Sample records for celestial bodies

  1. Celestial mechanics - Methods of the theory of motion of 'artificial' celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duboshin, G. N.

    This book is concerned with the translational motion of 'artificial' celestial bodies. The difference between natural celestial bodies, which are ordinarily considered by celestial mechanics, and 'artificial' celestial bodies is discussed, taking into account hypothetical celestial bodies introduced in connection with mathematical developments and problems, invisible celestial bodies whose existence can be assumed on the basis of some plausible hypothesis, and man-made satellites of the earth. The book consists of two parts. The first part presents introductory material, and examines a number of general mathematical questions to provide a basis for the studies conducted in the second part. Subjects considered in the first part are related to basic problems, integration methods, and perturbation theory. In the second part, attention is given to the motion of artificial celestial bodies in the gravitational field of the basic planet, external perturbations regarding the motion of these bodies, the motion of the bodies in the earth-moon system, and periodic solutions.

  2. Celestial bodies macroscopic movement is due to the radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-03-01

    The star is radiate, also as the planet. In fact, all the real objects are radiate, but the strength of the radiation is different. Radiation will reduce the quality of the object, but time is not long enough to reduce the mass of the subject, so it is difficult for us to observe. Due to the large object lifecycle, to study the changing rule of the object, we must consider the radiation on the quality of the celestial bodies, and the outer space radiate particles' motion, also consider objects interact with objects of radiation. The reason Celestial bodies moves is that the radiation of those Celestial bodies Interact with each other, Celestial bodies macroscopic movement is due to the radiation. The earth's rotation and revolution is a measure of the survive ability. Author: hanyongquan TEL: 15611860790

  3. Position determination systems. [using orbital antenna scan of celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shores, P. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A system for an orbital antenna, operated at a synchronous altitude, to scan an area of a celestial body is disclosed. The antenna means comprises modules which are operated by a steering signal in a repetitive function for providing a scanning beam over the area. The scanning covers the entire area in a pattern and the azimuth of the scanning beam is transmitted to a control station on the celestial body simultaneous with signals from an activated ground beacon on the celestial body. The azimuth of the control station relative to the antenna is known and the location of the ground beacon is readily determined from the azimuth determinations.

  4. On the Origin of Rotation of a Celestial Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujičić, V. A.

    1988-03-01

    The differential equations of the self-rotation of a celestial body have been evaluated. From an integral of these equations a formula for angular velocity of the celestial body was obtained. This formula after being applied to the rotation of the Sun and of the Earth gives, respectively, the following angular velocity ranges: 0.588×10-6<ω<18, 187×10-6 and 0.7533×10-5<ω<12,4266×10-5. These are up to three times narrower than those previously obtained by Savić and Kašanin [1].

  5. Dynamical configurations of celestial systems comprised of multiple irregular bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n - 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple-asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and analyzed.

  6. Dynamics of Natural and Artificial Celestial Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretka-Ziomek, Halina; Wnuk, Edwin; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Richardson, David.

    2002-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the US/European Celestial Mechanics Workshop organized by the Astronomical Observatory of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland and held in Poznan, from 3 to 7 July 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to identify future research in celestial mechanics and astrometry and encourage collaboration among scientists from eastern and western countries. Also an emphasis was placed on attracting young members of the fields from around the world and encouraging them to undertake new research efforts needed for advancements in those fields. There was a full program of invited and contributed presentations on selected subjects and each day ended with a discussion period on a general subject in celestial mechanics. The discussion topics and the leaders were: Resonances and Chaos -- A. Morbidelli; Artificial Satellite Orbits -- K.T. Alfriend; Near Earth Objects -- K. Muinonen; Small Solar System Bodies -- I. Williams; and Summary -- P.K. Seidelmann. The goal of the discussions was to identify what we did not know and how we might further our knowledge. It was felt, in addition, that Poznan, Poland, with a core of scientists covering a range of ages, would provide an example of how a research and educational group could be developed elsewhere. Also, Poznan is a central location convenient to eastern and western countries. Thus, the gathering of people and the papers presented are to be the bases for building the future of astrometry and celestial mechanics. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0115-0

  7. Generation of dynamo waves by spatially separated sources in the Earth and other celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.

    2017-12-01

    The amplitude and the spatial configuration of the planetary and stellar magnetic field can changing over the years. Celestial bodies can have cyclic, chaotic or unchanging in time magnetic activity which is connected with a dynamo mechanism. This mechanism is based on the consideration of the joint influence of the alpha-effect and differential rotation. Dynamo sources can be located at different depths (active layers) of the celestial body and can have different intensities. Application of this concept allows us to get different forms of solutions and some of which can include wave propagating inside the celestial body. We analytically showed that in the case of spatially separated sources of magnetic field each source generates a wave whose frequency depends on the physical parameters of its source. We estimated parameters of sources required for the generation nondecaying waves. We discus structure of such sources and matter motion (including meridional circulation) in the liquid outer core of the Earth and active layers of other celestial bodies.

  8. Exogeoconservation: Protecting geological heritage on celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Jack J.; McMahon, Sean

    2018-08-01

    Geoconservation is an increasingly widely adopted theoretical, practical and administrative approach to the protection of geological and geomorphological features of special scientific, functional, historic, cultural, aesthetic, or ecological value. Protected sites on Earth include natural rocky outcrops, shorelines, river banks, and landscapes, as well as human-made structures such as road cuts and quarries exposing geological phenomena. However, geoconservation has rarely been discussed in the context of other rocky and icy planets, rings, moons, dwarf planets, asteroids, or comets, which present extraordinarily diverse, beautiful, and culturally, historically and scientifically important geological phenomena. Here we propose to adapt geoconservation strategies for protecting the geological heritage of these celestial bodies, and introduce the term 'exogeoconservation' and other associated terms for this purpose. We argue that exogeoconservation is acutely necessary for the scientific exploration and responsible stewardship of celestial bodies, and suggest how this might be achieved and managed by means of international protocols. We stress that such protocols must be sensitive to the needs of scientific, industrial, and other human activities, and not unduly prohibitive. However, with space exploration and exploitation likely to accelerate in coming decades, it is increasingly important that an internationally agreed, holistic framework be developed for the protection of our common 'exogeoheritage'.

  9. The IAA Cosmic Study 'Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, Petra; Hofmann, Mahulena; Williamson, Mark

    The study group tasked with producing this International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) `Cosmic Study' on Protecting the Environment of Celestial Bodies was formed under the aus-pices of IAA Commission V (Space Policy, Law Economy). The members of the international, multidisciplinary team assembled to undertake the Study accept, as a premise, the Planetary Protection Policy guidelines developed by COSPAR, which differentiate the degree of protec-tion according to the type of space activity and the celestial body under investigation (such that fly-by missions have less stringent requirements than lander missions, while Mars is `better protected' than the Moon). However, this Study goes deliberately beyond the interpretation of `Planetary Protection' as a set of methods for protecting the planets from biological con-tamination and extends consideration to the geophysical, industrial and cultural realms. The Study concludes that, from the perspective of current and future activities in outer space, present measures aimed at protecting the space environment are insufficient. Deficiencies in-clude a lack of suitable in-situ methods of chemical and biological detection and the absence of a systematic record of radioactive contaminants. Other issues identified by the Study include an insufficient legal framework, a shortage of effective economic tools and a lack of political will to address these concerns. It is expected that new detection methods under development, and the resultant increase in microbiological knowledge of the planetary surfaces, will lead to changes in the COSPAR planetary protection guidelines and bioburden limits. It is important, however, that any new approaches should not hamper future exploration and exploitation of celestial bodies more than absolutely necessary. The Study addresses the need to find a balance between protection and freedom of action. From a legal perspective, the Study concludes that a general consensus on protection of the

  10. Motions of Celestial Bodies; Computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butikov, Eugene

    2014-10-01

    This book is written for a wide range of graduate and undergraduate students studying various courses in physics and astronomy. It is accompanied by the award winning educational software package 'Planets and Satellites' developed by the author. This text, together with the interactive software, is intended to help students learn and understand the fundamental concepts and the laws of physics as they apply to the fascinating world of the motions of natural and artificial celestial bodies. The primary aim of the book is the understanding of the foundations of classical and modern physics, while their application to celestial mechanics is used to illustrate these concepts. The simulation programs create vivid and lasting impressions of the investigated phenomena, and provide students and their instructors with a powerful tool which enables them to explore basic concepts that are difficult to study and teach in an abstract conventional manner. Students can work with the text and software at a pace they can enjoy, varying parameters of the simulated systems. Each section of the textbook is supplied with questions, exercises, and problems. Using some of the suggested simulation programs, students have an opportunity to perform interesting mini-research projects in physics and astronomy.

  11. The research of the coupled orbital-attitude controlled motion of celestial body in the neighborhood of the collinear libration point L1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmyrov, A.; Shmyrov, V.; Shymanchuk, D.

    2017-10-01

    This article considers the motion of a celestial body within the restricted three-body problem of the Sun-Earth system. The equations of controlled coupled attitude-orbit motion in the neighborhood of collinear libration point L1 are investigated. The translational orbital motion of a celestial body is described using Hill's equations of circular restricted three-body problem of the Sun-Earth system. Rotational orbital motion is described using Euler's dynamic equations and quaternion kinematic equation. We investigate the problem of stability of celestial body rotational orbital motion in relative equilibrium positions and stabilization of celestial body rotational orbital motion with proposed control laws in the neighborhood of collinear libration point L1. To study stabilization problem, Lyapunov function is constructed in the form of the sum of the kinetic energy and special "kinematic function" of the Rodriguez-Hamiltonian parameters. Numerical modeling of the controlled rotational motion of a celestial body at libration point L1 is carried out. The numerical characteristics of the control parameters and rotational motion are given.

  12. The Celestial Bodies in Traditional Armenian Nuptial Songs of Praise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigranyan, Marianna

    2016-12-01

    The universe and its structure have occupied people's minds since the beginning of time. The myths and legends of the ancient cultures are replete with tales about the myriad celestial bodies, planets and stars. Back then, the Ancient Sumerians were phenomenally successful in astronomy; their extensive knowledge is effectively used by astronomers today. The deities were featured as heavenly bodies and were eulogized and revered by the peoples of the Ancient World. At Armenian wedding ceremonies, the groom - traditionally the Crown wearer - was often likened to the Sun, and the bride to the Moon, or sometimes Venus. The newly-married couple was glorified by delightful songs of praise.

  13. Celestial Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    In the unit described in this article, students discover the main principles of navigation, build tools to observe celestial bodies, and apply their new skills to finding their position on Earth. Along the way students see how science, mathematics, technology, and history are intertwined.

  14. Modelling of celestial backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.; Lim, Jae-Wan; Jeon, Yun-Ho

    2018-05-01

    For applications where a sensor's image includes the celestial background, stars and Solar System Bodies compromise the ability of the sensor system to correctly classify a target. Such false targets are particularly significant for the detection of weak target signatures which only have a small relative angular motion. The detection of celestial features is well established in the visible spectral band. However, given the increasing sensitivity and low noise afforded by emergent infrared focal plane array technology together with larger and more efficient optics, the signatures of celestial features can also impact performance at infrared wavelengths. A methodology has been developed which allows the rapid generation of celestial signatures in any required spectral band using star data from star catalogues and other open-source information. Within this paper, the radiometric calculations are presented to determine the irradiance values of stars and planets in any spectral band.

  15. The periodic dynamics of the irregular heterogeneous celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Lei; Yang, Mo; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a methodology to study the periodic dynamics of irregular heterogeneous celestial bodies. Heterogeneous bodies are not scarce in space. It has been found that bodies, such as 4 Vesta, 624 Hektor, 87 Sylvia, 16 Psyche and 25143 Itokawa, may all have varied internal structures. They can be divided into large-scale and small-scale cases. The varied internal structures of large-scale bodies always result from gradient pressure inside, which leads to compactness differences of the inner material. However, the heterogeneity of a small-scale body is always reflected by the different densities of different areas, which may originate from collision formation from multiple objects. We propose a modeling procedure for the heterogeneous bodies derived from the conventional polyhedral method and then compare its dynamical characteristics with those of the homogeneous case. It is found that zero-velocity curves, positions of equilibrium points, types of bifurcations in the continuation of the orbital family and the stabilities of periodic orbits near the heterogeneous body are different from those in the homogeneous case. The suborbicular orbits near the equatorial plane are potential parking orbits for a future mission, so we discuss the switching of the orbital stability of the family because it has fundamental significance to orbit maintenance and operations around actual asteroids.

  16. Numerical analysis of seismic events distributions on the planetary scale and celestial bodies astrometrical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatova, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    Modern research in the domains of Earth sciences is developing from the descriptions of each individual natural phenomena to the systematic complex research in interdisciplinary areas. For studies of its kind in the form numerical analysis of three-dimensional (3D) systems, the author proposes space-time Technology (STT), based on a Ptolemaic geocentric system, consist of two modules, each with its own coordinate system: (1) - 3D model of a Earth, the coordinates of which provides databases of the Earth's events (here seismic), and (2) - a compact model of the relative motion of celestial bodies in space - time on Earth known as the "Method of a moving source" (MDS), which was developed in MDS (Bulatova, 1998-2000) for the 3D space. Module (2) was developed as a continuation of the geocentric Ptolemaic system of the world, built on the astronomical parameters heavenly bodies. Based on the aggregation data of Space and Earth Sciences, systematization, and cooperative analysis, this is an attempt to establish a cause-effect relationship between the position of celestial bodies (Moon, Sun) and Earth's seismic events.

  17. Refraction effects of atmosphere on geodetic measurements to celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The problem is considered of obtaining accurate values of refraction corrections for geodetic measurements of celestial bodies. The basic principles of optics governing the phenomenon of refraction are defined, and differential equations are derived for the refraction corrections. The corrections fall into two main categories: (1) refraction effects due to change in the direction of propagation, and (2) refraction effects mainly due to change in the velocity of propagation. The various assumptions made by earlier investigators are reviewed along with the basic principles of improved models designed by investigators of the twentieth century. The accuracy problem for various quantities is discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  18. Determination of the observation conditions of celestial bodies with the aid of the DISPO system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazakov, R. K.; Krivov, A. V.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive system for determining the observation conditions of celestial bodies is described. A system of programs was created containing a part of the DISPO Display Interative System of Orbit Planning. The system was used for calculating the observatiion characteristics of Halley's comet during its approach to Earth in 1985-86.

  19. Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.

  20. The significance of the Sun, Moon and celestial bodies to societies in the Carpathian basin during the Bronze Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, Emília

    2011-06-01

    Celestial events often exerted a great or even decisive influence on the life of ancient communities. They may provide some of the foundations on which an understanding of the deeper meaning of mythologies, religious systems and even folk tales can be based. These influences are reflected and may be detected in the archaeological material as well. There is good evidence that celestial (especially solar and perhaps lunar) phenomena played a particularly important rôle in the worldview of prehistoric Europe. To reveal the social and ideational significance of concepts relating to the celestial bodies in the prehistory of the Carpathian Basin, complex investigations on orientations of houses and graves, prestige archaeological finds and iconography have been accomplished. The results indicate ideological and/or social changes, which developed into a likely organized ideological system in large part of Central Europe including the Carpathian Basin by the Late Bronze Age. It might also be the first period in prehistory when people became really interested in celestial phenomena.

  1. Celestial dynamics and astrometry in expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2012-08-01

    Post - Newtonian theory of motion of celestial bodies and propagation of light was instrumental in conducting the critical experimental tests of general relativity and in building the astronomical ephemerides of celestial bodies in the solar system with an unparalleled precision. The cornerstone of the theory is the postulate that the solar system is gravitationally isolated from the rest of the universe and the background spacetime is asymptotically flat. The present talk abolishes this postulate and lays down the principles of celestial dynamics of particles and light moving in gravitational field of a localized astronomical system embedded to the expanding universe. We formulate the precise mathematical concept of the Newtonian limit of Einstein ’s field equations in the conformally - flat spacetime and analyse the geodesic equations of motion o f particles and light in this limit. We demonstrate that the equations of motion of particles and light can be reduced to their Newtonian counterparts by doing conformal transformations of time and space coordinates. However, the Newtonian equations for particles and light differ by terms of the first order in the Hubble constant. This leads to the important conclusion that the equations of motion used currently by Space Navigation Centres and Astronomical Observatories for calculating orbits of celestial bodies, are incomplete and missing some terms of cosmological origin. We explicitly identify the missing terms and demonstrate that they bring about a noticeable discrepancy between the observed and calculated astronomical ephemerides. We argue that a number of observed celestial anomalies in the solar system can be explained as caused by the Hubble expansion of the universe.

  2. Determination of celestial bodies orbits and probabilities of their collisions with the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Yuri; Vavilov, Dmitrii

    In this work we have developed a universal method to determine the small bodies orbits in the Solar System. In the method we consider different planes of body’s motion and pick up which is the most appropriate. Given an orbit plane we can calculate geocentric distances at time of observations and consequence determinate all orbital elements. Another technique that we propose here addresses the problem of estimation probability of collisions celestial bodies with the Earth. This technique uses the coordinate system associated with the nominal osculating orbit. We have compared proposed technique with the Monte-Carlo simulation. Results of these methods exhibit satisfactory agreement, whereas, proposed method is advantageous in time performance.

  3. Solar oscillation time delay measurement assisted celestial navigation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xiaolin; Gui, Mingzhen; Zhang, Jie; Fang, Jiancheng; Liu, Gang

    2017-05-01

    Solar oscillation, which causes the sunlight intensity and spectrum frequency change, has been studied in great detail, both observationally and theoretically. In this paper, owing to the existence of solar oscillation, the time delay between the sunlight coming from the Sun directly and the sunlight reflected by the other celestial body such as the satellite of planet or asteroid can be obtained with two optical power meters. Because the solar oscillation time delay is determined by the relative positions of the spacecraft, reflective celestial body and the Sun, it can be adopted as the navigation measurement to estimate the spacecraft's position. The navigation accuracy of single solar oscillation time delay navigation system depends on the time delay measurement accuracy, and is influenced by the distance between spacecraft and reflective celestial body. In this paper, we combine it with the star angle measurement and propose a solar oscillation time delay measurement assisted celestial navigation method for deep space exploration. Since the measurement model of time delay is an implicit function, the Implicit Unscented Kalman Filter (IUKF) is applied. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of this method.

  4. Protection of celestial environments and the law of outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennen, Leslie; Race, Margaret

    The law of outer space expressly addresses the matter of preservation and protection of natural celestial environments from harmful contamination and disruption by mankind in the explo-ration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. The Outer Space Treaty, however, does not prohibit all human impact to an extraterrestrial environment, but rather permits a wide range of activities that could have significant environmental ramifications. This legal regime may be in conflict with the interests of preserving celestial environments for scientific research, especially when considered in relation to activities conducted for commercial purposes. Nevertheless, the Moon Agreement provides a mechanism by which special protective measures can be implemented to protect particular areas of the moon and other celestial bodies for scientific investigation. This paper examines the current status of the law of outer space vis-a-vis the protection and preservation of natural celestial environments. Particular emphasis is placed on the policies on which the legal obligations are based, together with consideration of the non-appropriation principle, and the commercial use of lunar and other celestial resources and areas. In addition, the concepts of international scientific preserves, special regions, keep out zones, and planetary parks are compared and evaluated as potential means to limit the disturbance to celestial environments caused by the activities of mankind.

  5. The ancient Armenian calendars' connection with the celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutian, G. H.

    2015-07-01

    The two oldest Armenian calendars - the Haykian and Protohaykian calendars were connected with observations of celestial bodies. Particularly since 2341 B.C. the heliacal rising of the first star of Orion was used to determine the day of the main holiday - Nawasard. Before that the observations of the same star were used in Protohaykian calendar to determine both the beginning and the end of the year. The year was determined as the duration of visibility of the star Betelgeuse. The year started with the heliacal rising of this star and ended with its heliacal setting. The remaining duration was considered to be out of the year. There are also evidences in Armenian medieval literary sources concerning the observations of heliacal rising and setting of Pleiades. An attempt was made to substantiate that the large symbol carved on the rock platform of the small hill in Metzamor also concerns to the Pleiades and shows the direction of heliacal rising of Pleiades.

  6. Animation Sequence of Comet Wild2 Once More Demonstrates Shape Peculiarities of Small Celestial Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    The outstanding success of the Stardust mission having acquired in January 2004 images of Comet Wild2 allows us to compare them with images of some other small objects: satellites, asteroids, comets and confirm the earlier conclusion about prevailing shaping forces [1, 2]. The excellent images of the Comet Wild2 core (the best up to date among comets, Internet) show that it is not ``a ball of dirty ice and rock'' but rather a convexo-concave object resembling other small bodies. They all, independently of their nature, sizes, compositions, demonstrate oblong ``banana''-type style. This is a result of pressing in one side and bulging out another antipodean one (the fundamental wave action). Comet Wild2 (5.4 km long core) in this sense can be perfectly compared with asteroid Mathilde (60 km) and satellite Thebe (˜ 116 km). All three have deeply concave hemisphere opposed by clearly convex one. Bulging out friable material often induces deep fracturing of convex hemispheres. This is well visible in comet Borrelli (8 km long core) and especially pronounced in asteroids Eros (33 km) and Annefrank (`˜ 6 km). Deep ``saddle'' at the convex side of both makes their images rather similar. Another characteristic of small oblong bodies is a principal shape difference of two elongated ends: one is blunt, another sharp. Principally, it is the same process which makes the ``banana''-shape (wave1) but of a smaller scale (wave2). The blunt end is made by pressing in, the sharp end by bulging out. Obviously, an impact sculpturing cannot give similar complex forms in so different bodies. The main principal shaping is done by standing inertia-gravity waves arising in celestial bodies in response to their movement in elliptical orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The fundamental wave1 makes convexo-concave shape, the first overtone wave2 sharp-blunt ends. Larger celestial bodies: satellites, planets, stars react to these waves by universal tectonic dichotomy and

  7. Neural coding underlying the cue preference for celestial orientation

    PubMed Central

    el Jundi, Basil; Warrant, Eric J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Khaldy, Lana; Baird, Emily; Smolka, Jochen; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal and nocturnal African dung beetles use celestial cues, such as the sun, the moon, and the polarization pattern, to roll dung balls along straight paths across the savanna. Although nocturnal beetles move in the same manner through the same environment as their diurnal relatives, they do so when light conditions are at least 1 million-fold dimmer. Here, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the celestial cue preference differs between nocturnal and diurnal beetles in a manner that reflects their contrasting visual ecologies. We also demonstrate how these cue preferences are reflected in the activity of compass neurons in the brain. At night, polarized skylight is the dominant orientation cue for nocturnal beetles. However, if we coerce them to roll during the day, they instead use a celestial body (the sun) as their primary orientation cue. Diurnal beetles, however, persist in using a celestial body for their compass, day or night. Compass neurons in the central complex of diurnal beetles are tuned only to the sun, whereas the same neurons in the nocturnal species switch exclusively to polarized light at lunar light intensities. Thus, these neurons encode the preferences for particular celestial cues and alter their weighting according to ambient light conditions. This flexible encoding of celestial cue preferences relative to the prevailing visual scenery provides a simple, yet effective, mechanism for enabling visual orientation at any light intensity. PMID:26305929

  8. Neural coding underlying the cue preference for celestial orientation.

    PubMed

    el Jundi, Basil; Warrant, Eric J; Byrne, Marcus J; Khaldy, Lana; Baird, Emily; Smolka, Jochen; Dacke, Marie

    2015-09-08

    Diurnal and nocturnal African dung beetles use celestial cues, such as the sun, the moon, and the polarization pattern, to roll dung balls along straight paths across the savanna. Although nocturnal beetles move in the same manner through the same environment as their diurnal relatives, they do so when light conditions are at least 1 million-fold dimmer. Here, we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the celestial cue preference differs between nocturnal and diurnal beetles in a manner that reflects their contrasting visual ecologies. We also demonstrate how these cue preferences are reflected in the activity of compass neurons in the brain. At night, polarized skylight is the dominant orientation cue for nocturnal beetles. However, if we coerce them to roll during the day, they instead use a celestial body (the sun) as their primary orientation cue. Diurnal beetles, however, persist in using a celestial body for their compass, day or night. Compass neurons in the central complex of diurnal beetles are tuned only to the sun, whereas the same neurons in the nocturnal species switch exclusively to polarized light at lunar light intensities. Thus, these neurons encode the preferences for particular celestial cues and alter their weighting according to ambient light conditions. This flexible encoding of celestial cue preferences relative to the prevailing visual scenery provides a simple, yet effective, mechanism for enabling visual orientation at any light intensity.

  9. Celestial ephemerides in an expanding universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.

    2012-09-01

    The post-Newtonian theory of motion of celestial bodies and propagation of light was instrumental in conducting the critical experimental tests of general relativity and in building the astronomical ephemerides of celestial bodies in the Solar System with unparalleled precision. The cornerstone of the theory is the postulate that the Solar System is gravitationally isolated from the rest of the Universe and the background spacetime is asymptotically flat. The present article extends this theoretical concept and formulates the principles of celestial dynamics of particles and light moving in the gravitational field of a localized astronomical system embedded to the expanding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We formulate the precise mathematical concept of the Newtonian limit of Einstein’s field equations in the conformally flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime and analyze the geodesic motion of massive particles and light in this limit. We prove that by doing conformal spacetime transformations, one can reduce the equations of motion of particles and light to the classical form of the Newtonian theory. However, the time arguments in the equations of motion of particles and light differ from each other in terms being proportional to the Hubble constant H. This leads to the important conclusion that the equations of light propagation used currently by space navigation centers for fitting range and Doppler-tracking observations of celestial bodies are missing some terms of the cosmological origin that are proportional to the Hubble constant H. We also analyze the effect of the cosmological expansion on motion of electrons in atoms. We prove that the Hubble expansion does not affect the atomic frequencies and hence does not affect the atomic time scale used in the creation of astronomical ephemerides. We derive the cosmological correction to the light travel time equation and argue that its measurement opens an exciting opportunity to

  10. Dynamics of a vertical flight in the stationary gravitational field of a celestial body: Post-newtonian corrections and gravitational redshift

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Imshennik, V. S., E-mail: imshennik@itep.r

    2010-04-15

    The standard problem of a radial motion of test particles in the stationary gravitational field of a spherically symmetric celestial body is solved and is used to determine the time features of this motion. The problem is solved for the equations of motion of general relativity (GR), and the time features are obtained in the post-Newtonian approximation, with linear GR corrections proportional to r{sub g}/r and {beta}{sup 2} (in the solution being considered, they are of the same order of smallness) being taken rigorously into account. Total times obtained by integrating the time differentials along the trajectories of motion aremore » considered as the time features in question. It is shown that, for any parameters of the motion, the proper time (which corresponds to watches comoving with a test particle) exceeds the time of watches at rest (watches at the surface of the celestial body being considered). The mass and the radius of the celestial body, as well as the initial velocity of the test particle, serve as arbitrary parameters of the motion. The time difference indicated above implies a leading role of the gravitational redshift, which decreases somewhat because of the opposite effect of the Doppler shift. The results are estimated quantitatively for the important (from the experimental point of view) case of vertical flights of rockets starting from the Earth's surface. In this case, the GR corrections, albeit being extremely small (a few microseconds for several hours of the flight), aremeasurable with atomic (quantum) watches.« less

  11. On some basic principles of the wave planetology illustrated by real shapes and tectonic patterns of celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    The physical background. Celestial bodies move in orbits and keep them due to equality of centrifugal and attractio n forces. These forces are oppositely directed. There is a third force -the inert ia-gravity one directed at the right angle to mentioned above and, thus, not interfering with them (Fig. 1). This force is caused by moving all celestial bodies in non -circular keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. A clear illustration of status of this third force is a stretched rope never achieving a straight line because of the not compensated rope weight acting at the right angle to the stretching force s. In the cas e of cosmic bodies this "not compens ated" inertia-gravity force is absorbed in a cosmic body mass making this mass to warp, undulate. This warping in form of standing waves in rotating bodies is decomposed in four interfering direct ions (ortho - and diagonal) (Fig. 2) producing uplifted (+, ++), subsided (-, --) and neutral (0) blocks (Fig. 2). An interfe rence of fundamental waves 1 long 2π R ma kes always pres ent in bodies tectonic dichotomy: an oppos ition of two hemispheres-segments - one uplifted, another subsided (Fig. 2-6). The first overtone of the wave 1 - wave 2 long πR ma kes tectonic sectors superimposed on segments -hemispheres (Fig. 2, 7, 8). Along with the segment -sectoral pattern in cosmic bodies tectonic granulation develops (Fig. 9, 10). The granule sizes are inversely proportional to orbital frequencies [1-3]. The sectoral tectonic blocks are clearly visible also on Venus and icy satellites of Saturn, especially on polar views. Earth and photosphere are remarkable reference points of this fundamental dependence: orbits - tectonic granulation (Fig. 9, 10).

  12. [The celestial phenomena in A. Dürer's engraving Melancholia I].

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The celestial body of Dürer's engraving Melencolia I is connected with his painting of a meteor, the Raveningham-painting; it is shown that the origin of this painting owns to the impact of the meteor of Ensisheim in 1492. Until now the celestial body, the balance, and the magic square are nearly consistently interpreted as the planet Saturn, the zodiac sign Libra, and the planet Jupiter, and the melancholy woman is subject to these heavenly bodies. Consequently, neoplatonic astrology has been the main focus of the engraving; including the rainbow, the engraving has also been interpreted biblically. The present paper, however, places emphasis on problems of the geometry as the reason of melancholy. Any astronomical meaning of the configuration of the numbers of the magic square is discarded.

  13. Celestial Object Imaging Model and Parameter Optimization for an Optical Navigation Sensor Based on the Well Capacity Adjusting Scheme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-04-21

    The simultaneous extraction of optical navigation measurements from a target celestial body and star images is essential for autonomous optical navigation. Generally, a single optical navigation sensor cannot simultaneously image the target celestial body and stars well-exposed because their irradiance difference is generally large. Multi-sensor integration or complex image processing algorithms are commonly utilized to solve the said problem. This study analyzes and demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneously imaging the target celestial body and stars well-exposed within a single exposure through a single field of view (FOV) optical navigation sensor using the well capacity adjusting (WCA) scheme. First, the irradiance characteristics of the celestial body are analyzed. Then, the celestial body edge model and star spot imaging model are established when the WCA scheme is applied. Furthermore, the effect of exposure parameters on the accuracy of star centroiding and edge extraction is analyzed using the proposed model. Optimal exposure parameters are also derived by conducting Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the best performance of the navigation sensor. Finally, laboratorial and night sky experiments are performed to validate the correctness of the proposed model and optimal exposure parameters.

  14. Celestial Object Imaging Model and Parameter Optimization for an Optical Navigation Sensor Based on the Well Capacity Adjusting Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-01

    The simultaneous extraction of optical navigation measurements from a target celestial body and star images is essential for autonomous optical navigation. Generally, a single optical navigation sensor cannot simultaneously image the target celestial body and stars well-exposed because their irradiance difference is generally large. Multi-sensor integration or complex image processing algorithms are commonly utilized to solve the said problem. This study analyzes and demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneously imaging the target celestial body and stars well-exposed within a single exposure through a single field of view (FOV) optical navigation sensor using the well capacity adjusting (WCA) scheme. First, the irradiance characteristics of the celestial body are analyzed. Then, the celestial body edge model and star spot imaging model are established when the WCA scheme is applied. Furthermore, the effect of exposure parameters on the accuracy of star centroiding and edge extraction is analyzed using the proposed model. Optimal exposure parameters are also derived by conducting Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the best performance of the navigation sensor. Finally, laboratorial and night sky experiments are performed to validate the correctness of the proposed model and optimal exposure parameters. PMID:28430132

  15. Frontiers in Relativistic Celestial Mechanics, Vol. 2, Applications and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei

    2014-08-01

    Relativistic celestial mechanics - investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity - is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics - starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area. This second volume of a two-volume series covers applications of the theory as well as experimental verifications. From tools to determine light travel times in curved space-time to laser ranging between earth and moon and between satellites, and impacts on the definition of time scales and clock comparison techniques, a variety of effects is discussed. On the occasion of his 80-th birthday, these two volumes honor V. A. Brumberg - one of the pioneers in modern relativistic celestial mechanics. Contributions include: J. Simon, A. Fienga: Victor Brumberg and the French school of analytical celestial mechanics T. Fukushima: Elliptic functions and elliptic integrals for celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy P. Teyssandier: New tools for determining the light travel time in static, spherically symmetric spacetimes beyond the order G2 J. Müller, L. Biskupek, F. Hofmann and E. Mai: Lunar laser ranging and relativity N. Wex: Testing relativistic celestial mechanics with radio pulsars I. Ciufolini et al.: Dragging of inertial frames, fundamental physics, and satellite laser ranging G. Petit, P. Wolf, P. Delva: Atomic time, clocks, and clock comparisons in relativistic spacetime: a review

  16. Gaia, Helios, Selene and Ouranos: the three principal celestial bodies and the sky in the ancient Greek cosmogony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Petros

    In this article we consider the role of the three principal celestial bodies, the Earth (Gaia), the Sun (Helios) and the Moon (Selene), as well as the Sky (Ouranos) in the ancient Greek cosmogony. This is done by the analysis of antique Greek texts like Orphic Hymns and the literary remains of the writers and philosophers like Aeschylus, (Pseudo) Apollodorus, Apollonius Rhodius, Aristotle, Euripides, Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus, Nonnus, Pausanias, Pindar and Sophocles, as well as by the analysis of texts of Roman writers like Cicero, Ovid and Pliny.

  17. On the foundations of general relativistic celestial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, Emmanuele; Esposito, Giampiero; Dell'Agnello, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Towards the end of nineteenth century, Celestial Mechanics provided the most powerful tools to test Newtonian gravity in the solar system and also led to the discovery of chaos in modern science. Nowadays, in light of general relativity, Celestial Mechanics leads to a new perspective on the motion of satellites and planets. The reader is here introduced to the modern formulation of the problem of motion, following what the leaders in the field have been teaching since the nineties, in particular, the use of a global chart for the overall dynamics of N bodies and N local charts describing the internal dynamics of each body. The next logical step studies in detail how to split the N-body problem into two sub-problems concerning the internal and external dynamics, how to achieve the effacement properties that would allow a decoupling of the two sub-problems, how to define external-potential-effacing coordinates and how to generalize the Newtonian multipole and tidal moments. The review paper ends with an assessment of the nonlocal equations of motion obtained within such a framework, a description of the modifications induced by general relativity on the theoretical analysis of the Newtonian three-body problem, and a mention of the potentialities of the analysis of solar-system metric data carried out with the Planetary Ephemeris Program.

  18. Celestial Treasury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachièze-Rey, Marc; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2001-07-01

    Throughout history, the mysterious dark skies have inspired our imaginations in countless ways, influencing our endeavors in science and philosophy, religion, literature, and art. Filled with 380 full-color illustrations, Celestial Treasury shows the influence of astronomical theories and the richness of illustrations in Western civilization through the ages. The authors explore the evolution of our understanding of astronomy and weave together ancient and modern theories in a fascinating narrative. They incorporate a wealth of detail from Greek verse, medieval manuscripts and Victorian poetry with contemporary spacecraft photographs and computer-generated star charts. Celestial Treasury is more than a beautiful book: it answers a variety of questions that have intrigued scientists and laymen for centuries. -- How did philosophers and scientists try to explain the order that governs celestial motion? -- How did geometers and artists measure and map the skies? -- How many different answers have been proposed for the most fundamental of all questions: When and how did Earth come about? -- Who inhabits the heavens--gods, angels or extraterrestrials? No other book recounts humankind's fascination with the heavens as compellingly as Celestial Treasury. Marc Lachièze-Rey is a director of research at the Centre National pour la Récherche Scientifique and astrophysicist at the Centre d'Etudes de Saclay. He is the author of The Cosmic Background Radiation (Cambridge, 1999), and and The Quest for Unity, (Oxford, 1999 ), as well as many books in French. Jean-Pierre Luminet is a research director of the Centre National pour la Rechérche Scientifique, based at the Paris-Meudon observatory. He is the author of Black Holes, (Cambridge 1992), as well as science documentaries for television.

  19. A Mechanical Principle for Acquisition of useful Power on a Celestial Body Through Utilisation of its Planetary Precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulkov, K.

    In consequence of the phenomenon of planetary precession there emerges a possibility for acquisition of power through utilisation of the rotary motions in the universe. The idea is to acquire useful power on the working shaft of a properly designed machine installed on a celestial body (planet), at the expense of the motional energy of the latter. Strange as it may appear, this is possible if only the regulation of the machine be brought in line with the parameters of the precession. The principle of action of such a planetary engine, including an energy balance, is put forward in the present paper.

  20. The Celestial Basis of Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, W. B.

    Scholars have long puzzled over the reasons for the ubiquity of celestial images in the residue of the world's earliest civilizations: in art, myth, religious cosmology, iconography, cosmogony, eschatological beliefs, and as portents for the conduct of royal and chiefly power. The general consensus is that these images represented a need by early societies to use the fixed celestial heavens in order to regulate ritual and agricultural cycles, and to satisfy a psychological need by people to relate themselves to their surrounding Universe. Such explanations are facile and miss an important aspect of the celestial heavens. The fixed celestial heavens served as the back-drop for a large number of often spectacular temporary naked-eye visible celestial events which animated the night and sometimes the daytime sky, and which created an 'otherworld' for virtually all cultural groups. In this paper I present a model derived from the detailed analysis of Hawaiian oral traditions and culture history in relation to historic astronomical records of temporary celestial events, and then apply this model to cultural traditions from Mesoamerica and other geographic regions in order to demonstrate that novae, supernovae, variable stars, comets, great meteor showers, aurorae, solar and lunar eclipses, and impacting Solar System debris, together played a critical role in the artistic, intellectual, and political development of early civilizations. These data not only provide important insights into the development of civilization, but also provide important details and longitudinal records of astronomical events and phenomena which are otherwise not readily available for scientific scrutiny.

  1. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  2. Celestial Software Scratches More Than the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    While NASA is preparing to send humans back to the Moon by 2020 and then eventually to Mars, the average person can explore the landscapes of these celestial bodies much sooner, without the risk and training, and without even leaving the comfort of home. Geological data and imagery collected from NASA missions are enabling anybody with computer access to virtually follow the footsteps of Apollo astronauts who walked on the Moon or trace the tracks of the exploration rovers currently on Mars.

  3. Forecasting scenarios of collision catastrophes produced by celestial body falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, V.; Kochetova, O.; Chernetenko, Y.; Zheleznov, N.; Deryugin, V.; Zaitsev, A.

    2014-07-01

    The subject under discussion arose in the course of developing a computer program, which gives the possibility for numerical and graphical modeling of the scenarios of catastrophes caused by collisions of cosmic bodies with the Earth. It is expected that this program can be used for computer-assisted training of the personnel of units of the Ministry for Emergency Situations in the case of a situation caused by the fall of a celestial body on the Earth. Also, it is anticipated that the program can be used in real situations when a dangerous body is discovered on an orbit leading to an imminent collision with the Earth. From the scientific point of view, both variants of use require solving of analogous tasks. In what follows, we discuss both variants. 1. The computation of the circumstances for a fall on the Earth (or approach within short distance) of a real body begins with the determination of its orbit from the observations available using the least-squares method. The mean square error of the representation of the observations on the base of the initial values of the coordinates and the velocities is computed, as well as their covariance matrix. Then, the trajectory of the body's motion is followed by numerical integration starting from the osculating epoch to the collision with the Earth or to its flyby. The computer program takes into account the various cases: at the initial moment, the body can move away from or approach the Earth, it can be outside the sphere of action or inside it. At the moment, when the body enters the sphere of action, the coordinates of the center of the dispersion ellipse on the target plane are computed as well as the dimensions of its axes. Using these data, the probability of collision with the Earth is calculated. Then, the point of penetration of the body into the Earth's atmosphere at a given height above the level of the Earth geoid is determined. In case the body is passing by the Earth, the minimum distance of the body from

  4. A Snapshot-Based Mechanism for Celestial Orientation.

    PubMed

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Khaldy, Lana; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily

    2016-06-06

    In order to protect their food from competitors, ball-rolling dung beetles detach a piece of dung from a pile, shape it into a ball, and roll it away along a straight path [1]. They appear to rely exclusively on celestial compass cues to maintain their bearing [2-8], but the mechanism that enables them to use these cues for orientation remains unknown. Here, we describe the orientation strategy that allows dung beetles to use celestial cues in a dynamic fashion. We tested the underlying orientation mechanism by presenting beetles with a combination of simulated celestial cues (sun, polarized light, and spectral cues). We show that these animals do not rely on an innate prediction of the natural geographical relationship between celestial cues, as other navigating insects seem to [9, 10]. Instead, they appear to form an internal representation of the prevailing celestial scene, a "celestial snapshot," even if that scene represents a physical impossibility for the real sky. We also find that the beetles are able to maintain their bearing with respect to the presented cues only if the cues are visible when the snapshot is taken. This happens during the "dance," a behavior in which the beetle climbs on top of its ball and rotates about its vertical axis [11]. This strategy for reading celestial signals is a simple but efficient mechanism for straight-line orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laplacean Ideology for Preliminary Orbit Determination and Moving Celestial Body Identification in Virtual Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, O. P.

    Any CCD frames with stars or galaxies or clusters and other images must be studied for a searching of moving celestial objects, namely asteroids, comets, artificial Earth satellites inside them. At Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, new methods and software were elaborated to solve this problem.

  6. Method based on artificial excitation of characteristic radiation by an electron beam for remote X-ray spectral elemental analysis of surface rocks on atmosphereless celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.

    2016-11-01

    This article, like our previous one [1], is devoted to advanced space technology concepts. It evaluates the potential for developing active systems to conduct a remote elemental analysis of surface rocks on an atmosphereless celestial body. The analysis is based on the spectrometry of characteristic X-rays (CXR) artificially excited in the surface soil layer. It has been proposed to use an electron beam injected from aboard a spacecraft orbiting the celestial body (or moving in a flyby trajectory) to excite the CXR elements contained in surface rocks. The focus is on specifying technical requirements to the parameters of payloads for a global mapping of the composition of lunar rocks from aboard of a low-orbiting lunar satellite. This article uses the results obtained in [2], our first study that shows the potential to develop an active system for a remote elemental analysis of lunar surface rocks using the above method. Although there has been interest in our research on the part of leading national academic institutions and space technology developers in the Soviet Union, the studies were discontinued because of the termination of the Soviet lunar program and the completion of the American Apollo program.

  7. Recombination of radiation defects in solid methane: neutron sources and cryo-volcanism on celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, O.; Savchenko, E. V.; Lawson, C. R.; Khyzhniy, I. V.; Jenkins, D. M.; Uyutnov, S. A.; Bludov, M. A.; Haynes, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Physicochemical properties of solid methane exposed to ionizing radiation have attracted significant interest in recent years. Here we present new trends in the study of radiation effects in solid methane. We particularly focus on relaxation phenomena in solid methane pre-irradiated by energetic neutrons and electron beam. We compare experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 10K to 100K with a model based on the assumption that radiolysis defect recombinations happen in two stages, at two different temperatures. In the case of slow heating up of the solid methane sample, irradiated at 10K, the first wave of recombination occurs around 20K with a further second wave taking place between 50 and 60K. We also discuss the role of the recombination mechanisms in “burp” phenomenon discovered by J. Carpenter in the late 1980s. An understanding of these mechanisms is vital for the designing and operation of solid methane moderators used in advanced neutron sources and could also be a possible explanation for the driving forces behind cryo-volcanism on celestial bodies.

  8. Design of all-weather celestial navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongchi; Mu, Rongjun; Du, Huajun; Wu, Peng

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize autonomous navigation in the atmosphere, an all-weather celestial navigation system is designed. The research of celestial navigation system include discrimination method of comentropy and the adaptive navigation algorithm based on the P value. The discrimination method of comentropy is studied to realize the independent switching of two celestial navigation modes, starlight and radio. Finally, an adaptive filtering algorithm based on P value is proposed, which can greatly improve the disturbance rejection capability of the system. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the three axis attitude is better than 10″, and it can work all weather. In perturbation environment, the position accuracy of the integrated navigation system can be increased 20% comparing with the traditional method. It basically meets the requirements of the all-weather celestial navigation system, and it has the ability of stability, reliability, high accuracy and strong anti-interference.

  9. The Role of Celestial Compass Information in Cataglyphis Ants during Learning Walks and for Neuroplasticity in the Central Complex and Mushroom Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Grob, Robin; Fleischmann, Pauline N.; Grübel, Kornelia; Wehner, Rüdiger; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Central place foragers are faced with the challenge to learn the position of their nest entrance in its surroundings, in order to find their way back home every time they go out to search for food. To acquire navigational information at the beginning of their foraging career, Cataglyphis noda performs learning walks during the transition from interior worker to forager. These small loops around the nest entrance are repeatedly interrupted by strikingly accurate back turns during which the ants stop and precisely gaze back to the nest entrance—presumably to learn the landmark panorama of the nest surroundings. However, as at this point the complete navigational toolkit is not yet available, the ants are in need of a reference system for the compass component of the path integrator to align their nest entrance-directed gazes. In order to find this directional reference system, we systematically manipulated the skylight information received by ants during learning walks in their natural habitat, as it has been previously suggested that the celestial compass, as part of the path integrator, might provide such a reference system. High-speed video analyses of distinct learning walk elements revealed that even exclusion from the skylight polarization pattern, UV-light spectrum and the position of the sun did not alter the accuracy of the look back to the nest behavior. We therefore conclude that C. noda uses a different reference system to initially align their gaze directions. However, a comparison of neuroanatomical changes in the central complex and the mushroom bodies before and after learning walks revealed that exposure to UV light together with a naturally changing polarization pattern was essential to induce neuroplasticity in these high-order sensory integration centers of the ant brain. This suggests a crucial role of celestial information, in particular a changing polarization pattern, in initially calibrating the celestial compass system. PMID:29184487

  10. The Role of Celestial Compass Information in Cataglyphis Ants during Learning Walks and for Neuroplasticity in the Central Complex and Mushroom Bodies.

    PubMed

    Grob, Robin; Fleischmann, Pauline N; Grübel, Kornelia; Wehner, Rüdiger; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Central place foragers are faced with the challenge to learn the position of their nest entrance in its surroundings, in order to find their way back home every time they go out to search for food. To acquire navigational information at the beginning of their foraging career, Cataglyphis noda performs learning walks during the transition from interior worker to forager. These small loops around the nest entrance are repeatedly interrupted by strikingly accurate back turns during which the ants stop and precisely gaze back to the nest entrance-presumably to learn the landmark panorama of the nest surroundings. However, as at this point the complete navigational toolkit is not yet available, the ants are in need of a reference system for the compass component of the path integrator to align their nest entrance-directed gazes. In order to find this directional reference system, we systematically manipulated the skylight information received by ants during learning walks in their natural habitat, as it has been previously suggested that the celestial compass, as part of the path integrator, might provide such a reference system. High-speed video analyses of distinct learning walk elements revealed that even exclusion from the skylight polarization pattern, UV-light spectrum and the position of the sun did not alter the accuracy of the look back to the nest behavior. We therefore conclude that C. noda uses a different reference system to initially align their gaze directions. However, a comparison of neuroanatomical changes in the central complex and the mushroom bodies before and after learning walks revealed that exposure to UV light together with a naturally changing polarization pattern was essential to induce neuroplasticity in these high-order sensory integration centers of the ant brain. This suggests a crucial role of celestial information, in particular a changing polarization pattern, in initially calibrating the celestial compass system.

  11. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    Crew members can be directly exposed to celestial dust in several ways. After crew members perform extravehicular activities (EVAs), they may introduce into the habitat dust that will have collected on spacesuits and boots. Cleaning of the suits between EVAs and changing of the Environmental Control Life Support System filters are other operations that could result in direct exposure to celestial dusts. In addition, if the spacesuits used in exploration missions abrade the skin, as current EVA suits have, then contact with these wounds would provide a source of exposure. Further, if celestial dusts gain access to a suit's interior, as was the case during the Apollo missions, the dust could serve as an additional source of abrasions or enhance suit-induced injuries. When a crew leaves the surface of a celestial body and returns to microgravity, the dust that is introduced into the return vehicle will "float," thus increasing the opportunity for ocular and respiratory injury. Because the features of the respirable fraction of lunar dusts indicate they could be toxic to humans, NASA conducted several studies utilizing lunar dust simulants and authentic lunar dust to determine the unique properties of lunar dust that affect physiology, assess the dermal and ocular irritancy of the dust, and establish a permissible exposure limit for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during missions that would involve no more than 6 months stay on the lunar surface. Studies, with authentic lunar soils from both highland (Apollo 16) and mare (Apollo17) regions demonstrated that the lunar soil is highly abrasive to a high fidelity model of human skin. Studies of lunar dust returned during the Apollo 14 mission from an area of the moon in which the soils were comprised of mineral constituents from both major geological regions (highlands and mares regions) demonstrated only minimal ocular irritancy, and pulmonary toxicity that was less than the highly toxic terrestrial crystalline

  12. The Celestial Vault: The Magic of Astrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaha, J.

    2004-11-01

    Astrology is a "Geocentric System" that supports the "Astrological Principle". This principle, that human beings and their actions are influenced by the positions of celestial objects, is not objectively supported. The "planetary gods" found in the heavens provided order to help explain the chaotic events in life on earth. Is this why many people think their horoscopes are correct, with the "stars" taking credit? Do "celestial movements" foretell the future? What is the evidence for Astrology? The historical, psychological and physical foundations of astrology will be discussed.

  13. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    commission are to: * clarify the geometrical and dynamical concepts of fundamental astronomy within a relativistic framework, * provide adequate mathematical and physical formulations to be used in fundamental astronomy, * deepen the understanding of relativity among astronomers and students of astronomy, and * promote research needed to accomplish these tasks. The present book is intended to make a theoretical contribution to the efforts undertaken by this commission. The first three chapters of the book review the foundations of celestial mechanics as well as those of special and general relativity. Subsequent chapters discuss the theoretical and experimental principles of applied relativity in the solar system. The book is written for graduate students and researchers working in the area of gravitational physics and its applications inmodern astronomy. Chapters 1 to 3 were written by Michael Efroimsky and Sergei Kopeikin, Chapters 4 to 8 by Sergei Kopeikin, and Chapter 9 by George Kaplan. Sergei Kopeikin also edited the overall text. It hardly needs to be said that Newtonian celestial mechanics is a very broad area. In Chapter 1, we have concentrated on derivation of the basic equations, on explanation of the perturbed two-body problem in terms of osculating and nonosculating elements, and on discussion of the gauge freedom in the six-dimensional configuration space of the orbital parameters. The gauge freedom of the configuration space has many similarities to the gauge freedom of solutions of the Einstein field equations in general theory of relativity. It makes an important element of the Newtonian theory of gravity, which is often ignored in the books on classic celestial mechanics. Special relativity is discussed in Chapter 2. While our treatment is in many aspects similar to the other books on special relativity, we have carefully emphasised the explanation of the Lorentz and Poincaré transformations, and the appropriate transformation properties of geometric

  14. Celestial polarization patterns during twilight.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Thomas W; Warrant, Eric J; Greiner, Birgit

    2006-08-01

    Scattering of sunlight produces patterns of partially linearly polarized light in the sky throughout the day, and similar patterns appear at night when the Moon is bright. We studied celestial polarization patterns during the period of twilight, when the Sun is below the horizon, determining the degree and orientation of the polarized-light field and its changes before sunrise and after sunset. During twilight, celestial polarized light occurs in a wide band stretching perpendicular to the location of the hidden Sun and reaching typical degrees of polarization near 80% at wavelengths >600 nm. In the tropics, this pattern appears approximately 1 h before local sunrise or disappears approximately 1 h after local sunset (within 10 min. after the onset of astronomical twilight at dawn, or before its end at dusk) and extends with little change through the entire twilight period.

  15. Microarsecond models for the celestial motions of the CIP and CEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.

    2004-09-01

    The Celestial intermediate pole (CIP) and Celestial ephemeris (orintermediate) origin (CEO/CIO) have been adopted by the IAU (c.f. IAU2000 Resolution B1.8) as the celestial pole and origin, respectively,to be used for realizing the intermediate celestial system between theInternational Terrestrial System (ITRS) and Geocentric CelestialReference System (GCRS). Resolution B1.8 has also recommended that theInternational Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS)continue to provide users with data and algorithms for the conventionaltransformation. The IAU 2000 Resolutions have been implemented in theIERS 2003 Conventions including Tables and routines that provide thecelestial motions of the CIP and the CEO with a theoretical accuracy ofone microarcsecond after one century using either the classical or thenew transformation. This paper reports on the method used for achievingthis accuracy in the positions of the CIP and CIO and on the differencebetween this rigorous procedure and the pre-2003 classical one.

  16. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  17. Almanac services for celestial navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelmes, S.; Whittaker, J.

    2015-08-01

    Celestial navigation remains a vitally important back up to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and relies on the use of almanac services. HM Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) provides a number of these services. The printed book, The Nautical Almanac, produced yearly and now available as an electronic publication, is continuously being improved, making use of the latest ideas and ephemerides to provide the user with their required data. HMNAO also produces NavPac, a software package that assists the user in calculating their position as well as providing additional navigational and astronomical tools. A new version of NavPac will be released in 2015 that will improve the user experience. The development of applications for mobile devices is also being considered. HMNAO continues to combine the latest improvements and theories of astrometry with the creation of books and software that best meet the needs of celestial navigation users.

  18. Celestial mechanics with geometric algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric algebra is introduced as a general tool for Celestial Mechanics. A general method for handling finite rotations and rotational kinematics is presented. The constants of Kepler motion are derived and manipulated in a new way. A new spinor formulation of perturbation theory is developed.

  19. Research on the error model of airborne celestial/inertial integrated navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Deng, Xiaoguo; Yang, Xiaoxu; Dong, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Celestial navigation subsystem of airborne celestial/inertial integrated navigation system periodically correct the positioning error and heading drift of the inertial navigation system, by which the inertial navigation system can greatly improve the accuracy of long-endurance navigation. Thus the navigation accuracy of airborne celestial navigation subsystem directly decides the accuracy of the integrated navigation system if it works for long time. By building the mathematical model of the airborne celestial navigation system based on the inertial navigation system, using the method of linear coordinate transformation, we establish the error transfer equation for the positioning algorithm of airborne celestial system. Based on these we built the positioning error model of the celestial navigation. And then, based on the positioning error model we analyze and simulate the positioning error which are caused by the error of the star tracking platform with the MATLAB software. Finally, the positioning error model is verified by the information of the star obtained from the optical measurement device in range and the device whose location are known. The analysis and simulation results show that the level accuracy and north accuracy of tracking platform are important factors that limit airborne celestial navigation systems to improve the positioning accuracy, and the positioning error have an approximate linear relationship with the level error and north error of tracking platform. The error of the verification results are in 1000m, which shows that the model is correct.

  20. Celestial Seasonings: Astronomy and Rock Art in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, E. C.

    1994-12-01

    Astronomical interpretations of prehistoric rock art have played a significant part in the development of modern archaeoastronomy since 1975, when interest was renewed in the possibility that the Crab supernova explosion of 1054 A.D. was represented in rock art of the American Southwest. (This hypothesis was actually first formulated in 1955.) In the last two decades, a variety of astronomical functions for rock art have been proposed and investigated. These include representation of specific historical celestial events, symbolic representation of elements of celestial myths, star maps, markers for astronomical observing stations markers for celestially tempered shrines, images intended to invoke and exploit cosmo-magical power, seasonally significant light-and-shadow displays. Examples of astronomical connotations in prehistoric rock art from the Southwest and California illustrate the necessity of understanding the culture in any attempt to understand its astronomy.

  1. Background Oriented Schlieren Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward, A., Jr. (Inventor); Hill, Michael A (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method of visualizing fluid flow around an object, such as an aircraft or wind turbine, by aligning the object between an imaging system and a celestial object having a speckled background, taking images, and comparing those images to obtain fluid flow visualization.

  2. Establishing a celestial VLBI reference frame. 1: Searching for VLBI sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Morabito, D. D.; Williams, J. G.; Slade, M. A.; Harris, A. W.; Finley, S. G.; Skjerve, L. J.; Tanida, L.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Johnson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is currently engaged in establishing a new high-accuracy VLBI celestial reference frame. The present status of the task of finding suitable celestial radio sources for constructing this reference frame is discussed. To date, 564 VLBI sources were detected, with 166 of these lying within 10 deg of the ecliptic plane. The variation of the sky distribution of these sources with source strength is examined.

  3. Spatial water maze learning using celestial cues by the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    PubMed

    Kavaliers, M; Galea, L A

    1994-03-31

    The Morris water maze is widely used to evaluate to evaluate the spatial learning ability of rodents under laboratory settings. The present study demonstrates that reproductive male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, are able to acquire and retain a spatial water maze task using celestial cues. Voles were able to acquire a modified outdoor Morris water maze task over 4 trials per day, whereby they had to learn and remember the location of a submerged hidden platform, using the position of the sun and associated celestial cues. Their proficiency on this task was related to the availability of the celestial cues, with voles displaying significantly poorer spatial navigation on overcast than clear days and when the testing time (and position of the sun and associated celestial cues) was shifted from morning to afternoon. These findings with meadow voles support the ecological relevance of the water maze task.

  4. Celestial Navigation for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Carroll Wilson

    Reported is a study of a syllabus designed to teach students how to determine a position by celestial means. The syllabus was intended to augment existing curricula and be a topic for special interest groups and not designed as a semester-long course in itself. Each of the 14 lessons included was preceded by specific objectives written in…

  5. A celestial assisted INS initialization method for lunar explorers.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xiaolin; Wang, Longhua; Wu, Weiren; Fang, Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors' biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface.

  6. On transformation between international celestial and terrestrial reference systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagnon, P.; Brumberg, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    Based on the current IAU hierarchy of the relativistic reference systems, practical formulae for the transformation between barycentric (BCRS) and geocentric (GCRS) celestial reference systems are derived. BCRS is used to refer to ICRS, International Celestial Reference System. This transformation is given in four versions, dependent on the time arguments used for BCRS (TCB or TDB) and for GCRS (TCG or TT). All quantities involved in these formulae have been tabulated with the use of the VSOP theories (IMCCE theories of motion of the major planets). In particular, these formulae may be applied to account for the indirect relativistic third-body perturbations in motion of Earth's satellites and Earth's rotation problem. We propose to use the SMART theory (IMCCE theory of Earth's rotation) in constructing the Newtonian three-dimensional spatial rotation transformation between GCRS and ITRS, the International Terrestrial Reference System. This transformation is compared with two other versions involving extra angular variables currently used by IERS, the International Earth Rotation Service. It is shown that the comparison of these three forms of the same transformation may be greatly simplified by using the proposed composite rotation formula. Tables 1-20 of Appendix B containing the initial terms of the VSOP-based series for the BCRS<->GCRS transformation are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/408/387. The work on ICRS<->GCRS transformation with the use of VSOP theories was done in February-March 2002 during the stay of the second author in IMCCE. The authors hoped to complete the second part concerning GCRS<->ITRS transformation with the use of SMART theory in September 2002 during the visit of the first author to IAA. The grave disease of Pierre Bretagnon which tragically resulted in his death on November 17, 2002, did not permit us to complete

  7. Simultaneous calibrations of Voyager celestial and inertial attitude control systems in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahanshahi, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical description of the data reduction technique used to simultaneously calibrate the Voyager celestial and inertial attitude control subsystems is given. It is shown that knowledge of the spacecraft limit cycle motion, as measured by the celestial and the inertial sensors, is adequate to result in the estimates of a selected number of errors which adversely affect the spacecraft attitude knowledge.

  8. The Theme of Celestial Bodies in Armenian Lullabies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, Ani

    2016-12-01

    Folk art is representing the type and the mentality of the nation. People's perceptions and understanding of life, the universe and the world around them are reflected in it. In folk songs coming from the times before Christianity and preserved until now there are many cosmic bodies commemorations and many attempts to consider man as heliocentric and important phenomenon. In this case, we focus on the presence of the sun, the moon and stars in one of the most interesting genres of Armenian folk music - lullabies. This article is meant to represent the ancient Pythagorean theory of cosmic origins of music and coming back to the mentioned genre of the folk art it is also showing the imaging of cosmic bodies on recorded samples of Armenian lullabies of various areas and provinces.

  9. A Celestial Assisted INS Initialization Method for Lunar Explorers

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xiaolin; Wang, Longhua; Wu, Weiren; Fang, Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors’ biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface. PMID:22163998

  10. Relation between the celestial reference system and the terrestrial reference system of a rigid earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Shinko

    The equations of motion for a rigid earth under the influence of the sun and moon are solved analytically up to the second-order perturbation, and the results are used to elucidate the relationship between the celestial and terrestrial reference systems. The derivations are given in detail, and consideration is given to celestial-ephemeris and instantaneous-rotation poles, wobble, the departure point as the origin of the local inertial system, the precession-nutation matrix, and techniques for improving the celestial reference system.

  11. Principles of Celestial Navigation: An Online Resource for Introducing Practical Astronomy to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Sean E.

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy is often called a "gateway" science because it inspires appreciation and awe among children and non-scientists. Applied astronomy, with practical, real-world applications, can entice even the most utilitarian people to take notice and learn about the subject. Traditional celestial navigation is an astronomy topic that captures the attention of the public. The U.S. Naval Observatory has led the development of a publicly available online celestial navigation educational module titled, "Principles of Celestial Navigation". It can be used world-wide to introduce people to astronomy. This poster describes some of the aspects of this teaching module.

  12. The Second Realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame by Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fey, A. L.; Gordon, D.; Jacobs, C. S.; Ma, C.; Gaume, R. A.; Arias, E. F.; Bianco, G.; Boboltz, D. A.; Böckmann, S.; Bolotin, S.; Charlot, P.; Collioud, A.; Engelhardt, G.; Gipson, J.; Gontier, A.-M.; Heinkelmann, R.; Kurdubov, S.; Lambert, S.; Lytvyn, S.; MacMillan, D. S.; Malkin, Z.; Nothnagel, A.; Ojha, R.; Skurikhina, E.; Sokolova, J.; Souchay, J.; Sovers, O. J.; Tesmer, V.; Titov, O.; Wang, G.; Zharov, V.

    2015-08-01

    We present the second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) at radio wavelengths using nearly 30 years of Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations. ICRF2 contains precise positions of 3414 compact radio astronomical objects and has a positional noise floor of ∼40 μas and a directional stability of the frame axes of ∼10 μas. A set of 295 new “defining” sources was selected on the basis of positional stability and the lack of extensive intrinsic source structure. The positional stability of these 295 defining sources and their more uniform sky distribution eliminates the two greatest weaknesses of the first realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF1). Alignment of ICRF2 with the International Celestial Reference System was made using 138 positionally stable sources common to both ICRF2 and ICRF1. The resulting ICRF2 was adopted by the International Astronomical Union as the new fundamental celestial reference frame, replacing ICRF1 as of 2010 January 1.

  13. Combining sky and earth: desert ants (Melophorus bagoti) show weighted integration of celestial and terrestrial cues.

    PubMed

    Legge, Eric L G; Wystrach, Antoine; Spetch, Marcia L; Cheng, Ken

    2014-12-01

    Insects typically use celestial sources of directional information for path integration, and terrestrial panoramic information for view-based navigation. Here we set celestial and terrestrial sources of directional information in conflict for homing desert ants (Melophorus bagoti). In the first experiment, ants learned to navigate out of a round experimental arena with a distinctive artificial panorama. On crucial tests, we rotated the arena to create a conflict between the artificial panorama and celestial information. In a second experiment, ants at a feeder in their natural visually-cluttered habitat were displaced prior to their homing journey so that the dictates of path integration (feeder to nest direction) based on a celestial compass conflicted with the dictates of view-based navigation (release point to nest direction) based on the natural terrestrial panorama. In both experiments, ants generally headed in a direction intermediate to the dictates of celestial and terrestrial information. In the second experiment, the ants put more weight on the terrestrial cues when they provided better directional information. We conclude that desert ants weight and integrate the dictates of celestial and terrestrial information in determining their initial heading, even when the two directional cues are highly discrepant. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. The Future of Past Skies: Historical Celestial Cartography at the Adler Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, Pedro M. P.

    2018-01-01

    The Adler Planetarium is home to a world-class collection of scientific instruments, rare books and works on paper. Since 2014, Adler staff has been digitizing a wide selection of items relating to celestial cartography, including: more than 236 rare books and atlases; 97 works on paper; globes and other artifacts, amounting to 58 objects; and approximately 3,750 Carte du Ciel prints. This work has been carried out under the auspices of the Celestial Cartography Digitization Project (CCDP), which is sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities. This poster presentation will include: 1) an update on the project; 2) a description of related resources and tools available to the research community; 3) examples of how the Adler Planetarium is integrating the history of celestial cartography with its public programs; 4) an overview of a prospective citizen science project involving the identification of constellations in historical atlases and charts.

  15. Celestial mechanics during the last two decades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szebehely, V.

    1978-01-01

    The unprecedented progress in celestial mechanics (orbital mechanics, astrodynamics, space dynamics) is reviewed from 1957 to date. The engineering, astronomical and mathematical aspects are synthesized. The measuring and computational techniques developed parallel with the theoretical advances are outlined. Major unsolved problem areas are listed with proposed approaches for their solutions. Extrapolations and predictions of the progress for the future conclude the paper.

  16. The registered distance of the celestial sphere: some historical cross-cultural data.

    PubMed

    Plug, C

    1989-02-01

    Estimates of the diameters of the sun and moon expressed in centimetres have been reported by several authors in the past. These estimates imply that the sizes of the sun and moon are perceived as if these bodies are only some tens of metres distant. In this study five units of length that were used by ancient astronomers to estimate arcs on the celestial sphere were investigated. The purpose was to determine whether the lengths and angles represented by these units imply a specific registered distance of the star sphere. The sizes of the Babylonian cubit, Arab fitr and shibr, Greek eclipse digit, and Chinese chang support the conclusion that the registered distance of the stars was about 10 to 40 metres in these four cultures over the last two millennia.

  17. 132. STANDARD NAVAL AIR STATIONS CELESTIAL NAVIGATION, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. STANDARD NAVAL AIR STATIONS CELESTIAL NAVIGATION, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS, BUDOCKS, OCTOBER 14, 1943. QP ACC 9689. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  18. A celestial gamma-ray foreground due to the albedo of small solar system bodies and a remote probe of the interstellar cosmic ray spectrum

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.; Digel, Seth W.

    2007-12-17

    We calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo flux from cosmic-ray (CR) interactions with the solid rock and ice in Main Belt asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) using the Moon as a template. We show that the {gamma}-ray albedo for the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt strongly depends on the small-body mass spectrum of each system and may be detectable by the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The orbits of the Main Belt asteroids and KBOs are distributed near the ecliptic, which passes through the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes. If detected, the {gamma}-ray emission by the Mainmore » Belt and Kuiper Belt has to be taken into account when analyzing weak {gamma}-ray sources close to the ecliptic, especially near the Galactic center and for signals at high Galactic latitudes, such as the extragalactic {gamma}-ray emission. Additionally, it can be used to probe the spectrum of CR nuclei at close-to-interstellar conditions, and the mass spectrum of small bodies in the Main Belt and Kuiper Belt. The asteroid albedo spectrum also exhibits a 511 keV line due to secondary positrons annihilating in the rock. This may be an important and previously unrecognized celestial foreground for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the Galactic 511 keV line emission including the direction of the Galactic center.« less

  19. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.

    2011-11-15

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate International Celestial Reference Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not bemore » classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.« less

  20. General-relativistic celestial mechanics. 4: Theory of satellite motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, T.; Soffel, M.; Xu, C.

    1993-09-01

    The basic equations needed for developing a complete relativistic theory of artificial Earth satellites are explicitly written down. These equations are given both in a local, geocentric frame and in the global, barycentric one. They are derived within our recently introduced general-relativistic celestial mechanics framework. Our approach is more satisfactory than previous ones, especially with regard to its consistency, completeness, and flexibility. In particular, the problem of representing the relativistic gravitational effects associated with the quadrupole and higher multipole moments of the moving Earth, which caused difficulties in several other approaches, is easily dealth with in our approach, thanks to the use of previously developed tools: definition of relativistic multipole moments and transformation theory between reference frames. With this last paper in a series, we hope to indicate the way of using our formalism in specific problems in applied celestial mechanics and astrometry.

  1. Hubble peers inside a celestial geode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    celestial geode hi-res Size hi-res: 148 Kb Credits: ESA/NASA, Yäel Nazé (University of Liège, Belgium) and You-Hua Chu (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA) Hubble peers inside a celestial geode In this unusual image, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures a rare view of the celestial equivalent of a geode - a gas cavity carved by the stellar wind and intense ultraviolet radiation from a young hot star. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. Low resolution version (JPG format) 148 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 1929 Kb Acknowledgment: This image was created with the help of the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator. Real geodes are handball-sized, hollow rocks that start out as bubbles in volcanic or sedimentary rock. Only when these inconspicuous round rocks are split in half by a geologist, do we get a chance to appreciate the inside of the rock cavity that is lined with crystals. In the case of Hubble's 35 light-year diameter ‘celestial geode’ the transparency of its bubble-like cavity of interstellar gas and dust reveals the treasures of its interior. The object, called N44F, is being inflated by a torrent of fast-moving particles (what astronomers call a 'stellar wind') from an exceptionally hot star (the bright star just below the centre of the bubble) once buried inside a cold dense cloud. Compared with our Sun (which is losing mass through the so-called 'solar wind'), the central star in N44F is ejecting more than a 100 million times more mass per second and the hurricane of particles moves much faster at 7 million km per hour

  2. Mariner 9 celestial mechanics experiment - A status report.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, J.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    There are two basic efforts in the Mariner 9 celestial mechanics experiment: the determination of the gravity field of Mars and the performance of a very precise test of the theory of general relativity. In addition, there are a number of astrodynamic constants that are being determined. All the analyses are based on the Mariner 9 radio tracking data.

  3. UBVRI PHOTOMETRIC STANDARD STARS AROUND THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR: UPDATES AND ADDITIONS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Landolt, Arlo U.

    2009-05-15

    New broadband UBVRI photoelectric observations on the Johnson-Kron-Cousins photometric system have been made of 202 stars around the sky, and centered at the celestial equator. These stars constitute both an update of and additions to a previously published list of equatorial photometric standard stars. The list is capable of providing, for both celestial hemispheres, an internally consistent homogeneous broadband standard photometric system around the sky. When these new measurements are included with those previously published by Landolt (1992), the entire list of standard stars in this paper encompasses the magnitude range 8.90 < V < 16.30, and the color indexmore » range -0.35 < (B - V) < +2.30.« less

  4. Dark Energy Survey finds more celestial neighbors | News

    Science.gov Websites

    Energy Survey finds more celestial neighbors August 17, 2015 icon icon icon New dwarf galaxy candidates could mean our sky is more crowded than we thought The Dark Energy Survey has now mapped one-eighth of Survey Collaboration The Dark Energy Survey has now mapped one-eighth of the full sky (red shaded region

  5. On population of hazardous celestial bodies in the near-Earth space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, B. M.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Efremova, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, following the Chelyabinsk event of February 15, 2013, the lower size limit for presumably dangerous near-Earth objects has been decreased manyfold (essentially, from 140 m to 10 m). This has drawn an increased attention to the properties of the population of decameter-sized bodies, in particular, the bodies that approach the Earth from the sunward side (daytime sky). The current paper is concerned with various properties of this population. The properties of the ensemble are analyzed using both observational data from other authors and theoretical estimates obtained by cloning virtual bodies. This question is of great practical importance, as the means for detecting such bodies (for example, the SODA project) need to be developed with consideration for the requirements imposed by the population properties. We have shown that the average rate of entering near-Earth space (NES), i.e., at distances less than 1 million km from the Earth, for decameter-sized and larger bodies from the daytime sky (elongation values of entry points less than 90°) is approximately 620 objects per year for elongation angles of the detection point <90° and approximately 220 objects per year for elongation angles of the detection point <45°.

  6. The role of the sun in the celestial compass of dung beetles

    PubMed Central

    Dacke, M.; el Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Byrne, Marcus; Baird, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the different types of compass cues available to ball-rolling beetles for orientation, but little is known about the relative precision of each of these cues and how they interact. In this study, we find that the absolute orientation error of the celestial compass of the day-active dung beetle Scarabaeus lamarcki doubles from 16° at solar elevations below 60° to an error of 29° at solar elevations above 75°. As ball-rolling dung beetles rely solely on celestial compass cues for their orientation, these insects experience a large decrease in orientation precision towards the middle of the day. We also find that in the compass system of dung beetles, the solar cues and the skylight cues are used together and share the control of orientation behaviour. Finally, we demonstrate that the relative influence of the azimuthal position of the sun for straight-line orientation decreases as the sun draws closer to the horizon. In conclusion, ball-rolling dung beetles possess a dynamic celestial compass system in which the orientation precision and the relative influence of the solar compass cues change over the course of the day. PMID:24395963

  7. The role of the sun in the celestial compass of dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Dacke, M; el Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Byrne, Marcus; Baird, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has focused on the different types of compass cues available to ball-rolling beetles for orientation, but little is known about the relative precision of each of these cues and how they interact. In this study, we find that the absolute orientation error of the celestial compass of the day-active dung beetle Scarabaeus lamarcki doubles from 16° at solar elevations below 60° to an error of 29° at solar elevations above 75°. As ball-rolling dung beetles rely solely on celestial compass cues for their orientation, these insects experience a large decrease in orientation precision towards the middle of the day. We also find that in the compass system of dung beetles, the solar cues and the skylight cues are used together and share the control of orientation behaviour. Finally, we demonstrate that the relative influence of the azimuthal position of the sun for straight-line orientation decreases as the sun draws closer to the horizon. In conclusion, ball-rolling dung beetles possess a dynamic celestial compass system in which the orientation precision and the relative influence of the solar compass cues change over the course of the day.

  8. Inquiry and Astronomy: Preservice Teachers' Investigations of Celestial Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Julia D.; Zahm, Valerie M.; Rice, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of an open inquiry experience on elementary science methods students' understanding of celestial motion as well as the methods developed by students to answer their own research questions. Pre/post interviews and assessments were used to measure change in participants' understanding (N = 18). A qualitative…

  9. Determination of meteor flux distribution over the celestial sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Belkovich, O. I.; Filimonova, T. K.; Sidorov, V. V.

    1992-01-01

    A new method of determination of meteor flux density distribution over the celestial sphere is discussed. The flux density was derived from observations by radar together with measurements of angles of arrival of radio waves reflected from meteor trails. The role of small meteor showers over the sporadic background is shown.

  10. Tests of the equivalence principle and gravitation theory using solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, K., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The M sub g/M sub i ratio (ratio of body acceleration to gravitation field) of celestial bodies was measured. Deep probes of the post-Newtonian structure of gravitational theories are indicated. Kepler's third law is considered for the Sun-Jupiter system.

  11. Mechanisms of Earth activity forsed by external celestial bodies:energy budjet and nature of cyclicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    In given report we discuss tidal and non-tidal mechanisms of forced tectonic (endogenous) activity of the Earth caused by gravitational attraction of the Moon, Sun and the planets. On the base of the classical solution of the problem of elasticity for model of the Earth with concentric mass distribution the evaluations of the tidal energy and power of Earth lunar-solar deformations, including their joint effect, were obtained. Important role of the joint energetic effect of rotational deformation of the Earth with lunar and solar tides was illustrated. Gravitational interaction of the Moon and Sun with non-spherical, non-homogeneous shells of the Earth generates big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of the neighboring shells (rigid core, liquid core, mantle, lithosphere and separate plates). Acting of these forces and moments in the different time scales on the corresponding sells generates cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the Earth. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce cyclic deformations of the all layers of the body and organize and control practically all natural processes. The additional force between mantle and core is cyclic and characterized by the wide basis of frequencies typical for orbital motions (of the Sun, Moon and planets), for rotational motion of the Earth, Moon and Sun and for many from observed natural processes. The problem about small relative translatory-rotary motion of the two shells separated by the thin viscous-elastic layer is studied. The differential equations of motion were obtained and have been studied in particular cases (plane motion of system; case of two axisymmetrical interacting shells and oth.) by approximate methods of small

  12. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame.more » We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.« less

  13. Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics in cosmology: Field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Petrov, Alexander N.

    2013-02-01

    Post-Newtonian celestial dynamics is a relativistic theory of motion of massive bodies and test particles under the influence of relatively weak gravitational forces. The standard approach for development of this theory relies upon the key concept of the isolated astronomical system supplemented by the assumption that the background spacetime is flat. The standard post-Newtonian theory of motion was instrumental in the explanation of the existing experimental data on binary pulsars, satellite, and lunar laser ranging, and in building precise ephemerides of planets in the Solar System. Recent studies of the formation of large-scale structures in our Universe indicate that the standard post-Newtonian mechanics fails to describe more subtle dynamical effects in motion of the bodies comprising the astronomical systems of larger size—galaxies and clusters of galaxies—where the Riemann curvature of the expanding Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe interacts with the local gravitational field of the astronomical system and, as such, cannot be ignored. The present paper outlines theoretical principles of the post-Newtonian mechanics in the expanding Universe. It is based upon the gauge-invariant theory of the Lagrangian perturbations of cosmological manifold caused by an isolated astronomical N-body system (the Solar System, a binary star, a galaxy, and a cluster of galaxies). We postulate that the geometric properties of the background manifold are described by a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric governed by two primary components—the dark matter and the dark energy. The dark matter is treated as an ideal fluid with the Lagrangian taken in the form of pressure along with the scalar Clebsch potential as a dynamic variable. The dark energy is associated with a single scalar field with a potential which is hold unspecified as long as the theory permits. Both the Lagrangians of the dark matter and the scalar field are

  14. Tree-level gluon amplitudes on the celestial sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Anders Ø.; Volovich, Anastasia; Zlotnikov, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Pasterski, Shao and Strominger have recently proposed that massless scattering amplitudes can be mapped to correlators on the celestial sphere at infinity via a Mellin transform. We apply this prescription to arbitrary n-point tree-level gluon amplitudes. The Mellin transforms of MHV amplitudes are given by generalized hypergeometric functions on the Grassmannian Gr (4 , n), while generic non-MHV amplitudes are given by more complicated Gelfand A-hypergeometric functions.

  15. PERIODIC ORBIT FAMILIES IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED BODIES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi, E-mail: jiangyu_xian_china@163.com

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixedmore » energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been found around the asteroid 216 Kleopatra, which include two real saddle bifurcations and one period-doubling bifurcation.« less

  16. Periodic Orbit Families in the Gravitational Field of Irregular-shaped Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixed energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been found around the asteroid 216 Kleopatra, which include two real saddle bifurcations and one period-doubling bifurcation.

  17. The Discovery of the Regular Movements of Celestial Bodies and the Development of Monotheism in the Ancient Near East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, G. B.

    2011-06-01

    For Ancient Mesopotamians, astronomical phenomena were signs signifying the gods' judgment on human behaviour. Mesopotamian scholars studied celestial phenomena for understanding the gods' will, and strongly developed astrology. From the 8th to the 6th century BC Assyrian and Babylonian astronomers achieved the ability to predict solar and lunar eclipses, and the planets' movements through mathematical calculations. Predictability of astral phenomena solicited the awareness that they are all regular, and that the universe is governed by an eternal, immutable order fixed at its very beginning. This finally favoured the idea that the cosmic order depended on the will of one god only, displacing polytheism in favour of monotheism; and astrology lost its religious importance as a mean to know the divine will.

  18. The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and the Relationship Between Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo

    2000-01-01

    The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), a catalog of VLBI source positions, is now the basis for astrometry and geodesy. Its construction and extension/maintenance will be discussed as well as the relationship of the ICRF, ITRF, and EOP/nutation.

  19. Infrared radiation scene generation of stars and planets in celestial background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng; Hong, Yaohui; Xu, Xiaojian

    2014-10-01

    An infrared (IR) radiation generation model of stars and planets in celestial background is proposed in this paper. Cohen's spectral template1 is modified for high spectral resolution and accuracy. Based on the improved spectral template for stars and the blackbody assumption for planets, an IR radiation model is developed which is able to generate the celestial IR background for stars and planets appearing in sensor's field of view (FOV) for specified observing date and time, location, viewpoint and spectral band over 1.2μm ~ 35μm. In the current model, the initial locations of stars are calculated based on midcourse space experiment (MSX) IR astronomical catalogue (MSX-IRAC) 2 , while the initial locations of planets are calculated using secular variations of the planetary orbits (VSOP) theory. Simulation results show that the new IR radiation model has higher resolution and accuracy than common model.

  20. Galileo Spacecraft Scan Platform Celestial Pointing Cone Control Gain Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    In, C-H. C.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    During September and October 1991, pictures of the Gaspra asteroid and neighboring stars were taken by the Galileo Optical Navigation (OPNAV) Team for the purpose of navigation the spacecraft for a successful Gaspra encounter. The star tracks in these pictures showed that the scan platform celestial pointing cone controller performed poorly in compensating for wobble-induced cone offsets.

  1. 241. BUILDINGS 455, 456, 509, 510 AND 457 (CELESTIAL NAVIGATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    241. BUILDINGS 455, 456, 509, 510 AND 457 (CELESTIAL NAVIGATION COMPLEX), 1942-43. BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS STANDARD PLANS. VIEW NORTH ACROSS WASP ST. SHOWING THE 4 TRAINING SILOS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: BUILDINGS 455, 456, 509, AND 510; AND, BESIDE THEM, BUILDING 457. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  2. Hubble Spotlights a Celestial Sidekick

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This image was captured by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), a highly efficient wide-field camera covering the optical and near-infrared parts of the spectrum. While this lovely image contains hundreds of distant stars and galaxies, one vital thing is missing — the object Hubble was actually studying at the time! This is not because the target has disappeared. The ACS actually uses two detectors: the first captures the object being studied — in this case an open star cluster known as NGC 299 — while the other detector images the patch of space just ‘beneath’ it. This is what can be seen here. Technically, this picture is merely a sidekick of the actual object of interest — but space is bursting with activity, and this field of bright celestial bodies offers plenty of interest on its own. It may initially seem to show just stars, but a closer look reveals many of these tiny objects to be galaxies. The spiral galaxies have arms curving out from a bright center. The fuzzier, less clearly shaped galaxies might be ellipticals. Some of these galaxies contain millions or even billions of stars, but are so distant that all of their starry residents are contained within just a small pinprick of light that appears to be the same size as a single star! The bright blue dots are very hot stars, sometimes distorted into crosses by the struts supporting Hubble’s secondary mirror. The redder dots are cooler stars, possibly in the red giant phase when a dying star cools and expands. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Calibration of magnetic and celestial compass cues in migratory birds--a review of cue-conflict experiments.

    PubMed

    Muheim, Rachel; Moore, Frank R; Phillips, John B

    2006-01-01

    Migratory birds use multiple sources of compass information for orientation, including the geomagnetic field, the sun, skylight polarization patterns and star patterns. In this paper we review the results of cue-conflict experiments designed to determine the relative importance of the different compass mechanisms, and how directional information from these compass mechanisms is integrated. We focus on cue-conflict experiments in which the magnetic field was shifted in alignment relative to natural celestial cues. Consistent with the conclusions of earlier authors, our analyses suggest that during the premigratory season, celestial information is given the greatest salience and used to recalibrate the magnetic compass by both juvenile and adult birds. Sunset polarized light patterns from the region of the sky near the horizon appear to provide the calibration reference for the magnetic compass. In contrast, during migration, a majority of experiments suggest that birds rely on the magnetic field as the primary source of compass information and use it to calibrate celestial compass cues, i.e. the relative saliency of magnetic and celestial cues is reversed. An alternative possibility, however, is suggested by several experiments in which birds exposed to a cue conflict during migration appear to have recalibrated the magnetic compass, i.e. their response is similar to that of birds exposed to cue conflicts during the premigratory season. The general pattern to emerge from these analyses is that birds exposed to the cue conflict with a view of the entire sunset sky tended to recalibrate the magnetic compass, regardless of whether the cue conflict occurred during the premigratory or migratory period. In contrast, birds exposed to the cue conflict in orientation funnels and registration cages that restricted their view of the region of sky near the horizon (as was generally the case in experiments carried out during the migratory season) did not recalibrate the magnetic

  4. Method for deploying multiple spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

  5. Vector navigation in desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis: celestial compass cues are essential for the proper use of distance information.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Stefan; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2005-10-01

    Foraging desert ants navigate primarily by path integration. They continually update homing direction and distance by employing a celestial compass and an odometer. Here we address the question of whether information about travel distance is correctly used in the absence of directional information. By using linear channels that were partly covered to exclude celestial compass cues, we were able to test the distance component of the path-integration process while suppressing the directional information. Our results suggest that the path integrator cannot process the distance information accumulated by the odometer while ants are deprived of celestial compass information. Hence, during path integration directional cues are a prerequisite for the proper use of travel-distance information by ants.

  6. Celestial Pole Offsets: Conversion From (dX, dY) to (d(psi), d(epsilon). Version 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    observed angular offset of the celestial pole from its modelled position, expressed in terms of changes in ecliptic longitude and obliquity . These...the mean obliquity of the ecliptic of date (≈ J2000.0). As the celestial pole precesses farther from the ICRS Z-axis, two effects must be accounted for...to only a few significant digits. With dX ′ and dY ′ in hand we compute dψ = dX ′/ sin ² d² = dY ′ (8) where ² is the mean obliquity of the ecliptic

  7. The consistency of the current conventional celestial and terrestrial reference frames and the conventional EOP series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinkelmann, R.; Belda-Palazon, S.; Ferrándiz, J.; Schuh, H.

    2015-08-01

    For applications in Earth sciences, navigation, and astronomy the celestial (ICRF) and terrestrial (ITRF) reference frames as well as the orientation among them, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), have to be consistent at the level of 1 mm and 0.1 mm/yr (GGOS recommendations). We assess the effect of unmodelled geophysical signals in the regularized coordinates and the sensitivity with respect to different a priori EOP and celestial reference frames. The EOP are determined using the same VLBI data but with station coordinates fixed on different TRFs. The conclusion is that within the time span of data incorporated into ITRF2008 (Altamimi, et al., 2011) the ITRF2008 and the IERS 08 C04 are consistent. This consistency involves that non-linear station motion such as unmodelled geophysical signals partly affect the IERS 08 C04 EOP. There are small but not negligible inconsistencies between the conventional celestial reference frame, ICRF2 (Fey, et al., 2009), the ITRF2008 and the conventional EOP that are quantified by comparing VTRF2008 (Böckmann, et al., 2010) and ITRF2008.

  8. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  9. The Hands of the Pleiades: The Celestial Clock in the Classical Arabic Poetry of Dhū al-Rumma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, W. B.

    2011-06-01

    In the desert poetry of Dhū al-Rumma (d. 117 AH/735 CE), astronomical phenomena sometimes function as familiar celestial timepieces that indicate the poetic timeframe literally and accurately. The literary, lexical, floral and astronomical analyses of a selection from this poetry illustrate the role of the Pleiades star cluster as a celestial clock and illuminate the utility of naked-eye astronomy in interpreting Arabic poetry of the early Islamic period.

  10. QUIKVIS- CELESTIAL TARGET AVAILABILITY INFORMATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petruzzo, C.

    1994-01-01

    QUIKVIS computes the times during an Earth orbit when geometric requirements are satisfied for observing celestial objects. The observed objects may be fixed (stars, etc.) or moving (sun, moon, planets). QUIKVIS is useful for preflight analysis by those needing information on the availability of celestial objects to be observed. Two types of analyses are performed by QUIKVIS. One is used when specific objects are known, the other when targets are unknown and potentially useful regions of the sky must be identified. The results are useful in selecting candidate targets, examining the effects of observation requirements, and doing gross assessments of the effects of the orbit's right ascension of the ascending node (RAAN). The results are not appropriate when high accuracy is needed (e.g. for scheduling actual mission operations). The observation duration is calculated as a function of date, orbit node, and geometric requirements. The orbit right ascension of the ascending node can be varied to account for the effects of an uncertain launch time of day. The orbit semimajor axis and inclination are constant throughout the run. A circular orbit is assumed, but a simple program modification will allow eccentric orbits. The geometric requirements that can be processed are: 1) minimum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the earth's horizon; 2) minimum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the spacecraft velocity vector; 3) maximum separation angle between the line of sight to the object and the zenith direction; and 4) presence of the spacecraft in the earth's shadow. The user must supply a date or date range, the spacecraft orbit and inclination, up to 700 observation targets, and any geometric requirements to be met. The primary output is the time per orbit that conditions are satisfied, with options for sky survey maps, time since a user-specified orbit event, and bar graphs illustrating overlapping requirements. The

  11. Ocelli contribute to the encoding of celestial compass information in the Australian desert ant Melophorus bagoti.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Albert, Laurence; Wystrach, Antoine; Cheng, Ken

    2011-03-15

    Many animal species, including some social hymenoptera, use the visual system for navigation. Although the insect compound eyes have been well studied, less is known about the second visual system in some insects, the ocelli. Here we demonstrate navigational functions of the ocelli in the visually guided Australian desert ant Melophorus bagoti. These ants are known to rely on both visual landmark learning and path integration. We conducted experiments to reveal the role of ocelli in the perception and use of celestial compass information and landmark guidance. Ants with directional information from their path integration system were tested with covered compound eyes and open ocelli on an unfamiliar test field where only celestial compass cues were available for homing. These full-vector ants, using only their ocelli for visual information, oriented significantly towards the fictive nest on the test field, indicating the use of celestial compass information that is presumably based on polarised skylight, the sun's position or the colour gradient of the sky. Ants without any directional information from their path-integration system (zero-vector) were tested, also with covered compound eyes and open ocelli, on a familiar training field where they have to use the surrounding panorama to home. These ants failed to orient significantly in the homeward direction. Together, our results demonstrated that M. bagoti could perceive and process celestial compass information for directional orientation with their ocelli. In contrast, the ocelli do not seem to contribute to terrestrial landmark-based navigation in M. bagoti.

  12. Relative optical navigation around small bodies via Extreme Learning Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Andrew M.

    To perform close proximity operations under a low-gravity environment, relative and absolute positions are vital information to the maneuver. Hence navigation is inseparably integrated in space travel. Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is presented as an optical navigation method around small celestial bodies. Optical Navigation uses visual observation instruments such as a camera to acquire useful data and determine spacecraft position. The required input data for operation is merely a single image strip and a nadir image. ELM is a machine learning Single Layer feed-Forward Network (SLFN), a type of neural network (NN). The algorithm is developed on the predicate that input weights and biases can be randomly assigned and does not require back-propagation. The learned model is the output layer weights which are used to calculate a prediction. Together, Extreme Learning Machine Optical Navigation (ELM OpNav) utilizes optical images and ELM algorithm to train the machine to navigate around a target body. In this thesis the asteroid, Vesta, is the designated celestial body. The trained ELMs estimate the position of the spacecraft during operation with a single data set. The results show the approach is promising and potentially suitable for on-board navigation.

  13. Celestial data routing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordetsky, Alex

    2000-11-01

    Imagine that information processing human-machine network is threatened in a particular part of the world. Suppose that an anticipated threat of physical attacks could lead to disruption of telecommunications network management infrastructure and access capabilities for small geographically distributed groups engaged in collaborative operations. Suppose that small group of astronauts are exploring the solar planet and need to quickly configure orbital information network to support their collaborative work and local communications. The critical need in both scenarios would be a set of low-cost means of small team celestial networking. To the geographically distributed mobile collaborating groups such means would allow to maintain collaborative multipoint work, set up orbital local area network, and provide orbital intranet communications. This would be accomplished by dynamically assembling the network enabling infrastructure of the small satellite based router, satellite based Codec, and set of satellite based intelligent management agents. Cooperating single function pico satellites, acting as agents and personal switching devices together would represent self-organizing intelligent orbital network of cooperating mobile management nodes. Cooperative behavior of the pico satellite based agents would be achieved by comprising a small orbital artificial neural network capable of learning and restructing the networking resources in response to the anticipated threat.

  14. Visual navigation in desert ants Cataglyphis fortis: are snapshots coupled to a celestial system of reference?

    PubMed

    Akesson, Susanne; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2002-07-01

    Central-place foraging insects such as desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis use both path integration and landmarks to navigate during foraging excursions. The use of landmark information and a celestial system of reference for nest location was investigated by training desert ants returning from an artificial feeder to find the nest at one of four alternative positions located asymmetrically inside a four-cylinder landmark array. The cylindrical landmarks were all of the same size and arranged in a square, with the nest located in the southeast corner. When released from the compass direction experienced during training (southeast), the ants searched most intensely at the fictive nest position. When instead released from any of the three alternative directions of approach (southwest, northwest or northeast), the same individuals instead searched at two of the four alternative positions by initiating their search at the position closest to the direction of approach when entering the landmark square and then returning to the position at which snapshot, current landmark image and celestial reference information were in register. The results show that, in the ants' visual snapshot memory, a memorized landmark scene can temporarily be decoupled from a memorized celestial system of reference.

  15. Measuring Angular Rate of Celestial Objects Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-019 MEASURING ANGULAR RATE OF CELESTIAL OBJECTS USING THE SPACE ...Hypothesis Test MHTOR Multi-Hypothesis Test with Outlier Removal NEAs Near Earth Asteroids NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration OTF...capabilities to warfighters, protecting them from collision with space debris, meteors and microsatellites has become a top priority [19]. In general, EO

  16. Correlation analysis of 1 to 30 MeV celestial gamma rays

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Long, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a method of producing celestial sky maps from the data generated by the University of California, Riverside's double Compton scatter gamma ray telescope. The method makes use of a correlation between the telescope's data and theoretical calculated response functions. The results of applying this technique to northern hemisphere data obtained from a 1978 balloon flight from Palestine, Texas are included.

  17. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  18. Small Bodies, Big Discoveries: NASA's Small Bodies Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Erickson, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is turning out to be a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system's unsung heroes, small bodies. This includes the close flyby of comet C/2013 A1 / Siding Spring with Mars in October and the historic Rosetta mission with its Philae lander to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Beyond 2014, the much anticipated 2015 Pluto flyby by New Horizons and the February Dawn Mission arrival at Ceres will take center stage. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system's small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA's JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like "Eyes on the Solar System" and more. This talk will highlight NASA's focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies mission science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  19. Heavenly Networks. Celestial Maps and Globes in Circulation between Artisans, Mathematicians, and Noblemen in Renaissance Europe.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the iconography on a set of star charts by Albrecht Dürer (1515), and celestial globes by Caspar Vopel (1536) and Christoph Schissler (1575). The iconography on these instruments is conditioned by strong traditions which include not only the imagery on globes and planispheres (star charts), but also ancient literature about the constellations. Where this iconography departs from those traditions, the change had to do with humanism in the sixteenth century. This "humanistic" dimension is interwoven with other concerns that involve both "social" and "technical" motivations. The interplay of these three dimensions illustrates how the iconography on celestial charts and globes expresses some features of the shared knowledge and shared culture between artisans, mathematicians, and nobles in Renaissance Europe.

  20. Particular Solutions in Four body problem with solar wind drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Reena; Singh Kushvah, Badam

    2012-07-01

    To study the motion of a group of celestial objects/bodies interacting with each other under gravitational attraction. We formulated a four body problem with solar wind drag of one radiating body, rotating about their common center of mass with central configuration. We suppose that the governing forces of the motion of four body problems are mutual gravitational attractions of bodies and drag force of radiating body. Firstly, we derive the equations of motion using new co-ordinates for the four body problem. Again, we find the integrals of motions under different cases regarding to the mass of the bodies. Then we find the zero velocity surfaces and particular solutions. Finally, we examined the effect of solar wind drag on the motion of the four body problem. Keywords: Four Body Problem; Particular Solutions; Radiation Force; Zero Velocity Surfaces.

  1. Optimization design about gimbal structure of high-precision autonomous celestial navigation tracking mirror system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Xiao-xu; Han, Jun-feng; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Mei-lin; Yue, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High precision tracking platform of celestial navigation with control mirror servo structure form, to solve the disadvantages of big volume and rotational inertia, slow response speed, and so on. It improved the stability and tracking accuracy of platform. Due to optical sensor and mirror are installed on the middle-gimbal, stiffness and resonant frequency requirement for high. Based on the application of finite element modality analysis theory, doing Research on dynamic characteristics of the middle-gimbal, and ANSYS was used for the finite element dynamic emulator analysis. According to the result of the computer to find out the weak links of the structure, and Put forward improvement suggestions and reanalysis. The lowest resonant frequency of optimization middle-gimbal avoid the bandwidth of the platform servo mechanism, and much higher than the disturbance frequency of carrier aircraft, and reduces mechanical resonance of the framework. Reaching provides a theoretical basis for the whole machine structure optimization design of high-precision of autonomous Celestial navigation tracking mirror system.

  2. Killer rocks and the celestial police - The search for near-earth asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of asteroids near the earth as the result of search programs is detailed with attention given to methods for locating, tracking, and identifying asteroids. The concept of 'prediscovery' is discussed in which new asteroids are tracked backward in time through previous celestial observational data. The need for more comprehensive programs is identified in order to locate objects that present a clear danger of colliding with the earth.

  3. International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF): mantenimiento y extensión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Arias, E. F.; Eubanks, T.; Fey, A. L.; Gontier, A.-M.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Archinal, B. A.; Charlot, P.

    A partir de enero de 1998 el sistema de referencia celeste convencional está representado por el International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y materializado a través de las coordenadas VLBI del conjunto de radiofuentes extragalácticas que conforman el International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). La primera realización del ICRF, fue elaborada en 1995 por un grupo de expertos designado por la IAU, la que encomendó al International Earth Rotation Service el mantenimiento del ICRS, del ICRF y del vínculo con marcos de referencia en otras frecuencias. Una primera extensión del ICRF se realizó entre abril y junio de 1999, con el objetivo primario de proveer posiciones de radiofuentes extragalácticas observadas a partir de julio de 1995 y de mejorar las posiciones de las fuentes ``candidatas" con la inclusión de observaciones adicionales. Objetivos secundarios fueron monitorear a las radiofuentes para verificar que siguen siendo adecuadas para realizar al ICRF y mejorar las técnicas de análisis de datos. Como resultado del nuevo análisis se obtuvo una solución a partir de la cual se construyó la primera extensión del ICRF, denominada ICRF - Ext.1. Ella representa al ICRS, sus fuentes de definición se mantienen con las mismas posiciones y errores que en la primera realización del ICRF; las demás radiofuentes tienen coordenadas mejor determinadas que en ICRF; el marco de referencia se densificó con el agregado de 59 nuevas radiofuentes.

  4. A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  5. Deep data fusion method for missile-borne inertial/celestial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunxi; Chen, Xiaofei; Lu, Jiazhen; Zhang, Hao

    2018-05-01

    Strap-down inertial-celestial integrated navigation system has the advantages of autonomy and high precision and is very useful for ballistic missiles. The star sensor installation error and inertial measurement error have a great influence for the system performance. Based on deep data fusion, this paper establishes measurement equations including star sensor installation error and proposes the deep fusion filter method. Simulations including misalignment error, star sensor installation error, IMU error are analyzed. Simulation results indicate that the deep fusion method can estimate the star sensor installation error and IMU error. Meanwhile, the method can restrain the misalignment errors caused by instrument errors.

  6. Children Learning to Explain Daily Celestial Motion: Understanding Astronomy across Moving Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Julia D.; Wasko, Kyle D.; Slagle, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated elementary students' explanations for the daily patterns of apparent motion of the Sun, Moon, and stars. Third-grade students were chosen for this study because this age level is at the lower end of when many US standards documents suggest students should learn to use the Earth's rotation to explain daily celestial motion.…

  7. On a celestial occurrence recorded in the hagiography of St. Vladimir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banjević, Boris

    2002-04-01

    There were recorded a number of celestial occurrences in Serbian early history. Amongst them are a few appearances of comets. One except from Bible bearing on life of king David, relating to a phenomenon that might be interpreted as a comet, is in some way similar to the quotation from the hagiography of St. Vladimir. There is possibility that Halley's comet was observed at some time. This affects the chronology of the reign of St. Vladimir by about 11 years. This author thinks that it was in the summer 989 AD.

  8. How dim is dim? Precision of the celestial compass in moonlight and sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Dacke, M.; Byrne, M. J.; Baird, E.; Scholtz, C. H.; Warrant, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    Prominent in the sky, but not visible to humans, is a pattern of polarized skylight formed around both the Sun and the Moon. Dung beetles are, at present, the only animal group known to use the much dimmer polarization pattern formed around the Moon as a compass cue for maintaining travel direction. However, the Moon is not visible every night and the intensity of the celestial polarization pattern gradually declines as the Moon wanes. Therefore, for nocturnal orientation on all moonlit nights, the absolute sensitivity of the dung beetle's polarization detector may limit the precision of this behaviour. To test this, we studied the straight-line foraging behaviour of the nocturnal ball-rolling dung beetle Scarabaeus satyrus to establish when the Moon is too dim—and the polarization pattern too weak—to provide a reliable cue for orientation. Our results show that celestial orientation is as accurate during crescent Moon as it is during full Moon. Moreover, this orientation accuracy is equal to that measured for diurnal species that orient under the 100 million times brighter polarization pattern formed around the Sun. This indicates that, in nocturnal species, the sensitivity of the optical polarization compass can be greatly increased without any loss of precision. PMID:21282173

  9. The gravitational potential of axially symmetric bodies from a regularized green kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trova, A.; Huré, J.-M.; Hersant, F.

    2011-12-01

    The determination of the gravitational potential inside celestial bodies (rotating stars, discs, planets, asteroids) is a common challenge in numerical Astrophysics. Under axial symmetry, the potential is classically found from a two-dimensional integral over the body's meridional cross-section. Because it involves an improper integral, high accuracy is generally difficult to reach. We have discovered that, for homogeneous bodies, the singular Green kernel can be converted into a regular kernel by direct analytical integration. This new kernel, easily managed with standard techniques, opens interesting horizons, not only for numerical calculus but also to generate approximations, in particular for geometrically thin discs and rings.

  10. Educating astrometry and celestial mechanics students for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.; Stavinschi, M.

    2008-07-01

    Astrometry and Celestial Mechanics have entered a new era with the advent of Micro-arcsecond positions, parallaxes and proper motions. Cutting-edge science topics will be addressed that were far beyond our grasp only a few years ago. It will be possible to determine definitive distances to Cepheid variables, the center of our Galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds and other Local Group members. We will measure the orbital parameters of dwarf galaxies that are merging with the Milky Way, define the kinematics, dynamics and structure of our Galaxy and search for evidence of the Dark Matter that makes up most of the mass in the universe. Stellar masses will be determined routinely to 1% accuracy and we will be able to make full orbit solutions and mass determinations for Extrasolar planetary systems. If we are to take advantage of Micro-arcsecond astrometry, we need to reformulate our study of reference frames, systems and the equations of motion in the context of special and general relativity. Methods also need to be developed to statistically analyze our data and calibrate our instruments to levels beyond current standards. As a consequence, our curricula must be drastically revised to meet the needs of students in the 21st Century. With the above considerations in mind, we developed a syllabus for an introductory one-semester course in Astrometry and Celestial Mechanics. This course gives broad introductions to most topics in our fields and a base of knowledge from which a student can elect areas for self-study or attendance at centers where advanced courses, workshops or internships are available.

  11. Surface Photometry of Celestial Sources from a Space Vehicle: Introduction and Observational Procedures*

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Franklin E.; Carroll, Benjamin; Aller, Lawrence H.; Smith, Leroi

    1972-01-01

    Diffuse celestial sources of relatively low surface brightness such as the Milky Way, zodiacal light, and gegenschein (or contre lumière) can be studied most reliably from above the earth's atmosphere with equipment flown in artificial satellites. We review the techniques used and some of the difficulties encountered in day-time observations from satellites by the use of a special photometer and polarimeter flown in the orbiting skylab observatory, OSO-6. PMID:16591970

  12. Celestial Reference Frames at Multiple Radio Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997 the IAU adopted the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) built from S/X VLBI data. In response to IAU resolutions encouraging the extension of the ICRF to additional frequency bands, VLBI frames have been made at 24, 32, and 43 gigahertz. Meanwhile, the 8.4 gigahertz work has been greatly improved with the 2009 release of the ICRF-2. This paper discusses the motivations for extending the ICRF to these higher radio bands. Results to date will be summarized including evidence that the high frequency frames are rapidly approaching the accuracy of the 8.4 gigahertz ICRF-2. We discuss current limiting errors and prospects for the future accuracy of radio reference frames. We note that comparison of multiple radio frames is characterizing the frequency dependent systematic noise floor from extended source morphology and core shift. Finally, given Gaia's potential for high accuracy optical astrometry, we have simulated the precision of a radio-optical frame tie to be approximately10-15 microarcseconds ((1-sigma) (1-standard deviation), per component).

  13. Review on the Celestial Sphere Positioning of FITS Format Image Based on WCS and Research on General Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W. M.; Fan, D. W.; Su, L. Y.; Cui, C. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Calculating the coordinate parameters recorded in the form of key/value pairs in FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) header is the key to determine FITS images' position in the celestial system. As a result, it has great significance in researching the general process of calculating the coordinate parameters. By combining CCD related parameters of astronomical telescope (such as field, focal length, and celestial coordinates in optical axis, etc.), astronomical images recognition algorithm, and WCS (World Coordinate System) theory, the parameters can be calculated effectively. CCD parameters determine the scope of star catalogue, so that they can be used to build a reference star catalogue by the corresponding celestial region of astronomical images; Star pattern recognition completes the matching between the astronomical image and reference star catalogue, and obtains a table with a certain number of stars between CCD plane coordinates and their celestial coordinates for comparison; According to different projection of the sphere to the plane, WCS can build different transfer functions between these two coordinates, and the astronomical position of image pixels can be determined by the table's data we have worked before. FITS images are used to carry out scientific data transmission and analyze as a kind of mainstream data format, but only to be viewed, edited, and analyzed in the professional astronomy software. It decides the limitation of popular science education in astronomy. The realization of a general image visualization method is significant. FITS is converted to PNG or JPEG images firstly. The coordinate parameters in the FITS header are converted to metadata in the form of AVM (Astronomy Visualization Metadata), and then the metadata is added to the PNG or JPEG header. This method can meet amateur astronomers' general needs of viewing and analyzing astronomical images in the non-astronomical software platform. The overall design flow is realized

  14. Heavenly Bodies and Phenomena in Petroglyphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokhatyan, Karen

    2016-12-01

    In Armenian culture are amply reflected realities connected with Universe. Their figurative expressions are also petroglyphs in which there are representations of solar signs, swastika, Moon crescend, planets, stars, star groups, constellations, Milky Way, Earth. Among heavenly and atmospheric phenomena are: eclipce, meteor, comet, ligthning, cloud, rain and rainbow. There are many products of scientific thinking: stellar maps, calendars, compasses, astronomical records, Zodiac signs and ideograms. Thousands of the Armenian petroglyphs that were created millennia ago by an indigenous ethnos - Armenians, point to the significant place of celestial bodies and luminaries, especially the Sun, stars, and stellar constellations in our ancestors' cosmological perceptions.

  15. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.

  16. Global geometry of non-planar 3-body motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehani, Mahdi Khajeh

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the global geometry of non-planar 3-body motions in the realms of equivariant Differential Geometry and Geometric Mechanics. This work was intended as an attempt at bringing together these two areas, in which geometric methods play the major role, in the study of the 3-body problem. It is shown that the Euler equations of a three-body system with non-planar motion introduce non-holonomic constraints into the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics. Applying the method of undetermined Lagrange multipliers to study the dynamics of three-body motions reduced to the level of moduli space {bar{M}} subject to the non-holonomic constraints yields the generalized Euler-Lagrange equations of non-planar three-body motions in {bar{M}} . As an application of the derived dynamical equations in the level of {bar{M}} , we completely settle the question posed by A. Wintner in his book [The analytical foundations of Celestial Mechanics, Sections 394-396, 435 and 436. Princeton University Press (1941)] on classifying the constant inclination solutions of the three-body problem.

  17. Tides in a body librating about a spin-orbit resonance: generalisation of the Darwin-Kaula theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouard, Julien; Efroimsky, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The Darwin-Kaula theory of bodily tides is intended for celestial bodies rotating without libration. We demonstrate that this theory, in its customary form, is inapplicable to a librating body. Specifically, in the presence of libration in longitude, the actual spectrum of Fourier tidal modes differs from the conventional spectrum rendered by the Darwin-Kaula theory for a nonlibrating celestial object. This necessitates derivation of formulae for the tidal torque and the tidal heating rate, that are applicable under libration. We derive the tidal spectrum for longitudinal forced libration with one and two main frequencies, generalisation to more main frequencies being straightforward. (By main frequencies we understand those emerging due to the triaxiality of the librating body.) Separately, we consider a case of free libration at one frequency (once again, generalisation to more frequencies being straightforward). We also calculate the tidal torque. This torque provides correction to the triaxiality-caused physical libration. Our theory is not self-consistent: we assume that the tidal torque is much smaller than the permanent-triaxiality-caused torque, so the additional libration due to tides is much weaker than the main libration due to the permanent triaxiality. Finally, we calculate the tidal dissipation rate in a body experiencing forced libration at the main mode, or free libration at one frequency, or superimposed forced and free librations.

  18. Collocation of equilibria in gravitational field of triangular body via mass redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexander A.; Guerman, Anna D.; Nikonov, Vasily I.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a gravitating system with triangular mass distribution that can be used as approximation of gravitational field for small irregular celestial bodies. In such system, the locations of equilibrium points, that is, the points where the gravitational forces are balanced, are analyzed. The goal is to find the mass distribution which provides equilibrium in a pre-assigned location near the triangular system, and to study the stability of this equilibrium.

  19. Multibody Simulation Software Testbed for Small-Body Exploration and Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, James C.; Mandic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    G-TAG is a software tool for the multibody simulation of a spacecraft with a robotic arm and a sampling mechanism, which performs a touch-and-go (TAG) maneuver for sampling from the surface of a small celestial body. G-TAG utilizes G-DYN, a multi-body simulation engine described in the previous article, and interfaces to controllers, estimators, and environmental forces that affect the spacecraft. G-TAG can easily be adapted for the analysis of the mission stress cases to support the design of a TAG system, as well as for comprehensive Monte Carlo simulations to analyze and evaluate a particular TAG system design. Any future small-body mission will benefit from using G-TAG, which has already been extensively used in Comet Odyssey and Galahad Asteroid New Frontiers proposals.

  20. Building a Learning Progression for Celestial Motion: An Exploration of Students' Reasoning about the Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Julia D.; Maynard, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present the development of a construct map addressing the reason for the seasons, as a subset of a larger learning progression on celestial motion. Five classes of 8th grade students (N?=?38) participated in a 10-day curriculum on the seasons. We revised a hypothetical seasons construct map using a Rasch model analysis of students'…

  1. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel; Campo Bagatín, Adriano; Losert, Wolfgang; Opsomer, Eric; Sánchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Staron, Lydie; Taberlet, Nicolas; Yano, Hajime; Eggl, Siegfried; Lecomte, Charles-Edouard; Murdoch, Naomi; Radjai, Fahrang; Richardson, Derek C.; Salazar, Marcos; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Tanga, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining). In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  2. Investigation on navigation patterns of inertial/celestial integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dacheng; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhiguo; Jiao, Wei; Wang, Qiuyan

    2014-11-01

    It is known that Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Celestial Navigation System (CNS) can complement each other's advantages. The SINS/CNS integrated system, which has the characteristics of strong autonomy, high accuracy and good anti-jamming, is widely used in military and civilian applications. Similar to SINS/GNSS integrated system, the SINS/CNS integrated system can also be divided into three kinds according to the difference of integrating depth, i.e., loosely coupled pattern, tightly coupled pattern and deeply coupled pattern. In this paper, the principle and characteristics of each pattern of SINS/CNS system are analyzed. Based on the comparison of these patterns, a novel deeply coupled SINS/CNS integrated navigation scheme is proposed. The innovation of this scheme is that a new star pattern matching method aided by SINS information is put forward. Thus the complementary features of these two subsystems are reflected.

  3. Compact optics for high resolution spectroscopy of celestial x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, W.; Lillie, C.; McEntaffer, R.; Zhang, W.

    2011-05-01

    The astronomy community has never flown a celestial source spectrograph that can resolve natural line widths in absorption the way the ultraviolet community since OAO-3 Copernicus in 1972. Yet there is important science to be mined there, and right now there are now missions on track to pursue it. We present a modified off-plane grating spectrograph design that will support high resolution (λ/δλ ~ 4000) in the soft x-ray band with a high packing density that will enable a modest cost space mission. We discuss the design for the WHIMEx mission which was proposed as an Explorer earlier this year with the goal of detecting high temperature oxygen in the Intergalactic Medium.

  4. X/Ka Celestial Frame Improvements: Vision to Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bagri, D. S.; Britcliffe, M. J.; Clark, J. E.; Franco, M. M.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Goodhart, C. E.; Horiuchi, S.; Lowe, S. T.; Moll, V. E.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame from its S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) basis to a complementary frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz), we began in mid-2005 an ongoing series of X/Ka observations using NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescopes. Over the course of 47 sessions, we have detected 351 extra-galactic radio sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 degrees. Angular source position accuracy is at the part-per-billion level. We developed an error budget which shows that the main errors arise from limited sensitivity, mismodeling of the troposphere, uncalibrated instrumental effects, and the lack of a southern baseline. Recent work has improved sensitivity by improving pointing calibrations and by increasing the data rate four-fold. Troposphere calibration has been demonstrated at the mm-level. Construction of instrumental phase calibrators and new digital baseband filtering electronics began in recent months. We will discuss the expected effect of these improvements on the X/Ka frame.

  5. Distance to Dark Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception.

    Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies.

    Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness.

    A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is.

    To determine OGLE

  6. Aquarius Whole Range Calibration: Celestial Sky, Ocean, and Land Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Bindlish, Rajat; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.

    2014-01-01

    Aquarius is a spaceborne instrument that uses L-band radiometers to monitor sea surface salinity globally. Other applications of its data over land and the cryosphere are being developed. Combining its measurements with existing and upcoming L-band sensors will allow for long term studies. For that purpose, the radiometers calibration is critical. Aquarius measurements are currently calibrated over the oceans. They have been found too cold at the low end (celestial sky) of the brightness temperature scale, and too warm at the warm end (land and ice). We assess the impact of the antenna pattern model on the biases and propose a correction. We re-calibrate Aquarius measurements using the corrected antenna pattern and measurements over the Sky and oceans. The performances of the new calibration are evaluated using measurements over well instrument land sites.

  7. 32 GHz Celestial Reference Frame Survey for Dec < -45 deg.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shinji; Phillips, Chris; Stevens, Jamie; Jacobs, Christopher; Sotuela, Ioana; Garcia miro, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    (We resubmit this proposal to extend from the previous semester. The 24 hour blocks for ATCA and Mopra were granted in May 2012 but canceled because fringe test before the scheduled experiment failed although fringes were detected between Mopra and Tidbinbilla. As it turned out ATCA had an issue with frequency standard, which has now been resolved.) We propose to conduct a LBA survey of compact radio sources at 32 GHz near the south pole region. This is the first attempt to fill the gap in the existing 32 GHz catalogue establish by NASA Deep Space Network toward completing the full sky celestial reference frame at 32 GHz. The catalogue will be used for future spacecraft navigation by NASA and other space agencies as well as for radio astronomical observations with southern radio telescope arrays such as ATCA and LBA.

  8. Celestial Mechanics: from the bases of the past to the challenges of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. F.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Macau, E. E. N.; Winter, O. C.; Gomes, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series brings a set of 31 papers presented in the Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics (CBDO), held on December 1 - 5, 2014, in the city of Águas de Lindoia, Brazil. CBDO is a traditional and important scientific meeting in the areas of Theoretical and Applied Celestial Mechanics. The meeting takes place every two years, when researchers from South America and also guests from other continents present their works and discuss the paths trodden by the space sciences.

  9. On the Analysis of Multistep-Out-of-Grid Method for Celestial Mechanics Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olifer, L.; Choliy, V.

    2016-09-01

    Occasionally, there is a necessity in high-accurate prediction of celestial body trajectory. The most common way to do that is to solve Kepler's equation analytically or to use Runge-Kutta or Adams integrators to solve equation of motion numerically. For low-orbit satellites, there is a critical need in accounting geopotential and another forces which influence motion. As the result, the right side of equation of motion becomes much bigger, and classical integrators will not be quite effective. On the other hand, there is a multistep-out-of-grid (MOG) method which combines Runge-Kutta and Adams methods. The MOG method is based on using m on-grid values of the solution and n × m off-grid derivative estimations. Such method could provide stable integrators of maximum possible order, O (hm+mn+n-1). The main subject of this research was to implement and analyze the MOG method for solving satellite equation of motion with taking into account Earth geopotential model (ex. EGM2008 (Pavlis at al., 2008)) and with possibility to add other perturbations such as atmospheric drag or solar radiation pressure. Simulations were made for satellites on low orbit and with various eccentricities (from 0.1 to 0.9). Results of the MOG integrator were compared with results of Runge-Kutta and Adams integrators. It was shown that the MOG method has better accuracy than classical ones of the same order and less right-hand value estimations when is working on high orders. That gives it some advantage over "classical" methods.

  10. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2012-01-01

    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  11. Archaeoastronomy as a Tool for Understanding Celestial Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koufos, S.; Chatzichristou, E.

    2017-09-01

    To key feature of the wise and Modern Man was, is and will be the observation of the sky. The acquisition of knowledge by observing the majesty of the sky and studying these phenomena (stars, planets, sun, moon, comets, asteroids, meteors, orbits, seasons, etc.). decisively influenced all human cultures. Therefore the research on the astronomical knowledge and their usefulness for each culture may reveal important anthropological data. With this scientific article the ARCHAEOASTRONOMY engaged in a global dimension. With common ground among even distant peoples. The purpose of the speech is both the externalization of ARCHAEOASTRONOMY secondly the education and students interested in astronomy in a simple manner and methodology as used by our ancestors in order to better understand the basic rules of the celestial dome. Applied methods with the participation of students from local schools and experiments in ancient monuments in Rhodes existed before with great success since the beginning of 2000 and continues today enriching the resources and people of all ages, the island where noted and considered the "father" astronomy of Hipparchus, the island where construction probably the "Antikythera mechanism"

  12. Anomalous celestial polarization caused by forest fire smoke: why do some insects become visually disoriented under smoky skies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedüs, Ramón; Åkesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-05-01

    The effects of forest fire smoke on sky polarization and animal orientation are practically unknown. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we therefore measured the celestial polarization pattern under a smoky sky in Fairbanks, Alaska, during the forest fire season in August 2005. It is quantitatively documented here that the celestial polarization, a sky attribute that is necessary for orientation of many polarization-sensitive animal species, above Fairbanks on 17 August 2005 was in several aspects anomalous due to the forest fire smoke: (i) The pattern of the degree of linear polarization p of the reddish smoky sky differed considerably from that of the corresponding clear blue sky. (ii) Due to the smoke, p of skylight was drastically reduced (pmax≤14%, paverage≤8%). (iii) Depending on wavelength and time, the Arago, Babinet, and Brewster neutral points of sky polarization had anomalous positions. We suggest that the disorientation of certain insects observed by Canadian researchers under smoky skies during the forest fire season in August 2003 in British Columbia was the consequence of the anomalous sky polarization caused by the forest fire smoke.

  13. 32 GHz Celestial Reference Frame Survey for Dec < -45 deg.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shinji; Phillips, Chris; Stevens, Jamie; Jacobs, Christopher; Sotuela, Ioana; Garcia miro, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    (We resubmit this proposal to extend from the previous semester. The 24 hour blocks for ATCA and Mopra were granted in May 2012 but canceled because fringe test before the scheduled experiment failed although fringes were detected between Mopra and Tidbinbilla. During the last scheduled LBA session for this project we discovered ATCA/Mopra had an issue with frequency standard, which has now been resolved.) We propose to conduct a LBA survey of compact radio sources at 32 GHz near the south pole region. This is the first attempt to fill the gap in the existing 32 GHz catalogue establish by NASA Deep Space Network toward completing the full sky celestial reference frame at 32 GHz. The catalogue will be used for future spacecraft navigation by NASA and other space agencies as well as for radio astronomical observations with southern radio telescope arrays such as ATCA and LBA.

  14. Polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies with possible implications for animal orientation and Viking navigation: anomalous celestial twilight polarization at partial moon.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Farkas, Alexandra; Száz, Dénes; Egri, Ádám; Barta, Pál; Kovács, József; Csák, Balázs; Jankovics, István; Szabó, Gyula; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-08-10

    Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the celestial distribution of polarization during sunset and sunrise at partial (78% and 72%) and full (100%) moon in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We investigated the temporal change of the patterns of degree p and angle α of linear polarization of sunlit and moonlit skies at dusk and dawn. We describe here the position change of the neutral points of sky polarization, and present video clips about the celestial polarization transition at moonlit twilight. We found that at partial moon and at a medium latitude (47° 15.481' N) during this transition there is a relatively short (10-20 min) period when (i) the maximum of p of skylight decreases, and (ii) from the celestial α pattern neither the solar-antisolar nor the lunar-antilunar meridian can be unambiguously determined. These meridians can serve as reference directions of animal orientation and Viking navigation based on sky polarization. The possible influence of these atmospheric optical phenomena during the polarization transition between sunlit and moonlit skies on the orientation of polarization-sensitive crepuscular/nocturnal animals and the hypothesized navigation of sunstone-aided Viking seafarers is discussed.

  15. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  16. Estimating the Celestial Reference Frame via Intra-Technique Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iddink, Andreas; Artz, Thomas; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2016-12-01

    One of the primary goals of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the determination of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). Currently the third realization of the internationally adopted CRF, the ICRF3, is under preparation. In this process, various optimizations are planned to realize a CRF that does not benefit only from the increased number of observations since the ICRF2 was published. The new ICRF can also benefit from an intra-technique combination as is done for the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). Here, we aim at estimating an optimized CRF by means of an intra-technique combination. The solutions are based on the input to the official combined product of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), also providing the radio source parameters. We discuss the differences in the setup using a different number of contributions and investigate the impact on TRF and CRF as well as on the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs). Here, we investigate the differences between the combined CRF and the individual CRFs from the different analysis centers.

  17. Some Aspects of Artificial Bodies Stabilization and Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzija, B.; Segan, S.

    2012-12-01

    To increase energy resources, and thus the overall possibility of modern cosmic aircrafts, power supply was expanded by adding the (moving) wing area and antenna with complex orientation and design. It is clear that all of this, when there is a need to conduct a very accurate account of orbital elements of satellites, is a nightmare for the experts and scientists. In this paper we will give special attention to the system of stabilization and orientation of satellites, as well as to the importance of gyroscopic effects and the navigation systems of the artificial celestial bodies. Development of modified practical solutions based on knowledge and experience with gyroscopic effects is immeasurable.

  18. Spectroscopy of Dwarf Stars Around the North Celestial Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolaitis, Šarūnas; Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Drazdauskas, Arnas; Minkevičiūtė, Renata; Klebonas, Lukas; Bagdonas, Vilius; Pakšienė, Erika; Janulis, Rimvydas

    2018-07-01

    New space missions (e.g., NASA-TESS and ESA-PLATO) will perform an in-depth analysis of bright stars in large fields of the celestial sphere searching for extraterrestrial planets and investigating their host-stars. Asteroseismic observations will search for exoplanet-hosting stars with solar-like oscillations. In order to achieve all the goals, a full characterization of the stellar objects is important. However, accurate atmospheric parameters are available for less than 30% of bright dwarf stars of the solar neighborhood. In this study we observed high-resolution (R = 60,000) spectra for all bright (V < 8 mag) and cooler than F5 spectral class dwarf stars in the northern-most field of the celestial sphere with radius of 20° from the α(2000) = 161.°03 and δ(2000) = 86.°60 that is a center of one of the preliminary ESO-PLATO fields. Spectroscopic atmospheric parameters were determined for 140 slowly rotating stars, for 73% of them for the first time. The majority (83%) of the investigated stars are in the TESS object lists and all of them are in the preliminary PLATO field. Our results have no systematic differences when compared with other recent studies. We have 119 stars in common with the Geneva–Copenhagen Survey, where stellar parameters were determined photometrically, and find a 14 ± 125 K difference in effective temperatures, 0.01 ± 0.16 in log g, and ‑0.02 ± 0.09 dex in metallicities. Comparing our results for 39 stars with previous high-resolution spectral determinations, we find only a 7 ± 73 K difference in effective temperatures, 0.02 ± 0.09 in log g, and ‑0.02 ± 0.09 dex in metallicities. We also determined basic kinematic and orbital parameters for this sample of stars. From the kinematical point of view, almost all our stars belong to the thin disk substructure of the Milky Way. The derived galactocentric metallicity gradient is ‑0.066 ± 0.024 dex kpc‑1 (2.5σ significance) and the vertical metallicity gradient is ‑0.102

  19. An analytical model for the celestial distribution of polarized light, accounting for polarization singularities, wavelength and atmospheric turbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Jun; Fan, Zhiguo; Roberts, Nicholas W.

    2016-06-01

    We present a computationally inexpensive analytical model for simulating celestial polarization patterns in variable conditions. We combine both the singularity theory of Berry et al (2004 New J. Phys. 6 162) and the intensity model of Perez et al (1993 Sol. Energy 50 235-245) such that our single model describes three key sets of data: (1) the overhead distribution of the degree of polarization as well as the existence of neutral points in the sky; (2) the change in sky polarization as a function of the turbidity of the atmosphere; and (3) sky polarization patterns as a function of wavelength, calculated in this work from the ultra-violet to the near infra-red. To verify the performance of our model we generate accurate reference data using a numerical radiative transfer model and statistical comparisons between these two methods demonstrate no significant difference in almost all situations. The development of our analytical model provides a novel method for efficiently calculating the overhead skylight polarization pattern. This provides a new tool of particular relevance for our understanding of animals that use the celestial polarization pattern as a source of visual information.

  20. Flow Visualization of Aircraft in Flight by Means of Background Oriented Schlieren Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The Background Oriented Schlieren using Celestial Objects series of flights was undertaken in the spring of 2016 at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center to further develop and improve a flow visualization technique which can be performed from the ground upon flying aircraft. Improved hardware and imaging techniques from previous schlieren tests were investigated. A United States Air Force T-38C and NASA B200 King Air aircraft were imaged eclipsing the sun at ranges varying from 2 to 6 nautical miles, at subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  1. "Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.

  2. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Spectral and spectral-frequency methods of investigating atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, Vladimir V.; Prokof'eva-Mikhailovskaya, Valentina V.; Bochkov, Valerii V.

    2007-06-01

    A method of reflectance spectrophotometry of atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system, its specificity, and the means of eliminating basic spectral noise are considered. As a development, joining the method of reflectance spectrophotometry with the frequency analysis of observational data series is proposed. The combined spectral-frequency method allows identification of formations with distinctive spectral features, and estimations of their sizes and distribution on the surface of atmospherelss celestial bodies. As applied to investigations of asteroids 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta, the spectral frequency method has given us the possibility of obtaining fundamentally new information about minor planets.

  3. A Kalman filter approach for the determination of celestial reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Benedikt; Gross, Richard; Jacobs, Christopher; Chin, Toshio; Karbon, Maria; Nilsson, Tobias; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2017-04-01

    The coordinate model of radio sources in International Celestial Reference Frames (ICRF), such as the ICRF2, has traditionally been a constant offset. While sufficient for a large part of radio sources considering current accuracy requirements, several sources exhibit significant temporal coordinate variations. In particular, the group of the so-called special handling sources is characterized by large fluctuations in the source positions. For these sources and for several from the "others" category of radio sources, a coordinate model that goes beyond a constant offset would be beneficial. However, due to the sheer amount of radio sources in catalogs like the ICRF2, and even more so with the upcoming ICRF3, it is difficult to find the most appropriate coordinate model for every single radio source. For this reason, we have developed a time series approach to the determination of celestial reference frames (CRF). We feed the radio source coordinates derived from single very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) sessions sequentially into a Kalman filter and smoother, retaining their full covariances. The estimation of the source coordinates is carried out with a temporal resolution identical to the input data, i.e. usually 1-4 days. The coordinates are assumed to behave like random walk processes, an assumption which has already successfully been made for the determination of terrestrial reference frames such as the JTRF2014. To be able to apply the most suitable process noise value for every single radio source, their statistical properties are analyzed by computing their Allan standard deviations (ADEV). Additional to the determination of process noise values, the ADEV allows drawing conclusions whether the variations in certain radio source positions significantly deviate from random walk processes. Our investigations also deal with other means of source characterization, such as the structure index, in order to derive a suitable process noise model. The Kalman

  4. Radiation-induced rotation of small celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misconi, N. Y.; Oliver, John; Mzariegos, Roberto

    1992-01-01

    The rotation was studied of particles in a simulated space environment via a technique known as Laser Particle Levitation. The combination of both a high vacuum and optical laser levitation to negate the effects of Earth's gravity, simulate the space environment. The rotation mechanism under study is known as the 'Windmill Effect,' which is a spin mechanism that suggests that the interaction of the photon field from a star with the surface irregularities of cosmic dust will cause them to spin due to the imbalance in the directionality of the scattered photons which necessitates a non-zero angular momentum. This conclusion is based on the random nature of the orientation of the sites of surface irregularities. The general object is to study the behavior of particles in orbits around the Earth, both natural and man made, as well as interplanetary and circumstellar particles. To meet this objective, an apparatus was constructed which was designed to allow optical levitation in a vacuum.

  5. THE SEARCH FOR CELESTIAL POSITRONIUM VIA THE RECOMBINATION SPECTRUM

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J., E-mail: sce@physics.usyd.edu.a, E-mail: jbh@physics.usyd.edu.a

    2009-12-10

    Positronium is a short-lived atom consisting of a bound electron-positron pair. In the triplet state, when the spins of both particles are parallel, radiative recombination lines will be emitted prior to annihilation. The existence of celestial positronium is revealed through gamma-ray observations of its annihilation products. These observations, however, have intrinsically low angular resolution. In this paper, we examine the prospects for detecting the positronium recombination spectrum. Such observations have the potential to reveal discrete sources of e {sup +} for the first time and will allow the acuity of optical telescopes and instrumentation to be applied to observations ofmore » high-energy phenomena. We review the theory of the positronium recombination spectrum and provide formulae to calculate expected line strengths from the e {sup +} production rate and for different conditions in the interstellar medium. We estimate the positronium emission line strengths for several classes of Galactic and extragalactic sources. These are compared to current observational limits and to current and future sensitivities of optical and infrared instrumentation. We find that observations of the Psalpha line should soon be possible due to recent advances in NIR spectroscopy.« less

  6. Daytime Celestial Navigation for the Novice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Night, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    What kinds of astronomical lab activities can high school and college astronomy students carry out easily in daytime? The most impressive is the determination of latitude and longitude from observations of the Sun. The ``shooting of a noon sight'' and its ``reduction to a position'' grew to become a daily practice at the start of the 19th century1 following the perfection of the marine chronometer by John Harrison and its mass production.2 This technique is still practiced by navigators in this age of GPS. Indeed, the U.S. Coast Guard exams for ocean-going licenses include celestial navigation.3 These techniques continue to be used by the military and by private sailors as a backup to all-too-fallible and jammable electronic navigation systems. A sextant, a nautical almanac,4 special sight reduction tables,5 and involved calculations are needed to determine position to the nearest mile using the Sun, Moon, stars, or planets. Yet, finding latitude and longitude to better than 30 miles from measurements of the Sun's altitude is easily within the capability of those taking astronomy or physics for the first time by applying certain basic principles. Moreover, it shows a practical application of astronomy in use the world over. The streamlined method described here takes advantage of the similar level of accuracy of its three components: 1.Observations using a homemade quadrant6 (instead of a sextant), 2. Student-made graphs of the altitude of the Sun over a day7 (replacing lengthy calculation using sight reduction tables), and 3. An averaged 20-year analemma used to find the Sun's navigational coordinates8,9 (rather than the 300+ page Nautical Almanac updated yearly).

  7. An Efficient Method for Studying the Stability and Dynamics of the Rotational Motions of Celestial Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. I.; Maciejewski, A. J.

    2003-08-01

    We use the alternative MEGNO (Mean Exponential Growth of Nearby Orbits) technique developed by Cincotta and Simo to study the stability of orbital-rotational motions for plane oscillations and three-dimensional rotations. We present a detailed numerical-analytical study of a rigid body in the case where the proper rotation of the body is synchronized with its orbital motion as 3: 2 (Mercurian-type synchronism). For plane rotations, the loss of stability of the periodic solution that corresponds to a 3: 2 resonance is shown to be soft, which should be taken into account to estimate the upper limit for the ellipticity of Mercury. In studying stable and chaotic translational-rotational motions, we point out that the MEGNO criterion can be effectively used. This criterion gives a clear picture of the resonant structures and allows the calculations to be conveniently presented in the form of the corresponding MEGNO stability maps for multidimensional systems. We developed an appropriate software package.

  8. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Pursimo, T.; Johnston, Helen M.; Stanford, Laura M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Zenere, Katrina A.

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ˜160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  9. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Pursimo, T.

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ∼160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radiomore » sources.« less

  10. Design, fabrication and performance of two grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Cash, W.; Malina, R. F.; Bowyer, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and performance of grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy are described. The telescopes basically consist of a star tracker, collimator, grazing incidence mirror, vacuum box lid, vacuum housing, filters, a ranicon detector, an electronics box, and an aspect camera. For the survey mirror a Wolter-Schwarzschild type II configuration was selected. Diamond-turning was used for mirror fabrication, a technique which machines surfaces to the order of 10 microns over the required dimensions. The design of the EUV spectrometer is discussed with particular reference to the optics for a primarily spectroscopic application and the fabrication of the f/10 optics.

  11. Central Configurations of the Curved N-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diacu, Florin; Stoica, Cristina; Zhu, Shuqiang

    2018-06-01

    We consider the N-body problem of celestial mechanics in spaces of nonzero constant curvature. Using the concept of effective potential, we define the moment of inertia for systems moving on spheres and hyperbolic spheres and show that we can recover the classical definition in the Euclidean case. After proving some criteria for the existence of relative equilibria, we find a natural way to define the concept of central configuration in curved spaces using the moment of inertia and show that our definition is formally similar to the one that governs the classical problem. We prove that, for any given point masses on spheres and hyperbolic spheres, central configurations always exist. We end with results concerning the number of central configurations that lie on the same geodesic, thus extending the celebrated theorem of Moulton to hyperbolic spheres and pointing out that it has no straightforward generalization to spheres, where the count gets complicated even for two bodies.

  12. A Big Year for Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; Erickson, K.

    2013-10-01

    2013 is a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system’s unsung heroes, small bodies. The Cosmic Valentine of Asteroid 2012 DA14 which passed within ~ 3.5 Earth radii of the Earth's surface (February 15, 2013), Comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS and the Thanksgiving 2013 pass of Comet ISON, which will pass less than 0.012 AU (1.8 million km) from the solar surface and could be visible during the day. All this in addition to Comet Lemmon and a host of meteor showers makes 2013 a landmark year to deliver the excitement of planetary science to the audiences worldwide. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system’s small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA’s JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like “Eyes on the Solar System” and more culminating in the Thanksgiving Day Comet ISON perihelion passage. This talk will highlight NASA’s focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  13. Small Body Exploration Technologies as Precursors for Interstellar Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, R. J.; Sykes, M. V.

    The scientific activities undertaken to explore our Solar System will be very similar to those required someday at other stars. The systematic exploration of primitive small bodies throughout our Solar System requires new technologies for autonomous robotic spacecraft. These diverse celestial bodies contain clues to the early stages of the Solar System's evolution, as well as information about the origin and transport of water-rich and organic material, the essential building blocks for life. They will be among the first objects studied at distant star systems. The technologies developed to address small body and outer planet exploration will form much of the technical basis for designing interstellar robotic explorers. The Small Bodies Assessment Group, which reports to NASA, initiated a Technology Forum in 2011 that brought together scientists and technologists to discuss the needs and opportunities for small body robotic exploration in the Solar System. Presentations and discussions occurred in the areas of mission and spacecraft design, electric power, propulsion, avionics, communications, autonomous navigation, remote sensing and surface instruments, sampling, intelligent event recognition, and command and sequencing software. In this paper, the major technology themes from the Technology Forum are reviewed, and suggestions are made for developments that will have the largest impact on realizing autonomous robotic vehicles capable of exploring other star systems.

  14. Method and System for Gamma-Ray Localization Induced Spacecraft Navigation Using Celestial Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hisamoto, Chuck (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor); Sheikh, Suneel I. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and system for spacecraft navigation using distant celestial gamma-ray bursts which offer detectable, bright, high-energy events that provide well-defined characteristics conducive to accurate time-alignment among spatially separated spacecraft. Utilizing assemblages of photons from distant gamma-ray bursts, relative range between two spacecraft can be accurately computed along the direction to each burst's source based upon the difference in arrival time of the burst emission at each spacecraft's location. Correlation methods used to time-align the high-energy burst profiles are provided. The spacecraft navigation may be carried out autonomously or in a central control mode of operation.

  15. Relation Between the Celestial Reference System and the Terrestrial Reference System of a Rigid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Shinko

    1987-03-01

    A relation between the Celestial Reference System (CRS) and the Terrestrial Reference System is established theoretically by solving the equations of motion of a rigid Earth under the influence of the Sun and the Moon up to the second order perturbation. The solutions include not only nutation including Oppolzer terms but also the right ascension of the dynamical departure point (DP), as well as the wobble matrix. We have found that the kinematical definition of the Non-Rotating Origin NRO (for which our term is DP) given by Capitaine, Guinot and Souchay (1987) is not entirely equivalent to that included in the solutions of the equations of motion but shows perturbation, in particular when this is taken on the instantaneous equator. Besides this serious fault, we feel little merit in taking the DP as reference: (1) Unnecessary spurious mixed secular terms appear which come from the geometrical configuration that the DP leaves far and far from the ecliptic. (2) the DP moves secularly as well as oscillating with respect to space; this literally contradicts the term ‘NRO’, or is at least misleading. (3) It does not free us from the precession uncertainty to adopt DP as reference, since we cannot avoid virtual proper motions in terms of the current CRS. (4) No terms ignored hitherto are introduced, even if we take the DP properly chosen, i.e., on the equator of the celestial ephemeris pole. The transformation is only mathematical. There is no sufficient reason to take it instead of the equinox, which is observable in principle, as reference at the cost of the labor of changing all the textbooks, ephemerides, data and computer software now existing.

  16. The Celestial Reference Frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Clark, J. E.; Heflin, M. B.; Skjerve, L. J.; Sovers, O. J.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Moll, V. E.; Horiuchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    A celestial reference frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) has been constructed using fifty-one 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network. We report on observations which have detected 436 sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of 200 micro-arcsec in a cos delta and 290 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for zonal errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of phase calibration, troposphere mismodelling, and limited southern geometry. The motivations for extending the ICRF to frequencies above 8 GHz are to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability, to provide calibrators for phase referencing, and to support spacecraft navigation at Ka-band.

  17. The Celestial Reference Frame at X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Clark, J. E.; Heflin, M. B.; Skjerve, L. J.; Sovers, O. J.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Moll, V. E.; Horiuchi, S.

    2010-01-01

    A celestial reference frame at X/Kaband (8.4/32 GHz) has been constructed using fiftyone 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network. We report on observations which have detected 436 sources covering the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of 200 micro-arcsec ( mu as) in alpha cos delta and 290 mu as in delta. There is evidence for zonal errors at the 100 mu as level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of phase calibration, troposphere mismodelling, and limited southern geometry. The motivations for extending the ICRF to frequencies above 8 GHz are to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability, to provide calibrators for phase referencing, and to support spacecraft navigation at Ka-band.

  18. The dynamical behaviour of our planetary system. Proceedings. 4th Alexander von Humboldt Colloquium on Celestial Mechanics, Ramsau (Austria), 17 - 23 Mar 1996.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, R.; Henrard, J.

    1996-03-01

    The following topics were dealt with: celestial mechanics, dynamical astronomy, planetary systems, resonance scattering, Hamiltonian mechanics non-integrability, irregular periodic orbits, escape, dynamical system mapping, fast Fourier method, precession-nutation, Nekhoroshev theorem, asteroid dynamics, the Trojan problem, planet-crossing orbits, Kirkwood gaps, future research, human comprehension limitations.

  19. Small Body Exploration Technologies as Precursors for Interstellar Robotics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Noble, Robert; /SLAC; Sykes, Mark V.

    The scientific activities undertaken to explore our Solar System will be the same as required someday at other stars. The systematic exploration of primitive small bodies throughout our Solar System requires new technologies for autonomous robotic spacecraft. These diverse celestial bodies contain clues to the early stages of the Solar System's evolution as well as information about the origin and transport of water-rich and organic material, the essential building blocks for life. They will be among the first objects studied at distant star systems. The technologies developed to address small body and outer planet exploration will form much of themore » technical basis for designing interstellar robotic explorers. The Small Bodies Assessment Group, which reports to NASA, initiated a Technology Forum in 2011 that brought together scientists and technologists to discuss the needs and opportunities for small body robotic exploration in the Solar System. Presentations and discussions occurred in the areas of mission and spacecraft design, electric power, propulsion, avionics, communications, autonomous navigation, remote sensing and surface instruments, sampling, intelligent event recognition, and command and sequencing software. In this paper, the major technology themes from the Technology Forum are reviewed, and suggestions are made for developments that will have the largest impact on realizing autonomous robotic vehicles capable of exploring other star systems.« less

  20. Solar system lithograph set for earth and space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A color lithographs of many of the celestial bodies within our solar system are contained in this educational set of materials. Printed on the back of each lithograph is information regarding the particular celestial body. A sheet with information listing NASA resources and electronic resources for education is included.

  1. Celestial Navigation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, George H.

    2014-05-01

    Despite the ubiquity of GPS receivers in modern life for both timekeeping and geolocation, other forms of navigation remain important because of the weakness of the GPS signals (and those from similar sat-nav systems) and the ease with which they can be jammed. GPS jammers are available for sale on the Internet. The defense and civil aviation communities are particularly concerned about “GPS denial”, whether intentional or accidental, during critical operations.Automated star trackers for navigation have been available since the 1950s. Modern compact observing systems, operating in the far-red and near-IR bands, can detect useful numbers of stars even in the daytime at sea level. A capability to measure the directions of stars relative to some local set of coordinate axes is advantageous for many types of vehicles, whether on the ground, at sea, in the air, or in space, because it provides a direct connection to the inertial reference system represented by current star catalogs. Such a capability can yield precise absolute orientation information not available in any other way. Automated celestial observing systems can be effectively coupled to inertial navigation systems (INS), providing “truth” data for constraining the drift in the INS navigation solution, even if stellar observations are not continuously available due to weather. However, obtaining precise latitude and longitude from stellar observations alone, on a moving platform, remains a challenge, because it requires a determination of the direction to the center of the Earth, i.e., the gravity vertical. General relativity tells us that on-board (“lab”) measurements cannot separate the acceleration of gravity from the acceleration of the platform. Various schemes for overcoming this fundamental problem have been used in the past, at low accuracy, and better ones have been proposed for modern applications. This paper will review some recent developments in this rapidly advancing field.

  2. The Green Bank North Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey: New Pulsars and Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Swiggum, Joe; Stovall, Kevin; Chawla, Pragya; DeCesar, Megan E.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Levin, Lina; Cui, Bingyi; Kondratiev, Vlad; Archibald, Anne; Boyles, Jason; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Jenet, Fredrick; Kaplan, David; Karako-Argaman, Chen; Kaspi, Victoria; Martinez, Jose; McLaughlin, Maura; Ransom, Scott M.; Roberts, Mallory; Siemens, Xavier; Spiewak, Renee; Stairs, Ingrid; van Leeuwn, Joeri; Green Bank North Celestial Cap Survey Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Green Bank North Celestial Cap pulsar survey is the most successful low frequency pulsar survey ever. GBNCC uses the Green Bank telescope to cover the full visible sky at 350 MHz. With the survey over 70% complete, we have discovered over 150 pulsars, including 20 MSPs and 11 RRATs. I will report on the current status of the survey and plans for its completion in the coming years. I will also report on several discoveries including: timing solutions for dozens of new pulsars; new high precision MSPs and their suitability for inclusion in pulsar timing arrays; a new relativistic double neutron star system; new pulsar mass measurements; proper motion measurements for several MSPs; a new mode changing pulsar; interesting new MSP binaries; nulling fraction analyses; and possible implications of the lack of any fast radio bursts in the survey so far.

  3. SAS-2 observations of celestial diffuse gamma radiation above 30 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The small astronomy satellite, SAS-2, used a 32-deck magnetic core digitized spark chamber to study gamma rays with energies above 30 MeV. Data for four regions of the sky away from the galactic plane were analyzed. These regions show a finite, diffuse flux of gamma rays with a steep energy spectrum, and the flux is uniform over all the regions. Represented by a power law, the differential energy spectrum shows an index of 2.5 + or - 0.4. The steep SAS-2 spectrum and the lower energy data are reasonably consistent with a neutral pion gamma-ray spectrum which was red-shifted (such as that proposed by some cosmological theories). It is concluded that the diffuse celestial gamma ray spectrum observed presents the possibility of cosmological studies and possible evidence for a residual cosmic ray density, and supports the galactic superclusters of matter and antimatter remaining from baryon-symmetric big bang.

  4. Interaction Between the Celestial and the Terrestrial Reference Frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, David; MacMillan, Dan; Bolotin, Sergei; Le Bail, Karine; Gipson, John; Ma, Chopo

    2010-01-01

    Effects of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) on the Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRF), CRF and EOP's, The ICRF2 became official on Jan. 1, 2010. It includes positions of 3414 compact radio astronomical sources observed with VLBI, a fivefold increase from the first ICRF. Numerous new VLBI models were used and the most unstable sources were treated as arc parameters to avoid distortions of the frame. The ICRF2 has a noise floor of 40 micro-arc-seconds and an axis stability of 10 micro-arc-seconds. It was aligned with the ICRS using 138 stable sources common to ICRF2 and ICRF-Ext2. Maintenance of ICRF2 is to be made using 295 defining sources chosen for their historical positional stability, minimal source structure, and sky distribution. Their stability and their more uniform sky distribution eliminate the two largest weaknesses of ICRF I. The switchover to ICRF2 has some small effects on the TRF, CRF and Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP). A CRF based on ICRF2 shows a relative rotation of 40 micro-arc-seconds, mostly about the Y-axis. Small shifts are also seen in the EOP's, the largest being 11 micro-arc-seconds in X-pole. Some small but insignificant differences are also seen in the TRF. These results will be presented and discussed.

  5. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: PLANETS AND CELESTIAL CALIBRATION SOURCES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1{sigma} of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% {+-} 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry.more » Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 {mu}m, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within {approx}2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at {approx}30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with

  6. Polynomial equations for science orbits around Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinelli, Marco; Circi, Christian; Ortore, Emiliano

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the design of science orbits for the observation of a celestial body has been carried out using polynomial equations. The effects related to the main zonal harmonics of the celestial body and the perturbation deriving from the presence of a third celestial body have been taken into account. The third body describes a circular and equatorial orbit with respect to the primary body and, for its disturbing potential, an expansion in Legendre polynomials up to the second order has been considered. These polynomial equations allow the determination of science orbits around Jupiter's satellite Europa, where the third body gravitational attraction represents one of the main forces influencing the motion of an orbiting probe. Thus, the retrieved relationships have been applied to this moon and periodic sun-synchronous and multi-sun-synchronous orbits have been determined. Finally, numerical simulations have been carried out to validate the analytical results.

  7. Did a Comet Deliver the Chelyabinsk Meteorite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladysheva, O. G.

    2017-09-01

    An explosion of a celestial body occurred on the fifteenth of February, 2013, near Chelyabinsk (Russia). The explosive energy was determined as 500 kt of TNT, on the basis of which the mass of the bolide was estimated at 107 kg, and its diameter at 19 m [1]. Fragments of the meteorite, such as LL5/S4-WO type ordinary chondrite [2] with a total mass only of 2•103 kg, fell to the earth's surface [3]. Here, we will demonstrate that the deficit of the celestial body's mass can be explained by the arrival of the Chelyabinsk chondrite on Earth by a significantly more massive but fragile ice-bearing celestial body.

  8. Celestial diffuse gamma radiation above 30 MeV observed by SAS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hartman, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    The Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS)-2, launched on November 15, 1972, carried into orbit a 32-deck magnetic-core digitized spark chamber gamma ray telescope to study celestial gamma radiation in the energy range above 30 MeV. In the study of several regions with b sub 2 15 deg, a finite, diffuse flux of gamma rays with a steep energy spectrum in the energy region from 35 to 200 MeV is observed. Representing the energy spectrum by a power law of the form dJ/dE = AE to - alpha power over this energy range, alpha is found along with the integral flux above 100 MeV. Combining this result with existing low energy gamma ray data yields an energy spectrum which is not a simple power law in energy, as in the X-ray region, but which demonstrates first an increase and then a decrease in slope, consistent within uncertainties with that predicted by cosmological theories, including the continuous production of high energy gamma rays primarily from neutral pi mesons throughout the history of the universe.

  9. Research of autonomous celestial navigation based on new measurement model of stellar refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cong; Tian, Hong; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Autonomous celestial navigation based on stellar refraction has attracted widespread attention for its high accuracy and full autonomy.In this navigation method, establishment of accurate stellar refraction measurement model is the fundament and key issue to achieve high accuracy navigation. However, the existing measurement models are limited due to the uncertainty of atmospheric parameters. Temperature, pressure and other factors which affect the stellar refraction within the height of earth's stratosphere are researched, and the varying model of atmosphere with altitude is derived on the basis of standard atmospheric data. Furthermore, a novel measurement model of stellar refraction in a continuous range of altitudes from 20 km to 50 km is produced by modifying the fixed altitude (25 km) measurement model, and equation of state with the orbit perturbations is established, then a simulation is performed using the improved Extended Kalman Filter. The results show that the new model improves the navigation accuracy, which has a certain practical application value.

  10. Research in Celestial Mechanics and Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: A geopotential representation with sampling functions; Sampling functions as an alternative to spherical harmonics; The Levi - Civita ...restricted problem of three bodies ; Secular perturbations of periodic comets; Resonance in the restricted problem of three bodies ; Two centers of

  11. Transit of Venus Culture: A Celestial Phenomenon Intrigues the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    When Jeremiah Horrocks first observed it in 1639, the transit of Venus was a desirable telescopic target because of its scientific value. By the next transit of Venus in 1761, though, the enlightened public also embraced it as a popular celestial phenomenon. Its stature elevated over the centuries, the transit of Venus has been featured in music, poetry, stamps, plays, books, and art. The June 2004 transit emerged as a surprising global sensation, as suggested by the search queries it generated. Google's Zeitgeist deemed Venus Transit to be the #1 Most Popular Event in the world for that month. New priorities, technologies, and media have brought new audiences to the rare alignment. As the 2012 transit of Venus approaches, the trend continues with publicly accessible capabilities that did not exist only eight years prior. For example, sites from which historic observations have been made are plotted and readily available on Google Earth. A transit of Venus phone app in development will, if fully funded, facilitate a global effort to recreate historic expeditions by allowing smartphone users to submit their observed transit timings to a database for quantifying the Astronomical Unit. While maintaining relevance in modern scientific applications, the transit of Venus has emerged as a cultural attraction that briefly intrigues the mainstream public and inspires their active participation in the spectacle.

  12. Consistent realization of Celestial and Terrestrial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Younghee; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Schmid, Ralf; Angermann, Detlef; Gerstl, Michael; Seitz, Manuela

    2018-03-01

    The Celestial Reference System (CRS) is currently realized only by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) because it is the space geodetic technique that enables observations in that frame. In contrast, the Terrestrial Reference System (TRS) is realized by means of the combination of four space geodetic techniques: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), VLBI, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite. The Earth orientation parameters (EOP) are the link between the two types of systems, CRS and TRS. The EOP series of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service were combined of specifically selected series from various analysis centers. Other EOP series were generated by a simultaneous estimation together with the TRF while the CRF was fixed. Those computation approaches entail inherent inconsistencies between TRF, EOP, and CRF, also because the input data sets are different. A combined normal equation (NEQ) system, which consists of all the parameters, i.e., TRF, EOP, and CRF, would overcome such an inconsistency. In this paper, we simultaneously estimate TRF, EOP, and CRF from an inter-technique combined NEQ using the latest GNSS, VLBI, and SLR data (2005-2015). The results show that the selection of local ties is most critical to the TRF. The combination of pole coordinates is beneficial for the CRF, whereas the combination of Δ UT1 results in clear rotations of the estimated CRF. However, the standard deviations of the EOP and the CRF improve by the inter-technique combination which indicates the benefits of a common estimation of all parameters. It became evident that the common determination of TRF, EOP, and CRF systematically influences future ICRF computations at the level of several μas. Moreover, the CRF is influenced by up to 50 μas if the station coordinates and EOP are dominated by the satellite techniques.

  13. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Planets and Celestial Calibration Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1σ of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% ± 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 μm, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within ~2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at ~30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a few percent for Tau A

  14. THE CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME AT 24 AND 43 GHz. I. ASTROMETRY

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lanyi, G. E.; Jacobs, C. S.; Naudet, C. J.

    2010-05-15

    We present astrometric results for compact extragalactic objects observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at radio frequencies of 24 and 43 GHz. Data were obtained from ten 24 hr observing sessions made over a five-year period. These observations were motivated by the need to extend the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to higher radio frequencies to enable improved deep space navigation after 2016 and to improve state-of-the-art astrometry. Source coordinates for 268 sources were estimated at 24 GHz and for 131 sources at 43 GHz. The median formal uncertainties of right ascension and declination at 24 GHz are 0.08more » and 0.15 mas, respectively. Median formal uncertainties at 43 GHz are 0.20 and 0.35 mas, respectively. Weighted root-mean-square differences between the 24 and 43 GHz positions and astrometric positions based on simultaneous 2.3 and 8.4 GHz Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations, such as the ICRF, are less than about 0.3 mas in both coordinates. With observations over five years we have achieved a precision at 24 GHz approaching that of the ICRF but unaccounted systematic errors limit the overall accuracy of the catalogs.« less

  15. Viscoelastic tides: models for use in Celestial Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragazzo, C.; Ruiz, L. S.

    2017-05-01

    This paper contains equations for the motion of linear viscoelastic bodies interacting under gravity. The equations are fully three dimensional and allow for the integration of the spin, the orbit, and the deformation of each body. The goal is to present good models for the tidal forces that take into account the possibly different rheology of each body. The equations are obtained within a finite dimension Lagrangian framework with dissipation function. The main contribution is a procedure to associate to each spring-dashpot model, which defines the rheology of a body, a potential and a dissipation function for the body deformation variables. The theory is applied to the Earth (solid part plus oceans) and a comparison between model and observation of the following quantities is made: norm of the Love numbers, rate of tidal energy dissipation, Chandler period, and Earth-Moon distance increase.

  16. Autonomous celestial navigation based on Earth ultraviolet radiance and fast gradient statistic feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shan; Zhang, Hanmo

    2016-01-01

    To meet the requirement of autonomous orbit determination, this paper proposes a fast curve fitting method based on earth ultraviolet features to obtain accurate earth vector direction, in order to achieve the high precision autonomous navigation. Firstly, combining the stable characters of earth ultraviolet radiance and the use of transmission model software of atmospheric radiation, the paper simulates earth ultraviolet radiation model on different time and chooses the proper observation band. Then the fast improved edge extracting method combined Sobel operator and local binary pattern (LBP) is utilized, which can both eliminate noises efficiently and extract earth ultraviolet limb features accurately. And earth's centroid locations on simulated images are estimated via the least square fitting method using part of the limb edges. Taken advantage of the estimated earth vector direction and earth distance, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to realize the autonomous navigation finally. Experiment results indicate the proposed method can achieve a sub-pixel earth centroid location estimation and extremely enhance autonomous celestial navigation precision.

  17. Feasibility study of scanning celestial Attitude System (SCADS) for Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Scanning Celestial Attitude Determination System (SCADS) during Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) missions to compute an accurate spacecraft attitude by use of stellar measurements is considered. The spacecraft is local-vertical-stabilized. A heuristic discussion of the SCADS concept is first given. Two concepts are introduced: a passive system which contains no moving parts, and an active system in which the reticle is caused to rotate about the sensor's axis. A quite complete development of the equations of attitude motions is then given. These equations are used to generate the true attitude which in turn is used to compute the transit times of detectable stars and to determine the errors associated with the SCADS attitude. A more complete discussion of the analytical foundation of SCADS concept and its use for the geometries particular to this study, as well as salient design parameters for the passive and active systems are included.

  18. AstrodyToolsWeb an e-Science project in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; San-Juan, J. F.

    2013-05-01

    Astrodynamics Web Tools, AstrodyToolsWeb (http://tastrody.unirioja.es), is an ongoing collaborative Web Tools computing infrastructure project which has been specially designed to support scientific computation. AstrodyToolsWeb provides project collaborators with all the technical and human facilities in order to wrap, manage, and use specialized noncommercial software tools in Astrodynamics and Celestial Mechanics fields, with the aim of optimizing the use of resources, both human and material. However, this project is open to collaboration from the whole scientific community in order to create a library of useful tools and their corresponding theoretical backgrounds. AstrodyToolsWeb offers a user-friendly web interface in order to choose applications, introduce data, and select appropriate constraints in an intuitive and easy way for the user. After that, the application is executed in real time, whenever possible; then the critical information about program behavior (errors and logs) and output, including the postprocessing and interpretation of its results (graphical representation of data, statistical analysis or whatever manipulation therein), are shown via the same web interface or can be downloaded to the user's computer.

  19. Proceedings of the Symposium on Military Space Communications and Operations Held at USAF Academy, Colorado on 2-4 August 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-04

    IS CURRERTLY OFF; TRANSMITSTHE COM TO TURHE AN N; WAITS FO Procedures are valuable because they provide hCGMDTOTR PROPTION AN POCSSI OELAS...legal and Other Celestial Bodies ,!/ was a regime which has been created by brilliant accomplishment of the world international treaties. These legal...difficulty posed by some controversial provisions in the Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies and the

  20. A Native Intelligence Metric for Artificial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    an example to help clarify the GCEA. Say we are S and we stumble upon Stonehenge . We don’t wonder whether humans carried the stones (some...stones S encounters that may be exhibiting alignment with celestial bodies at certain seasonal times. S determines that the designer of Stonehenge had...matching of the stones with particular celestial events. The various celestial events and our prehistoric Stonehenge designer’s awareness of these events

  1. The celestial mechanics approach: application to data of the GRACE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, Gerhard; Jäggi, Adrian; Mervart, Leoš; Meyer, Ulrich

    2010-11-01

    The celestial mechanics approach (CMA) has its roots in the Bernese GPS software and was extensively used for determining the orbits of high-orbiting satellites. The CMA was extended to determine the orbits of Low Earth Orbiting satellites (LEOs) equipped with GPS receivers and of constellations of LEOs equipped in addition with inter-satellite links. In recent years the CMA was further developed and used for gravity field determination. The CMA was developed by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The CMA is presented from the theoretical perspective in (Beutler et al. 2010). The key elements of the CMA are illustrated here using data from 50 days of GPS, K-Band, and accelerometer observations gathered by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission in 2007. We study in particular the impact of (1) analyzing different observables [Global Positioning System (GPS) observations only, inter-satellite measurements only], (2) analyzing a combination of observations of different types on the level of the normal equation systems (NEQs), (3) using accelerometer data, (4) different orbit parametrizations (short-arc, reduced-dynamic) by imposing different constraints on the stochastic orbit parameters, and (5) using either the inter-satellite ranges or their time derivatives. The so-called GRACE baseline, i.e., the achievable accuracy of the GRACE gravity field for a particular solution strategy, is established for the CMA.

  2. Reclaiming Celestial Navigation Using a Contemporary Hawaiian Worldview of the Heavens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, Ahia G.; Ha`o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    The immense challenges of successfully navigating the vast Pacific basin without modern instruments are well-known. At the same time, the precise methods used by ancient Polynesian wayfinders are largely undocumented, the strategies being wholly unfamiliar to early European navigators from higher latitudes with formal training in charts and tables. Leading the wave of a Hawaiian-Renaissance, contemporary Hawaiian seafarers are boldly reclaiming their heritage by recreating and sailing double hulled canoes by instrument-free, navigation techniques. Many of these navigational techniques are probably reminiscent of earlier strategies, and are proving to be highly successful. The result is that numerous canoes are now making repeated trips throughout the Polynesian Triangle, and reaching beyond to soon circumnavigate the globe. Not surprisingly, a vital component of any navigational system far from terrestrial landmarks is based on the changing positions and predictable motions of the Sun and stars. Although many of the indigenous star names are lost to history, some of the most important star names for celestial navigation have been painstakingly re-claimed. Other critically important navigational stars are being named by the respected Hawaiian Guild Navigators and their teams of educators who are conducting navigation training for Hawaiian sailing crews. The authors are collecting and documenting these new star names along-with their identifiable asterisms-in the service of educating both the public and the next generation of navigators.

  3. Celestial reference frames and the gauge freedom in the post-Newtonian mechanics of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Xie, Yi

    2010-11-01

    We introduce the Jacobi coordinates adopted to the advanced theoretical analysis of the relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Earth-Moon system. Theoretical derivation utilizes the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2000. The resolutions assume that the Solar System is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat at infinity and the primary reference frame covers the entire space-time, has its origin at the Solar System barycenter (SSB) with spatial axes stretching up to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to a set of distant quasars that are assumed to be at rest on the sky forming the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The second reference frame has its origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is locally inertial and is not rotating dynamically in the sense that equation of motion of a test particle moving with respect to the EMB frame, does not contain the Coriolis and centripetal forces. Two other local frames—geocentric and selenocentric—have their origins at the center of mass of Earth and Moon respectively and do not rotate dynamically. Each local frame is subject to the geodetic precession both with respect to other local frames and with respect to the ICRF because of their relative motion with respect to each other. Theoretical advantage of the dynamically non-rotating local frames is in a more simple mathematical description of the metric tensor and relative equations of motion of the Moon with respect to Earth. Each local frame can be converted to kinematically non-rotating one after alignment with the axes of ICRF by applying the matrix of the relativistic precession as recommended by the IAU resolutions. The set of one global and three local frames is introduced in order to decouple physical effects of gravity from the gauge-dependent effects in the equations of relative motion of the Moon with respect to Earth.

  4. The significance of direct sunlight and polarized skylight in the ant's celestial system of navigation.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin

    2006-08-15

    As textbook knowledge has it, bees and ants use polarized skylight as a backup cue whenever the main compass cue, the sun, is obscured by clouds. Here we show, by employing a unique experimental paradigm, that the celestial compass system of desert ants, Cataglyphis, relies predominantly on polarized skylight. If ants experience only parts of the polarization pattern during training but the full pattern in a subsequent test situation, they systematically deviate from their true homeward courses, with the systematics depending on what parts of the skylight patterns have been presented during training. This "signature" of the polarization compass remains unaltered, even if the ants can simultaneously experience the sun, which, if presented alone, enables the ants to select their true homeward courses. Information provided by direct sunlight and polarized skylight is picked up by different parts of the ant's compound eyes and is channeled into two rather separate systems of navigation.

  5. Relativistic satellite orbits: central body with higher zonal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanner, Maximilian; Soffel, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Satellite orbits around a central body with arbitrary zonal harmonics are considered in a relativistic framework. Our starting point is the relativistic Celestial Mechanics based upon the first post-Newtonian approximation to Einstein's theory of gravity as it has been formulated by Damour et al. (Phys Rev D 43:3273-3307, 1991; 45:1017-1044, 1992; 47:3124-3135, 1993; 49:618-635, 1994). Since effects of order (GM/c^2R) × J_k with k ≥ 2 for the Earth are very small (of order 7 × 10^{-10} × J_k) we consider an axially symmetric body with arbitrary zonal harmonics and a static external gravitational field. In such a field the explicit J_k/c^2-terms (direct terms) in the equations of motion for the coordinate acceleration of a satellite are treated first with first-order perturbation theory. The derived perturbation theoretical results of first order have been checked by purely numerical integrations of the equations of motion. Additional terms of the same order result from the interaction of the Newtonian J_k-terms with the post-Newtonian Schwarzschild terms (relativistic terms related to the mass of the central body). These `mixed terms' are treated by means of second-order perturbation theory based on the Lie-series method (Hori-Deprit method). Here we concentrate on the secular drifts of the ascending node <{\\dot{Ω }}> and argument of the pericenter <{\\dot{ω }}>. Finally orders of magnitude are given and discussed.

  6. Awesome Universe: an exhibition with images that showcase celestial objects as seen by ESO's observatories and associated activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Farrona, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    In September 2013, an ESO exhibition was shown in Santander: ``Awesome Universe -- the Cosmos through the eyes of the European Southern Observatory". Around the exhibition, were proposed several activities: guide tours for children, younger and adults, workshops, film projections... In this way, the exhibition was visited by more than two thousand persons. We must keep in mind that Santander is a small city and its population does not usually take part in outreach activity. With this contribution, we want to teach the way in which it is possible to take advantage of science exhibitions. It made possible to show stunning images that showcase celestial objects as seen by ESO's observatories to the great majority of Santander population, and to awaken their interest in or enthusiasm for science.

  7. Osculating Keplerian Elements for Highly Non-Keplerian Orbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-27

    1.52133 2 McInnes, C. R., “The Existence and Stability of Families of Displacement Two-Body Orbits”, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy , Vol...j.actaastro.2011.08.012 5 Xu, M. and Xu, S., “Nonlinear dynamical analysis for displaced orbits above a planet”, Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy ...Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy , Vol. 110, No. 3, 2011, pp. 199-215. doi: 10.1007/s10569-011-9351-5 7 Macdonald, M., McKay, R. J., Vasile, M

  8. Why is it advantageous for animals to detect celestial polarization in the ultraviolet? Skylight polarization under clouds and canopies is strongest in the UV.

    PubMed

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor

    2004-02-21

    The perception of skylight polarization in the ultraviolet (UV) by many insect species for orientation purposes is rather surprising, because both the degree of linear polarization and the radiance of light from the clear sky are considerably lower in the UV than in the blue or green. In this work we call this the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although in the past, several attempts have been made to resolve this paradox, none of them was convincing. We present here a possible quantitative resolution to the paradox. We show by a model calculation that if the air layer between a cloud and a ground-based observer is partly sunlit, the degree of linear polarization p of skylight originating from the cloudy region is highest in the UV, because in this spectral range the unpolarized UV-deficient cloudlight dilutes least the polarized light scattered in the air beneath the cloud. Similarly, if the air under foliage is partly sunlit, p of downwelling light from the canopied region is maximal in the UV, because in this part of spectrum the unpolarized UV-deficient green canopylight dilutes least the polarized light scattered in the air beneath the canopy. Therefore, the detection of polarization of downwelling light under clouds or canopies is most advantageous in the UV, in which spectral range the risk is the smallest that the degree of polarization p is lower than the threshold p(tr) of polarization sensitivity in animals. On the other hand, under clear skies there is no favoured wavelength for perception of celestial polarization, because p of skylight is high enough (p > p(tr)) at all wavelengths. We show that there is an analogy between the detection of UV skylight polarization and the polarotactic water detection in the UV. However, insects perceive skylight polarization by UV or blue or green receptors. The question, why they differ in the spectral channel used for the detection of celestial polarization cannot be answered at the present time, because data are insufficient

  9. Motion of the Jovian commensurability resonances and the character of the celestial mechanics in the asteroid zone - Implication for kinematics and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbett, M.; Smoluchowski, R.

    1982-01-01

    The motion of the Jovian commensurability resonances during the early evolution of the solar system induced by the dissipation of the accretion disk results in fundamental differences in the celestial mechanics of objects over which a resonance passes from that observed for a stationary resonance. Objects experiencing resonance passage acquire irreversible increases of average eccentricity to large values accounting for the present-day random velocities of the asteroids. Semi-major axes are similarly irreversibly decreased by amounts capable of clearing the Kirkwood gaps. The gap widths are in agreement with observation.

  10. On the co-existence of maximal and whiskered tori in the planetary three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzari, Gabriella

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss about the possibility of the coexistence of stable and unstable quasi-periodic Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (kam) tori in a region of the phase space of the three-body problem. The argument of proof goes along kam theory and, especially, the production of two non-smoothly related systems of canonical coordinates in the same region of the phase space, the possibility of which is foreseen, for "properly degenerate" systems, by a theorem of Nekhoroshev and Miščenko and Fomenko. The two coordinate systems are alternative to the classical reduction of the nodes by Jacobi, described, e.g., in Arnold ["Small denominators and problems of stability of motion in classical and celestial mechanics," 18, 85-191 (1963)].

  11. NASA Unveils Celestial Fireworks as Official Image for Hubble 25th Anniversary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-23

    The brilliant tapestry of young stars flaring to life resemble a glittering fireworks display in the 25th anniversary NASA Hubble Space Telescope image, released to commemorate a quarter century of exploring the solar system and beyond since its launch on April 24, 1990. “Hubble has completely transformed our view of the universe, revealing the true beauty and richness of the cosmos” said John Grunsfeld, astronaut and associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. “This vista of starry fireworks and glowing gas is a fitting image for our celebration of 25 years of amazing Hubble science.” The sparkling centerpiece of Hubble’s anniversary fireworks is a giant cluster of about 3,000 stars called Westerlund 2, named for Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund who discovered the grouping in the 1960s. The cluster resides in a raucous stellar breeding ground known as Gum 29, located 20,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation Carina. Read more: www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-unveils-celestial-firewor... NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  12. Smoothing and Predicting Celestial Pole Offsets using a Kalman Filter and Smoother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastula, J.; Chin, T. M.; Gross, R. S.; Winska, M.; Winska, J.

    2017-12-01

    Since the early days of interplanetary spaceflight, accounting for changes in the Earth's rotation is recognized to be critical for accurate navigation. In the 1960s, tracking anomalies during the Ranger VII and VIII lunar missions were traced to errors in the Earth orientation parameters. As a result, Earth orientation calibration methods were improved to support the Mariner IV and V planetary missions. Today, accurate Earth orientation parameters are used to track and navigate every interplanetary spaceflight mission. The interplanetary spacecraft tracking and navigation teams at JPL require the UT1 and polar motion parameters, and these Earth orientation parameters are estimated by the use of a Kalman filter to combine past measurements of these parameters and predict their future evolution. A model was then used to provide the nutation/precession components of the Earth's orientation separately. As a result, variations caused by the free core nutation were not taken into account. But for the highest accuracy, these variations must be considered. So JPL recently developed an approach based upon the use of a Kalman filter and smoother to provide smoothed and predicted celestial pole offsets (CPOs) to the interplanetary spacecraft tracking and navigation teams. The approach used at JPL to do this and an evaluation of the accuracy of the predicted CPOs will be given here.

  13. [Searching for Rare Celestial Objects Automatically from Stellar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Eight].

    PubMed

    Si, Jian-min; Luo, A-li; Wu, Fu-zhao; Wu, Yi-hong

    2015-03-01

    There are many valuable rare and unusual objects in spectra dataset of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release eight (DR8), such as special white dwarfs (DZ, DQ, DC), carbon stars, white dwarf main-sequence binaries (WDMS), cataclysmic variable (CV) stars and so on, so it is extremely significant to search for rare and unusual celestial objects from massive spectra dataset. A novel algorithm based on Kernel dense estimation and K-nearest neighborhoods (KNN) has been presented, and applied to search for rare and unusual celestial objects from 546 383 stellar spectra of SDSS DR8. Their densities are estimated using Gaussian kernel density estimation, the top 5 000 spectra in descend order by their densities are selected as rare objects, and the top 300 000 spectra in ascend order by their densities are selected as normal objects. Then, KNN were used to classify the rest objects, and simultaneously K nearest neighbors of the 5 000 rare spectra are also selected as rare objects. As a result, there are totally 21 193 spectra selected as initial rare spectra, which include error spectra caused by deletion, redden, bad calibration, spectra consisting of different physically irrelevant components, planetary nebulas, QSOs, special white dwarfs (DZ, DQ, DC), carbon stars, white dwarf main-sequence binaries (WDMS), cataclysmic variable (CV) stars and so on. By cross identification with SIMBAD, NED, ADS and major literature, it is found that three DZ white dwarfs, one WDMS, two CVs with company of G-type star, three CVs candidates, six DC white dwarfs, one DC white dwarf candidate and one BL Lacertae (BL lac) candidate are our new findings. We also have found one special DA white dwarf with emission lines of Ca II triple and Mg I, and one unknown object whose spectrum looks like a late M star with emission lines and its image looks like a galaxy or nebula.

  14. Celestial orientation with the sun not in view: lizards use a time-compensated sky polarization compass.

    PubMed

    Maoret, Francesco; Beltrami, Giulia; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was aimed at testing whether the lizard sky polarization compass is time compensated. For this purpose, ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, were both trained and tested for orientation inside a Morris water maze under clear skies with the sun not in view. During training, lizards showed a striking bimodal orientation along the training axis, demonstrating their capability of determining the symmetry plane of the sky polarization pattern and thus the use of polarization information in orientation. After reaching criteria, lizards were kept 7 days in a 6-h fast clock-shift treatment and then released with the sun not in view. Six-hour clock-shifted lizards showed a bimodal distribution of directional choices, which was oriented perpendicularly to the training axis, as it was expected on the basis of the clock-shift. The results show that the only celestial diurnal compass mechanism that does not need a direct vision of the sun disk (i.e., the sky polarization compass) is a time-compensated compass.

  15. The significance of direct sunlight and polarized skylight in the ant’s celestial system of navigation

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin

    2006-01-01

    As textbook knowledge has it, bees and ants use polarized skylight as a backup cue whenever the main compass cue, the sun, is obscured by clouds. Here we show, by employing a unique experimental paradigm, that the celestial compass system of desert ants, Cataglyphis, relies predominantly on polarized skylight. If ants experience only parts of the polarization pattern during training but the full pattern in a subsequent test situation, they systematically deviate from their true homeward courses, with the systematics depending on what parts of the skylight patterns have been presented during training. This “signature” of the polarization compass remains unaltered, even if the ants can simultaneously experience the sun, which, if presented alone, enables the ants to select their true homeward courses. Information provided by direct sunlight and polarized skylight is picked up by different parts of the ant’s compound eyes and is channeled into two rather separate systems of navigation. PMID:16888039

  16. General Methodology for Designing Spacecraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; Ocampo, Cesar; Mathur, Ravishankar; Morcos, Fady; Senent, Juan; Williams, Jacob; Davis, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology for designing spacecraft trajectories in any gravitational environment within the solar system has been developed. The methodology facilitates modeling and optimization for problems ranging from that of a single spacecraft orbiting a single celestial body to that of a mission involving multiple spacecraft and multiple propulsion systems operating in gravitational fields of multiple celestial bodies. The methodology consolidates almost all spacecraft trajectory design and optimization problems into a single conceptual framework requiring solution of either a system of nonlinear equations or a parameter-optimization problem with equality and/or inequality constraints.

  17. Measured Correlated Motion of theThree Body Coulomb Interacting System H^+ + H^+ + H^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, L. M.

    1998-05-01

    The problem of three bodies interacting through a 1/r potential is a fundamental problem of physics. While its longstanding fame stems from its application to celestial mechanics, in atomic physics its importance arises from application to Coulomb-interacting systems, in which all three bodies carry some net charge. Because the three bodies interact through long range Coulomb forces over their entire path, their motion can be highly correlated. The effect of the interaction among the three bodies and any resulting correlated motion is reflected in how the available energy is ultimately shared among the three particles. By experimentally determining the energy sharing in a three body system, we can gain insight into the interactions governing the system. For the three body Coulomb interacting system of H^+ + H^+ + H^-, we have measured the partitioning of available center of mass (c.m.) energy among the particles when the system is in a near collinear configuration. By colliding 4 keV H_3^+ with a He target gas cell, we produce the H^+ + H^+ + H^- system a few eV above the dissociative limit. All three fragments are laboratory energy and angle resolved. By detecting all three in triple coincidence, we determine unambiguously the final state dynamics for each triply coincident event. Transforming our results to the c.m. frame, we determine the partitioning of available energy among the three particles. We have modified the Dalitz plot of high energy physics to elucidate correlations in the motion of any three body atomic system. Correlated motion in the H^+ + H^+ + H^- system is indicated by a nonuniform distribution on the Dalitz plot. For the near collinear breakup of H_3^+, we have observed the H^- to reside anywhere between the two H^+, from the Coulomb saddle point to the near vicinity of a proton. This work is supported by NSF Grant Number 9419505.

  18. Research in the Restricted Problems of Three and Four Bodies Final Scientific Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Paul B.; Bernstein, Irwin S.; Chai, Winchung A.; Cronin, Jane; Ellis, Jordan; Fine, William E.; Kass, Sheldon; Musa, Samuel A.; Russell, Lawrence H.

    1968-01-01

    Seven studies have been conducted on research in the existence and nature of solutions of the restricted problems of three and four bodies. The details and results of five of these research investigations have already been published, and the latest two studies will be published shortly. A complete bibliography of publications is included in this report. This research has been primarily qualitative and has yielded new information on the behavior of trajectories near the libration points in the Earth-Moon-Sun and Sun-Jupiter-Saturn systems, and on the existence of periodic trajectories about the libration points of the circular and elliptical restricted four-body models. We have also implemented Birkhoff's normalization process for conservative and nonconservative Hamiltonian systems with equilibrium points. This makes available a technique for analyzing stability properties of certain nonlinear dynamical systems, and we have applied this technique to the circular and elliptical restricted three-body models. A related study was also conducted to determine the feasibility of using cislunar periodic trajectories for various space missions. Preliminary results suggest that this concept is attractive for space flight safety operations in cislunar space. Results of this research will be of interest to mathematicians, particularly those working in ordinary differential equations, dynamical systems and celestial mechanics; to astronomers; and to space guidance and mission analysts.

  19. THE CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME AT 24 AND 43 GHz. II. IMAGING

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Charlot, P.; Boboltz, D. A.; Fey, A. L.

    2010-05-15

    We have measured the submilliarcsecond structure of 274 extragalactic sources at 24 and 43 GHz in order to assess their astrometric suitability for use in a high-frequency celestial reference frame (CRF). Ten sessions of observations with the Very Long Baseline Array have been conducted over the course of {approx}5 years, with a total of 1339 images produced for the 274 sources. There are several quantities that can be used to characterize the impact of intrinsic source structure on astrometric observations including the source flux density, the flux density variability, the source structure index, the source compactness, and the compactness variability.more » A detailed analysis of these imaging quantities shows that (1) our selection of compact sources from 8.4 GHz catalogs yielded sources with flux densities, averaged over the sessions in which each source was observed, of about 1 Jy at both 24 and 43 GHz, (2) on average the source flux densities at 24 GHz varied by 20%-25% relative to their mean values, with variations in the session-to-session flux density scale being less than 10%, (3) sources were found to be more compact with less intrinsic structure at higher frequencies, and (4) variations of the core radio emission relative to the total flux density of the source are less than 8% on average at 24 GHz. We conclude that the reduction in the effects due to source structure gained by observing at higher frequencies will result in an improved CRF and a pool of high-quality fiducial reference points for use in spacecraft navigation over the next decade.« less

  20. Water in the trail of the Chelyabinsk bolide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladysheva, O. G.

    2017-09-01

    At 03:20 UTC on February 15, 2013 a very bright bolide entered Earth's atmosphere. Fragments of the meteorite fell to the earth's surface. Examination of these fragments revealed that several of them were located directly on the surface of the celestial body [1], while the majority lay at a depth of less than 2.5 m from the surface [2, 3]. The stone meteorite's durability, >15 MPa, corresponded to <1% of the initial mass, while the rest of the object possessed a low durability of 1 MPa [4]. Moreover, Fe3+ hydroxyls were discovered in meteorite samples, the formation of which required water [5]. The glow at the head of the bolide trail, lasting 8 seconds after the flight of the object, and the development of the cloud trail indicate that the celestial body carried water. The Chinese weather satellite Feng-Yun 2D discovered ice debris (water) in the bolide trail [6]. Here, we will demonstrate that the Chelyabinsk chondrite was delivered to the Earth by an ice-bearing celestial body.

  1. On the asteroid hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneev, T. M.; Akhmetshin, R. Z.; Efimov, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    The concept of "space patrol" is considered, aimed at discovering and cataloging the majority of celestial bodies that constitute a menace for the Earth [1, 2]. The scheme of "optical barrier" formed by telescopes of the space patrol is analyzed, requirements to the observation system are formulated, and some schemes of sighting the optical barrier region are suggested (for reliable detection of the celestial bodies approaching the Earth and for determination of their orbits). A comparison is made of capabilities of electro-jet engines and traditional chemical engines for arrangement of patrol spacecraft constellation in the Earth's orbit.

  2. The Størmer problem for an aligned rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, V.; Pervukhina, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    The effective potential energy of the particles in the field of rotating uniformly magnetized celestial body is investigated. The axis of rotation coincides with the axis of the magnetic field. Electromagnetic field of the body is composed of a dipole magnetic and quadrupole electric fields. The geometry of the trapping regions is studied as a function of the magnetic field magnitude and the rotation speed of the body. Examples of the potential energy topology for different values of these parameters are given. The main difference from the classical Størmer problem is that the single toroidal trapping region predicted by Størmer is divided into equatorial and off-equatorial trapping regions. Applicability of the idealized model of a rotating uniformly magnetized sphere with a vacuum magnetosphere to real celestial bodies is discussed.

  3. The lizard celestial compass detects linearly polarized light in the blue.

    PubMed

    Beltrami, Giulia; Parretta, Antonio; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Buttini, Paola; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

    2012-09-15

    The present study first examined whether ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, are able to orientate using plane-polarized light produced by an LCD screen. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside a hexagonal Morris water maze positioned under an LCD screen producing white polarized light with a single E-vector, which provided an axial cue. White polarized light did not include wavelengths in the UV. Lizards orientated correctly either when tested with E-vector parallel to the training axis or after 90 deg rotation of the E-vector direction, thus validating the apparatus. Further experiments examined whether there is a preferential region of the light spectrum to perceive the E-vector direction of polarized light. For this purpose, lizards reaching learning criteria under white polarized light were subdivided into four experimental groups. Each group was tested for orientation under a different spectrum of plane-polarized light (red, green, cyan and blue) with equalized photon flux density. Lizards tested under blue polarized light orientated correctly, whereas lizards tested under red polarized light were completely disoriented. Green polarized light was barely discernible by lizards, and thus insufficient for a correct functioning of their compass. When exposed to cyan polarized light, lizard orientation performances were optimal, indistinguishable from lizards detecting blue polarized light. Overall, the present results demonstrate that perception of linear polarization in the blue is necessary - and sufficient - for a proper functioning of the sky polarization compass of ruin lizards. This may be adaptively important, as detection of polarized light in the blue improves functioning of the polarization compass under cloudy skies, i.e. when the alternative celestial compass based on detection of the sun disk is rendered useless because the sun is obscured by clouds.

  4. Coherent Backscattering and Opposition Effects Observed in Some Atmosphereless Bodies of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    The results of photometric and polarimetric observations carried out for some bright atmosphere-less bodies of the Solar system near the zero phase angle reveal the simultaneous existence of two spectacular optical phenomena, the so-called brightness and polarization opposition effects. In a number of studies, these phenomena were explained by the influence of coherent backscattering. However, in general, the interference concept of coherent backscattering can be used only in the case where the particles are in the far-field zones of each other, i.e., when the scattering medium is rather rarefied. Because of this, it is important to prove rigorously and to demonstrate that the coherent backscattering effect may also exist in densely packed scattering media like regolith surface layers of celestial bodies. From the results of the computer modeling performed with the use of numerically exact solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations for discrete random media with different packing densities of particles, we studied the origin and evolution of all the opposition phenomena predicted by the coherent backscattering theory for low-packing-density media. It has been shown that the predictions of this theory remain valid for rather high-packing densities of particles that are typical, in particular, of regolith surfaces of the Solar system bodies. The results allow us to conclude that both opposition effects observed simultaneously in some high-albedo atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system are caused precisely by coherent backscattering of solar light in the regolith layers composed of microscopic particles.

  5. "The Sky's Things", |xam Bushman 'Astrological Mythology' as recorded in the Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollman, J. C.

    2007-07-01

    The Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts are an extraordinary resource that comprises some 12 000 pages of |xam Bushman beliefs collected in the 1870s in Cape Town, South Africa. About 17% of the collection concerns beliefs and observations of celestial bodies. This paper summarises |xam knowledge about the origins of the celestial bodies as recorded in the manuscripts and situates this within the larger context of the |xam worldview. The stars and planets originate from a mythological past in which they lived as 'people' who hunted and gathered as the |xam did in the past, but who also had characteristics that were to make them the entities that we recognise today. Certain astronomical bodies have consciousness and supernatural potency. They exert an influence over people's everyday lives.

  6. Star Watch: The Amateur Astronomer's Guide to Finding, Observing, and Learning about Over 125 Celestial Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Philip S.

    2003-07-01

    Your Passport to the Universe The night sky is alive with many wonders--distant planets, vast star clusters, glowing nebulae, and expansive galaxies, all waiting to be explored. Let respected astronomy writer Philip Harrington introduce you to the universe in Star Watch, a complete beginner's guide to locating, observing, and understanding these celestial objects. You'll start by identifying the surface features of the Moon, the banded cloud tops of Jupiter, the stunning rings of Saturn, and other members of our solar system. Then you'll venture out beyond our solar system, where you'll learn tips and tricks for finding outstanding deep-sky objects from stars to galaxies, including the entire Messier catalog--a primary goal of every serious beginner. Star Watch features a detailed physical description of each target, including size, distance, and structure, as well as concise directions for locating the objects, handy finder charts, hints on the best times to view each object, and descriptions of what you'll really see through a small telescope or binoculars and with the naked eye. Star Watch will transport you to the farthest depths of space--and return you as a well-traveled, experienced stargazer.

  7. From Science Reserves to Sustainable Multiple Uses beyond Earth orbit: Evaluating Issues on the Path towards Balanced Environmental Management on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret

    Over the past five decades, our understanding of space beyond Earth orbit has been shaped by a succession of mainly robotic missions whose technologies have enabled scientists to answer diverse science questions about celestial bodies across the solar system. For all that time, exploration has been guided by planetary protection policies and principles promulgated by COSPAR and based on provisions in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. Over time, implementation of the various COSPAR planetary protection policies have sought to avoid harmful forward and backward contamination in order to ensure the integrity of science findings, guide activities on different celestial bodies, and appropriately protect Earth whenever extraterrestrial materials have been returned. The recent increased interest in extending both human missions and commercial activities beyond Earth orbit have prompted discussions in various quarters about the need for updating policies and guidelines to ensure responsible, balanced space exploration and use by all parties, regardless whether activities are undertaken by governmental or non-governmental entities. Already, numerous researchers and workgroups have suggested a range of different ways to manage activities on celestial environments (e.g, wilderness parks, exclusion zones, special regions, claims, national research bases, environmental impact assessments, etc.). While the suggestions are useful in thinking about how to manage future space activities, they are not based on any systematically applied or commonly accepted criteria (scientific or otherwise). In addition, they are borrowed from terrestrial approaches for environmental protection, which may or may not have direct applications to space environments. As noted in a recent COSPAR-PEX workshop (GWU 2012), there are no clear definitions of issues such as harmful contamination, the environment to be protected, or what are considered reasonable activity or impacts for particular

  8. AstroNavigation: Freely-available Online Instruction for Performing a Sight Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner Stewart, Susan; Grundstrom, Erika; Caudel, Dave

    2015-08-01

    A reliable method of obtaining your geographic location from observations of celestial bodies is globally available. This online learning module, developed through a collaboration between Vanderbilt University and the U.S. Naval Observatory, serves to address the need for freely-available comprehensive instruction in celestial navigation online. Specifically targeted are the steps of preforming a sight reduction to obtain a terrestrial position using this technique. Difficult concepts such as plotting on a navigational chart and the complexities of using navigation publications are facilitated through this online content delivery, rooted in effective course design principles. There is good potential in using celestial navigation as a tool for stimulating interest in astronomy given its resourcefulness and accessibility.

  9. The Green Bank North Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. III. 45 New Pulsar Timing Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Swiggum, Joseph K.; Kondratiev, Vlad I.; Kaplan, David L.; Stovall, Kevin; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Levin, Lina; DeCesar, Megan E.; Cui, Bingyi; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gatkine, Pradip; Archibald, Anne M.; Banaszak, Shawn; Biwer, Christopher M.; Boyles, Jason; Chawla, Pragya; Dartez, Louis P.; Day, David; Ford, Anthony J.; Flanigan, Joseph; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Hinojosa, Jesus; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Karako-Argaman, Chen; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Leake, Sean; Lunsford, Grady; Martinez, José G.; Mata, Alberto; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Noori, Hind Al; Ransom, Scott M.; Rohr, Matthew D.; Siemens, Xavier; Spiewak, Renée; Stairs, Ingrid H.; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Walker, Arielle N.; Wells, Bradley L.

    2018-06-01

    We provide timing solutions for 45 radio pulsars discovered by the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. These pulsars were found in the Green Bank North Celestial Cap pulsar survey, an all-GBT-sky survey being carried out at a frequency of 350 {MHz}. We include pulsar timing data from the Green Bank Telescope and Low Frequency Array. Our sample includes five fully recycled millisecond pulsars (MSPs, three of which are in a binary system), a new relativistic double neutron star system, an intermediate-mass binary pulsar, a mode-changing pulsar, a 138 ms pulsar with a very low magnetic field, and several nulling pulsars. We have measured two post-Keplerian parameters and thus the masses of both objects in the double neutron star system. We also report a tentative companion mass measurement via Shapiro delay in a binary MSP. Two of the MSPs can be timed with high precision and have been included in pulsar timing arrays being used to search for low-frequency gravitational waves, while a third MSP is a member of the black widow class of binaries. Proper motion is measurable in five pulsars, and we provide an estimate of their space velocity. We report on an optical counterpart to a new black widow system and provide constraints on the optical counterparts to other binary MSPs. We also present a preliminary analysis of nulling pulsars in our sample. These results demonstrate the scientific return of long timing campaigns on pulsars of all types.

  10. Anania Shirakatsi's Cosmographical and Natural Philosophical Views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielyan, Eduard

    2014-10-01

    The observation of the heaven and celestial bodies has taken place since ancient times in the Armenian Highland. The notions of the sphericity of the Earth and celestial bodies, and other theses (about elements, comparative sizes of celestial bodies, antipodes, earthquakes, criticism of astrology, etc.) were reflected and elaborated in "Cosmography" of Anania Shirakatsi (VII century AD), as well as "Ashkharhatsoyts" ("Geography") of Movses Khorenatsi (V century AD) and his continuer Anania Shirakatsi. The road of observation and study of the Milky Way - the fundamental kernel of the development of astronomy - has led the human mind to galaxies, the cognition of the infinite capabilities of the development of matter, that is to say, from the studies of the elements constituting the Earth and other spherical bodies in the Universe (studied by Aristotle) to the Heliocentric system by Copernicus (1473-1543), from the cosmogonic ideas of Democritus (460-370 BC) about the multitude of worlds and the character of the Milky Way and their reflection in natural philosophic views of Anania Shirakatsi to the discovery of non-stationary objects and processes in the Universe owing to the activity of the nuclei of galaxies, according to the cosmogonic conception of academician Victor Ambartsumyan. Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage greatly contributed to the development of Armenian and world natural scientific thought.

  11. On the role of covariance information for GRACE K-band observations in the Celestial Mechanics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentel, Katrin; Meyer, Ulrich; Arnold, Daniel; Jean, Yoomin; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    The Astronomical Institute at the University of Bern (AIUB) derives static and time-variable gravity fields by means of the Celestial Mechanics Approach (CMA) from GRACE (level 1B) data. This approach makes use of the close link between orbit and gravity field determination. GPS-derived kinematic GRACE orbit positions, inter-satellite K-band observations, which are the core observations of GRACE, and accelerometer data are combined to rigorously estimate orbit and spherical harmonic gravity field coefficients in one adjustment step. Pseudo-stochastic orbit parameters are set up to absorb unmodeled noise. The K-band range measurements in along-track direction lead to a much higher correlation of the observations in this direction compared to the other directions and thus, to north-south stripes in the unconstrained gravity field solutions, so-called correlated errors. By using a full covariance matrix for the K-band observations the correlation can be taken into account. One possibility is to derive correlation information from post-processing K-band residuals. This is then used in a second iteration step to derive an improved gravity field solution. We study the effects of pre-defined covariance matrices and residual-derived covariance matrices on the final gravity field product with the CMA.

  12. Integration of celestial compass cues in the central complex of the locust brain.

    PubMed

    Pegel, Uta; Pfeiffer, Keram; Homberg, Uwe

    2018-01-29

    Many insects rely on celestial compass cues such as the polarization pattern of the sky for spatial orientation. In the desert locust, the central complex (CX) houses multiple sets of neurons, sensitive to the oscillation plane of polarized light and thus probably acts as an internal polarization compass. We investigated whether other sky compass cues like direct sunlight or the chromatic gradient of the sky might contribute to this compass. We recorded from polarization-sensitive CX neurons while an unpolarized green or ultraviolet light spot was moved around the head of the animal. All types of neuron that were sensitive to the plane of polarization ( E -vector) above the animal also responded to the unpolarized light spots in an azimuth-dependent way. The tuning to the unpolarized light spots was independent of wavelength, suggesting that the neurons encode solar azimuth based on direct sunlight and not on the sky chromatic gradient. Two cell types represented the natural 90 deg relationship between solar azimuth and zenithal E -vector orientation, providing evidence to suggest that solar azimuth information supports the internal polarization compass. Most neurons showed advances in their tuning to the E -vector and the unpolarized light spots dependent on rotation direction, consistent with anticipatory signaling. The amplitude of responses and its variability were dependent on the level of background firing, possibly indicating different internal states. The integration of polarization and solar azimuth information strongly suggests that besides the polarization pattern of the sky, direct sunlight might be an important cue for sky compass navigation in the locust. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. SELMA mission: How do airless bodies interact with space environment? The Moon as an accessible laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Wurz, Peter; Hurley, Dana; Horányi, Mihaly; Mall, Urs; Andre, Nicolas; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Oberst, Jürgen; Retherford, Kurt; Coates, Andrew; Masters, Adam; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Kallio, Esa; SELMA Proposal Team

    2018-07-01

    The Moon is an archetypal atmosphere-less celestial body in the Solar System. For such bodies, the environments are characterized by complex interaction among the space plasma, tenuous neutral gas, dust and the outermost layer of the surface. Here we propose the SELMA mission (Surface, Environment, and Lunar Magnetic Anomalies) to study how airless bodies interact with space environment. SELMA uses a unique combination of remote sensing via ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, and energetic neutral atom imaging, as well as in situ measurements of exospheric gas, plasma, and dust at the Moon. After observations in a lunar orbit for one year, SELMA will conduct an impact experiment to investigate volatile content in the soil of the permanently shadowed area of the Shackleton crater. SELMA also carries an impact probe to sound the Reiner-Gamma mini-magnetosphere and its interaction with the lunar regolith from the SELMA orbit down to the surface. SELMA was proposed to the European Space Agency as a medium-class mission (M5) in October 2016. Research on the SELMA scientific themes is of importance for fundamental planetary sciences and for our general understanding of how the Solar System works. In addition, SELMA outcomes will contribute to future lunar explorations through qualitative characterization of the lunar environment and, in particular, investigation of the presence of water in the lunar soil, as a valuable resource to harvest from the lunar regolith.

  14. Macro And Microcosmus: Moon Influence On The Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchin, Giorgio

    Belief in the action of the macrocosmus, i.e., celestial bodies, on the microcosmus, i.e., on man, goes back to the dawn of human thinking. More specifically, lunar phases have been considered to act on behaviour and on physiological functions. This possible relationship has not only been taken for granted for many centuries in ancient medicine but also investigated in a number of modern published works, mainly on the issues of emergency activity; violent behaviour; car accidents; drug overdose; menses and birth; and mood disorders. Indeed, if the idea that the stars and planets may influence human health and behaviour can be traced so far in the past, it seems that not only the laymen but a high proportion of health professionals continue to hold this credence: recently, in New Orleans a questionnaire sent to 325 people indicated that 140 individuals (43%) held the opinion that lunar phenomena alter personal behaviour. Specifically, it came out that mental health professionals (social workers, clinical psychologists, nurses' aides) held this belief more strongly than other occupational groups (Vance, 1995). A short historical outline of some old beliefs and the results of contemporary research on this fascinating, time-honoured field, will be presented.

  15. Effects of Energy Dissipation in the Sphere-Restricted Full Three-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, T. S. J.

    Recently, the classical N-Body Problem has been adjusted to account for celestial bodies made of constituents of finite density. By imposing a minima on the achievable distance between particles, minimum energy resting states are allowed by the problem. The Full N-Body Problem allows for the dissipation of mechanical energy through surface-surface interactions via impacts or by way of tidal deformation. Barring exogeneous forces and allowing for the dissipation of energy, these systems have discrete, and sometimes multiple, minimum energy states for a given angular momentum. Building the dynamical framework of such finite density systems is a necessary process in outlining the evolution of rubble pile asteroids and other gravitational-granular systems such as protoplanetary discs, and potentially planetary rings, from a theoretical point of view. In all cases, resting states are expected to occur as a necessary step in the ongoing processes of solar system formation and evolution. Previous studies of this problem have been performed in the N=3 case where the bodies are indistinguishable spheres, with all possible relative equilibria and their stability having been identified as a function of the angular momentum of the system. These studies uncovered that at certain levels of angular momentum there exists two minimum energy states, a global and local minimum. Thus a question of interest is in which of these states a dissipative system would preferentially settle and the sensitivity of results to changes in dissipation parameters. Assuming equal-sized, perfectly-rigid bodies, this study investigates the dynamical evolution of three spheres under the influence of mutual gravity and impact mechanics as a function of dissipation parameters. A purpose-written, C-based, Hard Sphere Discrete Element Method code has been developed to integrate trajectories and resolve contact mechanics as grains evolve into minimum energy configurations. By testing many randomized initial

  16. Einstein contra Aristotle: The sound from the heavens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, J. C. S.

    2017-09-01

    In "On the Heavens" Aristotle criticizes the Pythagorean point of view which claims the existence of a cosmic music and a cosmic sound. According to the Pythagorean argument, there exists a cosmic music produced by stars and planets. These celestial bodies generate sound in its movements, and the music appears due to the cosmic harmony. For Aristotle, there is no sound produced by celestial bodies. Then, there is no music as well. However, recently, LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory) has detected the gravitational waves predicted by Einstein. In some sense, a sound originated from black holes has been heard. That is, Einstein or the General Relativity and LIGO appear to be with the Pythagoreanism and against the master of the Lyceum.

  17. Different orders of lives in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, M. K.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, main life sensitive elements involved in life creating processes on earth have been explored. An in-depth study has been made to search out material abundances of all life sensitive elements in the periodic table mainly on earth, celestial bodies like star, binary stars, extra-solar system, extra solar planets and galaxies etc. at large. Extensive review has been made to project how life processes are being triggered in our earth and intakes required for continuous metabolism, mutation, reproducibility etc. Finally on the basis of ideas developed about the life processes on earth, other life chains that may happen to exist on other celestial bodies have been predicted. The constraints and barriers that stand in the way of communications have also been pointed out.

  18. Research of small bodies motion prognosis effectivity on cluster "Skif Cyberia". (Russian Title: Исследование эффективности прогнозирования движения малых тел Солнечной системы на кластере "Skif Cyberia")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    The results of the experimental estimations on cluster "Skif Cyberia" of Everhart's numerical integration accuracy and rapidness are presented. The integration has been carried out for celestial bodies' equations of motion such as N-body problem equations and perturbed two-body problem equations. In the last case the perturbing bodies' coordinates are being taked during calculations from the ephemeris DE406. The accuracy and rapidness estimations have been made by means of forward and backward integrations with various values of Everhart method parameters of motion equations of the short-periodic comet Herschel-Rigollet. The optimal combinations of these parameters have been obtained. The research has been made both for 16-digit decimal accuracy and for 34-digit one.

  19. Small Bodies: Near and Far (SBNAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, Rene; Mueller, Thomas G.; Marciniak, Anna; Santana-Ros, Toni; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Estela, Fernandez-Valenzuela; Kiss, Csaba; Erika, Verebelyi; Bartczak, Przemyslaw; Magda, Butkiewicz-Bak; Dudziński, Grzegorz; Robert, Szakáts; Farkas Aniko, Takácsné

    2016-10-01

    We conduct an EU Horizon2020-funded benchmark study (2016-2019) that addresses critical points in reconstructing physical and thermal properties of near-Earth, main-belt, and trans-Neptunian objects. The combination of the visual and thermal data from the ground andfrom astrophysics missions (like Herschel, Spitzer and Akari) is key to improving the scientific understanding of these objects. The development of new tools will be crucial for the interpretation of much larger data sets from WISE, Gaia, JWST, or NEOShield-2, but also for the operations and scientific exploitation of the Hayabusa-2 mission. Our approach is to combine different methods and techniques to get full information on selected bodies: lightcurve inversion, stellar occultations, thermo-physical modeling, radiometric methods, radar ranging and adaptive optics imaging. The applications to objects with ground-truth information from interplanetary missions Hayabusa, NEAR-Shoemaker, Rosetta, and DAWN allows us to advance the techniques beyond the current state-of-the-art and to assess the limitations of each method.The SBNAF project will derive size, spin and shape, thermal inertia, surface roughness, and in some cases even internal structure and composition, out to the most distant objects in the Solar System. Another important aim is to build accurate thermo-physical asteroid modelsto establish new primary and secondary celestial calibrators for ALMA, SOFIA, APEX, and IRAM, as well as to provide a link to the high-quality calibration standards of Herschel and Planck.The target list comprises recent interplanetary mission targets, two samples of main-beltobjects, representatives of the Trojan and Centaur populations, and all known dwarf planets (and candidates) beyond Neptune. Our team combines world- leading expertise in different scientific areas in a new European partnership with a high synergy potential in the field ofsmall body and dwarf planet characterization, related to astrophysics, Earth

  20. Four Classical Methods for Determining Planetary Elliptic Elements: A Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celletti, Alessandra; Pinzari, Gabriella

    2005-09-01

    The discovery of the asteroid Ceres by Piazzi in 1801 motivated the development of a mathematical technique proposed by Gauss, (Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Moving about the Sun in Conic Sections, 1963) which allows to recover the orbit of a celestial body starting from a minimum of three observations. Here we compare the method proposed by Gauss (Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Moving about the Sun in Conic Sections, New York, 1963) with the techniques (based on three observations) developed by Laplace (Collected Works 10, 93 146, 1780) and by Mossotti (Memoria Postuma, 1866). We also consider another method developed by Mossotti (Nuova analisi del problema di determinare le orbite dei corpi celesti, 1816 1818), based on four observations. We provide a theoretical and numerical comparison among the different procedures. As an application, we consider the computation of the orbit of the asteroid Juno.

  1. Monthly gravity field solutions based on GRACE observations generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission consists of determining the temporal variations of the Earth's gravity field. These variations are captured by time series of gravity field models of limited resolution at, e.g., monthly intervals. We present a new time series of monthly models, which was computed with the so-called Celestial Mechanics Approach (CMA), developed at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB). The secular and seasonal variations in the monthly models are tested for statistical significance. Calibrated errors are derived from inter-annual variations. The time-variable signal can be extracted at least up to degree 60, but the gravity field coefficients of orders above 45 are heavily contaminated by noise. This is why a series of monthly models is computed up to a maximum degree of 60, but only a maximum order of 45. Spectral analysis of the residual time-variable signal shows a distinctive peak at a period of 160 days, which shows up in particular in the C20 spherical harmonic coefficient. Basic filter- and scaling-techniques are introduced to evaluate the monthly models. For this purpose, the variability over the oceans is investigated, which serves as a measure for the noisiness of the models. The models in selected regions show the expected seasonal and secular variations, which are in good agreement with the monthly models of the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). The results also reveal a few small outliers, illustrating the necessity for improved data screening. Our monthly models are available at the web page of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM).

  2. The discovery of silicon oxide nanoparticles in space-weathered of Apollo 15 lunar soil grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lixin; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Sen; Noguchi, Takaaki; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Lin, Yangting

    2018-03-01

    Space weathering is an important process on the Moon and other airless celestial bodies. The most common space weathering effects are amorphization of the top surface of soil grains and formation of nanophase iron particles (npFe) within the partially amorphous rims. Hence, space weathering significantly affects optical properties of the surface of the Moon and other airless celestial bodies. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis of Apollo 15 soil grains displays npFe (≤5 nm in size) embedded in the space-weathered rim (∼60 nm in thickness) of a pyroxene grain, consistent with previous studies. In contrast, submicron-sized fragments that adhere to the pyroxene grain show distinct space weathering features. Silicon oxide nanoparticles (npSiOx) were observed with npFe in a submicron-sized Mg-Fe silicate fragment. This is the first discovery of npSiOx as a product of space weathering. The npSiOx and the coexisting npFe are ∼10-25 nm in size, significantly larger than the typical npFe in the space weathered rim of the pyroxene grain. The coexisting npSiOx and npFe were probably formed directly in micrometeorite shock-induced melt, instead of in a solar-wind generated vapor deposit or irradiated rim. This new observation will shed light on space weathering processes on the Moon and airless celestial bodies.

  3. Shadow mechanism and the opposition effect of brightness of atmosphereless celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozhenko, A. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2013-09-01

    We consider the Irvine-Yanovistkii modification of the shadow model developed by Hapke for the opposition effect of brightness. The relation between the single scattering albedo ω and the transparency coefficient of particles κ is suggested to be used in the form κ = (1 - ω) n, which allows the number of unknowns in the model to be reduced to two parameters (the packing density of particles g and ω) and the single-scattering phase function Ξ(α). The analysis of spectrophotometric measurements of the moon and Mars showed that the data on the observed opposition effect and the changes in the color index with the phase angle α well agree if the values of n = 0.25 and g = 0.4 (the moon) and 0.6 (Mars) are assumed in calculations. When being applied to asteroids of several types, this method also yielded a satisfactory agreement. For the E-type asteroids, the sets of parameters are [g = 0.6, ω = 0.6, A g = 0.21, and q = 0.83] or [g = 0.3, ω = 0.4, A g = 0.15, and q = 0.71] under the Martian single-scattering phase function; for the M-type asteroids, it is [g = 0.4, ω ≤ 0.1, A g ≤ 0.075, and q ≤ 0.42] under the lunar single-scattering phase function; for the S-type asteroids, it is [g = 0.4, ω = 0.4, A g = 0.28, and q = 0.49] under the lunar single-scattering phase function; and for the C-type asteroids, it is [g = 0.6, ω ≤ 0.1, A g ≤ 0.075, and q = 0.43] under the modified lunar single-scattering phase function. The polarization measurements fulfilled by Gehrels et al. (1964) for the bright feature on the lunar surface, Copernicus (L = -20°08', φ = +10°11'), at a phase angle α = 1.6° revealed the deviations in the position of the polarization plane from that typical for the negative branch. They were 22° and 12° in the G and I filters, respectively. At the same time, the deviation was within the error (±3° in the U filter and for the dark feature Plato (L = -10°32', φ = +51°25'), which can be caused by the coherent mechanism of the formation of the polarization peak.

  4. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  5. Astrometry for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, William F.

    Part I. Astrometry in the Twenty-First Century: 1. Opportunities and challenges for astrometry in the twenty-first century M. Perryman; 2. Astrometric satellites L. Lindegren; 3. Ground-based opportunities for astrometry N. Zacharias; Part II. Relativistic Foundations of Astrometry and Celestial Mechanics: 4. Vectors in astrometry, an introduction L. Lindegren; 5. Relativistic principles of astrometry and celestial mechanics S. Klioner; 6. Celestial mechanics of the N-body problem S. Klioner; 7. Celestial coordinate systems and positions N. Capitaine and M. Stavinschi; 8. Fundamental algorithms for celestial coordinates and positions P. Wallace; Part III. Observing through the Atmosphere: 9. The Earth's atmosphere: refraction, turbulence, delays and limitations to astrometic precision W. van Altena and E. Fomalont; 10. Astrometry with ground-based diffraction-limited imaging A. Ghez; 11. Optical interferometry A. Glindermann; 12. Radio interferometry E. Fomalont; Part VI. From Detected Photons to the Celestial Sphere: 13. Geometrical optics and astrometry D. Schroeder; 14. CCD imaging detectors S. Howell; 15. Using CCDs in the time-delayed integration mode D. Rabinowitz; 16. Statistical astronomy A. Brown; 17. Analyzing poorly-sampled images: HST imaging astrometry J. Anderson; 18. Image deconvolution J. Nuñez; 19. From measures to celestial coordinates Z. H. Tang and W. van Altena; 20. Astrometric catalogs: concepts, history and necessity C. López; 21. Trigonometric parallaxes F. Benedict and B. McArthur; Part V. Applications of Astrometry to Topics in Astrophysics: 22. Galactic structure astrometry R. Méndez; 23. Binary and multiple stars E. Horch; 24. Binaries: HST, Hipparcos and Gaia D. Pourbaix; 25. Star clusters I. Platais; 26. Solar System astrometry F. Mignard; 27. Extrasolar planets A. Sozzetti; 28. Astrometric measurement and cosmology R. Easther; Appendices; Index.

  6. Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Lajos G.

    The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating

  7. Gravitational mechanism of active life of the Earth, planets and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    From positions of geodynamic model of the forced gravitational swing, wobble and displacements of shells of a planet are studied and fundamental problems of geodynamics, geology, geophysics, planetary sciences are solved etc.: 1) The mechanism of cyclic variations of activity of natural processes in various time scales. 2) The power of endogenous activity of planetary natural processes on planets and satellites. 3) The phenomenon of polar inversion of natural processes on planets and satellites. 4) Spasmodic and catastrophic changes of activity of natural processes. 5) The phenomenon of twisting of hemispheres (latitude zones or belts) of celestial bodies. 6) Formation of the pear-shaped form of celestial bodies and the mechanism of its change. 7) The ordered planetary structures of geological formations. 8) The phenomena of bipolarity of celestial bodies and antipodality of geology formations. Mechanism. The fundamental feature of a structure of celestial bodies is their shell structure. The most investigated is the internal structure of the Earth. For the Moon and wide set of other bodies of solar system models of an internal structure have been constructed on the basis of the data of observations obtained at studying of their gravitational fields as a result of realization of the appropriate space missions. The basic components for the majority of celestial bodies are the core, the mantle and the crust. To other shells we concern atmospheres (for example, at Venus, Mars, the Titan etc.) and oceanic shells (the Titan, the Earth, Enceladus etc.). Shells are the complex (composite) formations. Planets and satellites are not spherical celestial bodies. The centers of mass of shells of the given planet (or the satellite) and their appropriate principal axes of inertia do not coincide. Accordingly, all their shells are characterized by the certain dynamic oblatenesses. Differences of dynamical oblatenesses results in various forced influences of external celestial

  8. Astrometry for Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, William F.

    2012-11-01

    Part I. Astrometry in the Twenty-First Century: 1. Opportunities and challenges for astrometry in the twenty-first century M. Perryman; 2. Astrometric satellites L. Lindegren; 3. Ground-based opportunities for astrometry N. Zacharias; Part II. Relativistic Foundations of Astrometry and Celestial Mechanics: 4. Vectors in astrometry, an introduction L. Lindegren; 5. Relativistic principles of astrometry and celestial mechanics S. Klioner; 6. Celestial mechanics of the N-body problem S. Klioner; 7. Celestial coordinate systems and positions N. Capitaine and M. Stavinschi; 8. Fundamental algorithms for celestial coordinates and positions P. Wallace; Part III. Observing through the Atmosphere: 9. The Earth's atmosphere: refraction, turbulence, delays and limitations to astrometic precision W. van Altena and E. Fomalont; 10. Astrometry with ground-based diffraction-limited imaging A. Ghez; 11. Optical interferometry A. Glindermann; 12. Radio interferometry E. Fomalont; Part VI. From Detected Photons to the Celestial Sphere: 13. Geometrical optics and astrometry D. Schroeder; 14. CCD imaging detectors S. Howell; 15. Using CCDs in the time-delayed integration mode D. Rabinowitz; 16. StaStatistical astronomy A. Brown; 17. Analyzing poorly-sampled images: HST imaging astrometry J. Anderson; 18. Image deconvolution J. Nuñez; 19. From measures to celestial coordinates Z. H. Tang and W. van Altena; 20. Astrometric catalogs: concepts , history and necessity C. Löpez; 21. Trigonometric parallaxes F. Benedict and B. McArthur; Part V. Applications of Astrometry to Topics in Astrophysics: 22. Galactic structure astrometry R. Méndez; 23. Binary and multiple stars E. Horch; 24. Binaries: HST, Hipparcos and Gaia D. Pourbaix; 25. Star clusters I. Platais; 26. Solar System astrometry F. Mignard; 27. Extrasolar planets A. Sozzetti; 28. Astrometric measurement and cosmology R. Easther; Appendices; Index.

  9. The Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap Pulsar Survey. II. The Discovery and Timing of 10 Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawash, A. M.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; DeCesar, M. E.; Levin, L.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R. S.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J. K.; Fonseca, E.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Boyles, J.; Cui, B.; Dartez, L. P.; Day, D.; Ernst, S.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Heatherly, S. A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J.; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Leake, S.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Matheny, T. D.; Mcewen, A. E.; Mingyar, M. G.; Orsini, A. L.; Ransom, S. M.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D.; Siemens, X.; Spiewak, R.; Stairs, I. H.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.

    2018-04-01

    We present timing solutions for 10 pulsars discovered in 350 MHz searches with the Green Bank Telescope. Nine of these were discovered in the Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap survey and one was discovered by students in the Pulsar Search Collaboratory program during an analysis of drift-scan data. Following the discovery and confirmation with the Green Bank Telescope, timing has yielded phase-connected solutions with high-precision measurements of rotational and astrometric parameters. Eight of the pulsars are slow and isolated, including PSR J0930‑2301, a pulsar with a nulling fraction lower limit of ∼30% and a nulling timescale of seconds to minutes. This pulsar also shows evidence of mode changing. The remaining two pulsars have undergone recycling, accreting material from binary companions, resulting in higher spin frequencies. PSR J0557‑2948 is an isolated, 44 ms pulsar that has been partially recycled and is likely a former member of a binary system that was disrupted by a second supernova. The paucity of such so-called “disrupted binary pulsars” (DRPs) compared to double neutron star (DNS) binaries can be used to test current evolutionary scenarios, especially the kicks imparted on the neutron stars in the second supernova. There is some evidence that DRPs have larger space velocities, which could explain their small numbers. PSR J1806+2819 is a 15 ms pulsar in a 44-day orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. We did not detect the companion in archival optical data, indicating that it must be older than 1200 Myr.

  10. An Improved Empirical Harmonic Model of the Celestial Intermediate Pole Offsets from a Global VLBI Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, Santiago; Heinkelmann, Robert; Ferrándiz, José M.; Karbon, Maria; Nilsson, Tobias; Schuh, Harald

    2017-10-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the only space geodetic technique capable of measuring all the Earth orientation parameters (EOP) accurately and simultaneously. Modeling the Earth's rotational motion in space within the stringent consistency goals of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) makes VLBI observations essential for constraining the rotation theories. However, the inaccuracy of early VLBI data and the outdated products could cause non-compliance with these goals. In this paper, we perform a global VLBI analysis of sessions with different processing settings to determine a new set of empirical corrections to the precession offsets and rates, and to the amplitudes of a wide set of terms included in the IAU 2006/2000A precession-nutation theory. We discuss the results in terms of consistency, systematic errors, and physics of the Earth. We find that the largest improvements w.r.t. the values from IAU 2006/2000A precession-nutation theory are associated with the longest periods (e.g., 18.6-yr nutation). A statistical analysis of the residuals shows that the provided corrections attain an error reduction at the level of 15 μas. Additionally, including a Free Core Nutation (FCN) model into a priori Celestial Pole Offsets (CPOs) provides the lowest Weighted Root Mean Square (WRMS) of residuals. We show that the CPO estimates are quite insensitive to TRF choice, but slightly sensitive to the a priori EOP and the inclusion of different VLBI sessions. Finally, the remaining residuals reveal two apparent retrograde signals with periods of nearly 2069 and 1034 days.

  11. A technique for processing of planetary images with heterogeneous characteristics for estimating geodetic parameters of celestial bodies with the example of Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, A. E.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Brusnikin, E. S.; Karachevtseva, I. P.; Oberst, J.

    2016-09-01

    The new technique for generation of coordinate control point networks based on photogrammetric processing of heterogeneous planetary images (obtained at different time, scale, with different illumination or oblique view) is developed. The technique is verified with the example for processing the heterogeneous information obtained by remote sensing of Ganymede by the spacecraft Voyager-1, -2 and Galileo. Using this technique the first 3D control point network for Ganymede is formed: the error of the altitude coordinates obtained as a result of adjustment is less than 5 km. The new control point network makes it possible to obtain basic geodesic parameters of the body (axes size) and to estimate forced librations. On the basis of the control point network, digital terrain models (DTMs) with different resolutions are generated and used for mapping the surface of Ganymede with different levels of detail (Zubarev et al., 2015b).

  12. A novel interplanetary optical navigation algorithm based on Earth-Moon group photos by Chang'e-5T1 probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Yanlong; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Chibiao; Tang, Geshi; Wang, Hang; Qiu, Rujin; Liang, Libo; Yin, Hejun

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an interplanetary optical navigation algorithm based on two spherical celestial bodies. The remarkable characteristic of the method is that key navigation parameters can be estimated depending entirely on known sizes and ephemerides of two celestial bodies, especially positioning is realized through a single image and does not rely on traditional terrestrial radio tracking any more. Actual Earth-Moon group photos captured by China's Chang'e-5T1 probe were used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. From 430,000 km away from the Earth, the camera pointing accuracy reaches 0.01° (one sigma) and the inertial positioning error is less than 200 km, respectively; meanwhile, the cost of the ground control and human resources are greatly reduced. The algorithm is flexible, easy to implement, and can provide reference to interplanetary autonomous navigation in the solar system.

  13. Somewhere, Beyond the Sea: Advancing Geochemical Sensor Technologies for Biological and Abiotic Analyses on Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girguis, P. R.; Hoer, D.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.; Baker, I.; Farr, N.

    2018-05-01

    Here we present our data from recent efforts aimed at examining the relationships among abiotic and biological processes in our ocean. These technologies may help us address that enduring question as to whether life exists on other celestial bodies.

  14. Go Dark Charleston 2017: Preparing the Lowcountry of Charleston, SC for a Unique Celestial Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Runyon, C. R.; Royle, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The August 2017 total solar eclipse will cross the United States, from Oregon to South Carolina, for the first time in almost 100 years. This awe-inspiring event occurs when the moon crosses between the Sun and the Earth, casting a shadow on Earth. Charleston, SC is the final point in this path before the eclipse heads offshore. As such, it provides an opportunity for Charlestonians to witness the grand finale of such an extraordinary celestial event. In collaboration, the Lowcountry Hall of Science and Math (LHSM) and the SC NASA Space Grant Consortium (SCSG) are working with entities across the state to help raise awareness among the general public to the uniqueness of this total solar eclipse. The team is delivering content-rich, hands-on professional development statewide to formal and informal educators, park rangers and city/county government personnel to ensure an understanding behind why we have eclipses as well as safety when viewing eclipses. Our team is working with community organizations, such as sports teams (i.e., Charleston Riverdogs Baseball, Charleston Battery Soccer), museums, aquariums, state and national parks, etc. to bring NASA scientists, engineers and educators together to deliver exciting community demonstrations before, during and after the day of the eclipse. The LHSM, working directly with the Aquarium and Charlestowne Landing State Park, are capturing animal behavior, specifically marine birds and wolves, during the eclipse. In addition, the team is working directly with College of Charleston undergraduates and two local high schools to launch high-altitude balloons to capture video and pictures, as well as, perform science experiments focusing on the eclipse. And finally, the LHSM through SCSG funding, is determining and documenting the extent of knowledge and cultural misconceptions surrounding solar eclipses within the greater Charleston community. In our session, the team will share the outcomes of these varied endeavors.

  15. A diamond in the sky: an exclusion or normal situation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    A diamond in the sky: an exclusion or normal situation? G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The September 2008 observation and imaging by the ESA-"Rosetta" spacecraft of the small asteroid (2867) Steins should have a rather deep impact at planetological thinking. The planetology community is accustomed to think that the only process making forms of small bodies is the impact (accretion) process. No other forces are considered as though there is none. But actually there is one mighty process - a wave process that affects all cosmic bodies by warping them in several (normally four) directions. An origin of these warping waves is quite simple. All cosmic bodies move (orbit) and rotate. After I. Kepler we know that all orbits are non-round but elliptical (time rounds them but ellipticity always remain), and this means that orbiting bodies periodically cyclically change their accelerations (speeding up and slowing down). Multiplied by masses these changes produce forces applied to the bodies and causing oscillations of their spheres. In rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) these oscillations are decomposed (split) into four orthogonal and diagonal directions. Interfering of these directions produces uplifting, subsiding and neutral tectonic blocks which are observed on any celestial body more or less clearly. The blocks dimensions depend on lengths of warping waves that acquire a stationary character in closed spheres. That is why celestial spheres are not like billiards-balls but consist of regularly placed depressions (lowlands) and highlands. The longest fundamental wave 1 produces ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy - an opposition of subsided and bulged hemispheres (segments). The Plato's tetrahedron is a structural expression of this configuration: in this simplest polyhedron there is an opposition of a vertex (bulging, extension) and a face (pressing in, contraction). A convexo-concave shape of small bodies is

  16. Moon Search Algorithms for NASA's Dawn Mission to Asteroid Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Skillman, David R.; McLean, Brian; Mutchler, Max; Carsenty, Uri; Palmer, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    A moon or natural satellite is a celestial body that orbits a planetary body such as a planet, dwarf planet, or an asteroid. Scientists seek understanding the origin and evolution of our solar system by studying moons of these bodies. Additionally, searches for satellites of planetary bodies can be important to protect the safety of a spacecraft as it approaches or orbits a planetary body. If a satellite of a celestial body is found, the mass of that body can also be calculated once its orbit is determined. Ensuring the Dawn spacecraft's safety on its mission to the asteroid Vesta primarily motivated the work of Dawn's Satellite Working Group (SWG) in summer of 2011. Dawn mission scientists and engineers utilized various computational tools and techniques for Vesta's satellite search. The objectives of this paper are to 1) introduce the natural satellite search problem, 2) present the computational challenges, approaches, and tools used when addressing this problem, and 3) describe applications of various image processing and computational algorithms for performing satellite searches to the electronic imaging and computer science community. Furthermore, we hope that this communication would enable Dawn mission scientists to improve their satellite search algorithms and tools and be better prepared for performing the same investigation in 2015, when the spacecraft is scheduled to approach and orbit the dwarf planet Ceres.

  17. Intrinsic nonlinearity and method of disturbed observations in inverse problems of celestial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdyushev, Victor A.

    2017-12-01

    Orbit determination from a small sample of observations over a very short observed orbital arc is a strongly nonlinear inverse problem. In such problems an evaluation of orbital uncertainty due to random observation errors is greatly complicated, since linear estimations conventionally used are no longer acceptable for describing the uncertainty even as a rough approximation. Nevertheless, if an inverse problem is weakly intrinsically nonlinear, then one can resort to the so-called method of disturbed observations (aka observational Monte Carlo). Previously, we showed that the weaker the intrinsic nonlinearity, the more efficient the method, i.e. the more accurate it enables one to simulate stochastically the orbital uncertainty, while it is strictly exact only when the problem is intrinsically linear. However, as we ascertained experimentally, its efficiency was found to be higher than that of other stochastic methods widely applied in practice. In the present paper we investigate the intrinsic nonlinearity in complicated inverse problems of Celestial Mechanics when orbits are determined from little informative samples of observations, which typically occurs for recently discovered asteroids. To inquire into the question, we introduce an index of intrinsic nonlinearity. In asteroid problems it evinces that the intrinsic nonlinearity can be strong enough to affect appreciably probabilistic estimates, especially at the very short observed orbital arcs that the asteroids travel on for about a hundredth of their orbital periods and less. As it is known from regression analysis, the source of intrinsic nonlinearity is the nonflatness of the estimation subspace specified by a dynamical model in the observation space. Our numerical results indicate that when determining asteroid orbits it is actually very slight. However, in the parametric space the effect of intrinsic nonlinearity is exaggerated mainly by the ill-conditioning of the inverse problem. Even so, as for the

  18. YORP: Its origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paddack, Stephen; Rubincam, David P.

    2015-11-01

    It’s all about photons and their behavior. Yarkovsky (1844-1902) did not have the knowledge we have today about photons and radiation pressure. Nevertheless, he published a pamphlet in 1901 that small rotating celestial bodies could absorb sunlight and reradiate it as heat after a delay, resulting in possible orbital changes, setting the stage for radiation effects in celestial mechanics. Yarkovsly’s work remained obscure until Öpik recalled having read Yarkovsky’s pamphlet. Öpik brought Yarkovsky’s idea to the attention of John A. O’Keefe in the late 1960s. O’Keefe, the mentor for two aspiring PhD students, Paddack and Rubincam, told them about Yarkovsky. In 1968 Paddack postulated that the reflection of sunlight off of small, irregularly shaped celestial bodies could have a significant effect on their spin rates. He referred to this as a windmill effect. Paddack and O’Keefe tested the idea of windmill shapes causing spin by dropping crushed stones with irregular shapes into a swimming pool and watching them twirl. Paddack then mimicked the space environment by placing windmill-shaped artificial objects and tektites in a vacuum chamber on an almost frictionless bearing and spinning them up with a strong source of light, conclusively showing the relation of shape to spin. Earlier in 1954 Radzievskii wrote about the effects radiation pressure on variations in the albedo of small celestial bodies as a means of changing their spin rates. The uniform color of Paddack’s test bodies ruled out Radzievskii’s effect as the cause for the observed spin-up. The Yarkovsky effect was minimized because the test object had a coating of vapor-deposited aluminum with a very high albedo and consequently did not heat up. In 2000 Rubincam applied Paddack’s idea to small asteroids and called it the YORP effect (YORP = Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack), to give it a catchy name and sell the idea. In 2007 results were published in Science about the observed

  19. Agreement governing the activities of states on the Moon and other celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaggero, E. D.; Ripoll, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    The treaty on the Moon is not revolutionary but it embodies the legal rule for future activities of man on the Moon as opposed to the Space Treaty of 1967 which was too general. The new text is conservative but still allows some room for the developing States as in the law of the sea. The Moon is declared the "Common Heritage of Mankind" but the regime of exploitation of its resources is still blurred with imprecise guidelines still needing to be developed. The two superpowers cannot as in the past, ignore the rest of the world in the conquest of space and the fact that the U.N. is the depositary for ratifications, and not the two superpowers as in previous treaties, is the first sign of wider participation in the creation of Space Law.

  20. Astrodynamics. Volume 1 - Orbit determination, space navigation, celestial mechanics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, S.

    1971-01-01

    Essential navigational, physical, and mathematical problems of space exploration are covered. The introductory chapters dealing with conic sections, orientation, and the integration of the two-body problem are followed by an introduction to orbit determination and design. Systems of units and constants, as well as ephemerides, representations, reference systems, and data are then dealt with. A detailed attention is given to rendezvous problems and to differential processes in observational orbit correction, and in rendezvous or guidance correction. Finally, the Laplacian methods for determining preliminary orbits, and the orbit methods of Lagrange, Gauss, and Gibbs are reviewed.

  1. Synergies in Astrometry: Predicting Navigational Error of Visual Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner Stewart, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Celestial navigation can employ a number of bright stars which are in binary systems. Often these are unresolved, appearing as a single, center-of-light object. A number of these systems are, however, in wide systems which could introduce a margin of error in the navigation solution if not handled properly. To illustrate the importance of good orbital solutions for binary systems - as well as good astrometry in general - the relationship between the center-of-light versus individual catalog position of celestial bodies and the error in terrestrial position derived via celestial navigation is demonstrated. From the list of navigational binary stars, fourteen such binary systems with at least 3.0 arcseconds apparent separation are explored. Maximum navigational error is estimated under the assumption that the bright star in the pair is observed at maximum separation, but the center-of-light is employed in the navigational solution. The relationships between navigational error and separation, orbital periods, and observers' latitude are discussed.

  2. Planetary cores, their energy flux relationship, and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    2018-02-01

    Integrated surface heat flux data from each planet in our solar system plus over 50 stars, including our Sun, was plotted against each object's known mass to generate a continuous exponential curve at an R-squared value of 0.99. The unexpected yet undeniable implication of this study is that all planets and celestial objects have a similar mode of energy production. It is widely accepted that proton-proton reactions require hydrogen gas at temperatures of about 15 million degrees, neither of which can plausibly exist inside a terrestrial planet. Hence, this paper proposes a nuclear fission mechanism for all luminous celestial objects, and uses this mechanism to further suggest a developmental narrative for all celestial bodies, including our Sun. This narrative was deduced from an exponential curve drawn adjacent to the first and passing through the Earth's solid core (as a known prototype). This trend line was used to predict the core masses for each planet as a function of its luminosity.

  3. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  4. Category V Compliant Container for Mars Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin; Sanok, Joseph; Sevilla, Donald; Bement, Laurence J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel containerization technique that satisfies Planetary Protection (PP) Category V requirements has been developed and demonstrated on the mock-up of the Mars Sample Return Container. The proposed approach uses explosive welding with a sacrificial layer and cut-through-the-seam techniques. The technology produces a container that is free from Martian contaminants on an atomic level. The containerization technique can be used on any celestial body that may support life. A major advantage of the proposed technology is the possibility of very fast (less than an hour) verification of both containment and cleanliness with typical metallurgical laboratory equipment. No separate biological verification is required. In addition to Category V requirements, the proposed container presents a surface that is clean from any, even nonviable organisms, and any molecular fragments of biological origin that are unique to Mars or any other celestial body other than Earth.

  5. The Universe in Armenian Mythological Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardumyan, Gohar

    2016-12-01

    Ancient Armenians' perceptions and knowledge about the Universe and cosmic phenomena are reflected in pre-Christian mythology. Thousands of years ago, myths were woven on celestial bodies, and, in the form of legends, they have reached the present day. Heathen Armenians, as other developed nations of the Ancient World, knew the five planets of the Solar System seen with the naked eye: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, each of them embodied in mythology by a god or a goddess. In pantheons formed during III-I millennia B.C. those planets of the starry sky are represented as worshipped, as well as the Sun, the Moon, the Milky Way, Hayk-Orion, Great Bear, Libra and other constellations. The perceptions of ancient Armenians about the Universe, the tangle of mythology and astronomy in their world view are revealed in the cults of gods and goddesses personifying celestial bodies and luminaries.

  6. Apollo 13 - Prime Crew Portrait

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-12-11

    S69-62224 (December 1969) --- The members of the prime crew of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission (left to right) are astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., commander; Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot; and Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot. They are seated in front of a scene of the Lagoon Nebula, with the mission insignia and two items of early navigation in the foreground. Represented in the Apollo 13 emblem (center) is Apollo, the sun god of Greek mythology, symbolizing that the Apollo flights have extended the light of knowledge to all mankind. The Latin phrase Ex Luna, Scientia means "From the Moon, Knowledge." The Hindu astrolabe in Sanskrit (on right) was used to predict the position of celestial bodies before the invention of the octant (on left) was used in 1790 to determine the altitude of celestial bodies from aboard ship.

  7. Automated Detection of Small Bodies by Space Based Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidstrup, P. R.; Grillmayer, G.; Andersen, A. C.; Haack, H.; Jorgensen, J. L.

    The number of known comets and asteroids is increasing every year. Up till now this number is including approximately 250,000 of the largest minor planets, as they are usually referred. These discoveries are due to the Earth-based observation which has intensified over the previous decades. Additionally larger telescopes and arrays of telescopes are being used for exploring our Solar System. It is believed that all near- Earth and Main-Belt asteroids of diameters above 10 to 30 km have been discovered, leaving these groups of objects as observationally complete. However, the cataloguing of smaller bodies is incomplete as only a very small fraction of the expected number has been discovered. It is estimated that approximately 1010 main belt asteroids in the size range 1 m to 1 km are too faint to be observed using Earth-based telescopes. In order to observe these small bodies, space-based search must be initiated to remove atmospheric disturbances and to minimize the distance to the asteroids and thereby minimising the requirement for long camera integration times. A new method of space-based detection of moving non-stellar objects is currently being developed utilising the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) built for spacecraft attitude determination by Ørsted, Danish Technical University. The ASC serves as a backbone technology in the project as it is capable of fully automated distinction of known and unknown celestial objects. By only processing objects of particular interest, i.e. moving objects, it will be possible to discover small bodies with a minimum of ground control, with the ultimate ambition of a fully automated space search probe. Currently, the ASC is being mounted on the Flying Laptop satellite of the Institute of Space Systems, Universität Stuttgart. It will, after a launch into a low Earth polar orbit in 2008, test the detection method with the ASC equipment that already had significant in-flight experience. A future use of the ASC based automated

  8. Snapping shrimp sound production patterns on Caribbean coral reefs: relationships with celestial cycles and environmental variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Mooney, T. Aran

    2018-06-01

    The rich acoustic environment of coral reefs, including the sounds of a variety of fish and invertebrates, is a reflection of the structural complexity and biological diversity of these habitats. Emerging interest in applying passive acoustic monitoring and soundscape analysis to measure coral reef habitat characteristics and track ecological patterns is hindered by a poor understanding of the most common and abundant sound producers on reefs—the snapping shrimp. Here, we sought to address several basic biophysical drivers of reef sound by investigating acoustic activity patterns of snapping shrimp populations on two adjacent coral reefs using a detailed snap detection analysis routine to a high-resolution 2.5-month acoustic dataset from the US Virgin Islands. The reefs exhibited strong diel and lunar periodicity in snap rates and clear spatial differences in snapping levels. Snap rates peaked at dawn and dusk and were higher overall during daytime versus nighttime, a seldom-reported pattern in earlier descriptions of diel snapping shrimp acoustic activity. Small differences between the sites in snap rate rhythms were detected and illustrate how analyses of specific soundscape elements might reveal subtle between-reef variation. Snap rates were highly correlated with environmental variables, including water temperature and light, and were found to be sensitive to changes in oceanographic forcing. This study further establishes snapping shrimp as key players in the coral reef chorus and provides evidence that their acoustic output reflects a combination of environmental conditions, celestial influences, and spatial habitat variation. Effective application of passive acoustic monitoring in coral reef habitats using snap rates or snapping-influenced acoustic metrics will require a mechanistic understanding of the underlying spatial and temporal variation in snapping shrimp sound production across multiple scales.

  9. Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

    2014-05-01

    Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.

  10. High Resolution Asteroid Profile by Multi Chord Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenhardt, Scott

    2009-05-01

    For millennia man has observed celestial objects occulting other bodies and distant stars. We have used these celestial synchronicities to measure the properties of objects. On January 1, 1801 Italian astronomer Giusappe Piazzi discovered the first asteroid that would soon be named Ceres. To date 190,000 of these objects have been catalogued, but only a fraction of these have accurate measurements of their true size and shape. The International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) currently facilitates the prediction and reduction of asteroidal occultations. By measuring the shadow cast on the earth by an asteroid during a stellar occultation one can directly measure the physical size, shape, and position in space of this body to accuracies orders of magnitudes better than the best ground based adaptive optics telescope and can provide verification to 3D inverted reflective lightcurve prediction models. Recent novel methods developed by IOTA involving an individual making multiple observations through unattended remote observing stations have made way for numerous chords of occultation measurement through a single body yielding high resolution profiles of asteroid bodies. Methodology of how observing stations are deployed will be demonstrated, results of some of these observations are presented as comparisons to their inverted lightcurve are shown.

  11. Spectroscopy - so what?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2010-07-01

    The development of astronomical spectroscopy allowed amazing achievements in investigating the composition and motion of celestial bodies. But even beyond specific measurements and results, the fruitfulness and practice of spectroscopy had important ramifications on a more abstract level. This paper will discuss ways in which spectroscopy inspired or boosted new theories of the atom, life, and the Universe; redrew the boundaries among scientific disciplines; demonstrated the unity of terrestrial and celestial physical laws; changed what counted as scientific knowledge; and even revealed divine mysteries. Scientists and science writers from the first half-century of astronomical spectroscopy will be discussed, including James Clerk Maxwell, William Crookes, John Tyndall, Agnes Clerke, William Huggins and Norman Lockyer.

  12. Spectroscopy - so what?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The development of astronomical spectroscopy allowed amazing achievements in investigating the composition and motion of celestial bodies. But even beyond specific measurements and results, the fruitfulness and practice of spectroscopy had important ramifications on a more abstract level. This paper will discuss ways in which spectroscopy inspired or boosted new theories of the atom, life, and the universe; redrew the boundaries among scientific disciplines; demonstrated the unity of terrestrial and celestial physical laws; changed what counted as scientific knowledge; and even revealed divine mysteries. Scientists and science writers from the first half-century of astronomical spectroscopy will be discussed, including James Clerk Maxwell, William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), John Tyndall, Agnes Clerke, William Huggins, and Norman Lockyer.

  13. 75 FR 81587 - Coding of Design Marks in Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ..., attention Cynthia C. Lynch; by hand-delivery to the Trademark Assistance Center, Concourse Level, James.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Pursuant to 35 U.S.C. 41(i)(1)-(2), the USPTO maintains a publicly... SHAPES-ASTRO, which encompasses all astronomical shapes consisting of celestial bodies (such as the moon...

  14. Celestial Fireworks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-03

    Resembling sparks from a fireworks display, this image taken by a JPL camera onboard NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows delicate filaments that are sheets of debris from a stellar explosion in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy.

  15. Celestial Fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Resembling sparks from a fireworks display, this image taken by a JPL camera onboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope shows delicate filaments that are sheets of debris from a stellar explosion in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy.

  16. Rotation of the Earth, Mars and asteroids: components, techniques and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchay, Jean

    2004-12-01

    We explain in some detail the analytical formulations which enable to modelize both the free and the forced motion of any celestial body taken as rigid or deformable, and we show how they have been applied (with the corresponding level of precision) for the Earth, Mars and the asteroids in general

  17. Mobile Cubesat Command and Control (Mc3) 3-Meter Dish Calibration and Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    accuracy of this simple calibration is tested by tracking the sun, an easily accessible celestial body. To track the sun, a Systems Tool Kit ( STK ... visually verified. The shadow created by the dish system when it is pointed directly at the sun is symmetrical. If the dish system is not pointed

  18. The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov Websites

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You Orientation Precise Time James M. Gilliss Library News, Tours & Events About Us Info The United States positions and motion of celestial bodies, motions of the Earth, and precise time. USNO provides tailored

  19. Book Review: Stars (Copyright 1985, Golden Press; New York)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marigza, R. N., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Stars is a part of the Golden Guides collection produced by Golden Press. It is a small 160 page paperback guide to the constellations, the sun, the moon, planets, and other celestial bodies. The book is convenient to carry along wherever you go, making it an easy to access reference material.

  20. Orbital motion (3rd revised and enlarged edition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A. E.

    The fundamental principles of celestial mechanics are discussed in an introduction for students of astronomy, aerospace engineering, and geography. Chapters are devoted to the dynamic structure of the universe, coordinate and timekeeping systems, the reduction of observational data, the two-body problem, the many-body problem, general and special perturbations, and the stability and evolution of the solar system. Consideration is given to lunar theory, artificial satellites, rocket dynamics and transfer orbits, interplanetary and lunar trajectories, orbit determination and interplanetary navigation, binaries and other few-body systems, and many-body systems of stars. Diagrams, graphs, tables, and problems with solutions are provided.

  1. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    the rotation axe. But this unevenness is undesirable because it creates tectonic stresses and increases energetic status that is against the natural tendency to minimize these physical characteristics. So, a body tends to lower angular momentum of tropics and increase it in extra-tropics. With the same angular velocity it remains only mass and radius to play in this tendency. Tropical belt is destructed (for an example, the lithosphere disintegration in solid bodies), extra-tropical belts add dense material (plumes), expand - the constructive tendency [6]. Both tectonic peculiarities-polyhedrons and constructive - destructive tendencies - are common for celestial bodies of various classes. They are characteristic for our star, planets, satellites and small bodies. That is why a term "supertectonics" seems rather suitable. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonic dichotomy, sectoring and granulation of Earth and other celestial bodies // Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Concepts in Global Tectonics, "NCGT-98 TSUKUBA", Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Nov 20-23, 1998, p. 144-147. [3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., 1999, V.1, №3, 700. [4] Kochemasov G.G. Plato' polyhedra as shapes of small icy satellites // Geophys. Res. Abstracts, Vol. 10, 2008, EGU2008-A-01271, CD-ROM; [5] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) "Diamond" and "dumb-bells"-like shapes of celestial bodies induced by inertia-gravity waves // 30th Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium on comparative planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst.,, 49-50; [6] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonics of rotating celestial globes // Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium 48, 20-22 Oct. 2008, Moscow, Abstr. m48_20.

  2. Structure and evolutionary history of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1975-01-01

    General principles and observational facts concerning the solar system are examined, taking into account the orbits of planets and satellites, the small bodies, the resonance structure, spin and tides, and postaccretional changes in the solar system. A description is given of the accretion of celestial bodies and the plasma phase is considered. Aspects of chemical differentiation and the matrix of the groups of bodies are also discussed, giving attention to chemical compositions in the solar system, meteorites and their precursor states, mass distribution and the critical velocity, and the structure of the groups.

  3. Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedegar, K. V.

    Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations

  4. Space Science in Action: Astronomy [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording teaches students about constellations, star movement, and how scientists have studied celestial bodies throughout history from Ptolemy to Copernicus to the work of the Hubble Space Telescope. An interview with Kathy Thornton, one of the astronauts who repaired the Hubble while in orbit, is featured. A hands-on activity…

  5. The Triangles of Aristarchus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld, Alan W.

    2004-01-01

    Greek philosopher mathematician, Aristarchus of Samos, in the third century B.C., proposed that the sun held in the central position, casting its light symmetrically outward on the other celestial bodies. He demonstrated the way in which a person could use simple observations and elementary geometry to measure on a cosmic scale.

  6. Abilities of Celestial Observations in Astronomical Observatory of Physics Institute in Opole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godłowski, W.; Szpanko, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present possibilities of astronomical investigation in Astronomical Observatory in Opole. Our observatory uses two telescopes: Celestron CGE-1400 XLT (35 cm) and Meade LX200 (30 cm) with spectrograph and CCD Camera. Main topic of our observational investigation is connected with observations of variable stars, minor bodies of the solar system, blazers and the Sun.

  7. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  9. Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waiveris, Charles; Craine, Timothy V.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a simple procedure for determining our exact location on Earth based on the motion of celestial bodies and latitude and longitude. This hands-on activity requires students to design and construct an apparatus that will produce accurate measurements. The materials required are a knitting needle, a tape measure, and a sunny day. (AIM)

  10. Remote Access Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Richard; Bowdley, David; Newsam, Andrew; Roche, Paul

    2003-01-01

    There is still nothing to beat the excitement and fulfilment that you can get from observing celestial bodies on a clear dark night, in a remote location away from the seemingly ever increasing light pollution from cities. However, it is also the specific requirements for good observing that can sometimes prevent teachers from offering this…

  11. The Young Astrophysicist: A Very Inexpensive Activity to Discuss Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockington, Guilherme; Testoni, Leonardo André; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    The continuing fascination of young people with celestial bodies leads them to pose challenging questions to their science teachers, such as how was the universe born? How were the stars formed? In this paper we present an extremely inexpensive but highly engaging activity to teach the basics of spectroscopy. Guided by the question "how do…

  12. Women gaze behaviour in assessing female bodies: the effects of clothing, body size, own body composition and body satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cundall, Amelia; Guo, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Often with minimally clothed figures depicting extreme body sizes, previous studies have shown women tend to gaze at evolutionary determinants of attractiveness when viewing female bodies, possibly for self-evaluation purposes, and their gaze distribution is modulated by own body dissatisfaction level. To explore to what extent women's body-viewing gaze behaviour is affected by clothing type, dress size, subjective measurements of regional body satisfaction and objective measurements of own body composition (e.g., chest size, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio), in this self-paced body attractiveness and body size judgement experiment, we compared healthy, young women's gaze distributions when viewing female bodies in tight and loose clothing of different dress sizes. In contrast to tight clothing, loose clothing biased gaze away from the waist-hip to the leg region, and subsequently led to enhanced body attractiveness ratings and body size underestimation for larger female bodies, indicating the important role of clothing in mediating women's body perception. When viewing preferred female bodies, women's higher satisfaction of a specific body region was associated with an increased gaze towards neighbouring body areas, implying satisfaction might reduce the need for comparison of confident body parts; furthermore undesirable body composition measurements were correlated with a gaze avoidance process if the construct was less changeable (i.e. chest size) but a gaze comparison process if the region was more changeable (i.e. body mass index, dress size). Clearly, own body satisfaction and body composition measurements had an evident impact on women's body-viewing gaze allocation, possibly through different cognitive processes.

  13. Aerothermal Instrumentation Loads To Implement Aeroassist Technology in Future Robotic and Human Missions to MARS and Other Locations Within the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2002-01-01

    The strategy of NASA to explore space objects in the vicinity of Earth and other planets of the solar system includes robotic and human missions. This strategy requires a road map for technology development that will support the robotic exploration and provide safety for the humans traveling to other celestial bodies. Aeroassist is one of the key elements of technology planning for the success of future robot and human exploration missions to other celestial bodies. Measurement of aerothermodynamic parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acceleration is of prime importance for aeroassist technology implementation and for the safety and affordability of the mission. Instrumentation and methods to measure such parameters have been reviewed in this report in view of past practices, current commercial availability of instrumentation technology, and the prospects of improvement and upgrade according to the requirements. Analysis of the usability of each identified instruments in terms of cost for efficient weight-volume ratio, power requirement, accuracy, sample rates, and other appropriate metrics such as harsh environment survivability has been reported.

  14. Impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment between the International Celestial Reference Frame and the Gaia reference frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Malkin, Z.; Zhu, Z.

    2018-03-01

    The International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is currently realized by the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of extragalactic sources with the zero proper motion assumption, while Gaia will observe proper motions of these distant and faint objects to an accuracy of tens of microarcseconds per year. This paper investigates the difference between VLBI and Gaia quasar proper motions and it aims to understand the impact of quasar proper motions on the alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frame. We use the latest time series data of source coordinates from the International VLBI Service analysis centres operated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSF2017) and Paris observatory (OPA2017), as well as the Gaia auxiliary quasar solution containing 2191 high-probability optical counterparts of the ICRF2 sources. The linear proper motions in right ascension and declination of VLBI sources are derived by least-squares fits while the proper motions for Gaia sources are simulated taking into account the acceleration of the Solar system barycentre and realistic uncertainties depending on the source brightness. The individual and global features of source proper motions in GSF2017 and OPA2017 VLBI data are found to be inconsistent, which may result from differences in VLBI observations, data reduction and analysis. A comparison of the VLBI and Gaia proper motions shows that the accuracies of the components of rotation and glide between the two systems are 2-4 μas yr- 1 based on about 600 common sources. For the future alignment of the ICRF and Gaia reference frames at different wavelengths, the proper motions of quasars must necessarily be considered.

  15. Piazzi On Ceres and Pacific On Earth Are Tectonically Comparable Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    Earth is more than 10 times larger than Ceres but the wave planetary tectonics [1] is not perplexed with this. Theorem 1 states that "Celestial bodies are dichotomic". This theorem is valid for bodies of various sizes, compositions and physical states. What is common for all of them that they are moving, moving in non-circular orbits, and rotate. These properties are sufficient for invoking inertia forces making celestial bodies oscillate and acquire a convexo-concave shape. of the recent planetological achievements three should be mentioned particularly as they concern small celestial bodies where general rules of body shaping are expressed very sharply. A small aster- oid 433 Eros, the largest asteroid 1 Ceres and Borrelli comet were studied in different scales but all of them have essential features predicted by the wave planetology. The convexo-concave shape of asteroid Eros (stony, 33 km long) is repeated in comet Bor- relli (icy, 8 km long). Borrelli's convex hemisphere is sharply jagged because of exten- sion. The same is observed on Eros ("saddle") but in a lesser degree. Borrelli's concave strongly contracted hemisphere is a source of a large complexly built tail of expulsion. This extruded material samples interior of the comet and leaves whitish spots in the centre of the concave side. Eros also have many signes of past degassing in a form of regular net of pits (craters); in the centre of the concave side is a large complexly built crater Psych. Both oblong bodies -Eros and Borrelli - have different opposite ends: blunt and sharp, predicted by the wave planetology (the Arctic-Antarctic symp- tom). The oblong body of Ceres (major/minor axes of 898/788 km [2] and 970/ 930 km,[Parker &Stern]) according to HST (J.Parker &Stern) has a prominent dusky dark spot (Piazzi) from one side. It occupies a significant part of the asteroid (about 250 km, more than a quarter the size of Ceres) and probably might be assigned to a depression. Tectonically one may compare

  16. The Universe in Motion, Book 2. Guidebook. The University of Illinois Astronomy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, J. Myron; Wyatt, Stanley P., Jr.

    Presented is book two in a series of six books in the University of Illinois Astronomy Program which introduces astronomy to upper elementary and junior high school students. This guidebook is concerned with how celestial bodies move in space and how these motions are observed by astronomers. Topics discussed include: a study of the daily motion…

  17. Tethered spacecraft in asteroid gravitational environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexander A.; Guerman, Anna D.; Kosenko, Ivan I.; Nikonov, Vasily I.

    2018-02-01

    Relative equilibria of a pendulum attached to the surface of a uniformly rotating celestial body are considered. The locations of the tether anchor that correspond to a given spacecraft position are defined. The domains, where the spacecraft can be held with the help of such a pendulum, are also described. Stability of the found relative equilibria is studied.

  18. Periodic solutions of a spring-pendulum system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.; Baxa, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A study has been made of a dynamical system composed of a pendulum and a harmonic oscillator, in order to show the remarkable resemblance with many classical celestial mechanics problems, in particular, the restricted three-body problem. It is shown that the well-known investigations of periodic orbits can be applied to the present dynamics problem.

  19. Frombork Castle and Nicolas Copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, Tomokazu

    2004-10-01

    Nicolas Copernicus spent his last half life at Frombork Castle in Poland, where he wrote "On the Revolution of the Celestial Bodies." The author visited Frombork and had a strong impression by his great personality in late Renaissance, not only in astronomy, but also in activities in a wide field of economical, political affaires, renovation of currency.

  20. Children's Concepts of the Shape and Size of the Earth, Sun and Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, T. G. K.; Blown, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Children's understandings of the shape and relative sizes of the Earth, Sun and Moon have been extensively researched and in a variety of ways. Much is known about the confusions which arise as young people try to grasp ideas about the world and our neighbouring celestial bodies. Despite this, there remain uncertainties about the conceptual models…

  1. Measuring Astronomical Distances with Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narain, Akshar

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago it was suggested that the distance to celestial bodies could be computed by tracking their position over about 24 hours and then solving a regression problem. One only needed to use inexpensive telescopes, cameras, and astrometry tools, and the experiment could be done from one's backyard. However, it is not obvious to an amateur…

  2. Star Maps, Planispheres, and Celestial Calendars : Engaging Students, Educators, and Communities with Multicultural STEM/STEAM Visual Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Annette S.; Wilson, William; Tibbetts, Jeffrey; Gawboy, Carl

    2017-06-01

    Aim:Designed by A. Lee, the Native Skywatchers initiative seeks to remember and revitalize indigenous star and earth knowledge, promoting the native voice as the lead voice. The overarching goal of Native Skywatchers is to communicate the knowledge that indigenous people practiced a sustainable way of living and sustainable engineering through a living and participatory relationship with the above and below, sky and earth. We aim to improve current inequities in education for native young people, to inspire increased cultural pride, and promote community wellness. We hope to inspire all participants towards a rekindling of the excitement and curiosity that causes us to look up at the sky in wonder generation after generation.Results:Presented here are several Native Skywatchers initiatives under the broad categories of: 1.) star maps, 2.) planispheres, and 3.) celestial calendars. In 2012 two indigenous star maps were created: the Ojibwe Giizhig Anung Masinaaigan-Ojibwe Sky Star Map (A. Lee, W. Wilson, C. Gawboy), and the D(L)akota star map, Makoce Wicanhpi Wowapi (A. Lee, J. Rock). More recently, a collaboration with W. Buck, science educator, at the Manitoba First Nations Resource Centre (MFNRC), in Winnipeg, Manitoba produced a third indigenous star map: Ininew Achakos Masinikan-Cree Star Map Book. Having star maps that are rooted in astronomical knowledge and cultural wisdoms has allowed communities multiple and ongoing opportunities for inclusive culture-based STEM learning. Next, planispheres were created based on the indigenous star maps. A learning and teaching hands-on tool, the planispheres, help partakers understand the patterns of motion in the night sky in addition to simply identifying the constellations. Most recently, calendar-paintings of the yearly motion of the Sun, the phases of the Moon, and the Venus-year have all been added to the growing list of Native Skywatchers resources. Working collaboratively with regional schools, educators, museums

  3. The historical tension between astronomical theory and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    A review of instances in the history of astronomy wherein conflicts between the results of theory and observation occurred, to be later ameliorated or exaggerated by further evidence, is presented. Among the examples are Aristotle's arguments that the form of a celestial body will always be spherical to evenly distribute the mass, and the currently held concept that all celestial objects greater than a few kilometers in radius will be spherical due to gravitational forces. Ptolemy's observations of planetary orbits, however, are noted to have accurately resulted in a numerical model which did not factually represent planetary orbits. It is noted that observation is usually performed with a theory in mind, and interpretation is therefore hindered from clear analysis of phenomena which do not conform to previously held mental models.

  4. An historic discovery around the corner from school: Ceres, a solar system object with an uncertain identity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stira, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, and it was discovered on January 1, 1801, by the Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi. The study of Ceres is especially relevant to my students because this celestial body was discovered in Palermo, in the astronomic observatory located in the UNESCO world heritage site "Palazzo dei Normanni", around 500 meters away from the institute where I teach, and because Ceres was considered the patron goddess of Sicily. Moreover, it received scientists and media attention recently because it was explored by the NASA Dawn spacecraft in 2015. The categorization of Ceres has changed more than once and has been the subject of some disagreement. It was originally considered a planet, but was reclassified as an asteroid in the 1850s when many other objects in similar orbits were discovered. Its status changed again in 2006 when it was promoted to dwarf planet, a classification it shares with Pluto and other Kuiper belt objects. The study of this celestial body has a notable educational value, since the uncertain identity of Ceres constitutes an occasion to reflect on the criterions of classification of the natural objects. The history of its discovery allows the students to understand as the scientific method doesn't always consist in the verification of hypothesis through experiments but it sometimes asks for the forecast of facts through mathematical calculations, repeated and methodic observations, the collaboration between scientists of different sectors and nationality. Furthermore, it is a particularly suitable topic for interdisciplinary connections, as regards both scientific and humanistic matters. In order to promote the scientific competences of my first class students, I have developed a learning unit on Ceres, thanks to good cooperation with the Palermo Observatory scientists, particularly active in the astronomic dissemination towards the schools and the citizens. The most meaningful activities

  5. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body].

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications.

  6. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    PubMed

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  7. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    PubMed

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  8. Breakthrough in orbit determination of a binary. - In expectation of astrometric observations with high precision such as VERA and JASMINE -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Hideki

    2006-11-01

    There exists a very classical inverse problem regarding orbit determination of a binary system: "when an orbital plane of two bodies is inclined with respect to the line of sight, observables are their positions projected onto a celestial sphere. How do we determine the orbital elements from observations?" A "complete exact solution" has been found. It is reviewed with some related topics.

  9. Lithuanian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  10. An International Parallax Campaign to Measure Distance to the Moon and Mars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenadelli, D.; Zeni, M.; Bernagozzi, A.; Calcidese, P.; Ferreira, L.; Hoang, C.; Rijsdijk, C.

    2009-01-01

    Trigonometric parallax is a powerful method to work out the distance of celestial bodies, and it was used in the past to measure the distance of the Moon, Venus, Mars and nearby stars. We set up an observation campaign for high school and undergraduate students with the purpose to measure both the Moon's and Mars' parallax. To have a large enough…

  11. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  12. Contribution of zonal harmonics to gravitational moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.

    1991-02-01

    It is presently demonstrated that a recursive vector-dyadic expression for the contribution of a zonal harmonic of degree n to the gravitational moment about a small body's center-of-mass is obtainable with a procedure that involves twice differentiating a celestial body's gravitational potential with respect to a vector. The recursive property proceeds from taking advantage of a recursion relation for Legendre polynomials which appear in the gravitational potential. The contribution of the zonal harmonic of degree 2 is consistent with the gravitational moment exerted by an oblate spheroid.

  13. Astronomy, Community, and Modern Calendar Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper will look at Avon Tyrrell House, a “calendar house” dating from 1891 and an example of nineteenth-century astronomical architecture in England. The paper will suggest that “calendar buildings” may represent a genre of modern astronomical architecture which has, so far, not been studied, were designed to create stronger communities precisely because of their astronomical connections, and indicates scope for further investigation. The paper will contextualize the modern “calendar building” within the tradition of constructing cities and sacred sites as reflections or embodiments of the sky. By creating spaces which were connected to the celestial bodies, it was possible to create human communities which were linked to celestial ones, encouraging social stability and harmony. Such ideas underpinned traditions of the foundation of cities from China, through India, the Middle East, and Mesoamerica.

  14. MaMBA - a functional Moon and Mars Base Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinicke, C.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    Despite impressive progress in robotic exploration of celestial bodies, robots are believed to never reach the effectiveness and efficiency of a trained human. Consequently, ESA proposes to build an international Moon Village in roughly 15 years and NASA plans for the first manned mission to Mars shortly after. One of the challenges still remaining is the need for a shelter, a habitat which allows human spacefarers to safely live and work on the surface of a celestial body. Although a number of prototype habitats has been built during the last decades and inhabited for various durations (e.g. MDRS, FMARS, HI-SEAS, M.A.R.S.), these habitats are typically equipped for studies on human factors and would not function in an extraterrestrial environment. Project MaMBA (Moon and Mars Base Analog) aims to build the first functional habitat based on the lessons learned from intermediate and long duration missions at the mentioned habitats. The habitat will serve for testing technologies like life support, power systems, and interplanetary communi­cation. Special attention will be given to the develop­ment of the geoscience laboratory module. Crews will live and work inside the habitat to ensure its functionality.

  15. Astronomical aspects of cosmic threats: new problems and approaches to asteroid—comet hazard following the chelyabinsk event of February 15, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, B. M.; Shugarov, A. S.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Prokhorov, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    A new definition of hazardous celestial bodies (HCBs) is introduced, in which the lower limit of the size of a HCB is reduced to 10 m. A new definition for threatening and collisional orbits of DCBs is introduced. The main astronomical factors that must be taken into account when creating systems for the detection of HCBs are analyzed. The most important of these are the uniformity of the distribution of points (regions) for the appearance of HCBs on the celestial sphere in near-Earth space and the practical limit for the velocity of approach of a HCB of 20 km/s (for 90% of bodies). It is shown that the creation of a system for the nearby detection of asteroids and comets arriving from the daytime sky requires the use of a space-based system. A concept for such a system, in which one or several optical telescopes are placed in the vicinity of the libration point L1 for the Sun—Earth system, is developed. Preliminary plans for such a system, called the System for the Detection of Daytime Asteroids (SDDA), are briefly described.

  16. Protection of the Lifeless Environment in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almar, I.

    The main concern of planetary protection policy is how to protect the (hypothetical) extraterrestrial life against contamination and back-contamination. There is almost no interest in the preservation of the existing lifeless surfaces of extraterrestrial bodies, although some planetary transformation plans (in order to exploit hypothetical resources) were made public a long time ago. It should be remembered that planetary environments are practically unchanged since ages and damage caused by any human intervention would be irreversible. Our intention is not to prevent any commercial utilization of Solar System resources, but to make space exploration and exploitation of resources a controlled and well planned endeavor. The three main issues connected with the protection of the lifeless space environment are the following: 1/ The scientific aspect: a limited, well defined initiative to select by scientific investigation areas and objects of highest scientific priority on different celestial bodies. 2/ The legal aspect: to start the drafting of a declaration of principles supporting the protection of selected areas and objects on celestial bodies with a solid surface. It might evolve into an international legal instrument or treaty in order to limit the "free-for-all" intervention and use of Solar System resources. 3/ The societal aspect: to initiate a large scale discussion on the possible "ethical values" of the lifeless environment.

  17. [Multifaceted body. 3. The contextualised body].

    PubMed

    Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This third and last article focuses on the psychosomatic and socio-anthropological facets of the body and their contribution to its understanding.

  18. On Celestial Wings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    naval attach6 in Washington, D.C., and had regularly attended American 22 DEATH ON A BRIGHT SUNDAY MORNING League baseball games at Griffith Stadium in...Army Air Corps, ordered a study of the defenses of Oahu, the Hawaiian Island occupied by Pearl Harbor and the all important Hickam Field. The report...entanglement wiping out the landing gear. I opened the bottom hatch and ran in case the plane caught fire. The pilot’s only comment was, "Well, I brought you a

  19. Celestial mechanics experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J D; Pease, G E; Efron, L; Tausworthe, R C

    1967-12-29

    Equipment on Mariner V has yielded values for the masses of Moon and Venus more accurate than any previously reported. Range and Doppler radio tracking data necessary for precise space navigation of the spacecraft from Earth to Venus can also be used to obtain data on the orbits of Earth and Venus.

  20. Realistic Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D'Errico, Raffaele

    2016-04-20

    In this paper, we present an accurate and realistic simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying realistic traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet delivery ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices.

  1. Realistic Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D’Errico, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an accurate and realistic simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying realistic traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet delivery ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices. PMID:27104537

  2. Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke, Newton and the "compounding of the celestiall motions of the planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Ofer

    This book is a historical-epistemological study of one the most consequential idea of early modern celestial mechanics: Robert Hooke's proposal to "compoun[d] the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive motion towards a central body," a proposal which Isaac Newton adopted and realized in his Principia. Hooke's Programme was revolutionary both cosmologically and mathematically. It presented "the celestial motions," the proverbial symbol of stability and immutability, as a process of continuous change, and prescribed only parameters of rectilinear motions and rectilinear attractions for calculating their closed curved orbits. Yet the traces of Hooke's construction of his Programme for the heavens lead through his investigations in such earthly disciplines as microscopy, practical optics and horology, and the mathematical tools developed by Newton to accomplish it appear no less local and goal-oriented than Hooke's lenses and springs. This transgression of the boundaries between the theoretical, experimental and technological realms is reminiscent of Hooke's own free excursions in and out of the circles occupied by gentlemen-philosophers, university mathematicians, instrument makers, technicians and servants. It presents an opportunity to examine the social and epistemological distinctions, relations and hierarchies between those realms and their inhabitants, and compels a critical assessment of the philosophical categories they embody.

  3. USSR and Eastern Europe Scienitific Abstracts, Geophysics, Astronomy and Space. Number 399

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-10

    Orbit 47 TASS Announces Launching of "Molniya-3" Communications Satellite 47 Abstracts of Scientific Articles 49 Inhomogeneities of Electron...Directions in Space Technology 52 Motion of Body of Variable Rest Mass in Gravity Field 52 Orbits in Applied Problems of Celestial Mechanics..... 53...Satellite Oscillations in Plane of Elliptical Orbit 53 Submillimeter Radiation of Convective Cloud Systems 54 Combined Braking of Spacecraft in

  4. Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Winged Horse; abbrev. Peg, gen. Pegasi; area 1121 sq. deg.) A northern constellation that extends from Cygnus, Lacerta and Andromeda almost to the celestial equator, and culminates at midnight in early September. It is named after the winged horse in Greek mythology that sprang from the body of Medusa, the Gorgon, when she was beheaded by Perseus, and later was tamed by the hero Bellerophon. ...

  5. Schwarzschild, Karl (1873-1916)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematical physicist, born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, at first worked on celestial mechanics, including POINCARÉ's theory of rotating bodies, the tidal deformation of moons and LAPLACE's origin of the solar system. He became professor at Göttingen and Potsdam. He wrote on relativity and quantum theory. He early on proposed that space was non-Euclidean, giving a lower limit for the radius of...

  6. Body dissatisfaction and attentional bias to thin bodies.

    PubMed

    Glauert, Rebecca; Rhodes, Gillian; Fink, Bernhard; Grammer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for attentional biases to weight- and shape-related information in women with eating concerns is inconclusive. We investigated whether body dissatisfaction is associated with an attentional bias toward thin bodies using a modified dot probe task. In three studies, we found that undergraduate females were faster to discriminate the direction of an arrow cue when it appeared in the location previously occupied by a thin than a fat body. This attentional bias toward thin bodies was found using extreme stimuli (thin and fat bodies) presented for 500 ms (Experiment 1), extreme stimuli presented for 150 ms (Experiment 2), and less extreme stimuli that were equated for perceived extremity, presented for 150 ms (Experiment 3). When the stimuli were equated on perceptual extremity, the more dissatisfied a woman was with her body, and the larger her own BMI, the less of an attentional bias she showed toward thin bodies. Our results indicate that women have an attentional bias to thin bodies, which appears to be automatic. Contrary to prediction, this bias was weaker in women with greater BMI and body dissatisfaction. This result offers no support for the view that selective attention to thin bodies is causally related to body dissatisfaction.

  7. A two-level approach to VLBI terrestrial and celestial reference frames using both least-squares adjustment and Kalman filter algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, B.; Krasna, H.; Boehm, J.; Gross, R. S.; Abbondanza, C.; Chin, T. M.; Heflin, M. B.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The most recent realizations of the ITRS include several innovations, two of which are especially relevant to this study. On the one hand, the IERS ITRS combination center at DGFI-TUM introduced a two-level approach with DTRF2014, consisting of a classical deterministic frame based on normal equations and an optional coordinate time series of non-tidal displacements calculated from geophysical loading models. On the other hand, the JTRF2014 by the combination center at JPL is a time series representation of the ITRF determined by Kalman filtering. Both the JTRF2014 and the second level of the DTRF2014 are thus able to take into account short-term variations in the station coordinates. In this study, based on VLBI data, we combine these two approaches, applying them to the determination of both terrestrial and celestial reference frames. Our product has two levels like DTRF2014, with the second level being a Kalman filter solution like JTRF2014. First, we compute a classical TRF and CRF in a global least-squares adjustment by stacking normal equations from 5446 VLBI sessions between 1979 and 2016 using the Vienna VLBI and Satellite Software VieVS (solution level 1). Next, we obtain coordinate residuals from the global adjustment by applying the level-1 TRF and CRF in the single-session analysis and estimating coordinate offsets. These residuals are fed into a Kalman filter and smoother, taking into account the stochastic properties of the individual stations and radio sources. The resulting coordinate time series (solution level 2) serve as an additional layer representing irregular variations not considered in the first level of our approach. Both levels of our solution are implemented in VieVS in order to test their individual and combined performance regarding the repeatabilities of estimated baseline lengths, EOP, and radio source coordinates.

  8. MGA trajectory planning with an ACO-inspired algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriotti, Matteo; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2010-11-01

    Given a set of celestial bodies, the problem of finding an optimal sequence of swing-bys, deep space manoeuvres (DSM) and transfer arcs connecting the elements of the set is combinatorial in nature. The number of possible paths grows exponentially with the number of celestial bodies. Therefore, the design of an optimal multiple gravity assist (MGA) trajectory is a NP-hard mixed combinatorial-continuous problem. Its automated solution would greatly improve the design of future space missions, allowing the assessment of a large number of alternative mission options in a short time. This work proposes to formulate the complete automated design of a multiple gravity assist trajectory as an autonomous planning and scheduling problem. The resulting scheduled plan will provide the optimal planetary sequence and a good estimation of the set of associated optimal trajectories. The trajectory model consists of a sequence of celestial bodies connected by two-dimensional transfer arcs containing one DSM. For each transfer arc, the position of the planet and the spacecraft, at the time of arrival, are matched by varying the pericentre of the preceding swing-by, or the magnitude of the launch excess velocity, for the first arc. For each departure date, this model generates a full tree of possible transfers from the departure to the destination planet. Each leaf of the tree represents a planetary encounter and a possible way to reach that planet. An algorithm inspired by ant colony optimization (ACO) is devised to explore the space of possible plans. The ants explore the tree from departure to destination adding one node at the time: every time an ant is at a node, a probability function is used to select a feasible direction. This approach to automatic trajectory planning is applied to the design of optimal transfers to Saturn and among the Galilean moons of Jupiter. Solutions are compared to those found through more traditional genetic-algorithm techniques.

  9. Aging, body image, and body shape.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, F Richard; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Paintner, Ashley; Wasson, Kayla; Hager, Tracy; Hoverson, Fallon

    2008-10-01

    Participants were 25 older men (M age = 72 years, SD = 10 years) and 27 older women (M age = 71 years, SD = 8 years) who examined multiple line-drawing figures of babies, children, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Participants picked a number on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very thin) to 9 (very obese) in response to questions including "Which is the most attractive?" and "Which figure would you most like to look like?" They also completed questionnaires about their body image and body shape. In response to the age-specific line drawings (e.g., those depicting older men and older women), older women endorsed thinner figures (e.g., picked smaller numbers) than did men. Likewise, older women reported thinking more about their body shape and appearance than did men and perceived their body image as "a little too big" in comparison with the older men who perceived their body image as "just the right size." However, a breakdown of normal and overweight women in this sample revealed that for some overweight elderly women, obesity could become a satisfactory way of life. Much as with college-aged women, the endorsement of a thinner body image by many of the older adult female participants appeared to persist into late adulthood and suggests that research into body image issues with older adults is relevant and necessary.

  10. Military Space Mission Design and Analysis in a Multi-Body Environment: An Investigation of High-Altitude Orbits as Alternative Transfer Paths, Parking Orbits for Reconstitution, and Unconventional Mission Orbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-23

    Dynamical Astronomy , vol. 90, no. January 2004, pp. 165–178, 2004. [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 225231299 On The...Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy , vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 53–71, 1984. [Online]. Available: https://engineering.purdue.edu/people/kathleen.howell

  11. The analytical and numerical approaches to the theory of the Moon's librations: Modern analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, N.; Zagidullin, A.; Nefedyev, Y.; Kosulin, V.; Andreev, A.

    2017-11-01

    Observing physical librations of celestial bodies and the Moon represents one of the astronomical methods of remotely assessing the internal structure of a celestial body without conducting expensive space experiments. The paper contains a review of recent advances in studying the Moon's structure using various methods of obtaining and applying the lunar physical librations (LPhL) data. In this article LPhL simulation methods of assessing viscoelastic and dissipative properties of the lunar body and lunar core parameters, whose existence has been recently confirmed during the seismic data reprocessing of ;Apollo; space mission, are described. Much attention is paid to physical interpretation of the free librations phenomenon and the methods for its determination. In the paper the practical application of the most accurate analytical LPhL tables (Rambaux and Williams, 2011) is discussed. The tables were built on the basis of complex analytical processing of the residual differences obtained when comparing long-term series of laser observations with the numerical ephemeris DE421. In the paper an efficiency analysis of two approaches to LPhL theory is conducted: the numerical and the analytical ones. It has been shown that in lunar investigation both approaches complement each other in various aspects: the numerical approach provides high accuracy of the theory, which is required for the proper processing of modern observations, the analytical approach allows to comprehend the essence of the phenomena in the lunar rotation, predict and interpret new effects in the observations of lunar body and lunar core parameters.

  12. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  13. Applications of laser ranging and VLBI observations for selenodetic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fajemirokun, F. A.

    1971-01-01

    The observation equations necessary to utilize lunar laser ranging and very long baseline interferometry measurements were developed for the establishment of a primary control network on the moon. The network consists of coordinates of moon points in the selenodetic Cartesian coordinate system, which is fixed to the lunar body, oriented along the three principal axes of inertia of the moon, and centered at the lunar center of mass. The observation equations derived are based on a general model in which the unknown parameters included: the selenodetic Cartesian coordinates, the geocentric coordinates of earth stations, parameters of the orientation of the selenodetic coordinate system with respect to a fixed celestial system, the parameters of the orientation of the average terrestrial coordinate system with respect to a fixed celestial coordinate system, and the geocentric coordinates of the center of mass of the moon, given by a lunar ephemeris.

  14. The inspiration of astronomical phenomena (INSAP). Proceedings. Conference, Rocca di Papa (Italy), 27 Jun - 2 Jul 1994.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The papers concern the inspiration provided by astronomy to the fields of art, philosophy, religion and various human cultures. Individual papers cover the following topics: the Qur'anic conception of astronomical phenomena on Islamic civilization, the Milky Way and society, the mythology and ritual of India, the Varanasi Sun temples, celestial bodies meanings in pre-Hispanic Mexico, the celestial basis of civilization, Mexican eclipse imagery, Chinese dynastic ideology - astrological origins, NW Europe stone rows, stars and seasons in southern Africa, the Pleiades and Hesperides, stars and philosophy, the search for extraterrestrial life, the significance of the pre-Copernican revolution, Judaeo-Christian revelation, Maria Magdalena - the Morning Star, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, stellar poetry, John Bauer's star-spangled fairy-tale world, Polish romantic poetry, the expansion of astronomical horizons, recent comet research and ancient sky implications, civilization Spenglerian model and punctuational crises, Anaxagoras and the scientist/laity interaction.

  15. The neural basis of body form and body action agnosia.

    PubMed

    Moro, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo; Pernigo, Simone; Lanteri, Paola; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-10-23

    Visual analysis of faces and nonfacial body stimuli brings about neural activity in different cortical areas. Moreover, processing body form and body action relies on distinct neural substrates. Although brain lesion studies show specific face processing deficits, neuropsychological evidence for defective recognition of nonfacial body parts is lacking. By combining psychophysics studies with lesion-mapping techniques, we found that lesions of ventromedial, occipitotemporal areas induce face and body recognition deficits while lesions involving extrastriate body area seem causatively associated with impaired recognition of body but not of face and object stimuli. We also found that body form and body action recognition deficits can be double dissociated and are causatively associated with lesions to extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex, respectively. Our study reports two category-specific visual deficits, called body form and body action agnosia, and highlights their neural underpinnings.

  16. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  17. Body metaphors--reading the body in contemporary culture.

    PubMed

    Skara, Danica

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the linguistic reframing of the human body in contemporary culture. Our aim is to provide a linguistic description of the ways in which the body is represented in modern English language. First, we will try to focus on body metaphors in general. We have collected a sample of 300 words and phrases functioning as body metaphors in modern English language. Reading the symbolism of the body we are witnessing changes in the basic metaphorical structuring of the human body. The results show that new vocabulary binds different fields of knowledge associated with machines and human beings according to a shared textual frame: human as computer and computer as human metaphor. Humans are almost blended with computers and vice versa. This metaphorical use of the human body and its parts reveals not only currents of unconscious though but also the structures of modern society and culture.

  18. Crash test for the Copenhagen problem.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Jan

    2004-06-01

    The Copenhagen problem is a simple model in celestial mechanics. It serves to investigate the behavior of a small body under the gravitational influence of two equally heavy primary bodies. We present a partition of orbits into classes of various kinds of regular motion, chaotic motion, escape and crash. Collisions of the small body onto one of the primaries turn out to be unexpectedly frequent, and their probability displays a scale-free dependence on the size of the primaries. The analysis reveals a high degree of complexity so that long term prediction may become a formidable task. Moreover, we link the results to chaotic scattering theory and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems.

  19. Lexical-semantic body knowledge in 5- to 11-year-old children: How spatial body representation influences body semantics.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Laurent; Jambaqué, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between lexico-semantic body knowledge (i.e., body semantics) and spatial body representation (i.e., structural body representation) by analyzing naming performances as a function of body structural topography. One hundred and forty-one children ranging from 5 years 2 months to 10 years 5 months old were asked to provide a lexical label for isolated body part pictures. We compared the children's naming performances according to the location of the body parts (body parts vs. head features and also upper vs. lower limbs) or to their involvement in motor skills (distal segments, joints, and broader body parts). The results showed that the children's naming performance was better for facial body parts than for other body parts. Furthermore, it was found that the naming of body parts was better for body parts related to action. These findings suggest that the development of a spatial body representation shapes the elaboration of semantic body representation processing. Moreover, this influence was not limited to younger children. In our discussion of these results, we focus on the important role of action in the development of body representations and semantic organization.

  20. OFO experimental techniques and preliminary conclusions - Is artificial gravity needed during prolonged weightlessness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtierotti, T.; Bracchi, F.

    1972-01-01

    The technique of single unit recording from body systems generating electrical pulses coherent with their basic function (CNS, muscles, sense organs) has been proved feasible during the OFO A orbital flight, an automatic physiological experiment. The results of recording 155 hours of orbital flight of pulses from the nerve fibres of four vestibular gravity sensors in two bull frogs indicate that the vestibular organ adjusts to zero g. As all the other biological changes observed during orbit are due to lack of exercise, it is concluded that artificial gravity might not be necessary during prolonged space missions or on low gravity celestial bodies.

  1. Serpentinization and the Formation of H2 and CH4 on Celestial Bodies (Planets, Moons, Comets)

    PubMed Central

    Oze, C.; Mousis, O.; Waite, J.H.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serpentinization involves the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) to produce H2-rich fluids and a variety of secondary minerals over a wide range of environmental conditions. The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds. The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe. Here, serpentinization with an emphasis on the formation of H2 and CH4 are reviewed within the context of the mineralogy, temperature/pressure, and fluid/gas chemistry present in planetary environments. Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds. Key Words: Serpentinization—Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis—Hydrogen formation—Methane formation—Ultramafic rocks. Astrobiology 15, 587–600. PMID:26154779

  2. Serpentinization and the Formation of H2 and CH4 on Celestial Bodies (Planets, Moons, Comets).

    PubMed

    Holm, N G; Oze, C; Mousis, O; Waite, J H; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A

    2015-07-01

    Serpentinization involves the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) to produce H2-rich fluids and a variety of secondary minerals over a wide range of environmental conditions. The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds. The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe. Here, serpentinization with an emphasis on the formation of H2 and CH4 are reviewed within the context of the mineralogy, temperature/pressure, and fluid/gas chemistry present in planetary environments. Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds.

  3. On enigmatic properties of the main belt asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    Two properties of the main belt asteroids still bother planetologists: why they are mainly of an oblong shape and why the larger bodies rotate faster than the smaller ones. According to the excepted impact theory constantly produced fragments should be rather more or less of equal dimensions. Larger bodies are more difficult to make rotating by hits than the smaller ones. The comparative wave planetology states that "orbits make structures". It means that as all celestial bodies move in non-round keplerian elliptic (and parabolic) orbits with periodically changing accelerations they are subjected to an action of inertia-gravity waves causing body warpings. These warpings in rotating bodies (but all celestial bodies rotate!) acquire stationary character and 4 ortho- and diagonal directions. An interference of these waves produces uprising (+), subsiding (-) and neutral (0) tectonic blocks size of which depends on the warping wavelengths. The fundamental wave 1 long 2πR makes one hemisphere to rise (bulge) and the opposite one to fall (press in) - this two-segment construction is the ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy. The first overtone wave 2 long πR is responsible for tectonic sectoring complicating the dichotomic segments. This already rather complicated structural picture is further complicated by a warping action of individual waves lengths of which are inversely proportional to orbital frequencies : higher frequency - smaller wave and , vice versa, lower frequency - larger waves. These waves produce tectonic granulation, granule size being a half of a wavelength. All terrestrial planets and the belt asteroids according to their orb. fr. are strictly arranged in the following row of granule sizes: Mercury πR/16, Venus πR/6, Earth πR/4, Mars πR/2, asteroids πR/1. The waves lengths and amplitudes increase with the solar distance, their warping action accordingly increases. If Mercury, Venus and Earth are more or less globular, Mars is already elliptical because

  4. Variability of extragalactic sources: its contribution to the link between ICRF and the future Gaia Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taris, F.; Damljanovic, G.; Andrei, A.; Souchay, J.; Klotz, A.; Vachier, F.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The first release of the Gaia catalog is available since 14 September 2016. It is a first step in the realization of the future Gaia reference frame. This reference frame will be materialized by the optical positions of the sources and will be compared with and linked to the International Celestial Reference Frame, materialized by the radio position of extragalactic sources. Aim. As in the radio domain, it can be reasonably postulated that quasar optical flux variations can alert us to potential changes in the source structure. These changes could have important implications for the position of the target photocenters (together with the evolution in time of these centers) and in parallel have consequences for the link of the reference systems. Methods: A set of nine optical telescopes was used to monitor the magnitude variations, often at the same time as Gaia, thanks to the Gaia Observation Forecast Tool. The Allan variances, which are statistical tools widely used in the atomic time and frequency community, are introduced. Results: This work describes the magnitude variations of 47 targets that are suitable for the link between reference systems. We also report on some implications for the Gaia catalog. For 95% of the observed targets, new information about their variability is reported. In the case of some targets that are well observed by the TAROT telescopes, the Allan time variance shows that the longest averaging period of the magnitudes is in the range 20-70 d. The observation period by Gaia for a single target largely exceeds these values, which might be a problem when the magnitude variations exhibit flicker or random walk noises. Preliminary computations show that if the coordinates of the targets studied in this paper were affected by a white-phase noise with a formal uncertainty of about 1 mas (due to astrophysical processes that are put in evidence by the magnitude variations of the sources), it would affect the precision of the link at the

  5. Over my fake body: body ownership illusions for studying the multisensory basis of own-body perception

    PubMed Central

    Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Kording, Konrad P.; Slater, Mel

    2015-01-01

    Which is my body and how do I distinguish it from the bodies of others, or from objects in the surrounding environment? The perception of our own body and more particularly our sense of body ownership is taken for granted. Nevertheless, experimental findings from body ownership illusions (BOIs), show that under specific multisensory conditions, we can experience artificial body parts or fake bodies as our own body parts or body, respectively. The aim of the present paper is to discuss how and why BOIs are induced. We review several experimental findings concerning the spatial, temporal, and semantic principles of crossmodal stimuli that have been applied to induce BOIs. On the basis of these principles, we discuss theoretical approaches concerning the underlying mechanism of BOIs. We propose a conceptualization based on Bayesian causal inference for addressing how our nervous system could infer whether an object belongs to our own body, using multisensory, sensorimotor, and semantic information, and we discuss how this can account for several experimental findings. Finally, we point to neural network models as an implementational framework within which the computational problem behind BOIs could be addressed in the future. PMID:25852524

  6. Scaling of Adult Regional Body Mass and Body Composition as a Whole to Height: Relevance to Body Shape and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Schuna, John M.; Peterson, Courtney M.; Thomas, Diana M.; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht2), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht2? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index. Methods Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass (head [MH], trunk, arms, legs) and whole-body composition (fat, lean soft tissue [LST], and bone mineral content [BMC]) in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=17,126) and Korean NHANES (n=8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Results Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four race/ethnic groups: regional mass powers, head (~0.8-1) < arms and trunk (~1.8-2.3) < legs (~2.3-2.6); and body composition, LST (~2.0-2.3) < BMC (~2.1-2.4). Small sex and race/ethnic differences in scaling powers were also observed. As body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and race/ethnic groups as Ht~2, tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., Mh/Mb ∝ Ht−~1) and composition. Conclusions Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as defined by stature, a finding that has important implications in multiple areas of biological research. PMID:25381999

  7. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT CLUSTERS ON THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR {sup ,}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Sifon, Cristobal

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical and X-ray properties of 68 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect at 148 GHz by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Our sample, from an area of 504 deg{sup 2} centered on the celestial equator, is divided into two regions. The main region uses 270 deg{sup 2} of the ACT survey that overlaps with the co-added ugriz imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over Stripe 82 plus additional near-infrared pointed observations with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope. We confirm a total of 49 clusters to z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, of which 22more » (all at z > 0.55) are new discoveries. For the second region, the regular-depth SDSS imaging allows us to confirm 19 more clusters up to z Almost-Equal-To 0.7, of which 10 systems are new. We present the optical richness, photometric redshifts, and separation between the SZ position and the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We find no significant offset between the cluster SZ centroid and BCG location and a weak correlation between optical richness and SZ-derived mass. We also present X-ray fluxes and luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey which confirm that this is a massive sample. One of the newly discovered clusters, ACT-CL J0044.4+0113 at z = 1.1 (photometric), has an integrated XMM-Newton X-ray temperature of kT{sub X} = 7.9 {+-} 1.0 keV and combined mass of M {sub 200a} = 8.2{sup +3.3} {sub -2.5} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} {sub 70} M {sub Sun }, placing it among the most massive and X-ray-hot clusters known at redshifts beyond z = 1. We also highlight the optically rich cluster ACT-CL J2327.4-0204 (RCS2 2327) at z = 0.705 (spectroscopic) as the most significant detection of the whole equatorial sample with a Chandra-derived mass of M {sub 200a} = 1.9{sup +0.6} {sub -0.4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} h {sup -1} {sub 70} M {sub Sun }, placing it in the ranks of the most massive known clusters like El Gordo and the Bullet Cluster.« less

  8. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) < arms and trunk (∼1.8-2.3) < legs (∼2.3-2.6); and body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) < BMC (∼2.1-2.4). Small sex and population differences in scaling powers were also observed. As body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Jerry L.

    1981-01-01

    Body composition refers to the types and amounts of tissues which make up the body. The most acceptable method for assessing body composition is underwater weighing. A subcutaneous skinfold provides a quantitative measurement of fat below the skin. The skinfold technique permits a valid estimate of the body's total fat content. (JN)

  10. The functional architecture of the human body: assessing body representation by sorting body parts and activities.

    PubMed

    Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter

    2010-05-01

    We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.

  11. Proposal MaMBA - Moon and Mars Base Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinicke, Christiane; Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    Despite impressive progress in robotic exploration of celestial bodies, robots are believed to never reach the effectiveness and efficiency of a trained human. Consequently, ESA proposes to build an international Moon Village in roughly 15 years and NASA plans for the first manned mission to Mars shortly after. One of the challenges still remaining is the need for a shelter, a habitat which allows human spacefarers to safely live and work on the surface of a celestial body. Although various prototype habitats have been built and inhabited during the last decade, they typically share two fundamental flaws: First, they usually consist of a single space, which may become uninhabitable after depressurization due to just one single catastrophic event. Second, none of the habitats provides shielding against radiation, one of the major health concerns for spacefaring crews. Project MaMBA will address these two problems at the root and build an underground habitat comprised of five connected, but independent modules. The habitat will serve for testing technologies like life support, power systems, and interplanetary communication. Special attention will be given to the development of the geoscience laboratory module. In addition to the technological aspects, the envisioned habitat will serve as a unique test ground for studies on the effects of underground habitation on a crew.

  12. On the existence of another source of heat production for the earth and planets, and its connection with gravitomagnetism.

    PubMed

    Elbeze, Alexandre Chaloum

    2013-01-01

    Recent revised estimates of the Earth's surface heat flux are in the order of 47 TW. Given that its internal radiogenic (mantle and crust) heat production is estimated to be around 20 TW, the Earth has a thermal deficit of around 27 TW. This article will try to show that the action of the gravitational field of the Sun on the rotating masses of the Earth is probably the source of another heat production in order of 54TW, which would satisfy the thermal balance of our celestial body and probably explain the reduced heat flow Qo. We reach this conclusion within the framework of gravitation implied by Einstein's special and general relativity theory (SR, GR). Our results show that it might possible, in principle, to calculate the heat generated by the action of the gravitational field of celestial bodies on the Earth and planets of the Solar System (a phenomenon that is different to that of the gravitational tidal effect from the Sun and the Moon). This result should help physicists to improve and develop new models of the Earth's heat balance, and suggests that contrary to cooling, the Earth is in a phase of thermal balance, or even reheating.

  13. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  14. Nine-month-old infants prefer unattractive bodies over attractive bodies

    PubMed Central

    Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Slater, Alan M.; Pascalis, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Infant responses to adult-defined unattractive male body shapes versus attractive male body shapes were assessed using visual preference and habituation procedures. Looking behavior indicated that 9-month-olds have a preference for unattractive male body shapes over attractive ones; however, this preference is demonstrated only when head information is obscured. In contrast, 6- and 3.5-month-olds did not show a preference for unattractive or attractive bodies. The 6-month-olds discriminated between the two categories, whereas the 3.5-month-olds did not. Because unattractive body shapes are more common than attractive/athletic body shapes in our everyday environment, a preference for unattractive body shapes at 9 months of age suggests that preferences for particular human body shapes reflect level of exposure and familiarity rather than culturally defined stereotypes of body attractiveness. PMID:23473995

  15. Nine-month-old infants prefer unattractive bodies over attractive bodies.

    PubMed

    Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Quinn, Paul C; Lee, Kang; Slater, Alan M; Pascalis, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Infant responses to adult-defined unattractive male body shapes versus attractive male body shapes were assessed using visual preference and habituation procedures. Looking behavior indicated that 9-month-olds have a preference for unattractive male body shapes over attractive ones; however, this preference is demonstrated only when head information is obscured. In contrast, 6- and 3.5-month-olds did not show a preference for unattractive or attractive bodies. The 6-month-olds discriminated between the two categories, whereas the 3.5-month-olds did not. Because unattractive body shapes are more common than attractive/athletic body shapes in our everyday environment, a preference for unattractive body shapes at 9 months of age suggests that preferences for particular human body shapes reflect level of exposure and familiarity rather than culturally defined stereotypes of body attractiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Orientations of the Villas at Tylissos on Crete and their Relationships to the Minoan Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, Göran; Blomberg, Mary

    2015-05-01

    The two Late Minoan I villas at Tylissos and an unknown earlier building at the site show similar relationships to the celestial bodies that we have encountered at all of the Minoan buildings that we have studied. They had orientations to celestial events relevant to the calendar, such as sunrise or sunset at the equinoxes and the solstices, and the heliacal risings and settings of bright stars. We also re-encountered the phenomenon that different places marked the beginning of one or more solar months, which suggests that certain months had special relevance for specific places, as if to honor a god or goddess or some other special event for that particular place. In addition, the orientations of the two Late Minoan I villas at Tylissos share the same complexity that we have met at two other sites, where diagonal lines were used to create shadows when marking the parts of the calendar that were specific for Tylissos. It now seems clear that an element of Minoan cosmology insisted on a close connection between their places on earth and the celestial sphere. It was the custom for the Mycenaeans and the Greeks, who later inhabited the island, to honor their deities in special months, and we may find the roots of this custom among the Minoans.

  17. An examination of body tracing among women with high body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gail A; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Crowther, Janis H

    2014-09-01

    Within eating disorder treatment programs, a body tracing activity is often used to address body dissatisfaction and overestimation of body size; however, the effects of this activity have never been empirically evaluated. This research examined the effects of body tracing on body dissatisfaction and mood among 56 female participants assigned to either a body tracing or control group. Scores were collected on trait body dissatisfaction and a series of Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Results showed that trait body dissatisfaction moderated the relationship between group and levels of state appearance dissatisfaction and anxiety. These results suggest that individuals experiencing higher levels of trait body dissatisfaction demonstrated greater state body dissatisfaction following participation in the body tracing activity. Individuals with lower trait body dissatisfaction experienced greater anxiety after drawing a human body. These findings have potential implications for the use of this strategy in the treatment of eating disorder patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac dimensions correlate better with body length than with body weight or body surface area.

    PubMed

    Motz, R; Schumacher, M; Nürnberg, J; Viemann, M; Grafmüller, S; Fiedler, K; Claus, M; Kronberg, K

    2014-12-01

    Looking after children means caring for very small infants up to adult-sized adolescents, with weights ranging from 500 g to more than 100 kg and heights ranging from 25 to more than 200 cm. The available echocardiographic reference data were drawn from a small sample, which did not include preterm infants. Most authors have used body weight or body surface area to predict left ventricular dimensions. The current authors had the impression that body length would be a better surrogate parameter than body weight or body surface area. They analyzed their echocardiographic database retrospectively. The analysis included all available echocardiographic data from 6 June 2001 to 15 December 2011 from their echocardiographic database. The authors included 12,086 of 26,325 subjects documented as patients with normal hearts in their analysis by the examining the pediatric cardiologist. For their analysis, they selected body weight, length, age, and aortic and pulmonary valve diameter in two-dimensional echocardiography and left ventricular dimension in M-mode. They found good correlation between echocardiographic dimensions and body surface area, body weight, and body length. The analysis showed a complex relationship between echocardiographic measurements and body weight and body surface area, whereas body length showed a linear relationship. This makes prediction of echo parameters more reliable. According to this retrospective analysis, body length is a better parameter for evaluating echocardiographic measurements than body weight or body surface area and should therefore be used in daily practice.

  19. Maplike representation of celestial E-vector orientations in the brain of an insect.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Stanley; Homberg, Uwe

    2007-02-16

    For many insects, the polarization pattern of the blue sky serves as a compass cue for spatial navigation. E-vector orientations are detected by photoreceptors in a dorsal rim area of the eye. Polarized-light signals from both eyes are finally integrated in the central complex, a brain area consisting of two subunits, the protocerebral bridge and the central body. Here we show that a topographic representation of zenithal E-vector orientations underlies the columnar organization of the protocerebral bridge in a locust. The maplike arrangement is highly suited to signal head orientation under the open sky.

  20. The relation between body semantics and spatial body representations.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-11-01

    The present study addressed the relation between body semantics (i.e. semantic knowledge about the human body) and spatial body representations, by presenting participants with word pairs, one below the other, referring to body parts. The spatial position of the word pairs could be congruent (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or incongruent (MOUTH / EYE) with respect to the spatial position of the words' referents. In addition, the spatial distance between the words' referents was varied, resulting in word pairs referring to body parts that are close (e.g. EYE / MOUTH) or far in space (e.g. EYE / FOOT). A spatial congruency effect was observed when subjects made an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) but not when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1). In addition, when making a semantic relatedness judgment (Experiment 1) reaction times increased with increased distance between the body parts but when making an iconicity judgment (Experiments 2 and 3) reaction times decreased with increased distance. These findings suggest that the processing of body-semantics results in the activation of a detailed visuo-spatial body representation that is modulated by the specific task requirements. We discuss these new data with respect to theories of embodied cognition and body semantics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Satellite Ephemeris Correction via Remote Site Observation for Star Tracker Navigation Performance Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    squared RMS root mean squared GCRF Geocentric Celestial Reference Frame xi List of Figures Figure Page 1 Geometry of single observation...RA and DEC in the celestial sphere. The Geocentric Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) is the standard geocentric frame that measures the RA east in the...Figure 2. Right ascension (α) and declination (δ) in the celestial sphere[6] 7 made between geocentric and topocentric angles. Geocentric is referred to

  2. The protective role of body appreciation against media-induced body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the protective role of positive body image against negative effects produced by viewing thin-idealised media. University women (N=68) completed trait measures of body appreciation and media protective strategies. At a subsequent session, participants viewed 11 thin-ideal advertisements. Body dissatisfaction was assessed before and after advertisement exposure, and state measures of self-objectification, appearance comparison, and media protective strategies were completed. Results indicated that body appreciation predicted less change in body dissatisfaction following exposure, such that participants with low body appreciation experienced increased body dissatisfaction, while those with high body appreciation did not. Although state appearance comparison predicted increased body dissatisfaction, neither state self-objectification nor appearance comparison accounted for body appreciation's protective effect. Trait and state media protective strategies positively correlated with body appreciation, but also did not account for body appreciation's protective effect. The results point to intervention targets and highlight future research directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body Weight and Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Olmsted, Marion P; McFarlane, Traci

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance. PMID:15345068

  4. Astrology: Science, Art or Prophesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghiazaryan, Anahit

    2016-12-01

    The subject in question is the link between humanity's two earliest disciplines - astronomy and astrology. Is it realistic to assume that the arrangement of celestial bodies, planets and stars can provide an opportunity to unequivocally predetermine the faith of the flora and fauna, of single individuals or entire nations living on planet Earth of the Solar System in the entirety of the Universe? Is it possible to ascertain whether astrology is science, art or prophesy?

  5. The International Ultraviolet Explorer: Case study in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, H. R.; Longanecker, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) is a geosynchronous scientific satellite that was conceived as an international space observatory capable of measuring UV spectra of faint celestial bodies. Simple operational procedures allow the astronomers to joystick the spaceborne telescope about the sky, using familiar ground-based observatory techniques. The present paper deals with the IUE project objectives, the technical problems, constraints, trade-offs, and the problem solving techniques used in the IUE program.

  6. Astrology: Science, Art or Prophesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeghiazaryan, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The subject in question is the link between humanity's two earliest disciplines - Astronomy and Astrology. Is it realistic to assume that the arrangement of celestial bodies, planets and stars can provide an opportunity to unequivocally predetermine the faith of the flora and fauna, of single individuals or entire nations living on planet Earth of the Solar System in the entirety of the Universe? Is it possible to ascertain whether astrology is science, art or prophesy?

  7. On-Board Perception System For Planetary Aerobot Balloon Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Scheid, Robert E.; T. Salomon, Phil

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is implementing the Planetary Aerobot Testbed to develop the technology needed to operate a robotic balloon aero-vehicle (Aerobot). This earth-based system would be the precursor for aerobots designed to explore Venus, Mars, Titan and other gaseous planetary bodies. The on-board perception system allows the aerobot to localize itself and navigate on a planet using information derived from a variety of celestial, inertial, ground-imaging, ranging, and radiometric sensors.

  8. Power Beaming, Orbital Debris Removal, and Other Space Applications of a Ground Based Free Electron Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    mask of strength, his character, fortitude, and xxii devotion to our family helped to keep me on my feet. What I say with words, he says through...superfluid) and an extremely large heat capacity. This large heat capacity is what makes He II an ideal refrigerant for high power and high frequency...limited tools, ancient astronomers accomplished many insightful discoveries regarding the motion of celestial bodies, but prior to the 1600s, most of

  9. The origin of rotation, dense matter physics and all that: a tribute to Pavle Savić.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čelebonović, V.

    1995-04-01

    This is a review of the main physical ideas and examples of applicability in astrophysics and pure physics of a semiclassical theory of dense matter proposed by Pavle Savićand Radivoje Kašanin in the early sixties. A hypothesis, advanced by Savić with the aim of solving the problem of the origin of rotation of celestial bodies, will also be discussed. The paper is dedicated to the memory of Pavle Savić.

  10. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-01-01

    The family of High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) instruments consisted of three unmarned scientific observatories capable of detecting the x-rays emitted by the celestial bodies with high sensitivity and high resolution. The celestial gamma-ray and cosmic-ray fluxes were also collected and studied to learn more about the mysteries of the universe. High-Energy rays cannot be studied by Earth-based observatories because of the obscuring effects of the atmosphere that prevent the rays from reaching the Earth's surface. They had been observed initially by sounding rockets and balloons, and by small satellites that do not possess the needed instrumentation capabilities required for high data resolution and sensitivity. The HEAO carried the instrumentation necessary for this capability. In this photograph, an artist's concept of three HEAO spacecraft is shown: HEAO-1, launched on August 12, 1977; HEAO-2, launched on November 13, 1978; and HEAO-3, launched on September 20. 1979.

  11. Astronomy and catastrophes through myth and old texts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bon, E.; Ćirković, M.; Stojić, Igor; Gavrilović, Nataša

    In the old myths and iconographies there are some motives that indicate at least one cataclysmic event that influenced many old religions and myths, that could be linked to the impact of the celestial object. We investigate the hypothesis of coherent catastrophism put forward in recent years by Clube, Bailey, Napier and others from both astrobiological and culturogical points of view. The conventional idea that the quasi-periodic break-up of celestial bodies influence terrestrial conditions can today be placed in both wider (astro-biological) and deeper (historico-culturological) context. In particular, we point out that the link between the Neolithic history of astronomy, and origin of Mithraism. We speculate that the main icon of Mithraic religion could pinpoint an event that happened around 4000 BC, when the spring equinox entered the constellation of Taurus. We also, link some motives in other old religions and myths to the same event, or to some similar events that inspired those myths.

  12. The Story Behind Asteroid 14060 Patersonewen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    A pioneer of abstract art in Canada in the 1950s and 1960s, Paterson Ewen returned to figurative art by the end of the 1960s. After his divorce in 1968, the Montreal-born artist moved to London, Ontario, where he engaged in an emerging and vibrant national art scene, and started a new body of work depicting earthbound and celestial landscapes, which would dominate his visual career until his death in 2002. Many of these works are monumental in scale and were inspired by Japanese woodcuts; in fact, one of the most unique aspects of Ewen's work of this period is the method of their making that involves plywood as a support whose surface would be gouged by a router, often producing dramatic textural effects. Imagewise, Ewen produced one of the richest and most involved series of modern works inspired by celestial phenomena, ranging from Morehouse's comet and solar eruptions to the galaxy NGC 253.

  13. Body integrity identity disorder: deranged body processing, right fronto-parietal dysfunction, and phenomenological experience of body incongruity.

    PubMed

    Giummarra, Melita J; Bradshaw, John L; Nicholls, Michael E R; Hilti, Leonie M; Brugger, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is characterised by profound experience of incongruity between the biological and desired body structure. The condition manifests in "non-belonging" of body parts, and the subsequent desire to amputate, paralyse or disable a limb. Little is known about BIID; however, a neuropsychological model implicating right fronto-parietal and insular networks is emerging, with potential disruption to body representation. We argue that, as there is scant systematic research on BIID published to date and much of the research is methodologically weak, it is premature to assume that the only process underlying bodily experience that is compromised is body representation. The present review systematically investigates which aspects of neurological processing of the body, and sense of self, may be compromised in BIID. We argue that the disorder most likely reflects dysregulation in multiple levels of body processing. That is, the disunity between self and the body could arguably come about through congenital and/or developmental disruption of body representations, which, together with altered multisensory integration, may preclude the experience of self-attribution and embodiment of affected body parts. Ulimately, there is a need for official diagnostic criteria to facilitate epidemiological characterisation of BIID, and for further research to systematically investigate which aspects of body representation and processing are truly compromised in the disorder.

  14. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men’s and Women’s Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  15. Body Shape Preferences: Associations with Rater Body Shape and Sociosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Price, Michael E.; Pound, Nicholas; Dunn, James; Hopkins, Sian; Kang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence of condition-dependent mate choice in many species, that is, individual preferences varying in strength according to the condition of the chooser. In humans, for example, people with more attractive faces/bodies, and who are higher in sociosexuality, exhibit stronger preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex faces/bodies. However, previous studies have tended to use only relatively simple, isolated measures of rater attractiveness. Here we use 3D body scanning technology to examine associations between strength of rater preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex bodies, and raters’ body shape, self-perceived attractiveness, and sociosexuality. For 118 raters and 80 stimuli models, we used a 3D scanner to extract body measurements associated with attractiveness (male waist-chest ratio [WCR], female waist-hip ratio [WHR], and volume-height index [VHI] in both sexes) and also measured rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality. As expected, WHR and VHI were important predictors of female body attractiveness, while WCR and VHI were important predictors of male body attractiveness. Results indicated that male rater sociosexuality scores were positively associated with strength of preference for attractive (low) VHI and attractive (low) WHR in female bodies. Moreover, male rater self-perceived attractiveness was positively associated with strength of preference for low VHI in female bodies. The only evidence of condition-dependent preferences in females was a positive association between attractive VHI in female raters and preferences for attractive (low) WCR in male bodies. No other significant associations were observed in either sex between aspects of rater body shape and strength of preferences for attractive opposite-sex body traits. These results suggest that among male raters, rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality are important predictors of preference strength for attractive opposite

  16. Body Lice

    MedlinePlus

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  17. The first Messenger data supporting main theses of the wave planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2008-09-01

    The first fundamental statement of the wave planetology [1-6 & others] is about ubiquity of tectonic dichotomy. All celestial bodies move, as it was established by I. Kepler, in non-round but elliptical orbits. This means that they all notwithstanding their sizes, masses, physical states and chemical compositions have alternating increasing and decreasing accelerations producing forces (Newton: F = m·a) warping celestial bodies. This wave warping rotating bodies (but all bodies rotate!) is decomposed into four orthogonal and diagonal directions of standing waves. An interference of these directions gives tectonic blocks of three kinds: uplifting (+), subsiding (-) and neutral (0). The block sizes depend on warping wavelengths. The fundamental wave long 2πR (R - a body radius) is present in all bodies thus making one hemisphere rising and the opposite one falling (more precise relation is 1/3 to 2/3 or 2/3 to 1/3). A geometrical proof of this relation is given in [6] where two famous tectonic dichotomies of Earth and Mars were explained by one wave reason. This ubiquitous phenomenon was described as the first theorem of the wave planetology: "Celestial bodies are dichotomous". There are many examples proving it among planets, satellites and asteroids, even Sun is dichotomous. But up to recent time the studied partially Mercury's surface was not a good example of this phenomenon as not fully visible Caloris basin didn't show its real dimension. Now, after the Messenger flyby we know that it is about 1500 km in diameter, that is about 1/3 of the Mercury's diameter and the rule is not violated. The third theorem of the wave planetary tectonics states: "Celestial bodies are granular". This means that celestial bodies are warped by individual waves lengths of which are inversely proportional to their orbital frequencies: higher frequency - finer granules, lower frequency - larger granules (Fig. 1). Observations fully support it not only in sense of granules diameters

  18. Body composition analysis: Cellular level modeling of body component ratios.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Heymsfield, S B; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D; Pierson, R N

    2008-01-01

    During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growth and development and in response to disease and treatments. In-vivo measurements reveal that in healthy adults some component ratios show minimal variability and are relatively 'stable', for example total body water/fat-free mass and fat-free mass density. These ratios can be effectively applied for developing body composition methods. In contrast, other ratios, such as total body potassium/fat-free mass, are highly variable in vivo and therefore are less useful for developing body composition models. In order to understand the mechanisms governing the variability of these component ratios, we have developed eight cellular level ratio models and from them we derived simplified models that share as a major determining factor the ratio of extracellular to intracellular water ratio (E/I). The E/I value varies widely among adults. Model analysis reveals that the magnitude and variability of each body component ratio can be predicted by correlating the cellular level model with the E/I value. Our approach thus provides new insights into and improved understanding of body composition ratios in adults.

  19. Density of the Human Body in Gravity Contrasting Tectonic Blocks of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    Short duration cosmic experiments with humans in reduced gravity might be compared with results of practically time unlimited (many thousand of years!) existence of man in conditions of planetary tectonic blocks with rather small gravity gradient. These blocks with differing planetary radii are formed in the terrestrial globe (as well as in other celestial bodies) as a result of its movement in an elliptical orbit inevitably causing inertia-gravity warping waves. Depending on the wavelengths, Earth is tectonically dichotomic (wave1, 2π R-structure), sectoral (wave2, π R-structure) and granular (wave4, π R/2-structure) [1]. Alternations of uplifts (+) and subsidences (-) in rotating Earth requires an equilibration of angular momenta of different levels blocks by differing densities of composing them objects. ``Objects'' are geological as well as biological ones. Oceans (-) are filled with dense basaltic rocks, continents (+) are built by less dense granites (andesites, on average). Homo sapiens, widely spread over Earth, equally accommodates himself to conditions of tectonic blocks with differing radii (densities). The most pronounced (amplitudinal) tectonic dichotomy is an opposition of the subsided (-) western pacific hemisphere to the uplifted (+) eastern continental hemisphere. Recently populated (12 to 3 thousand years ago) America and Pacific made migrating mongoloids denser (higher the Rohrer's index* of Indians and Polynesians) than inhabitants of native Asia. Asia itself is a sector of the planetary sectoral π R-structure of the eastern hemisphere with the center at the Pamirs-Hindukush. Around this center converge 2 uplifted sectors (Africa-Mediterranean ++, Asian +) separated by 2 subsided ones (Eurasian -, Indoceanic - -). The 4 great races developed on these sectors have their own ``body density'' characteristics. The uplifted Africa bears ``light'' negroids, subsided Eurasia ``heavy'' europeoids. In the former USSR population of the Asian sector

  20. The relationship between dieting and body image, body ideal, self-perception, and body mass index in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Canpolat, Banu Isik; Orsel, Sibel; Akdemir, Asena; Ozbay, M Haluk

    2005-03-01

    The current study examined the roles of body image, ideal body weight, self-perception, and body mass index (BMI) on the dieting behavior of Turkish adolescents. The 531 subjects who participated in the study ranged from 15 to 17 years old and were recruited from five selected high schools in Ankara. They completed the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA), the Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire (BISQ), and the Dieting Status Measure (DiSM). Height and weight were measured. Dieting adolescents received significantly lower scores than nondieters for most of the BISQ items and for the physical appearance and global self-worth subscales of the SPPA. A thinner body ideal, the physical appearance domain of self-concept, and low global self-worth were the predicting factors of frequent dieting. However, BMI and body image dissatisfaction were not predicting factors. The results indicate that a thinner body ideal, low self-worth, and low physical self-concept have more significant effects on body dissatisfaction and dieting than being actually overweight does. Furthermore, high physical self-concept scores and body satisfaction may not necessarily preclude having a thinner body ideal and, hence, dieting in girls. (c) 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Heteroclinic connections between periodic orbits and resonance transitions in celestial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Wang Sang; Lo, Martin W.; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Ross, Shane D.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we apply dynamical systems techniques to the problem of heteroclinic connections and resonance transitions in the planar circular restricted three-body problem. These related phenomena have been of concern for some time in topics such as the capture of comets and asteroids and with the design of trajectories for space missions such as the Genesis Discovery Mission. The main new technical result in this paper is the numerical demonstration of the existence of a heteroclinic connection between pairs of periodic orbits: one around the libration point L1 and the other around L2, with the two periodic orbits having the same energy. This result is applied to the resonance transition problem and to the explicit numerical construction of interesting orbits with prescribed itineraries. The point of view developed in this paper is that the invariant manifold structures associated to L1 and L2 as well as the aforementioned heteroclinic connection are fundamental tools that can aid in understanding dynamical channels throughout the solar system as well as transport between the ``interior'' and ``exterior'' Hill's regions and other resonant phenomena.

  2. Body checking is associated with weight- and body-related shame and weight- and body-related guilt among men and women.

    PubMed

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-12-01

    This study examined whether body checking was a correlate of weight- and body-related shame and guilt for men and women. Participants were 537 adults (386 women) between the ages of 17 and 74 (M age =28.29, SD=14.63). Preliminary analyses showed women reported significantly more body-checking (p<.001), weight- and body-related shame (p<.001), and weight- and body-related guilt (p<.001) than men. In sex-stratified hierarchical linear regression models, body checking was significantly and positively associated with weight- and body-related shame (R 2 =.29 and .43, p<.001) and weight- and body-related guilt (R 2 =.34 and .45, p<.001) for men and women, respectively. Based on these findings, body checking is associated with negative weight- and body-related self-conscious emotions. Intervention and prevention efforts aimed at reducing negative weight- and body-related self-conscious emotions should consider focusing on body checking for adult men and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Sel-Gravitating Planetary Satellites in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasenev, S. O.

    As of today there have been more than 180 planetary satellites discovered in the Solar system, and the number of outer moons found continues to grow. Most of those natural satellites have insufficient mass and are able to retain their shape only due to the strength of the electromagnetic force. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moons' physical properties. The analysis of planetary satellites as self-gravitating bodies, i.e. celestial bodies which rely on the weight of their own mass and resulting gravitational force to maintain their shape and tend to bring it closer to the hydrostatic equilibrium, was performed.

  4. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. About mechanisms of tetonic activity of the satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2003-04-01

    ABOUT MECHANISMS OF TECTONIC ACTIVITY OF THE SATELLITES Yu.V. Barkin Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia, barkin@sai.msu.ru Due to attraction of the central planet and others external bodies satellite is subjected by tidal and non-tidal deformations. Elastic energy is changed in dependence from mutual position and motion of celestial bodies and as result the tensional state of satellite and its tectonic (endogenous) activity also is changed. Satellites of the planets have the definite shell’s structure and due to own rotation these shells are characterized by different oblatenesses. Gravitational interaction of the satellite and its mother planet generates big additional mechanical forces (and moments) between the neighboring non-spherical shells of the satellite (mantle, core and crust). These forces and moments are cyclic functions of time, which are changed in the different time-scales. They generate corresponding cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative transnational displacements and slow rotation of the shells and others. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the body. Definite contribution to discussed phenomena are caused by classical tidal mechanism. of planet-satellite interaction. But in this report we discuss in first the new mechanisms of endogenous activity of celestial bodies. They are connected with differential gravitational attraction of non-spherical satellite shells by the external celestial bodies which leads: 1) to small relative rotation (nutations) of the shells; 2) to small relative translational motions of the shells (displacements of their center of mass); 3) to relative displacements and rotations of the shells due to eccentricity of their center of mass positions; 4) to viscous elastic deformations of the shells and oth. (Barkin, 2001). For higher evaluations of the power of satellite endogenous activities were obtained

  6. The body fades away: investigating the effects of transparency of an embodied virtual body on pain threshold and body ownership.

    PubMed

    Martini, Matteo; Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2015-09-29

    The feeling of "ownership" over an external dummy/virtual body (or body part) has been proven to have both physiological and behavioural consequences. For instance, the vision of an "embodied" dummy or virtual body can modulate pain perception. However, the impact of partial or total invisibility of the body on physiology and behaviour has been hardly explored since it presents obvious difficulties in the real world. In this study we explored how body transparency affects both body ownership and pain threshold. By means of virtual reality, we presented healthy participants with a virtual co-located body with four different levels of transparency, while participants were tested for pain threshold by increasing ramps of heat stimulation. We found that the strength of the body ownership illusion decreases when the body gets more transparent. Nevertheless, in the conditions where the body was semi-transparent, higher levels of ownership over a see-through body resulted in an increased pain sensitivity. Virtual body ownership can be used for the development of pain management interventions. However, we demonstrate that providing invisibility of the body does not increase pain threshold. Therefore, body transparency is not a good strategy to decrease pain in clinical contexts, yet this remains to be tested.

  7. The body fades away: investigating the effects of transparency of an embodied virtual body on pain threshold and body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Matteo; Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    The feeling of “ownership” over an external dummy/virtual body (or body part) has been proven to have both physiological and behavioural consequences. For instance, the vision of an “embodied” dummy or virtual body can modulate pain perception. However, the impact of partial or total invisibility of the body on physiology and behaviour has been hardly explored since it presents obvious difficulties in the real world. In this study we explored how body transparency affects both body ownership and pain threshold. By means of virtual reality, we presented healthy participants with a virtual co-located body with four different levels of transparency, while participants were tested for pain threshold by increasing ramps of heat stimulation. We found that the strength of the body ownership illusion decreases when the body gets more transparent. Nevertheless, in the conditions where the body was semi-transparent, higher levels of ownership over a see-through body resulted in an increased pain sensitivity. Virtual body ownership can be used for the development of pain management interventions. However, we demonstrate that providing invisibility of the body does not increase pain threshold. Therefore, body transparency is not a good strategy to decrease pain in clinical contexts, yet this remains to be tested. PMID:26415748

  8. Body image and body change: predictive factors in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R

    2013-08-01

    Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted.

  9. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  10. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  11. Impact of Body Weight and Body Composition on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M

    2016-02-01

    Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.

  12. Radiowaves and Tectonic Dichotomy: Two Sides of One Coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    The first theorem of the wave planetology states that "Celestial bodies are di- chotomic"[1]. This notion is best demonstrated by modulation of the high frequency orbiting in the Solar system (SS) by the low frequency orbiting the SS in Galaxy. Or- biting frequencies of all bodies in the SS -from 1/8 hours for Phobos to 1/248 years for Pluto - are high comparative to the SS orbiting in Galaxy -about 1/200 000 000 years. Modulation of a high frequency by a low frequency brings about side frequencies at both sides of a high frequency. Earlier we considered only one side of the modula- tion stressing that the lower side frequency in any celestial body can achieve only the fundamental wave and produce related to it inevitable tectonic dichotomy [2]. Now we consider the higher side frequencies and find that they are in the limits of the ra- dio frequencies. Dividing all possible orbiting frequencies of bodies in the SS by the SS orbiting frequency in Galaxy one comes to a range of side frequencies from mi- crowaves to kilometer waves. This finding is rather important as it is well known that all bodies of the SS emit often enigmatic radiowaves. Figuratively, the SS is wrapped by a cloud of crossing radiowaves of various frequencies. Some calculations below show modulation of tectonic granula sizes of some celestial bodies. A granula size is a half of a wavelength which is tied to an orbiting frequency. A scale is the Earth's orbiting period 1 year and the granula size pR/4. The tectonic granula sizes of bodies are proportional to their orbital periods (Theorem 3 [1[). The modulating frequency is 1/200 000 000 years. Jupiter (12 y : 200 000 000 y) pR= (12 : 200 000 000) 3.14°u 71400 km=13.4 m tectonic granula or 26.8 m wavelength. Varying orbital periods and bodies'radia one comes to the following wavelengths. Jupiter-26.8 m, Saturn-56.4 m, Uranus-67 m, Neptune-124 m, Pluto-10.9 m, Sun-1.46 m, Triton-11.4 m (for the cir- cumsolar frequency), 1.84 mm (circumneptunian fr

  13. 3DView: Space physics data visualizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génot, V.; Beigbeder, L.; Popescu, D.; Dufourg, N.; Gangloff, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Caussarieu, S.; Toniutti, J.-P.; Durand, J.; Modolo, R.; André, N.; Cecconi, B.; Jacquey, C.; Pitout, F.; Rouillard, A.; Pinto, R.; Erard, S.; Jourdane, N.; Leclercq, L.; Hess, S.; Khodachenko, M.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Scherf, M.; Budnik, E.

    2018-04-01

    3DView creates visualizations of space physics data in their original 3D context. Time series, vectors, dynamic spectra, celestial body maps, magnetic field or flow lines, and 2D cuts in simulation cubes are among the variety of data representation enabled by 3DView. It offers direct connections to several large databases and uses VO standards; it also allows the user to upload data. 3DView's versatility covers a wide range of space physics contexts.

  14. The internal structure of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars and Jupiter according to the Savic-Kasanin theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, P.

    The internal structure of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter is considered in the framework of the Savic-Kasanin theory of the behavior of materials under high pressure. The main hypothesis underlying the theory is based on the deformation of the electron shells by the dislocation and ejection of electrons from atoms in a given material. This theory is discussed in relation to the spontaneous effect of gravitation and cooling on atoms in the material of a celestial body.

  15. Comparing the efficiency of methods for the calculation of intermediate perturbed orbit from range and range rate measurements at three times. (Russian Title: Сравнение эффективности методов вычисления промежуточной возмущенной орбиты по измерениям дальности и скорости ее изменения в три момента времени)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, V. A.; Ivanov, I. V.; Koksin, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Two methods that the first author developed for finding the orbit of a small celestial body from three pairs of range and range rate observations are applied to the determination of orbits of some artificial Earth satellites. The efficiency of using these methods is investigated in comparison with the commonly used procedure based on the construction of the unperturbed Keplerian orbit. The comparison shows that the methods proposed are an efficient means for studying perturbed motion.

  16. Male Body Practices.

    PubMed

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  17. Male Body Practices

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L.; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels “pitches,” “purchases,” and “performativities” were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. “Pitches” distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. “Purchases” refer to men’s diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. “Performativities” chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men’s diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field. PMID:27645513

  18. Comparative ultrastructure of CRM1-Nucleolar bodies (CNoBs), Intranucleolar bodies (INBs) and hybrid PML/p62 bodies uncovers new facets of nuclear body dynamic and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Souquere, Sylvie; Weil, Dominique; Pierron, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain insights on the nuclear organization in mammalian cells, we characterized ultrastructurally nuclear bodies (NBs) previously described as fluorescent foci. Using high resolution immunoelectron microscopy (I-EM), we provide evidence that CNoBs (CRM1-Nucleolar bodies) and INBs (Intranucleolar bodies) are distinct genuine nucleolar structures in untreated HeLa cells. INBs are fibrillar and concentrate the post-translational modifiers SUMO1 and SUMO-2/3 as strongly as PML bodies. In contrast, the smallest CRM1-labeled CNoBs are vitreous, preferentially located at the periphery of the nucleolus and, intricately linked to the chromatin network. Upon blockage of the CRM1-dependent nuclear export by leptomycin B (LMB), CNoBs disappear while p62/SQSTM1-containing fibrillar nuclear bodies are induced. These p62 bodies are enriched in ubiquitinated proteins. They progressively associate with PML bodies to form hybrid bodies of which PML decorates the periphery while p62/SQSTM1 is centrally-located. Our study is expanding the repertoire of nuclear bodies; revealing a previously unrecognized composite nucleolar landscape and a new mode of interactions between ubiquitous (PML) and stress-induced (p62) nuclear bodies, resulting in the formation of hybrid bodies. PMID:26275159

  19. Terrestrial and Celestial Cartography,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    39 ANDROMEDA GALAXY.................................................. 39 DISCUSSION...boundary of the most visible region in each photograph. ANDROMEDA GALAXY The nearest spiral galaxy is in the Andromeda constellation. It is designated...Astrophysical Journal, 131, 265 (1960) 51 167. Photoelectmc Photometry of the Andromeda Nebula in the U, B, V System. G. de Vaucouleurs

  20. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (p<0.001) on heritability estimates, with UWW giving the highest estimate (69%) and BIA giving the lowest estimate (47%) for fat mass/height2. Expression of body fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental

  1. Avatar body dimensions and men's body image.

    PubMed

    Cacioli, Jon-Paul; Mussap, Alexander J

    2014-03-01

    Two online surveys examined the significance of the visual analogues, or 'avatars', men (total N=266) create and use online. Two-dimensional (adiposity×muscle) somatomorphic matrices revealed that avatars are generally thinner than their creator's actual body and similar to their ideal, but more muscular than either their actual or ideal. Men's ratings of the importance of their avatar's appearance correlated with their actual weight and muscle concerns, and disparity between their avatar and actual body dimensions predicted their offline context body change concerns additional to that accounted for by disparity between their ideal and actual bodies. Together with the observation that men also reported higher self-esteem, less social interaction anxiety and less social phobia while online (which correlated with the time they spent online), these results suggest that the physical dimensions of avatars used in social interactions online may serve a compensatory function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How Ants Use Vision When Homing Backward.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Mangan, Michael; Zeil, Jochen; Webb, Barbara; Wystrach, Antoine

    2017-02-06

    Ants can navigate over long distances between their nest and food sites using visual cues [1, 2]. Recent studies show that this capacity is undiminished when walking backward while dragging a heavy food item [3-5]. This challenges the idea that ants use egocentric visual memories of the scene for guidance [1, 2, 6]. Can ants use their visual memories of the terrestrial cues when going backward? Our results suggest that ants do not adjust their direction of travel based on the perceived scene while going backward. Instead, they maintain a straight direction using their celestial compass. This direction can be dictated by their path integrator [5] but can also be set using terrestrial visual cues after a forward peek. If the food item is too heavy to enable body rotations, ants moving backward drop their food on occasion, rotate and walk a few steps forward, return to the food, and drag it backward in a now-corrected direction defined by terrestrial cues. Furthermore, we show that ants can maintain their direction of travel independently of their body orientation. It thus appears that egocentric retinal alignment is required for visual scene recognition, but ants can translate this acquired directional information into a holonomic frame of reference, which enables them to decouple their travel direction from their body orientation and hence navigate backward. This reveals substantial flexibility and communication between different types of navigational information: from terrestrial to celestial cues and from egocentric to holonomic directional memories. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction of a Radio-Telescope Prototype in the 12 GHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez, J.; Quijano, A.; Luna, A.

    2017-07-01

    Radio astronomy is important in the branch of the Astronomy that studies the celestial bodies through their emissions in the domain of the radio waves, to obtain information of these bodies, astronomers must design new types of telescopes that can capture radiation at different wavelengths, including radio telescopes. This paper presents the construction of a prototype of an educational radio telescope, which is made using materials that are easily accessible and inexpensive. The construction of a radio telescope, will allow to carry out research in the field of radio astronomy, since at present it has not been possible to penetrate this branch due to the lack of an adequate equipment in the University of Nariño. The issues that are addressed in the construction of this instrument, its use and the analysis of the data, are very varied and with a high content of multidiciplinariety, gathering basic topics in areas such as astrophysics, physics, electronics, computing, mechanics, which are necessary for Concrete the efficient use of this instrument. For the development of the project, it counts with the advice of the director and researcher of the astronomical observatory of the University of Nariño MSc. Alberto Quijano Vodniza and Dr. Abraham Luna Castellanos of the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics INAOE. In addition to the construction of radiotelescope the final phase consists of the storage and analysis of data obtained with the observation of some celestial bodies that comply with The range in the 12 GHz band for study.

  4. Agricultural Body-Building: Incorporations of Gender, Body and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandth, Berit

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with gendered embodiment of agricultural work, particularly the connection between women's gender identity and the body at work. Focussing on how the body enters into relations with the tools of work, four processes are identified by which women's bodies, work and machinery are incorporated into each other and give each…

  5. Threat of the thin-ideal body image and body malleability beliefs: effects on body image self-discrepancies and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Arciszewski, Thomas; Berjot, Sophie; Finez, Lucie

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the effect of the threat aroused by the perception of thin-ideal images combined with beliefs about the malleability of the body on perceived/objective, ideal/objective and ought/objective body image self-discrepancies. An experimental computer program enabled women (N=82) to artificially increase or decrease the shape of their own body (previously photographed) in response to questions about their "actual", "ideal" and "ought" body self-perceptions. As predicted, results showed that women had greater body self-discrepancies when confronted with threatening thin ideals, regardless of their body mass index. The size of this trend depended on the way they were made to think of their body (malleable vs. fixed). Findings also suggested a possible relationship between body self-representations and eating behaviors or intentions. The impact of thin-ideal threats and body malleability beliefs on body perception is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male ...

  7. Earth: Physico-mathematical Meaning of "primary" and "secondary" Oceans Conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    Geologists term the Pacific ocean "primary" and Atlantic and Indian oceans "sec- ondary" meaning that the first is larger, deeper, older (?) and plays more fundamental role in the Earth's tectonics. The wave planetology as hierarchically higher than geol- ogy (Earth is only one of planets and of many celestial bodies), states that all celestial bodies are dichotomic ( "Pacific" as a tectonic feature is found in any celestial body) and sectoral (i.g., the Arctic-Antarctic symptom is also in any body) (Theorems 1, 2 [1]). The tectonic dichotomy and sectoring are related to the first and second harmon- ica (wave1 and wave2) of warping standing waves appearing in any body just because they move in non-circular (elliptic, parabolic) orbits and hence inertia forces tend to distort original shapes. This disfiguring of a rotating body is not just a superficial fea- ture, it involves fundamental changes in the entire vertical section above and below surface rises and falls (Theorem 4 [1]). Here acts the law of angular momentum equi- libration. Thus, under the Pacific basin hollow -the deepest hollow produced by wave1 - mantle is denser than under the Atlantic and Indian oceanic basins - basins produced by wave2. We know it because squeezed out of mantle tholeiites in the mid-oceanic ridges are Fe-richer in Pacific than in other oceans. The "primary" ocean is thus a fundamental or "wave1" or 2pR-structure. The "secondary" oceans are "wave2" or pR-structures. pR-structures represented by continents, secondary oceans and basins and the "superswell" (Darwin rise) in the Pacific, i.e. by most important terrestrial lithospheric tectonic blocks, are distributed on the Earth's surface not randomly. As must be expected of the standing wave interference picture, the pR-structure pattern shows regular grouping around certain centres. There are 6 centres - vertices of an oc- tahedron occurring at equator (1, 2), tropics (3, 4) and polar circles (5, 6). They are: 1. New Guinea, 2

  8. Body fatness, body core temperature, and heat loss during moderate-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Limbaugh, Jayme D; Wimer, Gregory S; Long, Lynn H; Baird, William H

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the influence of body fatness on body core temperature and heat loss responses during moderate-intensity exercise. Nine men with lower body fat and eight men with higher body fat, matched for aerobic fitness, completed 1 h of recumbent cycling at the same absolute intensity in a warm environment (30 degrees C, 40% RH). Percent body fat was measured by hydrostatic weighing, using oxygen dilution to determine residual volume. Esophageal temperature (T(es)), mean skin temperature (T(sk)), and local sweat rate (m(sw)) were measured at rest and continuously during exercise while forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured at rest and every 10 min during exercise. The lower body fat and higher body fat groups were successfully matched for aerobic fitness, removing the influence of body fatness, given that V/O2(peak) was 50.72 +/- 7.34 and 50.43 +/- 5.01 ml x kg LBM(-1) x min(-1), respectively. When compared to lower body fat individuals, % body fat, body surface area (A(D)), and body mass were higher and A(D)/ mass was lower in higher body fat individuals. T(es), T(sk), FBF, m(sw), and the slope of m(sw):T(es) were not different between groups. Metabolic heat production was similar between the lower body fat (299.7 +/- 40.5 W x m(-2)) and higher body fat (288.1 +/- 30.6 W x m(-2)) subjects, respectively. Dry and evaporative heat loss, as well as heat storage during exercise, were not different between groups. These data suggest that there is no effect of body fatness on body core temperature or heat loss responses during moderate-intensity exercise in a warm environment.

  9. Impact: an Integrated Approach (Space and Ground) for Monitoring the Threat of Earth Orbit Corssing Celestial Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussolino, L.; Somma, R.

    The threat of possible collision of asteroids and comets with our planet has reached an international stage since 1990 when U.S.A. Congress set up a dedicated committee for the analysis and the assessment of this problem.The U.N. organized a congress later on to summarize the current knowledge on this subject as well as the Europea Council recommended its member states to conduct studies to further deepen the understanding in terms of tackling and solving this kind of problem interesting the entire world. IMPACT is the acronym for " International Monitoring Program for Asteroids and Comets Threats " coming out as proposal from a study funded by the italian region PIEMONTE throughout the Civil Protection Bureau and performed by the Planetology Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Torino ( Italy ) and Alenia Spazio for the engineering part. They have carried out a series of analyses aimed at contributing in subsequent steps to the solution of the two fundamental problems associated to the potential impact threat : the assessment of the numbers of killers/terminators and the impact rates from one side and the development of the idea of considering space segments for supporting activities of discovery as well as the physical and mineralogical characterization using satellites in orbit around the Earth. other additional studies also funded by the European Space Agency where the space technology appears to offer a great contribution if conveniently integrated with the Earth networks for Potentially Hazardous Asteroids ( PHA ) detection. An international approach for monitoring this threat for the Earth is then proposed.

  10. Owning an overweight or underweight body: distinguishing the physical, experienced and virtual body.

    PubMed

    Piryankova, Ivelina V; Wong, Hong Yu; Linkenauger, Sally A; Stinson, Catherine; Longo, Matthew R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2014-01-01

    Our bodies are the most intimately familiar objects we encounter in our perceptual environment. Virtual reality provides a unique method to allow us to experience having a very different body from our own, thereby providing a valuable method to explore the plasticity of body representation. In this paper, we show that women can experience ownership over a whole virtual body that is considerably smaller or larger than their physical body. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying body ownership, we use an embodiment questionnaire, and introduce two new behavioral response measures: an affordance estimation task (indirect measure of body size) and a body size estimation task (direct measure of body size). Interestingly, after viewing the virtual body from first person perspective, both the affordance and the body size estimation tasks indicate a change in the perception of the size of the participant's experienced body. The change is biased by the size of the virtual body (overweight or underweight). Another novel aspect of our study is that we distinguish between the physical, experienced and virtual bodies, by asking participants to provide affordance and body size estimations for each of the three bodies separately. This methodological point is important for virtual reality experiments investigating body ownership of a virtual body, because it offers a better understanding of which cues (e.g. visual, proprioceptive, memory, or a combination thereof) influence body perception, and whether the impact of these cues can vary between different setups.

  11. Owning an Overweight or Underweight Body: Distinguishing the Physical, Experienced and Virtual Body

    PubMed Central

    Piryankova, Ivelina V.; Wong, Hong Yu; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Stinson, Catherine; Longo, Matthew R.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Mohler, Betty J.

    2014-01-01

    Our bodies are the most intimately familiar objects we encounter in our perceptual environment. Virtual reality provides a unique method to allow us to experience having a very different body from our own, thereby providing a valuable method to explore the plasticity of body representation. In this paper, we show that women can experience ownership over a whole virtual body that is considerably smaller or larger than their physical body. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying body ownership, we use an embodiment questionnaire, and introduce two new behavioral response measures: an affordance estimation task (indirect measure of body size) and a body size estimation task (direct measure of body size). Interestingly, after viewing the virtual body from first person perspective, both the affordance and the body size estimation tasks indicate a change in the perception of the size of the participant's experienced body. The change is biased by the size of the virtual body (overweight or underweight). Another novel aspect of our study is that we distinguish between the physical, experienced and virtual bodies, by asking participants to provide affordance and body size estimations for each of the three bodies separately. This methodological point is important for virtual reality experiments investigating body ownership of a virtual body, because it offers a better understanding of which cues (e.g. visual, proprioceptive, memory, or a combination thereof) influence body perception, and whether the impact of these cues can vary between different setups. PMID:25083784

  12. Martian and Asteroid Dusts as Toxicological Risks for Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    As the lunar dust toxicity project winds down, our attention is drawn to the potential toxicity of dust present at the surface of more distant celestial objects. Lunar dust has proven to be surprisingly toxic to the respiratory systems of test animals, so one might expect dust from other celestial bodies to hold toxicological surprises for us. At this point all one can do is consider what should be known about these dusts to characterize their toxicity, and then ask to what extent that information is known. In an ideal world it might be possible to suggest an exposure standard based on the known properties of a celestial dust without direct testing of the dust in laboratory animals. Factors known to affect the toxicity of mineral dusts under some conditions include the following: particle size distribution, particle shape/porosity, mineralogical properties (crystalline vs. amorphous), chemical properties and composition, and surface reactivity. Data from a recent Japanese mission to the S-type asteroid Itokawa revealed some surprises about the dust found there, given that there is only a very week gravitational field to hold the dust on the surface. On Mars the reddish-brown dust is widely distributed by global dust storms and by local clusters of dust devils. Past surface probes have revealed some of the properties of dust found there. Contemporary data from Curiosity and other surface probes will be weighed against the data needed to set a defensible safe exposure limit. Gaps will emerge.

  13. Insect Responses to Linearly Polarized Reflections: Orphan Behaviors Without Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Heinloth, Tanja; Uhlhorn, Juliane; Wernet, Mathias F.

    2018-01-01

    The e-vector orientation of linearly polarized light represents an important visual stimulus for many insects. Especially the detection of polarized skylight by many navigating insect species is known to improve their orientation skills. While great progress has been made towards describing both the anatomy and function of neural circuit elements mediating behaviors related to navigation, relatively little is known about how insects perceive non-celestial polarized light stimuli, like reflections off water, leaves, or shiny body surfaces. Work on different species suggests that these behaviors are not mediated by the “Dorsal Rim Area” (DRA), a specialized region in the dorsal periphery of the adult compound eye, where ommatidia contain highly polarization-sensitive photoreceptor cells whose receptive fields point towards the sky. So far, only few cases of polarization-sensitive photoreceptors have been described in the ventral periphery of the insect retina. Furthermore, both the structure and function of those neural circuits connecting to these photoreceptor inputs remain largely uncharacterized. Here we review the known data on non-celestial polarization vision from different insect species (dragonflies, butterflies, beetles, bugs and flies) and present three well-characterized examples for functionally specialized non-DRA detectors from different insects that seem perfectly suited for mediating such behaviors. Finally, using recent advances from circuit dissection in Drosophila melanogaster, we discuss what types of potential candidate neurons could be involved in forming the underlying neural circuitry mediating non-celestial polarization vision. PMID:29615868

  14. Insect Responses to Linearly Polarized Reflections: Orphan Behaviors Without Neural Circuits.

    PubMed

    Heinloth, Tanja; Uhlhorn, Juliane; Wernet, Mathias F

    2018-01-01

    The e-vector orientation of linearly polarized light represents an important visual stimulus for many insects. Especially the detection of polarized skylight by many navigating insect species is known to improve their orientation skills. While great progress has been made towards describing both the anatomy and function of neural circuit elements mediating behaviors related to navigation, relatively little is known about how insects perceive non-celestial polarized light stimuli, like reflections off water, leaves, or shiny body surfaces. Work on different species suggests that these behaviors are not mediated by the "Dorsal Rim Area" (DRA), a specialized region in the dorsal periphery of the adult compound eye, where ommatidia contain highly polarization-sensitive photoreceptor cells whose receptive fields point towards the sky. So far, only few cases of polarization-sensitive photoreceptors have been described in the ventral periphery of the insect retina. Furthermore, both the structure and function of those neural circuits connecting to these photoreceptor inputs remain largely uncharacterized. Here we review the known data on non-celestial polarization vision from different insect species (dragonflies, butterflies, beetles, bugs and flies) and present three well-characterized examples for functionally specialized non-DRA detectors from different insects that seem perfectly suited for mediating such behaviors. Finally, using recent advances from circuit dissection in Drosophila melanogaster , we discuss what types of potential candidate neurons could be involved in forming the underlying neural circuitry mediating non-celestial polarization vision.

  15. Body dissatisfaction and body comparison with media images in males and females.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Patricia; Paxton, Susan J; Keery, Helene; Wall, Melanie; Guo, Jia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the role of media body comparison as a mediator of the relationships between psychological factors and sociocultural pressures to be thin and body dissatisfaction in both females and males. Participants were 1,386 females (mean age = 19.37 years) and 1,130 males (mean age = 19.46) from diverse backgrounds who completed a self-report questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test a cross-sectional model in which media body comparison mediated the impact of self-esteem, depressive mood, parent dieting environment, friend dieting, TV exposure, magazine message exposure, weight teasing and body mass index (BMI) on body dissatisfaction. In females, media body comparison partially or fully mediated relationships between self-esteem, depressive mood, friend dieting, magazine message exposure and BMI, and body dissatisfaction. In males, media body comparison was not a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction. This research particularly highlights the need to further examine processes that are involved in the development of body dissatisfaction in males.

  16. Body dissatisfaction levels and gender differences in attentional biases toward idealized bodies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ara; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-01-01

    Attentional bias toward idealized bodies (men: muscular; women: thin) may cause upward comparisons and increase body dissatisfaction (BD). We investigated attentional biases of 39 men and 41 women with high and low BD toward muscular male bodies and thin female bodies. An eye-tracker measured gaze durations and fixation frequencies while exposing participants to images of thin, normal, muscular, and fat bodies of the same gender. Results revealed longer and more frequent attention toward muscular bodies in high BD men, and toward thin bodies in high BD women. High BD men and women also rated muscular and thin bodies as more attractive than those with low BD. Although men attended to muscular and women attended to thin bodies, both showed an attentional bias toward body types they rated as more attractive. These findings could provide indirect evidence in explaining the relationship between BD and the social comparison theory with attentional bias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Software and hardware complex for observation of star occultations by asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbovsky, V.; Kleshchonok, V.; Buromsky, M.

    2017-12-01

    The preparation to the program for observation of star occultations by asteroids on the AZT-2 telescope was started in 2016. A new method for registration of occultation with a CCD camera in the synchronous transfer mode was proposed and developed. The special program was written to control the CCD camera and record images during such observations. The speed of image transfer can vary within wide limits, which makes it possible to carry out observations in a wide range of stellar magnitudes. The telescope AZT-2 is used, which has the largest mirror diameter in Kiev (D = 0.7 m. F = 10.5 m). A 3-fold optical reducer was produced, which providing a field of view with a CCD camera Apogee Alta U47 10 arcminutes and the equivalent focal length of the telescope 3.2 meters. The results of test observations are presented. The program is implemented jointly by the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Astronomical Observatory of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Regular observations of star occultation by asteroids are planned with the help of this complex. % Z https://occultations.org Kleshchonok,V.V.,Buromsky,M. I. 2005, Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies, 21, 5, 405 Kleshchonok, V.V., Buromskii, N. I., Khat’ko,I.V.2008, Kinematics and Physics of Celestial Bodies, 24, 2, 114

  18. Comparison and Historical Evolution of Ancient Greek Cosmological Ideas and Mathematical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotsis, Antonios D.

    2005-12-01

    We present a comparative study of the cosmological ideas and mathematical models in ancient Greece. We show that the heliocentric system introduced by Aristarchus of Samos was the outcome of much intellectual activity. Many Greek philosophers, mathematicians and astronomers such as Anaximander, Philolaus, Hicetas, Ecphantus and Heraclides of Pontus contributed to this. Also, Ptolemy was influenced by the cosmological model of Heraclides of Pontus for the explanation of the apparent motions of Mercury and Venus. Apollonius, who wrote the definitive work on conic sections, introduced the theory of eccentric circles and implemented them together with epicycles instead of considering that the celestial bodies travel in elliptic orbits. This is due to the deeply rooted belief that the orbits of the celestial bodies were normal circular motions around the Earth, which was still. There was also a variety of important ideas which are relevant to modern science. We present the ideas of Plato that are consistent with modern relativity theories, as well as Aristarchus' estimations of the size of the Universe in comparison with the size of the planetary system. As a first approximation, Hipparchus' theory of eccentric circles was equivalent to the first two laws of Kepler. The significance of the principle of independence and superposition of motions in the formulation of ancient cosmological models is also clarified.

  19. Special Software for Planetary Image Processing and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, A. E.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Kozlova, N. A.; Brusnikin, E. S.; Karachevtseva, I. P.

    2016-06-01

    The special modules of photogrammetric processing of remote sensing data that provide the opportunity to effectively organize and optimize the planetary studies were developed. As basic application the commercial software package PHOTOMOD™ is used. Special modules were created to perform various types of data processing: calculation of preliminary navigation parameters, calculation of shape parameters of celestial body, global view image orthorectification, estimation of Sun illumination and Earth visibilities from planetary surface. For photogrammetric processing the different types of data have been used, including images of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, Phobos, Galilean satellites and Enceladus obtained by frame or push-broom cameras. We used modern planetary data and images that were taken over the years, shooting from orbit flight path with various illumination and resolution as well as obtained by planetary rovers from surface. Planetary data image processing is a complex task, and as usual it can take from few months to years. We present our efficient pipeline procedure that provides the possibilities to obtain different data products and supports a long way from planetary images to celestial body maps. The obtained data - new three-dimensional control point networks, elevation models, orthomosaics - provided accurate maps production: a new Phobos atlas (Karachevtseva et al., 2015) and various thematic maps that derived from studies of planetary surface (Karachevtseva et al., 2016a).

  20. Healthy Bodies: Construction of the Body and Health in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Louisa; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Ohman, Marie

    2008-01-01

    In physical education, bodies are not only moved but made. There are perceived expectations for bodies in physical education to be "healthy bodies"--for teachers to be "appropriate" physical, fit, healthy and skillful "role models" and for students to display a slim body that is equated with fitness and health. In…

  1. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  2. The Athletic Body.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  3. VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28584752

  5. Increasing body satisfaction of body concerned women through evaluative conditioning using social stimuli.

    PubMed

    Martijn, Carolien; Vanderlinden, Marlies; Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Jansen, Anita

    2010-09-01

    Many women show weight and body concerns that leave them vulnerable to body dissatisfaction, lowered self-esteem, psychological distress, and eating disorders. This study tested whether body satisfaction could be increased by means of evaluative conditioning. In the experimental condition (n = 26), women with low and high body concern completed a conditioning procedure in which pictures of their bodies were selectively linked to positive social stimuli (pictures of smiling faces). Pictures of control bodies were linked to neutral or negative social stimuli (neutral and frowning faces). In a control condition (n = 28), low and high body concerned women underwent a procedure in which pictures of their own body and of control bodies were randomly followed by positive, neutral, and negative social stimuli. Changes in body satisfaction and self-esteem before and after the conditioning task. Women with high body concern demonstrated an increase in body satisfaction and global self-esteem when pictorial representations of their own bodies were associated with positive stimuli that signaled social acceptance. A simple conditioning procedure increased body satisfaction in healthy, normal weight women who were concerned about their shape and weight. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Body Image and Body Experience Disturbances in Schizophrenia: an Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Body Self as a Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Sakson-Obada, Olga; Chudzikiewicz, Paulina; Pankowski, Daniel; Jarema, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Disturbances in body experience are described as key schizophrenia symptoms and early disease predictors. In case studies, different disorders relating to body experience are presented, but only a few empirical studies have aimed to distinguish the characteristics of body experience in schizophrenia, and these have been selected arbitrarily and without reference to cohesive theoretical model. To integrate this fragmentary approach, we propose a body self (BS) model, composed of: functions; representations (e.g., body image); and sense of body identity. The aim of the study was to determine whether the BS differentiates schizophrenic patients from healthy controls, and to investigate the relations between aspects of BS and a history of illness and clinical characteristics. The Body Self Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered to 63 schizophrenic patients and 63 healthy subjects. The difference was found in the functions of the body-self (perceiving, interpreting, and regulating body experience), in the sense of body identity, and in one of three aspects of body image explored (e.g., acceptance of biological sex). Disturbances in BS were related to positive symptoms and to the number of hospitalizations for other diseases. Together, the results demonstrate that schizophrenia is more body experience than body image disorder, since the negative emotional attitude towards the body and acceptance of fitness were not distinctive for schizophrenia. The link between the disturbances in BS and the number of nonpsychiatric hospitalizations suggests that misinterpretation of body experiences in schizophrenia can promote a search for medical attention.

  7. Do Lower-Body Dimensions and Body Composition Explain Vertical Jump Ability?

    PubMed

    Caia, Johnpaul; Weiss, Lawrence W; Chiu, Loren Z F; Schilling, Brian K; Paquette, Max R; Relyea, George E

    2016-11-01

    Caia, J, Weiss, LW, Chiu, LZF, Schilling, BK, Paquette, MR, and Relyea, GE. Do lower-body dimensions and body composition explain vertical jump ability? J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3073-3083, 2016-Vertical jump (VJ) capability is integral to the level of success attained by individuals participating in numerous sport and physical activities. Knowledge of factors related to jump performance may help with talent identification and/or optimizing training prescription. Although myriad variables are likely related to VJ, this study focused on determining if various lower-body dimensions and/or body composition would explain some of the variability in performance. Selected anthropometric dimensions were obtained from 50 university students (25 men and 25 women) on 2 occasions separated by 48 or 72 hours. Estimated body fat percentage (BF%), height, body weight, hip width, pelvic width, bilateral quadriceps angle (Q-angle), and bilateral longitudinal dimensions of the feet, leg, thigh, and lower limb were obtained. Additionally, participants completed countermovement VJs. Analysis showed BF% to have the highest correlation with countermovement VJ displacement (r = -0.76, p < 0.001). When examining lower-body dimensions, right-side Q-angle displayed the strongest association with countermovement VJ displacement (r = -0.58, p < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that 2 different pairs of variables accounted for the greatest variation (66%) in VJ: (a) BF% and sex and (b) BF% and body weight. Regression models involving BF% and lower-body dimensions explained up to 61% of the variance observed in VJ. Although the variance explained by BF% may be increased by using several lower-body dimensions, either sex identification or body weight explains comparatively more. Therefore, these data suggest that the lower-body dimensions measured herein have limited utility in explaining VJ performance.

  8. Body Build Satisfaction and the Congruency of Body Build Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Norman E.; Bailey, Roger C.

    1979-01-01

    Females were administered the somatotype rating scale. Satisfied subjects showed greater congruency between their own and wished-for body build, and greater congruency between their own and friend/date body builds, but less congruency between their own body build and the female stereotype. (Author/BEF)

  9. Sys-BodyFluid: a systematical database for human body fluid proteome research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su-Jun; Peng, Mao; Li, Hong; Liu, Bo-Shu; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jia-Rui; Li, Yi-Xue; Zeng, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Recently, body fluids have widely become an important target for proteomic research and proteomic study has produced more and more body fluid related protein data. A database is needed to collect and analyze these proteome data. Thus, we developed this web-based body fluid proteome database Sys-BodyFluid. It contains eleven kinds of body fluid proteomes, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, seminal fluid, human milk and amniotic fluid. Over 10 000 proteins are presented in the Sys-BodyFluid. Sys-BodyFluid provides the detailed protein annotations, including protein description, Gene Ontology, domain information, protein sequence and involved pathways. These proteome data can be retrieved by using protein name, protein accession number and sequence similarity. In addition, users can query between these different body fluids to get the different proteins identification information. Sys-BodyFluid database can facilitate the body fluid proteomics and disease proteomics research as a reference database. It is available at http://www.biosino.org/bodyfluid/. PMID:18978022

  10. Sys-BodyFluid: a systematical database for human body fluid proteome research.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Jun; Peng, Mao; Li, Hong; Liu, Bo-Shu; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jia-Rui; Li, Yi-Xue; Zeng, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Recently, body fluids have widely become an important target for proteomic research and proteomic study has produced more and more body fluid related protein data. A database is needed to collect and analyze these proteome data. Thus, we developed this web-based body fluid proteome database Sys-BodyFluid. It contains eleven kinds of body fluid proteomes, including plasma/serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate fluid, tear fluid, seminal fluid, human milk and amniotic fluid. Over 10,000 proteins are presented in the Sys-BodyFluid. Sys-BodyFluid provides the detailed protein annotations, including protein description, Gene Ontology, domain information, protein sequence and involved pathways. These proteome data can be retrieved by using protein name, protein accession number and sequence similarity. In addition, users can query between these different body fluids to get the different proteins identification information. Sys-BodyFluid database can facilitate the body fluid proteomics and disease proteomics research as a reference database. It is available at http://www.biosino.org/bodyfluid/.

  11. LDEF grappled by remote manipulator system (RMS) during STS-32 retrieval

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-01-20

    This view taken through overhead window W7 on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck shows the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in the grasp of the remote manipulator system (RMS) during STS-32 retrieval activities. Other cameras at eye level were documenting the bus-sized spacecraft at various angles as the RMS manipulated LDEF for a lengthy photo survey. The glaring celestial body in the upper left is the sun with the Earth's surface visible below.

  12. PML nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie; de Thé, Hugues

    2010-05-01

    PML nuclear bodies are matrix-associated domains that recruit an astonishing variety of seemingly unrelated proteins. Since their discovery in the early 1960s, PML bodies have fascinated cell biologists because of their beauty and their tight association with cellular disorders. The identification of PML, a gene involved in an oncogenic chromosomal translocation, as the key organizer of these domains drew instant interest onto them. The multiple levels of PML body regulation by a specific posttranslational modification, sumoylation, have raised several unsolved issues. Functionally, PML bodies may sequester, modify or degrade partner proteins, but in many ways, PML bodies still constitute an enigma.

  13. Nine-Month-Old Infants Prefer Unattractive Bodies over Attractive Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Slater, Alan M.; Pascalis, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Infant responses to adult-defined unattractive male body shapes versus attractive male body shapes were assessed using visual preference and habituation procedures. Looking behavior indicated that 9-month-olds have a preference for unattractive male body shapes over attractive ones; however, this preference is demonstrated only when head…

  14. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    PubMed

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  15. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  16. Advanced body composition assessment: from body mass index to body composition profiling.

    PubMed

    Borga, Magnus; West, Janne; Bell, Jimmy D; Harvey, Nicholas C; Romu, Thobias; Heymsfield, Steven B; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof

    2018-06-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of common non-invasive techniques for body composition analysis and a more in-depth review of a body composition assessment method based on fat-referenced quantitative MRI. Earlier published studies of this method are summarized, and a previously unpublished validation study, based on 4753 subjects from the UK Biobank imaging cohort, comparing the quantitative MRI method with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is presented. For whole-body measurements of adipose tissue (AT) or fat and lean tissue (LT), DXA and quantitative MRIs show excellent agreement with linear correlation of 0.99 and 0.97, and coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.5 and 4.6 per cent for fat (computed from AT) and LT, respectively, but the agreement was found significantly lower for visceral adipose tissue, with a CV of >20 per cent. The additional ability of MRI to also measure muscle volumes, muscle AT infiltration and ectopic fat, in combination with rapid scanning protocols and efficient image analysis tools, makes quantitative MRI a powerful tool for advanced body composition assessment. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Ego-pathology, body experience, and body psychotherapy in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Röhricht, Frank; Papadopoulos, Nina; Suzuki, Iris; Priebe, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    In a recent pilot RCT, looking at the efficacy of body oriented psychological therapy (BPT) in patients with chronic schizophrenia, a marked improvement in negative symptoms was found in the treatment group. To date, there have been no studies to evaluate the therapeutic processes, correlates and predictors of change in-patients receiving BPT. The aims of this study are to address three specific questions, namely how: (1) Ego-pathology and (2) Body experiences, may change during the treatment (BPT). We also looked at: (3) If these pathologies, and/or changes in them, or other characteristics are associated with specific clinical outcomes. Analysis of data obtained within a pilot randomized controlled trial. In a sample of patients with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia, allocated to receive a course of body oriented group psychotherapy, certain parameters were assessed pre- and post-treatment: (1) Ego-pathology, using the ego-pathology inventory (EPI); (2) Body experiences, (size perception/image marking procedure - IMP, body image/body distortion questionnaire - BDQ, and body cathexis/visual-analogue-scales - VAS); and (3) Common symptom factors, using the Positive And Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). Subjective experiences were also recorded. Four out of six ego-pathology symptom scores improved over the course of therapy (t=2.9-3.5, p<.05-.01). Amongst the measures of body experiences, only the body perception indices of the lower extremities changed significantly from underestimation pre-therapy (BPI median 92.3), becoming accurate estimates post therapy (BPI median 101.1). Contrary to the hypothesis a reduction of negative symptoms in chronic schizophrenia patients was not associated with systematic improvements of ego-pathology or body experiences. The strongest predictor of change was a high score of ego-demarcation pre-treatment (beta=0.89, p<.001). In patients with chronic schizophrenia, body oriented psychological interventions may be effective for both

  18. Inside Your Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... body through the anus as a bowel movement. Respiratory system The respiratory (say: RES-puh-ruh-TOR-ee) system delivers ... body when a person exhales (breathes out). The respiratory system has another job: protecting your body from ...

  19. R-body-producing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pond, F R; Gibson, I; Lalucat, J; Quackenbush, R L

    1989-01-01

    Until 10 years ago, R bodies were known only as diagnostic features by which endosymbionts of paramecia were identified as kappa particles. They were thought to be limited to the cytoplasm of two species in the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Now, R bodies have been found in free-living bacteria and other Paramecium species. The organisms now known to form R bodies include the cytoplasmic kappa endosymbionts of P. biaurelia and P. tetraurelia, the macronuclear kappa endosymbionts of P. caudatum, Pseudomonas avenae (a free-living plant pathogen), Pseudomonas taeniospiralis (a hydrogen-oxidizing soil microorganism), Rhodospirillum centenum (a photosynthetic bacterium), and a soil bacterium, EPS-5028, which is probably a pseudomonad. R bodies themselves fall into five distinct groups, distinguished by size, the morphology of the R-body ribbons, and the unrolling behavior of wound R bodies. In recent years, the inherent difficulties in studying the organization and assembly of R bodies by the obligate endosymbiont kappa, have been alleviated by cloning and expressing genetic determinants for these R bodies (type 51) in Escherichia coli. Type 51 R-body synthesis requires three low-molecular-mass polypeptides. One of these is modified posttranslationally, giving rise to 12 polypeptide species, which are the major structural subunits of the R body. R bodies are encoded in kappa species by extrachromosomal elements. Type 51 R bodies, produced in Caedibacter taeniospiralis, are encoded by a plasmid, whereas bacteriophage genomes probably control R-body synthesis in other kappa species. However, there is no evidence that either bacteriophages or plasmids are present in P. avenae or P. taeniospiralis. No sequence homology was detected between type 51 R-body-encoding DNA and DNA from any R-body-producing species, except C. varicaedens 1038. The evolutionary relatedness of different types of R bodies remains unknown. Images PMID:2651865

  20. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  1. PML Nuclear Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie; de Thé, Hugues

    2010-01-01

    PML nuclear bodies are matrix-associated domains that recruit an astonishing variety of seemingly unrelated proteins. Since their discovery in the early 1960s, PML bodies have fascinated cell biologists because of their beauty and their tight association with cellular disorders. The identification of PML, a gene involved in an oncogenic chromosomal translocation, as the key organizer of these domains drew instant interest onto them. The multiple levels of PML body regulation by a specific posttranslational modification, sumoylation, have raised several unsolved issues. Functionally, PML bodies may sequester, modify or degrade partner proteins, but in many ways, PML bodies still constitute an enigma. PMID:20452955

  2. Contributions of depression and body mass index to body image.

    PubMed

    Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-05-07

    Depression and body mass index (BMI) are known to be associated with body image, however, their independent or joint effects on body image in adults are largely unknown. Therefore, we studied associations of depression diagnosis, severity, and BMI with perceptual body size (PBS) and body image dissatisfaction (BID). Cross-sectional data from 882 remitted depressed patients, 242 currently depressed patients and 325 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview), standardized self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) and BMI were separately and simultaneously related to body image (the Stunkard Figure Rating scale) using linear regression analyses. Thereafter, interaction between depression and BMI was investigated. Analyses were adjusted for demographic and health variables. Higher BMI was associated with larger PBS (B = 1.13, p < .001) and with more BID (B = 0.61, p < .001). Independent of this, depression severity contributed to larger PBS (B = 0.07, p < .001), and both current (B = 0.21, p = .001) and remitted depression diagnosis (B = 0.12, p = .01) as well as depression severity (B = 0.11, p < .001) contributed to BID. There was no interaction effect between BMI and depression in predicting PBS and BID. In general, depression (current, remitted and severity) and higher BMI contribute independently to a larger body size perception as well as higher body image dissatisfaction. Efforts in treatment should be made to reduce body dissatisfaction in those suffering from depression and/or a high BMI, as BID can have long-lasting health consequences, such as development of anorexia and bulimia nervosa and an unhealthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Holistic processing for bodies and body parts: New evidence from stereoscopic depth manipulations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alison; Vyas, Daivik B; Reed, Catherine L

    2016-10-01

    Although holistic processing has been documented extensively for upright faces, it is unclear whether it occurs for other visual categories with more extensive substructure, such as body postures. Like faces, body postures have high social relevance, but they differ in having fine-grain organization not only of basic parts (e.g., arm) but also subparts (e.g., elbow, wrist, hand). To compare holistic processing for whole bodies and body parts, we employed a novel stereoscopic depth manipulation that creates either the percept of a whole body occluded by a set of bars, or of segments of a body floating in front of a background. Despite sharing low-level visual properties, only the stimulus perceived as being behind bars should be holistically "filled in" via amodal completion. In two experiments, we tested for better identification of individual body parts within the context of a body versus in isolation. Consistent with previous findings, recognition of body parts was better in the context of a whole body when the body was amodally completed behind occluders. However, when the same bodies were perceived as floating in strips, performance was significantly worse, and not significantly different, from that for amodally completed parts, supporting holistic processing of body postures. Intriguingly, performance was worst for parts in the frontal depth condition, suggesting that these effects may extend from gross body organization to a more local level. These results provide suggestive evidence that holistic representations may not be "all-or-none," but rather also operate on body regions of more limited spatial extent.

  4. Effect of Body Perturbations on Hypersonic Flow Over Slender Power Law Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold; Thornton, Philip R.

    1959-01-01

    Hypersonic-slender-body theory, in the limit as the free-stream Mach number becomes infinite, is used to find the effect of slightly perturbing the surface of slender two-dimensional and axisymmetric power law bodies, The body perturbations are assumed to have a power law variation (with streamwise distance downstream of the nose of the body). Numerical results are presented for (1) the effect of boundary-layer development on two dimensional and axisymmetric bodies, (2) the effect of very small angles of attack (on tow[dimensional bodies), and (3) the effect of blunting the nose of very slender wedges and cones.

  5. Body Covering and Body Image: A Comparison of Veiled and Unveiled Muslim Women, Christian Women, and Atheist Women Regarding Body Checking, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Disorder Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Leonie; Hartmann, Andrea S; Becker, Julia C; Kişi, Melahat; Waldorf, Manuel; Vocks, Silja

    2018-02-21

    Although Islam is the fastest growing religion worldwide, only few studies have investigated body image in Muslim women, and no study has investigated body checking. Therefore, the present study examined whether body image, body checking, and disordered eating differ between veiled and unveiled Muslim women, Christian women, and atheist women. While the groups did not differ regarding body dissatisfaction, unveiled Muslim women reported more checking than veiled Muslim and Christian women, and higher bulimia scores than Christian. Thus, prevention against eating disorders should integrate all women, irrespective of religious affiliation or veiling, with a particular focus on unveiled Muslim women.

  6. Singularity free N-body simulations called 'Dynamic Universe Model' don't require dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    For finding trajectories of Pioneer satellite (Anomaly), New Horizons satellite going to Pluto, the Calculations of Dynamic Universe model can be successfully applied. No dark matter is assumed within solar system radius. The effect on the masses around SUN shows as though there is extra gravitation pull toward SUN. It solves the Dynamics of Extra-solar planets like Planet X, satellite like Pioneer and NH for 3-Position, 3-velocity 3-accelaration for their masses, considering the complex situation of Multiple planets, Stars, Galaxy parts and Galaxy centre and other Galaxies Using simple Newtonian Physics. It already solved problems Missing mass in Galaxies observed by galaxy circular velocity curves successfully. Singularity free Newtonian N-body simulations Historically, King Oscar II of Sweden an-nounced a prize to a solution of N-body problem with advice given by Güsta Mittag-Leffler in 1887. He announced `Given a system of arbitrarily many mass points that attract each according to Newton's law, under the assumption that no two points ever collide, try to find a representation of the coordinates of each point as a series in a variable that is some known function of time and for all of whose values the series converges uniformly.'[This is taken from Wikipedia]. The announced dead line that time was1st June 1888. And after that dead line, on 21st January 1889, Great mathematician Poincaré claimed that prize. Later he himself sent a telegram to journal Acta Mathematica to stop printing the special issue after finding the error in his solution. Yet for such a man of science reputation is important than money. [ Ref Book `Celestial mechanics: the waltz of the planets' By Alessandra Celletti, Ettore Perozzi, page 27]. He realized that he has been wrong in his general stability result! But till now nobody could solve that problem or claimed that prize. Later all solutions resulted in singularities and collisions of masses, given by many people

  7. Body Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, K. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

  8. Body typing of children and adolescents using 3D-body scanning

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Mandy; Kirsten, Toralf; Glock, Fabian; Poulain, Tanja; Körner, Antje; Loeffler, Markus; Kiess, Wieland; Binder, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D-) body scanning of children and adolescents allows the detailed study of physiological development in terms of anthropometrical alterations which potentially provide early onset markers for obesity. Here, we present a systematic analysis of body scanning data of 2,700 urban children and adolescents in the age range between 5 and 18 years with the special aim to stratify the participants into distinct body shape types and to describe their change upon development. In a first step, we extracted a set of eight representative meta-measures from the data. Each of them collects a related group of anthropometrical features and changes specifically upon aging. In a second step we defined seven body types by clustering the meta-measures of all participants. These body types describe the body shapes in terms of three weight (lower, normal and overweight) and three age (young, medium and older) categories. For younger children (age of 5–10 years) we found a common ‘early childhood body shape’ which splits into three weight-dependent types for older children, with one or two years delay for boys. Our study shows that the concept of body types provides a reliable option for the anthropometric characterization of developing and aging populations. PMID:29053732

  9. Body image and transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Bernd; Delsignore, Aba; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs

    2008-01-01

    To achieve a detailed view of the body image of transsexual patients, an assessment of perception, attitudes and experiences about one's own body is necessary. To date, research on the body image of transsexual patients has mostly covered body dissatisfaction with respect to body perception. We investigated 23 preoperative (16 male-to-female and 7 female-to-male transsexual patients) and 22 postoperative (14 male-to-female and 8 female-to-male) transsexual patients using a validated psychological measure for body image variables. We found that preoperative transsexual patients were insecure and felt unattractive because of concerns about their body image. However, postoperative transsexual patients scored high on attractiveness and self-confidence. Furthermore, postoperative transsexual patients showed low scores for insecurity and concerns about their body. Our results indicate an improvement of body image concerns for transsexual patients following standards of care for gender identity disorder. Follow-up studies are recommended to confirm the assumed positive outcome of standards of care on body image. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The influence of genetic and environmental factors in estimations of current body size, desired body size, and body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Wade, T D; Bulik, C M; Heath, A C; Martin, N G; Eaves, L J

    2001-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the genetic epidemiology of figural stimuli. Standard figural stimuli were available from 5,325 complete twin pairs: 1,751 (32.9%) were monozygotic females, 1,068 (20.1%) were dizygotic females, 752 (14.1%) were monozygotic males, 495 (9.3%) were dizygotic males, and 1,259 (23.6%) were dizygotic male-female pairs. Univariate twin analyses were used to examine the influences on the individual variation in current body size and ideal body size. These data were analysed separately for men and women in each of five age groups. A factorial analysis of variance, with polychoric correlations between twin pairs as the dependent variable, and age, sex, zygosity, and the three interaction terms (age x sex, age x zygosity, sex x zygosity) as independent variables, was used to examine trends across the whole data set. Results showed genetic influences had the largest impact on the individual variation in current body size measures, whereas non-shared environmental influences were associated with the majority of individual variation in ideal body size. There was a significant main effect of zygosity (heritability) in predicting polychoric correlations for current body size and body dissatisfaction. There was a significant main effect of gender and zygosity in predicting ideal body size, with a gender x zygosity interaction. In common with BMI, heritability is important in influencing the estimation of current body size. Selection of desired body size for both men and women is more strongly influenced by environmental factors.

  11. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses ... of CT Scanning of the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly ...

  12. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... other people. Two other types of lice are: Head lice Pubic lice Causes Body lice live in the ... the armpits. You should also be checked for head and pubic lice if you have body lice. Treatment To get ...

  13. Foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Milton T; Wong, Roy K H

    2007-04-01

    The spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies includes food bolus impaction in the esophagus, nonfood objects that are swallowed, and various objects that may be inserted into the rectum. The risk depends upon the type of object and its location. Fortunately, 80% to 90% of ingested foreign bodies will pass without intervention. Objects with sharp edges or pointed tips have the highest risk of complications, up to 35%. All objects impacted in the esophagus require urgent or emergent treatment. Rectal foreign bodies are usually removable transanally, although general anesthesia and operative intervention sometimes are required.

  14. Self-compassion moderates body comparison and appearance self-worth's inverse relationships with body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Although research on positive body image has increased, little research has explored which variables protect body appreciation during body-related threats. Self-compassion may be one such variable. Individuals high in self-compassion are mindful, kind, and nurturing toward themselves during situations that threaten their adequacy, while recognizing that being imperfect is part of "being human." In this study, we investigated whether two body-related threats (i.e., body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth) were more weakly related to body appreciation when self-compassion was high among an online sample of 263 women (Mage=35.26, SD=12.42). Results indicated that self-compassion moderated the inverse relationships between body related threats and body appreciation. Specifically, when self-compassion was very high, body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth were unrelated to body appreciation. However, when self-compassion was low, these relationships were strong. Self-compassion, then, may help preserve women's body appreciation during body-related threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Materialising Bodies: There Is Nothing More Material than a Socially Constructed Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Over the last one of two decades, researchers within the physical education (PE) and sport pedagogy research frequently use the concept "the material body". An initial purpose of this article is to explore what a concept of a "material body" might mean. What other bodies are there? Who would dispute the materiality of bodies? I…

  17. Muscular development and lean body weight in body builders and weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Katch, V L; Katch, F I; Moffatt, R; Gittleson, M

    1980-01-01

    The extent of extreme muscular development in 39 males identified as body builders (N = 18), power weight lifters (N = 13), and Olympic weight lifters (N = 8) were studied. Body composition and anthropometric data, including calculations of pre-excess muscle body weight (scale weight minus excess muscle) were obtained. The lean body weight and percent fats of the subjects were: body builders = 74.6 kg, 9.3%; power weight lifters = 73.3 kg, 9.1%; and Olympic weight lifters = 68.2 kg, 10.8%. No group differences were present in frame size, percent fat, lean body weight, skinfolds, and diameter measurements. The only group differences were for the shoulders, chest, biceps relaxed and flexed, and forearm girths. In each case the body builders were larger. Calculations of excess muscle by the Behnke method revealed that the body builders had 15.6 kg excess muscle, power weight lifters 14.8 kg, and Olympic weight lifters 13.1 kg. Somatographic comparisons revealed only slight differences between the groups, while differences with reference man were substantial.

  18. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture

    PubMed Central

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). Methods %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 ± 11, weight (kg) 64 ± 14, height (cm) 167 ± 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. Results BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.001) and body density (1.0379 g/cm3) significantly higher (P ≤ 0.001) than BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6°C; P ≤ 0.001) and body moisture (0.08 kg; P ≤ 0.01) were observed between BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P < 0.05. Conclusion These data demonstrate for the first time that increases in body heat and moisture result in an underestimation of body fat when using the BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified. PMID:15059287

  19. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P body density (1.0379 g/cm3) significantly higher (P body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P body moisture (0.08 kg; P Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate for the first time that increases in body heat and moisture result in an underestimation of body fat when using the BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  20. Body mass modulates huddling dynamics and body temperature profiles in rabbit pups.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Amando; Zepeda, José Alfredo; Reyes-Meza, Verónica; Féron, Christophe; Rödel, Heiko G; Hudson, Robyn

    2017-10-01

    Altricial mammals typically lack the physiological capacity to thermoregulate independently during the early postnatal period, and in litter-bearing species the young benefit strongly from huddling together with their litter siblings. Such litter huddles are highly dynamic systems, often characterized by competition for energetically favorable, central positions. In the present study, carried out in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, we asked whether individual differences in body mass affect changes in body temperature during changes in the position within the huddle. We predicted that pups with relatively lower body mass should be more affected by such changes arising from huddle dynamics in comparison to heavier ones. Changes in pups' maximum body surface temperature (determined by infrared thermography) were significantly affected by changes in the number of their neighbors in the litter huddle, and indeed these temperature changes largely depended on the pups' body mass relative to their litter siblings. Lighter pups showed significant increases in their maximum body surface temperature when their number of huddling partners increased by one or two siblings whereas pups with intermediate or heavier body mass did not show such significant increases in maximum body temperature when experiencing such changes. A similar pattern was found with respect to average body surface temperature. This strong link between changes in the number of huddling partners and body surface temperature in lighter pups might, on the one hand, arise from a higher vulnerability of such pups due to their less favorable body surface area-to-volume ratio. On the other hand, as lighter pups generally had fewer neighbors than heavier ones and thus typically a comparatively smaller body surface in contact with siblings, they potentially had more to gain from increasing their number of neighbors. The present findings might help to understand how individual differences in body mass within a

  1. Origin and continuation of 3/2, 5/2, 3/1, 4/1 and 5/1 resonant periodic orbits in the circular and elliptic restricted three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadou, Kyriaki I.; Libert, Anne-Sophie

    2018-06-01

    We consider a planetary system consisting of two primaries, namely a star and a giant planet, and a massless secondary, say a terrestrial planet or an asteroid, which moves under their gravitational attraction. We study the dynamics of this system in the framework of the circular and elliptic restricted three-body problem, when the motion of the giant planet describes circular and elliptic orbits, respectively. Originating from the circular family, families of symmetric periodic orbits in the 3/2, 5/2, 3/1, 4/1 and 5/1 mean-motion resonances are continued in the circular and the elliptic problems. New bifurcation points from the circular to the elliptic problem are found for each of the above resonances, and thus, new families continued from these points are herein presented. Stable segments of periodic orbits were found at high eccentricity values of the already known families considered as whole unstable previously. Moreover, new isolated (not continued from bifurcation points) families are computed in the elliptic restricted problem. The majority of the new families mainly consists of stable periodic orbits at high eccentricities. The families of the 5/1 resonance are investigated for the first time in the restricted three-body problems. We highlight the effect of stable periodic orbits on the formation of stable regions in their vicinity and unveil the boundaries of such domains in phase space by computing maps of dynamical stability. The long-term stable evolution of the terrestrial planets or asteroids is dependent on the existence of regular domains in their dynamical neighbourhood in phase space, which could host them for long-time spans. This study, besides other celestial architectures that can be efficiently modelled by the circular and elliptic restricted problems, is particularly appropriate for the discovery of terrestrial companions among the single-giant planet systems discovered so far.

  2. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  3. Preparing for the Next Space Race: Legislation and Policy Recommendations for Space Colonies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-04-01

    Finally, as humanity expands away from the surface of the Earth, it is important to create a free society based on the principles of the Rule of Law...with Listner, took this one step further, arguing that this means “any base or settlement on Mars would have to be free to use by anyone who can...established by a single State would deny other states free access to an area of a celestial body (namely the area where the colony is established), then

  4. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Anouk; van Elburg, Annemarie; Helms, Rossa; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2016-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI) affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body. We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips) before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30) decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29) also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group. The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed.

  5. Boost Your Body: Self-Improvement Magazine Messages Increase Body Satisfaction in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2017-02-01

    The verbal messages that contextualize exposure to idealized body imagery may moderate media users' body satisfaction. Such contextualizing verbal messages often take the form of social comparison motives in fashion magazines, while body dissatisfaction is an important mechanism underlying various body image-related health issues like depression and unbalanced weight status. Hence, the present study applied social comparison motives as induced through magazine cover messages. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design with social comparison motives (self-improvement vs. self-evaluation vs. control) and recipient gender as between-subjects factors and body satisfaction as within-subjects factor (N = 150). Results showed that self-improvement messages accompanying ideal body media models increased body satisfaction, compared to control messages and baseline measures. In contrast, the self-evaluation messages did not impact body satisfaction. Results imply that inconsistencies regarding effects from exposure to idealized body imagery are explained by the context in which media images are portrayed, evoking differential social comparison motives. Moreover, the findings imply that health communication interventions can use verbal messages on body improvement as helpful tools, if they draw on social comparison motives effectively.

  6. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  7. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-02-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d* for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d > d* is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d-pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ. From the measured d-patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d > d*. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (-5° ≤ θ < 0°) during twilight, P = 76.17 ± 4.18% for dmin∗=23 % under clear sky conditions. Consequently, the sky-polarimetric Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for perception of Haidinger's brushes.

  8. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-01-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d* for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d > d* is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d-pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ. From the measured d-patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d > d*. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (−5° ≤ θ < 0°) during twilight, P = 76.17 ± 4.18% for dmin∗=23% under clear sky conditions. Consequently, the sky-polarimetric Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for perception of Haidinger

  9. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-02-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d * for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d  >  d * is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d -pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ . From the measured d -patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d  >  d *. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ  ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ  = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (-5° ≤  θ  < 0°) during twilight, P  = 76.17 ± 4.18% for [Formula: see text] under clear sky conditions. Consequently, the sky-polarimetric Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for

  10. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part I. Relationships between the anatomical distribution of adipose tissue, body composition and body condition.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of equine body fat content is important for nutritional and clinical purposes. However, our understanding of total body fat and its regional distribution in the body is sparse. Currently, body fat evaluation relies on the subjective assessment of body condition score (BCS), which has never been validated against 'gold standard' chemical analysis or dissection measurements in ponies. To define the relationships between subjective (BCS), objective (morphometric) indices of body fat and 'gold standard' measurements of actual body composition. BCS and morphometry offer valid, noninvasive methods for determination of body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, BCS 1.25-7/9), Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes), were used. For all ponies, body mass (BM), BCS and various morphometric measurements were recorded. Following euthanasia, all ponies were systematically dissected. Discrete white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were independently described. Gross, body chemical composition was determined by proximate analyses. Total somatic soft tissues increased linearly (r(2) = 1.00), whereas body WAT content (1-26% live BM) increased exponentially (r(2) = 0.96), with BCS. WAT was equally distributed between internal and external sites in all animals irrespective of BCS. Nuchal fat was a poor predictor of total WAT (r(2) = 0.66). Periorbital WAT did not alter with BCS (r(2) = 0.01). Heart girth:withers height and ultrasonic retroperitoneal fat depth were closely associated with total, chemically-extracted lipid which comprised 1-29% live BM (r(2) = 0.91 and 0.88, respectively). The exponential relationship between BCS and total body WAT/lipid suggests that BCS is unlikely to be a sensitive index of body fat for animals in moderate-obese states. Morphometric measurements (body girths and retroperitonel fat depth) may be useful to augment subjective BCS systems. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Mind–body interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wahbeh, Helané; Elsas, Siegward-M.; Oken, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Half of the adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine with mind–body therapy being the most commonly used form. Neurology patients often turn to their physicians for insight into the effectiveness of the therapies and resources to integrate them into their care. The objective of this article is to give a clinical overview of mind–body interventions and their applications in neurology. Methods Medline and PsychInfo were searched on mind–body therapies and neurologic disease search terms for clinical trials and reviews and published evidence was graded. Results Meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques, yoga, tai chi, and qigong, hypnosis, and biofeedback are described. Mind–body therapy application to general pain, back and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, muscular dysfunction, stroke, aging, Parkinson disease, stroke, and attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. Conclusions There are several conditions where the evidence for mind–body therapies is quite strong such as migraine headache. Mind–body therapies for other neurology applications have limited evidence due mostly to small clinical trials and inadequate control groups. PMID:18541886

  12. Body change techniques in Iranian adolescents. Relationship to sex and body weight status.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Monireh; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Djazayery, Abolghasem

    2013-01-01

    Several studies indicated that techniques to change body weight and appearance were prevalent and different among adolescents. The aim of the study, therefore, was to assess differences in frequency and type of body change techniques used among adolescents by sex and body weight status. A sample of 758 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from private and public schools in Tehran. Information about socio-demographic background and body change techniques were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A high percentage of adolescents used body change techniques frequently to alter their body appearance. Girls changed normal eating pattern significantly (p=0.007) to lose weight more frequently than boys while boys used this method significantly (p=0.01) to gain weight more frequently than girls. Overweight/obese adolescents exercised significantly to change muscle size (p=0.03) and changed normal diet to lose weight (p<0.001) more frequently than normal weight adolescents. The relation between sex and body weight status with body change techniques (p<0.0) implied that male and female adolescents especially overweight/obese adolescents were frequently trying to change their body appearance. Significant differences existed in using body change techniques according to sex and body weight status and these should be considered in obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A meta-analysis of the relationships between body checking, body image avoidance, body image dissatisfaction, mood, and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Walker, D Catherine; White, Emily K; Srinivasan, Vamshek J

    2018-04-16

    Body checking (BC) and body image avoidance (BIA) have been proposed as etiological and maintaining mechanisms for eating disorder (ED) pathology. To date, no comprehensive review summarizes the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, or mood/affect. Meta-analyses examined the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect. Gender, publication status, and presence or absence of ED diagnoses were examined as potential moderators. Results showed strong relationships between BC and ED pathology (ρ = 0.588) and BC and body image dissatisfaction (ρ = 0.631) and a moderate relationship between BC and mood/affect (ρ = 0.385). Similarly, results showed strong relationships between BIA and ED pathology (ρ = 0.553) and BIA and body image dissatisfaction (ρ = 0.543) and a moderate relationship between BIA and mood/affect (ρ = 0.392). Overall, limited evidence supported publication bias; however, publication bias may exist in the relationship between BIA and body image dissatisfaction in the literature. Subgroup moderator analyses suggested that gender moderates the strength of the relationships between BC and ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect and between BIA and body image dissatisfaction. Results are consistent with cognitive-behavioral models of ED pathology that suggest BC and BIA are behavioral expressions of overvaluation of weight and shape. Notably, more published research has investigated BC than BIA. Future studies, incorporating methods such as meta-analytic structural equation modeling, should examine these variables to further test cognitive-behavioral models of ED development and maintenance. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The rotational elements of Mars and its satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Folkner, W. M.

    2018-03-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) defines planet and satellite coordinate systems relative to their axis of rotation and the angle about that axis. The rotational elements of the bodies are the right ascension and declination of the rotation axis in the International Celestial Reference Frame and the rotation angle, W, measured easterly along the body's equator. The IAU specifies the location of the body's prime meridian by providing a value for W at epoch J2000. We provide new trigonometric series representations of the rotational elements of Mars and its satellites, Phobos and Deimos. The series for Mars are from a least squares fit to the rotation model used to orient the Martian gravity field. The series for the satellites are from a least squares fit to rotation models developed in accordance with IAU conventions from recent ephemerides.

  15. Clinical anthropometrics and body composition from 3D whole-body surface scans

    PubMed Central

    Ng, BK; Hinton, BJ; Fan, B; Kanaya, AM; Shepherd, JA

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity is a significant worldwide epidemic that necessitates accessible tools for robust body composition analysis. We investigated whether widely available 3D body surface scanners can provide clinically relevant direct anthropometrics (circumferences, areas and volumes) and body composition estimates (regional fat/lean masses). SUBJECTS/METHODS Thirty-nine healthy adults stratified by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) underwent whole-body 3D scans, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and tape measurements. Linear regressions were performed to assess agreement between 3D measurements and criterion methods. Linear models were derived to predict DXA body composition from 3D scan measurements. Thirty-seven external fitness center users underwent 3D scans and bioelectrical impedance analysis for model validation. RESULTS 3D body scan measurements correlated strongly to criterion methods: waist circumference R2 = 0.95, hip circumference R2 = 0.92, surface area R2 = 0.97 and volume R2 = 0.99. However, systematic differences were observed for each measure due to discrepancies in landmark positioning. Predictive body composition equations showed strong agreement for whole body (fat mass R2 = 0.95, root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.4 kg; fat-free mass R2 = 0.96, RMSE = 2.2 kg) and arms, legs and trunk (R2 = 0.79–0.94, RMSE = 0.5–1.7 kg). Visceral fat prediction showed moderate agreement (R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 0.11 kg). CONCLUSIONS 3D surface scanners offer precise and stable automated measurements of body shape and composition. Software updates may be needed to resolve measurement biases resulting from landmark positioning discrepancies. Further studies are justified to elucidate relationships between body shape, composition and metabolic health across sex, age, BMI and ethnicity groups, as well as in those with metabolic disorders. PMID:27329614

  16. Clinical anthropometrics and body composition from 3D whole-body surface scans.

    PubMed

    Ng, B K; Hinton, B J; Fan, B; Kanaya, A M; Shepherd, J A

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a significant worldwide epidemic that necessitates accessible tools for robust body composition analysis. We investigated whether widely available 3D body surface scanners can provide clinically relevant direct anthropometrics (circumferences, areas and volumes) and body composition estimates (regional fat/lean masses). Thirty-nine healthy adults stratified by age, sex and body mass index (BMI) underwent whole-body 3D scans, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and tape measurements. Linear regressions were performed to assess agreement between 3D measurements and criterion methods. Linear models were derived to predict DXA body composition from 3D scan measurements. Thirty-seven external fitness center users underwent 3D scans and bioelectrical impedance analysis for model validation. 3D body scan measurements correlated strongly to criterion methods: waist circumference R 2 =0.95, hip circumference R 2 =0.92, surface area R 2 =0.97 and volume R 2 =0.99. However, systematic differences were observed for each measure due to discrepancies in landmark positioning. Predictive body composition equations showed strong agreement for whole body (fat mass R 2 =0.95, root mean square error (RMSE)=2.4 kg; fat-free mass R 2 =0.96, RMSE=2.2 kg) and arms, legs and trunk (R 2 =0.79-0.94, RMSE=0.5-1.7 kg). Visceral fat prediction showed moderate agreement (R 2 =0.75, RMSE=0.11 kg). 3D surface scanners offer precise and stable automated measurements of body shape and composition. Software updates may be needed to resolve measurement biases resulting from landmark positioning discrepancies. Further studies are justified to elucidate relationships between body shape, composition and metabolic health across sex, age, BMI and ethnicity groups, as well as in those with metabolic disorders.

  17. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  18. G-DYN Multibody Dynamics Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, James C.; Broderick, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    G-DYN is a multi-body dynamic simulation software engine that automatically assembles and integrates equations of motion for arbitrarily connected multibody dynamic systems. The algorithm behind G-DYN is based on a primal-dual formulation of the dynamics that captures the position and velocity vectors (primal variables) of each body and the interaction forces (dual variables) between bodies, which are particularly useful for control and estimation analysis and synthesis. It also takes full advantage of the spare matrix structure resulting from the system dynamics to numerically integrate the equations of motion efficiently. Furthermore, the dynamic model for each body can easily be replaced without re-deriving the overall equations of motion, and the assembly of the equations of motion is done automatically. G-DYN proved an essential software tool in the simulation of spacecraft systems used for small celestial body surface sampling, specifically in simulating touch-and-go (TAG) maneuvers of a robotic sampling system from a comet and asteroid. It is used extensively in validating mission concepts for small body sample return, such as Comet Odyssey and Galahad New Frontiers proposals.

  19. Estimating body weight and body composition of chickens by using noninvasive measurements.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, J D; Bishop, B L

    2001-07-01

    The major objective of this research was to develop equations to estimate BW and body composition using measurements taken with inexpensive instruments. We used five groups of chickens that were created with different genetic stocks and feeding programs. Four of the five groups were from broiler genetic stock, and one was from sex-linked heavy layers. The goal was to sample six males from each group when the group weight was 1.20, 1.75, and 2.30 kg. Each male was weighed and measured for back length, pelvis width, circumference, breast width, keel length, and abdominal skinfold thickness. A cloth tape measure, calipers, and skinfold calipers were used for measurement. Chickens were scanned for total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) before being euthanized and frozen. Six females were selected at weights similar to those for males and were measured in the same way. Each whole chicken was ground, and a portion of ground material of each was used to measure water, fat, ash, and energy content. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate BW from body measurements. The best single measurement was pelvis width, with an R2 = 0.67. Inclusion of three body measurements in an equation resulted in R2 = 0.78 and the following equation: BW (g) = -930.0 + 68.5 (breast, cm) + 48.5 (circumference, cm) + 62.8 (pelvis, cm). The best single measurement to estimate body fat was abdominal skinfold thickness, expressed as a natural logarithm. Inclusion of weight and skinfold thickness resulted in R2 = 0.63 for body fat according to the following equation: fat (%) = 24.83 + 6.75 (skinfold, ln cm) - 3.87 (wt, kg). Inclusion of the result of TOBEC and the effect of sex improved the R2 to 0.78 for body fat. Regression analysis was used to develop additional equations, based on fat, to estimate water and energy contents of the body. The body water content (%) = 72.1 - 0.60 (body fat, %), and body energy (kcal/g) = 1.097 + 0.080 (body fat, %). The results of the present study

  20. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Keizer, Anouk; van Elburg, Annemarie; Helms, Rossa; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI) affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body. Methods and Results We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips) before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30) decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29) also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group. Conclusion The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed. PMID:27711234

  1. Free polar motion of a triaxial and elastic body in Hamiltonian formalism: Application to the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folgueira, M.; Souchay, J.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how to solve in Hamiltonian formalism the equations of the polar motion of any arbitrarily shaped elastic celestial body, i.e. the motion of its rotation axis (or angular momentum) with respect to its figure axis. With this aim, we deduce from canonical equations related to the rotational Hamiltonian of the body, the analytical solution for its free polar motion which depends both on the elasticity and on its moments of inertia. In particular, we study the influence of the phase angle δ, responsible for the dissipation, on the damping of the polar motion. In order to validate our analytical equations, we show that, to first order, they are in complete agreement with those obtained from the classical Liouville equations. Then we adapt our calculations to the real data obtained from the polar motion of the Earth (polhody). For that purpose, we characterize precisely the differences in radius J-χ and in angle l-θ between the polar coordinates (χ,θ) and (J,l) representing respectively the motion of the axis of rotation of the Earth and the motion of its angular momentum axis, with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame, after showing the influence of the choice of the origin on these coordinates, and on the determination of the Chandler period as well. Then we show that the phase lag δ responsible for the damping for the selected time interval, between Feb. 1982 and Apr. 1990, might be of the order of δ ≈ 6 °, according to a numerical integration starting from our analytical equations. Moreover, we emphasize the presence in our calculations for both χ and θ, of an oscillation with a period TChandler/2, due to the triaxial shape of our planet, and generally not taken into account. In a last step, we apply our analytical formulation to the polar motion of Mars, thus showing the high dependence of its damping on the poorly known value of its Love number k. Moreover we emphasize the large oscillations of Mars' polar

  2. The Body and Pedagogy: Beyond Absent, Moving Bodies in Pedagogic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Following the corporeal turn in social theory, this paper explores how the body is implicated in pedagogic practice and leaning. Focusing on the body has usually been recognised as part of the regulative rather than instructional discourse in schools. Work has begun to redress the mind-body imbalance through the "corporeal device" developed from…

  3. Solar system to scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  4. The Outer Space Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  5. VO-Compatible Architecture for Managing and Processing Images of Moving Celestial Bodies : Application to the Gaia-GBOT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barache, C.; Bouquillon, S.; Carlucci, T.; Taris, F.; Michel, L.; Altmann, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Ground Based Optical Tracking (GBOT) group is a part of the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium, the large consortium of over 400 scientists from many European countries, charged with the scientific conduction of the Gaia mission by ESA. The GBOT group is in charge of the optical part of tracking of the Gaia satellite. This optical tracking is necessary to allow the Gaia mission to fully reach its goal in terms of astrometry precision level. These observations will be done daily, during the 5 years of the mission, with the use of optical CCD frames taken by a small network of 1-2m class telescopes located all over the world. The requirements for the accuracy on the satellite position determination, with respect of the stars in the field of view, are 20 mas. These optical satellite positions will be sent weekly by GBOT to the SOC of ESAC and used with other kinds of observations (radio ranging and Doppler) by MOC of ESOC to improve the Gaia ephemeris. For this purpose, we developed a set of accurate astrometry reduction programs specially adapted for tracking moving objects. The inputs of these programs for each tracked target are an ephemeris and a set of FITS images. The outputs for each image are: a file containing all information about the detected objects, a catalogue file used for calibration, a TIFF file for visual explanation of the reduction result, and an improvement of the fits image header. The final result is an overview file containing only the data related to the target extracted from all the images. These programs are written in GNU Fortran 95 and provide results in VOTable format (supported by Virtual Observatory protocols). All these results are sent automatically into the GBOT Database which is built with the SAADA freeware. The user of this Database can archive and query the data but also, thanks to the delegate option provided by SAADA, select a set of images and directly run the GBOT reduction programs with a dedicated Web interface. For more information about SAADA (an Automatic System for Astronomy Data Archive under GPL license and VOcompatible), see the related paper Michel et al. (2013).

  6. Overestimation of body size in eating disorders and its association to body-related avoidance behavior.

    PubMed

    Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Waldorf, Manuel; Legenbauer, Tanja; Bauer, Anika; Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja

    2015-06-01

    Body-related avoidance behavior, e.g., not looking in the mirror, is a common feature of eating disorders. It is assumed that it leads to insufficient feedback concerning one's own real body form and might thus contribute to distorted mental representation of one's own body. However, this assumption still lacks empirical foundation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between misperception of one's own body and body-related avoidance behavior in N = 78 female patients with Bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Body-size misperception was assessed using a digital photo distortion technique based on an individual picture of each participant which was taken in a standardized suit. In a regression analysis with body-related avoidance behavior, body mass index and weight and shape concerns as predictors, only body-related avoidance behavior significantly contributed to the explanation of body-size overestimation. This result supports the theoretical assumption that body-related avoidance behavior makes body-size overestimation more likely.

  7. Global surface temperature change analysis based on MODIS data in recent twelve years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, K. B.; Ma, Y.; Tan, X. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Liu, G.; Li, Z. L.; Chen, J. M.; Xia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Global surface temperature change is one of the most important aspects in global climate change research. In this study, in order to overcome shortcomings of traditional observation methods in meteorology, a new method is proposed to calculate global mean surface temperature based on remote sensing data. We found that (1) the global mean surface temperature was close to 14.35 °C from 2001 to 2012, and the warmest and coldest surface temperatures of the global in the recent twelve years occurred in 2005 and 2008, respectively; (2) the warmest and coldest surface temperatures on the global land surface occurred in 2005 and 2001, respectively, and on the global ocean surface in 2010 and 2008, respectively; and (3) in recent twelve years, although most regions (especially the Southern Hemisphere) are warming, global warming is yet controversial because it is cooling in the central and eastern regions of Pacific Ocean, northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean, northern regions of China, Mongolia, southern regions of Russia, western regions of Canada and America, the eastern and northern regions of Australia, and the southern tip of Africa. The analysis of daily and seasonal temperature change indicates that the temperature change is mainly caused by the variation of orbit of celestial body. A big data model based on orbit position and gravitational-magmatic change of celestial body with the solar or the galactic system should be built and taken into account for climate and ecosystems change at a large spatial-temporal scale.

  8. Globe Browsing: Contextualized Spatio-Temporal Planetary Surface Visualization.

    PubMed

    Bladin, Karl; Axelsson, Emil; Broberg, Erik; Emmart, Carter; Ljung, Patric; Bock, Alexander; Ynnerman, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Results of planetary mapping are often shared openly for use in scientific research and mission planning. In its raw format, however, the data is not accessible to non-experts due to the difficulty in grasping the context and the intricate acquisition process. We present work on tailoring and integration of multiple data processing and visualization methods to interactively contextualize geospatial surface data of celestial bodies for use in science communication. As our approach handles dynamic data sources, streamed from online repositories, we are significantly shortening the time between discovery and dissemination of data and results. We describe the image acquisition pipeline, the pre-processing steps to derive a 2.5D terrain, and a chunked level-of-detail, out-of-core rendering approach to enable interactive exploration of global maps and high-resolution digital terrain models. The results are demonstrated for three different celestial bodies. The first case addresses high-resolution map data on the surface of Mars. A second case is showing dynamic processes, such as concurrent weather conditions on Earth that require temporal datasets. As a final example we use data from the New Horizons spacecraft which acquired images during a single flyby of Pluto. We visualize the acquisition process as well as the resulting surface data. Our work has been implemented in the OpenSpace software [8], which enables interactive presentations in a range of environments such as immersive dome theaters, interactive touch tables, and virtual reality headsets.

  9. Robust polygon recognition method with similarity invariants applied to star identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, E. Antonio; Alonso, Miguel A.; Chávez, Edgar; Covarrubias, David H.; Conte, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    In the star identification process the goal is to recognize a star by using the celestial bodies in its vicinity as context. An additional requirement is to avoid having to perform an exhaustive scan of the star database. In this paper we present a novel approach to star identification using similarity invariants. More specifically, the proposed algorithm defines a polygon for each star, using the neighboring celestial bodies in the field of view as vertices. The mapping is insensitive to similarity transformation; that is, the image of the polygon under the transformation is not affected by rotation, scaling or translations. Each polygon is associated with an essentially unique complex number. We perform an exhaustive experimental validation of the proposed algorithm using synthetic data generated from the star catalog with uniformly-distributed positional noise introduced to each star. The star identification method that we present is proven to be robust, achieving a recognition rate of 99.68% when noise levels of up to ± 424 μ radians are introduced to the location of the stars. In our tests the proposed algorithm proves that if a polygon match is found, it always corresponds to the star under analysis; no mismatches are found. In its present form our method cannot identify polygons in cases where there exist missing or false stars in the analyzed images, in those situations it only indicates that no match was found.

  10. Kilohoku - Ho‘okele Wa‘a: Hawaiian Navigational Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, Ahia; Ha'o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Over thousands of years of Pacific Basin settlement, Polynesians developed a complex, scientific understanding of the cosmos, including a generative view of the celestial sphere. Memorizing the location and spatial relationships of hundreds of stars, across changing latitudes, this astronomy was one of the four scientific knowledge bases Polynesians used to navigate thousands of miles, across open water, without instrumentation. After Western colonization, this large body of knowledge was nearly lost to Hawaiians. Since the Hawaiian Renaissance, much of this knowledge has been reconstructed, and is again in use in open oceanic navigation. While some of this knowledge has been shared with the broader public, much of what we know has been unavailable to those beyond the family of navigators. This paper represents an attempt to begin sharing this catalog of knowledge with the outside world, with the hopes that the larger community will appreciate the complexity of astronomical knowledge possessed by navigators, and that the international body of astronomy historians will help insure that this knowledge will not be lost again. This paper will present, Na ´Ohanahōkū, the Hawaiian star families that divide the celestial sphere into four wedges, running from the circumpolar north, beyond the horizon to the south. Na Hoku Huihui, or Hawaiian constellations will be discussed, in addition to a brief introduction to the setting and rising pairs that are used to determine direction and latitude.

  11. Evidence of an Upper Bound on the Masses of Planets and Its Implications for Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2018-01-01

    Celestial bodies with a mass of M≈ 10 {M}{Jup} have been found orbiting nearby stars. It is unknown whether these objects formed like gas-giant planets through core accretion or like stars through gravitational instability. I show that objects with M≲ 4 {M}{Jup} orbit metal-rich solar-type dwarf stars, a property associated with core accretion. Objects with M≳ 10 {M}{Jup} do not share this property. This transition is coincident with a minimum in the occurrence rate of such objects, suggesting that the maximum mass of a celestial body formed through core accretion like a planet is less than 10 {M}{Jup}. Consequently, objects with M≳ 10 {M}{Jup} orbiting solar-type dwarf stars likely formed through gravitational instability and should not be thought of as planets. Theoretical models of giant planet formation in scaled minimum-mass solar nebula Shakura–Sunyaev disks with standard parameters tuned to produce giant planets predict a maximum mass nearly an order of magnitude larger. To prevent newly formed giant planets from growing larger than 10 {M}{Jup}, protoplanetary disks must therefore be significantly less viscous or of lower mass than typically assumed during the runaway gas accretion stage of giant planet formation. Either effect would act to slow the Type I/II migration of planetary embryos/giant planets and promote their survival. These inferences are insensitive to the host star mass, planet formation location, or characteristic disk dissipation time.

  12. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  13. Therapeutic use of fractionated total body and subtotal body irradiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Loeffler, R.K.

    1981-05-01

    Ninety-one patients were treated using fractionated subtotal body (STBI) or total body irradiation (TBI). These patients had generalized lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, leukemias, myelomas, seminomas, or oat-cell carcinomas. Subtotal body irradiation is delivered to the entire body, except for the skull and extremities. It was expected that a significantly higher radiation dose could be administered with STBI than with TBI. STBI was given when there was a reasonable likelihood that malignancy did not involve the shielded volumes. A five- to ten-fold increase in tolerance for STBI was demonstrated. Many of these patients have had long-term (up to 17 year--.permanent) remissions. Theremore » is little or no treatment-induced symptomatology, and no sanctuary sites. STBI and TBI are useful therapeutic modalities for many of these malignancies.« less

  14. Differences in body image between anorexics and in-vitro-fertilization patients - a study with Body Grid

    PubMed Central

    Borkenhagen, Ada; Klapp, Burghard F.; Schoeneich, Frank; Brähler, Elmar

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the investigation was to explore the body image disturbance of anorexics and in-vitro-fertilization patients (IvF-patients) with Body Grid and Body Identity Plot. Methods: The paper reports on an empirical study conducted with 32 anorexic patients and 30 IvF-patients. The structure of the body image was derived from the Body Grid, an idiographic approach following the Role Repertory Grid developed by George A. Kelly [17]. The representation of the body image and the degree of body-acceptance is represented graphically. Results: By the Body Grid and Body Identity Plot measures we were able to identify important differences in body image between anorexics and IvF-patients. Conclusion: The tendencies of dissociation in the body image of anorexics which we found must be seen in the sense of a specific body image disturbance which differs significantly from the body-experience profile of IvF-patients. With the grid approach it was possible to elicit the inner structure of body image and determine the acceptance of the body and integration of single body parts. PMID:19742059

  15. Bodies of science and law: forensic DNA profiling, biological bodies, and biopower.

    PubMed

    Toom, Victor

    2012-01-01

    How is jurisdiction transferred from an individual's biological body to agents of power such as the police, public prosecutors, and the judiciary, and what happens to these biological bodies when transformed from private into public objects? These questions are examined by analysing bodies situated at the intersection of science and law. More specifically, the transformation of ‘private bodies’ into ‘public bodies’ is analysed by going into the details of forensic DNA profiling in the Dutch jurisdiction. It will be argued that various ‘forensic genetic practices’ enact different forensic genetic bodies'. These enacted forensic genetic bodies are connected with various infringements of civil rights, which become articulated in exploring these forensic genetic bodies’‘normative registers’.

  16. Body temperature variability (Part 2): masking influences of body temperature variability and a review of body temperature variability in disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gregory S

    2007-03-01

    This is the second of a two-part review on body temperature variability. Part 1 discussed historical and modern findings on average body temperatures. It also discussed endogenous sources of temperature variability, including variations caused by site of measurement; circadian, menstrual, and annual biological rhythms; fitness; and aging. Part 2 reviews the effects of exogenous masking agents - external factors in the environment, diet, or lifestyle that can be a significant source of body temperature variability. Body temperature variability findings in disease states are also reviewed.

  17. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Body Talk: Siblings' Use of Positive and Negative Body Self-Disclosure and Associations with Sibling Relationship Quality and Body-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K

    2015-08-01

    The sibling relationship has been deemed the quintessential "love-hate relationship." Sibling relationships have also been found to have both positive and negative impacts on the adjustment of youth. Unlike previous research, however, the present study examined the associations between siblings' positive and negative body-related disclosures with relationship quality and body-esteem. Additionally, ordinal position, individual sex, and sibling sex composition were tested as moderators. Participants included 101 predominantly White and middle class adolescent sibling dyads (54 % female adolescents, with relatively equal sibling gender compositions). Older siblings were, on average, 16.46 (SD = 1.35) years old with younger siblings an average of 13.67 (SD = 1.56) years. Adolescents completed questionnaires and data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, which focused on disclosure to and from dyad members. In general, sibling body-related disclosure was positive for the quality of the sibling relationship, regardless of the valance of disclosure. Also, adolescents' body esteem was greater when adolescents reported disclosing (i.e., actor-effects) about positive or negative body issues to their siblings (particularly for females). Conversely, when adolescents received positive or negative body-related disclosures from their siblings (i.e., partner-effects), adolescents reported lower levels of body esteem (particularly for girls and younger siblings). Thus, the impact of body-related disclosure on adolescents' feelings of body esteem appear to be associated more with whether they are the discloser or the one being disclosed to, while the impact on the quality of the relationship has simply more to do with whether or not they are generally disclosing to one another.

  19. Body composition and wages.

    PubMed

    Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…