology of neural networks with 'attention' mechanisms, the RPN component tells the unified network where to look. For the very deep VGG-16 model [3] , our detection system has a frame rate of 5 fps (including all steps) on a GPU, while achieving state-of-the-art object detection accuracy on PASCAL VOC 2007, 2012, and MS COCO datasets with only 300 proposals per image. In ILSVRC and COCO 2015 competitions, Faster R-CNN and RPN are the foundations of the 1st-place winning entries in several tracks. Code has been made publicly available.

  15. [Financing Regional Dementia Networks in Germany: Determinants of Sustainable Healthcare Networks].

    PubMed

    Michalowsky, B; Wübbeler, M; Thyrian, J R; Holle, B; Gräske, J; Schäfer-Walkmann, S; Fleßa, S; Hoffmann, W

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of practice-based financing concepts in German dementia networks (DN); Provision of sustainable financing structures and their determinants in DN. Qualitative expert interviews with leaders of 13 DN were conducted. A semi-structured interview guide was used to analyse four main topics: Finance-related organization, cost, sources of funding and financial sustainability. DN were primarily financed by membership fees, earnings of services provided, public funds and payments by municipalities or health care providers. 63% of the DN reported a financial sustainability. Funds to support the interpersonal expanding, a mix of internal and external financing sources and investments of the municipality were determinants of a sustainable financing. Overall, DN in rural areas seemed to be disadvantaged due to a lack of potential linkable service providers. DN in urban regions are more likely able to gather sustainable funding resources. A minimum funding of 50.000 €/year for human resources coordinating the DN, seems to be a threshold for a sustainable DN. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Data Communications and Networking. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter, Diane

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college instructors and administrators in implementing a data communications networking course. A student course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required text, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A…

  17. Metadata Harvesting in Regional Digital Libraries in the PIONIER Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Cezary; Stroinski, Maciej; Werla, Marcin; Weglarz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present the concept of the functionality of metadata harvesting for regional digital libraries, based on the OAI-PMH protocol. This functionality is a part of regional digital libraries platform created in Poland. The platform was required to reach one of main objectives of the Polish PIONIER Programme--to enrich the…

  18. [A German network for regional anaesthesia of the scientific working group regional anaesthesia within DGAI and BDA].

    PubMed

    Volk, Thomas; Engelhardt, Lars; Spies, Claudia; Steinfeldt, Thorsten; Kutter, Bernd; Heller, Axel; Werner, Christian; Heid, Florian; Bürkle, Hartmut; Koch, Thea; Vicent, Oliver; Geiger, Peter; Kessler, Paul; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2009-11-01

    Regional anaesthesia generally is considered to be safe. However, reports of complications with different severities are also well known. The scientific working group of regional anaesthesia of the DGAI has founded a network in conjunction with the BDA. With the aid of a registry, we are now able to describe risk profiles and associations in case of a complication. Moreover, a benchmark has been implemented in order to continuously improve complication rates. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  19. Evaluation of the streamflow-gaging network of Alaska in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1906, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began operating a network of streamflow-gaging stations in Alaska. The primary purpose of the streamflow- gaging network has been to provide peak flow, average flow, and low-flow characteristics to a variety of users. In 1993, the USGS began a study to evaluate the current network of 78 stations. The objectives of this study were to determine the adequacy of the existing network in predicting selected regional flow characteristics and to determine if providing additional streamflow-gaging stations could improve the network's ability to predict these characteristics. Alaska was divided into six distinct hydrologic regions: Arctic, Northwest, Southcentral, Southeast, Southwest, and Yukon. For each region, historical and current streamflow data were compiled. In Arctic, Northwest, and Southwest Alaska, insufficient data were available to develop regional regression equations. In these areas, proposed locations of streamflow-gaging stations were selected by using clustering techniques to define similar areas within a region and by spatial visual analysis using the precipitation, physiographic, and hydrologic unit maps of Alaska. Sufficient data existed in Southcentral and Southeast Alaska to use generalized least squares (GLS) procedures to develop regional regression equations to estimate the 50-year peak flow, annual average flow, and a low-flow statistic. GLS procedures were also used for Yukon Alaska but the results should be used with caution because the data do not have an adequate spatial distribution. Network analysis procedures were used for the Southcentral, Southeast, and Yukon regions. Network analysis indicates the reduction in the sampling error of the regional regression equation that can be obtained given different scenarios. For Alaska, a 10-year planning period was used. One scenario showed the results of continuing the current network with no additional gaging stations and another scenario showed the results

  20. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0213, September 7, 2010. Vulnerability testing of EPA’s Region 4 network conducted in June 2010 identified Internet Protocol addresses with numerous high-risk and medium-risk vulnerabilities.

  1. Keypoint Density-Based Region Proposal for Fine-Grained Object Detection and Classification Using Regions with Convolutional Neural Network Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-15

    Keypoint Density-based Region Proposal for Fine-Grained Object Detection and Classification using Regions with Convolutional Neural Network ... Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) enable them to outperform conventional techniques on standard object detection and classification tasks, their...detection accuracy and speed on the fine-grained Caltech UCSD bird dataset (Wah et al., 2011). Recently, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), a deep

  2. Fractal Inequality: A Social Network Analysis of Global and Regional International Student Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrander, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Literature on global international student mobility (ISM) highlights the uneven nature of student flows--from the developing to the developed world--however, studies have yet to address whether this pattern is replicated within expanding regional networks. Utilizing social network analysis, UNESCO ISM data, and World Bank income classifications,…

  3. A Revolution in Regional Networking: Linking the Knowledge. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmalen, C. M. van

    Regional networking and knowledge transfer are considered with a focus on partnerships between business and higher education institutions, conditions for successful strategic allegiances, and the consequences of networking for the higher education mission. The experiences of Utrecht University (the Netherlands) are used to illustrate how a higher…

  4. Regional Networks in Education: A Case Study of an Austrian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents the development of networks in education, using the Austrian IMST (Innovations Make Schools Top) project as illustration. The regional networks are coordinated in every Austrian federal province by groups made up of teachers, representatives of the educational authorities, and members of academia. In the framework of the…

  5. REGIONAL-SCALE (1000 KM) MODEL OF PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION. PART 2. INPUT PROCESSOR NETWORK DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed specifications are given for a network of data processors and submodels that can generate the parameter fields required by the regional oxidant model formulated in Part 1 of this report. Operations performed by the processor network include simulation of the motion and d...

  6. The structural robustness of geographical networks against regional failure and their pre-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Chaogeng; Shen, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Failures of real-world infrastructure networks due to natural disasters often originate in a certain region, but this feature has seldom been considered in theoretical models. In this article, we introduce a possible failure pattern of geographical networks-;regional failure;-by which nodes and edges within a region malfunction. Based on a previous spatial network model (Louf et al., 2013), we study the robustness of geographical networks against regional failure, which is measured by the fraction of nodes that remain in the largest connected component, via simulations. A small-area failure results in a large reduction of their robustness measure. Furthermore, we investigate two pre-deployed mechanisms to enhance their robustness: One is to extend the cost-benefit growth mechanism of the original network model by adding more than one link in a growth step, and the other is to strengthen the interconnection of hubs in generated networks. We measure the robustness-enhancing effects of both mechanisms on the basis of their costs, i.e., the amount of excessive links and the induced geographical length. The latter mechanism is better than the former one if a normal level of costs is considered. When costs exceed a certain level, the former has an advantage. Because the costs of excessive links affect the investment decision of real-world infrastructure networks, it is practical to enhance their robustness by adding more links between hubs. These results might help design robust geographical networks economically.

  7. Regional myocardial flow heterogeneity explained with fractal networks

    PubMed Central

    VAN BEEK, JOHANNES H. G. M.; ROGER, STEPHEN A.; BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.

    2010-01-01

    There is explain how the distribution of flow broadens with an increase in the spatial resolution of the measurement, we developed fractal models for vascular networks. A dichotomous branching network of vessels represents the arterial tree and connects to a similar venous network. A small difference in vessel lengths and radii between the two daughter vessels, with the same degree of asymmetry at each branch generation, predicts the dependence of the relative dispersion (mean ± SD) on spatial resolution of the perfusion measurement reasonably well. When the degree of asymmetry increases with successive branching, a better fit to data on sheep and baboons results. When the asymmetry is random, a satisfactory fit is found. These models show that a difference in flow of 20% between the daughter vessels at a branch point gives a relative dispersion of flow of ~30% when the heart is divided into 100–200 pieces. Although these simple models do not represent anatomic features accurately, they provide valuable insight on the heterogeneity of flow within the heart. PMID:2589520

  8. [Challenges of implementing a geriatric trauma network : A regional structure].

    PubMed

    Schoeneberg, Carsten; Hussmann, Bjoern; Wesemann, Thomas; Pientka, Ludger; Vollmar, Marie-Christin; Bienek, Christine; Steinmann, Markus; Buecking, Benjamin; Lendemans, Sven

    2018-04-01

    At present, there is a high percentage and increasing tendency of patients presenting with orthogeriatric injuries. Moreover, significant comorbidities often exist, requiring increased interdisciplinary treatment. These developments have led the German Society of Trauma Surgery, in cooperation with the German Society of Geriatrics, to establish geriatric trauma centers. As a conglomerate hospital at two locations, we are cooperating with two external geriatric clinics. In 2015, a geriatric trauma center certification in the form of a conglomerate network structure was agreed upon for the first time in Germany. For this purpose, the requirements for certification were observed. Both structure and organization were defined in a manual according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2015. Between 2008 and 2016, an increase of 70% was seen in geriatric trauma cases in our hospital, with a rise of up to 360% in specific diagnoses. The necessary standards and regulations were compiled and evaluated from our hospitals. After successful certification, improvements were necessary, followed by a planned re-audit. These were prepared by multiprofessional interdisciplinary teams and implemented at all locations. A network structure can be an alternative to classical cooperation between trauma and geriatric units in one clinic and help reduce possible staffing shortage. Due to the lack of scientific evidence, future evaluations of the geriatric trauma register should reveal whether network structures in geriatric trauma surgery lead to a valid improvement in medical care.

  9. [Network Analyses in Regional Health Care Research: Example of Dermatological Care in the Metropolitan Region of Hamburg].

    PubMed

    Augustin, J; Austermann, J; Erasmi, S

    2016-10-18

    Background: One of the overall objectives of the legislator is to ensure an overall "homogeneous", and easily accessible medical care for the population. The physician-patient ratio can be used to describe the regional health care situation. But this method does not provide information concerning the availability of, for instance, the nearest doctor. Therefore, further parameters such as accessibility must be taken into consideration. For this purpose, network analyses are an appropriate method. The objective of this study is to present methodological tools to evaluate the healthcare situation in the metropolitan region of Hamburg, primarily focusing on accessibility using dermatologists as an example. Methods: Analyzing data of 20 counties, the geographical distribution of N=357 dermatologists and the physician-patient ratio were calculated. In a second step, a network analysis regarding accessibility was performed. In order to calculate accessibility, address data (physicians) were transformed into coordinates, consisting of defined places (N=303) and restrictions (e. g. speed, turn restrictions) of the network. The calculation of population-based accessibility is based on grid cells for the population density. Results: Despite adequacy of the overall medical situation, differences in the availability of the nearest dermatologists in the metropolitan region are remarkable, particularly when use of public transport is taken into consideration. In some counties, over 60% of the population require at least one hour to get to the nearest dermatologist using public transportation. In rural regions within the metropolitan area are particularly affected. Conclusion: The network analysis has shown that the choice and availability of transportation in combination with the location (rural/urban) is essential for health care access. Especially elderly people in rural areas with restricted mobility are at a disadvantage. Therefore, modern health care approaches (e

  10. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  11. Magnetic flux transport of decaying active regions and enhanced magnetic network. [of solar supergranulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1991-01-01

    Several series of coordinated observations on decaying active regions and enhanced magnetic network regions on the sun were carried out jointly at Big Bear Solar Observatory and at the Huairou Solar Observing Station of the Bejing Astronomical Observatory in China. The magnetic field evolution in several regions was followed closely for three to seven days. The magnetic flux transport from the remnants of decayed active regions was studied, along with the evolution and lifetime of the magnetic network which defines the boundaries of supergranules. The magnetic flux transport in an enhanced network region was studied in detail and found to be negative. Also briefly described are some properties of moving magnetic features around a sunspot. Results of all of the above studies are presented.

  12. Aberrant Global and Regional Topological Organization of the Fractional Anisotropy-weighted Brain Structural Networks in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Huai; Yao, Zhi-Jian; Qin, Jiao-Long; Yan, Rui; Hua, Ling-Ling; Lu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most previous neuroimaging studies have focused on the structural and functional abnormalities of local brain regions in major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, the exactly topological organization of networks underlying MDD remains unclear. This study examined the aberrant global and regional topological patterns of the brain white matter networks in MDD patients. Methods: The diffusion tensor imaging data were obtained from 27 patients with MDD and 40 healthy controls. The brain fractional anisotropy-weighted structural networks were constructed, and the global network and regional nodal metrics of the networks were explored by the complex network theory. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the brain structural network of MDD patients showed an intact small-world topology, but significantly abnormal global network topological organization and regional nodal characteristic of the network in MDD were found. Our findings also indicated that the brain structural networks in MDD patients become a less strongly integrated network with a reduced central role of some key brain regions. Conclusions: All these resulted in a less optimal topological organization of networks underlying MDD patients, including an impaired capability of local information processing, reduced centrality of some brain regions and limited capacity to integrate information across different regions. Thus, these global network and regional node-level aberrations might contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of MDD from the view of the brain network. PMID:26960371

  13. The Ordered Network Structure and Prediction Summary for M≥7 Earthquakes in Xinjiang Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-12-01

    M ≥7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a × k (k = 1,2,3), 11 12 a, 41 43 a, 18 19 a, and 5 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019 - 2020 and 2025 - 2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  14. Implementation and integration of regional health care data networks in the Hellenic National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Lampsas, Petros; Vidalis, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Christos; Vagelatos, Aristides

    2002-12-01

    Modern health care is provided with close cooperation among many different institutions and professionals, using their specialized expertise in a common effort to deliver best-quality and, at the same time, cost-effective services. Within this context of the growing need for information exchange, the demand for realization of data networks interconnecting various health care institutions at a regional level, as well as a national level, has become a practical necessity. To present the technical solution that is under consideration for implementing and interconnecting regional health care data networks in the Hellenic National Health System. The most critical requirements for deploying such a regional health care data network were identified as: fast implementation, security, quality of service, availability, performance, and technical support. The solution proposed is the use of proper virtual private network technologies for implementing functionally-interconnected regional health care data networks. The regional health care data network is considered to be a critical infrastructure for further development and penetration of information and communication technologies in the Hellenic National Health System. Therefore, a technical approach was planned, in order to have a fast cost-effective implementation, conforming to certain specifications.

  15. Implementation and Integration of Regional Health Care Data Networks in the Hellenic National Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Vidalis, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Christos; Vagelatos, Aristides

    2002-01-01

    Background Modern health care is provided with close cooperation among many different institutions and professionals, using their specialized expertise in a common effort to deliver best-quality and, at the same time, cost-effective services. Within this context of the growing need for information exchange, the demand for realization of data networks interconnecting various health care institutions at a regional level, as well as a national level, has become a practical necessity. Objectives To present the technical solution that is under consideration for implementing and interconnecting regional health care data networks in the Hellenic National Health System. Methods The most critical requirements for deploying such a regional health care data network were identified as: fast implementation, security, quality of service, availability, performance, and technical support. Results The solution proposed is the use of proper virtual private network technologies for implementing functionally-interconnected regional health care data networks. Conclusions The regional health care data network is considered to be a critical infrastructure for further development and penetration of information and communication technologies in the Hellenic National Health System. Therefore, a technical approach was planned, in order to have a fast cost-effective implementation, conforming to certain specifications. PMID:12554551

  16. Regional Monitoring Networks to Detect Climate Change Effects in Stream Ecosystems (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is working with its regional offices, states, tribes, and other entities to establish Regional Monitoring Networks (RMNs) at which biological, thermal, and hydrologic data will be collected from freshwater wadeable stre...

  17. Using regional bird density distribution models to evaluate protected area networks and inform conservation planning

    Treesearch

    John D. Alexander; Jaime L. Stephens; Sam Veloz; Leo Salas; Josée S. Rousseau; C. John Ralph; Daniel A. Sarr

    2017-01-01

    As data about populations of indicator species become available, proactive strategies that improve representation of biological diversity within protected area networks should consider finer-scaled evaluations, especially in regions identified as important through course-scale analyses. We use density distribution models derived from a robust regional bird...

  18. Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.

    2011-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect againstmore » SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by {approx} 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: > CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. > CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. > The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.« less

  19. The control gain region for synchronization in non-diffusively coupled complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gequn, Liu; Wenhui, Li; Huijie, Yang; Knowles, Gareth

    2014-07-01

    The control gain region for synchronization of non-diffusively coupled networks was studied with respect to three conditions: synchronization, synchronization in finite time, and synchronization in the minimum time. Based on cancellation control methodology and master stability function formalism, we found that a complete feasible control gain region may be bounded, unbounded, empty or a union of several bounded and unbounded regions, with a similar shape to the synchronized region. An interesting possibility emerged that a network could be synchronized by both negative and positive feedback control simultaneously. By bridging synchronizability and synchronizing response speeds with a settling time index, we have developed timed synchronized region (TSR) as a substitute for the classical synchronized region to study finite time synchronization. As for the last condition, a graphical method was developed to estimate control gain with the minimum synchronization time (CGMST). Each condition has examples provided for illustration and verification.

  20. Health professionals' use of documents obtained through the Regional Medical Library Network.

    PubMed

    Lovas, I; Graham, E; Flack, V

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Southwest Regional Medical Library Service (PSRMLS) studied how health professionals use documents obtained through the regional medical library (RML) network and how various factors, such as delivery time, affected that use. A random sample of libraries in Region 7 of the RML network was selected to survey health professionals who had received documents through the interlibrary loan (ILL) network. The survey provided data about the purposes for which health professionals requested documents, how the immediacy of need for the items affected their usefulness, what effect the obtained information had on the health professionals' work, and whether the illustrations represented an important part of the information content of the items. Survey results provided a positive assessment of the ILL network. Results also verified the basic value of the materials provided to health professionals through ILL and identified some areas for consideration in future network development. Users of the documents indicated that the network works efficiently and effectively to provide timely and useful information needed by health professionals. Technological developments in electronic information transmission and imaging will further enhance network operation in the future.

  1. The Sub-Regional Functional Organization of Neocortical Irritative Epileptic Networks in Pediatric Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Janca, Radek; Krsek, Pavel; Jezdik, Petr; Cmejla, Roman; Tomasek, Martin; Komarek, Vladimir; Marusic, Petr; Jiruska, Premysl

    2018-01-01

    Between seizures, irritative network generates frequent brief synchronous activity, which manifests on the EEG as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Recent insights into the mechanism of IEDs at the microscopic level have demonstrated a high variance in the recruitment of neuronal populations generating IEDs and a high variability in the trajectories through which IEDs propagate across the brain. These phenomena represent one of the major constraints for precise characterization of network organization and for the utilization of IEDs during presurgical evaluations. We have developed a new approach to dissect human neocortical irritative networks and quantify their properties. We have demonstrated that irritative network has modular nature and it is composed of multiple independent sub-regions, each with specific IED propagation trajectories and differing in the extent of IED activity generated. The global activity of the irritative network is determined by long-term and circadian fluctuations in sub-region spatiotemporal properties. Also, the most active sub-region co-localizes with the seizure onset zone in 12/14 cases. This study demonstrates that principles of recruitment variability and propagation are conserved at the macroscopic level and that they determine irritative network properties in humans. Functional stratification of the irritative network increases the diagnostic yield of intracranial investigations with the potential to improve the outcomes of surgical treatment of neocortical epilepsy. PMID:29628910

  2. The Study of Development Strategy for Bank Distribution Network through the Analysis of Inter-regional Financial Transaction Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jae Weon; Hong, Won Eui; Kwak, Yoon Sik

    This study attempts to shed light on the factors that influence the locations of bank branches in establishing a bank's distribution network from the angle of the network analysis. Whereas the previous studies analyzed the locations of bank branches on the basis of their geographical characteristics and image, the significance of this study rests upon the fact that it endeavors to explore the location factors from a new perspective of the movement path of financial customers. For this analysis, the network between administrative districts, which form the fundamental unit of a location, was analyzed based on the financial transactional data. The important findings of this study are as follows. First, in conformity with the previous studies, the income level, the spending level, the number of businesses, and the size of workforce in the pertinent region were all found to influence the size of a bank's market. Second, the centrality index extracted from the analysis of the network was found to have a significant effect on the locations of bank branches. In particular, the degree centrality was revealed to have a greater influence on the size of a bank's market than does the closeness centrality. Such results of this study clearly suggest the needs for a new approach from the perspective of network in furtherance of other factors that have been considered important in the previous studies of the distribution network strategies.

  3. Pharmacological modulation of pulvinar resting-state regional oscillations and network dynamics in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Ajilore, Olusola; Mickey, Brian J.; Crane, Natania A.; Hsu, David T.; Kumar, Anand; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Langenecker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The pulvinar, the largest thalamus nucleus, has rich anatomical connections with several different cortical and subcortical regions suggesting its important involvement in high-level cognitive and emotional functions. Unfortunately, pulvinar dysfunction in psychiatric disorders particularly major depression disorder has not been thoroughly examined to date. In this study we explored the alterations in the baseline regional and network activities of the pulvinar in MDD by applying spectral analysis of resting-state oscillatory activity, functional connectivity and directed (effective) connectivity on resting-state fMRI data acquired from 20 healthy controls and 19 participants with MDD. Furthermore, we tested how pharmacological treatment with duloxetine can modulate the measured local and network variables in ten participants who completed treatment. Our results revealed a frequency-band dependent modulation of power spectrum characteristics of pulvinar regional oscillatory activity. At the network level, we found MDD is associated with aberrant causal interactions between pulvinar and several systems including default-mode and posterior insular networks. It was also shown that duloxetine treatment can correct or overcompensate the pathologic network behavior of the pulvinar. In conclusion, we suggest that pulvinar regional baseline oscillatory activity and its resting-state network dynamics are compromised in MDD and can be modulated therapeutically by pharmacological treatment. PMID:27148894

  4. Assessing Needs and Assets for Building a Regional Network Infrastructure to Reduce Cancer Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  5. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered attentional control over the salience network in complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungyoon; Kang, Ilhyang; Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Tae-Suk; Namgung, Eun; Lee, Suji; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Jeong, Hyeonseok S; Cho, Hanbyul; Kim, Myeong Ju; Kim, Tammy D; Choi, Soo Hyun; Lim, Soo Mee; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung

    2018-05-10

    The degree and salience of pain have been known to be constantly monitored and modulated by the brain. In the case of maladaptive neural responses as reported in centralized pain conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the perception of pain is amplified and remains elevated even without sustained peripheral pain inputs. Given that the attentional state of the brain greatly influences the perception and interpretation of pain, we investigated the role of the attention network and its dynamic interactions with other pain-related networks of the brain in CRPS. We examined alterations in the intra- and inter-network functional connectivities in 21 individuals with CRPS and 49 controls. CRPS-related reduction in intra-network functional connectivity was found in the attention network. Individuals with CRPS had greater inter-network connectivities between the attention and salience networks as compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, individuals within the CRPS group with high levels of pain catastrophizing showed greater inter-network connectivities between the attention and salience networks. Taken together, the current findings suggest that these altered connectivities may be potentially associated with the maladaptive pain coping as found in CRPS patients.

  7. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    1992-01-01

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  8. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  9. Gray Matter Network Disruptions and Regional Amyloid Beta in Cognitively Normal Adults.

    PubMed

    Ten Kate, Mara; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Barkhof, Frederik; Sikkes, Sietske A M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Hampel, Harald; Habert, Marie-Odile; Dubois, Bruno; Tijms, Betty M

    2018-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid plaques is one of the earliest pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may occur 20 years before the onset of symptoms. Examining associations between amyloid pathology and other early brain changes is critical for understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of AD. Alterations in gray matter networks might already start at early preclinical stages of AD. In this study, we examined the regional relationship between amyloid aggregation measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and gray matter network measures in elderly subjects with subjective memory complaints. Single-subject gray matter networks were extracted from T1-weigthed structural MRI in cognitively normal subjects ( n = 318, mean age 76.1 ± 3.5, 64% female, 28% amyloid positive). Degree, clustering, path length and small world properties were computed. Global and regional amyloid load was determined using [ 18 F]-Florbetapir PET. Associations between standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) values and network measures were examined using linear regression models. We found that higher global SUVr was associated with lower clustering ( β = -0.12, p < 0.05), and small world values ( β = -0.16, p < 0.01). Associations were most prominent in orbito- and dorsolateral frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Local SUVr values showed less anatomical variability and did not convey additional information beyond global amyloid burden. In conclusion, we found that in cognitively normal elderly subjects, increased global amyloid pathology is associated with alterations in gray matter networks that are indicative of incipient network breakdown towards AD dementia.

  10. The “Picardie en Forme” Network: Federating Regional Health-enhancing Sports Resources

    PubMed

    Weissland, Thierry; Passavant, Éric; Allal, Aziz; Amiard, Valérie; Antczak, Boris; Manzo, Julie

    2016-06-08

    Initiated by the Regional Olympic and Sports Committee and the Regional Directorate of Youth, Sports and Social Cohesion, the “Picardie en Forme” network has been working since 2011 in favour of adults of all ages, with chronic noncommunicable or similar diseases, to encourage a gradual return to reassuring and perennial regular physical activity,. A first step consisted of organizing a care pathway based on two principles: inform general practitioners so that they can encourage their patients to be physically active by referring them to the network, develop a range of local sports by accrediting certain clubs with sports instructors who have been trained in the management of this specific population. In 2013, 121 users entered the network at the request of 61 doctors. 48 sports instructors were trained and 20 associations obtained the Picardie en Forme label. Comparison of the results of tests performed on entry in the network and then eight months later shows a general physical reconditioning of users, increasing their motivation and perceived physical value. However, despite these encouraging results, the network has difficulty retaining users, and maintaining the involvement of general practitioners and certain local partners. This article discusses the relevance of initial approaches and describes the changes made to sustain this regional network, which, for the first time, links sport, health and users.

  11. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  12. The social network-network: size is predicted by brain structure and function in the amygdala and paralimbic regions

    PubMed Central

    Von Der Heide, Rebecca; Vyas, Govinda

    2014-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis proposes that the large size of the primate neocortex evolved to support complex and demanding social interactions. Accordingly, recent studies have reported correlations between the size of an individual’s social network and the density of gray matter (GM) in regions of the brain implicated in social cognition. However, the reported relationships between GM density and social group size are somewhat inconsistent with studies reporting correlations in different brain regions. One factor that might account for these discrepancies is the use of different measures of social network size (SNS). This study used several measures of SNS to assess the relationships SNS and GM density. The second goal of this study was to test the relationship between social network measures and functional brain activity. Participants performed a social closeness task using photos of their friends and unknown people. Across the VBM and functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, individual differences in SNS were consistently related to structural and functional differences in three regions: the left amygdala, right amygdala and the right entorhinal/ventral anterior temporal cortex. PMID:24493846

  13. Forecasting the daily electricity consumption in the Moscow region using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Kryanev, A. V.; Osetrov, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    In [1] we demonstrated the possibility in principle for short-term forecasting of daily volumes of passenger traffic in the Moscow metro with the help of artificial neural networks. During training and predicting, a set of the factors that affect the daily passenger traffic in the subway is passed to the input of the neural network. One of these factors is the daily power consumption in the Moscow region. Therefore, to predict the volume of the passenger traffic in the subway, we must first to solve the problem of forecasting the daily energy consumption in the Moscow region.

  14. Prediction of Biological Motion Perception Performance from Intrinsic Brain Network Regional Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengjian; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Bishan; Chang, Song; Pan, Jinghua; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biological motion perception (BMP) refers to the ability to perceive the moving form of a human figure from a limited amount of stimuli, such as from a few point lights located on the joints of a moving body. BMP is commonplace and important, but there is great inter-individual variability in this ability. This study used multiple regression model analysis to explore the association between BMP performance and intrinsic brain activity, in order to investigate the neural substrates underlying inter-individual variability of BMP performance. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and BMP performance data were collected from 24 healthy participants, for whom intrinsic brain networks were constructed, and a graph-based network efficiency metric was measured. Then, a multiple linear regression model was used to explore the association between network regional efficiency and BMP performance. We found that the local and global network efficiency of many regions was significantly correlated with BMP performance. Further analysis showed that the local efficiency rather than global efficiency could be used to explain most of the BMP inter-individual variability, and the regions involved were predominately located in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Additionally, discrimination analysis showed that the local efficiency of certain regions such as the thalamus could be used to classify BMP performance across participants. Notably, the association pattern between network nodal efficiency and BMP was different from the association pattern of static directional/gender information perception. Overall, these findings show that intrinsic brain network efficiency may be considered a neural factor that explains BMP inter-individual variability. PMID:27853427

  15. Spatial connections in regional climate model rainfall outputs at different temporal scales: Application of network theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naufan, Ihsan; Sivakumar, Bellie; Woldemeskel, Fitsum M.; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Vu, Minh Tue; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall has always been a great challenge, and the impacts of climate change further complicate this issue. The present study employs the concepts of complex networks to study the spatial connections in rainfall, with emphasis on climate change and rainfall scaling. Rainfall outputs (during 1961-1990) from a regional climate model (i.e. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that downscaled the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF ERA-40 reanalyses) over Southeast Asia are studied, and data corresponding to eight different temporal scales (6-hr, 12-hr, daily, 2-day, 4-day, weekly, biweekly, and monthly) are analyzed. Two network-based methods are applied to examine the connections in rainfall: clustering coefficient (a measure of the network's local density) and degree distribution (a measure of the network's spread). The influence of rainfall correlation threshold (T) on spatial connections is also investigated by considering seven different threshold levels (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8). The results indicate that: (1) rainfall networks corresponding to much coarser temporal scales exhibit properties similar to that of small-world networks, regardless of the threshold; (2) rainfall networks corresponding to much finer temporal scales may be classified as either small-world networks or scale-free networks, depending upon the threshold; and (3) rainfall spatial connections exhibit a transition phase at intermediate temporal scales, especially at high thresholds. These results suggest that the most appropriate model for studying spatial connections may often be different at different temporal scales, and that a combination of small-world and scale-free network models might be more appropriate for rainfall upscaling/downscaling across all scales, in the strict sense of scale-invariance. The results also suggest that spatial connections in the studied rainfall networks in Southeast Asia are

  16. A web-based information system for a regional public mental healthcare service network in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yoshiura, Vinicius Tohoru; de Azevedo-Marques, João Mazzoncini; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Vinci, André Luiz Teixeira; Sasso, Ariane Morassi; Miyoshi, Newton Shydeo Brandão; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira; Rijo, Rui Pedro Charters Lopes; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Alves, Domingos

    2017-01-01

    Regional networking between services that provide mental health care in Brazil's decentralized public health system is challenging, partly due to the simultaneous existence of services managed by municipal and state authorities and a lack of efficient and transparent mechanisms for continuous and updated communication between them. Since 2011, the Ribeirao Preto Medical School and the XIII Regional Health Department of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, have been developing and implementing a web-based information system to facilitate an integrated care throughout a public regional mental health care network. After a profound on-site analysis, the structure of the network was identified and a web-based information system for psychiatric admissions and discharges was developed and implemented using a socio-technical approach. An information technology team liaised with mental health professionals, health-service managers, municipal and state health secretariats and judicial authorities. Primary care, specialized community services, general emergency and psychiatric wards services, that comprise the regional mental healthcare network, were identified and the system flow was delineated. The web-based system overcame the fragmentation of the healthcare system and addressed service specific needs, enabling: detailed patient information sharing; active coordination of the processes of psychiatric admissions and discharges; real-time monitoring; the patients' status reports; the evaluation of the performance of each service and the whole network. During a 2-year period of operation, it registered 137 services, 480 health care professionals and 4271 patients, with a mean number of 2835 accesses per month. To date the system is successfully operating and further expanding. We have successfully developed and implemented an acceptable, useful and transparent web-based information system for a regional mental healthcare service network in a medium-income country with a decentralized

  17. Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Senay Habtezion (shabtezion@start.org) / Hassan Virji (hvirji@start.org)Global Change SySTem for Analysis, Training and Research (START) (www.start.org) 2000 Florida Avenue NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20009 USA As part of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) project partnership effort to promote use of earth observations in advancing scientific knowledge, START works to bridge capacity needs related to earth observations (EOs) and their applications in the developing world. GOFC-GOLD regional networks, fostered through the support of regional and thematic workshops, have been successful in (1) enabling participation of scientists for developing countries and from the US to collaborate on key GOFC-GOLD and Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC) issues, including NASA Global Data Set validation and (2) training young developing country scientists to gain key skills in EOs data management and analysis. Members of the regional networks are also engaged and reengaged in other EOs programs (e.g. visiting scientists program; data initiative fellowship programs at the USGS EROS Center and Boston University), which has helped strengthen these networks. The presentation draws from these experiences in advocating for integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building through the lens of the GOFC-GOLD partnership effort. Specifically, this presentation describes the role of the GODC-GOLD partnership in nurturing organic networks of scientists and EOs practitioners in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

  18. Attention Performance Measured by Attention Network Test Is Correlated with Global and Regional Efficiency of Structural Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Min; Ge, Haitao; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S.; Xu, Junhai; Bezgin, Gleb; Leng, Yuan; Zhao, Lu; Tang, Yuchun; Ge, Xinting; Jeon, Seun; Xu, Wenjian; Evans, Alan C.; Liu, Shuwei

    2016-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of separate brain areas in three distinct attention systems: alerting, orienting, and executive control (EC). However, the structural correlates underlying attention remains unexplored. Here, we utilized graph theory to examine the neuroanatomical substrates of the three attention systems measured by attention network test (ANT) in 65 healthy subjects. White matter connectivity, assessed with diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography was modeled as a structural network comprising 90 nodes defined by the automated anatomical labeling (AAL) template. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between topological parameters and the three attentional effects. We found a significant positive correlation between EC function and global efficiency of the whole brain network. At the regional level, node-specific correlations were discovered between regional efficiency and all three ANT components, including dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus, thalamus and parahippocampal gyrus for EC, thalamus and inferior parietal gyrus for alerting, and paracentral lobule and inferior occipital gyrus for orienting. Our findings highlight the fundamental architecture of interregional structural connectivity involved in attention and could provide new insights into the anatomical basis underlying human behavior. PMID:27777556

  19. Effectiveness of the New Hampshire stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    The stream-gaging network in New Hampshire was analyzed for its effectiveness in providing regional information on peak-flood flow, mean-flow, and low-flow frequency. The data available for analysis were from stream-gaging stations in New Hampshire and selected stations in adjacent States. The principles of generalized-least-squares regression analysis were applied to develop regional regression equations that relate streamflow-frequency characteristics to watershed characteristics. Regression equations were developed for (1) the instantaneous peak flow with a 100-year recurrence interval, (2) the mean-annual flow, and (3) the 7-day, 10-year low flow. Active and discontinued stream-gaging stations with 10 or more years of flow data were used to develop the regression equations. Each stream-gaging station in the network was evaluated and ranked on the basis of how much the data from that station contributed to the cost-weighted sampling-error component of the regression equation. The potential effect of data from proposed and new stream-gaging stations on the sampling error also was evaluated. The stream-gaging network was evaluated for conditions in water year 2000 and for estimated conditions under various network strategies if an additional 5 years and 20 years of streamflow data were collected. The effectiveness of the stream-gaging network in providing regional streamflow information could be improved for all three flow characteristics with the collection of additional flow data, both temporally and spatially. With additional years of data collection, the greatest reduction in the average sampling error of the regional regression equations was found for the peak- and low-flow characteristics. In general, additional data collection at stream-gaging stations with unregulated flow, relatively short-term record (less than 20 years), and drainage areas smaller than 45 square miles contributed the largest cost-weighted reduction to the average sampling error of the

  20. Brief Report: Databases in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Potential for a Distributed Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Man, Kenneth K C; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Cheng, Ching-Lan; Chien, Hsu-Chih; Chui, Celine S L; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Hardy, N Chantelle; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Hsu, Chung Y; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Liu, Yanfang; Park, Byung Joo; Pratt, Nicole; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Shin, Ju-Young; Watcharathanakij, Sawaeng; Wen, Jin; Wong, Ian C K; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao; Zhang, Yinghong; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-11-01

    This study describes the availability and characteristics of databases in Asian-Pacific countries and assesses the feasibility of a distributed network approach in the region. A web-based survey was conducted among investigators using healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific countries. Potential survey participants were identified through the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Investigators from a total of 11 databases participated in the survey. Database sources included four nationwide claims databases from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan; two nationwide electronic health records from Hong Kong and Singapore; a regional electronic health record from western China; two electronic health records from Thailand; and cancer and stroke registries from Taiwan. We identified 11 databases with capabilities for distributed network approaches. Many country-specific coding systems and terminologies have been already converted to international coding systems. The harmonization of health expenditure data is a major obstacle for future investigations attempting to evaluate issues related to medical costs.

  1. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pinnock, Farena; Parlar, Melissa; Hawco, Colin; Hanford, Lindsay; Hall, Geoffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite score (T = 50 ± 10) and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n = 39) had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n = 17) and below-normal range (n = 49) patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n = 24) or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment. PMID:28348889

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Complex network for solar active regions (Daei+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daei, F.; Safari, H.; Dadashi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The solar monitor (www.solarmonitor.org) records the solar data observed by several solar space observatories and missions (e.g., GOES, GONG, ACE, STEREO, SDO, etc.). 4227 solar active regions (ARs) during 1999 January 1 to 2017 April 14 used for building the AR network are listed in table 1. See section 2 for further details. (1 data file).

  3. GOFC-GOLD/LCLUC/START Regional Networking: building capacity for science and decision-making.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justice, C. O.; Vadrevu, K.; Gutman, G.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the international GOFC-GOLD Program and START, with core funding from the NASA LCLUC program and ESA have been developing regional networks of scientists and data users for scientific capacity building and sharing experience in the use and application of Earth Observation data. Regional networks connect scientists from countries with similar environmental and social issues and often with shared water and airsheds. Through periodic regional workshops, regional and national projects are showcased and national priorities and policy drivers are articulated. The workshops encourage both north-south and south-south exchange and collaboration. The workshops are multi-sponsored and each include a training component, targeting early career scientists and data users from the region. The workshops provide an opportunity for regional scientists to publish in peer-reviewed special editions focused on regional issues. Currently, the NASA LCLUC program funded "South and Southeast Asia Regional Initiative (SARI)" team is working closely with the USAID/NASA SERVIR program to implement some capacity building and training activities jointly in south/southeast Asian countries to achieve maximum benefit.

  4. Soy sauce classification by geographic region and fermentation based on artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Libin; Li, Yang; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong; Wang, Chao; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yueze; Chen, Shigui; Li, Dongsheng

    2014-12-24

    This work demonstrated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to classify soy sauce from China. The aroma profiles of different soy sauce samples were differentiated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The soy sauce samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 and 15 volatile aroma compounds were selected for sensitivity analysis to classify the samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively. The 15 selected samples can be classified by fermentation and geographic region with a prediction success rate of 100%. Furans and phenols represented the variables with the greatest contribution in classifying soy sauce samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively.

  5. Long-term variability of importance of brain regions in evolving epileptic brain networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Christian; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the temporal and spatial variability of the importance of brain regions in evolving epileptic brain networks. We construct these networks from multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic data recorded from 17 epilepsy patients and use centrality indices to assess the importance of brain regions. Time-resolved indications of highest importance fluctuate over time to a greater or lesser extent, however, with some periodic temporal structure that can mostly be attributed to phenomena unrelated to the disease. In contrast, relevant aspects of the epileptic process contribute only marginally. Indications of highest importance also exhibit pronounced alternations between various brain regions that are of relevance for studies aiming at an improved understanding of the epileptic process with graph-theoretical approaches. Nonetheless, these findings may guide new developments for individualized diagnosis, treatment, and control.

  6. Crowd counting via region based multi-channel convolution neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiaoguang; Gao, Siqi; Bai, Xiangzhi

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposed a novel region based multi-channel convolution neural network architecture for crowd counting. In order to effectively solve the perspective distortion in crowd datasets with a great diversity of scales, this work combines the main channel and three branch channels. These channels extract both the global and region features. And the results are used to estimate density map. Moreover, kernels with ladder-shaped sizes are designed across all the branch channels, which generate adaptive region features. Also, branch channels use relatively deep and shallow network to achieve more accurate detector. By using these strategies, the proposed architecture achieves state-of-the-art performance on ShanghaiTech datasets and competitive performance on UCF_CC_50 datasets.

  7. Bayesian WLS/GLS regression for regional skewness analysis for regions with large crest stage gage networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes methodological advances in regional log-space skewness analyses that support flood-frequency analysis with the log Pearson Type III (LP3) distribution. A Bayesian Weighted Least Squares/Generalized Least Squares (B-WLS/B-GLS) methodology that relates observed skewness coefficient estimators to basin characteristics in conjunction with diagnostic statistics represents an extension of the previously developed B-GLS methodology. B-WLS/B-GLS has been shown to be effective in two California studies. B-WLS/B-GLS uses B-WLS to generate stable estimators of model parameters and B-GLS to estimate the precision of those B-WLS regression parameters, as well as the precision of the model. The study described here employs this methodology to develop a regional skewness model for the State of Iowa. To provide cost effective peak-flow data for smaller drainage basins in Iowa, the U.S. Geological Survey operates a large network of crest stage gages (CSGs) that only record flow values above an identified recording threshold (thus producing a censored data record). CSGs are different from continuous-record gages, which record almost all flow values and have been used in previous B-GLS and B-WLS/B-GLS regional skewness studies. The complexity of analyzing a large CSG network is addressed by using the B-WLS/B-GLS framework along with the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA). Because EMA allows for the censoring of low outliers, as well as the use of estimated interval discharges for missing, censored, and historic data, it complicates the calculations of effective record length (and effective concurrent record length) used to describe the precision of sample estimators because the peak discharges are no longer solely represented by single values. Thus new record length calculations were developed. The regional skewness analysis for the State of Iowa illustrates the value of the new B-WLS/BGLS methodology with these new extensions.

  8. Network of European regions using space technologies an update on the NEREUS constitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Marianna; Campostrini, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    The EU and ESA space research and development programmes give a consolidated model for international cooperation. They represent a good framework to develop and enhance different initiatives at global, regional and local level. The impact of space activities covers different areas of interest such as: the development of Earth observation applications for environment monitoring and risk prevention and management, the development of satellite communications and information systems, the exploitation of global satellite positioning and navigation systems, the knowledge of the Universe, the utilisation of ground segment engineering. These activities involve also the regional and local governments. This is particularly evident if we look at the competences of the European regional governments. Several European regions deal with a number of issues in areas linked to space activities. In line with these reflections a number of European regional governments supported by the Committee of the Regions launched the idea to create a Network of European Regions Using Space technologies—NEREUS. This Network is an International non-profit association (AISBL— Association International Sans But Lucratif) under Belgian law. The aim of this paper is to review the course of the initiative since its launch in April 2006, giving an update of the work done for its constitution.

  9. Modelling innovation performance of European regions using multi-output neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Regional innovation performance is an important indicator for decision-making regarding the implementation of policies intended to support innovation. However, patterns in regional innovation structures are becoming increasingly diverse, complex and nonlinear. To address these issues, this study aims to develop a model based on a multi-output neural network. Both intra- and inter-regional determinants of innovation performance are empirically investigated using data from the 4th and 5th Community Innovation Surveys of NUTS 2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions. The results suggest that specific innovation strategies must be developed based on the current state of input attributes in the region. Thus, it is possible to develop appropriate strategies and targeted interventions to improve regional innovation performance. We demonstrate that support of entrepreneurship is an effective instrument of innovation policy. We also provide empirical support that both business and government R&D activity have a sigmoidal effect, implying that the most effective R&D support should be directed to regions with below-average and average R&D activity. We further show that the multi-output neural network outperforms traditional statistical and machine learning regression models. In general, therefore, it seems that the proposed model can effectively reflect both the multiple-output nature of innovation performance and the interdependency of the output attributes. PMID:28968449

  10. Modelling innovation performance of European regions using multi-output neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Petr; Henriques, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Regional innovation performance is an important indicator for decision-making regarding the implementation of policies intended to support innovation. However, patterns in regional innovation structures are becoming increasingly diverse, complex and nonlinear. To address these issues, this study aims to develop a model based on a multi-output neural network. Both intra- and inter-regional determinants of innovation performance are empirically investigated using data from the 4th and 5th Community Innovation Surveys of NUTS 2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions. The results suggest that specific innovation strategies must be developed based on the current state of input attributes in the region. Thus, it is possible to develop appropriate strategies and targeted interventions to improve regional innovation performance. We demonstrate that support of entrepreneurship is an effective instrument of innovation policy. We also provide empirical support that both business and government R&D activity have a sigmoidal effect, implying that the most effective R&D support should be directed to regions with below-average and average R&D activity. We further show that the multi-output neural network outperforms traditional statistical and machine learning regression models. In general, therefore, it seems that the proposed model can effectively reflect both the multiple-output nature of innovation performance and the interdependency of the output attributes.

  11. Functional network-based statistics in depression: Theory of mind subnetwork and importance of parietal region.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Hou, Yuh-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The functional network analysis of whole brain is an emerging field for research in depression. We initiated this study to investigate which subnetwork is significantly altered within the functional connectome in major depressive disorder (MDD). The study enrolled 52 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD and 40 controls for functional network analysis. All participants received the resting-state functional imaging using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. After preprocessing, we calculated the connectivity matrix of functional connectivity in whole brain for each subject. The network-based statistics of connectome was used to perform group comparisons between patients and controls. The correlations between functional connectivity and clinical parameters were also performed. MDD patients had significant alterations in the network involving "theory of mind" regions, such as the left precentral gyrus, left angular gyrus, bilateral rolandic operculums and left inferior frontal gyrus. The center node of significant network was the left angular gyrus. No significant correlations of functional connectivity within the subnetwork and clinical parameters were noted. Functional connectivity of "theory of mind" subnetwork may be the core issue for pathophysiology in MDD. In addition, the center role of parietal region should be emphasized in future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Mustard Gas Surrogate, 2-Chloroethyl Ethylsulfide (2-CEES), Induces Centrosome Amplification and Aneuploidy in Human and Mouse Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    studies , we show that subtoxic levels of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES), a mustard gas analog, also induce centrosome amplification and chromosome...instability in cells, which may hasten the mutation rate necessary for tumorigenesis. These studies offer an explanation why those exposed to mustard...unequally, resulting in chromosome  instability,  a common  phenotype of cancer cells.  In our  studies , we show that subtoxic levels of 2

  13. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores <90). Conjugated equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  14. [Regional network for patients with dementia--carrying out Kumamoto model for dementia].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese government has tried to establish 150 Medical Centers for Dementia (MCDs) since 2008 to overcome the dementia medical service shortage. MCDs are required to provide special medical services for dementia and connect with other community resources in order to contribute to building a comprehensive support network for demented patients. The main specific needs are as follows: 1) special medical consultation; 2) differential diagnosis and early intervention; 3) medical treatment for the acute stage of BPSD; 4) corresponding to serious physical complications of dementia; 5) education for general physicians (GPs) and other community professionals. According to the population rate, two dementia medical centers were planned in Kumamoto Prefecture. However, it seemed to be too few to cover the vast Kumamoto area. Therefore, the local government and I proposed to the Japanese government that we build up networks that consist of one core MCD in our university hospital and several regional MCDs in local mental hospitals. The local government selected seven (nine at present) centers according to the area balance and condition of equipment. The Japanese government has recommended and funded such networks between core and regional centers since 2010. The main roles of the core centers are as follows: 1) early diagnosis such as Mild cognitive impairment, very mild Alzheimer's disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies, and Frontotemporal lobar degeneration using comprehensive neuropsychological batteries and neuroimagings, such as MRI and SPECT scans; 2) education for GPs; 3) training for young consultants. The core center opens case conferences at least every one or two months for all staff of regional centers to maintain the quality of all centers and give training opportunities for standardized international assessment scales. While the main roles of the regional centers are differential diagnosis, intervention for BPSD, and management of general medical problems using

  15. Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2005–2010: Successes and Challenges of a Regional Network

    PubMed Central

    Teleb, Nadia; Pilishvili, Tamara; Van Beneden, Chris; Ghoneim, Amani; Amjad, Khawaja; Mostafa, Amani; Estighamati, Abdul Reza; Smeo, Mohamed Najib; Barkia, Abdelaziz; ElKhatib, Mutaz; Mujaly, Abdellatif; Ashmony, Hossam; Jassim, Kifah Ahmed; Hajjeh, Rana A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region countries and assist in introduction of new bacterial vaccines. Study design A laboratory-based sentinel surveillance was established in 2004, and up to 10 countries joined the network until 2010. Personnel at participating hospitals and national public health laboratories received training in surveillance and laboratory methods and used standard clinical and laboratory-confirmed case definitions. Results Over 22 000 suspected cases of meningitis were reported among children ≤5 years old and >6600 among children >5 years old. In children ≤5 years old, 921 of 13 125 probable cases (7.0%) were culture-confirmed. The most commonly isolated pathogens were S pneumoniae (27% of confirmed cases), N meningitidis (22%), and H influenzae (10%). Among culture-confirmed case-patients with known outcome, case-fatality rate was 7.0% and 12.2% among children ≤5 years old and those >5 years old, respectively. Declining numbers of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis cases within 2 years post-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine introduction were observed in Pakistan. Conclusions Bacterial meningitis continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Surveillance networks for bacterial meningitis ensure that all sites are using standardized methodologies. Surveillance data are useful to monitor impact of various interventions including vaccines, but maintaining data quality requires consistent reporting and regular technical support. PMID:23773590

  16. On the Role of Hyper-arid Regions within the Virtual Water Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggrey, James; Alshamsi, Aamena; Molini, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, economic development, and population growth are bound to increasingly impact global water resources, posing a significant threat to the sustainable development of arid regions, where water consumption highly exceeds the natural carrying capacity, population growth rate is high, and climate variability is going to impact both water consumption and availability. Virtual Water Trade (VWT) - i.e. the international trade network of water-intensive products - has been proposed as a possible solution to optimize the allocation of water resources on the global scale. By increasing food availability and lowering food prices it may in fact help the rapid development of water-scarce regions. The structure of the VWT network has been analyzed by a number of authors both in connection with trade policies, socioeconomic constrains and agricultural efficiency. However a systematic analysis of the structure and the dynamics of the VWT network conditional to aridity, climatic forcing and energy availability, is still missing. Our goal is hence to analyze the role of arid and hyper-arid regions within the VWN under diverse climatic, demographic, and energy constraints with an aim to contribute to the ongoing Energy-Water-Food nexus discussion. In particular, we focus on the hyper-arid lands of the Arabian Peninsula, the role they play in the global network and the assessment of their specific criticalities, as reflected in the VWN resilience.

  17. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stakeholder engagement and public policy evaluation: factors contributing to the development and implementation of a regional network for geriatric care.

    PubMed

    Glover, Catherine; Hillier, Loretta M; Gutmanis, Iris

    2007-01-01

    The development and implementation of a regional network that provides universally accessible and consistent services to the frail elderly living in Southwestern Ontario is described. Through continuous stakeholder engagement, clear network goals were identified and operationalized. Stakeholder commitment to the integration of expertise and specialized services, to evidence-based public policy and to iterative evaluation cycles were key to network success.

  19. Background Noise of the Aldeia da Serra Region (Portugal) from a temporary broad band network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachilala, Piedade; Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we analyse seismic background noise to assess the effect of noise based on the detectability of a temporary network constituted by DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test Array), who have been deployed in a period between 2011 and 2012 in Portugal mainland, and the Évora permanent seismic station. This network is constituted by 14 digital broadband stations (14 CMG-3ESP and one STS2 sensors) with a flat response between the 60 sec to 50 Hz, 24-bit and 120s to 60Hz respectively. The temporary network was operated in continuous recording mode (three-components) in a region located in the north of the region of Évora, within a radius of about 30 km around the village of Aldeia da Serra, region in which there is an important seismic activity in the context of Portugal mainland. We calculated power spectral densities of background noise for each station/component and compare them with high-noise model and low-noise model of Peterson (1993). We consider different for day and night local and for different periods of the year. Power spectral density estimates show moderate noise levels with all stations falling within the high and low bounds of Peterson (1993). Considering the results of the noise, we estimate the detection limit of each station and consequently the detectability of the network. From this information and taking in attention the events recorded during the period of DOCTAR operation we analyse the improvement promoted by this temporary network regarding the existent seismic networks to the local seismicity study. This work was partially supported by COMPETE 2020 program (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007690 project). We acknowledge GFZ Potsdam for providing part of the data used in this study.

  20. Stability of whole brain and regional network topology within and between resting and cognitive states.

    PubMed

    Rzucidlo, Justyna K; Roseman, Paige L; Laurienti, Paul J; Dagenbach, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Graph-theory based analyses of resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data have been used to map the network organization of the brain. While numerous analyses of resting state brain organization exist, many questions remain unexplored. The present study examines the stability of findings based on this approach over repeated resting state and working memory state sessions within the same individuals. This allows assessment of stability of network topology within the same state for both rest and working memory, and between rest and working memory as well. fMRI scans were performed on five participants while at rest and while performing the 2-back working memory task five times each, with task state alternating while they were in the scanner. Voxel-based whole brain network analyses were performed on the resulting data along with analyses of functional connectivity in regions associated with resting state and working memory. Network topology was fairly stable across repeated sessions of the same task, but varied significantly between rest and working memory. In the whole brain analysis, local efficiency, Eloc, differed significantly between rest and working memory. Analyses of network statistics for the precuneus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex revealed significant differences in degree as a function of task state for both regions and in local efficiency for the precuneus. Conversely, no significant differences were observed across repeated sessions of the same state. These findings suggest that network topology is fairly stable within individuals across time for the same state, but also fluid between states. Whole brain voxel-based network analyses may prove to be a valuable tool for exploring how functional connectivity changes in response to task demands.

  1. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Doot, Robert K; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E; Allberg, Keith C; Linden, Hannah M; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging are a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing the feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed, and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatio-temporal filtering for determination of common mode error in regional GNSS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Gruszczynski, Maciej; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The spatial correlation between different stations for individual components in the regional GNSS networks seems to be significant. The mismodelling in satellite orbits, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), largescale atmospheric effects or satellite antenna phase centre corrections can all cause the regionally correlated errors. This kind of GPS time series errors are referred to as common mode errors (CMEs). They are usually estimated with the regional spatial filtering, such as the "stacking". In this paper, we show the stacking approach for the set of ASG-EUPOS permanent stations, assuming that spatial distribution of the CME is uniform over the whole region of Poland (more than 600 km extent). The ASG-EUPOS is a multifunctional precise positioning system based on the reference network designed for Poland. We used a 5- year span time series (2008-2012) of daily solutions in the ITRF2008 from Bernese 5.0 processed by the Military University of Technology EPN Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC). At the beginning of our analyses concerning spatial dependencies, the correlation coefficients between each pair of the stations in the GNSS network were calculated. This analysis shows that spatio-temporal behaviour of the GPS-derived time series is not purely random, but there is the evident uniform spatial response. In order to quantify the influence of filtering using CME, the norms L1 and L2 were determined. The values of these norms were calculated for the North, East and Up components twice: before performing the filtration and after stacking. The observed reduction of the L1 and L2 norms was up to 30% depending on the dimension of the network. However, the question how to define an optimal size of CME-analysed subnetwork remains unanswered in this research, due to the fact that our network is not extended enough.

  3. Module discovery by exhaustive search for densely connected, co-expressed regions in biomolecular interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Colak, Recep; Moser, Flavia; Chu, Jeffrey Shih-Chieh; Schönhuth, Alexander; Chen, Nansheng; Ester, Martin

    2010-10-25

    Computational prediction of functionally related groups of genes (functional modules) from large-scale data is an important issue in computational biology. Gene expression experiments and interaction networks are well studied large-scale data sources, available for many not yet exhaustively annotated organisms. It has been well established, when analyzing these two data sources jointly, modules are often reflected by highly interconnected (dense) regions in the interaction networks whose participating genes are co-expressed. However, the tractability of the problem had remained unclear and methods by which to exhaustively search for such constellations had not been presented. We provide an algorithmic framework, referred to as Densely Connected Biclustering (DECOB), by which the aforementioned search problem becomes tractable. To benchmark the predictive power inherent to the approach, we computed all co-expressed, dense regions in physical protein and genetic interaction networks from human and yeast. An automatized filtering procedure reduces our output which results in smaller collections of modules, comparable to state-of-the-art approaches. Our results performed favorably in a fair benchmarking competition which adheres to standard criteria. We demonstrate the usefulness of an exhaustive module search, by using the unreduced output to more quickly perform GO term related function prediction tasks. We point out the advantages of our exhaustive output by predicting functional relationships using two examples. We demonstrate that the computation of all densely connected and co-expressed regions in interaction networks is an approach to module discovery of considerable value. Beyond confirming the well settled hypothesis that such co-expressed, densely connected interaction network regions reflect functional modules, we open up novel computational ways to comprehensively analyze the modular organization of an organism based on prevalent and largely available large

  4. High Quality Facade Segmentation Based on Structured Random Forest, Region Proposal Network and Rectangular Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, K.; Mayer, H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present a pipeline for high quality semantic segmentation of building facades using Structured Random Forest (SRF), Region Proposal Network (RPN) based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) as well as rectangular fitting optimization. Our main contribution is that we employ features created by the RPN as channels in the SRF.We empirically show that this is very effective especially for doors and windows. Our pipeline is evaluated on two datasets where we outperform current state-of-the-art methods. Additionally, we quantify the contribution of the RPN and the rectangular fitting optimization on the accuracy of the result.

  5. Healthcare Supported by Data Mule Networks in Remote Communities of the Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Mauro Margalho; Efrat, Alon; Richa, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using boats as data mule nodes, carrying medical ultrasound videos from remote and isolated communities in the Amazon region in Brazil, to the main city of that area. The videos will be used by physicians to perform remote analysis and follow-up routine of prenatal examinations of pregnant women. Two open source simulators (the ONE and NS-2) were used to evaluate the results obtained utilizing a CoDPON (continuous displacement plan oriented network). The simulations took into account the connection times between the network nodes (boats) and the number of nodes on each boat route. PMID:27433519

  6. Intrinsic brain networks normalize with treatment in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Lino; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Drosos, Athena M.; Sethna, Navil; Berde, Charles; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome (P-CRPS) offers a unique model of chronic neuropathic pain as it either resolves spontaneously or through therapeutic interventions in most patients. Here we evaluated brain changes in well-characterized children and adolescents with P-CRPS by measuring resting state networks before and following a brief (median = 3 weeks) but intensive physical and psychological treatment program, and compared them to matched healthy controls. Differences in intrinsic brain networks were observed in P-CRPS compared to controls before treatment (disease state) with the most prominent differences in the fronto-parietal, salience, default mode, central executive, and sensorimotor networks. Following treatment, behavioral measures demonstrated a reduction of symptoms and improvement of physical state (pain levels and motor functioning). Correlation of network connectivities with spontaneous pain measures pre- and post-treatment indicated concomitant reductions in connectivity in salience, central executive, default mode and sensorimotor networks (treatment effects). These results suggest a rapid alteration in global brain networks with treatment and provide a venue to assess brain changes in CRPS pre- and post-treatment, and to evaluate therapeutic effects. PMID:25379449

  7. Development of an Asia-Pacific regional network for public health.

    PubMed

    Loos, G P

    1995-01-01

    As public health by its very nature is multi-disciplinary, it may benefit individual programs to formulate a regional network, joining researchers and academics across programs. This approach may afford extended benefits, such as the establishment of regional health surveillance systems and collaborative funding initiatives. To explore this potential, member institutions comprising the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health provided data to form an aggregate profile of cross-institutional expertise and resources, which was presented to Health Specialists at the Asian Development Bank. The study provided a foundation for a planned regional network. A four-pronged approach was proffered detailing concurrent aspects of development: 1) network formation and expansion, 2) research coordination, 3) cross-institutional communication and instruction, and 4) promotion of self-sufficiency. The proposed plan affords the groundwork for an improved approach to public health research and practice that builds upon the established Consortium, and encourages new horizons. Regionalization is an increasing phenomenon world wide, and should be furthered as a concept for improved public health intervention and control.

  8. Vehicle Detection in Aerial Images Based on Region Convolutional Neural Networks and Hard Negative Example Mining.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tianyu; Zhou, Shilin; Deng, Zhipeng; Zou, Huanxin; Lei, Lin

    2017-02-10

    Detecting vehicles in aerial imagery plays an important role in a wide range of applications. The current vehicle detection methods are mostly based on sliding-window search and handcrafted or shallow-learning-based features, having limited description capability and heavy computational costs. Recently, due to the powerful feature representations, region convolutional neural networks (CNN) based detection methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance in computer vision, especially Faster R-CNN. However, directly using it for vehicle detection in aerial images has many limitations: (1) region proposal network (RPN) in Faster R-CNN has poor performance for accurately locating small-sized vehicles, due to the relatively coarse feature maps; and (2) the classifier after RPN cannot distinguish vehicles and complex backgrounds well. In this study, an improved detection method based on Faster R-CNN is proposed in order to accomplish the two challenges mentioned above. Firstly, to improve the recall, we employ a hyper region proposal network (HRPN) to extract vehicle-like targets with a combination of hierarchical feature maps. Then, we replace the classifier after RPN by a cascade of boosted classifiers to verify the candidate regions, aiming at reducing false detection by negative example mining. We evaluate our method on the Munich vehicle dataset and the collected vehicle dataset, with improvements in accuracy and robustness compared to existing methods.

  9. Attentional performance is correlated with the local regional efficiency of intrinsic brain networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junhai; Yin, Xuntao; Ge, Haitao; Han, Yan; Pang, Zengchang; Tang, Yuchun; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC). Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT) task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN). In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/VAN at rest.

  10. NOAA/NCEI/Regional Climate Services: Working with Partners and Stakeholders across a Wide Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecray, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    Federal agencies all require plans to be prepared at the state level that outline the implementation of funding to address wildlife habitat, human health, transportation infrastructure, coastal zone management, environmental management, emergency management, and others. These plans are now requiring the consideration of changing climate conditions. So where does a state turn to discuss lessons learned, obtain tools and information to assess climate conditions, and to work with other states in their region? Regional networks and collaboratives are working to deliver this sector by sector. How do these networks work? Do they fit together in any way? What similarities and differences exist? Is anyone talking across these lines to find common climate information requirements? A sketch is forming that links these efforts, not by blending the sectors, but by finding the areas where coordination is critical, where information needs are common, and where delivery mechanisms can be streamlined. NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information's Regional Climate Services Directors have been working at the interface of stakeholder-driven information delivery since 2010. This talk will outline the regional climate services delivery framework for the Eastern Region, with examples of regional products and information.

  11. The WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre Network - a support to users in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösner, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate, like weather, has no limits. Therefore the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a specialized United Nations organization, has established a three-level infrastructure to better serve its member countries. This structure comprises Global Producing Centres for Long-range Forecasts (GPCs), Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) and National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Services (NMHSs), in most cases representing their countries in WMO governance bodies. The elements of this infrastructure are also part of and contribute to the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) agreed to be established by World Climate Conference 3 (WCC-3) and last year's Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress (WMO Cg-XVI). RCCs are the core element of this infrastructure at the regional level and are being establish in all WMO Regional Associations (RAs), i.e. Africa (RA I); Asia (II); South America (III); North America, Central America and the Caribbean (IV); South-West Pacific (V); Europe (VI). Addressing inter-regional areas of common interest like the Mediterranean or the Polar Regions may require inter-regional RCCs. For each region the RCCs follow a user driven approach with regard to governance and structure as well as products generated for the users in the respective region. However, there are common guidelines all RCCs do have to follow. This is to make sure that services are provided based on best scientific standards, are routinely and reliably generated and made available in an operational mode. These guidelines are being developed within WMO and make use of decade-long experience gained in the business of operational weather forecast. Based on the requirements of the 50 member countries of WMO RA VI it was agreed to establish the WMO RCC as a network of centres of excellence that create regional products including long-range forecasts that support regional and national climate activities, and thereby strengthen the capacity of WMO Members in the region to

  12. The Evolution and Expansion of Regional Disease Surveillance Networks and Their Role in Mitigating the Threat of Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Katherine C.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.; Burke, Charlanne; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Wibulpolprasert, Suwit

    2013-01-01

    We examine the emergence, development, and value of regional infectious disease surveillance networks that neighboring countries worldwide are organizing to control cross-border outbreaks at their source. The regional perspective represented in the paper is intended to serve as an instructive framework for others who decide to launch such networks as new technologies and emerging threats bring countries even closer together. Distinct from more formal networks in geographic regions designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), these networks usually involve groupings of fewer countries chosen by national governments to optimize surveillance efforts. Sometimes referred to as sub-regional, these “self-organizing” networks complement national and local government recognition with informal relationships across borders among epidemiologists, scientists, ministry officials, health workers, border officers, and community members. Their development over time reflects both incremental learning and growing connections among network actors; and changing disease patterns, with infectious disease threats shifting over time from local to regional to global levels. Not only has this regional disease surveillance network model expanded across the globe, it has also expanded from a mostly practitioner-based network model to one that covers training, capacity-building, and multidisciplinary research. Today, several of these networks are linked through Connecting Organizations for Regional Disease Surveillance (CORDS). We explore how regional disease surveillance networks add value to global disease detection and response by complementing other systems and efforts, by harnessing their power to achieve other goals such as health and human security, and by helping countries adapt to complex challenges via multi-sectoral solutions. We note that governmental commitment and trust among participating individuals are critical to the success of regional infectious disease

  13. Regional Variation in Antenatal Corticosteroid Use: A Network-Level Quality Improvement Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, B.A.; Tamaresis, J.; Kan, P.; Lee, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Examination of regional care patterns in antenatal corticosteroid use (ACU) rates may be salient for the development of targeted interventions. Our objective was to assess network-level variation using California perinatal care regions as a proxy. We hypothesized that (1) significant variation in ACU exists within and between California perinatal care regions, and (2) lower performing regions exhibit greater NICU-level variability in ACU than higher performing regions. METHODS: We undertook cross-sectional analysis of 33 610 very low birth weight infants cared for at 120 hospitals in 11 California perinatal care regions from 2005 to 2011. We computed risk-adjusted median ACU rates and interquartile ranges (IQR) for each perinatal care region. The degree of variation was assessed using hierarchical multivariate regression analysis with NICU as a random effect and region as a fixed effect. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2011, mean ACU rates across California increased from 82% to 87.9%. Regional median (IQR) ACU rates ranged from 68.4% (24.3) to 92.9% (4.8). We found significant variation in ACU rates among regions (P < .0001). Compared with Level IV NICUs, care in a lower level of care was a strongly significant predictor of lower odds of receiving antenatal corticosteroids in a multilevel model (Level III, 0.65 [0.45–0.95]; Level II, 0.39 [0.24–0.64]; P < .001). Regions with lower performance in ACU exhibited greater variability in performance. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant variation in ACU rates among California perinatal regions. Regional quality improvement approaches may offer a new avenue to spread best practice. PMID:25601974

  14. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  15. Analysis of surface-water data network in Kansas for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medina, K.D.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1985-01-01

    The surface water data network in Kansas was analyzed using generalized least squares regression for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The correlation and time-sampling error of the streamflow characteristic are considered in the generalized least squares method. Unregulated medium-flow, low-flow and high-flow characteristics were selected to be representative of the regional information that can be obtained from streamflow gaging station records for use in evaluating the effectiveness of continuing the present network stations, discontinuing some stations; and/or adding new stations. The analysis used streamflow records for all currently operated stations that were not affected by regulation and discontinued stations for which unregulated flow characteristics , as well as physical and climatic characteristics, were available. The state was divided into three network areas, western, northeastern, and southeastern Kansas, and analysis was made for three streamflow characteristics in each area, using three planning horizons. The analysis showed that the maximum reduction of sampling mean square error for each cost level could be obtained by adding new stations and discontinuing some of the present network stations. Large reductions in sampling mean square error for low-flow information could be accomplished in all three network areas, with western Kansas having the most dramatic reduction. The addition of new stations would be most beneficial for man- flow information in western Kansas, and to lesser degrees in the other two areas. The reduction of sampling mean square error for high-flow information would benefit most from the addition of new stations in western Kansas, and the effect diminishes to lesser degrees in the other two areas. Southeastern Kansas showed the smallest error reduction in high-flow information. A comparison among all three network areas indicated that funding resources could be most effectively used by

  16. Quantification of Road Network Vulnerability and Traffic Impacts to Regional Landslide Hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postance, Benjamin; Hillier, John; Dixon, Neil; Dijkstra, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Slope instability represents a prevalent hazard to transport networks. In the UK regional road networks are frequently disrupted by multiple slope failures triggered during intense precipitation events; primarily due to a degree of regional homogeneity of slope materials, geomorphology and weather conditions. It is of interest to examine how different locations and combinations of slope failure impact road networks, particularly in the context of projected climate change and a 40% increase in UK road demand by 2040. In this study an extensive number (>50 000) of multiple failure event scenarios are simulated within a dynamic micro simulation to assess traffic impacts during peak flow (7 - 10 AM). Possible failure locations are selected within the county of Gloucestershire (3150 km2) using historic failure sites and British Geological Survey GeoSure data. Initial investigations employ a multiple linear regression analyses to consider the severity of traffic impacts, as measured by time, in respect of spatial and topographical network characteristics including connectivity, density and capacity in proximity to failure sites; the network distance between disruptions in multiple failure scenarios is used to consider the effects of spatial clustering. The UK Department of Transport road travel demand and UKCP09 weather projection data to 2080 provide a suitable basis for traffic simulations and probabilistic slope stability assessments. Future work will thus focus on the development of a catastrophe risk model to simulate traffic impacts under various narratives of future travel demand and slope instability under climatic change. The results of this investigation shall contribute to the understanding of road network vulnerabilities and traffic impacts from climate driven slope hazards.

  17. RADSS: an integration of GIS, spatial statistics, and network service for regional data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haitang; Bao, Shuming; Lin, Hui; Zhu, Qing

    2005-10-01

    Regional data mining, which aims at the discovery of knowledge about spatial patterns, clusters or association between regions, has widely applications nowadays in social science, such as sociology, economics, epidemiology, crime, and so on. Many applications in the regional or other social sciences are more concerned with the spatial relationship, rather than the precise geographical location. Based on the spatial continuity rule derived from Tobler's first law of geography: observations at two sites tend to be more similar to each other if the sites are close together than if far apart, spatial statistics, as an important means for spatial data mining, allow the users to extract the interesting and useful information like spatial pattern, spatial structure, spatial association, spatial outlier and spatial interaction, from the vast amount of spatial data or non-spatial data. Therefore, by integrating with the spatial statistical methods, the geographical information systems will become more powerful in gaining further insights into the nature of spatial structure of regional system, and help the researchers to be more careful when selecting appropriate models. However, the lack of such tools holds back the application of spatial data analysis techniques and development of new methods and models (e.g., spatio-temporal models). Herein, we make an attempt to develop such an integrated software and apply it into the complex system analysis for the Poyang Lake Basin. This paper presents a framework for integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service in regional data mining, as well as their implementation. After discussing the spatial statistics methods involved in regional complex system analysis, we introduce RADSS (Regional Analysis and Decision Support System), our new regional data mining tool, by integrating GIS, spatial statistics and network service. RADSS includes the functions of spatial data visualization, exploratory spatial data analysis, and

  18. The spatial spread of schistosomiasis: A multidimensional network model applied to Saint-Louis region, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Mari, Lorenzo; Sokolow, Susanne H.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic, water-related disease that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, causing severe and chronic consequences especially among children. Here we study the spatial spread of this disease within a network of connected villages in the endemic region of the Lower Basin of the Senegal River, in Senegal. The analysis is performed by means of a spatially explicit metapopulation model that couples local-scale eco-epidemiological dynamics with spatial mechanisms related to human mobility (estimated from anonymized mobile phone records), snail dispersal and hydrological transport of schistosome larvae along the main water bodies of the region. Results show that the model produces epidemiological patterns consistent with field observations, and point out the key role of spatial connectivity on the spread of the disease. These findings underline the importance of considering different transport pathways in order to elaborate disease control strategies that can be effective within a network of connected populations.

  19. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Produces Time- and Brain Region-Dependent Changes in Gene Coexpression Networks

    PubMed Central

    Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A.; Becker, Howard C.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Farris, Sean P.; Tiwari, Gayatri R.; Nunez, Yury O.; Harris, R. Adron; Mayfield, R. Dayne

    2015-01-01

    Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000) at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600). Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%). All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global ‘rewiring‘ of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes. PMID:25803291

  20. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400

  1. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-11-30

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network.

  2. Network analysis of mesoscale optical recordings to assess regional, functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Diana H; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Murphy, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    With modern optical imaging methods, it is possible to map structural and functional connectivity. Optical imaging studies that aim to describe large-scale neural connectivity often need to handle large and complex datasets. In order to interpret these datasets, new methods for analyzing structural and functional connectivity are being developed. Recently, network analysis, based on graph theory, has been used to describe and quantify brain connectivity in both experimental and clinical studies. We outline how to apply regional, functional network analysis to mesoscale optical imaging using voltage-sensitive-dye imaging and channelrhodopsin-2 stimulation in a mouse model. We include links to sample datasets and an analysis script. The analyses we employ can be applied to other types of fluorescence wide-field imaging, including genetically encoded calcium indicators, to assess network properties. We discuss the benefits and limitations of using network analysis for interpreting optical imaging data and define network properties that may be used to compare across preparations or other manipulations such as animal models of disease.

  3. The road to reorganization. A system keeps its regional network all in the family.

    PubMed

    Haglund, C

    1989-11-01

    One prominent strategy health-care institutions are pursuing today is the formation of regional networks providing comprehensive continuums of care. Regional activities can be organized according to several distinct geographical parameters: city, county, state, or multistate regions. Although the different types of regionalization may be beneficial, they will generate different types of activities and benefits. Another consideration is that regional structures can range from very loose affiliations to complete ownership. In 1987 the Sisters of Providence health system, Seattle, initiated efforts to create a functionally integrated regional healthcare system in the Portland, OR, market, which had a good framework in place for developing a vertically and horizontally linked comprehensive continuum of care. The Oregon Management Committee, composed of local administrators, was established to identify issues and develop common objectives. The group developed a regional strategic plan and identified eight key areas to begin regionally coordinated activities. It began creating working relationships among institutional counterparts and program integration in several outpatient service areas where duplication was evident. Another effort involved greater coordination of marketing activities.

  4. A Study on Regional Frequency Analysis using Artificial Neural Network - the Sumjin River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, C.; Ahn, J.; Ahn, H.; Heo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Regional frequency analysis means to make up for shortcomings in the at-site frequency analysis which is about a lack of sample size through the regional concept. Regional rainfall quantile depends on the identification of hydrologically homogeneous regions, hence the regional classification based on hydrological homogeneous assumption is very important. For regional clustering about rainfall, multidimensional variables and factors related geographical features and meteorological figure are considered such as mean annual precipitation, number of days with precipitation in a year and average maximum daily precipitation in a month. Self-Organizing Feature Map method which is one of the artificial neural network algorithm in the unsupervised learning techniques solves N-dimensional and nonlinear problems and be shown results simply as a data visualization technique. In this study, for the Sumjin river basin in South Korea, cluster analysis was performed based on SOM method using high-dimensional geographical features and meteorological factor as input data. then, for the results, in order to evaluate the homogeneity of regions, the L-moment based discordancy and heterogeneity measures were used. Rainfall quantiles were estimated as the index flood method which is one of regional rainfall frequency analysis. Clustering analysis using SOM method and the consequential variation in rainfall quantile were analyzed. This research was supported by a grant(2017-MPSS31-001) from Supporting Technology Development Program for Disaster Management funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS) of the Korean government.

  5. Evaluating Form and Function of Regional Partnerships: Applying Social Network Analysis to the "Network for a Healthy California", 2001-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregson, Jennifer; Sowa, Marcy; Flynn, Heather Kohler

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the partnership structure of the "Network for a Healthy California" ("Network"), a social marketing program, from 2001-2007, to determine if California's program was able to establish and maintain partnerships that (1) provided access to a local audience, (2) facilitated regional collaboration, (3)…

  6. A regional-scale network for geoid monitoring and satellite gravimetry validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D.; Kennedy, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the past two decades, improved measurements of acceleration due to gravity have allowed for accurate detection of temporal gravity change. Terrestrial absolute gravimeters (for example, Micro-g LaCoste FG5 or A-10) can sense changes of gravity induced by elevation or mass changes, including local effects that may bias regional studies. Satellite instrumentation (e.g. GRACE) can detect large scale mass changes on a regular basis. However, the Nyquist wave number for satellite observations is often much too small for the size of regional studies. Also, satellites are limited by their life of deployment. Both techniques are used to (in)validate change models generated from other geophysical observations including water storage(underground and glacial), geoid definition, isostatic adjustments and tectonic(magmatic and faulting)activity. The gap between terrestrial and satellite gravity observations (and between satellite missions) might be bridged by developing a terrestrial network of sites of various observation techniques that define a representative sample of a given, regional study area. This information could then be statistically extrapolated to the extent of the region. The Southern High Plains Aquifer is such a region, since it has widespread relatively uniform geology, has relatively flat topography, and is well monitored for groundwater levels and soil moisture. Each site would have extensive instrumentation for monitoring, at a minimum, gravity (periodic and continuous) using absolute and tidal gravimeters, soil moisture, precipitation, depths to water in wells, evapotranspiration, air pressure, and land surface (GPS). Where possible, the network would build upon existing, data collection infrastructure. Preferably, the region would also have seismic tomography or crustal seismic reflection observations to characterize Moho-depth mass changes and have regional Bouguer anomaly mapping. In addition to information on local hydrology and geology, data

  7. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego–Tijuana Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sanjay R.; Wertheim, Joel O.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Wagner, Karla D.; Chaillon, Antoine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L.; Rangel, Maria G.; Vargas, Mlenka; Murrell, Ben; Garfein, Richard; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV sequence data can be used to reconstruct local transmission networks. Along international borders, like the San Diego–Tijuana region, understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission across reported risks, racial/ethnic groups, and geography can help direct effective prevention efforts on both sides of the border. Methods We gathered sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, and viral sequence data from HIV infected individuals participating in ten studies in the San Diego–Tijuana border region. Phylogenetic and network analysis was performed to infer putative relationships between HIV sequences. Correlates of identified clusters were evaluated and spatiotemporal relationships were explored using Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. Findings After quality filtering, 843 HIV sequences with associated demographic data and 263 background sequences from the region were analyzed, and 138 clusters were inferred (2–23 individuals). Overall, the rate of clustering did not differ by ethnicity, residence, or sex, but bisexuals were less likely to cluster than heterosexuals or men who have sex with men (p = 0.043), and individuals identifying as white (p ≤ 0.01) were more likely to cluster than other races. Clustering individuals were also 3.5 years younger than non-clustering individuals (p < 0.001). Although the sampled San Diego and Tijuana epidemics were phylogenetically compartmentalized, five clusters contained individuals residing on both sides of the border. Interpretation This study sampled ~ 7% of HIV infected individuals in the border region, and although the sampled networks on each side of the border were largely separate, there was evidence of persistent bidirectional cross-border transmissions that linked risk groups, thus highlighting the importance of the border region as a “melting pot” of risk groups. Funding NIH, VA, and Pendleton Foundation. PMID:26629540

  8. HIV Transmission Networks in the San Diego-Tijuana Border Region.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Wertheim, Joel O; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Wagner, Karla D; Chaillon, Antoine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Patterson, Thomas L; Rangel, Maria G; Vargas, Mlenka; Murrell, Ben; Garfein, Richard; Little, Susan J; Smith, Davey M

    2015-10-01

    HIV sequence data can be used to reconstruct local transmission networks. Along international borders, like the San Diego-Tijuana region, understanding the dynamics of HIV transmission across reported risks, racial/ethnic groups, and geography can help direct effective prevention efforts on both sides of the border. We gathered sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, and viral sequence data from HIV infected individuals participating in ten studies in the San Diego-Tijuana border region. Phylogenetic and network analysis was performed to infer putative relationships between HIV sequences. Correlates of identified clusters were evaluated and spatiotemporal relationships were explored using Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. After quality filtering, 843 HIV sequences with associated demographic data and 263 background sequences from the region were analyzed, and 138 clusters were inferred (2-23 individuals). Overall, the rate of clustering did not differ by ethnicity, residence, or sex, but bisexuals were less likely to cluster than heterosexuals or men who have sex with men (p = 0.043), and individuals identifying as white (p ≤ 0.01) were more likely to cluster than other races. Clustering individuals were also 3.5 years younger than non-clustering individuals (p < 0.001). Although the sampled San Diego and Tijuana epidemics were phylogenetically compartmentalized, five clusters contained individuals residing on both sides of the border. This study sampled ~ 7% of HIV infected individuals in the border region, and although the sampled networks on each side of the border were largely separate, there was evidence of persistent bidirectional cross-border transmissions that linked risk groups, thus highlighting the importance of the border region as a "melting pot" of risk groups. NIH, VA, and Pendleton Foundation.

  9. Isoscapes of tree-ring carbon-13 perform like meteorological networks in predicting regional precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Castillo, Jorge; Aguilera, Mònica; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Stable isotopes in tree rings provide climatic information with annual resolution dating back for centuries or even millennia. However, deriving spatially explicit climate models from isotope networks remains challenging. Here we propose a methodology to model regional precipitation from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in tree rings by (1) building regional spatial models of Δ13C (isoscapes), and (2) deriving precipitation maps from 13C-isoscapes, taking advantage of the response of Δ13C to precipitation in seasonally-dry climates. As a case study, we modeled the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, a region with complex orography and climate (MAP=303-1086 mm). We compiled wood Δ13C data for two Mediterranean species that exhibit complementary responses to seasonal precipitation (Pinus halepensis Mill., N=38; Quercus ilex L.; N=44; pooling period: 1975-2008). By combining multiple regression and geostatistical interpolation, we generated one 13C-isoscape for each species. A spatial model of MAP was then built as the sum of two complementary maps of seasonal precipitation, each one derived from the corresponding 13C-isoscape (September-November from Q. ilex; December-August from P. halepensis). Our approach showed a predictive power for MAP (RMSE=84 mm) nearly identical to that obtained by interpolating data directly from a similarly dense network of meteorological stations (RMSE=80-83 mm, N=65), being only outperformed when using a much denser meteorological network (RMSE=56-57 mm, N=340). This method offers new avenues for modeling spatial variability of past precipitation, exploiting the large amount of information currently available from tree-ring networks. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by MC-ERG-246725 (FP7, EU) and AGL 2012-40039-C02-02 (MINECO, Spain). JdC and JPF are supported by FPI fellowship (MCINN) and Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2008-02050, MINECO), respectively.

  10. Isoscapes of tree-ring carbon-13 perform like meteorological networks in predicting regional precipitation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Castillo, Jorge; Aguilera, Mònica; Voltas, Jordi; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2013-03-01

    isotopes in tree rings provide climatic information with annual resolution dating back for centuries or even millennia. However, deriving spatially explicit climate models from isotope networks remains challenging. Here we propose a methodology to model regional precipitation from carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in tree rings by (1) building regional spatial models of Δ13C (isoscapes) and (2) deriving precipitation maps from Δ13C-isoscapes, taking advantage of the response of Δ13C to precipitation in seasonally dry climates. As a case study, we modeled the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, a region with complex topography and climate (MAP = 303-1086 mm). We compiled wood Δ13C data for two Mediterranean species that exhibit complementary responses to seasonal precipitation (Pinus halepensis Mill., N = 38; Quercus ilex L.; N = 44; pooling period: 1975-2008). By combining multiple regression and geostatistical interpolation, we generated one Δ13 C-isoscape for each species. A spatial model of MAP was then built as the sum of two complementary maps of seasonal precipitation, each one derived from the corresponding Δ13C-isoscape (September-November from Q. ilex; December-August from P. halepensis). Our approach showed a predictive power for MAP (RMSE = 84 mm) nearly identical to that obtained by interpolating data directly from a similarly dense network of meteorological stations (RMSE = 80-83 mm, N = 65), being only outperformed when using a much denser meteorological network (RMSE = 56-57 mm, N = 340). This method offers new avenues for modeling spatial variability of past precipitation, exploiting the large amount of information currently available from tree-ring networks.

  11. Extrapolating regional probability of drying of headwater streams using discrete observations and gauging networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufort, Aurélien; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Pella, Hervé; Datry, Thibault; Sauquet, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Headwater streams represent a substantial proportion of river systems and many of them have intermittent flows due to their upstream position in the network. These intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams have recently seen a marked increase in interest, especially to assess the impact of drying on aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to quantify how discrete (in space and time) field observations of flow intermittence help to extrapolate over time the daily probability of drying (defined at the regional scale). Two empirical models based on linear or logistic regressions have been developed to predict the daily probability of intermittence at the regional scale across France. Explanatory variables were derived from available daily discharge and groundwater-level data of a dense gauging/piezometer network, and models were calibrated using discrete series of field observations of flow intermittence. The robustness of the models was tested using an independent, dense regional dataset of intermittence observations and observations of the year 2017 excluded from the calibration. The resulting models were used to extrapolate the daily regional probability of drying in France: (i) over the period 2011-2017 to identify the regions most affected by flow intermittence; (ii) over the period 1989-2017, using a reduced input dataset, to analyse temporal variability of flow intermittence at the national level. The two empirical regression models performed equally well between 2011 and 2017. The accuracy of predictions depended on the number of continuous gauging/piezometer stations and intermittence observations available to calibrate the regressions. Regions with the highest performance were located in sedimentary plains, where the monitoring network was dense and where the regional probability of drying was the highest. Conversely, the worst performances were obtained in mountainous regions. Finally, temporal projections (1989-2016) suggested the highest

  12. La Red Regional Replad: Una Estrategia Innovadora para la Capacitacion de Administradores Educacionales (The Regional Network Replad: An Innovative Strategy for the Training and Preparation of Educational Administrators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Espinoza, Jorge

    This document presents an overview, analysis, and historical assessment of the Major Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Conferences, regional meetings, and outcomes from the inception of the project in 1979 are described. This project stresses the establishment of a regional network for exchange of information, experiences,…

  13. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jaime C; Rebulanan, Carina L; Parungao, Nico Angelo C; Ramirez, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally.

  14. A look at the ASEAN-NDI: building a regional health R&D innovation network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Globally, there are growing efforts to address diseases through the advancement in health research and development (R&D), strengthening of regional cooperation in science and technology (particularly on product discovery and development), and implementation of the World Health Assembly Resolution 61.21 (WHA61.21) on the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property (GSPA-PHI). As such, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is responding to this through the establishment of the ASEAN-Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines Innovation (ASEAN-NDI). This is important in the ASEAN considering that infectious tropical diseases remain prevalent, emerging, and reemerging in the region. This paper looks into the evolution of the ASEAN-NDI from its inception in 2009, to how it is at present, and its plans to mitigate public health problems regionally and even globally. PMID:24834349

  15. Effects of Beta-Amyloid on Resting State Functional Connectivity Within and Between Networks Reflect Known Patterns of Regional Vulnerability

    DOE PAGES

    Elman, Jeremy A.; Madison, Cindee M.; Baker, Suzanne L.; ...

    2014-11-07

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is one of the hallmarks. However, it is also present in some cognitively normal elderly adults and may represent a preclinical disease state. While AD patients exhibit disrupted functional connectivity (FC) both within and between resting-state networks, studies of preclinical cases have focused primarily on the default mode network (DMN). The extent to which Aβ-related effects occur outside of the DMN and between networks remains unclear. In the present study, we examine how within- and between-network FC are related to both global and regional Aβ deposition as measured by [ 11 C]PIB-PET inmore » 92 cognitively normal older people. We found that within-network FC changes occurred in multiple networks, including the DMN. Changes of between-network FC were also apparent, suggesting that regions maintaining connections to multiple networks may be particularly susceptible to Aβ-induced alterations. Cortical regions showing altered FC clustered in parietal and temporal cortex, areas known to be susceptible to AD pathology. These results likely represent a mix of local network disruption, compensatory reorganization, and impaired control network function. They indicate the presence of Aβ-related dysfunction of neural systems in cognitively normal people well before these areas become hypometabolic with the onset of cognitive decline.« less

  16. Visualization maps for the evolution of research hotspots in the field of regional health information networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjun; Zheng, Jianzhong; Zhang, Ailian; Zhou, Wei; Dong, Haiyuan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal research hotspots in the field of regional health information networks (RHINs) and use visualization techniques to explore their evolution over time and differences between countries. We conducted a literature review for a 50-year period and compared the prevalence of certain index terms during the periods 1963-1993 and 1994-2014 and in six countries. We applied keyword frequency analysis, keyword co-occurrence analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis, and network visualization technology. The total number of keywords was found to increase with time. From 1994 to 2014, the research priorities shifted from hospital planning to community health planning. The number of keywords reflecting information-based research increased. The density of the knowledge network increased significantly, and partial keywords condensed into knowledge groups. All six countries focus on keywords including Information Systems; Telemedicine; Information Service; Medical Records Systems, Computerized; Internet; etc.; however, the level of development and some research priorities are different. RHIN research has generally increased in popularity over the past 50 years. The research hotspots are evolving and are at different levels of development in different countries. Knowledge network mapping and perceptual maps provide useful information for scholars, managers, and policy-makers.

  17. Curriculum Framework (CF) Implementation Conference. Report of the Regional Educational Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia (Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, January 26-27, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jackie; Powell, Mary Jo

    The Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia, operating as the Curriculum Frameworks Task Force, jointly convened a group of educators involved in implementing state-level mathematics or science curriculum frameworks (CF). The Hilton Head (South Carolina) conference had a dual…

  18. Individual Morphological Brain Network Construction Based on Multivariate Euclidean Distances Between Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kaixin; Wang, Xuetong; Li, Qiongling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Xinwei; Li, Shuyu

    2018-01-01

    Morphological brain network plays a key role in investigating abnormalities in neurological diseases such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most of the morphological brain network construction methods only considered a single morphological feature. Each type of morphological feature has specific neurological and genetic underpinnings. A combination of morphological features has been proven to have better diagnostic performance compared with a single feature, which suggests that an individual morphological brain network based on multiple morphological features would be beneficial in disease diagnosis. Here, we proposed a novel method to construct individual morphological brain networks for two datasets by calculating the exponential function of multivariate Euclidean distance as the evaluation of similarity between two regions. The first dataset included 24 healthy subjects who were scanned twice within a 3-month period. The topological properties of these brain networks were analyzed and compared with previous studies that used different methods and modalities. Small world property was observed in all of the subjects, and the high reproducibility indicated the robustness of our method. The second dataset included 170 patients with MCI (86 stable MCI and 84 progressive MCI cases) and 169 normal controls (NC). The edge features extracted from the individual morphological brain networks were used to distinguish MCI from NC and separate MCI subgroups (progressive vs. stable) through the support vector machine in order to validate our method. The results showed that our method achieved an accuracy of 79.65% (MCI vs. NC) and 70.59% (stable MCI vs. progressive MCI) in a one-dimension situation. In a multiple-dimension situation, our method improved the classification performance with an accuracy of 80.53% (MCI vs. NC) and 77.06% (stable MCI vs. progressive MCI) compared with the method using a single feature. The results indicated

  19. Saliency U-Net: A regional saliency map-driven hybrid deep learning network for anomaly segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karargyros, Alex; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2018-02-01

    Deep learning networks are gaining popularity in many medical image analysis tasks due to their generalized ability to automatically extract relevant features from raw images. However, this can make the learning problem unnecessarily harder requiring network architectures of high complexity. In case of anomaly detection, in particular, there is often sufficient regional difference between the anomaly and the surrounding parenchyma that could be easily highlighted through bottom-up saliency operators. In this paper we propose a new hybrid deep learning network using a combination of raw image and such regional maps to more accurately learn the anomalies using simpler network architectures. Specifically, we modify a deep learning network called U-Net using both the raw and pre-segmented images as input to produce joint encoding (contraction) and expansion paths (decoding) in the U-Net. We present results of successfully delineating subdural and epidural hematomas in brain CT imaging and liver hemangioma in abdominal CT images using such network.

  20. Classification of bifurcations regions in IVOCT images using support vector machine and artificial neural network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, C. D. N.; Costa Filho, C. F. F.; Macedo, M. M. G.; Gutierrez, M. A.; Costa, M. G. F.

    2017-03-01

    Studies in intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT) have demonstrated the importance of coronary bifurcation regions in intravascular medical imaging analysis, as plaques are more likely to accumulate in this region leading to coronary disease. A typical IV-OCT pullback acquires hundreds of frames, thus developing an automated tool to classify the OCT frames as bifurcation or non-bifurcation can be an important step to speed up OCT pullbacks analysis and assist automated methods for atherosclerotic plaque quantification. In this work, we evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art classifiers, SVM and Neural Networks in the bifurcation classification task. The study included IV-OCT frames from 9 patients. In order to improve classification performance, we trained and tested the SVM with different parameters by means of a grid search and different stop criteria were applied to the Neural Network classifier: mean square error, early stop and regularization. Different sets of features were tested, using feature selection techniques: PCA, LDA and scalar feature selection with correlation. Training and test were performed in sets with a maximum of 1460 OCT frames. We quantified our results in terms of false positive rate, true positive rate, accuracy, specificity, precision, false alarm, f-measure and area under ROC curve. Neural networks obtained the best classification accuracy, 98.83%, overcoming the results found in literature. Our methods appear to offer a robust and reliable automated classification of OCT frames that might assist physicians indicating potential frames to analyze. Methods for improving neural networks generalization have increased the classification performance.

  1. Detection of white matter lesion regions in MRI using SLIC0 and convolutional neural network.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Pedro Henrique Bandeira; Valente, Thales Levi Azevedo; Diniz, João Otávio Bandeira; Silva, Aristófanes Corrêa; Gattass, Marcelo; Ventura, Nina; Muniz, Bernardo Carvalho; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro

    2018-04-19

    White matter lesions are non-static brain lesions that have a prevalence rate up to 98% in the elderly population. Because they may be associated with several brain diseases, it is important that they are detected as soon as possible. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides three-dimensional data with the possibility to detect and emphasize contrast differences in soft tissues, providing rich information about the human soft tissue anatomy. However, the amount of data provided for these images is far too much for manual analysis/interpretation, representing a difficult and time-consuming task for specialists. This work presents a computational methodology capable of detecting regions of white matter lesions of the brain in MRI of FLAIR modality. The techniques highlighted in this methodology are SLIC0 clustering for candidate segmentation and convolutional neural networks for candidate classification. The methodology proposed here consists of four steps: (1) images acquisition, (2) images preprocessing, (3) candidates segmentation and (4) candidates classification. The methodology was applied on 91 magnetic resonance images provided by DASA, and achieved an accuracy of 98.73%, specificity of 98.77% and sensitivity of 78.79% with 0.005 of false positives, without any false positives reduction technique, in detection of white matter lesion regions. It is demonstrated the feasibility of the analysis of brain MRI using SLIC0 and convolutional neural network techniques to achieve success in detection of white matter lesions regions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Proof of concept : GTFS data as a basis for optimization of Oregon's regional and statewide transit networks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    Assessing the current "state of health" of individual transit networks is a fundamental part of studies aimed at planning changes and/or upgrades to the transportation network serving a region. To be able to effect changes that benefit both the indiv...

  3. Regional brain network organization distinguishes the combined and inattentive subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Saad, Jacqueline F; Griffiths, Kristi R; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon; Williams, Leanne M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized clinically by hyperactive/impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms which determine diagnostic subtypes as Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-HI), Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and Combined (ADHD-C). Neuroanatomically though we do not yet know if these clinical subtypes reflect distinct aberrations in underlying brain organization. We imaged 34 ADHD participants defined using DSM-IV criteria as ADHD-I ( n  = 16) or as ADHD-C ( n  = 18) and 28 matched typically developing controls, aged 8-17 years, using high-resolution T1 MRI. To quantify neuroanatomical organization we used graph theoretical analysis to assess properties of structural covariance between ADHD subtypes and controls (global network measures: path length, clustering coefficient, and regional network measures: nodal degree). As a context for interpreting network organization differences, we also quantified gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Each ADHD subtype was distinguished by a different organizational profile of the degree to which specific regions were anatomically connected with other regions (i.e., in "nodal degree"). For ADHD-I (compared to both ADHD-C and controls) the nodal degree was higher in the hippocampus. ADHD-I also had a higher nodal degree in the supramarginal gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and superior occipital cortex compared to ADHD-C and in the amygdala compared to controls. By contrast, the nodal degree was higher in the cerebellum for ADHD-C compared to ADHD-I and in the anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus and putamen compared to controls. ADHD-C also had reduced nodal degree in the rolandic operculum and middle temporal pole compared to controls. These regional profiles were observed in the context of no differences in gray matter volume or global network organization. Our results suggest that the clinical distinction between the Inattentive and Combined subtypes of ADHD may also be

  4. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  5. Health care networks implementation and regional governance challenges in the Legal Amazon Region: an analysis of the QualiSUS-Rede Project.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Angela Oliveira; Cruz, Marly Marques; Giovanella, Ligia; Alves, Glaydes Dos Reis; Cardoso, Gisela Cordeiro Pereira

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to analyze the potential, limits and challenges of regional governance in the implementation process of health care networks in three Brazilian regions: Alto Solimões (Amazonas), Belém (Pará) and an interstate region comprising Tocantins, Pará and Maranhão states (Topama). The study is based on the evaluation study on the implementation of the Quality Health Care Network Development and Improvement Project (QualiSUS-Rede). This is a qualitative multiple case study with the analysis of official documents and use of semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders conducted from July to December 2014. Governance review encompassed three components: stakeholders involved, especially local steering groups and their regional coordination capacity; strategies used for strengthening regional governance, anchored on the intervention's modeling; and implementation of local health care networks. Results point that the regional managing commissions were the main governance strategy and that the QualiSUS-Rede Project strengthened regional governance and integration differently in every case, depending on stakeholders' administration and consensus capacity on regional and political priorities.

  6. Efficient airport detection using region-based fully convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Peng; Xu, Yuelei; Zhang, Xulei; Ma, Shiping; Li, Shuai; Lv, Chao

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a model for airport detection using region-based fully convolutional neural networks. To achieve fast detection with high accuracy, we shared the conv layers between the region proposal procedure and the airport detection procedure and used graphics processing units (GPUs) to speed up the training and testing time. For lack of labeled data, we transferred the convolutional layers of ZF net pretrained by ImageNet to initialize the shared convolutional layers, then we retrained the model using the alternating optimization training strategy. The proposed model has been tested on an airport dataset consisting of 600 images. Experiments show that the proposed method can distinguish airports in our dataset from similar background scenes almost real-time with high accuracy, which is much better than traditional methods.

  7. Development of a system for transferring images via a network: supporting a regional liaison.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Naoki; Manabe, Shiro; Takeda, Toshihiro; Shinichirou, Kitamura; Junichi, Murakami; Kouji, Kiso; Matsumura, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    We developed a system that transfers images via network and started using them in our hospital's PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems) in 2006. We are pleased to report that the system has been re-developed and has been running so that there will be a regional liaison in the future. It has become possible to automatically transfer images simply by selecting the destination hospital that is registered in advance at the relay server. The gateway of this system can send images to a multi-center, relay management server, which receives the images and resends them. This system has the potential to be useful for image exchange, and to serve as a regional medical liaison.

  8. Regionalization of land-use impacts on streamflow using a network of paired catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa-Tocachi, Boris F.; Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the impact of land use and cover (LUC) change on catchment hydrological response is essential for land-use planning and management. Yet hydrologists are often not able to present consistent and reliable evidence to support such decision-making. The issue tends to be twofold: a scarcity of relevant observations, and the difficulty of regionalizing any existing observations. This study explores the potential of a paired catchment monitoring network to provide statistically robust, regionalized predictions of LUC change impact in an environment of high hydrological variability. We test the importance of LUC variables to explain hydrological responses and to improve regionalized predictions using 24 catchments distributed along the Tropical Andes. For this, we calculate first 50 physical catchment properties, and then select a subset based on correlation analysis. The reduced set is subsequently used to regionalize a selection of hydrological indices using multiple linear regression. Contrary to earlier studies, we find that incorporating LUC variables in the regional model structures increases significantly regression performance and predictive capacity for 66% of the indices. For the runoff ratio, baseflow index, and slope of the flow duration curve, the mean absolute error reduces by 53% and the variance of the residuals by 79%, on average. We attribute the explanatory capacity of LUC in the regional model to the pairwise monitoring setup, which increases the contrast of the land-use signal in the data set. As such, it may be a useful strategy to optimize data collection to support watershed management practices and improve decision-making in data-scarce regions.

  9. Loss of regional accent after damage to the speech production network.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Dávila, Guadalupe; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Beltrán-Corbellini, Álvaro; Santana-Moreno, Daniel; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María José; Massone, María Ignacia; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping studies reveal that selective damage to one or more components of the speech production network can be associated with foreign accent syndrome, changes in regional accent (e.g., from Parisian accent to Alsatian accent), stronger regional accent, or re-emergence of a previously learned and dormant regional accent. Here, we report loss of regional accent after rapidly regressive Broca's aphasia in three Argentinean patients who had suffered unilateral or bilateral focal lesions in components of the speech production network. All patients were monolingual speakers with three different native Spanish accents (Cordobés or central, Guaranítico or northeast, and Bonaerense). Samples of speech production from the patient with native Córdoba accent were compared with previous recordings of his voice, whereas data from the patient with native Guaranítico accent were compared with speech samples from one healthy control matched for age, gender, and native accent. Speech samples from the patient with native Buenos Aires's accent were compared with data obtained from four healthy control subjects with the same accent. Analysis of speech production revealed discrete slowing in speech rate, inappropriate long pauses, and monotonous intonation. Phonemic production remained similar to those of healthy Spanish speakers, but phonetic variants peculiar to each accent (e.g., intervocalic aspiration of /s/ in Córdoba accent) were absent. While basic normal prosodic features of Spanish prosody were preserved, features intrinsic to melody of certain geographical areas (e.g., rising end F0 excursion in declarative sentences intoned with Córdoba accent) were absent. All patients were also unable to produce sentences with different emotional prosody. Brain imaging disclosed focal left hemisphere lesions involving the middle part of the motor cortex, the post-central cortex, the posterior inferior and/or middle frontal cortices, insula, anterior putamen and

  10. Loss of regional accent after damage to the speech production network

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Marcelo L.; Dávila, Guadalupe; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Beltrán-Corbellini, Álvaro; Santana-Moreno, Daniel; Roé-Vellvé, Núria; Thurnhofer-Hemsi, Karl; Torres-Prioris, María José; Massone, María Ignacia; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping studies reveal that selective damage to one or more components of the speech production network can be associated with foreign accent syndrome, changes in regional accent (e.g., from Parisian accent to Alsatian accent), stronger regional accent, or re-emergence of a previously learned and dormant regional accent. Here, we report loss of regional accent after rapidly regressive Broca’s aphasia in three Argentinean patients who had suffered unilateral or bilateral focal lesions in components of the speech production network. All patients were monolingual speakers with three different native Spanish accents (Cordobés or central, Guaranítico or northeast, and Bonaerense). Samples of speech production from the patient with native Córdoba accent were compared with previous recordings of his voice, whereas data from the patient with native Guaranítico accent were compared with speech samples from one healthy control matched for age, gender, and native accent. Speech samples from the patient with native Buenos Aires’s accent were compared with data obtained from four healthy control subjects with the same accent. Analysis of speech production revealed discrete slowing in speech rate, inappropriate long pauses, and monotonous intonation. Phonemic production remained similar to those of healthy Spanish speakers, but phonetic variants peculiar to each accent (e.g., intervocalic aspiration of /s/ in Córdoba accent) were absent. While basic normal prosodic features of Spanish prosody were preserved, features intrinsic to melody of certain geographical areas (e.g., rising end F0 excursion in declarative sentences intoned with Córdoba accent) were absent. All patients were also unable to produce sentences with different emotional prosody. Brain imaging disclosed focal left hemisphere lesions involving the middle part of the motor cortex, the post-central cortex, the posterior inferior and/or middle frontal cortices, insula, anterior putamen and

  11. Architecture of a consent management suite and integration into IHE-based Regional Health Information Networks.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Oliver; Birkle, Markus; Köster, Lennart; Bergh, Björn

    2011-10-04

    The University Hospital Heidelberg is implementing a Regional Health Information Network (RHIN) in the Rhine-Neckar-Region in order to establish a shared-care environment, which is based on established Health IT standards and in particular Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE). Similar to all other Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health Record (PHR) approaches the chosen Personal Electronic Health Record (PEHR) architecture relies on the patient's consent in order to share documents and medical data with other care delivery organizations, with the additional requirement that the German legislation explicitly demands a patients' opt-in and does not allow opt-out solutions. This creates two issues: firstly the current IHE consent profile does not address this approach properly and secondly none of the employed intra- and inter-institutional information systems, like almost all systems on the market, offers consent management solutions at all. Hence, the objective of our work is to develop and introduce an extensible architecture for creating, managing and querying patient consents in an IHE-based environment. Based on the features offered by the IHE profile Basic Patient Privacy Consent (BPPC) and literature, the functionalities and components to meet the requirements of a centralized opt-in consent management solution compliant with German legislation have been analyzed. Two services have been developed and integrated into the Heidelberg PEHR. The standard-based Consent Management Suite consists of two services. The Consent Management Service is able to receive and store consent documents. It can receive queries concerning a dedicated patient consent, process it and return an answer. It represents a centralized policy enforcement point. The Consent Creator Service allows patients to create their consents electronically. Interfaces to a Master Patient Index (MPI) and a provider index allow to dynamically generate XACML-based policies which are

  12. Architecture of a consent management suite and integration into IHE-based regional health information networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The University Hospital Heidelberg is implementing a Regional Health Information Network (RHIN) in the Rhine-Neckar-Region in order to establish a shared-care environment, which is based on established Health IT standards and in particular Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE). Similar to all other Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health Record (PHR) approaches the chosen Personal Electronic Health Record (PEHR) architecture relies on the patient's consent in order to share documents and medical data with other care delivery organizations, with the additional requirement that the German legislation explicitly demands a patients' opt-in and does not allow opt-out solutions. This creates two issues: firstly the current IHE consent profile does not address this approach properly and secondly none of the employed intra- and inter-institutional information systems, like almost all systems on the market, offers consent management solutions at all. Hence, the objective of our work is to develop and introduce an extensible architecture for creating, managing and querying patient consents in an IHE-based environment. Methods Based on the features offered by the IHE profile Basic Patient Privacy Consent (BPPC) and literature, the functionalities and components to meet the requirements of a centralized opt-in consent management solution compliant with German legislation have been analyzed. Two services have been developed and integrated into the Heidelberg PEHR. Results The standard-based Consent Management Suite consists of two services. The Consent Management Service is able to receive and store consent documents. It can receive queries concerning a dedicated patient consent, process it and return an answer. It represents a centralized policy enforcement point. The Consent Creator Service allows patients to create their consents electronically. Interfaces to a Master Patient Index (MPI) and a provider index allow to dynamically generate XACML

  13. Regional and local variations in atmospheric aerosols using ground-based sun photometry during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Nakata, Makiko; Holben, Brent N.

    2016-11-01

    Aerosol mass concentrations are affected by local emissions as well as long-range transboundary (LRT) aerosols. This work investigates regional and local variations of aerosols based on Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON). We constructed DRAGON-Japan and DRAGON-Osaka in spring of 2012. The former network covers almost all of Japan in order to obtain aerosol information in regional scale over Japanese islands. It was determined from the DRAGON-Japan campaign that the values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) decrease from west to east during an aerosol episode. In fact, the highest AOT was recorded at Fukue Island at the western end of the network, and the value was much higher than that of urban areas. The latter network (DRAGON-Osaka) was set as a dense instrument network in the megalopolis of Osaka, with a population of 12 million, to better understand local aerosol dynamics in urban areas. AOT was further measured with a mobile sun photometer attached to a car. This transect information showed that aerosol concentrations rapidly changed in time and space together when most of the Osaka area was covered with moderate LRT aerosols. The combined use of the dense instrument network (DRAGON-Osaka) and high-frequency measurements provides the motion of aerosol advection, which coincides with the wind vector around the layer between 700 and 850 hPa as provided by the reanalysis data of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).

  14. Regional and Local Variations in Atmospheric Aerosols Using Ground-Based Sun Photometry During Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) in 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Nakata, Makiko; Holben, Brent N.

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol mass concentrations are affected by local emissions as well as long-range transboundary (LRT) aerosols. This work investigates regional and local variations of aerosols based on Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON).We constructed DRAGON-Japan and DRAGON-Osaka in spring of 2012. The former network covers almost all of Japan in order to obtain aerosol information in regional scale over Japanese islands. It was determined from the DRAGON-Japan campaign that the values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) decrease from west to east during an aerosol episode. In fact, the highest AOT was recorded at Fukue Island at the western end of the network, and the value was much higher than that of urban areas. The latter network (DRAGON-Osaka) was set as a dense instrument network in the megalopolis of Osaka, with a population of 12 million, to better understand local aerosol dynamics in urban areas. AOT was further measured with a mobile sun photometer attached to a car. This transect information showed that aerosol concentrations rapidly changed in time and space together when most of the Osaka area was covered with moderate LRT aerosols. The combined use of the dense instrument network (DRAGON-Osaka) and high-frequency measurements provides the motion of aerosol advection, which coincides with the wind vector around the layer between 700 and 850 hPa as provided by the reanalysis data of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).

  15. A light and faster regional convolutional neural network for object detection in optical remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Peng; Zhang, Ye; Deng, Wei-Jian; Jia, Ping; Kuijper, Arjan

    2018-07-01

    Detection of objects from satellite optical remote sensing images is very important for many commercial and governmental applications. With the development of deep convolutional neural networks (deep CNNs), the field of object detection has seen tremendous advances. Currently, objects in satellite remote sensing images can be detected using deep CNNs. In general, optical remote sensing images contain many dense and small objects, and the use of the original Faster Regional CNN framework does not yield a suitably high precision. Therefore, after careful analysis we adopt dense convoluted networks, a multi-scale representation and various combinations of improvement schemes to enhance the structure of the base VGG16-Net for improving the precision. We propose an approach to reduce the test-time (detection time) and memory requirements. To validate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform experiments using satellite remote sensing image datasets of aircraft and automobiles. The results show that the improved network structure can detect objects in satellite optical remote sensing images more accurately and efficiently.

  16. Regional shape-based feature space for segmenting biomedical images using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaramoorthy, Gopal; Hoford, John D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1993-07-01

    In biomedical images, structure of interest, particularly the soft tissue structures, such as the heart, airways, bronchial and arterial trees often have grey-scale and textural characteristics similar to other structures in the image, making it difficult to segment them using only gray- scale and texture information. However, these objects can be visually recognized by their unique shapes and sizes. In this paper we discuss, what we believe to be, a novel, simple scheme for extracting features based on regional shapes. To test the effectiveness of these features for image segmentation (classification), we use an artificial neural network and a statistical cluster analysis technique. The proposed shape-based feature extraction algorithm computes regional shape vectors (RSVs) for all pixels that meet a certain threshold criteria. The distance from each such pixel to a boundary is computed in 8 directions (or in 26 directions for a 3-D image). Together, these 8 (or 26) values represent the pixel's (or voxel's) RSV. All RSVs from an image are used to train a multi-layered perceptron neural network which uses these features to 'learn' a suitable classification strategy. To clearly distinguish the desired object from other objects within an image, several examples from inside and outside the desired object are used for training. Several examples are presented to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our algorithm. Both synthetic and actual biomedical images are considered. Future extensions to this algorithm are also discussed.

  17. Evaluating the intersection of a regional wildlife connectivity network with highways.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Samuel A; Lewis, Jesse S; Landguth, Erin L

    2013-01-01

    Reliable predictions of regional-scale population connectivity are needed to prioritize conservation actions. However, there have been few examples of regional connectivity models that are empirically derived and validated. The central goals of this paper were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of factorial least cost path corridor mapping on an empirical resistance surface in reflecting the frequency of highway crossings by American black bear, (2) predict the location and predicted intensity of use of movement corridors for American black bear, and (3) identify where these corridors cross major highways and rank the intensity of these crossings. We used factorial least cost path modeling coupled with resistant kernel analysis to predict a network of movement corridors across a 30.2 million hectare analysis area in Montana and Idaho, USA. Factorial least cost path corridor mapping was associated with the locations of actual bear highway crossings. We identified corridor-highway intersections and ranked these based on corridor strength. We found that a major wildlife crossing overpass structure was located close to one of the most intense predicted corridors, and that the vast majority of the predicted corridor network was "protected" under federal management. However, narrow, linear corridors connecting the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem to the rest of the analysis area had limited protection by federal ownership, making these additionally vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Factorial least cost path modeling coupled with resistant kernel analysis provides detailed, synoptic information about connectivity across populations that vary in distribution and density in complex landscapes. Specifically, our results could be used to quantify the structure of the connectivity network, identify critical linkage nodes and core areas, map potential barriers and fracture zones, and prioritize locations for mitigation, restoration and conservation actions.

  18. Observations of Global and Regional Ionospheric Irregularities and Scintillation Using GNSS Tracking Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Valant-Spaight, Bonnie; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Romans, Larry J.; Skone, Susan; Sparks, Lawrence; Hall, G. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The rate of TEC index (ROTI) is a measurement that characterizes ionospheric irregularities. It can be obtained from standard GNSS dual-frequency phase data collected using a geodetic type of GNSS receiver. By processing GPS data from ground-based networks of International GNSS Service and Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS), ROTI maps have been produced to observe global and regional scintillation activities. A major mid-latitude scintillation event in the contiguous United States is reported here that was captured in ROTI maps produced using CORS GPS data collected during a space weather storm. The analyses conducted in this work and previously by another group indicate that ROTI is a good occurrence indicator of both amplitude and phase scintillations of GPS L-band signals, even though the magnitudes of ROTI, S4, and sigma(sub phi) can be different. For example, our analysis indicates that prominent ROTI and the L1 phase scintillation (sigma(sub phi)) are well correlated temporally in the polar region while L1 amplitude scintillation rarely occurs. The differences are partially attributed to physics processes in different latitude regions, such as high-speed plasma convection in the polar region that can suppress the amplitude scintillation. An analysis of the impact of ionospheric scintillation on precise positioning, which requires use of dual-frequency phase data, is also conducted. The results indicate that significant (more than an order of magnitude) positioning errors can occur under phase scintillation conditions.

  19. Structure analysis and core community detection of embodied resources networks among regional industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xijun; Dong, Yanbo; Wu, Yuying; Wei, Guodan; Xing, Lizhi; Yan, Jia

    2017-08-01

    To address the double pressure of scarce resources and regional industrial isomorphism, this paper applied the concepts of exergy and embodied resources based on economic input-output (I-O) data. We constructed the embodied resources networks among the regional industries of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (also known as Jing-Jin-Ji) in China. We analyzed the rules of embodied resources consumption in the area's industries, identified the core community structures, and studied the characteristics of industrial homogeneity through regional comparisons. The results showed that the dependence on scarce resources of industrial operations in Beijing was less than in Jin-Ji, while the dependence on finance, technology, information, and other service resources in Beijing was higher than in Jin-Ji. The I-O efficiency of embodied resources among industries and the agglomeration of correlation relationships in industries with large embodied resources were higher than in Jin-Ji. The industrial coincidence degree in the ;bridge; industries and in the core community in Jin-Ji was higher than in Jing-Jin and Jing-Ji, which means the industrial homogeneous competition of Jin-Ji was higher, too. This study makes a significant contribution toward promoting the dislocation development of regional industries, accelerating the coordination of resources, and reducing homogeneity competition.

  20. Optimization based on benefit of regional energy suppliers of distributed generation in active distribution network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xianxu; Li, Guodong; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Xudong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of electricity market, distributed generation (DG) technology and related policies, regional energy suppliers are encouraged to build DG. Under this background, the concept of active distribution network (ADN) is put forward. In this paper, a bi-level model of intermittent DG considering benefit of regional energy suppliers is proposed. The objective of the upper level is the maximization of benefit of regional energy suppliers. On this basis, the lower level is optimized for each scene. The uncertainties of DG output and load of users, as well as four active management measures, which include demand-side management, curtailing the output power of DG, regulating reactive power compensation capacity and regulating the on-load tap changer, are considered. Harmony search algorithm and particle swarm optimization are combined as a hybrid strategy to solve the model. This model and strategy are tested with IEEE-33 node system, and results of case study indicate that the model and strategy successfully increase the capacity of DG and benefit of regional energy suppliers.

  1. Core and region-enriched networks of behaviorally regulated genes and the singing genome

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Osceola; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Howard, Jason T.; Blatti, Charles A; Liu, Fang; Ward, James M.; Wang, Rui; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Kellis, Manolis; Mukherjee, Sayan; Sinha, Saurabh; Hartemink, Alexander J.; West, Anne E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds represent an important model organism for elucidating molecular mechanisms that link genes with complex behaviors, in part because they have discrete vocal learning circuits that have parallels with those that mediate human speech. We found that ~10% of the genes in the avian genome were regulated by singing, and we found a striking regional diversity of both basal and singing-induced programs in the four key song nuclei of the zebra finch, a vocal learning songbird. The region-enriched patterns were a result of distinct combinations of region-enriched transcription factors (TFs), their binding motifs, and presinging acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) enhancer activity in the regulatory regions of the associated genes. RNA interference manipulations validated the role of the calcium-response transcription factor (CaRF) in regulating genes preferentially expressed in specific song nuclei in response to singing. Thus, differential combinatorial binding of a small group of activity-regulated TFs and predefined epigenetic enhancer activity influences the anatomical diversity of behaviorally regulated gene networks. PMID:25504732

  2. Energy efficient data representation and aggregation with event region detection in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Torsha

    Unlike conventional networks, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are limited in power, have much smaller memory buffers, and possess relatively slower processing speeds. These characteristics necessitate minimum transfer and storage of information in order to prolong the network lifetime. In this dissertation, we exploit the spatio-temporal nature of sensor data to approximate the current values of the sensors based on readings obtained from neighboring sensors and itself. We propose a Tree based polynomial REGression algorithm, (TREG) that addresses the problem of data compression in wireless sensor networks. Instead of aggregated data, a polynomial function (P) is computed by the regression function, TREG. The coefficients of P are then passed to achieve the following goals: (i) The sink can get attribute values in the regions devoid of sensor nodes, and (ii) Readings over any portion of the region can be obtained at one time by querying the root of the tree. As the size of the data packet from each tree node to its parent remains constant, the proposed scheme scales very well with growing network density or increased coverage area. Since physical attributes exhibit a gradual change over time, we propose an iterative scheme, UPDATE_COEFF, which obviates the need to perform the regression function repeatedly and uses approximations based on previous readings. Extensive simulations are performed on real world data to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed aggregation algorithm, TREG. Results reveal that for a network density of 0.0025 nodes/m2, a complete binary tree of depth 4 could provide the absolute error to be less than 6%. A data compression ratio of about 0.02 is achieved using our proposed algorithm, which is almost independent of the tree depth. In addition, our proposed updating scheme makes the aggregation process faster while maintaining the desired error bounds. We also propose a Polynomial-based scheme that addresses the problem of Event Region

  3. NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayazi, Roya

    2013-04-01

    NEREUS- Network of European Regions Using Space - an initiative of regions to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe (Roya Ayazi, Secretary General NEREUS nereus.bruxelles@euroinbox.com) NEREUS currently unites 25 European regions and 39 Associate Members with the common objective to spread the use and understanding of space technologies across Europe for the benefit of regions and their citizens. As voice of European Regions, NEREUS serves as an advocate for the regions in matters of space uses and also as a direct channel to the regional users of space technologies (such as local authorities, SMEs, universities and research institutes and citizens). EO/GMES, Global Satellite Navigation and Telecommunication are identified by the NEREUS Political Charta as core areas of cooperation. NEREUS holds the view that broad societal awareness and involvement is vital to fully exploit Euope's space systems. Understanding the potentials of Copernicus and EGNOS/Galileo is in the first place an essential step for the development of the downstream sector. Therefore NEREUS makes special efforts to contribute with numerous network activities to communicate and promote the added value of space uses for public policies but also as valuable new business opportunities. In economic terms space uses are suited to stimulate economic growth and innovation dynamics at regional level. The network community produced several illustrative communication tools (publications, video, web-based tools, mobile NEREUS-exhibition) portraying examples how regions already use space systems and the concrete benefits for the citizens. Most of the NEREUS-publications and video are online: www.nereus-regions.eu. Pooling a considerable wealth of capabilities and expertise, the network offers its members a dynamic platform to collaborate and share experiences and knowledge inter regionally. But these tools were not only the outcome of an intensive regional collaboration but

  4. Wildland fire science and management in the U.S.: Spanning the boundaries through the regional knowledge exchange network (Abstract)

    Treesearch

    Susie Kocher; Eric Toman; Sarah Trainor; Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the federal Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) initiated a national network of regional fire science consortia to accelerate awareness, understanding and use of wildland fire science. This presentation synthesizes findings from initial needs assessments conducted by consortia in eight regions of the United States. The assessments evaluated how fire science is...

  5. A decade of passive seismic monitoring experiments with local networks in four Italian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Bagh, S.; Chiarabba, C.

    2009-10-01

    We report on four seismic monitoring experiments that in the past ten years we carried out with dense local networks in seismically active Italian areas where for at least a year, tens of three component seismic stations were set up to record microseismicity. The areas observed are Alpago-Cansiglio, located in the Venetian Alps, Città di Castello in the Northern Apennines, Marsica in the Central Apennines and Val d'Agri located in the Southern Apennines. We produced homogeneous catalogues regarding earthquake locations and local magnitudes to investigate seismicity patterns during an inter-seismic period. The four regions are characterised by different kinematics, strain rates and historical/recent seismicity. We investigate earthquake distribution in space, time and size obtaining reference seismic rates and parameters of the Gutenberg and Richter law. We declustered the catalogues to look for coherent signs in the background seismic activity. Despite a difference in the catalogues magnitudes of completeness due both to the diverse detection threshold of the local networks and different seismic release, we detect and observe two common main behaviours: a) The Alpago-Cansiglio and Marsica regions are characterised by a relatively lower rate of seismic release associated to the episodic occurrence of seismic sequences with the largest event being 3 < ML < 4. In these areas the seismicity is not localised around the main faults. b) The Città di Castello and Val d'Agri regions have a relatively high rate of seismicity release almost continuously with time, and the increase in earthquake production is not clearly related to seismic sequences. In these areas the seismicity nucleates around defined fault systems and is usually lower than ML < 3. We suggest that the presence of over-pressured fluids in the Città di Castello and Val d'Agri uppermost crustal volume may favour and mould the higher rate of microseismic release.

  6. Revealing the cerebral regions and networks mediating vulnerability to depression: oxidative metabolism mapping of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Kaart, Tanel; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Mällo, Tanel; Del Río, Joaquin; Tordera, Rosa M; Ramirez, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficiency of a Protected-Area Network in a Mediterranean Region: A Multispecies Assessment with Raptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellán, María D.; Martínez, José E.; Palazón, José A.; Esteve, Miguel Á.; Calvo, José F.

    2011-05-01

    Three different systems of designating protected areas in a Mediterranean region in southeastern Spain were studied, referring to their effectiveness and efficiency for protecting both the breeding territories and the suitable habitat of a set of ten raptor species. Taking into consideration the varying degrees of endangerment of these species, a map of multispecies conservation values was also drawn up and superimposed on the three protected-area systems studied. In order to compare the levels of protection afforded by the three systems, we considered two indices that measured their relative effectiveness and efficiency. The effectiveness estimated the proportion of territories or optimal habitat protected by the networks while efficiency implicitly considered the area of each system (percentage of breeding territories or optimal habitat protected per 1% of land protected). Overall, our results showed that the most efficient system was that formed by the set of regional parks and reserves (17 protected breeding territories per 100 km2), although, given its small total area, it was by far the least effective (only protecting the 21% of the breeding territories of all species and 17% of the area of high conservation value). The systems formed by the Special Protection Areas (designated under the EU "Birds Directive") and by the Special Conservation Areas (designated under the EU "Habitats Directive") notably increased the percentages of protected territories of all species (61%) and area of high conservation value (57%), but their efficiency was not as high as expected in most cases. The overall level of protection was high for all species except for the Lesser Kestrel ( Falco naumanni), an endangered falcon that inhabits pseudo-steppe and traditional agricultural habitats, which are clearly underrepresented in the protected-area network of the study region.

  8. Regional neuronal network failure and cognition in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Carter, S F; Embleton, K V; Anton-Rodriguez, J M; Burns, A; Ralph, M A L; Herholz, K

    2014-06-01

    The severe cognitive deficits in Alzheimer disease are associated with structural lesions in gray and white matter in addition to changes in synaptic function. The current investigation studied the breakdown of the structure and function in regional networks involving the Papez circuit and extended neocortical association areas. Cortical volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging (3T MR imaging), positron-emission tomography with (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose on a high-resolution research tomograph, and comprehensive neuropsychological assessments were performed in patients with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer disease, those with mild cognitive impairment, and elderly healthy controls. Atrophy of the medial temporal lobes was the strongest and most consistent abnormality in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Atrophy in the temporal, frontal, and parietal regions was most strongly related to episodic memory deficits, while deficits in semantic cognition were also strongly related to reductions of glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex and temporoparietal regions. Changes in fractional anisotropy within white matter tracts, particularly in the left cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were significantly associated with the cognitive deficits in multiple regression analyses. Posterior cingulate and orbitofrontal metabolic deficits appeared to be related to microstructural changes in projecting white matter tracts. Many lesioned network components within the Papez circuit and extended neocortical association areas were significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction in both mild cognitive impairment and late-onset sporadic Alzheimer disease. Hippocampal atrophy was the most prominent lesion, with associated impairment of the uncinate and cingulum white matter microstructures and hippocampal and posterior cingulate metabolic impairment. © 2014 by American

  9. Utah's Regional/Urban ANSS Seismic Network---Strategies and Tools for Quality Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlacu, R.; Arabasz, W. J.; Pankow, K. L.; Pechmann, J. C.; Drobeck, D. L.; Moeinvaziri, A.; Roberson, P. M.; Rusho, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    The University of Utah's regional/urban seismic network (224 stations recorded: 39 broadband, 87 strong-motion, 98 short-period) has become a model for locally implementing the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) because of successes in integrating weak- and strong-motion recording and in developing an effective real-time earthquake information system. Early achievements included implementing ShakeMap, ShakeCast, point-to- multipoint digital telemetry, and an Earthworm Oracle database, as well as in-situ calibration of all broadband and strong-motion stations and submission of all data and metadata into the IRIS DMC. Regarding quality performance, our experience as a medium-size regional network affirms the fundamental importance of basics such as the following: for data acquisition, deliberate attention to high-quality field installations, signal quality, and computer operations; for operational efficiency, a consistent focus on professional project management and human resources; and for customer service, healthy partnerships---including constant interactions with emergency managers, engineers, public policy-makers, and other stakeholders as part of an effective state earthquake program. (Operational cost efficiencies almost invariably involve trade-offs between personnel costs and the quality of hardware and software.) Software tools that we currently rely on for quality performance include those developed by UUSS (e.g., SAC and shell scripts for estimating local magnitudes) and software developed by other organizations such as: USGS (Earthworm), University of Washington (interactive analysis software), ISTI (SeisNetWatch), and IRIS (PDCC, BUD tools). Although there are many pieces, there is little integration. One of the main challenges we face is the availability of a complete and coherent set of tools for automatic and post-processing to assist in achieving the goals/requirements set forth by ANSS. Taking our own network---and ANSS---to the next level

  10. Epidemiological Features and Control Progress of Schistosomiasis in Waterway-Network Region in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Li, W; Wu, F; Zhang, J-F; Yang, K; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis was one of the most serious parasitic diseases in The People's Republic of China, and the endemic region was classified into three types according to the epidemiological characteristics and living conditions of the intermediate host. After more than 60years of efforts, schistosomiasis control programme has made great strides in waterway-network regions. We analyse the epidemic changes of schistosomiasis and its control progress through the schistosomiasis regions' documents and investigation data to evaluate the efficacy of the schistosomiasis control strategies in the waterway-network-type endemic region, which provides the basis for refinement of efforts, as well as summary of the Chinese schistosomiasis control experience in the waterway-network areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreased regional activity of default-mode network in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients at rest.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenbin; Su, Qinji; Yao, Dapeng; Jiang, Jiajing; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Liuyu; Zhai, Jinguo; Xiao, Changqing

    2014-04-01

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis posits that abnormal resting-state connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) acts as a key role in schizophrenia. However, little is known about the regional alterations of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients. Unaffected siblings have a unique advantage in neuroimaging studies independent of clinical and treatment issues that complicate studies on patients themselves. In the present study, we used fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) to investigate regional alterations of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients at rest. Forty-six unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fALFF and independent component analysis (ICA) approaches were used to analyze the data. The unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients had lower fALFF than the controls in the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). No significantly increased fALFF was found in any brain regions in the siblings compared to that in the controls. Further receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and support vector machine (SVM) analyses showed that the fALFF values of the left ITG could be utilized to separate the siblings from the controls. Our results first suggest that there is decreased regional activity of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients, and provide a clue that decreased regional activity of the left ITG could be applied as a candidate biomarker to identify the siblings from the controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. A Bayesian Belief Network framework to predict SOC stock change: the Veneto region (Italy) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Ferro, Nicola; Quinn, Claire Helen; Morari, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    A key challenge for soil scientists is predicting agricultural management scenarios that combine crop productions with high standards of environmental quality. In this context, reversing the soil organic carbon (SOC) decline in croplands is required for maintaining soil fertility and contributing to mitigate GHGs emissions. Bayesian belief networks (BBN) are probabilistic models able to accommodate uncertainty and variability in the predictions of the impacts of management and environmental changes. By linking multiple qualitative and quantitative variables in a cause-and-effect relationships, BBNs can be used as a decision support system at different spatial scales to find best management strategies in the agroecosystems. In this work we built a BBN to model SOC dynamics (0-30 cm layer) in the low-lying plain of Veneto region, north-eastern Italy, and define best practices leading to SOC accumulation and GHGs (CO2-equivalent) emissions reduction. Regional pedo-climatic, land use and management information were combined with experimental and modelled data on soil C dynamics as natural and anthropic key drivers affecting SOC stock change. Moreover, utility nodes were introduced to determine optimal decisions for mitigating GHGs emissions from croplands considering also three different IPCC climate scenarios. The network was finally validated with real field data in terms of SOC stock change. Results showed that the BBN was able to model real SOC stock changes, since validation slightly overestimated SOC reduction (+5%) at the expenses of its accumulation. At regional level, probability distributions showed 50% of SOC loss, while only 17% of accumulation. However, the greatest losses (34%) were associated with low reduction rates (100-500 kg C ha-1 y-1), followed by 33% of stabilized conditions (-100 < SOC < 100 kg ha-1 y-1). Land use management (especially tillage operations and soil cover) played a primary role to affect SOC stock change, while climate conditions

  13. Analysis of the streamflow-gaging station network in Ohio for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The streamflow-gaging station network in Ohio was evaluated for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The analysis involved application of the principles of generalized least squares regression between streamflow and climatic and basin characteristics. Regression equations were developed for three flow characteristics: (1) the instantaneous peak flow with a 100-year recurrence interval (P100), (2) the mean annual flow (Qa), and (3) the 7-day, 10-year low flow (7Q10). All active and discontinued gaging stations with 5 or more years of unregulated-streamflow data with respect to each flow characteristic were used to develop the regression equations. The gaging-station network was evaluated for the current (1996) condition of the network and estimated conditions of various network strategies if an additional 5 and 20 years of streamflow data were collected. Any active or discontinued gaging station with (1) less than 5 years of unregulated-streamflow record, (2) previously defined basin and climatic characteristics, and (3) the potential for collection of more unregulated-streamflow record were included in the network strategies involving the additional 5 and 20 years of data. The network analysis involved use of the regression equations, in combination with location, period of record, and cost of operation, to determine the contribution of the data for each gaging station to regional streamflow information. The contribution of each gaging station was based on a cost-weighted reduction of the mean square error (average sampling-error variance) associated with each regional estimating equation. All gaging stations included in the network analysis were then ranked according to their contribution to the regional information for each flow characteristic. The predictive ability of the regression equations developed from the gaging station network could be improved for all three flow characteristics with the collection of additional streamflow data

  14. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  15. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.

    2017-01-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links. PMID:28266589

  16. Detection of the Wenchuan aftershock sequence using waveform correlation with a composite regional network

    DOE PAGES

    Slinkard, Megan; Heck, Stephen; Schaff, David; ...

    2016-06-28

    Using template waveforms from aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake (12 May 2008, M s 8.0) listed in a global bulletin and continuous data from eight regional stations, we detected more than 6000 additional events in the mainshock source region from 1 May to 12 August 2008. These new detections obey Omori’s law, extend the magnitude of completeness downward by 1.1 magnitude units, and lead to a more than fivefold increase in number of known aftershocks compared with the global bulletins published by the International Data Centre and the Inter national Seismological Centre. Moreover, we detected more M > 2 eventsmore » than were listed by the Sichuan Seismograph Network. Several clusters of these detections were then relocated using the double-difference method, yielding locations that reduced travel-time residuals by a factor of 32 compared with the initial bulletin locations. Finally, our results suggest that using waveform correlation on a few regional stations can find aftershock events very effectively and locate them with precision.« less

  17. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. Dec.

    2017-03-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links.

  18. A dense Black Carbon network in the region of Paris, France: Implementation, objectives, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Gros, Valérie; Pernot, Pierre; Ghersi, Véronique; Ampe, Christophe; Songeur, Charlotte; Brugge, Benjamin; Debert, Christophe; Favez, Olivier; Le Priol, Tiphaine; Mocnik, Grisa

    2013-04-01

    Motivations. Road traffic and domestic wood burning emissions are two major contributors of particulate pollution in our cities. These two sources emit ultra-fine, soot containing, particles in the atmosphere, affecting health adversely, increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and casing lung cancer. A better characterization of soot containing aerosol sources in our major cities provides useful information for policy makers for assessment, implementation and monitoring of strategies to tackle air pollution issues affecting human health with additional benefits for climate change. Objectives. This study on local sources of primary Particulate Matter (PM) in the megacity of Paris is a follow-up of several programs (incl. EU-FP7-MEGAPOLI) that have shown that fine PM - in the Paris background atmosphere - is mostly secondary and imported. A network of 14 stations of Black Carbon has been implemented in the larger region of Paris to provide highly spatially resolved long term survey of local combustion aerosols. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that such densely BC network is operating over a large urban area, providing novel information on the spatial/temporal distribution of combustion aerosols within a post-industrialized megacity. Experimental. As part of the PRIMEQUAL "PREQUALIF" project, a dense Black Carbon network (of 14 stations) has been installed over the city of Paris beginning of 2012 in order to produce spatially resolved Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentration maps with high time resolution through modeling and data assimilation. This network is composed of various real-time instruments (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, MAAP by THERMO; Multi-wavelength Aethalometers by MAGEE Scientific) implemented in contrasted sites (rural background, urban background, traffic) complementing the regulated measurements (PM, NOx) in the local air quality network AIRPARIF (http

  19. Rational pain management in complex regional pain syndrome 1 (CRPS 1)--a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wertli, Maria M; Kessels, Alphons G H; Perez, Roberto S G M; Bachmann, Lucas M; Brunner, Florian

    2014-09-01

    Guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) 1 advocate several substance classes to reduce pain and support physical rehabilitation, but guidance about which agent should be prioritized when designing a therapeutic regimen is not provided. Using a network meta-analytic approach, we examined the efficacy of all agent classes investigated in randomized clinical trials of CRPS 1 and provide a rank order of various substances stratified by length of illness duration. In this study a network meta-analysis was conducted. The participants of this study were patients with CRPS 1. Searches in electronic, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and the reference lists of relevant articles were performed. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials comparing at least one analgesic agent with placebo or with another analgesic and reporting efficacy in reducing pain. Summary efficacy stratified by symptom duration and length of follow-up was computed across all substance classes. Two authors independently extracted data. In total, 16 studies were included in the analysis. Bisphosphonates appear to be the treatment of choice in early stages of CRPS 1. The effects of calcitonin surpass that of bisphosphonates and other substances as a short-term medication in more chronic stages of the illness. While most medications showed some efficacy on short-term follow-up, only bisphosphonates, NMDA analogs, and vasodilators showed better long-term pain reduction than placebo. For some drug classes, only a few studies were available and many studies included a small group of patients. Insufficient data were available to analyze efficacy on disability. This network meta-analysis indicates that a rational pharmacological treatment strategy of pain management should consider bisphosphonates in early CRPS 1 and a short-term course of calcitonin in later stages. While most medications showed some efficacy on short-term follow-up, only bisphosphonates

  20. [Regional networking of medical and vocational rehabilitation-- the bad Krozingen model].

    PubMed

    Kinne, G; Elsässer, D; Best, S; Jost, S; Zschache, R

    2002-10-01

    Regional networking facilitates flexible and individual integration of vocational programmes in medical rehabilitation. We present a pilot project of Theresienklinik II in cooperation with the Education centre for occupation and health (Bildungszentrum Beruf und Gesundheit) in Bad Krozingen. Orthopaedic and cardiac patients who are in danger to lose their capacity to work, participate in an integrated vocational reorientation programme during extended medical rehabilitation. The aim of the pilot project is an early assessment of motivation, work hardening, aptitude and interest, in order to accelerate vocational retraining and reintegration. Within one year 30 patients participated in the programme. Presented are the contents and course of the pilot project. First results show a high patient satisfaction with the programme.

  1. Regional and international integrated telemedicine network for organ transplant (HC 4028 & IN 4028 European Commission DGXIII).

    PubMed

    Vari, S G; Brugal, G; Godo, F; Bercic, B; Nagy, G; Avar, G; Adelh, D; Lagouarde, P

    2000-01-01

    A substantial portion of future medical practice will depend greatly on improved collaboration between the providers throughout the healthcare sector, and effective sharing of data and expertise by different healthcare professionals. In organ transplant it is a rule, donor organs are matched to recipients via national or multinational organ-sharing organizations. Only through close co-operation between transplant surgeons, immunologists, nephrologists, pathologists, radiologists and other physicians could one increase the efficiency of organ transplantation. Information technology (IT) has become an inevitable and inherent part of transplantation medicine. The RETRANSPLANT project interfaces and integrates IT from the European Union Fourth Framework projects to support the development of regional organ transplant information networks in Central Europe.

  2. Optimal region of latching activity in an adaptive Potts model for networks of neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollah-nia, Mohammad-Farshad; Saeedghalati, Mohammadkarim; Abbassian, Abdolhossein

    2012-02-01

    In statistical mechanics, the Potts model is a model for interacting spins with more than two discrete states. Neural networks which exhibit features of learning and associative memory can also be modeled by a system of Potts spins. A spontaneous behavior of hopping from one discrete attractor state to another (referred to as latching) has been proposed to be associated with higher cognitive functions. Here we propose a model in which both the stochastic dynamics of Potts models and an adaptive potential function are present. A latching dynamics is observed in a limited region of the noise(temperature)-adaptation parameter space. We hence suggest noise as a fundamental factor in such alternations alongside adaptation. From a dynamical systems point of view, the noise-adaptation alternations may be the underlying mechanism for multi-stability in attractor-based models. An optimality criterion for realistic models is finally inferred.

  3. Genomic and Network Patterns of Schizophrenia Genetic Variation in Human Evolutionary Accelerated Regions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Schadt, Eric E.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Roussos, Panos; Dudley, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    The population persistence of schizophrenia despite associated reductions in fitness and fecundity suggests that the genetic basis of schizophrenia has a complex evolutionary history. A recent meta-analysis of schizophrenia genome-wide association studies offers novel opportunities for assessment of the evolutionary trajectories of schizophrenia-associated loci. In this study, we hypothesize that components of the genetic architecture of schizophrenia are attributable to human lineage-specific evolution. Our results suggest that schizophrenia-associated loci enrich in genes near previously identified human accelerated regions (HARs). Specifically, we find that genes near HARs conserved in nonhuman primates (pHARs) are enriched for schizophrenia-associated loci, and that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes are under stronger selective pressure than other schizophrenia genes and other pHAR-associated genes. We further evaluate pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes in regulatory network contexts to investigate associated molecular functions and mechanisms. We find that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes significantly enrich in a GABA-related coexpression module that was previously found to be differentially regulated in schizophrenia affected individuals versus healthy controls. In another two independent networks constructed from gene expression profiles from prefrontal cortex samples, we find that pHAR-associated schizophrenia genes are located in more central positions and their average path lengths to the other nodes are significantly shorter than those of other schizophrenia genes. Together, our results suggest that HARs are associated with potentially important functional roles in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. PMID:25681384

  4. Face processing in autism spectrum disorders: from brain regions to brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Jason S.; Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by reduced attention to social stimuli including the human face. This hypo-responsiveness to stimuli that are engaging to typically developing individuals may result from dysfunctioning motivation, reward, and attention systems in the brain. Here we review an emerging neuroimaging literature that emphasizes a shift from focusing on hypo-activation of isolated brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus, amygdala, and superior temporal sulcus in ASD to a more holistic approach to understanding face perception as a process supported by distributed cortical and subcortical brain networks. We summarize evidence for atypical activation patterns within brain networks that may contribute to social deficits characteristic of the disorder. We conclude by pointing to gaps in the literature and future directions that will continue to shed light on aspects of face processing in autism that are still under-examined. In particular, we highlight the need for more developmental studies and studies examining ecologically valid and naturalistic social stimuli. PMID:25829246

  5. The enerMENA meteorological network - Solar radiation measurements in the MENA region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, D.; Wilbert, S.; Geuder, N.; Affolter, R.; Wolfertstetter, F.; Prahl, C.; Röger, M.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Abdellatif, G.; Guizani, A. Allah; Balghouthi, M.; Khalil, A.; Mezrhab, A.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Yassaa, N.; Chellali, F.; Draou, D.; Blanc, P.; Dubranna, J.; Sabry, O. M. K.

    2016-05-01

    For solar resource assessment of solar power plants and adjustment of satellite data, high accuracy measurement data of irradiance and ancillary meteorological data is needed. For the MENA region (Middle East and Northern Africa), which is of high importance for concentrating solar power applications, so far merely 2 publicly available ground measurement stations existed (BSRN network). This gap has been filled by ten stations in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan. In this publication the data quality is analyzed by evaluating data completeness and the cleanliness of irradiance sensors in comparison for all of the stations. The pyrheliometers have an average cleanliness of 99.2 % for week-daily cleaning. This is a 5 times higher effort than for Rotating Shadowband Irradiometer (RSI) stations which even have a slightly higher average cleanliness of 99.3 % for weekly cleaning. Furthermore, RSI stations show a data completeness of 99.4 % compared to 93.6 % at the stations equipped with thermal sensors. The results of this analysis are used to derive conclusions concerning instrument choice and are hence also applicable to other solar radiation measurements outside the enerMENA network. It turns out that RSIs are the more reliable and robust choice in cases of high soiling, rare station visits for cleaning and maintenance, as usual in desert sites. Furthermore, annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation as well as average meteorological parameters are calculated for all of the stations.

  6. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole. PMID:28121992

  7. Privacy policy analysis for health information networks and regional health information organizations.

    PubMed

    Noblin, Alice M

    2007-01-01

    Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) are forming in response to President George W. Bush's 2004 mandate that medical information be made available electronically to facilitate continuity of care. Privacy concerns are a deterrent to widespread acceptance of RHIOs. The Health Information Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 provides some guidelines for privacy protection. However, most states have stricter guidelines, causing difficulty when RHIOs form across these jurisdictions. This article compares several RHIOs including their privacy policies where available. In addition, studies were reviewed considering privacy concerns of people in the United States and elsewhere. Surveys reveal that Americans are concerned about the privacy of their personal health information and ultimately feel it is the role of the government to provide protection. The purpose of this article is to look at the privacy issues and recommend a policy that may help to resolve some of the concerns of both providers and patients. Policy research and action are needed to move the National Health Information Network toward reality. Efforts to provide consistency in privacy laws are a necessary early step to facilitate the construction and maintenance of RHIOs and the National Health Information Network.

  8. Genetic dissection of a regionally differentiated network for exploratory behavior in Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Berni, Jimena

    2015-05-18

    An efficient strategy to explore the environment for available resources involves the execution of random walks where straight line locomotion alternates with changes of direction. This strategy is highly conserved in the animal kingdom, from zooplankton to human hunter-gatherers. Drosophila larvae execute a routine of this kind, performing straight line crawling interrupted at intervals by pause turns that halt crawling and redirect the trajectory of movement. The execution of this routine depends solely on the activity of networks located in the thoracic and abdominal segments of the nervous system, while descending input from the brain serves to modify it in a context-dependent fashion. I used a genetic method to investigate the location and function of the circuitry required for the different elements of exploratory crawling. By using the Slit-Robo axon guidance pathway to target neuronal midline crossing defects selectively to particular regions of the thoracic and abdominal networks, it has been possible to define at least three functions required for the performance of the exploratory routine: (1) symmetrical outputs in thoracic and abdominal segments that generate the crawls; (2) asymmetrical output that is uniquely initiated in the thoracic segments and generates the turns; and (3) an intermittent interruption to crawling that determines the time-dependent transition between crawls and turns. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Dissection of a Regionally Differentiated Network for Exploratory Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Berni, Jimena

    2015-01-01

    Summary An efficient strategy to explore the environment for available resources involves the execution of random walks where straight line locomotion alternates with changes of direction. This strategy is highly conserved in the animal kingdom, from zooplankton to human hunter-gatherers [1–8]. Drosophila larvae execute a routine of this kind, performing straight line crawling interrupted at intervals by pause turns that halt crawling and redirect the trajectory of movement [9–11]. The execution of this routine depends solely on the activity of networks located in the thoracic and abdominal segments of the nervous system, while descending input from the brain serves to modify it in a context-dependent fashion [9]. I used a genetic method to investigate the location and function of the circuitry required for the different elements of exploratory crawling. By using the Slit-Robo axon guidance pathway to target neuronal midline crossing defects selectively to particular regions of the thoracic and abdominal networks, it has been possible to define at least three functions required for the performance of the exploratory routine: (1) symmetrical outputs in thoracic and abdominal segments that generate the crawls; (2) asymmetrical output that is uniquely initiated in the thoracic segments and generates the turns; and (3) an intermittent interruption to crawling that determines the time-dependent transition between crawls and turns. PMID:25959962

  10. A Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Ali Idarous; Hanapi, Zurina Mohd; Othman, Mohamed; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency for routing initiation and an inadequate allocated sextant on responding messages, the secure geographic routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have attracted considerable attention. However, the existing protocols are more likely to drop packets when legitimate nodes fail to respond to the routing initiation messages while attackers in the allocated sextant manage to respond. Furthermore, these protocols are designed with inefficient collection window and inadequate verification criteria which may lead to a high number of attacker selections. To prevent the failure to find an appropriate relay node and undesirable packet retransmission, this paper presents Secure Region-Based Geographic Routing Protocol (SRBGR) to increase the probability of selecting the appropriate relay node. By extending the allocated sextant and applying different message contention priorities more legitimate nodes can be admitted in the routing process. Moreover, the paper also proposed the bound collection window for a sufficient collection time and verification cost for both attacker identification and isolation. Extensive simulation experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in comparison with other existing protocols. The results demonstrate that SRBGR increases network performance in terms of the packet delivery ratio and isolates attacks such as Sybil and Black hole.

  11. Representativeness of regional and global mass-balance measurement networks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogley, J. G.; Moholdt, G.; Gardner, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    We showed in a recent publication that regional estimates of glacier mass budgets, obtained by interpolation from in-situ measurements, were markedly more negative than corresponding estimates by satellite gravimetry (GRACE) and satellite altimetry (ICESat) during 2003-2009. Examining the ICESat data in more detail, we found that in-situ records tend to be located in areas where glaciers are thinning more rapidly than as observed in their regional surroundings. Because neither GRACE nor ICESat can provide information for times before 2002-2003, and may not operate without interruption in the future, we explore possible explanations of and remedies for the identified bias in the in-situ network. Sparse spatial sampling, coupled with previously undetected spatial variability of mass balance at scales between the 10-km in-situ scale and the 350-km gravimetric scale, appears to be the leading explanation. Satisfactory remedies are not obvious. Selecting glaciers for in-situ measurement that are more representative will yield only incremental improvements. There appears to be no alternative to mass-balance modelling as a versatile tool for estimation of regional mass balance. However the meteorological data for forcing the surface components of glacier models have coarser resolution than is desirable and are themselves uncertain, especially in the remote regions where much of the glacier ice is found. Measurements of frontal (dynamic) mass changes are still difficult, and modelling of these changes remains underdeveloped in spite of recent advances. Thus research on a broad scale is called for in order to meet the challenge of producing more accurate hindcasts and projections of glacier mass budgets with fine spatial and temporal resolution.

  12. Research on investment decisions model of trans-regional transmission network based on the theory of NPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zai, Wenjiao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jichun; Shi, Haobo; Zeng, Pingliang

    2018-02-01

    The investment decision model of trans-regional transmission network in the context of Global Energy Internet was studied in this paper. The key factors affecting the trans-regional transmission network investment income: the income tax rate, the loan interest rate, the expected return on investment of the investment subject, the per capita GDP and so on were considered in the transmission network investment income model. First, according to the principle of system dynamics, the causality diagram of key factors was constructed. Then, the dynamic model of transmission investment decision was established. A case study of the power transmission network between China and Mongolia, through the simulation of the system dynamic model, the influence of the above key factors on the investment returns was analyzed, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the model was proved.

  13. In vitro human skin permeation and decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) using Dermal Decontamination Gel (DDGel) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL).

    PubMed

    Cao, Yachao; Hui, Xiaoying; Zhu, Hanjiang; Elmahdy, Akram; Maibach, Howard

    2018-07-01

    This study compared the efficiency for in vitro human skin decontamination using DDGel and RSDL. Experiments were performed using in vitro human skin models, in which skin was mounted onto Flow-Through diffusion cells. The mass of 14 -C CEES removed from skin surface after decontamination was quantitated by measuring radioactivity with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Both decontaminants removed more than 82% of CEES from skin. DDGel skin decontamination significantly reduced toxicant amount when compared to RSDL. Mean CEES remaining in stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis, dermis, and systemic absorption of DDGel and RSDL were, 0.12 and 0.55% (P < 0.01), 0.31 and 0.95% (p < 0.01), 1.08 and 2.92% (p < 0.05), 3.13 and 6.34% (p < 0.05), respectively. DDGel showed higher decontamination efficiency (twice decontamination efficacy factor, DEF) than RSDL and efficiently removed chemicals from the skin surface, importantly back-extracted from the SC, and significantly reduced both chemical penetration into skin and systemic absorption. Thus, DDGel can offer a potential as a next generation skin decontamination platform technology for military and civilian applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Social capital in a regional inter-hospital network among trauma centers (trauma network): results of a qualitative study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Loss, Julika; Weigl, Johannes; Ernstberger, Antonio; Nerlich, Michael; Koller, Michael; Curbach, Janina

    2018-02-26

    As inter-hospital alliances have become increasingly popular in the healthcare sector, it is important to understand the challenges and benefits that the interaction between representatives of different hospitals entail. A prominent example of inter-hospital alliances are certified 'trauma networks', which consist of 5-30 trauma departments in a given region. Trauma networks are designed to improve trauma care by providing a coordinated response to injury, and have developed across the USA and multiple European countries since the 1960s. Their members need to interact regularly, e.g. develop joint protocols for patient transfer, or discuss patient safety. Social capital is a concept focusing on the development and benefits of relations and interactions within a network. The aim of our study was to explore how social capital is generated and used in a regional German trauma network. In this qualitative study, we performed semi-standardized face-to-face interviews with 23 senior trauma surgeons (2013-14). They were the official representatives of 23 out of 26 member hospitals of the Trauma Network Eastern Bavaria. The interviews covered the structure and functioning of the network, climate and reciprocity within the network, the development of social identity, and different resources and benefits derived from the network (e.g. facilitation of interactions, advocacy, work satisfaction). Transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis. According to the interviews, the studied trauma network became a group of surgeons with substantial bonding social capital. The surgeons perceived that the network's culture of interaction was flat, and they identified with the network due to a climate of mutual respect. They felt that the inclusive leadership helped establish a norm of reciprocity. Among the interviewed surgeons, the gain of technical information was seen as less important than the exchange of information on political aspects. The perceived resources derived from

  15. Hybrid inversions of CO2 fluxes at regional scale applied to network design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Panagiotis; Gerbig, Christoph; -Thomas Koch, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Long term observations of atmospheric greenhouse gas measuring stations, located at representative regions over the continent, improve our understanding of greenhouse gas sources and sinks. These mixing ratio measurements can be linked to surface fluxes by atmospheric transport inversions. Within the upcoming years new stations are to be deployed, which requires decision making tools with respect to the location and the density of the network. We are developing a method to assess potential greenhouse gas observing networks in terms of their ability to recover specific target quantities. As target quantities we use CO2 fluxes aggregated to specific spatial and temporal scales. We introduce a high resolution inverse modeling framework, which attempts to combine advantages from pixel based inversions with those of a carbon cycle data assimilation system (CCDAS). The hybrid inversion system consists of the Lagrangian transport model STILT, the diagnostic biosphere model VPRM and a Bayesian inversion scheme. We aim to retrieve the spatiotemporal distribution of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at a high spatial resolution (10 km x 10 km) by inverting for spatially and temporally varying scaling factors for gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) and respiration (R) rather than solving for the fluxes themselves. Thus the state space includes parameters for controlling photosynthesis and respiration, but unlike in a CCDAS it allows for spatial and temporal variations, which can be expressed as NEE(x,y,t) = λG(x,y,t) GEE(x,y,t) + λR(x,y,t) R(x,y,t) . We apply spatially and temporally correlated uncertainties by using error covariance matrices with non-zero off-diagonal elements. Synthetic experiments will test our system and select the optimal a priori error covariance by using different spatial and temporal correlation lengths on the error statistics of the a priori covariance and comparing the optimized fluxes against the 'known truth'. As 'known truth' we use independent fluxes

  16. The relationship between context, structure, and processes with outcomes of 6 regional diabetes networks in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Mahdi; Vissers, Jan; Elkhuizen, Sylvia; van Dijk, Mattees; Vanhala, Antero; Karampli, Eleftheria; Faubel, Raquel; Forte, Paul; Coroian, Elena; van de Klundert, Joris

    2018-01-01

    While health service provisioning for the chronic condition Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) often involves a network of organisations and professionals, most evidence on the relationships between the structures and processes of service provisioning and the outcomes considers single organisations or solo practitioners. Extending Donabedian's Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model, we investigate how differences in quality of life, effective coverage of diabetes, and service satisfaction are associated with differences in the structures, processes, and context of T2D services in six regions in Finland, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Spain, and UK. Data collection consisted of: a) systematic modelling of provider network's structures and processes, and b) a cross-sectional survey of patient reported outcomes and other information. The survey resulted in data from 1459 T2D patients, during 2011-2012. Stepwise linear regression models were used to identify how independent cumulative proportion of variance in quality of life and service satisfaction are related to differences in context, structure and process. The selected context, structure and process variables are based on Donabedian's SPO model, a service quality research instrument (SERVQUAL), and previous organization and professional level evidence. Additional analysis deepens the possible bidirectional relation between outcomes and processes. The regression models explain 44% of variance in service satisfaction, mostly by structure and process variables (such as human resource use and the SERVQUAL dimensions). The models explained 23% of variance in quality of life between the networks, much of which is related to contextual variables. Our results suggest that effectiveness of A1c control is negatively correlated with process variables such as total hours of care provided per year and cost of services per year. While the selected structure and process variables explain much of the variance in service satisfaction, this is

  17. New PBO GPS Station Construction: Eastern Region Network Enhancements and Multiple-Monument Stability Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network consists of 1100 continuously operating, permanent GPS stations throughout the United States. The majority of this network was constructed using NSF-MREFC funding as part of the EarthScope Project during FY2003-FY2008. Since FY2009, UNAVCO has operated and maintained PBO through a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF. Construction of new, permanent GPS monuments in the PBO network was the result of two change orders to the original PBO O&M CA. Change Order 33 (CO33) allocated funds to construct additional GPS stations at six locations in the Eastern Region of PBO. Three of these locations were designed to replace poorly performing existing GPS monuments in Georgia, Texas and New York. The remaining three new locations were selected to fill in gaps in network coverage in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Construction of all six new sites was completed in September 2013. Important scientific goals for CO33 include improvement of the stable North American reference frame, measurement of the vertical signal associated with the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment, and improved constraints on surface deformation and possible earthquakes, which occur in the low-strain tectonic setting of the eastern North American Plate. Change Order 35 (CO35) allocated funds to construct two additional geodetic monuments at five existing PBO stations in order to test and compare the long-term stability of various monument designs under near-identical geologic conditions. Sites were chosen to yield a variety of geographic, hydrologic and geologic conditions, including both fine-grained alluvium and crystalline bedrock. At each location, three different monuments (deep drill braced, short drill braced/driven-braced, mast/pillar) were built with 10 meter spacing, with shared power systems and data telemetry infrastructure. Construction of these multi-monument test locations began in October 2012 and finished in September 2013. See G010- Berglund

  18. Research on the development efficiency of regional high-end talent in China: A complex network approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, based on the panel data of 31 provinces and cities in China from 1991 to 2016, the regional development efficiency matrix of high-end talent is obtained by DEA method, and the matrix is converted into a continuous change of complex networks through the construction of sliding window. Using a series of continuous changes in the complex network topology statistics, the characteristics of regional high-end talent development efficiency system are analyzed. And the results show that the average development efficiency of high-end talent in the western region is at a low level. After 2005, the national regional high-end talent development efficiency network has both short-range relevance and long-range relevance in the evolution process. The central region plays an important intermediary role in the national regional high-end talent development system. And the western region has high clustering characteristics. With the implementation of the high-end talent policies with regional characteristics by different provinces and cities, the relevance of high-end talent development efficiency in various provinces and cities presents a weakening trend, and the geographical characteristics of high-end talent are more and more obvious. PMID:29272286

  19. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  20. Potential fault region detection in TFDS images based on convolutional neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junhua; Xiao, Zhongwen

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, more than 300 sets of Trouble of Running Freight Train Detection System (TFDS) have been installed on railway to monitor the safety of running freight trains in China. However, TFDS is simply responsible for capturing, transmitting, and storing images, and fails to recognize faults automatically due to some difficulties such as such as the diversity and complexity of faults and some low quality images. To improve the performance of automatic fault recognition, it is of great importance to locate the potential fault areas. In this paper, we first introduce a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to TFDS and propose a potential fault region detection system (PFRDS) for simultaneously detecting four typical types of potential fault regions (PFRs). The experimental results show that this system has a higher performance of image detection to PFRs in TFDS. An average detection recall of 98.95% and precision of 100% are obtained, demonstrating the high detection ability and robustness against various poor imaging situations.

  1. Scene text detection via extremal region based double threshold convolutional network classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Lou, Jing; Chen, Longtao; Xia, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robust text detection approach in natural images which is based on region proposal mechanism. A powerful low-level detector named saliency enhanced-MSER extended from the widely-used MSER is proposed by incorporating saliency detection methods, which ensures a high recall rate. Given a natural image, character candidates are extracted from three channels in a perception-based illumination invariant color space by saliency-enhanced MSER algorithm. A discriminative convolutional neural network (CNN) is jointly trained with multi-level information including pixel-level and character-level information as character candidate classifier. Each image patch is classified as strong text, weak text and non-text by double threshold filtering instead of conventional one-step classification, leveraging confident scores obtained via CNN. To further prune non-text regions, we develop a recursive neighborhood search algorithm to track credible texts from weak text set. Finally, characters are grouped into text lines using heuristic features such as spatial location, size, color, and stroke width. We compare our approach with several state-of-the-art methods, and experiments show that our method achieves competitive performance on public datasets ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2013. PMID:28820891

  2. The energy balance and pressure in the solar transition zone for network and active region features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, K. R.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.; Brueckner, G. E.; Vanhoosier, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The electron pressure and energy balance in the solar transition zone are determined for about 125 network and active region features on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet spectra. Si III line intensity ratios obtained from the Naval Research Laboratory high-resolution telescope and spectrograph during a rocket flight are used as diagnostics of electron density and pressure for solar features near 3.5 x 10 to the 4th K. Observed ratios are compared with the calculated dependence of the 1301 A/1312 A and 1301 A/1296 A line intensity ratios on electron density, temperature and pressure. Electron densities ranging from 2 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm to 10 to the 12th/cu cm and active region pressures from 3 x 10 to the 15th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm K are obtained. Energy balance calculations reveal the balance of the divergence of the conductive flux and turbulent energy dissipation by radiative energy losses in a plane-parallel homogeneous transition zone (fill factor of 1), and an energy source requirement for a cylindrical zone geometry (fill factor less than 0.04).

  3. A Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network In The Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, B.; de Wekker, S.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    We have established a continuous CO2 observing network in the Rocky Mountains, building on technological and modeling advances made during the Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (CME), to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We will present a description of the Rocky RACCOON network and early results from the first three sites. There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. NACP aims to address these concerns through a dramatic expansion in observations and modeling capabilities over North America. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. However, plans for new continuous CO2 observing sites have omitted the mountain west. This resulted from expensive instrumentation in the face of limited resources, and a perception that current atmospheric transport models are not sophisticated enough to interpret CO2 measurements made in complex terrain. Through our efforts in CME, we have a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system and are developing mountain CO2 modeling tools that will help us to overcome these obstacles. Preliminary observational and modeling results give us confidence that continuous CO2 observations from mountain top observatories will provide useful constraints on regional carbon cycling and will be valuable in the continental inverse modeling efforts planned for NACP. We began at three Colorado sites in August 2005 and hope to add three to six sites in other western states in subsequent years, utilizing existing observatories to the maximum extent possible. The first three sites are at Niwot Ridge, allowing us to have an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA CMDL; at Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, allowing us to investigate comparisons between these

  4. A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for segmenting and classifying epithelial and stromal regions in histopathological images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Luo, Xiaofei; Wang, Guanhao; Gilmore, Hannah; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial (EP) and stromal (ST) are two types of tissues in histological images. Automated segmentation or classification of EP and ST tissues is important when developing computerized system for analyzing the tumor microenvironment. In this paper, a Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) based feature learning is presented to automatically segment or classify EP and ST regions from digitized tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Current approaches are based on handcraft feature representation, such as color, texture, and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) in classifying two regions. Compared to handcrafted feature based approaches, which involve task dependent representation, DCNN is an end-to-end feature extractor that may be directly learned from the raw pixel intensity value of EP and ST tissues in a data driven fashion. These high-level features contribute to the construction of a supervised classifier for discriminating the two types of tissues. In this work we compare DCNN based models with three handcraft feature extraction based approaches on two different datasets which consist of 157 Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained images of breast cancer and 1376 immunohistological (IHC) stained images of colorectal cancer, respectively. The DCNN based feature learning approach was shown to have a F1 classification score of 85%, 89%, and 100%, accuracy (ACC) of 84%, 88%, and 100%, and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 86%, 77%, and 100% on two H&E stained (NKI and VGH) and IHC stained data, respectively. Our DNN based approach was shown to outperform three handcraft feature extraction based approaches in terms of the classification of EP and ST regions. PMID:28154470

  5. BALTEX—an interdisciplinary research network for the Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckermann, Marcus; Langner, Joakim; Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Keevallik, Sirje; Schneider, Bernd; Arheimer, Berit; Markus Meier, H. E.; Hünicke, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    BALTEX is an environmental research network dealing with the Earth system of the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin. Important elements include the water and energy cycle, climate variability and change, water management and extreme events, and related impacts on biogeochemical cycles. BALTEX was founded in 1993 as a GEWEX continental-scale experiment and is currently in its second 10 yr phase. Phase I (1993-2002) was primarily dedicated to hydrological, meteorological and oceanographic processes in the Baltic Sea drainage basin, hence mostly dealt with the physical aspects of the system. Scientific focus was on the hydrological cycle and the exchange of energy between the atmosphere, the Baltic Sea and the surface of its catchment. The BALTEX study area was hydrologically defined as the Baltic Sea drainage basin. The second 10 yr phase of BALTEX (Phase II: 2003-12) has strengthened regional climate research, water management issues, biogeochemical cycles and overarching efforts to reach out to stakeholders and decision makers, as well as to foster communication and education. Achievements of BALTEX Phase II have been the establishment of an assessment report of regional climate change and its impacts on the Baltic Sea basin (from hydrological to biological and socio-economic), the further development of regional physical climate models and the integration of biogeochemical and ecosystem models. BALTEX features a strong infrastructure, with an international secretariat and a publication series, and organizes various workshops and conferences. This article gives an overview of the BALTEX programme, with an emphasis on Phase II, with some examples from BALTEX-related research.

  6. Bayesian Belief Network to support conflict analysis for groundwater protection: the case of the Apulia region.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Raffaele; D'Agostino, Daniela; Apollonio, Ciro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Vurro, Michele

    2013-01-30

    Water resource management is often characterized by conflicts, as a result of the heterogeneity of interests associated with a shared resource. Many water conflicts arise on a global scale and, in particular, an increasing level of conflicts can be observed in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by water scarcity. In the present work, in order to assist the conflict analysis process, and thus outline a proper groundwater management, stakeholders were involved in the process and suitable tools were used in a Mediterranean area (the Apulia region, in Italy). In particular, this paper seeks to elicit and structure farmers' mental models influencing their decision over the main water source for irrigation. The more crucial groundwater is for farmers' objectives, the more controversial is the groundwater protection strategy. Bayesian Belief Networks were developed to simulate farmers' behavior with regard to groundwater management and to assess the impacts of protection strategy. These results have been used to calculate the conflict degree in the study area, derived from the introduction of policies for the reduction of groundwater exploitation for irrigation purposes. The less acceptable the policy is, the more likely it is that conflict will develop between farmers and the Regional Authority. The results of conflict analysis were also used to contribute to the debate concerning potential conflict mitigation measures. The approach adopted in this work has been discussed with a number of experts in groundwater management policies and irrigation management, and its main strengths and weaknesses have been identified. Increasing awareness of the existence of potential conflicts and the need to deal with them can be seen as an interesting initial shift in the Apulia region's water management regime, which is still grounded in merely technical approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Deep Convolutional Neural Network for segmenting and classifying epithelial and stromal regions in histopathological images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Luo, Xiaofei; Wang, Guanhao; Gilmore, Hannah; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-05-26

    Epithelial (EP) and stromal (ST) are two types of tissues in histological images. Automated segmentation or classification of EP and ST tissues is important when developing computerized system for analyzing the tumor microenvironment. In this paper, a Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) based feature learning is presented to automatically segment or classify EP and ST regions from digitized tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Current approaches are based on handcraft feature representation, such as color, texture, and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) in classifying two regions. Compared to handcrafted feature based approaches, which involve task dependent representation, DCNN is an end-to-end feature extractor that may be directly learned from the raw pixel intensity value of EP and ST tissues in a data driven fashion. These high-level features contribute to the construction of a supervised classifier for discriminating the two types of tissues. In this work we compare DCNN based models with three handcraft feature extraction based approaches on two different datasets which consist of 157 Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained images of breast cancer and 1376 immunohistological (IHC) stained images of colorectal cancer, respectively. The DCNN based feature learning approach was shown to have a F1 classification score of 85%, 89%, and 100%, accuracy (ACC) of 84%, 88%, and 100%, and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 86%, 77%, and 100% on two H&E stained (NKI and VGH) and IHC stained data, respectively. Our DNN based approach was shown to outperform three handcraft feature extraction based approaches in terms of the classification of EP and ST regions.

  8. [Trauma network of the German Association of Trauma Surgery (DGU). Establishment, organization, and quality assurance of a regional trauma network of the DGU].

    PubMed

    Ruchholtz, S; Kühne, C A; Siebert, H

    2007-04-01

    The quality of care in Germany for seriously injured patients varies greatly in individual hospitals due to geographic variations among States and differences in resource allocation and treatment concepts. To assure and enhance treatment quality it seems sensible to establish a structured, quality assured network of clinics, which participate in the management of seriously injured patients according to different specified assignments. The conditions necessary for this type of network on a regional scale and for the clinics charged with the care of the seriously injured were summarized in the White Paper entitled "Management of the Seriously Injured-Recommendations for the Structure and Organization of Facilities in Germany for the Treatment of Seriously Injured Persons." The goal of this action is to ensure that every seriously injured person in Germany receives the best possible round-the-clock care in adherence to standardized quality criteria. This requires specialized expertise and the willingness of all involved parties-care providers, cost bearers, and hospital owners-to cooperate in further improving existing treatment concepts. As a logical consequence of long years of experience and scientific knowledge, the German Association of Trauma Surgery has developed a concept for establishing a regional trauma network of clinics, adapted to local conditions, for management of seriously injured patients. The participating facilities assume different responsibilities in the network depending on their equipment and structure. This article describes the individual steps toward establishing and organizing a network.

  9. A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone

    2013-04-01

    satellite data largely improves the spatial and temporal information on the events, filling up the gaps of uneven data distribution; for this issue LaMMA has multi-year skills in the acquisition and processing of geostationary and polar satellites. The regional raingauge network and meteorological stations will be instead used to obtain useful information both to calibration (as those related to radar reflectivity - rain rate relationships) and validation processes. The radar system and its mosaicking will be presented, as well as some preliminary products.

  10. Network Connectedness, Sense of Community, and Risk Perception of Climate Change Professionals in the Pacific Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlew, L. K.; Keener, V. W.; Finucane, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) Program conducted social network analysis research of climate change professionals (broadly defined) who are from or work in Hawaii and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) region. This study is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC) to address an identified need for a resource that quantifies the region's collaborative network of climate change professionals, and that supports the further development of cross-regional and inter-sectoral collaborations for future research and adaptation activities. A survey was distributed to nearly 1,200 people who are from and/or work in climate change related fields in the region. The Part One Survey questions (not confidential) created a preferential attachment network by listing major players in Hawaii and the USAPI, with additional open fields to identify important contacts in the greater professional network. Participants (n=340) identified 975 network contacts and frequency of communications (weekly, monthly, seasonally, yearly, at least once ever). Part Two Survey questions (confidential, n=302) explored climate change risk perceptions, Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC), sense of control over climate change impacts, sense of responsibility to act, policy beliefs and preferences regarding climate change actions, concern and optimism scales about specific impacts, and demographic information. Graphical representations of the professional network are being developed for release in September 2013 as a free online tool to promote and assist collaboration building among climate professionals in the region. The graphs are partitioned according to network 'hubs' (high centrality), participant location, and profession to clearly identify network strengths and opportunities for future collaborations across spatial and professional boundaries. For additional

  11. An Assessment of the Seismicity of the Bursa Region from a Temporary Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gok, Elcin; Polat, Orhan

    2012-04-01

    A temporary earthquake station network of 11 seismological recorders was operated in the Bursa region, south of the Marmara Sea in the northwest of Turkey, which is located at the southern strand of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). We located 384 earthquakes out of a total of 582 recorded events that span the study area between 28.50-30.00°E longitudes and 39.75-40.75°N latitudes. The depth of most events was found to be less than 29 km, and the magnitude interval ranges were between 0.3 ≤ ML ≤ 5.4, with RMS less than or equal to 0.2. Seismic activities were concentrated southeast of Uludag Mountain (UM), in the Kestel-Igdir area and along the Gemlik Fault (GF). In the study, we computed 10 focal mechanisms from temporary and permanents networks. The predominant feature of the computed focal mechanisms is the relatively widespread near horizontal northwest-southeast (NW-SE) T-axis orientation. These fault planes have been used to obtain the orientation and shape factor (R, magnitude stress ratio) of the principal stress tensors (σ1, σ2, σ3). The resulting stress tensors reveal σ1 closer to the vertical (oriented NE-SW) and σ2, σ3 horizontal with R = 0.5. These results confirm that Bursa and its vicinity could be defined by an extensional regime showing a primarily normal to oblique-slip motion character. It differs from what might be expected from the stress tensor inversion for the NAFZ. Different fault patterns related to structural heterogeneity from the north to the south in the study area caused a change in the stress regime from strike-slip to normal faulting.

  12. The Default Mode Network and EEG Regional Spectral Power: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Cornelius J.; Hitz, Konrad; Boers, Frank; Kawohl, Wolfram; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies have been linked to specific functions as an “electrophysiological signature” of a function. A combination of oscillatory rhythms has also been described for specific functions, with or without predominance of one specific frequency-band. In a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study at 3 T we studied the relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and the power of EEG frequency bands. As a methodological approach, we applied Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components (MELODIC) and dual regression analysis for fMRI resting state data. EEG power for the alpha, beta, delta and theta-bands were extracted from the structures forming the DMN in a region-of-interest approach by applying Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). A strong link between the spontaneous BOLD response of the left parahippocampal gyrus and the delta-band extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex was found. A positive correlation between the beta-1 frequency power extracted from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the spontaneous BOLD response of the right supplementary motor cortex was also established. The beta-2 frequency power extracted from the PCC and the precuneus showed a positive correlation with the BOLD response of the right frontal cortex. Our results support the notion of beta-band activity governing the “status quo” in cognitive and motor setup. The highly significant correlation found between the delta power within the DMN and the parahippocampal gyrus is in line with the association of delta frequencies with memory processes. We assumed “ongoing activity” during “resting state” in bringing events from the past to the mind, in which the parahippocampal gyrus is a relevant structure. Our data demonstrate that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations within the DMN are associated with different EEG-bands and strengthen the conclusion that this network is characterized by a specific

  13. Monitoring Instrument Performance in Regional Broadband Seismic Network Using Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, F.; Lyu, S.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the past ten years, the number of seismic stations has increased significantly, and regional seismic networks with advanced technology have been gradually developed all over the world. The resulting broadband data help to improve the seismological research. It is important to monitor the performance of broadband instruments in a new network in a long period of time to ensure the accuracy of seismic records. Here, we propose a method that uses ambient noise data in the period range 5-25 s to monitor instrument performance and check data quality in situ. The method is based on an analysis of amplitude and phase index parameters calculated from pairwise cross-correlations of three stations, which provides multiple references for reliable error estimates. Index parameters calculated daily during a two-year observation period are evaluated to identify stations with instrument response errors in near real time. During data processing, initial instrument responses are used in place of available instrument responses to simulate instrument response errors, which are then used to verify our results. We also examine feasibility of the tailing noise using data from stations selected from USArray in different locations and analyze the possible instrumental errors resulting in time-shifts used to verify the method. Additionally, we show an application that effects of instrument response errors that experience pole-zeros variations on monitoring temporal variations in crustal properties appear statistically significant velocity perturbation larger than the standard deviation. The results indicate that monitoring seismic instrument performance helps eliminate data pollution before analysis begins.

  14. The relationship between context, structure, and processes with outcomes of 6 regional diabetes networks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Elkhuizen, Sylvia; van Dijk, Mattees; Vanhala, Antero; Karampli, Eleftheria; Faubel, Raquel; Forte, Paul; Coroian, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Background While health service provisioning for the chronic condition Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) often involves a network of organisations and professionals, most evidence on the relationships between the structures and processes of service provisioning and the outcomes considers single organisations or solo practitioners. Extending Donabedian’s Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model, we investigate how differences in quality of life, effective coverage of diabetes, and service satisfaction are associated with differences in the structures, processes, and context of T2D services in six regions in Finland, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Spain, and UK. Methods Data collection consisted of: a) systematic modelling of provider network’s structures and processes, and b) a cross-sectional survey of patient reported outcomes and other information. The survey resulted in data from 1459 T2D patients, during 2011–2012. Stepwise linear regression models were used to identify how independent cumulative proportion of variance in quality of life and service satisfaction are related to differences in context, structure and process. The selected context, structure and process variables are based on Donabedian’s SPO model, a service quality research instrument (SERVQUAL), and previous organization and professional level evidence. Additional analysis deepens the possible bidirectional relation between outcomes and processes. Results The regression models explain 44% of variance in service satisfaction, mostly by structure and process variables (such as human resource use and the SERVQUAL dimensions). The models explained 23% of variance in quality of life between the networks, much of which is related to contextual variables. Our results suggest that effectiveness of A1c control is negatively correlated with process variables such as total hours of care provided per year and cost of services per year. Conclusions While the selected structure and process variables explain much of

  15. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Maldjian, Joseph A; Brunner, Robert L; Kuller, Lewis H; Johnson, Karen C; Mysiw, W Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Resnick, Susan M

    2011-05-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years; however, it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine learning technique that combined Random Forest and logistic regression with L(1) penalty, was applied to identify patterns among regional volumes associated with therapy and whether patterns discriminate between treatment groups. The multivariate pattern analysis detected smaller regional volumes of normal tissue within the limbic and temporal lobes among women that had been assigned to CEE therapy. Mean decrements ranged as high as 7% in the left entorhinal cortex and 5% in the left perirhinal cortex, which exceeded the effect sizes reported previously in frontal lobe and hippocampus. Overall accuracy of classification based on these patterns, however, was projected to be only 54.5%. Prescription of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years is associated with lower regional brain volumes, but it does not induce a characteristic spatial pattern of changes in brain volumes of sufficient magnitude to discriminate users and nonusers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of machine learning methods to describe the effects of conjugated equine estrogens therapy on region-specific brain volumes

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Ramon; Espeland, Mark A.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Davatzikos, Christos; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Brunner, Robert L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Wagner, Benjamin; Resnick, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years, however it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural MRI was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years, beginning at ages 65-80 years. A multivariate pattern analysis, based on a machine learning technique that combined Random Forest and logistic regression with L1 penalty, was applied to identify patterns among regional volumes associated with therapy and whether patterns discriminate between treatment groups. The multivariate pattern analysis detected smaller regional volumes of normal tissue within the limbic and temporal lobes among women that had been assigned to CEE therapy. Mean decrements ranged as high as 7% in the left entorhinal cortex and 5% in the left perirhinal cortex, which exceeded the effect sizes reported previously in frontal lobe and hippocampus. Overall accuracy of classification based on these patterns, however, was projected to be only 54.5%. Prescription of CEE therapy for an average of 6.6 years is associated with lower regional brain volumes, but it does not induce a characteristic spatial pattern of changes in brain volumes of sufficient magnitude to discriminate users and non-users. PMID:21292420

  17. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  18. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. L.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April-September) 2000-2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan) and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that require a more

  19. Regional Research Networking: A Stimulus to Research Collaboration and Research Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElmurry, Beverly J.; Minckley, Barbara B.

    1986-01-01

    Models for collegial networking as a means of increasing the participants' scholarly productivity are presented. A Midwestern historical methodology research interest group is described as an example of the long-term benefits of forming networks of scholars. (MSE)

  20. Measurement of traffic network vulnerability for Mississippi coastal region : final research report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-08-15

    Natural disasters such as a hurricane can cause great damages to the transportation networks and significantly affect the evacuation trip operations. An accurate understanding and measurement of the network vulnerability can enhance the evacuees p...

  1. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation.

    PubMed

    Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Henson, Richard N A; Tyler, Lorraine K; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E; Rowe, James B

    2016-03-16

    -based cohort (n = 602, 18-88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. Copyright © 2016 Tsvetanov et al.

  2. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity Maintains Cognition across the Lifespan Despite Accelerated Decay of Regional Brain Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N.A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Razi, Adeel; Geerligs, Linda; Ham, Timothy E.; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    large population-based cohort (n = 602, 18–88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. Cognitive ability was influenced by the strength of connection within and between functional brain networks, and this positive relationship increased with age. In older adults, there was more rapid decay of intrinsic neuronal activity in multiple regions of the brain networks, which related to cognitive performance. Our data demonstrate increased reliance on network flexibility to maintain cognitive function, in the presence of more rapid decay of neural activity. These insights will facilitate the development of new strategies to maintain cognitive ability. PMID:26985024

  3. Results of APL rain gauge network measurements in mid-Atlantic coast region and comparisons of distributions with CCIR models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman; Rowland, John

    1988-01-01

    In this effort are described cumulative rain rate distributions for a network of nine tipping bucket rain gauge systems located in the mid-Atlantic coast region in the vicinity of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. The rain gauges are situated within a gridded region of dimensions of 47 km east-west by 70 km north-south. Distributions are presented for the individual site measurements and the network average for the year period June 1, 1986 through May 31, 1987. A previous six year average distribution derived from measurements at one of the site locations is also presented. Comparisons are given of the network average, the CCIR (International Radio Consultative Committee) climatic zone, and the CCIR functional model distributions, the latter of which approximates a log normal at the lower rain rate and a gamma function at the higher rates.

  4. Networking of Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region and the Role of Japan University Accreditation Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinaga, Tatsuhiko

    2004-01-01

    There is a trend toward international collaboration among quality assurance agencies (QAAs) and the internationalisation of higher education in Japan. This paper is examines how Japan University Accreditation Association (JUAA) can establish a network in the region as it promised to do in the Tokyo Declaration. However, it is very hard for JUAA, a…

  5. How a Regional Broker Can Improve Industry Demand for University Interaction: A Case Study of the London Technology Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter; Schofield, Matt

    2006-01-01

    UK university research produces highly cited publications (DTI, 2004), but demand from UK business for commercial ideas from academia is weak (HM Treasury, 2003). This paper reviews factors in the development of one regional UK technology broker, the London Technology Network (LTN), which has achieved significant and audited business demand. The…

  6. A Decade of Experience: Which Network Structures Maximize Fire Service Capacity for Homeland Security Incidents in Metropolitan Regions?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency QHSR Quadrennial Homeland Security Review Report RCP Regional Catastrophic Preparedness SAA State...service has evolved from a single-purpose service focused on controlling fires to a multidimensional response element responsible for pre- hospital ... hospital preparedness program Preparedness Training for all personnel; training and network activities during prior year assist in preparedness

  7. St. Louis Regional Library Network Manuals: Delivery System Manual, INFO-PASS Manual, Interlibrary Loan Protocol, Procedures and Policies Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Regional Library Network, MO.

    Included in this set of manuals are: (1) guidelines for document delivery to member libraries within the St. Louis Regional Library Network (SLRLN) in which eligible materials are described, addressing and packing are outlined, routing and deliveries are discussed, and a list of delivery system participants is provided; (2) a descriptive guide to…

  8. From Networked Learning to Operational Practice: Constructing and Transferring Superintendent Knowledge in a Regional Instructional Rounds Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional rounds are an emerging network structure with processes and protocols designed to develop superintendents' knowledge and skills in leading large-scale improvement, to enable superintendents to build an infrastructure that supports the work of improvement, to assist superintendents in distributing leadership throughout their district,…

  9. An Optimal Hierarchical Decision Model for a Regional Logistics Network with Environmental Impact Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level. PMID:24977209

  10. Learning Oriented Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks for Building Detection in Satellite Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Gong, W.; Hu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Ding, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The automated building detection in aerial images is a fundamental problem encountered in aerial and satellite images analysis. Recently, thanks to the advances in feature descriptions, Region-based CNN model (R-CNN) for object detection is receiving an increasing attention. Despite the excellent performance in object detection, it is problematic to directly leverage the features of R-CNN model for building detection in single aerial image. As we know, the single aerial image is in vertical view and the buildings possess significant directional feature. However, in R-CNN model, direction of the building is ignored and the detection results are represented by horizontal rectangles. For this reason, the detection results with horizontal rectangle cannot describe the building precisely. To address this problem, in this paper, we proposed a novel model with a key feature related to orientation, namely, Oriented R-CNN (OR-CNN). Our contributions are mainly in the following two aspects: 1) Introducing a new oriented layer network for detecting the rotation angle of building on the basis of the successful VGG-net R-CNN model; 2) the oriented rectangle is proposed to leverage the powerful R-CNN for remote-sensing building detection. In experiments, we establish a complete and bran-new data set for training our oriented R-CNN model and comprehensively evaluate the proposed method on a publicly available building detection data set. We demonstrate State-of-the-art results compared with the previous baseline methods.

  11. The Evaluation of a Regional Faith Community Network's Million Hearts Program.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Million Hearts initiative is to prevent one million heart attacks and strokes by 2017. Maryland was one state in the Association of State and Territorial Health Official's Million Hearts State Learning Collaborative. Washington County, Maryland formed a collaboration between the County Health Department, Meritus Health System, and the Meritus Health Parish Nurse Coordinator to address hypertension in the county. Within a regional network of 52 faith communities, the Parish Nurse Coordinator recruited 25 faith community nurses to participate in a three-month program. Nurses were trained on proper blood pressure measurement and 22 nurses identified 58 participants engaged in blood pressure self-monitoring and coaching for lifestyle changes. Additionally, nurses took 1,729 blood pressures and provided health education to individuals within their congregations. Fifty-one participants participated in blood pressure self-monitoring and lifestyle coaching with faith community nurses. There was improvement in six out of seven lifestyle areas. Eight-two percent of participants (N = 42) decreased their systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure over three months. Coaching provided by faith community nurses can create an environment of sustained support to promote improved lifestyle and blood pressure changes over time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An optimal hierarchical decision model for a regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dezhi; Li, Shuangyan; Qin, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model of simultaneous optimization of three-level logistics decisions, for logistics authorities, logistics operators, and logistics users, for regional logistics network with environmental impact consideration. The proposed model addresses the interaction among the three logistics players in a complete competitive logistics service market with CO2 emission charges. We also explicitly incorporate the impacts of the scale economics of the logistics park and the logistics users' demand elasticity into the model. The logistics authorities aim to maximize the total social welfare of the system, considering the demand of green logistics development by two different methods: optimal location of logistics nodes and charging a CO2 emission tax. Logistics operators are assumed to compete with logistics service fare and frequency, while logistics users minimize their own perceived logistics disutility given logistics operators' service fare and frequency. A heuristic algorithm based on the multinomial logit model is presented for the three-level decision model, and a numerical example is given to illustrate the above optimal model and its algorithm. The proposed model provides a useful tool for modeling competitive logistics services and evaluating logistics policies at the strategic level.

  13. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-06-05

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols.

  14. Region-Based Collision Avoidance Beaconless Geographic Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JeongCheol; Park, HoSung; Kang, SeokYoon; Kim, Ki-Il

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of dependency on beacon messages for location exchange, the beaconless geographic routing protocol has attracted considerable attention from the research community. However, existing beaconless geographic routing protocols are likely to generate duplicated data packets when multiple winners in the greedy area are selected. Furthermore, these protocols are designed for a uniform sensor field, so they cannot be directly applied to practical irregular sensor fields with partial voids. To prevent the failure of finding a forwarding node and to remove unnecessary duplication, in this paper, we propose a region-based collision avoidance beaconless geographic routing protocol to increase forwarding opportunities for randomly-deployed sensor networks. By employing different contention priorities into the mutually-communicable nodes and the rest of the nodes in the greedy area, every neighbor node in the greedy area can be used for data forwarding without any packet duplication. Moreover, simulation results are given to demonstrate the increased packet delivery ratio and shorten end-to-end delay, rather than well-referred comparative protocols. PMID:26057037

  15. Distributed processing of a GPS receiver network for a regional ionosphere map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kwang Ho; Hoo Lim, Joon; Yoo, Won Jae; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed processing method applicable to GPS receivers in a network to generate a regional ionosphere map accurately and reliably. For accuracy, the proposed method is operated by multiple local Kalman filters and Kriging estimators. Each local Kalman filter is applied to a dual-frequency receiver to estimate the receiver’s differential code bias and vertical ionospheric delays (VIDs) at different ionospheric pierce points. The Kriging estimator selects and combines several VID estimates provided by the local Kalman filters to generate the VID estimate at each ionospheric grid point. For reliability, the proposed method uses receiver fault detectors and satellite fault detectors. Each receiver fault detector compares the VID estimates of the same local area provided by different local Kalman filters. Each satellite fault detector compares the VID estimate of each local area with that projected from the other local areas. Compared with the traditional centralized processing method, the proposed method is advantageous in that it considerably reduces the computational burden of each single Kalman filter and enables flexible fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration capability. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, several experiments with field collected measurements were performed.

  16. Effective Vehicle-Based Kangaroo Detection for Collision Warning Systems Using Region-Based Convolutional Networks.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Khaled; Hossny, Mohammed; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2018-06-12

    Traffic collisions between kangaroos and motorists are on the rise on Australian roads. According to a recent report, it was estimated that there were more than 20,000 kangaroo vehicle collisions that occurred only during the year 2015 in Australia. In this work, we are proposing a vehicle-based framework for kangaroo detection in urban and highway traffic environment that could be used for collision warning systems. Our proposed framework is based on region-based convolutional neural networks (RCNN). Given the scarcity of labeled data of kangaroos in traffic environments, we utilized our state-of-the-art data generation pipeline to generate 17,000 synthetic depth images of traffic scenes with kangaroo instances annotated in them. We trained our proposed RCNN-based framework on a subset of the generated synthetic depth images dataset. The proposed framework achieved a higher average precision (AP) score of 92% over all the testing synthetic depth image datasets. We compared our proposed framework against other baseline approaches and we outperformed it with more than 37% in AP score over all the testing datasets. Additionally, we evaluated the generalization performance of the proposed framework on real live data and we achieved a resilient detection accuracy without any further fine-tuning of our proposed RCNN-based framework.

  17. Heterogeneity of interactions of microbial communities in regions of Taihu Lake with different nutrient loadings: A network analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinyi; Zhao, Dayong; Xu, Huimin; Huang, Rui; Zeng, Jin; Yu, Zhongbo

    2018-06-11

    To investigate the differences in the interactions of microbial communities in two regions in Taihu Lake with different nutrient loadings [Meiliang Bay (MLB) and Xukou Bay (XKB)], water samples were collected and both intra- and inter-kingdom microbial community interactions were examined with network analysis. It is demonstrated that all of the bacterioplankton, microeukaryotes and inter-kingdom communities networks in Taihu Lake were non-random. For the networks of bacterioplankton and inter-kingdom community in XKB, higher clustering coefficient and average degree but lower average path length indexes were observed, indicating the nodes in XKB were more clustered and closely connected with plenty edges than those of MLB. The bacterioplankton and inter-kingdom networks were considerably larger and more complex with more module hubs and connectors in XKB compared with those of MLB, whereas the microeukaryotes networks were comparable and had no module hubs or connectors in the two lake zones. The phyla of Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes maintained greater cooperation with other phyla in XKB, rather than competition. The relationships between microbial communities and environmental factors in MLB were weaker. Compared with the microbial community networks of XKB, less modules in networks of MLB were significantly correlated with total phosphorous and total nitrogen.

  18. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    PubMed

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Region stability analysis and tracking control of memristive recurrent neural network.

    PubMed

    Bao, Gang; Zeng, Zhigang; Shen, Yanjun

    2018-02-01

    Memristor is firstly postulated by Leon Chua and realized by Hewlett-Packard (HP) laboratory. Research results show that memristor can be used to simulate the synapses of neurons. This paper presents a class of recurrent neural network with HP memristors. Firstly, it shows that memristive recurrent neural network has more compound dynamics than the traditional recurrent neural network by simulations. Then it derives that n dimensional memristive recurrent neural network is composed of [Formula: see text] sub neural networks which do not have a common equilibrium point. By designing the tracking controller, it can make memristive neural network being convergent to the desired sub neural network. At last, two numerical examples are given to verify the validity of our result. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population.

    PubMed

    Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A; Amen, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individuals with psychiatric disease. Inclusion criteria were peacetime or wartime veterans regardless of branch of service and included those for whom the traumatic brain injury was not service related. SPECT imaging was performed on this group both at rest and during a concentration task. These measures, as well as the baseline-concentration difference, were then inputted from DMN regions into separate binary logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, race, clinic site, co-morbid psychiatric diseases, TBI severity, whether or not the TBI was service related, and branch of armed service. Predicted probabilities were then inputted into a receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared to PSTD, persons with TBI were older, male, and had higher rates of bipolar and major depressive disorder (p < 0.05). Baseline quantitative regions with SPECT separated PTSD from TBI in the veterans with 92 % sensitivity, 85 % specificity, and 94 % accuracy. With concentration scans, there was 85 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity and 89 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration (the difference metric between the two scans) scans were 85 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity, and 87 % accuracy. In separating TBI from PTSD/TBI visual readings of baseline scans had 85 % sensitivity, 81 % specificity, and 83 % accuracy. Concentration scans had 80 % sensitivity, 65 % specificity, and 79 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration scans had 82

  1. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  2. Identifying a Network of Brain Regions Involved in Aversion-Related Processing: A Cross-Species Translational Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Dave J.; Northoff, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and respond appropriately to aversive stimuli is essential for all organisms, from fruit flies to humans. This suggests the existence of a core neural network which mediates aversion-related processing. Human imaging studies on aversion have highlighted the involvement of various cortical regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, while animal studies have focused largely on subcortical regions like the periaqueductal gray and hypothalamus. However, whether and how these regions form a core neural network of aversion remains unclear. To help determine this, a translational cross-species investigation in humans (i.e., meta-analysis) and other animals (i.e., systematic review of functional neuroanatomy) was performed. Our results highlighted the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex, the anterior insula, and the amygdala as well as other subcortical (e.g., thalamus, midbrain) and cortical (e.g., orbitofrontal) regions in both animals and humans. Importantly, involvement of these regions remained independent of sensory modality. This study provides evidence for a core neural network mediating aversion in both animals and humans. This not only contributes to our understanding of the trans-species neural correlates of aversion but may also carry important implications for psychiatric disorders where abnormal aversive behavior can often be observed. PMID:22102836

  3. Investigating the Potential Impacts of Energy Production in the Marcellus Shale Region Using the Shale Network Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S.; Pollak, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Shale Network's extensive database of water quality observations in the Marcellus Shale region enables educational experiences about the potential impacts of resource extraction and energy production with real data. Through tools that are open source and free to use, interested parties can access and analyze the very same data that the Shale Network team has used in peer-reviewed publications about the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on water. The development of the Shale Network database has been made possible through efforts led by an academic team and involving numerous individuals from government agencies, citizen science organizations, and private industry. With these tools and data, the Shale Network team has engaged high school students, university undergraduate and graduate students, as well as citizens so that all can discover how energy production impacts the Marcellus Shale region, which includes Pennsylvania and other nearby states. This presentation will describe these data tools, how the Shale Network has used them in educational settings, and the resources available to learn more.

  4. Spatiotemporal Filtering Using Principal Component Analysis and Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Approaches for Regional GPS Network Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, D.; Fang, P.; Bock, F.; Webb, F.; Prawirondirdjo, L.; Kedar, S.; Jamason, P.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial filtering is an effective way to improve the precision of coordinate time series for regional GPS networks by reducing so-called common mode errors, thereby providing better resolution for detecting weak or transient deformation signals. The commonly used approach to regional filtering assumes that the common mode error is spatially uniform, which is a good approximation for networks of hundreds of kilometers extent, but breaks down as the spatial extent increases. A more rigorous approach should remove the assumption of spatially uniform distribution and let the data themselves reveal the spatial distribution of the common mode error. The principal component analysis (PCA) and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) both decompose network time series into a set of temporally varying modes and their spatial responses. Therefore they provide a mathematical framework to perform spatiotemporal filtering.We apply the combination of PCA and KLE to daily station coordinate time series of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) for the period 2000 to 2004. We demonstrate that spatially and temporally correlated common mode errors are the dominant error source in daily GPS solutions. The spatial characteristics of the common mode errors are close to uniform for all east, north, and vertical components, which implies a very long wavelength source for the common mode errors, compared to the spatial extent of the GPS network in southern California. Furthermore, the common mode errors exhibit temporally nonrandom patterns.

  5. A Node Localization Algorithm Based on Multi-Granularity Regional Division and the Lagrange Multiplier Method in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Shang, Fengjun; Jiang, Yi; Xiong, Anping; Su, Wen; He, Li

    2016-11-18

    With the integrated development of the Internet, wireless sensor technology, cloud computing, and mobile Internet, there has been a lot of attention given to research about and applications of the Internet of Things. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is one of the important information technologies in the Internet of Things; it integrates multi-technology to detect and gather information in a network environment by mutual cooperation, using a variety of methods to process and analyze data, implement awareness, and perform tests. This paper mainly researches the localization algorithm of sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network. Firstly, a multi-granularity region partition is proposed to divide the location region. In the range-based method, the RSSI (Received Signal Strength indicator, RSSI) is used to estimate distance. The optimal RSSI value is computed by the Gaussian fitting method. Furthermore, a Voronoi diagram is characterized by the use of dividing region. Rach anchor node is regarded as the center of each region; the whole position region is divided into several regions and the sub-region of neighboring nodes is combined into triangles while the unknown node is locked in the ultimate area. Secondly, the multi-granularity regional division and Lagrange multiplier method are used to calculate the final coordinates. Because nodes are influenced by many factors in the practical application, two kinds of positioning methods are designed. When the unknown node is inside positioning unit, we use the method of vector similarity. Moreover, we use the centroid algorithm to calculate the ultimate coordinates of unknown node. When the unknown node is outside positioning unit, we establish a Lagrange equation containing the constraint condition to calculate the first coordinates. Furthermore, we use the Taylor expansion formula to correct the coordinates of the unknown node. In addition, this localization method has been validated by establishing the real environment.

  6. Healthcare financing, decentralization and regional health planning: federal transfers and the healthcare networks in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Laura Monteiro de Castro; Ferré, Felipe; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel

    2017-04-01

    The Decrees 4279/10 and 7508/11 established norms to guide health politics, with impacts on funding of the Middle and High Complexity Hospital and Outpatient. To verify the effects on the consolidation of care networks in Minas Gerais, we performed an analytical-descriptive study of the National Health Fund from 2006 to 2014. We observed decentralization of responsibilities, accompanied of resources and innovative financing mechanisms, resulting expansion of the network care model. The federal government definitions suggest reduction of the autonomy and limitation of regional solutions.

  7. Oncological outcomes of metastatic testicular cancers under centralized management through regional medical network.

    PubMed

    Inai, Hiromu; Kawai, Koji; Kojima, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Shimazui, Toru; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Miyagawa, Tomoaki; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshiharu; Miyazaki, Jun; Uchida, Katsunori; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the dose intensity of induction chemotherapy and oncological outcomes of metastatic testicular cancer under centralized management through a regional medical network. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 86 metastatic testicular cancer patients who were given induction chemotherapy at Tsukuba University Hospital and four branch hospitals between January 2000 and November 2010. Principally, management of patients with poor-prognosis disease and patients having risk factors for bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin were referred to Tsukuba University Hospital before chemotherapy. For high-risk groups, etoposide and cisplatin or etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin was used as an alternative to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Overall, 56 and 30 patients were treated at Tsukuba University Hospital and branch hospitals, respectively. Forty-seven, 18 and 21 patients were classified with good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis disease, respectively, according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group criteria. Eighteen of the 21 patients (86%) with poor-prognosis disease were treated at Tsukuba University Hospital from the beginning of induction chemotherapy. Induction chemotherapy with a high relative dose intensity was possible in most patients. The average relative dose intensity of each drug was >0.96. Treatment procedures other than induction chemotherapy were efficiently centralized; 74% of post-chemotherapy surgery and all second-line or subsequent chemotherapies were performed at Tsukuba University Hospital. The 5-year overall survival rates of the good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis groups were 97, 93 and 84%, respectively. Induction chemotherapy with high relative dose intensity, post-chemotherapy surgery and salvage chemotherapy was accomplished efficiently through centralization of management. Oncological outcomes were excellent, especially in patients with poor-prognosis disease, whose 5-year OS reached 84%.

  8. Fifty years of the European medicines regulatory network: reflections for strengthening intra-regional cooperation in the Region of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Allchurch, Martin Harvey; Barbano, Dirceu Brás Aparecido; Pinheiro, Marie-Hélène; Lazdin-Helds, Janis

    2016-05-01

    This report considers how the experience of the European regulatory system might be applied to help strengthen the regulatory systems for medicines in the Region of the Americas. The work of the European Medicines Agencies (EMA) is carried out through its scientific committees, composed of members from European Economic Area countries. A robust legal framework allows EMA to coordinate resources from Member States' competent authorities, including, for example, assisting candidate countries as they prepare to join the European Union (EU). Capacity-building programs help countries adjust their regulatory systems ahead of full participation in the European medicines regulatory network. These programs facilitate adoption of common technical requirements, identify areas where action might be needed to ensure the smooth transposition of EU pharmaceutical law into national legislation, and prepare candidate countries for participation in EMA committees and the European regulatory network. The methodology of these programs could be of potential interest to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Regional Office of the World Health Organization for the Americas. Given resolutions adopted by the World Health Assembly and the PAHO Directing Council, there is a strong indication that the countries of the Region of the Americas wish to assemble a system that uses the existing regulatory capacity of some countries to strengthen local regulatory capacities in others.

  9. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  10. Designing a low-cost effective network for monitoring large scale regional seismicity in a soft-soil region (Alsace, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Doubre, C.; Wodling, H.; Jund, H.; Hernandez, A.; Blumentritt, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Seismological Observatory of the North-East of France (ObSNEF) is developing its monitoring network within the framework of several projects. Among these project, RESIF (Réseau sismologique et géodésique français) allows the instrumentation of broad-band seismic stations, separated by 50-100 km. With the recent and future development of geothermal industrial projects in the Alsace region, the ObSNEF is responsible for designing, building and operating a dense regional seismic network in order to detect and localize earthquakes with both a completeness magnitude of 1.5 and no clipping for M6.0. The realization of the project has to be done prior to the summer 2016Several complex technical and financial constraints constitute such a projet. First, most of the Alsace Région (150x150 km2), particularly the whole Upper Rhine Graben, is a soft-soil plain where seismic signals are dominated by a high frequency noise level. Second, all the signals have to be transmitted in near real-time. And finally, the total cost of the project must not exceed $450,000.Regarding the noise level in Alsace, in order to make a reduction of 40 dB for frequencies above 1Hz, we program to instrument into 50m deep well with post-hole sensor for 5 stations out of 8 plane new stations. The 3 remaining would be located on bedrock along the Vosges piedmont. In order to be sensitive to low-magnitude regional events, we plan to install a low-noise short-period post-hole velocimeter. In order to avoid saturation for high potentiel local events (M6.0 at 10km), this velocimeter will be coupled with a surface strong-motion sensor. Regarding the connectivity, these stations will have no wired network, which reduces linking costs and delays. We will therefore use solar panels and a 3G/GPRS network. The infrastructure will be minimal and reduced to an outdoor box on a secured parcel of land. In addition to the data-logger, we will use a 12V ruggedized computer, hosting a seed-link server for near

  11. Network collaboration of organisations for homeless individuals in the Montreal region

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Lesage, Alain; Ma, Nan; Ngui, André Ngamini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We know little about the intensity and determinants of interorganisational collaboration within the homeless network. This study describes the characteristics and relationships (along with the variables predicting their degree of interorganisational collaboration) of 68 organisations of such a network in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Theory and methods Data were collected primarily through a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were conducted followed by social network and multivariate analyses. Results The Montreal homeless network has a high density (50.5%) and a decentralised structure and maintains a mostly informal collaboration with the public and cross-sectorial sectors. The network density showed more frequent contacts among four types of organisations which could point to the existence of cliques. Four variables predicted interorganisational collaboration: organisation type, number of services offered, volume of referrals and satisfaction with the relationships with public organisations. Conclusions and discussion The Montreal homeless network seems adequate to address non-complex homelessness problems. Considering, however, that most homeless individuals present chronic and complex profiles, it appears necessary to have a more formal and better integrated network of homeless organisations, particularly in the health and social service sectors, in order to improve services. PMID:24520216

  12. Joint optimization of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies in a regional logistics network with CO 2 emission reduction targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dezhi; Zhan, Qingwen; Chen, Yuche

    This study proposes an optimization model that simultaneously incorporates the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes to achieve specific CO 2 emission targets in a regional logistics network. The proposed model is formulated as a bi-level formulation, in which the upper level determines the optimal selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes such that the benefit-cost ratio of the entire logistics system is maximized. The lower level describes the selected service routes of logistics users. A genetic and Frank-Wolfe hybrid algorithm is introduced to solve the proposed model. The proposed modelmore » is applied to the regional logistics network of Changsha City, China. Findings show that using the joint scheme of the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and green subsidies is more effective than using them solely. In conclusion, carbon emission reduction targets can significantly affect logistics infrastructure investments and subsidy levels.« less

  13. Joint optimization of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies in a regional logistics network with CO 2 emission reduction targets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Dezhi; Zhan, Qingwen; Chen, Yuche; ...

    2016-03-14

    This study proposes an optimization model that simultaneously incorporates the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes to achieve specific CO 2 emission targets in a regional logistics network. The proposed model is formulated as a bi-level formulation, in which the upper level determines the optimal selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes such that the benefit-cost ratio of the entire logistics system is maximized. The lower level describes the selected service routes of logistics users. A genetic and Frank-Wolfe hybrid algorithm is introduced to solve the proposed model. The proposed modelmore » is applied to the regional logistics network of Changsha City, China. Findings show that using the joint scheme of the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and green subsidies is more effective than using them solely. In conclusion, carbon emission reduction targets can significantly affect logistics infrastructure investments and subsidy levels.« less

  14. On structure-exploiting trust-region regularized nonlinear least squares algorithms for neural-network learning.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Eiji; Demmel, James W

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces our numerical linear algebra approaches for solving structured nonlinear least squares problems arising from 'multiple-output' neural-network (NN) models. Our algorithms feature trust-region regularization, and exploit sparsity of either the 'block-angular' residual Jacobian matrix or the 'block-arrow' Gauss-Newton Hessian (or Fisher information matrix in statistical sense) depending on problem scale so as to render a large class of NN-learning algorithms 'efficient' in both memory and operation costs. Using a relatively large real-world nonlinear regression application, we shall explain algorithmic strengths and weaknesses, analyzing simulation results obtained by both direct and iterative trust-region algorithms with two distinct NN models: 'multilayer perceptrons' (MLP) and 'complementary mixtures of MLP-experts' (or neuro-fuzzy modular networks).

  15. [The regionalized healthcare network in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from 2011 to 2015: governance system and oral healthcare].

    PubMed

    Godoi, Heloisa; Andrade, Selma Regina de; Mello, Ana Lúcia Schaefer Ferreira de

    2017-09-28

    : The objective was to describe the governance system used in structuring the regionalized healthcare network in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on the Bipartite Inter-Managerial Commission (CIB), with a focus on structuring of oral healthcare. This was a qualitative, exploratory-descriptive documental study, based on the foundations of governance as an analytical tool through identification of the dimensions actors, norms, nodal points, and processes. Secondary data were collected from the minutes of CIB meetings held from January 2011 to December 2015. The analysis shows weaknesses in CIB governance in Santa Catarina in relation to regionalized structuring of oral healthcare from a network perspective. Structuring of oral healthcare occurs in parallel to that of other thematic networks in the state and shows the expansion of dental services, especially those with medium complexity, as an effect of the prevailing governance process. The relations established between administrators and decision-making processes allowed recognizing this network's "prescription", since there is little negotiation and local demand, limited more to following recommendations and incentives from the federal/state sphere, intermediated by staff from the State Health Secretariat. Thus, setting a policy agenda for oral healthcare for the population of Santa Catarina is weakened, with a peripheral position in relation to other health programs.

  16. Regional co-location pattern scoping on a street network considering distance decay effects of spatial interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenhao

    2017-01-01

    Regional co-location scoping intends to identify local regions where spatial features of interest are frequently located together. Most of the previous researches in this domain are conducted on a global scale and they assume that spatial objects are embedded in a 2-D space, but the movement in urban space is actually constrained by the street network. In this paper we refine the scope of co-location patterns to 1-D paths consisting of nodes and segments. Furthermore, since the relations between spatial events are usually inversely proportional to their separation distance, the proposed method introduces the “Distance Decay Effects” to improve the result. Specifically, our approach first subdivides the street edges into continuous small linear segments. Then a value representing the local distribution intensity of events is estimated for each linear segment using the distance-decay function. Each kind of geographic feature can lead to a tessellated network with density attribute, and the generated multiple networks for the pattern of interest will be finally combined into a composite network by calculating the co-location prevalence measure values, which are based on the density variation between different features. Our experiments verify that the proposed approach is effective in urban analysis. PMID:28763496

  17. Network analysis of a regional fishery: Implications for management of natural resources, and recruitment and retention of anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Dustin R.; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    Angler groups and water-body types interact to create a complex social-ecological system. Network analysis could inform detailed mechanistic models on, and provide managers better information about, basic patterns of fishing activity. Differences in behavior and reservoir selection among angler groups in a regional fishery, the Salt Valley fishery in southeastern Nebraska, USA, were assessed using a combination of cluster and network analyses. The four angler groups assessed ranged from less active, unskilled anglers (group One) to highly active, very skilled anglers (group Four). Reservoir use patterns and the resulting network communities of these four angler groups differed; the number of reservoir communities for these groups ranged from two to three and appeared to be driven by reservoir location (group One), reservoir size and its associated attributes (groups Two and Four), or an interaction between reservoir size and location (group Three). Network analysis is a useful tool to describe differences in participation among angler groups within a regional fishery, and provides new insights about possible recruitment of anglers. For example, group One anglers fished reservoirs closer to home and had a greater probability of dropping out if local reservoir access were restricted.

  18. Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.

    PubMed Central

    Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). METHODS: We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. FINDINGS: Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. CONCLUSION: The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease. PMID:16462984

  19. Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.

    PubMed

    Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

    2005-12-01

    We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease.

  20. Identification of T1D susceptibility genes within the MHC region by combining protein interaction networks and SNP genotyping data

    PubMed Central

    Brorsson, C.; Hansen, N. T.; Lage, K.; Bergholdt, R.; Brunak, S.; Pociot, F.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To develop novel methods for identifying new genes that contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6, independently of the known linkage disequilibrium (LD) between human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1 genes. Methods We have developed a novel method that combines single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data with protein–protein interaction (ppi) networks to identify disease-associated network modules enriched for proteins encoded from the MHC region. Approximately 2500 SNPs located in the 4 Mb MHC region were analysed in 1000 affected offspring trios generated by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). The most associated SNP in each gene was chosen and genes were mapped to ppi networks for identification of interaction partners. The association testing and resulting interacting protein modules were statistically evaluated using permutation. Results A total of 151 genes could be mapped to nodes within the protein interaction network and their interaction partners were identified. Five protein interaction modules reached statistical significance using this approach. The identified proteins are well known in the pathogenesis of T1D, but the modules also contain additional candidates that have been implicated in β-cell development and diabetic complications. Conclusions The extensive LD within the MHC region makes it important to develop new methods for analysing genotyping data for identification of additional risk genes for T1D. Combining genetic data with knowledge about functional pathways provides new insight into mechanisms underlying T1D. PMID:19143816

  1. TWSTFT Network Status in the Pacific Rim Region and Development of a New Time Transfer Modem for TWSTFT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    32nd Annual Precise T ime and Time Interval ( P T T I ) Meeting TWSTFT NETWORK STATUS IN THE PACIFIC RIM REGION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TIME...TRANSFER MODEM FOR TWSTFT M. Imael, M. Hosokawal, Y . Hanadol, 2. Li2, P. Fisk3, Y . Nakadan4, and C. S. Liao5 ’Communications Research Laboratory...Metrology (NRLM), Japan 5Telecommunication Laboratories (TL) , Taipei, Taiwan Abstract Iko-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer ( TWSTFT ) is one

  2. Spatiotemporal Variability of Humidity Across the Contiguous United States and Southern Canada Using Regional Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnke, Ruben John

    The objective of this dissertation was to show that there is now enough observed humidity data available so that estimates of humidity, along with their necessary assumptions, can be replaced by measured humidity data. The range of applications that depend on humidity data is huge, ranging from water use efficiency of plants and plant stress to human health and agricultural practices. Biases due to the use of estimated humidity can be expected to have short and long impacts, decreasing the accuracy and precision of these, and many other, applications. Data from local, regional, and national observation networks was gathered, and custom quality control routines were written to remove bad data points from over 45000 stations, leaving 12533 usable stations. While still not at the same number of observations as temperature or precipitation, this number is nearly ten times as high as two decades ago. The work I performed consists of three major components, corresponding to the three main chapters of this dissertation. In chapter one, I describe data sources and quality control methods, along with some basic statistics of humidity, describing which geographic variables often used to predict temperature and precipitation can be used to do the same for humidity. Chapter two defines specific diurnal patterns (or "types") of dew point across the United States, including their attributes, causes, and potential influences. Chapter three analyzes biases in evapotranspiration, heat indices, and relative humidity levels that are a direct result of using estimated humidity data. Chapter four discusses contributions this work makes to the scientific community, and potential further research to build on what is presented here. While it may seem that the science of humidity should be well beyond data gathering and bias analysis, the fact remains that humidity is still very commonly estimated through the use of minimum temperature, and diurnal changes in dew point are often ignored

  3. INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION WITH ANALYTICAL NETWORK PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A decision analysis method for integrating environmental indicators was developed. This was a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP). Being able to take into account interdependency among variables, the method was capable of ran...

  4. Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed

  5. Abnormal regional activity and functional connectivity in resting-state brain networks associated with etiology confirmed unilateral pulsatile tinnitus in the early stage of disease.

    PubMed

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Peng; Yan, Fei; Liu, Liheng; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Li, Ting; Dong, Cheng; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal neural activities can be revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) using analyses of the regional activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the networks in the brain. This study was designed to demonstrate the functional network alterations in the patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In this study, we recruited 45 patients with unilateral PT in the early stage of disease (less than 48 months of disease duration) and 45 normal controls. We used regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC computational methods to reveal resting-state brain activity features associated with pulsatile tinnitus. Compared with healthy controls, PT patients showed regional abnormalities mainly in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC), precuneus and right anterior insula (AI). When these regions were defined as seeds, we demonstrated widespread modification of interaction between the auditory and non-auditory networks. The auditory network was positively connected with the cognitive control network (CCN), which may associate with tinnitus related distress. Both altered regional activity and changed FC were found in the visual network. The modification of interactions of higher order networks were mainly found in the DMN, CCN and limbic networks. Functional connectivity between the left MOG and left parahippocampal gyrus could also be an index to reflect the disease duration. This study helped us gain a better understanding of the characteristics of neural network modifications in patients with pulsatile tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Midwest regional rail system : a transportation network for the 21 century : executive report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-02-01

    The Midwest Regional Rail Initiative is an ongoing effort to develop an improved and expanded passenger rail system in the Midwest. Since 1996, the Midwest Regional Rail Initiative (MWRRI) advanced from a series of service concepts, including increas...

  7. Regional GABA Concentrations Modulate Inter-network Resting-state Functional Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Fan, Xiaoying; Hu, Yuzheng; Zuo, Chun; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Holt, Daphne; Gong, Qiyong; Yang, Yihong; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Du, Fei; Ongur, Dost

    2018-03-28

    Coordinated activity within and differential activity between large-scale neuronal networks such as the default mode network (DMN) and the control network (CN) is a critical feature of brain organization. The CN usually exhibits activations in response to cognitive tasks while the DMN shows deactivations; in addition, activity between the two networks is anti-correlated at rest. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to measure whole-brain BOLD signal during resting-state and task-evoked conditions, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify GABA and glutamate concentrations, in nodes within the DMN and CN (MPFC and DLPFC, respectively) in 19 healthy individuals at 3 Tesla. We found that GABA concentrations in the MPFC were significantly associated with DMN deactivation during a working memory task and with anti-correlation between DMN and CN at rest and during task performance, while GABA concentrations in the DLPFC weakly modulated DMN-CN anti-correlation in the opposite direction. Highlighting specificity, glutamate played a less significant role related to brain activity. These findings indicate that GABA in the MPFC is potentially involved in orchestrating between-network brain activity at rest and during task performance.

  8. [A network to promote health systems based on primary health care in the Region of the Americas].

    PubMed

    Herrera Vázquez, María Magdalena; Rodríguez Avila, Nuria; Nebot Adell, Carme; Montenegro, Hernán

    2007-05-01

    To identify the relational components of an international network of organizations that provide technical and financial assistance to promote the development of health systems based on primary health care in the countries of the Region of the Americas; to analyze the linkages that would allow the collaborating partners of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to work together on health issues; and to determine the basic theoretical elements that can help to develop action strategies that support advocacy efforts by a network. This was a qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study based on identifying key informants and on analyzing social networks. Ethnographic and relational information from 46 international organizations was collected through a self-administered semistructured questionnaire. From 46 international health cooperation organizations, 29 decision makers from 29 organizations participated (63.0% response rate). The structure and the strength of the network was evaluated in terms of density, closeness, clustering, and centralization. The statistical analysis was done using computer programs that included UCINET, Pajek, and Microsoft Access. We found a structurally centralized theoretical network, whose nodes were clustered into four central subgroups linked by a shared vision. The leadership, influence, and political interests reflected the formal and technical-cooperation linkages, the formal support for health systems based on primary health care, and the flow of resources being more often technical ones than financial ones. The interorganizational relational components and the social-action ties that were identified could help in the development and consolidation of a thematic network for advocacy and for the management of technical and financial assistance that supports primary health care in the Americas. The linkages for joint action that were identified could advance international cooperation in developing health systems based on

  9. [Development of a clinical pathway for the attention of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a regional network. ALS Assistance Network-Comunidad de Madrid].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Rivera, F J; Grande, M; García-Caballero, J; Muñoz-Blanco, J; Mora, J; Esteban, J; Guerrero, A; Matias-Guiu, J; de Andrés-Colsa, R; Buey, C; Díez-Tejedor, E

    2007-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) requires complex multidisciplinary attention. Clinical pathways are assistance plans for certain diseases with a predictable course. These plans are established in isolated centers, not in multicenter regions. The aim is to develop a clinical pathway capable of organizing and homogenizing assistance given in ALS Assistance Network-Comunidad de Madrid which is made up of five hospitals, from the beginning until the end of the disease. In successive meetings, neurologists of these hospitals and members of the Madrid Health Service evaluated published therapeutic guidelines and other documents used in ALS assistance. A clinical pathway was developed adapting this information to social-health care conditions in the Comunidad de Madrid following the FOCUS-PDCA model. A clinical pathway was created consisting of a scientist-technical framework which arranges the attention in relationship to the diagnosis and treatment, according to the degree of disease progression and a chronogram. This is accompanied by several patient information documents on the disease and the tests that are required, and a patient assistance evaluation form. The standards are established to reach and to promote 354 constant improvement in patient care. Clinical pathway for the ALS assistance in a regional network organizes the attention and cares that the patients must receive from the beginning to the end of the disease. This arrangement and homogenization of the attention improves the quality of patient care, diminishes variability and rationalizes the use of the health care resources.

  10. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  11. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rajtmajer, Sarah M; Roy, Arnab; Albert, Reka; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs) that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity). Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g., choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks). These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches) ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP), which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity). To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity.

  12. A regional monitoring network to investigate the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in near-surface aquifers of the midcontinental USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Previous state and national surveys conducted in the mid-continental USA have produced a wide range in results regarding the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater. At least some of these differences can be attributed to inconsistencies between the surveys, such as different analytical reporting limits. The US Geological Survey has designed a sampling network that is geographically and hydrogeologically representative of near-surface aquifers in the corn- and soybean-producing region of the midcontinental USA. More than 800 water quality samples have been collected from the network since 1991. Six of the seven most frequently detected compounds from this study were herbicide metabolites. A direct relation was determined between tritium content to herbicide and nitrate contamination. The unconsolidated aquifers sampled were found to be more susceptible to herbicide and nitrate contamination than the bedrock aquifers. Knowledge of the regional occurrence and distribution of agricultural chemicals acquired through the study of data collected at network sites will assist policy makers and planners with decisions regarding the protection of drinking-water supplies.

  13. The use of neural networks and texture analysis for rapid objective selection of regions of interest in cytoskeletal images.

    PubMed

    Derkacs, Amanda D Felder; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-02-01

    Understanding cytoskeletal dynamics in living tissue is prerequisite to understanding mechanisms of injury, mechanotransduction, and mechanical signaling. Real-time visualization is now possible using transfection with plasmids that encode fluorescent cytoskeletal proteins. Using this approach with the muscle-specific intermediate filament protein desmin, we found that a green fluorescent protein-desmin chimeric protein was unevenly distributed throughout the muscle fiber, resulting in some image areas that were saturated as well as others that lacked any signal. Our goal was to analyze the muscle fiber cytoskeletal network quantitatively in an unbiased fashion. To objectively select areas of the muscle fiber that are suitable for analysis, we devised a method that provides objective classification of regions of images of striated cytoskeletal structures into "usable" and "unusable" categories. This method consists of a combination of spatial analysis of the image using Fourier methods along with a boosted neural network that "decides" on the quality of the image based on previous training. We trained the neural network using the expert opinion of three scientists familiar with these types of images. We found that this method was over 300 times faster than manual classification and that it permitted objective and accurate classification of image regions.

  14. Investigating the Potential Impacts of Energy Production in the Marcellus Shale Region Using the Shale Network Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S.; Brazil, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Shale Network's extensive database of water quality observations enables educational experiences about the potential impacts of resource extraction with real data. Through tools that are open source and free to use, researchers, educators, and citizens can access and analyze the very same data that the Shale Network team has used in peer-reviewed publications about the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on water. The development of the Shale Network database has been made possible through efforts led by an academic team and involving numerous individuals from government agencies, citizen science organizations, and private industry. Thus far, these tools and data have been used to engage high school students, university undergraduate and graduate students, as well as citizens so that all can discover how energy production impacts the Marcellus Shale region, which includes Pennsylvania and other nearby states. This presentation will describe these data tools, how the Shale Network has used them in developing lesson plans, and the resources available to learn more.

  15. [A survey of Local Physicians and Psychotherapists on Cooperation in Regional Networks for Early Child Interventions in Saxony-Anhalt].

    PubMed

    Clauß, D; Fleischer, S; Mattern, E; Ayerle, G

    2016-07-01

    Early childhood interventions positively contribute to health related child development. For these interventions, networks are a necessary prerequisite as they promote interdisciplinary and interprofessional cooperation. This holds especially true for the integration of health system protagonists. In a cross-sectional survey local paediatrists, gynaecologists, general practitioners, and psychotherapists were asked about their knowledge, experiences, desires, and reservations regarding cooperation in early childhood intervention networks. 64 out of 1747 (3.7%) eligible clinicians answered the survey. On average they estimated that 10.1% of the families they are treating would benefit from early childhood interventions. Participants rated themselves as competent to offer appropriate early childhood interventions. The youth welfare service was judged as the most important institution for their own professional practice by 84.4%. Additionally to an applicable agenda, a fair group moderation of network meetings was seen as a substantial requirement in order to take part in network meetings. Health professionals are important protagonists in early childhood interventions. Clinicians should assess relevant problems in families and offer appropriate support on a regular basis. Alongside clearly defined regional contacts, interprofessional continuing education seems mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Multiple Regions of a Cortical Network Commonly Encode the Meaning of Words in Multiple Grammatical Positions of Read Sentences.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew James; Lalor, Edmund C; Lin, Feng; Binder, Jeffrey R; Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Raizada, Rajeev D S; Grimm, Scott; Wang, Xixi

    2018-05-16

    Deciphering how sentence meaning is represented in the brain remains a major challenge to science. Semantically related neural activity has recently been shown to arise concurrently in distributed brain regions as successive words in a sentence are read. However, what semantic content is represented by different regions, what is common across them, and how this relates to words in different grammatical positions of sentences is weakly understood. To address these questions, we apply a semantic model of word meaning to interpret brain activation patterns elicited in sentence reading. The model is based on human ratings of 65 sensory/motor/emotional and cognitive features of experience with words (and their referents). Through a process of mapping functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging activation back into model space we test: which brain regions semantically encode content words in different grammatical positions (e.g., subject/verb/object); and what semantic features are encoded by different regions. In left temporal, inferior parietal, and inferior/superior frontal regions we detect the semantic encoding of words in all grammatical positions tested and reveal multiple common components of semantic representation. This suggests that sentence comprehension involves a common core representation of multiple words' meaning being encoded in a network of regions distributed across the brain.

  17. Differential Engagement of Brain Regions within a "Core" Network during Scene Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Jennifer J.; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2010-01-01

    Reliving past events and imagining potential future events engages a well-established "core" network of brain areas. How the brain constructs, or reconstructs, these experiences or scenes has been debated extensively in the literature, but remains poorly understood. Here we designed a novel task to investigate this (re)constructive process by…

  18. A Neutral Network based Early Eathquake Warning model in California region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Early Earthquake Warning systems could reduce loss of lives and other economic impact resulted from natural disaster or man-made calamity. Current systems could be further enhanced by neutral network method. A 3 layer neural network model combined with onsite method was deployed in this paper to improve the recognition time and detection time for large scale earthquakes.The 3 layer neutral network early earthquake warning model adopted the vector feature design for sample events happened within 150 km radius of the epicenters. Dataset used in this paper contained both destructive events and small scale events. All the data was extracted from IRIS database to properly train the model. In the training process, backpropagation algorithm was used to adjust the weight matrices and bias matrices during each iteration. The information in all three channels of the seismometers served as the source in this model. Through designed tests, it was indicated that this model could identify approximately 90 percent of the events' scale correctly. And the early detection could provide informative evidence for public authorities to make further decisions. This indicated that neutral network model could have the potential to strengthen current early warning system, since the onsite method may greatly reduce the responding time and save more lives in such disasters.

  19. Building Regional Networking Capacity through Leadership Development: The Case of Leadership Northwest Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltsberger, Beverly; Majee, Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Through a case study analysis of a regional leadership development program, this article describes the impact on individual and group leadership skills and how the skills are employed to benefit individual communities and the region as a whole. Data were obtained through surveys. Through cooperation and collaboration between and among leadership…

  20. Blended Learning Citation Patterns and Publication Networks across Seven Worldwide Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Kristian J.; Graham, Charles R.

    2017-01-01

    The field of international blended learning (BL) is primed to benefit from stronger communication and collaboration. Collaboration is currently limited, and regions vary greatly in terms of citations. However, BL is growing worldwide and each region is an important part of the community. The goal of this research is to explore where the most…

  1. Evaluating the intersection of a regional wildlife connectivity network with highways

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jesse S. Lewis; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable predictions of regional-scale population connectivity are needed to prioritize conservation actions. However, there have been few examples of regional connectivity models that are empirically derived and validated. The central goals of this paper were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of factorial least cost path corridor mapping on an empirical...

  2. CONSULTATION ON WAYS OF CONSIDERING THE RESULTS OF EPA'S NATIONAL SURVEY ON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA AND CHILDRENS EXPOSURE TO ETS [NSEMA/CEE] FOR THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS DIVISIONS ASTHMA INITIATIVE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has completed the field phase and is engaged in the analysis phase of its National Survey on Environmental Management of Asthma and Children's Exposure to ETS [NSEMA/CEE]. This is a nation-wide survey on awareness of and existing attitudes toward asthma and its environmental ...

  3. [Preliminary observation on survival and reproduction of imported Oncomelania snails in water network regions: a simulated experiment].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian-Guo; Zhong, Wen-Jiang; Li, Gui-Fu; Peng, Li-Xia; Xiang, Xiao-Ping

    2011-04-01

    To observe the survival and reproduction of exotic imported Oncomelania snails in water network regions. During a period between May 22, 2008 and August 7, 2009, a study pilot was established in a historical snail habitat in Qingpu District of Shanghai City. A total of 12 soil samples were collected from Qingpu, Jinshan and Songjiang districts and placed in the study area. Active marked adults snails without infections (with a female/male ratio of 1) were placed on soil surface, and the activity, survival and reproduction of snails on soil surface were observed. The temperature during the period of the study was recorded. During the experiment period, the highest temperature was 39 degrees C, the lowest was -3 degrees C, and the average was 20 degrees C. The activity of snails reduced significantly on the soil surface at high temperature in summer and low temperature in winter. There were 91 old snails (5.2%) that moved on soil surface in March and 73 (12.2% ) in June, 2009. A total of 26 and 59 offspring snails were found respectively in April and June, 2009, with average density of 2.17 snails/m2 (26/12) and 4.92 snails/m2 (59/12) respectively. The exotic imported snails can survive and reproduce in water network regions. Further monitoring should be strengthened on the imported snails in these regions.

  4. Distant from input: Evidence of regions within the default mode network supporting perceptually-decoupled and conceptually-guided cognition.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Charlotte; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Sormaz, Mladen; Wang, Hao-Ting; Margulies, Daniel S; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information. Using task based imaging we established regions that respond when cognition combines both stimulus independence with multi-modal information. These included left and right angular gyri and the left middle temporal gyrus. Although these sites were within the default mode network, they showed a stronger response to demanding memory judgements than to an easier perceptual task, contrary to the view that they support automatic aspects of cognition. In a subsequent analysis, we showed that these regions were located at the extreme end of a macroscale gradient, which describes gradual transitions from sensorimotor to transmodal cortex. This shift in the focus of neural activity towards transmodal, default mode, regions might reflect a process of where the functional distance from specific sensory enables conceptually rich and detailed cognitive states to be generated in the absence of input. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the poultry trade network in Kenya: Implications for regional disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Margaret; Munyua, Peninah; Cheng, Po-Yung; Manga, Thomas; Wanjohi, Cathryn; Moen, Ann; Mounts, Anthony; Katz, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the

  6. A Matched Field Processing Framework for Coherent Detection Over Local and Regional Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Northern Finland Seismological Network, FN) and to the University of Helsinki for data from the VRF and HEF stations (part of the Finnish seismograph ...shows the results of classification with the FK measurement . Most of the events are incorrectly assigned to one particular mine (K2 – Rasvumchorr...generalization of the single-phase matched field processing method that encodes the full structure of the entire wavefield? What would this

  7. Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks for Maritime Interdiction Operations and Regional Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    as resistant to rough sea conditions as the SHARC, since its maximum operation limit is sea state 3. Its maximum speed approaches three knots and...which renders it corrosion resistant and lightweight. Its length is 3.2 meters with a rotor diameter at 3.3 meters. It flies at speeds of 50 knots...NMIOTC main building and to a moored training ship (see Figure 50), (2) GSM/GPRS was networked with swimmers , (3) security patrol and target vessels

  8. Regional application of multi-layer artificial neural networks in 3-D ionosphere tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari Razin, Mir Reza; Voosoghi, Behzad

    2016-08-01

    Tomography is a very cost-effective method to study physical properties of the ionosphere. In this paper, residual minimization training neural network (RMTNN) is used in voxel-based tomography to reconstruct of 3-D ionosphere electron density with high spatial resolution. For numerical experiments, observations collected at 37 GPS stations from Iranian permanent GPS network (IPGN) are used. A smoothed TEC approach was used for absolute STEC recovery. To improve the vertical resolution, empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) obtained from international reference ionosphere 2012 (IRI-2012) used as object function in training neural network. Ionosonde observations is used for validate reliability of the proposed method. Minimum relative error for RMTNN is 1.64% and maximum relative error is 15.61%. Also root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.17 × 1011 (electrons/m3) is computed for RMTNN which is less than RMSE of IRI2012. The results show that RMTNN has higher accuracy and compiles speed than other ionosphere reconstruction methods.

  9. Advances in dynamic modeling of colorectal cancer signaling-network regions, a path toward targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Ambrosi, Cristina De; Barla, Annalisa; Biganzoli, Elia M.; Nencioni, Alessio; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Verri, Alessandro; Parodi, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The interconnected network of pathways downstream of the TGFβ, WNT and EGF-families of receptor ligands play an important role in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. We studied and implemented dynamic simulations of multiple downstream pathways and described the section of the signaling network considered as a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our simulations used Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), which involved 447 reactants and their interactions. Starting from an initial “physiologic condition”, the model can be adapted to simulate individual pathologic cancer conditions implementing alterations/mutations in relevant onco-proteins. We verified some salient model predictions using the mutated colorectal cancer lines HCT116 and HT29. We measured the amount of MYC and CCND1 mRNAs and AKT and ERK phosphorylated proteins, in response to individual or combination onco-protein inhibitor treatments. Experimental and simulation results were well correlated. Recent independently published results were also predicted by our model. Even in the presence of an approximate and incomplete signaling network information, a predictive dynamic modeling seems already possible. An important long term road seems to be open and can be pursued further, by incremental steps, toward even larger and better parameterized MIMs. Personalized treatment strategies with rational associations of signaling-proteins inhibitors, could become a realistic goal. PMID:25671297

  10. Present-Day Kinematics of the Central Mediterranean Plate Boundary Region from Large GPS Network Analysis Using the Ambizap Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anastasio, E.; D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Blewitt, G.

    2008-12-01

    The large, recent increase of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations in the Central Mediterranean plate boundary zone offers the opportunity to study in detail the present-day kinematics of this actively deforming region. CGPS data from scientific and commercial networks in the Italian region is now available from more than 350 stations, including more than 130 from the RING network deployed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. The RING stations all have high quality GPS monuments and are co- located with broadband or very broadband seismometers and strong motion sensors. The analysis presented here also uses far-field data to provide reference frame control, bringing the total to over 580 CGPS stations. GPS ambiguity resolution of such a large amount of data presents a serious challenge in terms of processing time. Many scientific GPS data processing software packages address this problem by dividing the network into several clusters. In contrast, this analysis uses the new Ambizap GPS processing algorithm (Blewitt, 2008) to obtain unique, self-consistent daily ambiguity-fixed solutions for the entire network. Ambizap allows for a rapid and multiple reanalysis of large regional networks such the one presented in this work. Tests show that Ambizap reproduces solutions from time-prohibitive full-network ambiguity resolution to much less than 1 mm. Single station GPS data are first processed with the GIPSY-OASIS II software by the precise point positioning (PPP) strategy (Zumberge et al., 1997) using JPL products from ftp://sideshow.jpl.nasa.gov. Integer ambiguity resolution is then applied using Ambizap. The resulting daily solutions are aligned to the ITRF2005 reference frame. Then, using the CATS software (Williams, 2007), time series are cleaned to remove outliers and are analyzed for their noise properties, linear velocities, periodic signals and antenna jumps. Stable plate reference frames are realized by minimizing the horizontal velocities at more

  11. Regional Geograhpic Network Partnerships Supporting Sustainable Landscapes - An Example: The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource management agencies, conservation organizations and other stakeholders are facing increasingly complex environmental challenges that require coordinated management actions at regional and landscape levels. To address these challenges, integrated multi-disciplina...

  12. Midwest Regional Rail System : a transportation network for the 21st century

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-02-01

    This report includes an assessment of and refinements to the Midwest Regional Rail System Plan published in August 1998. The report addresses an extensive range of issues, including infrastructure and operational requirements, level of travel market ...

  13. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.

  14. No Reef Is an Island: Integrating Coral Reef Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2015-01-01

    We integrated coral reef connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional coral reef data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008–2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. Coral larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between coral reefs across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional coral reef MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains coral reef connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of coral reefs identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report coral larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important reef network connections. The identification of important reef connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083

  15. Improving Suicide Prevention in Dutch Regions by Creating Local Suicide Prevention Action Networks (SUPRANET): A Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gilissen, Renske; De Beurs, Derek; Mokkenstorm, Jan; Mérelle, Saskia; Donker, Gé; Terpstra, Sanne; Derijck, Carla; Franx, Gerdien

    2017-03-28

    The European Alliance against Depression (EAAD) program is to be introduced in The Netherlands from 2017 onwards. This program to combat suicide consists of interventions on four levels: (1) increasing the awareness of suicide by local media campaigns; (2) training local gatekeepers, such as teachers or police officers; (3) targeting high-risk persons in the community; and (4) training and support of professionals in primary care settings. The implementation starts in seven Dutch pilot regions. Each region is designated as a Suicide Prevention Action NETwork (SUPRANET). This paper describes the SUPRANET program components and the evaluation of its feasibility and impact. The findings will be used to facilitate the national implementation of EAAD in The Netherlands and to add new findings to the existing literature on EAAD.

  16. Improving Suicide Prevention in Dutch Regions by Creating Local Suicide Prevention Action Networks (SUPRANET): A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gilissen, Renske; De Beurs, Derek; Mokkenstorm, Jan; Mérelle, Saskia; Donker, Gé; Terpstra, Sanne; Derijck, Carla; Franx, Gerdien

    2017-01-01

    The European Alliance against Depression (EAAD) program is to be introduced in The Netherlands from 2017 onwards. This program to combat suicide consists of interventions on four levels: (1) increasing the awareness of suicide by local media campaigns; (2) training local gatekeepers, such as teachers or police officers; (3) targeting high-risk persons in the community; and (4) training and support of professionals in primary care settings. The implementation starts in seven Dutch pilot regions. Each region is designated as a Suicide Prevention Action NETwork (SUPRANET). This paper describes the SUPRANET program components and the evaluation of its feasibility and impact. The findings will be used to facilitate the national implementation of EAAD in The Netherlands and to add new findings to the existing literature on EAAD. PMID:28350367

  17. Disturbance dynamo effects over low-latitude F region: A study by network of VHF spaced receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakad, B.; Surve, G.; Tiwari, P.; Yadav, V.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2017-05-01

    Generation of equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities resulting from magnetic disturbance is known for past few decades. However, better prediction models for this phenomenon are still lacking. Magnetic storms also affects the F region plasma drifts. In this work we examined variability in (i) occurrence of such freshly generated ESF and (ii) low-latitude F region zonal plasma drifts over Indian longitude. For this purpose simultaneous observations of amplitude scintillations on 251 MHz signal, recorded by a network of spaced receivers located at low-latitude stations, are utilized. Observational stations are situated such that it longitudinally (latitudinally) covers an area of 5.6° (13°). Here effect of disturbance dynamo (DD) electric field at low-latitude F region and its variability are studied for three magnetic storms occurring in 2011. These magnetic storms are having nearly similar type characteristics except their start time. We find that as time difference (i.e., ΔT) between local sunset and start of magnetic activity decreases, the DD effects seen at low-latitude F region zonal irregularity drift around midnight becomes stronger. For a given magnetic storm the DD effect on F region zonal irregularity drifts is found to be only marginally stronger at dip equator in comparison to off-equatorial stations. Although effect of DD on F region zonal irregularity drifts are felt simultaneously, generation of fresh ESF is variable within a smaller longitudinal belt of 5.6°. It is attributed to the presence of LSWS at the bottomside of F region, as initiation of ESF is highly likely (unlikely) in the vicinity of crest (trough) of such LSWS.

  18. Spatial fingerprints of community structure in human interaction network for an extensive set of large-scale regions.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization.

  19. Statistical detection of geographic clusters of resistant Escherichia coli in a regional network with WHONET and SaTScan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Rachel; O'Brien, Thomas F.; Huang, Susan S.; Baker, Meghan A.; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Kulldorff, Martin; Barrett, Craig; Swift, Jamie; Stelling, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While antimicrobial resistance threatens the prevention, treatment, and control of infectious diseases, systematic analysis of routine microbiology laboratory test results worldwide can alert new threats and promote timely response. This study explores statistical algorithms for recognizing geographic clustering of multi-resistant microbes within a healthcare network and monitoring the dissemination of new strains over time. Methods Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility data from a three-year period stored in WHONET were analyzed across ten facilities in a healthcare network utilizing SaTScan's spatial multinomial model with two models for defining geographic proximity. We explored geographic clustering of multi-resistance phenotypes within the network and changes in clustering over time. Results Geographic clustering identified from both latitude/longitude and non-parametric facility groupings geographic models were similar, while the latter was offers greater flexibility and generalizability. Iterative application of the clustering algorithms suggested the possible recognition of the initial appearance of invasive E. coli ST131 in the clinical database of a single hospital and subsequent dissemination to others. Conclusion Systematic analysis of routine antimicrobial resistance susceptibility test results supports the recognition of geographic clustering of microbial phenotypic subpopulations with WHONET and SaTScan, and iterative application of these algorithms can detect the initial appearance in and dissemination across a region prompting early investigation, response, and containment measures. PMID:27530311

  20. Spatial Fingerprints of Community Structure in Human Interaction Network for an Extensive Set of Large-Scale Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization. PMID:25993329

  1. Statistical detection of geographic clusters of resistant Escherichia coli in a regional network with WHONET and SaTScan.

    PubMed

    Park, Rachel; O'Brien, Thomas F; Huang, Susan S; Baker, Meghan A; Yokoe, Deborah S; Kulldorff, Martin; Barrett, Craig; Swift, Jamie; Stelling, John

    2016-11-01

    While antimicrobial resistance threatens the prevention, treatment, and control of infectious diseases, systematic analysis of routine microbiology laboratory test results worldwide can alert new threats and promote timely response. This study explores statistical algorithms for recognizing geographic clustering of multi-resistant microbes within a healthcare network and monitoring the dissemination of new strains over time. Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility data from a three-year period stored in WHONET were analyzed across ten facilities in a healthcare network utilizing SaTScan's spatial multinomial model with two models for defining geographic proximity. We explored geographic clustering of multi-resistance phenotypes within the network and changes in clustering over time. Geographic clustering identified from both latitude/longitude and non-parametric facility groupings geographic models were similar, while the latter was offers greater flexibility and generalizability. Iterative application of the clustering algorithms suggested the possible recognition of the initial appearance of invasive E. coli ST131 in the clinical database of a single hospital and subsequent dissemination to others. Systematic analysis of routine antimicrobial resistance susceptibility test results supports the recognition of geographic clustering of microbial phenotypic subpopulations with WHONET and SaTScan, and iterative application of these algorithms can detect the initial appearance in and dissemination across a region prompting early investigation, response, and containment measures.

  2. The NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network: A Key Resource for Accessing and Using Planetary Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The role of the NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) Network is evolving as new science-ready spatial data products continue to be created and as key historical planetary data sets are digitized. Specifically, the RPIF Network is poised to serve specialized knowledge and services in a user-friendly manner that removes most barriers to locating, accessing, and exploiting planetary spatial data, thus providing a critical data access role within a spatial data infrastructure. The goal of the Network is to provide support and training to a broad audience of planetary spatial data users. In an effort to meet the planetary science community's evolving needs, we are focusing on the following objectives: Maintain and improve the delivery of historical data accumulated over the past four decades so as not to lose critical, historical information. This is being achieved by systematically digitizing fragile materials, allowing increased access and preserving them at the same time. Help users locate, access, visualize, and exploit planetary science data. Many of the facilities have begun to establish Guest User Facilities that allow researchers to use and/or be trained on GIS equipment and other specialized tools like Socet Set/GXP photogrammetry workstations for generating digital elevation maps. Improve the connection between the Network nodes while also leveraging the unique resources of each node. To achieve this goal, each facility is developing and sharing searchable databases of their collections, including robust metadata in a standards compliant way. Communicate more effectively and regularly with the planetary science community in an effort to make potential users aware of resources and services provided by the Network, while also engaging community members in discussions about community needs. Provide a regional resource for the science community, colleges, universities, museums, media, and the public to access planetary data. Introduce new strategies for

  3. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  4. Extracting the regional common-mode component of GPS station position time series from dense continuous network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yunfeng; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2016-02-01

    We develop a spatial filtering method to remove random noise and extract the spatially correlated transients (i.e., common-mode component (CMC)) that deviate from zero mean over the span of detrended position time series of a continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) network. The technique utilizes a weighting scheme that incorporates two factors—distances between neighboring sites and their correlations of long-term residual position time series. We use a grid search algorithm to find the optimal thresholds for deriving the CMC that minimizes the root-mean-square (RMS) of the filtered residual position time series. Comparing to the principal component analysis technique, our method achieves better (>13% on average) reduction of residual position scatters for the CGPS stations in western North America, eliminating regional transients of all spatial scales. It also has advantages in data manipulation: less intervention and applicable to a dense network of any spatial extent. Our method can also be used to detect CMC irrespective of its origins (i.e., tectonic or nontectonic), if such signals are of particular interests for further study. By varying the filtering distance range, the long-range CMC related to atmospheric disturbance can be filtered out, uncovering CMC associated with transient tectonic deformation. A correlation-based clustering algorithm is adopted to identify stations cluster that share the common regional transient characteristics.

  5. Interventional Radiology service provision and practice for the management of traumatic splenic injury across the Regional Trauma Networks of England.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jane; Scrimshire, Ashley; Steinberg, Laura; Yiannoullou, Petros; Newton, Katherine; Hall, Claire; Pearce, Lyndsay; Macdonald, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    The management of blunt splenic injuries (BSI) has evolved toward strategies that avoid splenectomy. There is growing adoption of interventional radiology (IR) techniques in non-operative management of BSI, with evidence suggesting a corresponding reduction in emergency laparotomy requirements and increased splenic preservation rates. Currently there are no UK national guidelines for the management of blunt splenic injury. This may lead to variations in management, despite the reorganisation of trauma services in England in 2012. A survey was distributed through the British Society of Interventional Radiologists to all UK members aiming to identify availability of IR services in England, radiologists' practice, and attitudes toward management of BSI. 116 responses from respondents working in 23 of the 26 Regional Trauma Networks in England were received. 79% provide a single dedicated IR service but over 50% cover more than one hospital within the network. All offer arterial embolisation for BSI. Only 25% follow guidelines. In haemodynamically stable patients, an increasing trend for embolisation was seen as grade of splenic injury increased from 1 to 4 (12.5%-82.14%, p<0.01). In unstable patients or those with radiological evidence of bleeding, significantly more respondents offer embolisation for grade 1-3 injuries (p<0.01), compared to stable patients. Significantly fewer respondents offer embolisation for grade 5 versus 4 injuries in unstable patients or with evidence of bleeding. Splenic embolisation is offered for a variety of injury grades, providing the patient remains stable. Variation in interventional radiology services remain despite the introduction of regional trauma networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate network analysis of regional precipitation extremes: The true story told by event synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenweller, Adrian; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decade, complex network methods have been frequently used for characterizing spatio-temporal patterns of climate variability from a complex systems perspective, yielding new insights into time-dependent teleconnectivity patterns and couplings between different components of the Earth climate. Among the foremost results reported, network analyses of the synchronicity of extreme events as captured by the so-called event synchronization have been proposed to be powerful tools for disentangling the spatio-temporal organization of particularly extreme rainfall events and anticipating the timing of monsoon onsets or extreme floodings. Rooted in the analysis of spike train synchrony analysis in the neurosciences, event synchronization has the great advantage of automatically classifying pairs of events arising at two distinct spatial locations as temporally close (and, thus, possibly statistically - or even dynamically - interrelated) or not without the necessity of selecting an additional parameter in terms of a maximally tolerable delay between these events. This consideration is conceptually justified in case of the original application to spike trains in electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, where the inter-spike intervals show relatively narrow distributions at high temporal sampling rates. However, in case of climate studies, precipitation extremes defined by daily precipitation sums exceeding a certain empirical percentile of their local distribution exhibit a distinctively different type of distribution of waiting times between subsequent events. This raises conceptual concerns if event synchronization is still appropriate for detecting interlinkages between spatially distributed precipitation extremes. In order to study this problem in more detail, we employ event synchronization together with an alternative similarity measure for event sequences, event coincidence rates, which requires a manual setting of the tolerable maximum delay between two

  7. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  8. Sports Shorts. [A Product of] the Regional Math Network: A Teacher Invigoration and Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    This middle school mathematics unit is organized around themes relating to sports activities in the Boston (Massachusetts) region and has a content focus on decimals and percents. The activities follow a story line which features a sports reporter (the student) and his/her assignments and adventures. Each activity begins with a headline, defines a…

  9. Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) Rhine-Meuse: A Cross-Border Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikers, Jos H. A. N.; Hermans, Jos H. C. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the case of the cross-border RCE Rhine-Meuse established as the first Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) on Education for Sustainable Development in Europe. RCE Rhine-Meuse is an initiative of two institutions of higher education in the South of The Netherlands, but reaching out to the German and…

  10. Building a collaborative network to understand regional forest dynamics and advance forestry initiatives in the Caribbean

    Treesearch

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2016-01-01

    Herein we provide concluding remarks drawn from and inspired by the discussions of the 5 working groups of the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting (CFM) about the needs, challenges, and recommendations to advance forestry in the Caribbean region. We also list key considerations and potential future research directions as presented in the various manuscripts contained in...

  11. REGIONAL OXIDANT MODEL (ROM) USER'S GUIDE, PART 2: THE ROM PREPROCESSOR NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) determines hourly concentrations and fates of zone and 34 other chemical species over a scale of 1000 km x 1000 km for ozone "episodes" of up to one month's duration. he model structure, based on phenomenological concepts, consists of 3 1/2 layers...

  12. Social Networks, Social Media and Absorptive Capacity in Regional Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosua, Rachelle; Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are major sources of prosperity and employment and are viewed as critical to regional development in Australia. A key factor to foster productivity and growth in SMEs is their ability to identify, acquire, transform and exploit external knowledge. This ability, referred to as the "absorptive capacity…

  13. Developing of a network of nature reserves in the Lublin Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanicka, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    The nature reserves are one of the oldest forms of nature conservation. Legal basis for their establishment in Poland gave the Nature Conservation Act of 1934, but much earlier, it originated on private land or in state forests. The natural environment of the Lublin Region was poorly understood. Only after the emergence of Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin in 1944, there started intensive research, mainly in Roztocze and Polesie Lubelskie. The development of the natural science enhanced learning activities for the protection of natural objects. The author presents the history of the creation of nature reserves in the Lublin Region from 1933 to 2008. The first reserves - Jata and Topór were approved in 1933 in the Łuków Forests. In 1934 the famous reserve Bukowa Góra in Roztocze, in Zamoyski Ordination, was approved. In the period 1933-2008, 103 nature reserves were established in the Lublin Region, of which 11 were included in the Roztoczański and 5 in the Poleski National Park. The area of 87 existing nature reserves in the Lublin Region is 6.8% of the reserves in Poland. The reserves represent 8 from 9 types distinguished in Poland - 35 forest reserves, 16 peat, 12 faunal, 8 steppe, 6 landscape, 6 floral, 3 inanimate nature, and 1 water reserve. Against the background of Poland, the Lublin province takes the first place (!) in terms of reserves in the steppe area (30.3% of steppe reserves in the country) and peat (19% of the peat reserves in the country), and the third in terms of the area of forest reserves (9.7% of forest reserves in the country). A large area of forest reserves in the region of low forest cover (22.5% and 14th place in the country) shows the value of natural forests and note that is attached to their protection in the Lublin Region. The annex contains a list of 103 reserves established in the Lublin Region after World War II.

  14. Detection of mass regions in mammograms by bilateral analysis adapted to breast density using similarity indexes and convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Bandeira Diniz, João Otávio; Bandeira Diniz, Pedro Henrique; Azevedo Valente, Thales Levi; Corrêa Silva, Aristófanes; de Paiva, Anselmo Cardoso; Gattass, Marcelo

    2018-03-01

    The processing of medical image is an important tool to assist in minimizing the degree of uncertainty of the specialist, while providing specialists with an additional source of detect and diagnosis information. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that affects the female population around the world. It is also the most deadly type of cancer among women. It is the second most common type of cancer among all others. The most common examination to diagnose breast cancer early is mammography. In the last decades, computational techniques have been developed with the purpose of automatically detecting structures that maybe associated with tumors in mammography examination. This work presents a computational methodology to automatically detection of mass regions in mammography by using a convolutional neural network. The materials used in this work is the DDSM database. The method proposed consists of two phases: training phase and test phase. The training phase has 2 main steps: (1) create a model to classify breast tissue into dense and non-dense (2) create a model to classify regions of breast into mass and non-mass. The test phase has 7 step: (1) preprocessing; (2) registration; (3) segmentation; (4) first reduction of false positives; (5) preprocessing of regions segmented; (6) density tissue classification (7) second reduction of false positives where regions will be classified into mass and non-mass. The proposed method achieved 95.6% of accuracy in classify non-dense breasts tissue and 97,72% accuracy in classify dense breasts. To detect regions of mass in non-dense breast, the method achieved a sensitivity value of 91.5%, and specificity value of 90.7%, with 91% accuracy. To detect regions in dense breasts, our method achieved 90.4% of sensitivity and 96.4% of specificity, with accuracy of 94.8%. According to the results achieved by CNN, we demonstrate the feasibility of using convolutional neural networks on medical image processing techniques for

  15. Increasing ammonia concentration trends in large regions of the USA derived from the NADP/AMoN network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T.; Vermeylen, F.; Lehmann, C. M.; Likens, G. E.; Puchalski, M.

    2016-12-01

    Data from bi-weekly passive samplers from 18 of the longest operating National Atmospheric Deposition Program's (NADP) Ammonia Monitoring Network (AMoN) sites (most operating from 2008 to 2015) show that concentrations of NH3 have been increasing (p-value < 0.0001) over large regions of the USA. This trend is occurring at a seasonal and annual level of aggregation. Using random coefficient models (RCM), the mean slope for the 18 sites combined shows an increase of NH3 concentration of +7% per year, with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) from +5% to +9% per year. Travel blank corrected data using the same approach show increasing NH3 concentrations of +9% (95% C.I. +5% to +13%) per year. During a comparable period (2008-2014) NADP precipitation chemistry sites in the same regions show significant increasing (p-value = 0.0001) precipitation NH4+ concentrations trends for all sites combined of +5% (95% C.I. +3% to +7%) per year. Emissions inventory data for the study period show nearly constant rates of NH3 emissions, but large reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions. Seasonal air quality data from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) sites in these regions show significant declines in atmospheric particulate SO42- and NH4+, and particulate NO3- plus HNO3 (total NO3-) during the same period. Less formation of acidic SO4 and NO3, due to reduced SO2 and NOx emissions, provide less substrate to interact with NH3 and form particulate ammonium species. Thus, concentrations of NH3 can increase in the atmosphere even if emissions remain constant. A likely result may be more localized deposition of NH3, as opposed to the more long-range transport and deposition of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and sulfate (NH4)2SO4). Additionally, the spatial distribution of wet and dry acidic deposition will be impacted.

  16. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  17. Promoting, building and sustaining a regional laboratory network in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    More, J D; Sengupta, S K; Manley, P N

    2000-01-01

    The Queen's University Department of Pathology and its affiliated hospital laboratories (Kingston, Canada) have operated a successful laboratory outreach program for more than a decade in Southeastern Ontario. The outreach program provides high quality reference testing and technical and professional expertise in laboratory medicine to largely rural and small urban community hospitals. As a consequence of dramatic cuts to the publicly funded health-care system in the Province of Ontario, the environment in which laboratory medicine is practiced has altered irrevocably. This article discusses some of the difficult internal and external challenges faced by the outreach program within the region and how they were effectively managed, not only to maintain but to enhance the program's services. The result has been a continued improvement in the quality of laboratory services in the region with significantly increased cost-effectiveness, largely through reengineering and consolidation.

  18. [Incidence of infection from catheter procedures for regional anesthesia: first results from the network of DGAI and BDA].

    PubMed

    Volk, T; Engelhardt, L; Spies, C; Steinfeldt, T; Gruenewald, D; Kutter, B; Heller, A; Werner, C; Heid, F; Bürkle, H; Gastmeier, P; Wernecke, K-D; Koch, T; Vicent, O; Geiger, P; Wulf, H

    2009-11-01

    To analyze safety issues of regional anaesthesia and analgesia in Germany only a few single center studies are available. Therefore, the German Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin, DGAI) and the Professional Association of German Anaesthetists (Berufsverband Deutscher Anästhesisten, BDA) initiated a network for safety in regional anaesthesia. From this the first results on infectious complications will be reported. In a Delphi process the documentation of the setup and maintenance of regional anaesthesia and analgesia was agreed with the participants in a working group from the DGAI. After approval by the officially authorized representative for patient data privacy protection a registry was programmed to collect anonymous data. Up to October 2008 data from 6 centers could be analyzed. After testing for plausibility 8,781 regional anaesthesia procedures (22,112 catheter days) could be analyzed. The 5,057 neuraxial and 3,724 peripheral catheter-based procedures were in place for a median of 2.48 days (range 1.0-3.0 days) and 4 severe, 15 moderate and 128 mild infections were recorded. Diabetics were not found to show a statistically significant increase in risk (2.6% compared to 1.9% for non-diabetics: n.s.). Neuraxial procedures seem to have a higher rate of infections than peripheral procedures (2.7% vs. 1.3%, p<0.0001). Multiple punctures of the skin also seem to be associated with a higher infection rate than single skin punctures (4.1% vs. 1.6%, p<0.0001). Infectious complications of catheter-based regional anaesthesia are common. Strict hygienic standards must therefore be complied with. More data are necessary to calculate risk factors. The registry provided can also be used as a benchmark to reduce these rates further.

  19. Clinical and virological heterogeneity of hepatitis delta in different regions world-wide: The Hepatitis Delta International Network (HDIN).

    PubMed

    Wranke, Anika; Pinheiro Borzacov, Lourdes M; Parana, Raymundo; Lobato, Cirley; Hamid, Saeed; Ceausu, Emanoil; Dalekos, George N; Rizzetto, Mario; Turcanu, Adela; Niro, Grazia A; Lubna, Farheen; Abbas, Minaam; Ingiliz, Patrick; Buti, Maria; Ferenci, Peter; Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Hayden, Tonya; Dashdorj, Naranjargal; Motoc, Adriana; Cornberg, Markus; Abbas, Zaigham; Yurdaydin, Cihan; Manns, Michael P; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Hardtke, Svenja

    2018-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis D (delta) is a major global health burden. Clinical and virological characteristics of patients with hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection and treatment approaches in different regions world-wide are poorly defined. The Hepatitis Delta International Network (HDIN) registry was established in 2011 with centres in Europe, Asia, North- and South America. Here, we report on clinical/ virological characteristics of the first 1576 patients with ongoing or past HDV infection included in the database until October 2016 and performed a retrospective outcome analysis. The primary aim was to investigate if the region of origin was associated with HDV replication and clinical outcome. The majority of patients was male (n = 979, 62%) and the mean age was 36.7 years (range 1-79, with 9% of patients younger than 20 years). Most patients were HBeAg-negative (77%) and HDV-RNA positive (85%). Cirrhosis was reported in 48.7% of cases which included 13% of patients with previous or ongoing liver decompensation. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developed in 30 patients (2.5%) and 44 (3.6%) underwent liver transplantation. Regions of origin were independently associated with clinical endpoints and detectability of HDV RNA. Antiviral therapy was administered to 356 patients with different treatment uptakes in different regions. Of these, 264 patients were treated with interferon-a and 92 were treated with HBV-Nucs only. The HDIN registry confirms the severity of hepatitis delta but also highlights the heterogeneity of patient characteristics and clinical outcomes in different regions. There is an urgent need for novel treatment options for HDV infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Model-based evaluation of subsurface monitoring networks for improved efficiency and predictive certainty of regional groundwater models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosses, M. J.; Wöhling, Th.; Moore, C. R.; Dann, R.; Scott, D. M.; Close, M.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater resources worldwide are increasingly under pressure. Demands from different local stakeholders add to the challenge of managing this resource. In response, groundwater models have become popular to make predictions about the impact of different management strategies and to estimate possible impacts of changes in climatic conditions. These models can assist to find optimal management strategies that comply with the various stakeholder needs. Observations of the states of the groundwater system are essential for the calibration and evaluation of groundwater flow models, particularly when they are used to guide the decision making process. On the other hand, installation and maintenance of observation networks are costly. Therefore it is important to design monitoring networks carefully and cost-efficiently. In this study, we analyse the Central Plains groundwater aquifer (~ 4000 km2) between the Rakaia and Waimakariri rivers on the Eastern side of the Southern Alps in New Zealand. The large sedimentary groundwater aquifer is fed by the two alpine rivers and by recharge from the land surface. The area is mainly under agricultural land use and large areas of the land are irrigated. The other major water use is the drinking water supply for the city of Christchurch. The local authority in the region, Environment Canterbury, maintains an extensive groundwater quantity and quality monitoring programme to monitor the effects of land use and discharges on groundwater quality, and the suitability of the groundwater for various uses, especially drinking-water supply. Current and projected irrigation water demand has raised concerns about possible impacts on groundwater-dependent lowland streams. We use predictive uncertainty analysis and the Central Plains steady-state groundwater flow model to evaluate the worth of pressure head observations in the existing groundwater well monitoring network. The data worth of particular observations is dependent on the problem

  1. Ammonia and greenhouse gases losses from mechanically turned cattle manure windrows: A regional composting network.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Haritz; Viguria, Maialen; López, Diana M; Merino, Pilar

    2017-12-01

    An on-farm composting network operates in the Basque Country (northern Spain), in which solid manure produced in livestock farms (mostly dairy and beef cattle) is composted through windrow turning. This network aims to produce a valuable resource (compost) for the farmers whereas the volume of the solid manure was reduced at farm level The objective of the study was to assess the gaseous losses (NH 3 and GHG) from 6 on-farm composting windrows (either deep litter systems or solid fraction after slurry separation) after turning operations. Monitored turning events occurred 1 to 4 months after establishing the heaps on the field. Ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) losses were estimated by the open and close chamber techniques, respectively. Results showed overall low emission rates related to the long degradation period of the windrows. Maximum NH 3 release was at 2.0 mg m -2 d -1 after the second/third turning events. Baseline N 2 O losses were below 50 mg m -2 d -1 , with maximum rates close to 500 mg m -2 d -1 some days after turning works. Methane emissions were mostly below 100 mg m -2 d -1 , while CO 2 losses were lower than 25 g m -2 d -1 . Carbon dioxide peaks (≈250 g m -2 d -1 ) were reached after the second/third turnings. Overall, gaseous N and C losses accounted for 0.1 and 1% of the initial N and C content of the windrows, respectively. The present study concluded that two/three turning operations in aged solid manure-derived compost windrows do not have significant effects on NH 3 and GHG losses. The magnitude of the gaseous losses from on-farm composting systems is dependent on the manure management practices at farm level (e.g. moment of windrow stacking). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi-parameter observations in the Ibero-Moghrebian region: the Western Mediterranean seismic network (WM) and ROA GPS geodynamic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Gárate Pasquín, Jorge; Catalán Morollón, Manuel; Hanka, Winfried; Udías, Agustín.; Benzzeghoud, Mourad; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2010-05-01

    The plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa plates crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from the San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern Morocco and Algeria. In this area, the convergence, with a low rate, is accommodated over a wide and diffuse deformation zone, characterized by a significant and widespread moderate seismic activity [Buforn et al., 1995], and the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation zone. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net) is deployed, in collaboration with other institutions, around the Gulf of Cádiz and the Alboran sea, with stations in the South of Iberia and in North Africa (at Spanish places and Morocco), together with the seismic stations a permanent geodetic GPS net is co-installed at the same sites. Also, other geophysical instruments have been installed: a Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station at San Fernando Observatory Headquarter, a Geomagnetic Observatory in Cádiz bay area and some meteorological stations. These networks have been recently improved with the deployment of a new submarine and on-land geophysical observatory in the Alboran island (ALBO Observatory), where a permanent GPS, a meteorological station were installed on land and a permanent submarine observatory in 50 meters depth was also deploy in last October (with a broad band seismic sensor, a 3 C accelerometer and a DPG). This work shows the present status and the future plans of these networks and some results.

  3. Deep neural networks show an equivalent and often superior performance to dermatologists in onychomycosis diagnosis: Automatic construction of onychomycosis datasets by region-based convolutional deep neural network.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Seog; Park, Gyeong Hun; Lim, Woohyung; Kim, Myoung Shin; Na, Jung Im; Park, Ilwoo; Chang, Sung Eun

    2018-01-01

    Although there have been reports of the successful diagnosis of skin disorders using deep learning, unrealistically large clinical image datasets are required for artificial intelligence (AI) training. We created datasets of standardized nail images using a region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) trained to distinguish the nail from the background. We used R-CNN to generate training datasets of 49,567 images, which we then used to fine-tune the ResNet-152 and VGG-19 models. The validation datasets comprised 100 and 194 images from Inje University (B1 and B2 datasets, respectively), 125 images from Hallym University (C dataset), and 939 images from Seoul National University (D dataset). The AI (ensemble model; ResNet-152 + VGG-19 + feedforward neural networks) results showed test sensitivity/specificity/ area under the curve values of (96.0 / 94.7 / 0.98), (82.7 / 96.7 / 0.95), (92.3 / 79.3 / 0.93), (87.7 / 69.3 / 0.82) for the B1, B2, C, and D datasets. With a combination of the B1 and C datasets, the AI Youden index was significantly (p = 0.01) higher than that of 42 dermatologists doing the same assessment manually. For B1+C and B2+ D dataset combinations, almost none of the dermatologists performed as well as the AI. By training with a dataset comprising 49,567 images, we achieved a diagnostic accuracy for onychomycosis using deep learning that was superior to that of most of the dermatologists who participated in this study.

  4. Regional Homogeneity within the Default Mode Network in Bipolar Depression: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Ma, Xin; Li, Feng; Wang, Yong-Jun; Tie, Chang-Le; Li, Su-Fang; Chen, Tao-Lin; Fan, Ting-ting; Zhang, Yu; Dong, Jie; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2012-01-01

    Aim We sought to use a regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach as an index in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the features of spontaneous brain activity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients suffering from bipolar depression (BD). Methods Twenty-six patients with BD and 26 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy subjects participated in the resting-state fMRI scans. We compared the differences in ReHo between the two groups within the DMN and investigated the relationships between sex, age, years of education, disease duration, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) total score, and ReHo in regions with significant group differences. Results Our results revealed that bipolar depressed patients had increased ReHo in the left medial frontal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobe compared to healthy controls. No correlations were found between regional ReHo values and sex, age, and clinical features within the BD group. Conclusions Our findings indicate that abnormal brain activity is mainly distributed within prefrontal-limbic circuits, which are believed to be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bipolar depression. PMID:23133615

  5. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    PubMed

    Mielke, M

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under http://www.rki.de → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.

  6. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called “phase amplitude coupling.” PMID:27559180

  7. TMS uncovers details about sub-regional language-specific processing networks in early bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Sini; Mäkelä, Niko; Sairanen, Viljami; Lehtonen, Minna; Kujala, Teija; Leminen, Alina

    2018-05-01

    Despite numerous functional neuroimaging and intraoperative electrical cortical mapping studies aimed at investigating the cortical organisation of native (L1) and second (L2) language processing, the neural underpinnings of bilingualism remain elusive. We investigated whether the neural network engaged in speech production over the bilateral posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is the same (i.e., shared) or different (i.e., language-specific) for the two languages of bilingual speakers. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the left and right posterior inferior gyrus (pIFG), while early simultaneous bilinguals performed a picture naming task with their native languages. An ex-Gaussian distribution was fitted to the naming latencies and the resulting parameters were compared between languages and across stimulation conditions. The results showed that although the naming performance in general was highly comparable between the languages, TMS produced a language-specific effect when the pulses were delivered to the left pIFG at 200 ms poststimulus. We argue that this result causally demonstrates, for the first time, that even within common language-processing areas, there are distinct language-specific neural populations for the different languages in early simultaneous bilinguals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jessica J; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W; Baker, Kate; Astle, Duncan E

    2016-08-24

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called "phase amplitude coupling." Copyright © 2016 Barnes et al.

  9. Risk of neurodevelopmental impairment for outborn extremely preterm infants in an Australian regional network.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Kate; Bajuk, Barbara; Oei, Julee; Lui, Kei; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E

    2017-01-01

    To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2-3 years in extremely premature outborn and inborn infants. Population-based retrospective cohort study. Geographically defined area of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) served by a network of 10 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). All premature infants <29 weeks gestation born between 1998 and 2004 in the setting. At 2-3 years, corrected age, 1473 children were assessed with either the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS) or the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II). Moderate/severe functional disability (FD) defined as: developmental delay (GMDS general quotient (GQ) or BSID-II mental developmental index (MDI)) > 2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean; cerebral palsy (CP) requiring aids; sensorineural or conductive deafness (requiring amplification); or bilateral blindness (visual acuity <6/60 in better eye). At 2-3 years, moderate/severe functional disability does not appear to be significantly different between outborn and inborn infants (adjusted OR 0.782; 95% CI 0.424-1.443). However, there were a significant number of outborn infants lost to follow up (23.3% versus 42.9%). In this cohort, at 2-3 years follow up neurodevelopmental outcome does not appear to be significantly different between outborn and inborn infants. These results should be interpreted with caution given the limitation of this study.

  10. RNA-Seq Mouse Brain Regions Expression Data Analysis: Focus on ApoE Functional Network

    PubMed

    Babenko, Vladimir N; Smagin, Dmitry A; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N

    2017-09-13

    ApoE expression status was proved to be a highly specific marker of energy metabolism rate in the brain. Along with its neighbor, Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 kDa (TOMM40) which is involved in mitochondrial metabolism, the corresponding genomic region constitutes the neuroenergetic hotspot. Using RNA-Seq data from a murine model of chronic stress a significant positive expression coordination of seven neighboring genes in ApoE locus in five brain regions was observed. ApoE maintains one of the highest absolute expression values genome-wide, implying that ApoE can be the driver of the neighboring gene expression alteration observed under stressful loads. Notably, we revealed the highly statistically significant increase of ApoE expression in the hypothalamus of chronically aggressive (FDR < 0.007) and defeated (FDR < 0.001) mice compared to the control. Correlation analysis revealed a close association of ApoE and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene expression profiles implying the putative neuroendocrine stress response background of ApoE expression elevation therein.

  11. Nicotine Modulates Multiple Regions in the Limbic Stress Network Regulating Activation of Hypophysiotrophic Neurons in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guoliang; Sharp, Burt M.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine intake affects CNS responses to stressors. We reported that nicotine self-administration (SA) augmented the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response, in part due to altered neurotransmission and neuropeptide expression within hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Limbic-PVN interactions involving medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) greatly impact the HPA stress response. Therefore, we investigated the effects of nicotine SA on stress-induced neuronal activation in limbic-PVN network, using c-Fos protein immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing. Nicotine decreased stress-induced c-Fos in prelimbic cortex (PrL), anteroventral BST (avBST), and peri-PVN; but increased c-Fos induction in medial amygdala (MeA), locus coeruleus, and PVN. Fluoro-gold (FG) was injected into avBST or PVN, since GABAergic neurons in avBST projecting to PVN corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons relay information from both PrL glutamatergic and MeA GABAergic neurons. The stress-induced c-Fos expression in retrograde-labeled FG+ neurons was decreased in PrL by nicotine, but increased in MeA, and also reduced in avBST. Therefore, within limbic-PVN network, nicotine SA exerts selective regional effects on neuronal activation by stress. These findings expand the mechanistic framework by demonstrating altered limbic-BST-PVN interactions underlying the disinhibition of PVN CRF neurons, an essential component of the amplified HPA response to stress by nicotine. PMID:22578217

  12. [Development of a microbiology data warehouse (Akita-ReNICS) for networking hospitals in a medical region].

    PubMed

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Noriko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tomoe; Obara, Toshikage; Takeda, Masahide; Moritoki, Yuki; Itoga, Masamichi; Ito, Wataru; Ohsaga, Atsushi; Kondoh, Katsuyuki; Chihara, Junichi

    2011-04-01

    The active involvement of hospital laboratory in surveillance is crucial to the success of nosocomial infection control. The recent dramatic increase of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and their spread into the community suggest that the infection control strategy of independent medical institutions is insufficient. To share the clinical data and surveillance in our local medical region, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in Akita prefecture. This system, named Akita-ReNICS, is an easy-to-use information management system designed to compare, track, and report the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Participating laboratories routinely transfer their coded and formatted microbiology data to ReNICS server located at Akita University Hospital from their health care system's clinical computer applications over the internet. We established the system to automate the statistical processes, so that the participants can access the server to monitor graphical data in the manner they prefer, using their own computer's browser. Furthermore, our system also provides the documents server, microbiology and antimicrobiotic database, and space for long-term storage of microbiological samples. Akita-ReNICS could be a next generation network for quality improvement of infection control.

  13. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  14. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called “hub and spoke”, provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. Methods We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997–2001 period. Results The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Conclusions Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities. PMID:16896380

  15. Vertical integration and contractual network in the cardiovascular sector: the experience of the Italian region Emilia Romagna.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Cristina; Nobilio, Lucia

    2003-01-01

    We analysed the integrated planning model adopted by the Italian region Emilia Romagna in year 2000 to cover the entire range of treatment of cardiovascular disease. This model, called "hub and spoke", provides for the transfer of patient care and treatment from peripheral units (the spokes) to central units (the hubs) once a certain complexity threshold has been reached. We examined inter-temporal variations in patients flows for the selection/referral and follow-up phases between cardiac surgery and cardiology units during two periods characterised by different organisational set-ups, in order to reflect on the progress being made in the organisation of the network. The database consisted of regional records of hospital discharges during the 1997-2001 period. The investigation pointed to the achievement of a good degree of coordination between structures at different levels of specialisation in the case of cardiac surgery, for which six centres were selected already in 1996. On the other hand, the more recent introduction of a hierarchical system for interventional cardiology points to the prevalence of operations on patients previously treated within the same centre, to admissions by direct access, and to follow-up mainly conducted within the hub providing the initial service. Despite the progress made towards the more effective rationalisation of the health care network, there is still room for improvement in relations between different centres, in particular with regard to the clearer definition of the roles and interdependence of those intermediate-level centres located between the hub centres and basic healthcare facilities.

  16. Hydraulic fracturing and the Crooked Lake Sequences: Insights gleaned from regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ryan; Stern, Virginia; Novakovic, Mark; Atkinson, Gail; Gu, Yu Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Within central Alberta, Canada, a new sequence of earthquakes has been recognized as of 1 December 2013 in a region of previous seismic quiescence near Crooked Lake, ~30 km west of the town of Fox Creek. We utilize a cross-correlation detection algorithm to detect more than 160 events to the end of 2014, which is temporally distinguished into five subsequences. This observation is corroborated by the uniqueness of waveforms clustered by subsequence. The Crooked Lake Sequences have come under scrutiny due to its strong temporal correlation (>99.99%) to the timing of hydraulic fracturing operations in the Duvernay Formation. We assert that individual subsequences are related to fracturing stimulation and, despite adverse initial station geometry, double-difference techniques allow us to spatially relate each cluster back to a unique horizontal well. Overall, we find that seismicity in the Crooked Lake Sequences is consistent with first-order observations of hydraulic fracturing induced seismicity.

  17. Scenarios of Earth system change in western Canada: Conceptual understanding and process insights from the Changing Cold Regions Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Baltzer, J. L.; Pietroniro, A.; Marsh, P.; Carey, S.; Howard, A.; Barr, A.; Elshamy, M.

    2017-12-01

    The interior of western Canada has been experiencing rapid, widespread, and severe hydroclimatic change in recent decades, and this is projected to continue in the future. To better assess future hydrological, cryospheric and ecological states and fluxes under future climates, a regional hydroclimate project was formed under the auspices of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) project of the World Climate Research Programme; the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN; www.ccrnetwork.ca) aims to understand, diagnose, and predict interactions among the changing Earth system components at multiple spatial scales over the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River basins of western Canada. A particular challenge is in applying land surface and hydrological models under future climates, as system changes and cold regions process interactions are not often straightforward, and model structures and parameterizations based on historical observations and understanding of contemporary system functioning may not adequately capture these complexities. To address this and provide guidance and direction to the modelling community, CCRN has drawn insights from a multi-disciplinary perspective on the process controls and system trajectories to develop a set of feasible scenarios of change for the 21st century across the region. This presentation will describe CCRN's efforts towards formalizing these insights and applying them in a large-scale modelling context. This will address what are seen as the most critical processes and key drivers affecting hydrological, cryospheric and ecological change, how these will most likely evolve in the coming decades, and how these are parameterized and incorporated as future scenarios for terrestrial ecology, hydrological functioning, permafrost state, glaciers, agriculture, and water management.

  18. Dynamic clustering scheme based on the coordination of management and control in multi-layer and multi-region intelligent optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaoliang; Yuan, Fen; Huang, Shanguo; Guo, Bingli; Gu, Wanyi

    2011-12-01

    A Dynamic clustering scheme based on coordination of management and control is proposed to reduce network congestion rate and improve the blocking performance of hierarchical routing in Multi-layer and Multi-region intelligent optical network. Its implement relies on mobile agent (MA) technology, which has the advantages of efficiency, flexibility, functional and scalability. The paper's major contribution is to adjust dynamically domain when the performance of working network isn't in ideal status. And the incorporation of centralized NMS and distributed MA control technology migrate computing process to control plane node which releases the burden of NMS and improves process efficiently. Experiments are conducted on Multi-layer and multi-region Simulation Platform for Optical Network (MSPON) to assess the performance of the scheme.

  19. Why might regional vaccinology networks fail? The case of the Dutch-Nordic Consortium.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan; Blume, Stuart

    2016-07-07

    We analyzed an attempt to develop and clinically test a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the developing world, undertaken by public health institutions from the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland: the Dutch Nordic Consortium (DNC), between 1990 and 2000. Our review shows that the premature termination of the project was due less to technological and scientific challenges and more to managerial challenges and institutional policies. Various impeding events, financial and managerial challenges gradually soured the initially enthusiastic collaborative spirit until near the end the consortium struggled to complete the minimum objectives of the project. By the end of 1998, a tetravalent prototype vaccine had been made that proved safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 trials in adults and toddlers in Finland. The planned next step, to test the vaccine in Asia in infants, did not meet approval by the local authorities in Vietnam nor later in the Philippines and the project eventually stopped.The Dutch DNC member, the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) learned important lessons, which subsequently were applied in a following vaccine technology transfer project, resulting in the availability at affordable prices for the developing world of a conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b. We conclude that vaccine development in the public domain with technology transfer as its ultimate aim requires major front-end funding, committed leadership at the highest institutional level sustained for many years and a competent recipient-manufacturer, which needs to be involved at a very early stage of the development.At the national level, RIVM's policy to consolidate its national manufacturing task through securing a key global health position in support of a network of public vaccine manufacturers proved insufficiently supported by the relevant ministries of the Dutch government. Difficulties to keep up with high costs, high

  20. A GIS analysis of suitability for construction aggregate recycling sites using regional transportation network and population density features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R.; Kapo, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate is used in road and building construction to provide bulk, strength, support, and wear resistance. Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed Portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available sources of recycled aggregate. In this paper, current aggregate production operations in Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia are used to develop spatial association models for the recycled aggregate industry with regional transportation network and population density features. The cost of construction aggregate to the end user is strongly influenced by the cost of transporting processed aggregate from the production site to the construction site. More than 60% of operations recycling aggregate in the mid-Atlantic study area are located within 4.8 km (3 miles) of an interstate highway. Transportation corridors provide both sites of likely road construction where aggregate is used and an efficient means to move both materials and on-site processing equipment back and forth from various work sites to the recycling operations. Urban and developing areas provide a high market demand for aggregate and a ready source of construction debris that may be processed into recycled aggregate. Most aggregate recycling operators in the study area are sited in counties with population densities exceeding 77 people/km2 (200 people/mile 2). No aggregate recycling operations are sited in counties with less than 19 people/km2 (50 people/mile2), reflecting the lack of sufficient long-term sources of construction debris to be used as an aggregate source, as well as the lack of a sufficient market demand for aggregate in most rural areas to locate a recycling operation there or justify the required investment in the equipment to process and produce recycled aggregate. Weights of evidence analyses (WofE), measuring correlation on an area-normalized basis, and weighted logistic regression (WLR), are used to model the distribution of RAP and RPCC operations relative

  1. A training rule which guarantees finite-region stability for a class of closed-loop neural-network control systems.

    PubMed

    Kuntanapreeda, S; Fullmer, R R

    1996-01-01

    A training method for a class of neural network controllers is presented which guarantees closed-loop system stability. The controllers are assumed to be nonlinear, feedforward, sampled-data, full-state regulators implemented as single hidden-layer neural networks. The controlled systems must be locally hermitian and observable. Stability of the closed-loop system is demonstrated by determining a Lyapunov function, which can be used to identify a finite stability region about the regulator point.

  2. Increased tree-ring network density reveals more precise estimations of sub-regional hydroclimate variability and climate dynamics in the Midwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Justin T.; Harley, Grant L.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the historic variability in the hydroclimate provides important information on possible extreme dry or wet periods that in turn inform water management plans. Tree rings have long provided historical context of hydroclimate variability of the U.S. However, the tree-ring network used to create these countrywide gridded reconstructions is sparse in certain locations, such as the Midwest. Here, we increase ( n = 20) the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network in southern Indiana and compare a summer (June-August) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction to existing gridded reconstructions of PDSI for this region. We find both droughts and pluvials that were previously unknown that rival the most intense PDSI values during the instrumental period. Additionally, historical drought occurred in Indiana that eclipsed instrumental conditions with regard to severity and duration. During the period 1962-2004 CE, we find that teleconnections of drought conditions through the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have a strong influence ( r = -0.60, p < 0.01) on secondary tree growth in this region for the late spring-early summer season. These findings highlight the importance of continuing to increase the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network used to infer past climate dynamics to capture the sub-regional spatial variability. Increasing the spatial resolution of the tree-ring network for a given region can better identify sub-regional variability, improve the accuracy of regional tree-ring PDSI reconstructions, and provide better information for climatic teleconnections.

  3. Regional expression of the MAPT gene is associated with loss of hubs in brain networks and cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Rittman, Timothy; Rubinov, Mikail; Vértes, Petra E; Patel, Ameera X; Ginestet, Cedric E; Ghosh, Boyd C P; Barker, Roger A; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Bullmore, Edward T; Rowe, James B

    2016-12-01

    Abnormalities of tau protein are central to the pathogenesis of progressive supranuclear palsy, whereas haplotype variation of the tau gene MAPT influences the risk of Parkinson disease and Parkinson's disease dementia. We assessed whether regional MAPT expression might be associated with selective vulnerability of global brain networks to neurodegenerative pathology. Using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson disease, and healthy subjects (n = 128), we examined functional brain networks and measured the connection strength between 471 gray matter regions. We obtained MAPT and SNCA microarray expression data in healthy subjects from the Allen brain atlas. Regional connectivity varied according to the normal expression of MAPT. The regional expression of MAPT correlated with the proportionate loss of regional connectivity in Parkinson's disease. Executive cognition was impaired in proportion to the loss of hub connectivity. These effects were not seen with SNCA, suggesting that alpha-synuclein pathology is not mediated through global network properties. The results establish a link between regional MAPT expression and selective vulnerability of functional brain networks to neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of the management of blunt splenic trauma in England and Wales: have regional trauma networks influenced management strategies and outcomes?

    PubMed

    Yiannoullou, P; Hall, C; Newton, K; Pearce, L; Bouamra, O; Jenks, T; Scrimshire, A B; Hughes, J; Lecky, F; Macdonald, Adh

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The spleen remains one of the most frequently injured organs following blunt abdominal trauma. In 2012, regional trauma networks were launched across England and Wales with the aim of improving outcomes following trauma. This retrospective cohort study investigated the management and outcomes of blunt splenic injuries before and after the establishment of regional trauma networks. METHODS A dataset was drawn from the Trauma Audit Research Network database of all splenic injuries admitted to English and Welsh hospitals from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014. Demographic data, injury severity, treatment modalities and outcomes were collected. Management and outcomes were compared before and after the launch of regional trauma networks. RESULTS There were 1457 blunt splenic injuries: 575 between 2010 and 2012 and 882 in 2012-14. Following the introduction of the regional trauma networks, use of splenic artery embolotherapy increased from 3.5% to 7.6% (P = 0.001) and splenectomy rates decreased from 20% to 14.85% (P = 0.012). Significantly more patients with polytrauma and blunt splenic injury were treated with splenic embolotherapy following 2012 (61.2% vs. 30%, P < 0.0001). Increasing age, injury severity score, polytrauma and Charlson Comorbidity Index above 10 were predictors of increased mortality (P < 0.001). Increasing systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, OR, 0.757, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.716-0.8) and Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 0.988, 95% CI 0.982-0.995) were protective. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates a reduction in splenectomy rate and an increased use of splenic artery embolotherapy since the introduction of the regional trauma networks. This may have resulted from improved access to specialist services and reduced practice variation since the establishment of these networks.

  5. A review of the management of blunt splenic trauma in England and Wales: have regional trauma networks influenced management strategies and outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, C; Pearce, L; Bouamra, O; Jenks, T; Scrimshire, AB; Hughes, J; Lecky, F; Macdonald, ADH

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The spleen remains one of the most frequently injured organs following blunt abdominal trauma. In 2012, regional trauma networks were launched across England and Wales with the aim of improving outcomes following trauma. This retrospective cohort study investigated the management and outcomes of blunt splenic injuries before and after the establishment of regional trauma networks. METHODS A dataset was drawn from the Trauma Audit Research Network database of all splenic injuries admitted to English and Welsh hospitals from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014. Demographic data, injury severity, treatment modalities and outcomes were collected. Management and outcomes were compared before and after the launch of regional trauma networks. RESULTS There were 1457 blunt splenic injuries: 575 between 2010 and 2012 and 882 in 2012–14. Following the introduction of the regional trauma networks, use of splenic artery embolotherapy increased from 3.5% to 7.6% (P = 0.001) and splenectomy rates decreased from 20% to 14.85% (P = 0.012). Significantly more patients with polytrauma and blunt splenic injury were treated with splenic embolotherapy following 2012 (61.2% vs. 30%, P < 0.0001). Increasing age, injury severity score, polytrauma and Charlson Comorbidity Index above 10 were predictors of increased mortality (P < 0.001). Increasing systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, OR, 0.757, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.716–0.8) and Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 0.988, 95% CI 0.982–0.995) were protective. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates a reduction in splenectomy rate and an increased use of splenic artery embolotherapy since the introduction of the regional trauma networks. This may have resulted from improved access to specialist services and reduced practice variation since the establishment of these networks. PMID:27791418

  6. Pole-equator difference and the variability of the brightness of the chromospheric CaII-K-network elements in quiet regions over the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kariyappa, R.

    1995-01-01

    The dependence of the brightness of chromospheric network elements on latitude was investigated for quiet solar regions. Calibrated photographic CaII K-spectroheliograms were used to compare the variation in brightness at the center of the disk with higher latitude of chromospheric network elements in a quiet region as a function of solar activity. It was found that there was no significant difference in brightness between the center of the solar disk and higher latitude. It is concluded that the brightness of the chromospheric network elements in a quiet region does not depend on the latitude, but that the variation in the intensity enhancement is related to the level of solar activity.

  7. Successful integration efforts in water quality from the integrated Ocean Observing System Regional Associations and the National Water Quality Monitoring Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, R.; Vowinkel, E.; Porter, D.; Hamilton, P.; Morrison, R.; Kohut, J.; Connell, B.; Kelsey, H.; Trowbridge, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  8. Analysis of Regionally Detected Icequakes Using the STEEP Network, South-Central AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neel, S.; Leblanc, L.; Larsen, C.; Truffer, M.; Hansen, R.; Rupert, N.; Pavlis, G.; None, N.

    2007-12-01

    Glaciers produce seismic energy that is detectable from local to teleseismic distances. Glaciolgical processes including calving, surface crevassing, basal sliding and other, yet unresolved source processes are capable of producing recordable seismicity. Twenty-two broadband sensors deployed in south-central Alaska during the SainT Elias TEctonics and Erosion Project (STEEP) provide an excellent means to study glacier-generated seismicity at regional distances. These instruments surround over 7500 km2 of glacier area including the Bering Glacier, Bagley Icefield and the tidewater calving glaciers of Icy Bay (Yahtse, Guyot, Tyndal). Our analysis shows that icequakes nominally occur several times hourly, and can be separated from tectonic seismicity using their unique spectral characteristics and hypocenter locations. The events typically propagate over 50-75 km distances, but occasionally are recorded at stations over 150 km away from the energy source. Hypocenters for more than 1000 events were manually calculated through a 26-day interval during October 2006, and suggest that a majority of the icequakes are associated with calving at tidewater glaciers that terminate in Icy Bay. Events with similar time and frequency domain characteristics also occur at locations away from calving fronts, but less often, and their mechanical origin remains undetermined. Automated detections from a frequency domain event detector exhibit strong correlation with the handpicked time series, and extend our analysis to all available data collected during 2006. We present the time distribution of several categories of icequakes and compare these distributions to environmental variables such as precipitation, temperature and tides to explore potential forcing for observed variability in icequake occurrence.

  9. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  10. α2-containing GABAA receptors expressed in hippocampal region CA3 control fast network oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Heistek, Tim S; Ruiperez-Alonso, Marta; Timmerman, A Jaap; Brussaard, Arjen B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2013-01-01

    GABAA receptors are critically involved in hippocampal oscillations. GABAA receptor α1 and α2 subunits are differentially expressed throughout the hippocampal circuitry and thereby may have distinct contributions to oscillations. It is unknown which GABAA receptor α subunit controls hippocampal oscillations and where these receptors are expressed. To address these questions we used transgenic mice expressing GABAA receptor α1 and/or α2 subunits with point mutations (H101R) that render these receptors insensitive to allosteric modulation at the benzodiazepine binding site, and tested how increased or decreased function of α subunits affects hippocampal oscillations. Positive allosteric modulation by zolpidem prolonged decay kinetics of hippocampal GABAergic synaptic transmission and reduced the frequency of cholinergically induced oscillations. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors in CA3 altered oscillation frequency in CA1, while modulation of GABA receptors in CA1 did not affect oscillations. In mice having a point mutation (H101R) at the GABAA receptor α2 subunit, zolpidem effects on cholinergically induced oscillations were strongly reduced compared to wild-type animals, while zolpidem modulation was still present in mice with the H101R mutation at the α1 subunit. Furthermore, genetic knockout of α2 subunits strongly reduced oscillations, whereas knockout of α1 subunits had no effect. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors was strongly reduced in unitary connections between fast spiking interneurons and pyramidal neurons in CA3 of α2H101R mice, but not of α1H101R mice, suggesting that fast spiking interneuron to pyramidal neuron synapses in CA3 contain α2 subunits. These findings suggest that α2-containing GABAA receptors expressed in the CA3 region provide the inhibition that controls hippocampal rhythm during cholinergically induced oscillations. PMID:23109109

  11. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Li; Deng, Hong-Xia; Xing, Gui-Yang; Xia, Xiao-Luan; Li, Hai-Fang

    2015-02-01

    It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  12. Determination of Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of D-region Electron Density during Annular Solar Eclipse from VLF Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, T.; Hobara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A major part of the path of the annular solar eclipse of May 20, 2012 (magnitude 0.9439) was over southern Japan. The D-region ionospheric changes associated with that eclipse, led to several degree of observable perturbations of sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) radio signal. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) operates VLF observation network over Japan. The solar eclipse associated signal changes were recorded in several receiving stations (Rx) simultaneously for the VLF signals coming from NWC/19.8kHz, JJI/22.2kHz, JJY/40.0kHz, NLK/24.8kHz and other VLF transmitters (Tx). These temporal dependences of VLF signal perturbation have been analyzed and the spatio-temporal characteristics of respective sub-ionospheric perturbations has already been studied by earlier workers using 2D-Finite Difference Time Domain method of simulation. In this work, we determine the spatial scale, depth and temporal dependence of lower ionospheric perturbation in consistence with umbral and penumbral motion. We considered the 2-parameter D-region ionospheric model with exponential electron density profile. To model the solar obscuration effect over it, we assumed a generalized space-time dependent 2-dimensional elliptical Gaussian distribution for ionospheric parameters, such as, effective reflection height (h') and sharpness factor (β). The depth (△hmax, △βmax), center of shadow (lato(t), lono(t)) and spatial scale (σlat,lon) of that Gaussian distribution are used as model parameters. In the vicinity of the eclipse zone, we compute the VLF signal perturbations using Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code for several signal propagation paths. The propagation path characteristics, such as, ground and water conductivity and geomagnetic effect on ionosphere are considered from standard LWPC prescriptions. The model parameters are tuned to set an optimum agreement between our computation and observed positive and negative type of VLF perturbations. Thus

  13. Asleep versus awake: does it matter?: Pediatric regional block complications by patient state: a report from the Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network.

    PubMed

    Taenzer, Andreas H; Walker, Benjamin J; Bosenberg, Adrian T; Martin, Lynn; Suresh, Santhanam; Polaner, David M; Wolf, Christie; Krane, Elliot J

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the patient state at time of placement of regional blocks on the risk of complications is unknown. Current opinion is based almost entirely on case reports, despite considerable interest in the question. Analyzing more than 50,000 pediatric regional anesthesia blocks from an observational prospective database, we determined the rate of adverse events in relation to the patient's state at the time of block placement. Primary outcomes considered were postoperative neurologic symptoms (PONSs) and local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Secondary outcome was extended hospital stay due to a block complication. The Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network is a multi-institutional research consortium that was created with an emphasis on rigorous, prospective, and complete data collection including a data validation and audit process. For the purpose of the analysis, blocks were divided in major groups by single injection versus continuous and by block location. Rates were determined in aggregate for these groups and classified further based on the patient's state (general anesthesia [GA] without neuromuscular blockade [NMB], GA with NMB, sedated, and awake) at the time of block placement. Postoperative neurological symptoms occurred at a rate of 0.93/1000 (confidence interval [CI], 0.7-1.2) under GA and 6.82/1000 (CI, 4.2-10.5) in sedated and awake patients. The only occurrence of PONSs lasting longer than 6 months (PONSs-L) was a small sensory deficit in a sedated patient (0.019/1000 [CI, 0-0.1] for all, 0.48/1000 [CI, 0.1-2.7] for sedated patients). There were no cases of paralysis. There were 5 cases of LAST or 0.09/1000 (CI, 0.03-0.21). The incidence of LAST in patients under GA (both with and without NMB) was 0.08/1000 (CI, 0.02-0.2) and 0.34/1000 (CI, 0-1.9) in awake/sedated patients. Extended hospital stays were described 18 times (0.33/1000 [CI, 0.2-0.53]). The rate for patients under GA without NMB was 0.29/1000 (CI, 0.13-0.48); GA with NMB, 0

  14. Professional training in nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe: current status and opportunities for capacity development.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Novaković, Romana; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Nikolić, Marina; Milešević, Jelena; Ranić, Marija; Glibetić, Marija

    2015-02-01

    To examine the availability of academic programmes in nutrition and identify nutrition training needs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). A questionnaire with close-ended and open-ended questions was distributed to the members of the United Nations University Standing Committee on Nutrition, Regional Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in CEE (NCDN CEE). Participants' responses to the questionnaire including the comments of their colleagues from home institutions were obtained in group discussions during NCDN CEE meetings in 2010-2013. Sixteen CEE countries' experts and their colleagues from home institutions involved in NCDN CEE activities 2007-2013. The responses were obtained from fourteen out of sixteen participating countries; five countries have established Bachelor, Master and PhD studies in nutrition (Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovak Republic and Slovenia), whereas in Latvia and Republic of Macedonia only Bachelor and Master studies are set up. Seven countries have no Bachelor, Master or PhD studies: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia. Introduction to data analysis and Nutritional epidemiology are the most needed nutrition trainings that would increase working competence of nutritionists and nutrition-related professionals in CEE. Availability of academic programmes in nutrition in CEE countries is limited. Opportunities for improving the competence of existing and future nutrition-related professionals should be addressed at national and regional level; distance learning courses and creation of a regional centre for nutrition training were seen as opportunities for sustainable capacity development in nutrition in CEE.

  15. Impact of ambiguity resolution and application of transformation parameters obtained by regional GNSS network in Precise Point Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, S.; Poluzzi, L.; Tavasci, L.

    2012-12-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is one of the possible approaches for GNSS data processing. As known this technique is faster and more flexible compared to the others which are based on a differenced approach and constitute a reliable methods for accurate positioning of remote GNSS stations, even in some remote area such as Antarctica. Until few years ago one of the major limits of the method was the impossibility to resolve the ambiguity as integer but nowadays many methods are available to resolve this aspect. The first software package permitting a PPP solution was the GIPSY OASIS realized, developed and maintained by JPL (NASA). JPL produce also orbits and files ready to be used with GIPSY. Recently, using these products came possible to resolve ambiguities improving the stability of solutions. PPP permit to estimate position into the reference frame of the orbits (IGS) and when coordinate in others reference frames, such al ITRF, are needed is necessary to apply a transformation. Within his products JPL offer, for each day, a global 7 parameter transformation that permit to locate the survey into the ITRF RF. In some cases it's also possible to create a costumed process and obtain analogous parameters using local/regional reference network of stations which coordinates are available also in the desired reference frame. In this work some tests on accuracy has been carried out comparing different PPP solutions obtained using the same software packages (GIPSY) but considering the ambiguity resolution, the global and regional transformation parameters. In particular two test area have been considered, first one located in Antarctica and the second one in Italy. Aim of the work is the evaluation of the impact of ambiguity resolution and the use of local/regional transformation parameter in the final solutions. Tests shown how the ambiguity resolution improve the precision, especially in the EAST component with a scattering reduction about 8%. And the use of global

  16. Nicotine modulates multiple regions in the limbic stress network regulating activation of hypophysiotrophic neurons in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoliang; Sharp, Burt M

    2012-08-01

    Nicotine intake affects CNS responses to stressors. We reported that nicotine self-administration (SA) augmented the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response, in part because of the altered neurotransmission and neuropeptide expression within hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Limbic-PVN interactions involving medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) greatly impact the HPA stress response. Therefore, we investigated the effects of nicotine SA on stress-induced neuronal activation in limbic-PVN network, using c-Fos protein immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing. Nicotine decreased stress-induced c-Fos in prelimbic cortex (PrL), anteroventral BST (avBST), and peri-PVN, but increased c-Fos induction in medial amygdala (MeA), locus coeruleus, and PVN. Fluoro-gold (FG) was injected into avBST or PVN, as GABAergic neurons in avBST projecting to PVN corticotrophin-releasing factor neurons relay information from both PrL glutamatergic and MeA GABAergic neurons. The stress-induced c-Fos expression in retrograde-labeled FG+ neurons was decreased in PrL by nicotine, but increased in MeA, and also reduced in avBST. Therefore, within limbic-PVN network, nicotine SA exerts selective regional effects on neuronal activation by stress. These findings expand the mechanistic framework by demonstrating altered limbic-BST-PVN interactions underlying the disinhibition of PVN corticotrophin-releasing factor neurons, an essential component of the amplified HPA response to stress by nicotine. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Evaluation of a Partial Genome Screening of Two Asthma Susceptibility Regions Using Bayesian Network Based Bayesian Multilevel Analysis of Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Antal, Péter; Kiszel, Petra Sz.; Gézsi, András; Hadadi, Éva; Virág, Viktor; Hajós, Gergely; Millinghoffer, András; Nagy, Adrienne; Kiss, András; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Temesi, Gergely; Melegh, Béla; Kisfali, Péter; Széll, Márta; Bikov, András; Gálffy, Gabriella; Tamási, Lilla; Falus, András; Szalai, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate high number of potential factors related to asthma. Based on earlier linkage analyses we selected the 11q13 and 14q22 asthma susceptibility regions, for which we designed a partial genome screening study using 145 SNPs in 1201 individuals (436 asthmatic children and 765 controls). The results were evaluated with traditional frequentist methods and we applied a new statistical method, called Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA). This method uses Bayesian network representation to provide detailed characterization of the relevance of factors, such as joint significance, the type of dependency, and multi-target aspects. We estimated posteriors for these relations within the Bayesian statistical framework, in order to estimate the posteriors whether a variable is directly relevant or its association is only mediated. With frequentist methods one SNP (rs3751464 in the FRMD6 gene) provided evidence for an association with asthma (OR = 1.43(1.2–1.8); p = 3×10−4). The possible role of the FRMD6 gene in asthma was also confirmed in an animal model and human asthmatics. In the BN-BMLA analysis altogether 5 SNPs in 4 genes were found relevant in connection with asthma phenotype: PRPF19 on chromosome 11, and FRMD6, PTGER2 and PTGDR on chromosome 14. In a subsequent step a partial dataset containing rhinitis and further clinical parameters was used, which allowed the analysis of relevance of SNPs for asthma and multiple targets. These analyses suggested that SNPs in the AHNAK and MS4A2 genes were indirectly associated with asthma. This paper indicates that BN-BMLA explores the relevant factors more comprehensively than traditional statistical methods and extends the scope of strong relevance based methods to include partial relevance, global characterization of relevance and multi-target relevance. PMID:22432035

  18. Network interactions within the canine intrinsic cardiac nervous system: implications for reflex control of regional cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Salavatian, Siamak; Southerland, E Marie; Vinet, Alain; Jacquemet, Vincent; Armour, J Andrew; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine how aggregates of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons transduce the cardiovascular milieu versus responding to changes in central neuronal drive and to determine IC network interactions subsequent to induced neural imbalances in the genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Activity from multiple IC neurons in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was recorded in eight anaesthetized canines using a 16-channel linear microelectrode array. Induced changes in IC neuronal activity were evaluated in response to: (1) focal cardiac mechanical distortion; (2) electrical activation of cervical vagi or stellate ganglia; (3) occlusion of the inferior vena cava or thoracic aorta; (4) transient ventricular ischaemia, and (5) neurally induced AF. Low level activity (ranging from 0 to 2.7 Hz) generated by 92 neurons was identified in basal states, activities that displayed functional interconnectivity. The majority (56%) of IC neurons so identified received indirect central inputs (vagus alone: 25%; stellate ganglion alone: 27%; both: 48%). Fifty per cent transduced the cardiac milieu responding to multimodal stressors applied to the great vessels or heart. Fifty per cent of IC neurons exhibited cardiac cycle periodicity, with activity occurring primarily in late diastole into isovolumetric contraction. Cardiac-related activity in IC neurons was primarily related to direct cardiac mechano-sensory inputs and indirect autonomic efferent inputs. In response to mediastinal nerve stimulation, most IC neurons became excessively activated; such network behaviour preceded and persisted throughout AF. It was concluded that stochastic interactions occur among IC local circuit neuronal populations in the control of regional cardiac function. Modulation of IC local circuit neuronal recruitment may represent a novel approach for the treatment of cardiac disease, including atrial arrhythmias. PMID:23818689

  19. Practical recommendations for strengthening national and regional laboratory networks in Africa in the Global Health Security era.

    PubMed

    Best, Michele; Sakande, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The role of national health laboratories in support of public health response has expanded beyond laboratory testing to include a number of other core functions such as emergency response, training and outreach, communications, laboratory-based surveillance and data management. These functions can only be accomplished by an efficient and resilient national laboratory network that includes public health, reference, clinical and other laboratories. It is a primary responsibility of the national health laboratory in the Ministry of Health to develop and maintain the national laboratory network in the country. In this article, we present practical recommendations based on 17 years of network development experience for the development of effective national laboratory networks. These recommendations and examples of current laboratory networks, are provided to facilitate laboratory network development in other states. The development of resilient, integrated laboratory networks will enhance each state's public health system and is critical to the development of a robust national laboratory response network to meet global health security threats.

  20. Developing human functioning and rehabilitation research. Part II: Interdisciplinary university centers and national and regional collaboration networks.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Celio, Marco

    2007-05-01

    There is a strong movement towards interdisciplinary research around common and scientifically competitive themes, both at universities and at the national and regional level. Human functioning and rehabilitation is a new, highly innovative and relevant theme. It has the potential to attract researchers from a wide range of disciplines, institutions and organizations. It is thus of interest for universities seeking to embark upon a new and unique research area. Similarly, it is a promising theme for individual researchers, institutions and organizations aiming to develop a national or regional collaboration network for interdisciplinary research. Human functioning and rehabilitation complements established themes from the biomedical perspective. In the context of the life sciences, it can be seen as an extension of the biosciences towards a comprehensive understanding of human life, including human interaction and communication, against the background of the natural and social environment. Based on a better understanding of human functioning and disability, there is a wide range of largely unexplored possibilities to optimize populations' functioning and minimize persons' experience of disability in the presence of a health condition. Rehabilitation research is uniquely positioned to integrate and translate scientific advances into benefits for people and the society. Rehabilitation research from the comprehensive perspective can thus become a catalyst of interdisciplinary research that crosses the boundaries of the natural sciences and engineering research, the human and behavioral sciences, the social sciences and a wide range of related scientific areas. Rehabilitation research is also uniquely positioned to cross the boundaries of medicine and the health sector at large, and to translate knowledge across sectors including education, labor and social affairs.

  1. Sulfur dioxide OMI retrievals combined with seismic network data reveals magma migration at active volcanoes in North Kivu region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, Nicolas; Barrière, Julien; Oth, Adrien; Brenot, Hugues; Van Roozendael, Michel; Kervyn, François

    2017-04-01

    The Kivu region is a densely populated area hosting two very active volcanoes, Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira, which require continuous surveillance using the widest means of observation as possible. This study presents a 12-year dataset of satellite observations of SO2 over North Kivu from the OMI instrument. Short- and long-term changes in volcanic SO2 emissions are investigated and satellite data oversampling is used to discriminate the volcanic sources for the full OMI mission. As the same SO2 retrieval algorithm will be applied operationally to the forthcoming TROPOMI instrument (onboard the ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor platform), the observational time series will expand in the future, with enhanced quality. For the years 2014-2016, the satellite SO2 dataset is combined with seismic observations from a 11-stations network that operated continuously during that period. The variations of seismic activity and SO2 degassing display a high-level of consistency and we present a multidisciplinary tracking approach by combining the two types of observational data. This methodology allows for a robust discrimination of magma migration into and out of the shallow plumbing system, improving our ability to interpret signs of volcanic unrest on a daily time scale.

  2. Soil phosphorus forms and profile distributions in the tidal river network region in the Yellow River Delta estuary.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junbao; Qu, Fanzhu; Wu, Huifeng; Meng, Ling; Du, Siyao; Xie, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Modified Hedley fraction method was used to study the forms and profile distribution in the tidal river network region subjected to rapid deposition and hydrologic disturbance in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) estuary, eastern China. The results showed that the total P (Pt) ranged from 612.1 to 657.8 mg kg(-1). Dilute HCl extractable inorganic P (Pi) was the predominant form in all profiles, both as absolute values and as a percentage of total extracted Pi. The NaOH extractable organic P (Po) was the predominant form of total extracted Po, while Bicarb-Pi and C.HCl-Po were the lowest fractions of total extracted Pi and Po in all the P forms. The Resin-P concentrations were high in the top soil layer and decreased with depth. The Pearson correlation matrix indicated that Resin-P, Bicarb-Pi, NaOH-Pi, and C.HCl-Pi were strongly positively correlated with salinity, TOC, Ca, Al, and Fe but negatively correlated with pH. The significant correlation of any studied form of organic P (Bicarb-Po, NaOH-Po, and C.HCl-Po) with geochemical properties were not observed in the study. Duncan multiple-range test indicated that the P forms and distribution heterogeneity in the profiles could be attributed to the influences of vegetation cover and hydrologic disturbance.

  3. Anisotropy of the Earth's inner inner core from autocorrelations of earthquake coda in China Regional Seismic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Song, X.; Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's inner core possesses strong cylindrical anisotropy with the fast symmetry axis parallel to the rotation axis. However, recent study has suggested that the inner part of the inner core has a fast symmetry axis near the equator with a different form of anisotropy from the outer part (Wang et al., this session). To confirm the observation, we use data from dense seismic arrays of the China Regional Seismic Networks. We perform autocorrelation (ACC) of the coda after major earthquakes (Mw>=7.0) at each station and then stack the ACCs at each cluster of stations. The PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases (round-trip phase from the Earth's surface reflections) can be clearly extracted from the stacked empirical Green's functions. We observe systematic variation of the differential times between PKIKP2 and PKIIKP2 phases, which are sensitive to the bulk anisotropy of the inner core. The differential times show large variations with both latitudes and longitudes, even though our ray paths are not polar (with our stations at mid-range latitudes of about 20 to 45 degrees). The observations cannot be explained by an averaged anisotropy model with the fast axis along the rotation axis. The pattern appears consistent with an inner inner core that has a fast axis near the equator.

  4. Implementation and utilization of a comprehensive information network in an integrated private not-for-profit regional health care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, James M., III

    1995-10-01

    The capacity to access, integrate, and analyze demographic, financial, and clinical data within a regional health care system represents an opportunity to ensure and enhance clinical quality and to reduce costs in a carefully planned and controlled manner. Properly used, such capability should improve health care delivery for local populations and provide the institution with a level of integration of services achieved by few health care organizations. The Baptist Health System (BHS), based in Birmingham, Alabama, is currently standardizing operating procedures among its various components and implementing a comprehensive, enterprise-wide information network. Clinical quality improvement and case management are being promulgated throughout the enterprise using a continuum-of-care model developed internally. Having successfully completed a pilot project using teleconferences for core lectures in internal medicine between two large teaching hospitals, BHS is taking advantage of enterprise- wide teleconference capability using a combination of fiberoptic (T3) and standard digital telephone (T1) transmission to speed installation and reduce the cost of implementation into two office buildings and eleven hospitals. The information system will serve to prepare BHS for the advent of managed care and other anticipated changes in health care, while ensuring continued ability to deliver high quality, cost-effective medical and health-related services.

  5. The role of Primary Healthcare in the coordination of Health Care Networks in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Lisbon region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira

    2017-03-01

    Considering the trajectory of Rio de Janeiro e Lisboa region regarding strengths of the their health local systems to achieve health for all and equity, the study aimed to compare the organization of the Primary Healthcare from both regions, searching to identify the advancement which in terms of the Delivery Health Networks' coordination. It is a case study with qualitative approach and assessment dimensions. It was used material available online such as scientific manuscripts and gray literature. The results showed the different grades regarding Delivery Health Networks. Lisboa region present more advancement, because of its historic issues, it has implemented Primary Healthcare expanded and nowadays it achieved enough maturity related to coordination of its health local system and Rio de Janeiro suffers still influence from historic past regarding Primary Healthcare selective. The both regions has done strong bids in terms of electronic health records and telemedicine. After of the study, it is clearer the historic, cultural and politics and legal issue that determined the differences of the Primary Healthcare coordinator of the Delivery Health Network in Rio de Janeiro and Lisboa region.

  6. Palliative care development in the Asia-Pacific region: an international survey from the Asia Pacific Hospice Palliative Care Network (APHN).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kuriya, Meiko; Morita, Tatsuya; Agar, Meera; Choi, Youn Seon; Goh, Cynthia; Lingegowda, K B; Lim, Richard; Liu, Rico K Y; MacLeod, Roderick; Ocampo, Rhodora; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Phungrassami, Temsak; Nguyen, Yen-Phi; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2017-03-01

    Although palliative care is an important public healthcare issue worldwide, the current situation in the Asia-Pacific region has not been systematically evaluated. This survey aimed to clarify the current status of palliative care in the Asia-Pacific region. Questionnaires were sent to a representative physician of each member country/region of the Asia Pacific Hospice Palliative Care Network (APHN). The questionnaire examined palliative care service provision, information regarding physician certification in palliative care, the availability of essential drugs for palliative care listed by the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) and the regulation of opioid-prescribing practice. Of the 14 member countries/regions of the APHN, 12 (86%) responded. Some form of specialist palliative care services had developed in all the responding countries/regions. Eight member countries/regions had physician certifications for palliative care. Most essential drugs for palliative care listed by the IAHPC were available, whereas hydromorphone, oxycodone and transmucosal fentanyl were unavailable in most countries/regions. Six member countries/regions required permission to prescribe and receive opioids. The development of palliative care is in different stages across the surveyed countries/regions in the Asia-Pacific region. Data from this survey can be used as baseline data for monitoring the development of palliative care in this region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Region-specific network plasticity in simulated and living cortical networks: comparison of the center of activity trajectory (CAT) with other statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2007-09-01

    Electrically interfaced cortical networks cultured in vitro can be used as a model for studying the network mechanisms of learning and memory. Lasting changes in functional connectivity have been difficult to detect with extracellular multi-electrode arrays using standard firing rate statistics. We used both simulated and living networks to compare the ability of various statistics to quantify functional plasticity at the network level. Using a simulated integrate-and-fire neural network, we compared five established statistical methods to one of our own design, called center of activity trajectory (CAT). CAT, which depicts dynamics of the location-weighted average of spatiotemporal patterns of action potentials across the physical space of the neuronal circuitry, was the most sensitive statistic for detecting tetanus-induced plasticity in both simulated and living networks. By reducing the dimensionality of multi-unit data while still including spatial information, CAT allows efficient real-time computation of spatiotemporal activity patterns. Thus, CAT will be useful for studies in vivo or in vitro in which the locations of recording sites on multi-electrode probes are important.

  8. Establishing a regional network of academic centers to support decision making for new vaccine introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean: the ProVac experience.

    PubMed

    Toscano, C M; Jauregui, B; Janusz, C B; Sinha, A; Clark, A D; Sanderson, C; Resch, S; Ruiz Matus, C; Andrus, J K

    2013-07-02

    The Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative, designed to strengthen national decision making regarding the introduction of new vaccines, was initiated in 2004. Central to realizing ProVac's vision of regional capacity building, the ProVac Network of Centers of Excellence (CoEs) was established in 2010 to provide research support to the ProVac Initiative, leveraging existing capacity at Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) universities. We describe the process of establishing the ProVac Network of CoEs and its initial outcomes and challenges. A survey was sent to academic, not-for-profit institutions in LAC that had recently published work in the areas of clinical decision sciences and health economic analysis. Centers invited to join the Network were selected by an international committee on the basis of the survey results. Selection criteria included academic productivity in immunization-related work, team size and expertise, successful collaboration with governmental agencies and international organizations, and experience in training and education. The Network currently includes five academic institutions across LAC. Through open dialog and negotiation, specific projects were assigned to centers according to their areas of expertise. Collaboration among centers was highly encouraged. Faculty from ProVac's technical partners were assigned as focal points for each project. The resulting work led to the development and piloting of tools, methodological guides, and training materials that support countries in assessing existing evidence and generating new evidence on vaccine introduction. The evidence generated is shared with country-level decision makers and the scientific community. As the ProVac Initiative expands to other regions of the world with support from immunization and public health partners, the establishment of other regional and global networks of CoEs will be critical. The experience of LAC in creating the current network could benefit the

  9. Analysis of surface-water data network in Kansas for effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information; with a section on theory and application of generalized least squares

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medina, K.D.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of the surface-water data network in Kansas for its effectiveness in providing regional streamflow information. The network was analyzed using generalized least squares regression. The correlation and time-sampling error of the streamflow characteristic are considered in the generalized least squares method. Unregulated medium-, low-, and high-flow characteristics were selected to be representative of the regional information that can be obtained from streamflow-gaging-station records for use in evaluating the effectiveness of continuing the present network stations, discontinuing some stations, and (or) adding new stations. The analysis used streamflow records for all currently operated stations that were not affected by regulation and for discontinued stations for which unregulated flow characteristics, as well as physical and climatic characteristics, were available. The State was divided into three network areas, western, northeastern, and southeastern Kansas, and analysis was made for the three streamflow characteristics in each area, using three planning horizons. The analysis showed that the maximum reduction of sampling mean-square error for each cost level could be obtained by adding new stations and discontinuing some current network stations. Large reductions in sampling mean-square error for low-flow information could be achieved in all three network areas, the reduction in western Kansas being the most dramatic. The addition of new stations would be most beneficial for mean-flow information in western Kansas. The reduction of sampling mean-square error for high-flow information would benefit most from the addition of new stations in western Kansas. Southeastern Kansas showed the smallest error reduction in high-flow information. A comparison among all three network areas indicated that funding resources could be most effectively used by discontinuing more stations in northeastern and southeastern Kansas

  10. The 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake: Aftershock Locations, Moment Tensors and Focal Mechanisms from the Regional Seismic Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratchkovski, N. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Christensen, D.; Kore, K.

    2002-12-01

    The largest earthquake ever recorded on the Denali fault system (magnitude 7.9) struck central Alaska on November 3, 2002. It was preceded by a magnitude 6.7 foreshock on October 23. This earlier earthquake and its zone of aftershocks were located slightly to the west of the 7.9 quake. Aftershock locations and surface slip observations from the 7.9 quake indicate that the rupture was predominately unilateral in the eastward direction. Near Mentasta Lake, a village that experienced some of the worst damage in the quake, the surface rupture scar turns from the Denali fault to the adjacent Totschunda fault, which trends toward more southeasterly toward the Canadian border. Overall, the geologists found that measurable scarps indicate that the north side of the Denali fault moved to the east and vertically up relative to the south. Maximum offsets on the Denali fault were 8.8 meters at the Tok Highway cutoff, and were 2.2 meters on the Totschunda fault. The Alaska regional seismic network consists of over 250 station sites, operated by the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC). Over 25 sites are equipped with the broad-band sensors, some of which have in addition the strong motion sensors. The rest of the stations are either 1 or 3-component short-period instruments. The data from these stations are collected, processed and archived at the AEIC. The AEIC staff installed a temporary network with over 20 instruments following the 6.7 Nenana Mountain and the 7.9 events. Prior to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event, the automatic earthquake detection system at AEIC was locating between 15 and 30 events per day. After the event, the system had over 200-400 automatic locations per day for at least 10 days following the 7.9 event. The processing of the data is ongoing with the priority given to the larger events. The cumulative length of the 6.7 and 7.9 aftershock locations along the Denali

  11. The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)) target diseases in face of climate change.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Utzinger, Jürg; Lv, Shan; Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Shi-Zhu; Wang, Qiang; Bergquist, Robert; Vounatsou, Penelope; Li, Wei; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Climate change-according to conventional wisdom-will result in an expansion of tropical parasitic diseases in terms of latitude and altitude, with vector-borne diseases particularly prone to change. However, although a significant rise in temperature occurred over the past century, there is little empirical evidence whether climate change has indeed favoured infectious diseases. This might be explained by the complex relationship between climate change and the frequency and the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases, which is characterised by nonlinear associations and countless other complex factors governing the distribution of infectious diseases. Here, we explore whether and how climate change might impact on diseases targeted by the Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)). We start our review with a short summary of the current evidence-base how climate change affects the distribution of infectious diseases. Next, we introduce biology-based models for predicting the distribution of infectious diseases in a future, warmer world. Two case studies are presented: the classical RNAS(+) disease schistosomiasis and an emerging disease, angiostrongyliasis, focussing on their occurrences in the People's Republic of China. Strengths and limitations of current models for predicting the impact of climate change on infectious diseases are discussed, and we propose model extensions to include social and ecological factors. Finally, we recommend that mitigation and adaptation strategies to diminish potential negative effects of climate change need to be developed in concert with key stakeholders so that surveillance and early-warning systems can be strengthened and the most vulnerable population groups protected. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automatic detection of anatomical regions in frontal x-ray images: comparing convolutional neural networks to random forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olory Agomma, R.; Vázquez, C.; Cresson, T.; De Guise, J.

    2018-02-01

    Most algorithms to detect and identify anatomical structures in medical images require either to be initialized close to the target structure, or to know that the structure is present in the image, or to be trained on a homogeneous database (e.g. all full body or all lower limbs). Detecting these structures when there is no guarantee that the structure is present in the image, or when the image database is heterogeneous (mixed configurations), is a challenge for automatic algorithms. In this work we compared two state-of-the-art machine learning techniques in order to determine which one is the most appropriate for predicting targets locations based on image patches. By knowing the position of thirteen landmarks points, labelled by an expert in EOS frontal radiography, we learn the displacement between salient points detected in the image and these thirteen landmarks. The learning step is carried out with a machine learning approach by exploring two methods: Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Random Forest (RF). The automatic detection of the thirteen landmarks points in a new image is then obtained by averaging the positions of each one of these thirteen landmarks estimated from all the salient points in the new image. We respectively obtain for CNN and RF, an average prediction error (both mean and standard deviation in mm) of 29 +/-18 and 30 +/- 21 for the thirteen landmarks points, indicating the approximate location of anatomical regions. On the other hand, the learning time is 9 days for CNN versus 80 minutes for RF. We provide a comparison of the results between the two machine learning approaches.

  13. [Regional geriatric care concept in the District of Lippe : Structural effects and network formation in the case management-based model project].

    PubMed

    Şahin, Charlotte; Iseringhausen, Olaf; Hower, Kira; Liebe, Constanze; Rethmeier-Hanke, Anja; Wedmann, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Regional planning of healthcare requires special consideration for the complex needs of elderly, multimorbid people living in a domestic environment. In the District of Lippe, a hospital (Klinikum Lippe) and network of ambulatory care physicians (Ärztenetz Lippe) developed and tested a geriatric care network based on case management for geriatric patients living in a domestic environment. The establishment of the geriatric care network (e.g. promoting networking acceptance and implementation) was formatively evaluated, e. g. with qualitative methods. Data were acquired by guideline-based interviews with experts and analyzed by qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. Structural effects included forming a cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary network for a functioning care network and a geriatric care pathway. The practical work of case managers (CM) is essential for communication with patients, family members and care providers as well as integrating providers into the network. A critical factor was working together with general practitioners and the close cooperation with the hospital's department of geriatric. The quality of care is improved because of exchange of information between sectors and continuity in the course of care. In the District of Lippe the quality of care was improved and structures of care were integrated by the network according to the needs of the target group. The integrative perspective was achieved in particular by the geriatric care pathway and integration of providers into the communication and care process; however, the scope of this care model could not be extended into routine care due to the rigid and subdivided health care system.

  14. Practical recommendations for strengthening national and regional laboratory networks in Africa in the Global Health Security era

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The role of national health laboratories in support of public health response has expanded beyond laboratory testing to include a number of other core functions such as emergency response, training and outreach, communications, laboratory-based surveillance and data management. These functions can only be accomplished by an efficient and resilient national laboratory network that includes public health, reference, clinical and other laboratories. It is a primary responsibility of the national health laboratory in the Ministry of Health to develop and maintain the national laboratory network in the country. In this article, we present practical recommendations based on 17 years of network development experience for the development of effective national laboratory networks. These recommendations and examples of current laboratory networks, are provided to facilitate laboratory network development in other states. The development of resilient, integrated laboratory networks will enhance each state’s public health system and is critical to the development of a robust national laboratory response network to meet global health security threats. PMID:28879137

  15. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  16. Cloud Classification in Polar and Desert Regions and Smoke Classification from Biomass Burning Using a Hierarchical Neural Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, June; Corwin, Edward; Lloyd, David; Logar, Antonette; Welch, Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This research focuses on a new neural network scene classification technique. The task is to identify scene elements in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometry (AVHRR) data from three scene types: polar, desert and smoke from biomass burning in South America (smoke). The ultimate goal of this research is to design and implement a computer system which will identify the clouds present on a whole-Earth satellite view as a means of tracking global climate changes. Previous research has reported results for rule-based systems (Tovinkere et at 1992, 1993) for standard back propagation (Watters et at. 1993) and for a hierarchical approach (Corwin et al 1994) for polar data. This research uses a hierarchical neural network with don't care conditions and applies this technique to complex scenes. A hierarchical neural network consists of a switching network and a collection of leaf networks. The idea of the hierarchical neural network is that it is a simpler task to classify a certain pattern from a subset of patterns than it is to classify a pattern from the entire set. Therefore, the first task is to cluster the classes into groups. The switching, or decision network, performs an initial classification by selecting a leaf network. The leaf networks contain a reduced set of similar classes, and it is in the various leaf networks that the actual classification takes place. The grouping of classes in the various leaf networks is determined by applying an iterative clustering algorithm. Several clustering algorithms were investigated, but due to the size of the data sets, the exhaustive search algorithms were eliminated. A heuristic approach using a confusion matrix from a lightly trained neural network provided the basis for the clustering algorithm. Once the clusters have been identified, the hierarchical network can be trained. The approach of using don't care nodes results from the difficulty in generating extremely complex surfaces in order to separate one class from

  17. Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

    2014-07-01

    Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control

  18. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  19. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  20. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale.

  1. Engaging Local Communities in Arctic Observing Networks: A Collaborative Shoreline Change Risk WebGIS for Alaska's Arctic Slope Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study engaged local community stakeholders in Alaska's Arctic Slope Region to develop a web-based shoreline change risk geographic information system (WebGIS) in collaboration with the North Slope Borough and its residents. The value of the effort includes rich spatial documentation of local risks across the vast, remote, and rapidly changing shoreline, and identification of local manager information needs to direct WebGIS development. The study advances our understanding of shoreline change problems from the perspective of local Arctic communities beyond municipal impacts while building decision support. Over fifty local residents in three communities with collective coastal knowledge that extends across the National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska and Arctic National Wildlife Refuge shared their perspectives on hard copy maps. Sixteen managers provided usability perceptions of a beta WebGIS with shoreline change susceptibility information summarized at relevant asset locations such as subsistence camps. The hard copy maps with 300 "problem places" were digitized for analysis, which revealed problems across the coastline, especially challenges to boating for subsistence hunting such as shoaling cutting off access and creating hazards. The usability workshop revealed specific information needs including the need to monitor impacts at decommissioned national defense radar sites repurposed by locals to centralize oil and gas activity. These results were analyzed using an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) framework consisting of front-end and formative WebGIS evaluation phases. The front-end evaluation is the local input on hard copy maps, which provided local verification of coastal risks. The formative evaluation is the usability workshop with managers, which informed WebGIS development while promoting user buy-in. In terms of product and process, the local knowledge and information needs collected are significant because they establish local engagement with the

  2. Use of the self-organising map network (SOMNet) as a decision support system for regional mental health planning.

    PubMed

    Chung, Younjin; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Salinas-Pérez, José A; Uriarte-Uriarte, Jose J; Iruin-Sanz, Alvaro; García-Alonso, Carlos R

    2018-04-25

    Decision-making in mental health systems should be supported by the evidence-informed knowledge transfer of data. Since mental health systems are inherently complex, involving interactions between its structures, processes and outcomes, decision support systems (DSS) need to be developed using advanced computational methods and visual tools to allow full system analysis, whilst incorporating domain experts in the analysis process. In this study, we use a DSS model developed for interactive data mining and domain expert collaboration in the analysis of complex mental health systems to improve system knowledge and evidence-informed policy planning. We combine an interactive visual data mining approach, the self-organising map network (SOMNet), with an operational expert knowledge approach, expert-based collaborative analysis (EbCA), to develop a DSS model. The SOMNet was applied to the analysis of healthcare patterns and indicators of three different regional mental health systems in Spain, comprising 106 small catchment areas and providing healthcare for over 9 million inhabitants. Based on the EbCA, the domain experts in the development team guided and evaluated the analytical processes and results. Another group of 13 domain experts in mental health systems planning and research evaluated the model based on the analytical information of the SOMNet approach for processing information and discovering knowledge in a real-world context. Through the evaluation, the domain experts assessed the feasibility and technology readiness level (TRL) of the DSS model. The SOMNet, combined with the EbCA, effectively processed evidence-based information when analysing system outliers, explaining global and local patterns, and refining key performance indicators with their analytical interpretations. The evaluation results showed that the DSS model was feasible by the domain experts and reached level 7 of the TRL (system prototype demonstration in operational environment). This

  3. Improved Diagnostic Accuracy of Alzheimer's Disease by Combining Regional Cortical Thickness and Default Mode Network Functional Connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Set.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bumwoo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai; Oh, Joo Young; Lee, Jae-Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon; Shim, Woo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal ( p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus ( p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

  4. [Improving practice in breast pathology: 34-months experience of the regional SENOPATH network and webinars as a tool for diagnosis of difficult lesions of the breast].

    PubMed

    Quintyn-Ranty, Marie-Laure; Gordien, Karine; Caveriviere, Paul; Mery, Éliane; Jamme-Lallemand, Muriel; Wuithier, Pascal; Palasse, Julien; Reyre, Joelle; Laborie, Vincent; Despax, Brigitte; Rolland, Véronique; Thibaut, Isabelle; Maissongrosse, Véronique; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Duprez-Paumier, Raphaëlle; Bauvin, Éric; Jacob, Michel; Lacroix-Triki, Magali

    2015-10-01

    Pathologists commonly face breast lesions that are difficult to diagnose. To reduce second opinion delay, erase geographical barrier and provide continuing education, we aimed to develop a telepathology-based regional network of pathologists. With the support of ONCOMIP network, we founded a peer-group named SENOPATH, composed of experienced breast pathologists practising in private laboratories, university hospitals or comprehensive cancer center in the region of Midi-Pyrénées in France. Submitted cases are digitalized at the University Hospital, stored in a shared space with a possible access via Internet prior to the SENOPATH sessions. The group meets monthly, via a synchronized webinar and multihead microscope session. A consensual diagnosis and final pathology report is issued for each case, and sent to the referring clinician via the patient medical file securely hosted by ONCOMIP. Between 2012 and 2014, 142 cases were reviewed, for either diagnostic 'routine' difficulty or rare histological type. The SENOPATH group, also regularly called by oncologists to solve difficult cases, has considerably improved the pathologist network in Southern France. Supported by the webinar tool, its educational impact is prominent, with a considerable progress in the region with regards to standardization of pathology processes, literature review and knowledge sharing. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved Diagnostic Accuracy of Alzheimer's Disease by Combining Regional Cortical Thickness and Default Mode Network Functional Connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Set

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bumwoo; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai; Oh, Joo Young; Lee, Jae-Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon; Shim, Woo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Materials and Methods Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Results Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Conclusion Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:29089831

  6. National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and Clearinghouse: Supporting the Improvement of Mathematics and Science in America's Schools. Evaluation Summary Report for 1995-2000 with In-Depth Evaluation of Training and Technical Assistance, Dissemination, and Collaboration and Networking Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and National Clearinghouse.

    This report, addressed to sponsors and partners of the Eisenhower consortia and clearinghouse network as well as the staff of those organizations, contains the evaluation summary report of the National Network of Eisenhower Regional Consortia and Clearinghouse. It summarizes network outcomes over the 5-year period between 1995-2000. The report…

  7. Rural considerations in establishing network adequacy standards for qualified health plans in state and regional health insurance exchanges.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Jean A; Coburn, Andrew; Croll, Zach; Ziller, Erika

    2013-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires Health Insurance Exchanges (HIEs) to specify network adequacy standards for the Qualified Health Plans (QHPs) they offer to consumers. This article examines rural issues surrounding network adequacy standards, and offers recommendations for crafting standards that optimize rural access. This policy analysis reviews ACA requirements for QHP network adequacy standards, considering Medicaid managed care and Medicare Advantage (MA) standards as models. We analyze the implications of stringent vs flexible access standards in terms of how choices might affect health plans' participation in rural markets and rural enrollees' access to care. Finally, we propose strategies for designing standards with the degree of flexibility most likely to benefit rural consumers. A traditional approach to safeguarding rural access is to impose strict network adequacy standards on plans in rural areas. However, if strict standards prove difficult to meet due to rural provider scarcity, they might diminish QHPs' willingness to serve rural areas. Thus, they could exacerbate rather than alleviate rural access problems. To benefit rural communities, network adequacy standards must be strong enough to provide real protections for beneficiaries, yet flexible enough to accommodate rural delivery system constraints and remain attainable for QHPs. Useful strategies to achieve this balance might include: adjusting standards according to degrees of rurality and rural utilization norms; counting midlevel clinicians toward fulfillment of patient-provider ratios; and allowing plans to ensure rural access through delivery system innovations such as telehealth. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Propagation of kinetic uncertainties through a canonical topology of the TLR4 signaling network in different regions of biochemical reaction space

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Signal transduction networks represent the information processing systems that dictate which dynamical regimes of biochemical activity can be accessible to a cell under certain circumstances. One of the major concerns in molecular systems biology is centered on the elucidation of the robustness properties and information processing capabilities of signal transduction networks. Achieving this goal requires the establishment of causal relations between the design principle of biochemical reaction systems and their emergent dynamical behaviors. Methods In this study, efforts were focused in the construction of a relatively well informed, deterministic, non-linear dynamic model, accounting for reaction mechanisms grounded on standard mass action and Hill saturation kinetics, of the canonical reaction topology underlying Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling events. This signaling mechanism has been shown to be deployed in macrophages during a relatively short time window in response to lypopolysaccharyde (LPS) stimulation, which leads to a rapidly mounted innate immune response. An extensive computational exploration of the biochemical reaction space inhabited by this signal transduction network was performed via local and global perturbation strategies. Importantly, a broad spectrum of biologically plausible dynamical regimes accessible to the network in widely scattered regions of parameter space was reconstructed computationally. Additionally, experimentally reported transcriptional readouts of target pro-inflammatory genes, which are actively modulated by the network in response to LPS stimulation, were also simulated. This was done with the main goal of carrying out an unbiased statistical assessment of the intrinsic robustness properties of this canonical reaction topology. Results Our simulation results provide convincing numerical evidence supporting the idea that a canonical reaction mechanism of the TLR4 signaling network is capable of

  9. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kereen T.; Larriviere, Jack C.; Feher, Laura C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Oster, David A.; Tirpak, John M.; Woodrey, Mark S.; Collini, Renee C.; Baustian, Joseph J.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Cherry, Julia A.; Conrad, Jeremy R.; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A.; Donoghue, Joseph F.; Graham, Sean A.; Harper, Jennifer W.; Hester, Mark W.; Howard, Rebecca J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kroes, Daniel E.; Lane, Robert R.; McKee, Karen L.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Middleton, Beth A.; Moon, Jena A.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Rankin, Nicole M.; Sklar, Fred H.; Steyer, Greg D.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Vervaeke, William C.; Willis, Jonathan M.; Wilson, K. Van

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana’s network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be

  10. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Griffith, Kereen T; Larriviere, Jack C; Feher, Laura C; Cahoon, Donald R; Enwright, Nicholas M; Oster, David A; Tirpak, John M; Woodrey, Mark S; Collini, Renee C; Baustian, Joseph J; Breithaupt, Joshua L; Cherry, Julia A; Conrad, Jeremy R; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A; Donoghue, Joseph F; Graham, Sean A; Harper, Jennifer W; Hester, Mark W; Howard, Rebecca J; Krauss, Ken W; Kroes, Daniel E; Lane, Robert R; McKee, Karen L; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Middleton, Beth A; Moon, Jena A; Piazza, Sarai C; Rankin, Nicole M; Sklar, Fred H; Steyer, Greg D; Swanson, Kathleen M; Swarzenski, Christopher M; Vervaeke, William C; Willis, Jonathan M; Wilson, K Van

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana's network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be used

  11. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Larriviere, Jack C.; Feher, Laura C.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Oster, David A.; Tirpak, John M.; Woodrey, Mark S.; Collini, Renee C.; Baustian, Joseph J.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Cherry, Julia A; Conrad, Jeremy R.; Cormier, Nicole; Coronado-Molina, Carlos A.; Donoghue, Joseph F.; Graham, Sean A.; Harper, Jennifer W.; Hester, Mark W.; Howard, Rebecca J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kroes, Daniel; Lane, Robert R.; Mckee, Karen L.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Middleton, Beth A.; Moon, Jena A.; Piazza, Sarai; Rankin, Nicole M.; Sklar, Fred H.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Vervaeke, William; Willis, Jonathan M; Van Wilson, K.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions. However, in the face of accelerated sea-level rise, there is an increasing need for elevation change network data that can be incorporated into regional ecological models and vulnerability assessments. In particular, there is a need for long-term, high-temporal resolution data that are strategically distributed across ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients. Here, we quantify the distribution of SET-MH stations along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) across political boundaries (states), wetland habitats, and ecologically-relevant abiotic gradients (i.e., gradients in temperature, precipitation, elevation, and relative sea-level rise). Our analyses identify areas with high SET-MH station densities as well as areas with notable gaps. Salt marshes, intermediate elevations, and colder areas with high rainfall have a high number of stations, while salt flat ecosystems, certain elevation zones, the mangrove-marsh ecotone, and hypersaline coastal areas with low rainfall have fewer stations. Due to rapid rates of wetland loss and relative sea-level rise, the state of Louisiana has the most extensive SET-MH station network in the region, and we provide several recent examples where data from Louisiana’s network have been used to assess and compare wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our findings represent the first attempt to examine spatial gaps in SET-MH coverage across abiotic gradients. Our analyses can be

  12. A regional prehospital electrocardiogram network with a single telecardiology "hub" for public emergency medical service: technical requirements, logistics, manpower, and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; De Gennaro, Luisa; Dellegrottaglie, Giulia; Amoruso, Daniele; Antonelli, Gianfranco; Di Biase, Matteo

    2011-11-01

    In patients with a major cardiac event, the first priority is to minimize time-to-treatment. For many patients, the first and fastest contact with the health system is through emergency medical services (EMS). However, delay to treatment is still significant in developed countries, and international guidelines therefore recommend that EMS use prehospital electrocardiogram (ECG). Many communities are implementing prehospital ECG programs, with different technical solutions. We report on a region-wide prehospital ECG telecardiology program that involved 233,657 patients from all over Apulia (4 million inhabitants), Italy, who called the public regional free EMS telephone number "118." Prehospital ECG was transmitted by mobile phone to a single regional telecardiology "hub" where a cardiologist available 24/7 promptly reported the ECG, having a briefing with on-scene EMS personnel and EMS district central; patients were then directed to fibrinolysis or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as appropriate. Patients were >70 years in 51% of cases, and 55% of prehospital ECGs were unremarkable; the remaining 45% showed signs suggesting acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 18%, arrhythmias in 20%, and minor findings in 62%. In cases of suspected ACS (chest pain), ECG findings were normal in 77% of patients; 74% of subjects with suspected ACS were screened within 30' from the onset of symptoms. A regional single telecardiology hub providing prehospital ECG for a sole regional public EMS provides an example of a prehospital ECG network optimizing quality of ECG report and uniformity of EMS assistance in a large region-wide network.

  13. Investigating the Potential Impacts of Energy Production in the Marcellus Shale Region Using the Shale Network Database and CUAHSI-Supported Data Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazil, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Shale Network's extensive database of water quality observations enables educational experiences about the potential impacts of resource extraction with real data. Through open source tools that are developed and maintained by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), researchers, educators, and citizens can access and analyze the very same data that the Shale Network team has used in peer-reviewed publications about the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on water. The development of the Shale Network database has been made possible through collection efforts led by an academic team and involving numerous individuals from government agencies, citizen science organizations, and private industry. Thus far, CUAHSI-supported data tools have been used to engage high school students, university undergraduate and graduate students, as well as citizens so that all can discover how energy production impacts the Marcellus Shale region, which includes Pennsylvania and other nearby states. This presentation will describe these data tools, how the Shale Network has used them in developing educational material, and the resources available to learn more.

  14. Detection and Localization of Robotic Tools in Robot-Assisted Surgery Videos Using Deep Neural Networks for Region Proposal and Detection.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Duygu; Corso, Jason J; Guru, Khurshid A

    2017-07-01

    Video understanding of robot-assisted surgery (RAS) videos is an active research area. Modeling the gestures and skill level of surgeons presents an interesting problem. The insights drawn may be applied in effective skill acquisition, objective skill assessment, real-time feedback, and human-robot collaborative surgeries. We propose a solution to the tool detection and localization open problem in RAS video understanding, using a strictly computer vision approach and the recent advances of deep learning. We propose an architecture using multimodal convolutional neural networks for fast detection and localization of tools in RAS videos. To the best of our knowledge, this approach will be the first to incorporate deep neural networks for tool detection and localization in RAS videos. Our architecture applies a region proposal network (RPN) and a multimodal two stream convolutional network for object detection to jointly predict objectness and localization on a fusion of image and temporal motion cues. Our results with an average precision of 91% and a mean computation time of 0.1 s per test frame detection indicate that our study is superior to conventionally used methods for medical imaging while also emphasizing the benefits of using RPN for precision and efficiency. We also introduce a new data set, ATLAS Dione, for RAS video understanding. Our data set provides video data of ten surgeons from Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA, performing six different surgical tasks on the daVinci Surgical System (dVSS) with annotations of robotic tools per frame.

  15. Comparative Analysis of University-Government-Enterprise Co-Authorship Networks in Three Scientific Domains in the Region of Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmeda-Gomez, Carlos; Perianes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Ovalle-Perandones, Maria Antonia; Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In an economy geared to innovation and competitiveness in research and development activities, inter-relationships between the university, private enterprise and government are of considerable interest. Networking constitutes a priority strategy to attain this strategic objective and a tool in knowledge-based economies. Method:…

  16. An inter-residue network model to identify mutational-constrained regions on the Ebola coat glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Devin S.; Raman, Rahul; Tharakaraman, Kannan; Subramanian, Vidya; del Hierro, Gabriella; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2017-01-01

    Recently, progress has been made in the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibody cocktails that target the Ebola coat glycoprotein (GP). Based on the mutation rates for Ebola virus given its natural sequence evolution, these treatment strategies are likely to impose additional selection pressure to drive acquisition of mutations in GP that escape neutralization. Given the high degree of sequence conservation among GP of Ebola viruses, it would be challenging to determine the propensity of acquiring mutations in response to vaccine or treatment with one or a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies. In this study, we analyzed the mutability of each residue using an approach that captures the structural constraints on mutability based on the extent of its inter-residue interaction network within the three-dimensional structure of the trimeric GP. This analysis showed two distinct clusters of highly networked residues along the GP1-GP2 interface, part of which overlapped with epitope surfaces of known neutralizing antibodies. This network approach also permitted us to identify additional residues in the network of the known hotspot residues of different anti-Ebola antibodies that would impact antibody-epitope interactions. PMID:28397835

  17. University Students' Perceptions of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in Their Educational Experiences at a Regional Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Christina; Pediaditis, Mika; Townsend, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions, and the way education is delivered and supported, are being transformed by digital technologies. Internationally, institutions are increasingly incorporating online technologies into delivery frameworks and administration -- both through internal learning management systems (LMS) and external social networking sites…

  18. Sustainable intensification of U.S. agriculture: Aspirations and barriers in the regional agroecosystems of the LTAR network

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sustainable intensification of agriculture in the United States will require major shifts in producer decision-making, markets, and public policies. The Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is working to better understand how these shifts may be accomplished. Through a common experime...

  19. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  20. Assessment of second- and third-order ionospheric effects on regional networks: case study in China with longer CMONOC GPS coordinate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liansheng; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Chen, Hua; Wang, Kaihua; Ma, Yifang

    2017-02-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) delays are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system analysis and have been proposed to become a standard part of precise GPS data processing. In this research, we apply HOI delay corrections to the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China's (CMONOC) data processing (from January 2000 to December 2013) and furnish quantitative results for the effects of HOI on CMONOC coordinate time series. The results for both a regional reference frame and global reference frame are analyzed and compared to clarify the HOI effects on the CMONOC network. We find that HOI corrections can effectively reduce the semi-annual signals in the northern and vertical components. For sites with lower semi-annual amplitudes, the average decrease in magnitude can reach 30 and 10 % for the northern and vertical components, respectively. The noise amplitudes with HOI corrections and those without HOI corrections are not significantly different. Generally, the HOI effects on CMONOC networks in a global reference frame are less obvious than the results in the regional reference frame, probably because the HOI-induced errors are smaller in comparison to the higher noise levels seen when using a global reference frame. Furthermore, we investigate the combined contributions of environmental loading and HOI effects on the CMONOC stations. The largest loading effects on the vertical displacement are found in the mid- to high-latitude areas. The weighted root mean square differences between the corrected and original weekly GPS height time series of the loading model indicate that the mass loading adequately reduced the scatter on the CMONOC height time series, whereas the results in the global reference frame showed better agreements between the GPS coordinate time series and the environmental loading. When combining the effects of environmental loading and HOI corrections, the results with the HOI corrections reduced

  1. [Integration of district psychiatric hospitals into the development of regional community psychiatry networks--the actual state. Results of a survey among medical directors of Bavarian district hospitals].

    PubMed

    Welschehold, Michael; Kraus, Eva

    2004-11-01

    In this study, the medical directors of all Bavarian district psychiatric hospitals evaluated certain aspects of the integration of their hospitals into the development of regional community psychiatry networks ("Gemeindepsychiatrische Verbunde" - GPVs). They were asked to rate the actual quantity of cooperation between their hospitals and diverse community based services and to express their requests concerning the quality of cooperation. An estimation of possible advantages of the hospitals' integration in GPVs and expectations to future perspectives of GPV development were also investigated. The data were collected by a written questionnaire. The results of the survey indicate that a high relevance is attached to GPV: inspite of current heterogenous developments and inspite of existing skepticism concerning the feasibility of a complete GPV structure, medical directors strongly approve of seeing their hospitals actively engaged in the further development of community psychiatry networks.

  2. Transforming Your Regional Economy through Uncertainty and Surprise: Learning from Complexity Science, Network Theory and the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, June

    The field of regional development blossomed in the last decade, as researchers and practitioners increasingly asserted that the region was the most effective geographic unit for supporting the excellence and innovation of entrepreneurs. See, for example, the many studies by the European Union and the work by Michael Porter.

  3. Changing values and the impact on land use and social networks in the northern forest region: a qualitative examination

    Treesearch

    Jean Dedam; Rodney Zwick

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of land ownership and economics are changing in the Northern Forest Region of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. The percentage of people living in the region who work in the resource extraction industry has become much smaller. Tourism and outdoor recreation are promoted as economic substitutes that will provide an alternate use of the natural...

  4. The High-Resolution Structure of Activated Opsin Reveals a Conserved Solvent Network in the Transmembrane Region Essential for Activation.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Elise; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Lodowski, David T

    2015-12-01

    Rhodopsin, a light-activated G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), has been the subject of numerous biochemical and structural investigations, serving as a model receptor for GPCRs and their activation. We present the 2.3-Å resolution structure of native source rhodopsin stabilized in a conformation competent for G protein binding. An extensive water-mediated hydrogen bond network linking the chromophore binding site to the site of G protein binding is observed, providing connections to conserved motifs essential for GPCR activation. Comparison of this extensive solvent-mediated hydrogen-bonding network with the positions of ordered solvent in earlier crystallographic structures of rhodopsin photointermediates reveals both static structural and dynamic functional water-protein interactions present during the activation process. When considered along with observations that solvent occupies similar positions in the structures of other GPCRs, these analyses strongly support an integral role for this dynamic ordered water network in both rhodopsin and GPCR activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Region-specific RNA m6A methylation represents a new layer of control in the gene regulatory network in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mengqi; Lv, Hongyi; Zhang, Weilong; Ma, Chunhui; He, Xue; Zhao, Shunli; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Song, Shuhui; Niu, Yamei; Tong, Wei-Min

    2017-09-01

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) is the most abundant epitranscriptomic mark found on mRNA and has important roles in various physiological processes. Despite the relatively high m 6 A levels in the brain, its potential functions in the brain remain largely unexplored. We performed a transcriptome-wide methylation analysis using the mouse brain to depict its region-specific methylation profile. RNA methylation levels in mouse cerebellum are generally higher than those in the cerebral cortex. Heterogeneity of RNA methylation exists across different brain regions and different types of neural cells including the mRNAs to be methylated, their methylation levels and methylation site selection. Common and region-specific methylation have different preferences for methylation site selection and thereby different impacts on their biological functions. In addition, high methylation levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) target mRNAs suggest that m 6 A methylation is likely to be used for selective recognition of target mRNAs by FMRP in the synapse. Overall, we provide a region-specific map of RNA m 6 A methylation and characterize the distinct features of specific and common methylation in mouse cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Our results imply that RNA m 6 A methylation is a newly identified element in the region-specific gene regulatory network in the mouse brain. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Groundwater Discharge of Legacy Nitrogen to River Networks: Linking Regional Groundwater Models to Streambed Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange and Nitrogen Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, J. R.; Helton, A. M.; Briggs, M. A.; Starn, J. J.; Hunt, A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite years of management, excess nitrogen (N) is a pervasive problem in many aquatic ecosystems. More than half of surface water in the United States is derived from groundwater, and widespread N contamination in aquifers from decades of watershed N inputs suggest legacy N discharging from groundwater may contribute to contemporary N pollution problems in surface waters. Legacy N loads to streams and rivers are controlled by both regional scale flow paths and fine-scale processes that drive N transformations, such as groundwater-surface water exchange across steep redox gradients that occur at stream bed interfaces. Adequately incorporating these disparate scales is a challenge, but it is essential to understanding legacy N transport and making informed management decisions. We developed a regional groundwater flow model for the Farmington River, a HUC-8 basin that drains to the Long Island Sound, a coastal estuary that suffers from elevated N loads despite decades of management, to understand broad patterns of regional transport. To evaluate and refine the regional model, we used thermal infrared imagery paired with vertical temperature profiling to estimate groundwater discharge at the streambed interface. We also analyzed discharging groundwater for multiple N species to quantify fine scale patterns of N loading and transformation via denitrification at the streambed interface. Integrating regional and local estimates of groundwater discharge of legacy N to river networks should improve our ability to predict spatiotemporal patterns of legacy N loading to and transformation within surface waters.

  7. Estimating the future agriculture freight transportation network needs due to climate change using remote sensing and regional climate models.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    A reoccurring challenge with increasing fuel prices is optimization of multi- and inter-modal freight transport to move products most efficiently. Projections for the future of agriculture in the United States (U.S.) combined with regional climate mo...

  8. Multi-temporal monitoring of a regional riparian buffer network (>12,000 km) with LiDAR and photogrammetric point clouds.

    PubMed

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lejeune, Philippe; Claessens, Hugues

    2017-11-01

    Riparian buffers are of major concern for land and water resource managers despite their relatively low spatial coverage. In Europe, this concern has been acknowledged by different environmental directives which recommend multi-scale monitoring (from local to regional scales). Remote sensing methods could be a cost-effective alternative to field-based monitoring, to build replicable "wall-to-wall" monitoring strategies of large river networks and associated riparian buffers. The main goal of our study is to extract and analyze various parameters of the riparian buffers of up to 12,000 km of river in southern Belgium (Wallonia) from three-dimensional (3D) point clouds based on LiDAR and photogrammetric surveys to i) map riparian buffers parameters on different scales, ii) interpret the regional patterns of the riparian buffers and iii) propose new riparian buffer management indicators. We propose different strategies to synthesize and visualize relevant information at different spatial scales ranging from local (<10 km) to regional scale (>12,000 km). Our results showed that the selected parameters had a clear regional pattern. The reaches of Ardenne ecoregion have channels with the highest flow widths and shallowest depths. In contrast, the reaches of the Loam ecoregion have the narrowest and deepest flow channels. Regional variability in channel width and depth is used to locate management units potentially affected by human impact. Riparian forest of the Loam ecoregion is characterized by the lowest longitudinal continuity and mean tree height, underlining significant human disturbance. As the availability of 3D point clouds at the regional scale is constantly growing, our study proposes reproducible methods which can be integrated into regional monitoring by land managers. With LiDAR still being relatively expensive to acquire, the use of photogrammetric point clouds combined with LiDAR data is a cost-effective means to update the characterization of the

  9. A Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of Overlaps in Regional Specialization and Functional Connectivity across Subjective Value and Default Mode Networks.

    PubMed

    Acikalin, M Yavuz; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Poldrack, Russell A

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has provided qualitative evidence for overlap in a number of brain regions across the subjective value network (SVN) and the default mode network (DMN). In order to quantitatively assess this overlap, we conducted a series of coordinate-based meta-analyses (CBMA) of results from 466 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments on task-negative or subjective value-related activations in the human brain. In these analyses, we first identified significant overlaps and dissociations across activation foci related to SVN and DMN. Second, we investigated whether these overlapping subregions also showed similar patterns of functional connectivity, suggesting a shared functional subnetwork. We find considerable overlap between SVN and DMN in subregions of central ventromedial prefrontal cortex (cVMPFC) and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (dPCC). Further, our findings show that similar patterns of bidirectional functional connectivity between cVMPFC and dPCC are present in both networks. We discuss ways in which our understanding of how subjective value (SV) is computed and represented in the brain can be synthesized with what we know about the DMN, mind-wandering, and self-referential processing in light of our findings.

  10. Integration of land-sharing and land-sparing conservation strategies through regional networking: the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor as a lifeline for carnivores in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Silvio J; García-Villalta, Jorge E

    2014-10-01

    Nations with little remaining natural habitat and small extent are challenged when trying to achieve biodiversity targets. We show that the Central American nation of El Salvador cannot viably sustain populations of 87 % of its extant carnivores, especially in the case of large-bodied species with low population densities. Current land-sparing strategies will not suffice; therefore we propose that land-sharing strategies be implemented in tandem with protected areas to expand current conservation efforts via new regional networks. In Central America such a network can be established by linking international protected area systems in a way that implements the existing vision for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. Specifically, we propose a re-envisioning of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in which land-sharing practices are adopted throughout the agricultural matrix while ensuring formal protection of the remaining natural habitat. Such an integration of land-sparing and land-sharing could result in