Science.gov

Sample records for cell adhesion motility

  1. ZF21 protein regulates cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Makoto; Hoshino, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Kawasaki, Noritaka; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu

    2010-07-02

    Cell migration on an extracellular matrix (ECM) requires continuous formation and turnover of focal adhesions (FAs) along the direction of cell movement. However, our knowledge of the components of FAs and the mechanism of their regulation remains limited. Here, we identify ZF21, a member of a protein family characterized by the presence of a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding FYVE domain, to be a new regulator of FAs and cell movement. Knockdown of ZF21 expression in cells increased the number of FAs and suppressed cell migration. Knockdown of ZF21 expression also led to a significant delay in FA disassembly following induction of synchronous disassembly of FAs by nocodazole treatment. ZF21 bound to focal adhesion kinase, localized to FAs, and was necessary for dephosphorylation of FAK at Tyr(397), which is important for disassembly of FAs. Thus, ZF21 represents a new component of FAs, mediates disassembly of FAs, and thereby regulates cell motility.

  2. The MIG-2/integrin interaction strengthens cell-matrix adhesion and modulates cell motility.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaohua; Ma, Yan-Qing; Tu, Yizeng; Chen, Ka; Wu, Shan; Fukuda, Koichi; Qin, Jun; Plow, Edward F; Wu, Chuanyue

    2007-07-13

    Integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion plays an important role in control of cell behavior. We report here that MIG-2, a widely expressed focal adhesion protein, interacts with beta1 and beta3 integrin cytoplasmic domains. Integrin binding is mediated by a single site within the MIG-2 FERM domain. Functionally, the MIG-2/integrin interaction recruits MIG-2 to focal adhesions. Furthermore, using alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, a well described model system for integrin activation, we show that MIG-2 promotes integrin activation and enhances cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. Although MIG-2 is expressed in many cell types, it is deficient in certain colon cancer cells. Expression of MIG-2, but not of an integrin binding-defective MIG-2 mutant, in MIG-2-null colon cancer cells strengthened cell-matrix adhesion, promoted focal adhesion formation, and reduced cell motility. These results suggest that the MIG-2/integrin interaction is an important element in the cellular control of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion and that loss of this interaction likely contributes to high motility of colon cancer cells.

  3. Human fibronectin contains distinct adhesion- and motility-promoting domains for metastatic melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    The active migration of tumor cells through extracellular matrices has been proposed to play a role in certain aspects of metastasis. Metastatic tumor cells migrate in vitro in response to substratum-bound adhesive glycoproteins such as fibronectin. The present studies use affinity-purified proteolytic fragments of fibronectin to determine the nature of adhesion- and/or motility-promoting domains within the protein. Two distinct fragments were identified with cell adhesion- promoting activities. By a number of criteria, the adhesive activity promoted by these two fragments was distinct. One fragment, a 75-kD tryptic fragment purified by monoclonal antibody chromatography, promoted the adhesion, spreading, and haptotactic motility of melanoma cells. Experiments using a synthetic cell attachment peptide in solution indicated that at least part of the attachment activity exhibited by the 75-kD fragment is mediated by the sequence arg-gly-asp- ser. It was not possible to demonstrate migration-stimulating activity using a small (11.5 kD) peptic fragment containing this sequence (Pierschbacher, M.D., E. G. Hayman, and E. Ruoslahti, 1981, Cell, 26:259-267) suggesting that another cell-binding activity within the 75 kD fragment distinct from arg-gly-asp-ser might be required for motility. The second fragment that stimulated melanoma adhesion was a 33-kD tryptic/catheptic carboxyl-terminal heparin-binding fragment, which is localized to the A chain of fibronectin. This fragment promotes adhesion and spreading but not the motility of these cells. Melanoma adhesion to this heparin-binding fragment was sensitive to the effects of cycloheximide, which contrasted adhesion to the haptotaxis- promoting fragment. Importantly, these studies illustrate that haptotaxis in response to fibronectin is not due to simple adhesion gradients of this protein. The results are discussed in light of a model for multiple distinct cell surface constituents mediating cell adhesion and motility on

  4. Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin-dependent motility and cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Moeton, Martina; Kanski, Regina; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Geerts, Dirk; van Tijn, Paula; Wiche, Gerhard; van Strien, Miriam E; Hol, Elly M

    2014-07-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein expressed in astrocytes and neural stem cells. The GFAP gene is alternatively spliced, and expression of GFAP is highly regulated during development, on brain damage, and in neurodegenerative diseases. GFAPα is the canonical splice variant and is expressed in all GFAP-positive cells. In the human brain, the alternatively spliced transcript GFAPδ marks specialized astrocyte populations, such as subpial astrocytes and the neurogenic astrocytes in the human subventricular zone. We here show that shifting the GFAP isoform ratio in favor of GFAPδ in astrocytoma cells, by selectively silencing the canonical isoform GFAPα with short hairpin RNAs, induced a change in integrins, a decrease in plectin, and an increase in expression of the extracellular matrix component laminin. Together, this did not affect cell proliferation but resulted in a significantly decreased motility of astrocytoma cells. In contrast, a down-regulation of all GFAP isoforms led to less cell spreading, increased integrin expression, and a >100-fold difference in the adhesion of astrocytoma cells to laminin. In summary, isoform-specific silencing of GFAP revealed distinct roles of a specialized GFAP network in regulating the interaction of astrocytoma cells with the extracellular matrix through laminin.-Moeton, M., Kanski, R., Stassen, O. M. J. A., Sluijs, J. A., Geerts, D., van Tijn, P., Wiche, G., van Strien, M. E., Hol, E. M. Silencing GFAP isoforms in astrocytoma cells disturbs laminin dependent motility and cell adhesion. © FASEB.

  5. Cross-Phosphorylation and Interaction between Src/FAK and MAPKAP5/PRAK in Early Focal Adhesions Controls Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Sheila Figel; Gelman, Irwin H

    2015-01-01

    P38-regulated and activated kinase (PRAK/MAPKAPK5) is a serine/threonine kinase which lies downstream of the p38 and ERK3/4 MAP kinase pathways. PRAK plays diverse roles in the processes of cell growth, nutrient starvation response, programmed cell death, senescence and motility. PRAK has been shown to both promote and inhibit cell motility in different contexts. The pro-motility functions of PRAK are attributed mainly to cytoskeletal rearrangement occurring downstream of its phosphorylated substrate HSP27; however, it was recently shown that PRAK is required for motility in endothelial cells upstream of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Along with Src, FAK functions as a mediator of motility signaling through the phosphorylation of substrates in focal adhesions. Here, we show that PRAK, initially identified as a FAK substrate in an in situ/ kinase overlay assay, is a Src substrate, the phosphorylation of which directs PRAK to focal adhesions. Focal adhesion localization of PRAK was not found to affect cell motility, however transient over expression of PRAK inhibited motility in HeLa cells. This effect requires PRAK kinase activity and proceeds through an impairment of FAK activation via phosphorylation on Y861. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that PRAK is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, localizes to focal adhesions, and interacts physically with and can phosphorylate FAK/Src. Further we provide a novel mechanism for the inhibition of motility downstream of PRAK. PMID:26042227

  6. Regulation of cell motile behavior by crosstalk between cadherin- and integrin-mediated adhesions.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Nicolas; Lowndes, Molly; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Gardel, Margaret L; Nelson, W James

    2010-07-27

    During normal development and in disease, cohesive tissues undergo rearrangements that require integration of signals from cell adhesions to neighboring cells and to the extracellular matrix (ECM). How a range of cell behaviors is coordinated by these different adhesion complexes is unknown. To analyze epithelial cell motile behavior in response to combinations of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion cues, we took a reductionist approach at the single-cell scale by using unique, functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating stripes of ECM (collagenIV) and adjustable amounts of E-cadherin-Fc (EcadFc). On these surfaces, individual cells spatially segregated integrin- and cadherin-based complexes between collagenIV and EcadFc surfaces, respectively. Cell migration required collagenIV and did not occur on surfaces functionalized with only EcadFc. However, E-cadherin adhesion dampened lamellipodia activity on both collagenIV and EcadFc surfaces and biased the direction of cell migration without affecting the migration rate, all in an EcadFc concentration-dependent manner. Traction force microscopy showed that spatial confinement of integrin-based adhesions to collagenIV stripes induced anisotropic cell traction on collagenIV and migration directional bias. Selective depletion of different pools of alphaE-catenin, an E-cadherin and actin binding protein, identified a membrane-associated pool required for E-cadherin-mediated adhesion and down-regulation of lamellipodia activity and a cytosolic pool that down-regulated the migration rate in an E-cadherin adhesion-independent manner. These results demonstrate that there is crosstalk between E-cadherin- and integrin-based adhesion complexes and that E-cadherin regulates lamellipodia activity and cell migration directionality, but not cell migration rate.

  7. Regulation of cell motile behavior by crosstalk between cadherin- and integrin-mediated adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Nicolas; Lowndes, Molly; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Gardel, Margaret L.; Nelson, W. James

    2010-01-01

    During normal development and in disease, cohesive tissues undergo rearrangements that require integration of signals from cell adhesions to neighboring cells and to the extracellular matrix (ECM). How a range of cell behaviors is coordinated by these different adhesion complexes is unknown. To analyze epithelial cell motile behavior in response to combinations of cell–ECM and cell–cell adhesion cues, we took a reductionist approach at the single-cell scale by using unique, functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating stripes of ECM (collagenIV) and adjustable amounts of E-cadherin-Fc (EcadFc). On these surfaces, individual cells spatially segregated integrin- and cadherin-based complexes between collagenIV and EcadFc surfaces, respectively. Cell migration required collagenIV and did not occur on surfaces functionalized with only EcadFc. However, E-cadherin adhesion dampened lamellipodia activity on both collagenIV and EcadFc surfaces and biased the direction of cell migration without affecting the migration rate, all in an EcadFc concentration-dependent manner. Traction force microscopy showed that spatial confinement of integrin-based adhesions to collagenIV stripes induced anisotropic cell traction on collagenIV and migration directional bias. Selective depletion of different pools of αE-catenin, an E-cadherin and actin binding protein, identified a membrane-associated pool required for E-cadherin–mediated adhesion and down-regulation of lamellipodia activity and a cytosolic pool that down-regulated the migration rate in an E-cadherin adhesion-independent manner. These results demonstrate that there is crosstalk between E-cadherin– and integrin-based adhesion complexes and that E-cadherin regulates lamellipodia activity and cell migration directionality, but not cell migration rate. PMID:20566866

  8. Coupling actin flow, adhesion, and morphology in a computational cell motility model.

    PubMed

    Shao, Danying; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2012-05-01

    Cell migration is a pervasive process in many biology systems and involves protrusive forces generated by actin polymerization, myosin dependent contractile forces, and force transmission between the cell and the substrate through adhesion sites. Here we develop a computational model for cell motion that uses the phase-field method to solve for the moving boundary with physical membrane properties. It includes a reaction-diffusion model for the actin-myosin machinery and discrete adhesion sites which can be in a "gripping" or "slipping" mode and integrates the adhesion dynamics with the dynamics of the actin filaments, modeled as a viscous network. To test this model, we apply it to fish keratocytes, fast moving cells that maintain their morphology, and show that we are able to reproduce recent experimental results on actin flow and stress patterns. Furthermore, we explore the phase diagram of cell motility by varying myosin II activity and adhesion strength. Our model suggests that the pattern of the actin flow inside the cell, the cell velocity, and the cell morphology are determined by the integration of actin polymerization, myosin contraction, adhesion forces, and membrane forces.

  9. A stochastic model for adhesion-mediated cell random motility and haptotaxis.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, R B; Tranquillo, R T

    1993-01-01

    scales in terms of cell cytomechanical, morphological, and receptor binding and transport parameters. For a uniform adhesion ligand concentration, this analysis provides expressions for traditional cell movement indices such as mean speed, directional persistence time, and random motility coefficient. In a small gradient of adhesion, a perturbation analysis of the FPE yields a constitutive cell flux expression which includes a drift term for haptotactic directional cell migration. The haptotactic drift contains terms identified as contributions from directional orientation bias (taxis), kinesis, and orthotaxis, of which taxis appears to be predominant given estimates of the model parameters.

  10. Single-gene tuning of Caulobacter cell cycle period and noise, swarming motility, and surface adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yihan; Crosson, Sean; Scherer, Norbert F

    2010-01-01

    Sensor histidine kinases underlie the regulation of a range of physiological processes in bacterial cells, from chemotaxis to cell division. In the gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, the membrane-bound histidine kinase, DivJ, is a polar-localized regulator of cell cycle progression and development. We show that DivJ localizes to the cell pole through a dynamic diffusion and capture mechanism rather than by active localization. Analysis of single C. crescentus cells in microfluidic culture demonstrates that controlled expression of divJ permits facile tuning of both the mean and noise of the cell division period. Simulations of the cell cycle that use a simplified protein interaction network capture previously measured oscillatory protein profiles, and recapitulate the experimental observation that deletion of divJ increases the cell cycle period and noise. We further demonstrate that surface adhesion and swarming motility of C. crescentus in semi-solid media can also be tuned by divJ expression. We propose a model in which pleiotropic control of polar cell development by the DivJ–DivK–PleC signaling pathway underlies divJ-dependent tuning of cell swarming and adhesion behaviors. PMID:21179017

  11. Solution blow spinning fibres: New immunologically inert substrates for the analysis of cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Paschoalin, Rafaella T; Traldi, Bruna; Aydin, Gülcan; Oliveira, Juliano E; Rütten, Stephan; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2017-03-15

    The control of cell behaviour through material geometry is appealing as it avoids the requirement for complex chemical surface modifications. Significant advances in new technologies have been made to the development of polymeric biomaterials with controlled geometry and physico-chemical properties. Solution blow spinning technique has the advantage of ease of use allowing the production of nano or microfibres and the direct fibre deposition on any surface in situ. Yet, in spite of these advantages, very little is known about the influence of such fibres on biological functions such as immune response and cell migration. In this work, we engineered polymeric fibres composed of either pure poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or blends of PLA and polyethylene glycol (PEG) by solution blow spinning and determined their impact on dendritic cells, highly specialised cells essential for immunity and tolerance. We also determined the influence of fibres on cell adhesion and motility. Cells readily interacted with fibres resulting in an intimate contact characterised by accumulation of actin filaments and focal adhesion components at sites of cell-fibre interactions. Moreover, cells were guided along the fibres and actin and focal adhesion components showed a highly dynamic behaviour at cell-fibre interface. Remarkably, fibres did not elicit any substantial increase of activation markers and inflammatory cytokines in dendritic cells, which remained in their immature (inactive) state. Taken together, these findings will be useful for developing new biomaterials for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear actin modulates cell motility via transcriptional regulation of adhesive and cytoskeletal genes

    PubMed Central

    Sharili, Amir S.; Kenny, Fiona N.; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Connelly, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a classic biomechanical mediator of cell migration. While it is known that actin also shuttles in and out of the nucleus, its functions within this compartment remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how nuclear actin regulates keratinocyte gene expression and cell behavior. Gene expression profiling of normal HaCaT keratinocytes compared to HaCaTs over-expressing wild-type β-actin or β-actin tagged with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS-actin), identified multiple adhesive and cytoskeletal genes, such as MYL9, ITGB1, and VCL, which were significantly down-regulated in keratinocytes with high levels of nuclear actin. In addition, genes associated with transcriptional regulation and apoptosis were up-regulated in cells over expressing NLS-actin. Functionally, accumulation of actin in the nucleus altered cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization and inhibited cell motility. Exclusion of endogenous actin from the nucleus by knocking down Importin 9 reversed this phenotype and enhanced cell migration. Based on these findings, we conclude that the level of actin in the nucleus is a transcriptional regulator for tuning keratinocyte migration. PMID:27650314

  13. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-06-10

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  14. RhoGEFs in cell motility: Novel links between Rgnef and focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nichol L. G.; Kleinschmidt, Elizabeth G.; Schlaepfer, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Rho guanine exchange factors (GEFs) are a large, diverse family of proteins defined by their ability to catalyze the exchange of GDP for GTP on small GTPase proteins such as Rho family members. GEFs act as integrators from varied intra- and extracellular sources to promote spatiotemporal activity of Rho GTPases that control signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation and movement. Here we review recent studies elucidating roles of RhoGEF proteins in cell motility. Emphasis is placed on Dbl-family GEFs and connections to development, integrin signaling to Rho GTPases regulating cell adhesion and movement, and how these signals may enhance tumor progression. Moreover, RhoGEFs have additional domains that confer distinctive functions or specificity. We will focus on a unique interaction between Rgnef (also termed Arhgef28 or p190RhoGEF) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that controls migration properties of normal and tumor cells. This Rgnef-FAK interaction activates canonical GEF-dependent RhoA GTPase activity to govern contractility and also functions as a scaffold in a GEF-independent manner to enhance FAK activation. Recent studies have also brought to light the importance of specific regions within the Rgnef pleckstrin homology (PH) domain for targeting the membrane. As revealed by ongoing Rgnef-FAK investigations, exploring GEF roles in cancer will yield fundamental new information on the molecular mechanisms promoting tumor spread and metastasis. PMID:24467206

  15. An Adhesion-Dependent Switch between Mechanisms That Determine Motile Cell Shape

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Erin L.; Lee, Kun-Chun; Keren, Kinneret; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Keratocytes are fast-moving cells in which adhesion dynamics are tightly coupled to the actin polymerization motor that drives migration, resulting in highly coordinated cell movement. We have found that modifying the adhesive properties of the underlying substrate has a dramatic effect on keratocyte morphology. Cells crawling at intermediate adhesion strengths resembled stereotypical keratocytes, characterized by a broad, fan-shaped lamellipodium, clearly defined leading and trailing edges, and persistent rates of protrusion and retraction. Cells at low adhesion strength were small and round with highly variable protrusion and retraction rates, and cells at high adhesion strength were large and asymmetrical and, strikingly, exhibited traveling waves of protrusion. To elucidate the mechanisms by which adhesion strength determines cell behavior, we examined the organization of adhesions, myosin II, and the actin network in keratocytes migrating on substrates with different adhesion strengths. On the whole, our results are consistent with a quantitative physical model in which keratocyte shape and migratory behavior emerge from the self-organization of actin, adhesions, and myosin, and quantitative changes in either adhesion strength or myosin contraction can switch keratocytes among qualitatively distinct migration regimes. PMID:21559321

  16. Rap1 controls cell adhesion and cell motility through the regulation of myosin II

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Taeck J.; Lee, Dai-Jen; Merlot, Sylvain; Weeks, Gerald; Firtel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the role of Rap1 in controlling chemotaxis and cell adhesion in Dictyostelium discoideum. Rap1 is activated rapidly in response to chemoattractant stimulation, and activated Rap1 is preferentially found at the leading edge of chemotaxing cells. Cells expressing constitutively active Rap1 are highly adhesive and exhibit strong chemotaxis defects, which are partially caused by an inability to spatially and temporally regulate myosin assembly and disassembly. We demonstrate that the kinase Phg2, a putative Rap1 effector, colocalizes with Rap1–guanosine triphosphate at the leading edge and is required in an in vitro assay for myosin II phosphorylation, which disassembles myosin II and facilitates filamentous actin–mediated leading edge protrusion. We suggest that Rap1/Phg2 plays a role in controlling leading edge myosin II disassembly while passively allowing myosin II assembly along the lateral sides and posterior of the cell. PMID:17371831

  17. Stonin1 mediates endocytosis of the proteoglycan NG2 and regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Feutlinske, Fabian; Browarski, Marietta; Ku, Min-Chi; Trnka, Philipp; Waiczies, Sonia; Niendorf, Thoralf; Stallcup, William B.; Glass, Rainer; Krause, Eberhard; Maritzen, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Cellular functions, ranging from focal adhesion (FA) dynamics and cell motility to tumour growth, are orchestrated by signals cells receive from outside via cell surface receptors. Signalling is fine-tuned by the exo–endocytic cycling of these receptors to control cellular responses such as FA dynamics, which determine cell motility. How precisely endocytosis regulates turnover of the various cell surface receptors remains unclear. Here we identify Stonin1, an endocytic adaptor of unknown function, as a regulator of FA dynamics and cell motility, and demonstrate that it facilitates the internalization of the oncogenic proteoglycan NG2, a co-receptor of integrins and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Embryonic fibroblasts obtained from Stonin1-deficient mice display a marked surface accumulation of NG2, increased cellular signalling and defective FA disassembly as well as altered cellular motility. These data establish Stonin1 as a specific adaptor for the endocytosis of NG2 and as an important factor for FA dynamics and cell migration. PMID:26437238

  18. Functional role of glycosphingolipids and gangliosides in control of cell adhesion, motility, and growth, through glycosynaptic microdomains.

    PubMed

    Regina Todeschini, Adriane; Hakomori, Sen-itiroh

    2008-03-01

    At cell surface microdomains, glycosyl epitopes, carried either by glycosphingolipids, N- or O-linked oligosaccharides, are recognized by carbohydrate-binding proteins or complementary carbohydrates. In both cases, the carbohydrate epitopes may be clustered with specific signal transducers, tetraspanins, adhesion receptors or growth factor receptors. Through this framework, carbohydrates can mediate cell signaling leading to changes in cellular phenotype. Microdomains involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion inducing cell activation, motility, and growth are termed "glycosynapse". In this review a historical synopsis of glycosphingolipids-enriched microdomains study leading to the concept of glycosynapse is presented. Examples of glycosynapse as signaling unit controlling the tumor cell phenotype are discussed in three contexts: (i) Cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by glycosphingolipids-to-glycosphingolipids interaction between interfacing glycosynaptic domains, through head-to-head (trans) carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction. (ii) Functional role of GM3 complexed with tetraspanin CD9, and interaction of such complex with integrins, or with fibroblast growth factor receptor, to control tumor cell phenotype and its reversion to normal cell phenotype. (iii) Inhibition of integrin-dependent Met kinase activity by GM2/tetraspanin CD82 complex in glycosynaptic microdomain. Data present here suggest that the organizational status of glycosynapse strongly affects cellular phenotype influencing tumor cell malignancy.

  19. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) plays a key role in ovarian cancer cell adhesion and motility

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Renquan; Sun, Xinghui; Xiao, Ran; Zhou, Lei; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated stable transduced HE4 overexpression and knockdown cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 was associated with EOC cell adhesion and motility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 might have some effects on activation of EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HE4 play an important role in EOC tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We previously demonstrated that serum HE4 levels were significantly elevated in the majority of EOC patients but not in subjects with benign disease or healthy controls. However, the precise mechanism of HE4 protein function is unknown. In this study, we generated HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells and found that stably transduced cells promoted cell adhesion and migration. Knockdown of HE4 expression was achieved by stable transfection of SKOV3 cells with a construct encoding a short hairpin DNA directed against the HE4 gene. Correspondingly, the proliferation and spreading ability of HE4-expressed cells were inhibited by HE4 suppression. Mechanistically, impaired EGFR and Erk1/2 phosphorylation were observed in cells with HE4 knockdown. The phosphorylation was restored when the knockdown cells were cultured in conditioned medium containing HE4. Moreover, in vivo tumorigenicity showed that HE4 suppression markedly inhibited the growth of tumors. This suggests that expression of HE4 is associated with cancer cell adhesion, migration and tumor growth, which can be related to its effects on the EGFR-MAPK signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underlie the motility-promoting role of HE4 in EOC progression. The role of HE4 as a target for gene-based therapy might be considered in future studies.

  20. Involvement of caveolin-1 in low shear stress-induced breast cancer cell motility and adhesion: Roles of FAK/Src and ROCK/p-MLC pathways.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Niya; Li, Shun; Tang, Kai; Bai, Hongxia; Peng, Yueting; Yang, Hong; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Yiyao

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cells translocating to distant sites are subjected to hemodynamic shear forces during their passage in the blood vessels. Low shear stress (LSS) plays a critical role in the regulation of various aspects of tumor cells functions, including motility and adhesion. Beyond its structural role, caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the important component of caveolae, represents a modulator of several cancer-associated functions as tumor progression and metastasis. However, the role of Cav-1 in regulating tumor cells response to shear stress remains poorly explored. Here, we characterized the role of LSS and Cav-1 in mediating cell motility and adhesion on human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. We first showed that LSS exposure promoted cell polarity and focal adhesion (FA) dynamics, thus indicating elevated cell migration. Silencing of Cav-1 leaded to a significantly lower formation of stress fibers. However, LSS exposure was able to rescue it via the alteration of actin-associated proteins expression, including ROCK, p-MLC, cofilin and filamin A. Time-lapse migration assay indicated that Cav-1 expression fostered MDA-MB-231 cells motility and LSS triggered cells to rapidly generate new lamellipodia. Furthermore, Cav-1 and LSS significantly influenced cell adhesion. Taken together, our findings provide insights into mechanisms underlying LSS triggered events mediated by downstream Cav-1, including FAK/Src and ROCK/p-MLC pathways, involved in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton, cell motility, FA dynamics and breast cancer cell adhesion.

  1. Coupling actin flow, adhesion, and morphology in a computational cell motility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Herbert

    2014-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells crawl by means of the coordinated spatiotemporal dynamics of an active polymer gel, consisting of actin, myosin and regulators thereof. Motility is necessarily coupled to shape, as the force generating mechanisms such as polymerization-based protrusions interact with the elasticity of the cell membrane and thereby determine the cell morphology. We have introduced a ``phase-field'' model of crawling cells, utilizing a mathematical approach originally developed for morphology problems arising in the field of liquid-solid phase transitions. Our model can be used to explain the pattern of traction forces applied to the substrate as well as some recent observations concerning oscillatory instabilities of cells moving on one-dimensional fiber tracks.

  2. NCAM regulates cell motility.

    PubMed

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Kawa, Anna; Walmod, Peter S; Belman, Vadym; Gallagher, Helen C; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Nina

    2002-01-15

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine inhibitor of NCAM-negative cell locomotion through a heterophilic interaction with a cell-surface receptor. As we showed that the two N-terminal immunoglobulin modules of NCAM, which are known to bind to heparin, were responsible for this inhibition, we presume that this receptor is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. A model for the inhibitory effect of NCAM is proposed, which involves competition between NCAM and extracellular components for the binding to membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

  3. Motility and Adhesiveness in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. Wayne; Hollers, James C.; Patrick, Richard A.; Hassett, Clare

    1979-01-01

    Human peripheral blood neutrophils (PMN) obtained from healthy adults were examined in vitro with techniques adapted to assess the effects of chemotactic factors (CF) on cellular configuration and adhesiveness. The results were compared with those that use certain conventional techniques for assessing chemotaxis and chemokinesis. Exposure of PMN to N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-phenylalanine (f-Met-Phe), zymosan-activated serum, bacterial chemotactic factor, or a low molecular weight chemotactic factor from activated serum (C5a) in the absence of a gradient resulted in a change in cellular shape from a spherical to a polarized configuration in a high percentage of cells. This occurred rapidly in suspension, under conditions designed to exclude a role for cell adhesiveness, and was reversible upon removal of the CF. Restimulation of cells with the CF resulted in reappearance of the polarized configuration to the same extent as on initial stimulation with one exception: f-Met-Phe pretreated cells failed to respond to f-Met-Phe, though they responded fully to the other CF. Each CF caused a significant increase in PMN attachment to protein-coated glass. This enhanced adhesiveness was not reversible upon removal of the CF when the cells were treated under conditions shown to produce chemotactic deactivation. Cells treated under these conditions also exhibited significantly reduced motility on glass and in micropore filters in the absence of a gradient of CF. Bacterial chemotactic factor, even at high concentrations, failed to produce deactivation and did not cause a sustained enhancement of adhesiveness. Images PMID:372238

  4. Shape determination in motile cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilner, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Flat, simple shaped, rapidly gliding fish keratocyte cell is the model system of choice to study cell motility. The cell motile appendage, lamellipod, has a characteristic bent-rectangular shape. Recent experiments showed that the lamellipodial geometry is tightly correlated with cell speed and with actin dynamics. These quantitative data combined with computational modeling suggest that a model for robust actin treadmill inside the 'unstretchable membrane bag'. According to this model, a force balance between membrane tension and growing and pushing actin network distributed unevenly along the cell periphery can explain the cell shape and motility. However, when adhesion of the cell to the surface weakens, the actin dynamics become less regular, and myosin-powered contraction starts playing crucial role in stabilizing the cell shape. I will illustrate how the combination of theoretical and experimental approaches helped to unravel the keratocyte motile behavior.

  5. Mechanics of motility initiation and motility arrest in crawling cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recho, Pierre; Putelat, Thibaut; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2015-11-01

    Motility initiation in crawling cells requires transformation of a symmetric state into a polarized state. In contrast, motility arrest is associated with re-symmetrization of the internal configuration of a cell. Experiments on keratocytes suggest that polarization is triggered by the increased contractility of motor proteins but the conditions of re-symmetrization remain unknown. In this paper we show that if adhesion with the extra-cellular substrate is sufficiently low, the progressive intensification of motor-induced contraction may be responsible for both transitions: from static (symmetric) to motile (polarized) at a lower contractility threshold and from motile (polarized) back to static (symmetric) at a higher contractility threshold. Our model of lamellipodial cell motility is based on a 1D projection of the complex intra-cellular dynamics on the direction of locomotion. In the interest of analytical transparency we also neglect active protrusion and view adhesion as passive. Despite the unavoidable oversimplifications associated with these assumptions, the model reproduces quantitatively the motility initiation pattern in fish keratocytes and reveals a crucial role played in cell motility by the nonlocal feedback between the mechanics and the transport of active agents. A prediction of the model that a crawling cell can stop and re-symmetrize when contractility increases sufficiently far beyond the motility initiation threshold still awaits experimental verification.

  6. Tenascin-C enhances pancreatic cancer cell growth and motility and affects cell adhesion through activation of the integrin pathway.

    PubMed

    Paron, Igor; Berchtold, Sonja; Vörös, Julia; Shamarla, Madhavi; Erkan, Mert; Höfler, Heinz; Esposito, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is characterized by an abundant fibrous tissue rich in Tenascin-C (TNC), a large ECM glycoprotein mainly synthesized by pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). In human pancreatic tissues, TNC expression increases in the progression from low-grade precursor lesions to invasive cancer. Aim of this study was the functional characterization of the effects of TNC on biologic relevant properties of pancreatic cancer cells. Proliferation, migration and adhesion assays were performed on pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with TNC or grown on a TNC-rich matrix. Stable transfectants expressing the large TNC splice variant were generated to test the effects of endogenous TNC. TNC-dependent integrin signaling was investigated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and pharmacological inhibition. Endogenous TNC promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth and migration. A TNC-rich matrix also enhanced migration as well as the adhesion to the uncoated growth surface of poorly differentiated cell lines. In contrast, adhesion to fibronectin was significantly decreased in the presence of TNC. The effects of TNC on cell adhesion were paralleled by changes in the activation state of paxillin and Akt. TNC affects proliferation, migration and adhesion of poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cell lines and might therefore play a role in PDAC spreading and metastasis in vivo.

  7. Balancing Thymocyte Adhesion and Motility: A Functional Linkage Between β1 Lntegrins and The Motility Receptor RHAMM

    PubMed Central

    Gares, Sheryl L.

    2000-01-01

    Thymocyte differentiation involves several processes that occur in different anatomic sites within the thymus. Therefore, thymocytes must have the ability to respond to signals received from stromal cells and adopt either adhesive or motile behavior. We will discuss our data indicating human thymocytes use α4β1 integrin, α5β1 integrin and RHAMM to mediate these activities. Immature multinegative (MN; CD3–4–8–19-) thymocytes use α4β1 and α5β1 integrins to mediate weak and strong adhesion. This subset also uses α4β1 integrin to mediate motility. As thymocytes differentiate, they begin to express and use RHAMM to mediate motility in conjunction with α4β1 and α5β1 integrins. Motile thymocytes use β1 integrins to maintain weakly adhesive contacts with substrate to provide traction for locomoting cells, thus weak adhesion is a requirement of motile behavior. Hyaluronan (HA) is also required by thymocytes to mediate motility. HA binding to cell surface RHAMM redistributes intracellular RHAMM to the cell surface where it functions to mediate motility. We propose that the decision to maintain adhesive or motile behavior is based on the balance between low and high avidity binding conformations of β1 integrins on thymocytes and that RHAMM:HA interactions decrease high avidity binding conformations of integrins pushing the balance toward motile behavior. PMID:11097213

  8. Interplay of Anionic Charge, Poly(ethylene glycol), and Iodinated Tyrosine Incorporation within Tyrosine-derived Polycarbonates: Effects on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Adhesion, Proliferation and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Patrick A.; Luk, Arnold; Demtchouk, Aleksey; Patel, Hiral; Sung, Hak-Joon; Treiser, Matthew D.; Gordonov, Simon; Sheihet, Larisa; Bolikal, Das; Kohn, Joachim; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of smooth muscle cell adhesion, proliferation, and motility on biomaterials is critical to the performance of blood-contacting implants and vascular tissue engineering scaffolds. The goal of this study was to examine the underlying substrate-smooth muscle cell response relations, using a selection of polymers representative of an expansive library of multifunctional, tyrosine-derived polycarbonates. Three chemical components within the polymer structure were selectively varied through copolymerization: 1) the content of iodinated tyrosine to achieve X-ray visibility; 2) the content of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to decrease protein adsorption and cell adhesivity; and 3) the content of desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT) which regulates the rate of polymer degradation. Using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, we quantified differential serum protein adsorption behavior due to the chemical components DT, iodinated tyrosine, and PEG: increased PEG content within the polymer structure progressively decreased protein adsorption but the simultaneous presence of both DT and iodinated tyrosine reversed the effects of PEG. The complex interplay of these components was next tested on the adhesion, proliferation, and motility behavior cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells. The incorporation of PEG into the polymer reduced cell attachment, which was reversed in the presence of iodinated tyrosine. Further, we found that as little as 10% DT content was sufficient to negate the PEG effect in polymers containing iodinated tyrosine while in non-iodinated polymers the PEG effect on cell attachment was reversed. Cross-functional analysis of motility and proliferation revealed divergent substrate chemistry related cell response regimes. For instance, within the series of polymers containing both iodinated tyrosine and 10% of DT, increasing PEG levels lowered smooth muscle cell motility without a change in the rate of cell proliferation. In contrast, for non

  9. Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Balzac, F; Retta, S F; Albini, A; Melchiorri, A; Koteliansky, V E; Geuna, M; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1994-10-01

    The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given integrin alpha subunit. These data, together with our previous results, indicate that beta 1B interferes with beta 1A function when expressed in CHO cells resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration.

  10. Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125- kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given integrin alpha subunit. These data, together with our previous results, indicate that beta 1B interferes with beta 1A function when expressed in CHO cells resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration. PMID:7523423

  11. Role of receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM) in low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMWHA)-mediated fibrosarcoma cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kouvidi, Katerina; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Nikitovic, Dragana; Katonis, Pavlos; Afratis, Nikos; Hascall, Vincent C; Karamanos, Nikos K; Tzanakakis, George N

    2011-11-04

    Hyaluronan (HA) modulates key cancer cell functions through interaction with its CD44 and receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM) receptors. HA was recently found to regulate the migration of fibrosarcoma cells in a manner specifically dependent on its size. Here, we investigated the effect of HA/RHAMM signaling on the ability of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells to adhere onto fibronectin. Low molecular weight HA (LMWHA) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.01) the adhesion capacity of HT1080 cells, which high molecular weight HA inhibited. The ability of HT1080 RHAMM-deficient cells, but not of CD44-deficient ones, to adhere was significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001) as compared with control cells. Importantly, the effect of LMWHA on HT1080 cell adhesion was completely attenuated in RHAMM-deficient cells. In contrast, adhesion of RHAMM-deficient cells was not sensitive to high molecular weight HA treatment, which identifies RHAMM as a specific conduit of the LMWHA effect. Western blot and real time-PCR analyses indicated that LMWHA significantly increased RHAMM transcript (p ≤ 0.05) and protein isoform levels (53%, 95 kDa; 37%, 73 kDa) in fibrosarcoma cells. Moreover, Western blot analyses showed that LMWHA in a RHAMM-dependent manner enhanced basal and adhesion-dependent ERK1/2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation in HT1080 cells. Utilization of a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor completely inhibited (p ≤ 0.001) LMWHA-dependent adhesion, suggesting that ERK1/2 is a downstream effector of LMWHA/RHAMM signaling. Likewise, the utilization of the specific ERK1 inhibitor resulted in a strong down-regulation of FAK activation in HT1080 cells, which identifies ERK1/2 as a FAK upstream activator. In conclusion, our results suggest that RHAMM/HA interaction regulates fibrosarcoma cell adhesion via the activation of FAK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  12. Role of Receptor for Hyaluronic Acid-mediated Motility (RHAMM) in Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronan (LMWHA)-mediated Fibrosarcoma Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Kouvidi, Katerina; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Nikitovic, Dragana; Katonis, Pavlos; Afratis, Nikos; Hascall, Vincent C.; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) modulates key cancer cell functions through interaction with its CD44 and receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility (RHAMM) receptors. HA was recently found to regulate the migration of fibrosarcoma cells in a manner specifically dependent on its size. Here, we investigated the effect of HA/RHAMM signaling on the ability of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells to adhere onto fibronectin. Low molecular weight HA (LMWHA) significantly increased (p ≤ 0.01) the adhesion capacity of HT1080 cells, which high molecular weight HA inhibited. The ability of HT1080 RHAMM-deficient cells, but not of CD44-deficient ones, to adhere was significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001) as compared with control cells. Importantly, the effect of LMWHA on HT1080 cell adhesion was completely attenuated in RHAMM-deficient cells. In contrast, adhesion of RHAMM-deficient cells was not sensitive to high molecular weight HA treatment, which identifies RHAMM as a specific conduit of the LMWHA effect. Western blot and real time-PCR analyses indicated that LMWHA significantly increased RHAMM transcript (p ≤ 0.05) and protein isoform levels (53%, 95 kDa; 37%, 73 kDa) in fibrosarcoma cells. Moreover, Western blot analyses showed that LMWHA in a RHAMM-dependent manner enhanced basal and adhesion-dependent ERK1/2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation in HT1080 cells. Utilization of a specific ERK1/2 inhibitor completely inhibited (p ≤ 0.001) LMWHA-dependent adhesion, suggesting that ERK1/2 is a downstream effector of LMWHA/RHAMM signaling. Likewise, the utilization of the specific ERK1 inhibitor resulted in a strong down-regulation of FAK activation in HT1080 cells, which identifies ERK1/2 as a FAK upstream activator. In conclusion, our results suggest that RHAMM/HA interaction regulates fibrosarcoma cell adhesion via the activation of FAK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. PMID:21914806

  13. p85 beta-PIX is required for cell motility through phosphorylations of focal adhesion kinase and p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jangsoon; Jung, In Duk; Chang, Won Keun; Park, Chang Gyo; Cho, Do Yeun; Shin, Eun-Young; Seo, Dong Wan; Kim, Yong Kee; Lee, Hyang Woo; Han, Jeung-Whan; Lee, Hoi Young

    2005-07-15

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediates diverse biological responses, including cell migration, through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Recently, we have shown that LPA stimulates p21-activated kinase (PAK) that is critical for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and cell motility. Here, we provide the direct evidence that p85 beta-PIX is required for cell motility of NIH-3T3 cells by LPA through FAK and p38 MAP kinase phosphorylations. LPA induced p85 beta-PIX binding to FAK in NIH-3T3 cells that was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, the similar inhibition of the complex formation was also observed, when the cells were transfected with either p85 beta-PIX mutant that cannot bind GIT or dominant negative mutants of Rac1 (N17Rac1) and PAK (PAK-PID). Transfection of the cells with specific p85 beta-PIX siRNA led to drastic inhibition of LPA-induced FAK phosphorylation, peripheral redistribution of p85 beta-PIX with FAK and GIT1, and cell motility. p85 beta-PIX was also required for p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation induced by LPA. Finally, dominant negative mutant of Rho (N19Rho)-transfected cells did not affect PAK activation, while the cells stably transfected with p85 beta-PIX siRNA or N17Rac1 showed the reduction of LPA-induced PAK activation. Taken together, the present data suggest that p85 beta-PIX, located downstream of Rac1, is a key regulator for the activations of FAK or p38 MAP kinase and plays a pivotal role in focal complex formation and cell motility induced by LPA.

  14. Fur Represses Adhesion to, Invasion of, and Intracellular Bacterial Community Formation within Bladder Epithelial Cells and Motility in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kurabayashi, Kumiko; Agata, Tomohiro; Asano, Hirofumi; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Hirakawa, Hidetada

    2016-11-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major pathogen that causes urinary tract infections (UTIs). This bacterium adheres to and invades the host cells in the bladder, where it forms biofilm-like polymicrobial structures termed intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) that protect UPEC from antimicrobial agents and the host immune systems. Using genetic screening, we found that deletion of the fur gene, which encodes an iron-binding transcriptional repressor for iron uptake systems, elevated the expression of type I fimbriae and motility when UPEC was grown under iron-rich conditions, and it led to an increased number of UPEC cells adhering to and internalized in bladder epithelial cells. Consequently, the IBC colonies that the fur mutant formed in host cells were denser and larger than those formed by the wild-type parent strain. Fur is inactivated under iron-restricted conditions. When iron was depleted from the bacterial cultures, wild-type UPEC adhesion, invasion, and motility increased, similar to the case with the fur mutant. The purified Fur protein bound to regions upstream of fimA and flhD, which encode type I fimbriae and an activator of flagellar expression that contributes to motility, respectively. These results suggest that Fur is a repressor of fimA and flhD and that its repression is abolished under iron-depleted conditions. Based on our in vitro experiments, we conclude that UPEC adhesion, invasion, IBC formation, and motility are suppressed by Fur under iron-rich conditions but derepressed under iron-restricted conditions, such as in patients with UTIs. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  16. Active gel model of amoeboid cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callan-Jones, A. C.; Voituriez, R.

    2013-02-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-substrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  17. Deoxyelephantopin impedes mammary adenocarcinoma cell motility by inhibiting calpain-mediated adhesion dynamics and inducing reactive oxygen species and aggresome formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wai-Leng; Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2012-04-15

    We previously showed that deoxyelephantopin (DET), a plant sesquiterpene lactone, exhibits more profound suppression than paclitaxel (PTX) of lung metastasis of mammary adenocarcinoma TS/A cells in mice. Proteomics studies suggest that DET affects actin cytoskeletal protein networks and downregulates calpain-mediated proteolysis of several actin-associated proteins, whereas PTX mainly interferes with microtubule proteins. Here, DET was observed to significantly deregulate adhesion formation in TS/A cells, probably through inhibition of m-calpain activity. Epithelial growth factor (EGF)-mediated activation of Rho GTPase Rac1 and formation of lamellipodia in TS/A cells were remarkably suppressed by DET treatment. Further, DET impaired vesicular trafficking of EGF and induced protein carbonylation and formation of centrosomal aggregates in TS/A cells. DET-induced reactive oxygen species were observed to be the upstream stimulus for the formation of centrosomal ubiquitinated protein aggregates that might subsequently restrict cancer cell motility. PTX, however, caused dramatic morphological changes, interfered with microtubule networking, and moderately inhibited calpain-mediated cytoskeletal and focal adhesion protein cleavage in TS/A cells. This study provides novel mechanistic insights into the pharmacological action of DET against metastatic mammary cell migration and suggests that modulation of oxidative stress might be a potential strategy for treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  18. A cytokine-controlled mechanism for integrated regulation of T-lymphocyte motility, adhesion and activation.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Sten-Erik; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta

    2013-12-01

    The co-ordination of T-cell motility, adhesion and activation remains poorly understood. It is also unclear how these functions are co-ordinated with external stimuli. Here we unveil a series of molecular interactions in cis at the surface of T lymphocytes with potent effects on motility and adhesion in these cells, and communicating with proliferative responses. These interactions were controlled by the signature cytokines of T helper subsets interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was found to play a key role for T-cell motility by promoting development of polarized cell shape and cell movement. Endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) enhanced cell surface expression of LRP1 through CD47. Cell surface expressed LRP1 induced motility and processing of TSP-1 while inhibiting adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and fibronectin. Interleukin-2, but not IL-4, stimulated synthesis of TSP-1 and motility through TSP-1 and LRP1. Stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex inhibited TSP-1 expression. Inhibitor studies indicated that LRP1 regulated TSP-1 expression and promoted motility through JAK signalling. This LRP1-mediated motogenic signalling was connected to CD47/Gi protein signalling and IL-2-induced signalling through TSP-1. The motogenic TSP-1/LRP1 mechanism antagonized TCR/CD3-induced T-cell proliferation. These results indicate that LRP1 in collaboration with TSP-1 directs a counter-adhesive and counter-proliferative motogenic cascade. T cells seem programmed to prioritize movement before adhesion through this cascade. In conclusion, vital decision-making in T lymphocytes regulating motility, adhesive interactions and proliferation, are integrated through a molecular mechanism connecting different cell surface receptors and their signalling pathways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Toward the reconstitution of synthetic cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Siton-Mendelson, Orit; Bernheim-Groswasser, Anne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cellular motility is a fundamental process essential for embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and tissues development. Cells are mostly moving by crawling on external, or inside, substrates which can differ in their surface composition, geometry, and dimensionality. Cells can adopt different migration phenotypes, e.g., bleb-based and protrusion-based, depending on myosin contractility, surface adhesion, and cell confinement. In the few past decades, research on cell motility has focused on uncovering the major molecular players and their order of events. Despite major progresses, our ability to infer on the collective behavior from the molecular properties remains a major challenge, especially because cell migration integrates numerous chemical and mechanical processes that are coupled via feedbacks that span over large range of time and length scales. For this reason, reconstituted model systems were developed. These systems allow for full control of the molecular constituents and various system parameters, thereby providing insight into their individual roles and functions. In this review we describe the various reconstituted model systems that were developed in the past decades. Because of the multiple steps involved in cell motility and the complexity of the overall process, most of the model systems focus on very specific aspects of the individual steps of cell motility. Here we describe the main advancement in cell motility reconstitution and discuss the main challenges toward the realization of a synthetic motile cell. PMID:27019160

  20. Toward the reconstitution of synthetic cell motility.

    PubMed

    Siton-Mendelson, Orit; Bernheim-Groswasser, Anne

    2016-09-02

    Cellular motility is a fundamental process essential for embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and tissues development. Cells are mostly moving by crawling on external, or inside, substrates which can differ in their surface composition, geometry, and dimensionality. Cells can adopt different migration phenotypes, e.g., bleb-based and protrusion-based, depending on myosin contractility, surface adhesion, and cell confinement. In the few past decades, research on cell motility has focused on uncovering the major molecular players and their order of events. Despite major progresses, our ability to infer on the collective behavior from the molecular properties remains a major challenge, especially because cell migration integrates numerous chemical and mechanical processes that are coupled via feedbacks that span over large range of time and length scales. For this reason, reconstituted model systems were developed. These systems allow for full control of the molecular constituents and various system parameters, thereby providing insight into their individual roles and functions. In this review we describe the various reconstituted model systems that were developed in the past decades. Because of the multiple steps involved in cell motility and the complexity of the overall process, most of the model systems focus on very specific aspects of the individual steps of cell motility. Here we describe the main advancement in cell motility reconstitution and discuss the main challenges toward the realization of a synthetic motile cell.

  1. Tumor invasion as dysregulated cell motility.

    PubMed

    Kassis, J; Lauffenburger, D A; Turner, T; Wells, A

    2001-04-01

    Investigations across a range of disciplines over the past decade have brought the study of cell motility and its role in invasion to an exciting threshold. The biophysical forces proximally involved in generating cell locomotion, as well as the underlying signaling and genomic regulatory processes, are gradually becoming elucidated. We now appreciate the intricacies of the many cellular and extracellular events that modulate cell migration. This has enabled the demonstration of a causal role of cell motility in tumor progression, with various points of 'dysregulation' of motility being responsible for promoting invasion. In this paper, we describe key fundamental principles governing cell motility and branch out to describe the essence of the data that describe these principles. It has become evident that many proposed models may indeed be converging into a tightly-woven tapestry of coordinated events which employ various growth factors and their receptors, adhesion receptors (integrins), downstream molecules, cytoskeletal components, and altered genomic regulation to accomplish cell motility. Tumor invasion occurs in response to dysregulation of many of these modulatory points; specific examples include increased signaling from the EGF receptor and through PLC gamma, altered localization and expression of integrins, changes in actin modifying proteins and increased transcription from specific promoter sites. This diversity of alterations all leading to tumor invasion point to the difficulty of correcting causal events leading to tumor invasion and rather suggest that the underlying common processes required for motility be targeted for therapeutic intervention.

  2. PilY1 Promotes Legionella pneumophila Infection of Human Lung Tissue Explants and Contributes to Bacterial Adhesion, Host Cell Invasion, and Twitching Motility

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Julia; Ünal, Can M.; Thiem, Stefanie; Grimpe, Louisa; Goldmann, Torsten; Gaßler, Nikolaus; Richter, Matthias; Shevchuk, Olga; Steinert, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease is an acute fibrinopurulent pneumonia. During infection Legionella pneumophila adheres to the alveolar lining and replicates intracellularly within recruited macrophages. Here we provide a sequence and domain composition analysis of the L. pneumophila PilY1 protein, which has a high homology to PilY1 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PilY1 proteins of both pathogens contain a von Willebrand factor A (vWFa) and a C-terminal PilY domain. Using cellular fractionation, we assigned the L. pneumophila PilY1 as an outer membrane protein that is only expressed during the transmissive stationary growth phase. PilY1 contributes to infection of human lung tissue explants (HLTEs). A detailed analysis using THP-1 macrophages and A549 lung epithelial cells revealed that this contribution is due to multiple effects depending on host cell type. Deletion of PilY1 resulted in a lower replication rate in THP-1 macrophages but not in A549 cells. Further on, adhesion to THP-1 macrophages and A549 epithelial cells was decreased. Additionally, the invasion into non-phagocytic A549 epithelial cells was drastically reduced when PilY1 was absent. Complementation variants of a PilY1-negative mutant revealed that the C-terminal PilY domain is essential for restoring the wild type phenotype in adhesion, while the putatively mechanosensitive vWFa domain facilitates invasion into non-phagocytic cells. Since PilY1 also promotes twitching motility of L. pneumophila, we discuss the putative contribution of this newly described virulence factor for bacterial dissemination within infected lung tissue. PMID:28326293

  3. Function of liprins in cell motility.

    PubMed

    de Curtis, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Liprins have been known for years to play an essential role in setting up functional synapses in the nervous system. On the other hand, these proteins had been first identified in non-neuronal cells as multivalent proteins that may affect the integrin-mediated interactions of the cells with extracellular matrix ligands. Although the research on the function of liprins in non-neuronal cells has been quiescent for several years, a number of recent findings are putting them back on stage again as important players also in the regulation of non-neuronal cell motility, and possibly of tumor cell behavior. The aim of this review is to highlight the findings supporting the importance of liprins as central regulators of cell adhesion and motility, making them an interesting family of proteins to be considered for future studies on the mechanisms regulating cell migration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrodynamic Contributions to Amoeboid Cell Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Owen; Guy, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the methods by which cells move is a fundamental problem in modern biology. Recent evidence has shown that the fluid dynamics of cytoplasm can play a vital role in cellular motility. The slime mold Physarum polycephalum provides an excellent model organism for the study of amoeboid motion. In this research, we use a simply analytic model in conjuction with computational experiments to investigate intracellular fluid flow in a simple model of Physarum. Of particlar interest are stresses generated by cytoplasmic flow which may be used to aid in cellular motility. In our numerical model, the Immersed Boundary Method is used to account for such stresses. We investigate the relationship between contraction waves, flow waves, adhesion, and locomotive forces in an attempt to characterize conditions necessary to generate directed motion.

  5. 3D timelapse analysis of muscle satellite cell motility.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Ashley L; Atchison, Kevin; Fisher, Kevin E; Davis, George E; Cornelison, D D W

    2009-10-01

    Skeletal muscle repair and regeneration requires the activity of satellite cells, a population of myogenic stem cells scattered throughout the tissue and activated to proliferate and differentiate in response to myotrauma or disease. While it seems likely that satellite cells would need to navigate local muscle tissue to reach damaged areas, relatively little data on such motility exist, and most studies have been with immortalized cell lines. We find that primary satellite cells are significantly more motile than myoblast cell lines, and that adhesion to laminin promotes primary cell motility more than fourfold over other substrates. Using timelapse videomicroscopy to assess satellite cell motility on single living myofibers, we have identified a requirement for the laminin-binding integrin alpha 7 beta 1 in satellite cell motility, as well as a role for hepatocyte growth factor in promoting directional persistence. The extensive migratory behavior of satellite cells resident on muscle fibers suggests caution when determining, based on fixed specimens, whether adjacent cells are daughters from the same mother cell. We also observed more persistent long-term contact between individual satellite cells than has been previously supposed, potential cell-cell attractive and repulsive interactions, and migration between host myofibers. Based on such activity, we assayed for expression of "pathfinding" cues, and found that satellite cells express multiple guidance ligands and receptors. Together, these data suggest that satellite cell migration in vivo may be more extensive than currently thought, and could be regulated by combinations of signals, including adhesive haptotaxis, soluble factors, and guidance cues.

  6. A mechanism for cell motility by active polar gels

    PubMed Central

    Marth, W.; Praetorius, S.; Voigt, A.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse a generic motility model, with the motility mechanism arising by contractile stress due to the interaction of myosin and actin. A hydrodynamic active polar gel theory is used to model the cytoplasm of a cell and is combined with a Helfrich-type model to account for membrane properties. The overall model allows consideration of the motility without the necessity for local adhesion. Besides a detailed numerical approach together with convergence studies for the highly nonlinear free boundary problem, we also compare the induced flow field of the motile cell with that of classical squirmer models and identify the motile cell as a puller or pusher, depending on the strength of the myosin–actin interactions. PMID:25926698

  7. Alternative Splicing in Adhesion- and Motility-Related Genes in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aversa, Rosanna; Sorrentino, Anna; Esposito, Roberta; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Amato, Angela; Zambelli, Alberto; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; D'Apice, Luciana; Costa, Valerio

    2016-01-16

    Breast cancer is the most common tumor and the second leading cause of cancer death among woman, mainly caused by the metastatic spread. Tumor invasiveness is due to an altered expression of adhesion molecules. Among them, semaphorins are of peculiar interest. Cancer cells can manipulate alternative splicing patterns to modulate the expression of adhesion- and motility-related molecules, also at the isoform level. In this study, combining RNA-Sequencing on MCF-7 to targeted experimental validations-in human breast cell lines and breast tumor biopsies-we identified 12 new alternative splicing transcripts in genes encoding adhesion- and motility-related molecules, including semaphorins, their receptors and co-receptors. Among them, a new SEMA3F transcript is expressed in all breast cell lines and breast cancer biopsies, and is translated into a new semaphorin 3F isoform. In silico analysis predicted that most of the new putative proteins lack functional domains, potentially missing some functions and acquiring new ones. Our findings better describe the extent of alternative splicing in breast cancer and highlight the need to further investigate adhesion- and motility-related molecules to gain insights into breast cancer progression.

  8. Self-organized cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xinxin; Doubrovinski, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    Cell migration plays a key role in a wide range of biological phenomena, such as morphogenesis, chemotaxis, and wound healing. Cell locomotion relies on the cytoskeleton, a meshwork of filamentous proteins, intrinsically out of thermodynamic equilibrium and cross-linked by molecular motors, proteins that turn chemical energy into mechanical work. In the course of locomotion, cells remain polarized, i.e. they retain a single direction of motion in the absence of external cues. Traditionally, polarization has been attributed to intracellular signaling. However, recent experiments show that polarization may be a consequence of self-organized cytoskeletal dynamics. Our aim is to elucidate the mechanisms by which persistent unidirectional locomotion may arise through simple mechanical interactions of the cytoskeletal proteins. To this end, we develop a simple physical description of cytoskeletal dynamics. We find that the proposed description accounts for a range of phenomena associated with cell motility, including spontaneous polarization, persistent unidirectional motion, and the co-existence of motile and non-motile states.

  9. Comparison of adhesion, invasion, motility, and toxin production of Campylobacter strains and their resistant mutants.

    PubMed

    Zeitouni, Salman; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Kempf, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro adhesion and invasion of human epithelial cells, motility, and toxin production characteristics of Campylobacter-susceptible strains and their fluoroquinolone- or macrolide-resistant mutants. Susceptible strains and resistant mutants demonstrated similar adhesion capacities to epithelial cells. For Campylobacter coli, fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants with Thr86Ile or Asp90Asn substitutions showed a higher rate of invasion of Caco-2 cells than their isogenic parental strain. Fluoroquinolone resistance did not impact C. coli motility. Mutants harboring Asp90Asn had greater cytotoxic activity than the parental strain. Macrolide resistance had no impact on the studied characteristics of C. coli. For Campylobacter jejuni, fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants had slightly different invasiveness levels and significantly lower motility than the isogenic parental strain. C. jejuni macrolide-resistant mutants with A2074G substitution in the 23S rRNA gene had a higher invasiveness level than its parental strain, but mutants with A2074C in 23S rRNA and G221A in rplD showed reduced motility and similar invasion levels to the susceptible strains. Neither fluoroquinolone nor macrolide resistance appears to affect C. jejuni cytotoxicity. In conclusion, mutations that are frequently encountered in Campylobacter-resistant strains can enhance the invasiveness in Caco-2 cells.

  10. Fractalkine receptor CX(3)CR1 is expressed in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells and required for motility and adhesion to peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mijung; Rooper, Lisa; Xie, Jia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre A; Barbolina, Maria V

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a deadly disease, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying its metastatic progression. Using human specimens and established cell lines, we determined that the G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane fractalkine receptor (CX(3)CR1) is expressed in primary and metastatic ovarian carcinoma cells. Ovarian carcinoma cells robustly migrated toward CX(3)CL1, a specific ligand of CX(3)CR1, in a CX(3)CR1-dependent manner. Silencing of CX(3)CR1 reduced migration toward human ovarian carcinoma ascites fluid by approximately 70%. Importantly, adhesion of ovarian carcinoma cells to human peritoneal mesothelial cells was dependent on CX(3)CL1/CX(3)CR1 signaling. In addition, CX(3)CL1 was able to induce cellular proliferation. Together, our data suggest that the fractalkine network may function as a major contributor to the progression of EOC, and further attention to its role in the metastasis of this deadly malignancy is warranted.

  11. Balance between cell−substrate adhesion and myosin contraction determines the frequency of motility initiation in fish keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Erin; Lee, Kun-Chun; Allen, Greg M.; Theriot, Julie A.; Mogilner, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cells are dynamic systems capable of spontaneously switching among stable states. One striking example of this is spontaneous symmetry breaking and motility initiation in fish epithelial keratocytes. Although the biochemical and mechanical mechanisms that control steady-state migration in these cells have been well characterized, the mechanisms underlying symmetry breaking are less well understood. In this work, we have combined experimental manipulations of cell−substrate adhesion strength and myosin activity, traction force measurements, and mathematical modeling to develop a comprehensive mechanical model for symmetry breaking and motility initiation in fish epithelial keratocytes. Our results suggest that stochastic fluctuations in adhesion strength and myosin localization drive actin network flow rates in the prospective cell rear above a critical threshold. Above this threshold, high actin flow rates induce a nonlinear switch in adhesion strength, locally switching adhesions from gripping to slipping and further accelerating actin flow in the prospective cell rear, resulting in rear retraction and motility initiation. We further show, both experimentally and with model simulations, that the global levels of adhesion strength and myosin activity control the stability of the stationary state: The frequency of symmetry breaking decreases with increasing adhesion strength and increases with increasing myosin contraction. Thus, the relative strengths of two opposing mechanical forces—contractility and cell−substrate adhesion—determine the likelihood of spontaneous symmetry breaking and motility initiation. PMID:25848042

  12. CD44-mediated adhesion to hyaluronic acid contributes to mechanosensing and invasive motility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yushan; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    The high-molecular-weight glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronic acid (HA), makes up a significant portion of the brain extracellular matrix. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly invasive brain tumor, is associated with aberrant HA secretion, tissue stiffening, and overexpression of the HA receptor CD44. Here, transcriptomic analysis, engineered materials, and measurements of adhesion, migration, and invasion were used to investigate how HA/CD44 ligation contributes to the mechanosensing and invasive motility of GBM tumor cells, both intrinsically and in the context of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide/integrin adhesion. Analysis of transcriptomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas reveals upregulation of transcripts associated with HA/CD44 adhesion. CD44 suppression in culture reduces cell adhesion to HA on short time scales (0.5-hour postincubation) even if RGD is present, whereas maximal adhesion on longer time scales (3 hours) requires both CD44 and integrins. Moreover, time-lapse imaging demonstrates that cell adhesive structures formed during migration on bare HA matrices are more short lived than cellular protrusions formed on surfaces containing RGD. Interestingly, adhesion and migration speed were dependent on HA hydrogel stiffness, implying that CD44-based signaling is intrinsically mechanosensitive. Finally, CD44 expression paired with an HA-rich microenvironment maximized three-dimensional invasion, whereas CD44 suppression or abundant integrin-based adhesion limited it. These findings demonstrate that CD44 transduces HA-based stiffness cues, temporally precedes integrin-based adhesion maturation, and facilitates invasion. This study reveals that the CD44 receptor, which is commonly overexpressed in GBM tumors, is critical for cell adhesion, invasion, and mechanosensing of an HA-based matrix. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Adhesion and invasion to epithelial cells and motility of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli reveal ST131 superiority: a comparative in vitro study of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli lineages.

    PubMed

    Kondratyeva, Kira; Wollman, Ayala; Gerlitz, Gabi; Navon-Venezia, Shiri

    2017-09-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) sequence type ST131 is pandemic, and it is the major contributor to antibiotic resistance in E. coli. Despite its epidemiological superiority, the physiological reasons that decipher its success remain elusive. We aimed to compare the adhesion, invasion and motility potential of ST131 versus other E. coli lineages. In this in vitro comparative study, 14 ESBL-producing ExPEC community-onset bacteremia isolates were chosen from a reported clinical collection (Karfunkel D, Carmeli Y, Chmelnitsky I, Kotlovsky T, Navon-Venezia S. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;32:513-521). Isolates were divided into two groups, ST131 (n=7) and 'non-ST131', sporadic sequence types (STs) (n=7). Virulence and adhesion genes were screened by PCR in all isolates. Virotyping and serotyping were performed for ST131 isolates. Adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 epithelial cells, and motility on semi-solid agar were quantified and compared between the two groups. Fluorescence microscopy using anti-LPS E. coli antibodies was used for visualization and confirmation of adhesion and invasion. ST131 isolates belonged to the O25b:H4-B2 subclone. Two ST131 virotypes were found, A (two blaCTX-M-15 H30-Rx) and C (two blaCTX-M-15 H30-Rx and three blaCTX-M-14 H30 isolates). The average number of adhesion and virulence genes carried by ExPEC ST131 isolates and non-ST131 isolates was 5.3 and 3.7, respectively (P<0.05). Group analysis showed that ST131 surpassed non-ST131 lineages in all three physiological properties: adherence (17.1 vs 13.1 %, P<0.001), invasion (0.4 vs 0.17 %, P<0.01), and swarming motility on all media tested (P<0.05). This study demonstrates ST131 superiority that may explain its improved gut-colonization and dissemination capabilities within the host. These insights are an important step in our understanding of ST131 epidemiological success.

  14. The effect of the repeated subcultures of Helicobacter pylori on adhesion, motility, cytotoxicity, and gastric inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Hak Sung; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Youn Soo; Bhang, Choon Sang; Chae, Hiun Suk; Han, Sok Won; Chung, In Sik; Park, Doo Ho

    2002-06-01

    In vitro subcultures of bacteria can lead to genetic and phenotypic changes. This study aimed at investigating the effect of repeated subcultures on the adhesion, motility, cytotoxicity, and gastric inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori. H.pylori SS1 strain was subcultured 64 times on agar plates containing Brucella broth and 5% bovine calf serum. The adhesion, motility, cytotoxicity, and gastric inflammation produced in Mongolian gerbils were compared between the first and 64th subcultured strain. The adhesion rates, following 3 hr exposure of AGS cells to either the first strain or the 64th-transferred strain, were 21% and 12%, respectively. The motility of the 64th-transferred strain decreased significantly when compared to the 1st strain (9.1 mm vs. 15.1 mm). The cytotoxicity index tended to be higher in the first strain than in the 64th-transferred strain (73.7% vs. 69.2%). The initial infection rate on the gerbils showed no difference between the two strains. However, chronic gastric inflammation of the first strain-infected gerbils was somewhat more severe than that of the 64th-transferred strain-infected gerbils. Therefore, the use of repeatedly subcultured strains of H. pylori in virulence experiments can lead to different results from those of the original strain.

  15. Deterministic patterns in cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavi, Ido; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-12-01

    Cell migration paths are generally described as random walks, associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic noise. However, complex cell locomotion is not merely related to such fluctuations, but is often determined by the underlying machinery. Cell motility is driven mechanically by actin and myosin, two molecular components that generate contractile forces. Other cell functions make use of the same components and, therefore, will compete with the migratory apparatus. Here, we propose a physical model of such a competitive system, namely dendritic cells whose antigen capture function and migratory ability are coupled by myosin II. The model predicts that this coupling gives rise to a dynamic instability, whereby cells switch from persistent migration to unidirectional self-oscillation, through a Hopf bifurcation. Cells can then switch to periodic polarity reversals through a homoclinic bifurcation. These predicted dynamic regimes are characterized by robust features that we identify through in vitro trajectories of dendritic cells over long timescales and distances. We expect that competition for limited resources in other migrating cell types can lead to similar deterministic migration modes.

  16. Caveolin-1-Enhanced Motility and Focal Adhesion Turnover Require Tyrosine-14 but Not Accumulation to the Rear in Metastatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Rina J.; Lobos, Lorena; Díaz, María I.; Díaz, Natalia; Härtel, Steffen; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is known to promote cell migration, and increased caveolin-1 expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis. In fibroblasts, caveolin-1 polarization and phosphorylation of tyrosine-14 are essential to promote migration. However, the role of caveolin-1 in migration of metastatic cells remains poorly defined. Here, caveolin-1 participation in metastatic cell migration was evaluated by shRNA targeting of endogenous caveolin-1 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and ectopic expression in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells. Depletion of caveolin-1 in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced, while expression in B16-F10 cells promoted migration, polarization and focal adhesion turnover in a sequence of events that involved phosphorylation of tyrosine-14 and Rac-1 activation. In B16-F10 cells, expression of a non-phosphorylatable tyrosine-14 to phenylalanine mutant failed to recapitulate the effects observed with wild-type caveolin-1. Alternatively, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 reduced caveolin-1 phosphorylation on tyrosine-14 and cell migration. Surprisingly, unlike for fibroblasts, caveolin-1 polarization and re-localization to the trailing edge were not observed in migrating metastatic cells. Thus, expression and phosphorylation, but not polarization of caveolin-1 favor the highly mobile phenotype of metastatic cells. PMID:22505999

  17. CsrA regulates Helicobacter pylori J99 motility and adhesion by controlling flagella formation.

    PubMed

    Kao, Cheng-Yen; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Motility mediated by the flagella of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to be required for normal colonization and is thought to be important for the bacteria to move toward the gastric mucus in niches adjacent to the epithelium. Barnard et al. showed that CsrA appears to be necessary for full motility and the ability to infect mice, but its mechanism of regulation is still unclear. Motility and cell adhesion ability were determined in wild-type, csrA mutant, and revertant J99 strains. The bacterial shape and flagellar structure were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of two major flagellins, flaA/flaB, and the alternative sigma factor rpoN (σ(54)) were determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. The csrA mutant showed loss of motility and lower adhesion ability compared with the wild-type and revertant J99 strains. The csrA mutant was not flagellated. Transcription of flaA and flaB mRNA decreased to only 40% and 16%, respectively, in the csrA mutant compared with the wild-type J99 (p = .006 and <.0001, respectively), and Western blot analysis showed dramatically reduced FlaA/FlaB proteins in a csrA mutant. The disruption of csrA also decreased expression of rpoN to 48% in the csrA mutant, but the degradation rate of rpoN mRNA was not changed. These results suggest that CsrA regulates H. pylori J99 flagella formation and thereby affects bacterial motility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Roles of ion transport in control of cell motility.

    PubMed

    Stock, Christian; Ludwig, Florian T; Hanley, Peter J; Schwab, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Cell motility is an essential feature of life. It is essential for reproduction, propagation, embryonic development, and healing processes such as wound closure and a successful immune defense. If out of control, cell motility can become life-threatening as, for example, in metastasis or autoimmune diseases. Regardless of whether ciliary/flagellar or amoeboid movement, controlled motility always requires a concerted action of ion channels and transporters, cytoskeletal elements, and signaling cascades. Ion transport across the plasma membrane contributes to cell motility by affecting the membrane potential and voltage-sensitive ion channels, by inducing local volume changes with the help of aquaporins and by modulating cytosolic Ca(2+) and H(+) concentrations. Voltage-sensitive ion channels serve as voltage detectors in electric fields thus enabling galvanotaxis; local swelling facilitates the outgrowth of protrusions at the leading edge while local shrinkage accompanies the retraction of the cell rear; the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration exerts its main effect on cytoskeletal dynamics via motor proteins such as myosin or dynein; and both, the intracellular and the extracellular H(+) concentration modulate cell migration and adhesion by tuning the activity of enzymes and signaling molecules in the cytosol as well as the activation state of adhesion molecules at the cell surface. In addition to the actual process of ion transport, both, channels and transporters contribute to cell migration by being part of focal adhesion complexes and/or physically interacting with components of the cytoskeleton. The present article provides an overview of how the numerous ion-transport mechanisms contribute to the various modes of cell motility.

  19. A cell number-counting factor regulates the cytoskeleton and cell motility in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Gao, Tong; McCollum, Catherine; Jang, Wonhee; Vicker, Michael G; Ammann, Robin R; Gomer, Richard H

    2002-02-05

    Little is known about how a morphogenetic rearrangement of a tissue is affected by individual cells. Starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells aggregate to form dendritic streams, which then break up into groups of approximately 2 x 10(4) cells. Cell number is sensed at this developmental stage by using counting factor (CF), a secreted complex of polypeptides. A high extracellular concentration of CF indicates that there is a large number of cells, which then causes the aggregation stream to break up. Computer simulations indicated that stream breakup could be caused by CF decreasing cell-cell adhesion and/or increasing cell motility, and we observed that CF does indeed decrease cell-cell adhesion. We find here that CF increases cell motility. In Dictyostelium, motility is mediated by actin and myosin. CF increases the amounts of polymerized actin and the ABP-120 actin-crosslinking protein. Partially inhibiting motility by using drugs that interfere with actin polymerization reduces stream dissipation, resulting in fewer stream breaks and thus larger groups. CF also potentiates the phosphorylation and redistribution of myosin while repressing its basal level of assembly. The computer simulations indicated that a narrower distribution of group sizes results when a secreted factor modulates both adhesion and motility. CF thus seems to induce the morphogenesis of streams into evenly sized groups by increasing actin polymerization, ABP-120 levels, and myosin phosphorylation and decreasing adhesion and myosin polymerization.

  20. Extending the molecular clutch beyond actin-based cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Mezanges, Xavier; Batchelder, Ellen; Plastino, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Many cell movements occur via polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane at the front of the cell, forming a protrusion called a lamellipodium, while myosin contraction squeezes forward the back of the cell. In what is known as the “molecular clutch” description of cell motility, forward movement results from the engagement of the acto-myosin motor with cell-matrix adhesions, thus transmitting force to the substrate and producing movement. However during cell translocation, clutch engagement is not perfect, and as a result, the cytoskeleton slips with respect to the substrate, undergoing backward (retrograde) flow in the direction of the cell body. Retrograde flow is therefore inversely proportional to cell speed and depends on adhesion and acto-myosin dynamics. Here we asked whether the molecular clutch was a general mechanism by measuring motility and retrograde flow for the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cell in different adhesive conditions. These cells move by adhering to the substrate and emitting a dynamic lamellipodium, but the sperm cell does not contain an acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Instead the lamellipodium is formed by the assembly of Major Sperm Protein (MSP), which has no biochemical or structural similarity to actin. We find that these cells display the same molecular clutch characteristics as acto-myosin containing cells. We further show that retrograde flow is produced both by cytoskeletal assembly and contractility in these cells. Overall this study shows that the molecular clutch hypothesis of how polymerization is transduced into motility via adhesions is a general description of cell movement regardless of the composition of the cytoskeleton. PMID:25383039

  1. Extending the molecular clutch beyond actin-based cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Mezanges, Xavier; Batchelder, Ellen; Plastino, Julie

    2014-10-01

    Many cell movements occur via polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane at the front of the cell, forming a protrusion called a lamellipodium, while myosin contraction squeezes forward the back of the cell. In what is known as the ‘molecular clutch’ description of cell motility, forward movement results from the engagement of the acto-myosin motor with cell-matrix adhesions, thus transmitting force to the substrate and producing movement. However during cell translocation, clutch engagement is not perfect, and as a result, the cytoskeleton slips with respect to the substrate, undergoing backward (retrograde) flow in the direction of the cell body. Retrograde flow is therefore inversely proportional to cell speed and depends on adhesion and acto-myosin dynamics. Here we asked whether the molecular clutch was a general mechanism by measuring motility and retrograde flow for the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cell in different adhesive conditions. These cells move by adhering to the substrate and emitting a dynamic lamellipodium, but the sperm cell does not contain an acto-myosin cytoskeleton. Instead the lamellipodium is formed by the assembly of major sperm protein, which has no biochemical or structural similarity to actin. We find that these cells display the same molecular clutch characteristics as acto-myosin containing cells. We further show that retrograde flow is produced both by cytoskeletal assembly and contractility in these cells. Overall this study shows that the molecular clutch hypothesis of how polymerization is transduced into motility via adhesions is a general description of cell movement regardless of the composition of the cytoskeleton.

  2. Screening of a Haloferax volcanii Transposon Library Reveals Novel Motility and Adhesion Mutants.

    PubMed

    Legerme, Georgio; Yang, Evan; Esquivel, Rianne N; Kiljunen, Saija; Savilahti, Harri; Pohlschroder, Mechthild

    2016-11-26

    Archaea, like bacteria, use type IV pili to facilitate surface adhesion. Moreover, archaeal flagella-structures required for motility-share a common ancestry with type IV pili. While the characterization of archaeal homologs of bacterial type IV pilus biosynthesis components has revealed important aspects of flagellum and pilus biosynthesis and the mechanisms regulating motility and adhesion in archaea, many questions remain. Therefore, we screened a Haloferax volcanii transposon insertion library for motility mutants using motility plates and adhesion mutants, using an adapted air-liquid interface assay. Here, we identify 20 genes, previously unknown to affect motility or adhesion. These genes include potential novel regulatory genes that will help to unravel the mechanisms underpinning these processes. Both screens also identified distinct insertions within the genomic region lying between two chemotaxis genes, suggesting that chemotaxis not only plays a role in archaeal motility, but also in adhesion. Studying these genes, as well as hypothetical genes hvo_2512 and hvo_2876-also critical for both motility and adhesion-will likely elucidate how these two systems interact. Furthermore, this study underscores the usefulness of the transposon library to screen other archaeal cellular processes for specific phenotypic defects.

  3. A cell number-counting factor regulates the cytoskeleton and cell motility in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lei; Gao, Tong; McCollum, Catherine; Jang, Wonhee; Vicker, Michael G.; Ammann, Robin R.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about how a morphogenetic rearrangement of a tissue is affected by individual cells. Starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells aggregate to form dendritic streams, which then break up into groups of ≈2 × 104 cells. Cell number is sensed at this developmental stage by using counting factor (CF), a secreted complex of polypeptides. A high extracellular concentration of CF indicates that there is a large number of cells, which then causes the aggregation stream to break up. Computer simulations indicated that stream breakup could be caused by CF decreasing cell–cell adhesion and/or increasing cell motility, and we observed that CF does indeed decrease cell–cell adhesion. We find here that CF increases cell motility. In Dictyostelium, motility is mediated by actin and myosin. CF increases the amounts of polymerized actin and the ABP-120 actin-crosslinking protein. Partially inhibiting motility by using drugs that interfere with actin polymerization reduces stream dissipation, resulting in fewer stream breaks and thus larger groups. CF also potentiates the phosphorylation and redistribution of myosin while repressing its basal level of assembly. The computer simulations indicated that a narrower distribution of group sizes results when a secreted factor modulates both adhesion and motility. CF thus seems to induce the morphogenesis of streams into evenly sized groups by increasing actin polymerization, ABP-120 levels, and myosin phosphorylation and decreasing adhesion and myosin polymerization. PMID:11818526

  4. Corticotropin Releasing Factor promotes breast cancer cell motility and invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Androulidaki, Ariadne; Dermitzaki, Erini; Venihaki, Maria; Karagianni, Effie; Rassouli, Olga; Andreakou, Erini; Stournaras, Christos; Margioris, Andrew N; Tsatsanis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Cancer cells secrete bioactive peptides that act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion affecting tumor growth and metastasis. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a hypothalamic neuropeptide that controls the response to stress, has been detected in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. CRF can affect breast cancer cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner via its production from innervating sympathetic neurons or immune cells. Methods In the present study we report our findings regarding the impact of CRF on breast cancer cell motility and invasiveness. For this purpose we used the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and evaluated the effect of CRF on motility and invasiveness using the wound-healing and boyden-chamber assays. In addition, we measured the effect of CRF on molecules that mediate motility by western blot, immunofluorescence, ELISA and RT-PCR. Results Our findings show that: 1. CRF transiently inhibited the apoptosis of MCF7 cells. 2. CRF enhanced MCF7 cell motility in a wound healing assay and their invasiveness through extracellular matrix. 3. CRF increased actin polymerization, phosphorylation of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), providing a potential mechanism for the observed induction of MCF7 motility. 4. CRF induced the expression of Cox-1 but not Cox-2 in MCF7 cells as well as the production of prostaglandins, factors known to promote invasiveness and metastasis. Conclusion Overall, our data suggest that CRF stimulates cell motility and invasiveness of MCF7 cells most probably via induction of FAK phosphorylation and actin filament reorganization and production of prostaglandins via Cox1. Based on these findings we postulate that the stress neuropeptide CRF present in the vicinity of tumors (either produced locally by the tumor cells themselves or by nearby normal cells or secreted from the innervations of surrounding tissues) may play an important role on breast tumor growth and metastatic capacity, providing a potential link between stress

  5. Cooperative cell motility during tandem locomotion of amoeboid cells

    PubMed Central

    Bastounis, Effie; Álvarez-González, Begoña; del Álamo, Juan C.; Lasheras, Juan C.; Firtel, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Streams of migratory cells are initiated by the formation of tandem pairs of cells connected head to tail to which other cells subsequently adhere. The mechanisms regulating the transition from single to streaming cell migration remain elusive, although several molecules have been suggested to be involved. In this work, we investigate the mechanics of the locomotion of Dictyostelium tandem pairs by analyzing the spatiotemporal evolution of their traction adhesions (TAs). We find that in migrating wild-type tandem pairs, each cell exerts traction forces on stationary sites (∼80% of the time), and the trailing cell reuses the location of the TAs of the leading cell. Both leading and trailing cells form contractile dipoles and synchronize the formation of new frontal TAs with ∼54-s time delay. Cells not expressing the lectin discoidin I or moving on discoidin I–coated substrata form fewer tandems, but the trailing cell still reuses the locations of the TAs of the leading cell, suggesting that discoidin I is not responsible for a possible chemically driven synchronization process. The migration dynamics of the tandems indicate that their TAs’ reuse results from the mechanical synchronization of the leading and trailing cells’ protrusions and retractions (motility cycles) aided by the cell–cell adhesions. PMID:26912787

  6. Screening of a Haloferax volcanii Transposon Library Reveals Novel Motility and Adhesion Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Legerme, Georgio; Yang, Evan; Esquivel, Rianne N.; Kiljunen, Saija; Savilahti, Harri; Pohlschroder, Mechthild

    2016-01-01

    Archaea, like bacteria, use type IV pili to facilitate surface adhesion. Moreover, archaeal flagella—structures required for motility—share a common ancestry with type IV pili. While the characterization of archaeal homologs of bacterial type IV pilus biosynthesis components has revealed important aspects of flagellum and pilus biosynthesis and the mechanisms regulating motility and adhesion in archaea, many questions remain. Therefore, we screened a Haloferax volcanii transposon insertion library for motility mutants using motility plates and adhesion mutants, using an adapted air–liquid interface assay. Here, we identify 20 genes, previously unknown to affect motility or adhesion. These genes include potential novel regulatory genes that will help to unravel the mechanisms underpinning these processes. Both screens also identified distinct insertions within the genomic region lying between two chemotaxis genes, suggesting that chemotaxis not only plays a role in archaeal motility, but also in adhesion. Studying these genes, as well as hypothetical genes hvo_2512 and hvo_2876—also critical for both motility and adhesion—will likely elucidate how these two systems interact. Furthermore, this study underscores the usefulness of the transposon library to screen other archaeal cellular processes for specific phenotypic defects. PMID:27898036

  7. Characterizing motility dynamics in human RPE cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Furu; Miller, Donald T.

    2017-02-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are vital to health of the outer retina, however, are often compromised in ageing and ocular diseases that lead to blindness. Early manifestation of RPE disruption occurs at the cellular level, but while in vivo biomarkers at this scale hold considerable promise, RPE cells have proven extremely challenging to image in the living human eye. Recently we addressed this problem by using organelle motility as a novel contrast agent to enhance the RPE cell in conjunction with 3D resolution of adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) to section the RPE layer. In this study, we expand on the central novelty of our method - organelle motility - by characterizing the dynamics of the motility in individual RPE cells, important because of its direct link to RPE physiology. To do this, AO-OCT videos of the same retinal patch were acquired at approximately 1 min intervals or less, time stamped, and registered in 3D with sub-cellular accuracy. Motility was quantified by an exponential decay time constant, the time for motility to decorrelate the speckle field across an RPE cell. In two normal subjects, we found the decay time constant to be just 3 seconds, thus indicating rapid motility in normal RPE cells.

  8. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Czirok, Andras

    2013-01-01

    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility guided by extracellular matrix alignment (contact guidance), chemotaxis guided by paracrine and autocrine morphogens, and multicellular sprouting guided by cell-cell contacts. All of these processes yield emergent patterns, thus endothelial cells can form an interconnected structure autonomously, without guidance from an external pre-pattern. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  10. Computational and Modeling Strategies for Cell Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Adalsteinsson, David; Elston, Timothy C.; Jacobson, Ken; Kapustina, Maryna; Forest, M. Gregory

    A predictive simulation of the dynamics of a living cell remains a fundamental modeling and computational challenge. The challenge does not even make sense unless one specifies the level of detail and the phenomena of interest, whether the focus is on near-equilibrium or strongly nonequilibrium behavior, and on localized, subcellular, or global cell behavior. Therefore, choices have to be made clear at the outset, ranging from distinguishing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, specificity within each of these types, whether the cell is "normal," whether one wants to model mitosis, blebs, migration, division, deformation due to confined flow as with red blood cells, and the level of microscopic detail for any of these processes. The review article by Hoffman and Crocker [48] is both an excellent overview of cell mechanics and an inspiration for our approach. One might be interested, for example, in duplicating the intricate experimental details reported in [43]: "actin polymerization periodically builds a mechanical link, the lamellipodium, connecting myosin motors with the initiation of adhesion sites, suggesting that the major functions driving motility are coordinated by a biomechanical process," or to duplicate experimental evidence of traveling waves in cells recovering from actin depolymerization [42, 35]. Modeling studies of lamellipodial structure, protrusion, and retraction behavior range from early mechanistic models [84] to more recent deterministic [112, 97] and stochastic [51] approaches with significant biochemical and structural detail. Recent microscopic-macroscopic models and algorithms for cell blebbing have been developed by Young and Mitran [116], which update cytoskeletal microstructure via statistical sampling techniques together with fluid variables. Alternatively, whole cell compartment models (without spatial details) of oscillations in spreading cells have been proposed [35, 92, 109] which show positive and negative feedback

  11. Acidosis Promotes Metastasis Formation by Enhancing Tumor Cell Motility.

    PubMed

    Riemann, A; Schneider, B; Gündel, D; Stock, C; Gekle, M; Thews, O

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is characterized by hypoxia, acidosis as well as other metabolic and biochemical alterations. Its role in cancer progression is increasingly appreciated especially on invasive capacity and the formation of metastasis. The effect of acidosis on metastasis formation of two rat carcinoma cell lines was studied in the animal model. In order to analyze the pH dependency of different steps of metastasis formation, invasiveness, cell adhesion and migration of AT-1 prostate cancer cells as well as possible underlying cell signaling pathways were studied in vitro. Acidosis significantly increased the formation of lung metastases of both tumor cell lines in vivo. In vitro, extracellular acidosis neither enhanced invasiveness nor affected cell adhesion to a plastic or to an endothelial layer. However, cellular motility was markedly elevated at pH 6.6 and this effect was sustained even when extracellular pH was switched back to pH 7.4. When analyzing the underlying mechanism, a prominent role of ROS in the induction of migration was observed. Signaling through the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and p38 as well as Src family kinases was not involved. Thus, cancer cells in an acidic microenvironment can acquire enhanced motility, which is sustained even if the tumor cells leave their acidic microenvironment e.g. by entering the blood stream. This increase depended on elevated ROS production and may contribute to the augmented formation of metastases of acidosis-primed tumor cells in vivo.

  12. Quantification of Cell Edge Velocities and Traction Forces Reveals Distinct Motility Modules during Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunfei; Xenias, Harry; Spielman, Ingrid; Shneidman, Anna V.; David, Lawrence A.; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Wiggins, Chris H.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Actin-based cell motility and force generation are central to immune response, tissue development, and cancer metastasis, and understanding actin cytoskeleton regulation is a major goal of cell biologists. Cell spreading is a commonly used model system for motility experiments – spreading fibroblasts exhibit stereotypic, spatially-isotropic edge dynamics during a reproducible sequence of functional phases: 1) During early spreading, cells form initial contacts with the surface. 2) The middle spreading phase exhibits rapidly increasing attachment area. 3) Late spreading is characterized by periodic contractions and stable adhesions formation. While differences in cytoskeletal regulation between phases are known, a global analysis of the spatial and temporal coordination of motility and force generation is missing. Implementing improved algorithms for analyzing edge dynamics over the entire cell periphery, we observed that a single domain of homogeneous cytoskeletal dynamics dominated each of the three phases of spreading. These domains exhibited a unique combination of biophysical and biochemical parameters – a motility module. Biophysical characterization of the motility modules revealed that the early phase was dominated by periodic, rapid membrane blebbing; the middle phase exhibited continuous protrusion with very low traction force generation; and the late phase was characterized by global periodic contractions and high force generation. Biochemically, each motility module exhibited a different distribution of the actin-related protein VASP, while inhibition of actin polymerization revealed different dependencies on barbed-end polymerization. In addition, our whole-cell analysis revealed that many cells exhibited heterogeneous combinations of motility modules in neighboring regions of the cell edge. Together, these observations support a model of motility in which regions of the cell edge exhibit one of a limited number of motility modules that, together

  13. Motility enhancement of bacteria actuated microstructures using selective bacteria adhesion.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Jun; Bae, Hyeoni; Kim, Joonhwuy; Lim, Byungjik; Park, Jongoh; Park, Sukho

    2010-07-07

    Microrobots developed by the technological advances are useful for application in various fields. Nevertheless, they have limitations with respect to their actuator and motility. Our experiments aim to determine whether a bioactuator using the flagellated bacteria Serratia marcescens would enhance the motility of microrobots. In this study, we investigate that the flagellated bacteria Serratia marcescens could be utilized as actuators for SU-8 microstructures by bovine serum albumin-selective patterning. Firstly, we analyze the adherence of the bacteria to the SU-8 micro cube by selective patterning using 5% BSA. The results show that number of attached-bacteria in the uncoated side of the selectively- coated micro cube with BSA increased by 200% compared with that in all sides of the non treated micro cube. Secondly, the selectively BSA coated micro cube had 210% higher motility than the uncoated micro cube. The results revealed that the bacteria patterned to a specific site using 5% BSA significantly increase the motility of the bacteria actuated microstructure.

  14. Two-Dimensional Motility of a Macrophage Cell Line on Microcontact-Printed Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Laurel E.; MacKay, Joanna L.; Cox, Dianne; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of macrophages to migrate to sites of infection and inflammation is critical for their role in the innate immune response. Macrophage cell lines have made it possible to study the roles of individual proteins responsible for migration using molecular biology, but it has not been possible to reliably elicit the motility of macrophage cell lines in two-dimensions. In the past, measurements of the motility of macrophage cell lines have been largely limited to transwell assays which provide limited quantitative information on motility and limited ability to visualize cell morphology. We used microcontact printing to create polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces functionalized with fibronectin that otherwise support little macrophage adhesion. We used these surfaces to measure macrophage migration in two-dimensions and found that these cells migrate efficiently in a uniform field of colony-stimulating factor-1, CSF-1. Knockdown of Cdc42 led to a non-statistically significant reduction in motility, whereas chemical inhibition of PI3K activity led to a complete loss of motility. Inhibition of the RhoA kinase, ROCK, did not abolish the motility of these cells but caused a quantitative change in motility, reducing motility significantly on high concentrations of fibronectin but not on low concentrations. This study illustrates the importance of studying cell motility on well controlled materials to better understand the exact roles of specific proteins on macrophage migration. PMID:25186818

  15. Cell adhesion under flow.

    PubMed

    Ley, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion under flow is a central function of the microcirculation during inflammation, hemostasis, and immune regulation. This special issue of Microcirculation explores the common and distinct mechanisms that myeloid cells, lymphocytes, platelets, and sickle erythrocytes use to adhere to microvascular endothelium and the underlying basement membrane structures. A common theme in these processes is the need for rapid integrin activation, often initiated by binding of ligands to their cognate G protein-coupled receptors, followed by adhesion strengthening associated with integrin redistribution and outside-in signaling. These elements have been identified for all cells tested except sickle erythrocytes.

  16. Transglutaminase 2 expression in acute myeloid leukemia: Association with adhesion molecule expression and leukemic blast motility

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Stefan; Ravandi-Kashani, Farhad; Borthakur, Gautam; Coombes, Kevin R.; Zhang, Nianxiang; Kornblau, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous disease with differential oncogene association, outcome and treatment regimens. Treatment strategies for AML have improved outcome but despite increased molecular biological information AML is still associated with poor prognosis. Proteomic analysis on the effects of a range of leukemogenic oncogenes showed that the protein transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is expressed at greater levels as a consequence of oncogenic transformation. Further analysis of this observation was performed with 511 AML samples using reverse phase proteomic arrays, demonstrating that TG2 expression was higher at relapse than diagnosis in many cases. In addition elevated TG2 expression correlated with increased expression of numerous adhesion proteins and many apoptosis regulating proteins, two processes related to leukemogenesis. TG2 has previously been linked to drug resistance in cancer and given the negative correlation between TG2 levels and peripheral blasts observed increased TG2 levels may lead to the protection of the leukemic stem cell due to increased adhesion/reduced motility. TG2 may therefore form part of a network of proteins that define poor outcome in AML patients and potentially offer a target to sensitize AML stem cells to drug treatment. PMID:23576428

  17. Cell motility: Combining experiments with modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2013-03-01

    Cell migration and motility is a pervasive process in many biology systems. It involves intra-cellular signal transduction pathways that eventually lead to membrane extension and contraction. Here we describe our efforts to combine quantitative experiments with theoretical and computational modeling to gain fundamental insights into eukaryotic cell motion. In particular, we will focus on the amoeboid motion of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. This work is supported by the National Institutes of Health (P01 GM078586)

  18. Paxillin controls directional cell motility in response to physical cues.

    PubMed

    Sero, Julia E; German, Alexandra E; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    Physical cues from the extracellular environment that influence cell shape and directional migration are transduced into changes in cytoskeletal organization and biochemistry through integrin-based cell adhesions to extracellular matrix (ECM). Paxillin is a focal adhesion (FA) scaffold protein that mediates integrin anchorage to the cytoskeleton, and has been implicated in regulation of FA assembly and cell migration. To determine whether paxillin is involved in coupling mechanical distortion with directional movement, cell shape was physically constrained by culturing cells on square-shaped fibronectin-coated adhesive islands surrounded by non-adhesive barrier regions that were created with a microcontact printing technique. Square-shaped cells preferentially formed FAs and extended lamellipodia from their corner regions when stimulated with PDGF, and loss of paxillin resulted in loss of this polarized response. Selective expression of the N- and C-terminal domains of paxillin produced opposite, but complementary, effects on suppressing or promoting lamellipodia formation in different regions of square cells, which corresponded to directional motility defects in vitro. Paxillin loss or mutation was also shown to affect the formation of circular dorsal ruffles, and this corresponded to changes in cell invasive behavior in 3D. This commentary addresses the implications of these findings in terms of how a multifunctional FA scaffold protein can link physical cues to cell adhesion, protrusion and membrane trafficking so as to control directional migration in 2D and 3D. We also discuss how microengineered ECM islands and in vivo model systems can be used to further elucidate the functions of paxillin in directional migration.

  19. Fourier analysis of cell motility: correlation of motility with metastatic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Partin, A W; Schoeniger, J S; Mohler, J L; Coffey, D S

    1989-01-01

    We report the development of a computerized, mathematical system for quantitating the various types of cell motility. This Fourier analysis method simultaneously quantifies for individual cells (i) temporal changes in cell shape represented by cell ruffling, undulation, and pseudopodal extension, (ii) cell translation, and (iii) average cell size and shape. This spatial-temporal Fourier analysis was tested on a series of well-characterized animal tumor cell lines of rat prostatic cancer to study in a quantitative manner the correlation of cell motility with increasing in vivo metastatic potential. Fourier motility coefficients measuring pseudopodal extension correlated best with metastatic potential in the cell lines studied. This study demonstrated that Fourier analysis provides quantitative measurement of cell motility that may be applied to the study of biological processes. This analysis should aid in the study of the motility of individual cells in various areas of cellular and tumor biology. Images PMID:2919174

  20. Hyaluronan stimulates pancreatic cancer cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Bo; Kohi, Shiro; Koga, Atsuhiro; Hirata, Keiji; Sato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but functional significance of HA in the aggressive phenotype remains unknown. We used different models to investigate the effect of HA on PDAC cell motility by wound healing and transwell migration assay. Changes in cell motility were examined in 8 PDAC cell lines in response to inhibition of HA production by treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) and to promotion by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or by co-culture with tumor-derived stromal fibroblasts. We also investigated changes in cell motility by adding exogenous HA. Additionally, mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases were examined using real time RT-PCR. Inhibition of HA by 4-MU significantly decreased the migration, whereas promotion of HA by TPA or co-culture with tumor-derived fibroblasts significantly increased the migration of PDAC cells. The changes in HA production by these treatments tended to be associated with changes in HAS3 mRNA expression. Furthermore, addition of exogenous HA, especially low-molecular-weight HA, significantly increased the migration of PDAC cells. These findings suggest that HA stimulates PDAC cell migration and thus represents an ideal therapeutic target to prevent invasion and metastasis. PMID:26684359

  1. Optogenetic engineering: light-directed cell motility.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Robert M; Lawrence, David S

    2014-10-06

    Genetically encoded, light-activatable proteins provide the means to probe biochemical pathways at specific subcellular locations with exquisite temporal control. However, engineering these systems in order to provide a dramatic jump in localized activity, while retaining a low dark-state background remains a significant challenge. When placed within the framework of a genetically encodable, light-activatable heterodimerizer system, the actin-remodelling protein cofilin induces dramatic changes in the F-actin network and consequent cell motility upon illumination. We demonstrate that the use of a partially impaired mutant of cofilin is critical for maintaining low background activity in the dark. We also show that light-directed recruitment of the reduced activity cofilin mutants to the cytoskeleton is sufficient to induce F-actin remodeling, formation of filopodia, and directed cell motility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Myoferlin depletion elevates focal adhesion kinase and paxillin phosphorylation and enhances cell-matrix adhesion in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, B N; Li, R; Ackerman, W E; Ghadiali, S N; Powell, H M; Kniss, D A

    2015-04-15

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of malignant death among women. A crucial feature of metastatic cancers is their propensity to lose adhesion to the underlying basement membrane as they transition to a motile phenotype and invade surrounding tissue. Attachment to the extracellular matrix is mediated by a complex of adhesion proteins, including integrins, signaling molecules, actin and actin-binding proteins, and scaffolding proteins. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is pivotal for the organization of focal contacts and maturation into focal adhesions, and disruption of this process is a hallmark of early cancer invasive potential. Our recent work has revealed that myoferlin (MYOF) mediates breast tumor cell motility and invasive phenotype. In this study we demonstrate that noninvasive breast cancer cell lines exhibit increased cell-substrate adhesion and that silencing of MYOF using RNAi in the highly invasive human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 also enhances cell-substrate adhesion. In addition, we detected elevated tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK (FAK(Y397)) and paxillin (PAX(Y118)), markers of focal adhesion protein activation. Morphometric analysis of PAX expression revealed that RNAi-mediated depletion of MYOF resulted in larger, more elongated focal adhesions, in contrast to cells transduced with a control virus (MDA-231(LVC) cells), which exhibited smaller focal contacts. Finally, MYOF silencing in MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited a more elaborate ventral cytoskeletal structure near focal adhesions, typified by pronounced actin stress fibers. These data support the hypothesis that MYOF regulates cell adhesions and cell-substrate adhesion strength and may account for the high degree of motility in invasive breast cancer cells.

  3. Coordinated cell motility is regulated by a combination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, S.; Hou, Y.; Zoine, J. T.; Saltz, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, Z.; Cooper, L. A. D.; Marcus, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Cell motility requires the precise coordination of cell polarization, lamellipodia formation, adhesion, and force generation. LKB1 is a multi-functional serine/threonine kinase that associates with actin at the cellular leading edge of motile cells and suppresses FAK. We sought to understand how LKB1 coordinates these multiple events by systematically dissecting LKB1 protein domain function in combination with live cell imaging and computational approaches. We show that LKB1-actin colocalization is dependent upon LKB1 farnesylation leading to RhoA-ROCK-mediated stress fiber formation, but membrane dynamics is reliant on LKB1 kinase activity. We propose that LKB1 kinase activity controls membrane dynamics through FAK since loss of LKB1 kinase activity results in morphologically defective nascent adhesion sites. In contrast, defective farnesylation mislocalizes nascent adhesion sites, suggesting that LKB1 farnesylation serves as a targeting mechanism for properly localizing adhesion sites during cell motility. Together, we propose a model where coordination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity serve as a multi-step mechanism to coordinate cell motility during migration. PMID:28102310

  4. Hydrodynamic Contributions to Amoeboid Cell Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Owen; Guy, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the methods by which cells move is a fundamental problem in modern biology. Recent evidence has shown that the fluid dynamics of cytoplasm can play a vital role in cellular motility. The slime mold Physarum polycephalum provides an excellent model organism for the study of amoeboid motion. In this research, we use both analytic and computational models to investigate intracellular fluid flow in a simple model of Physarum. In both models, of we are specifically interested in stresses generated by cytoplasmic flow which act in the direction of cellular motility. In our numerical model, the Immersed Boundary Method is used to account for such stresses. We investigate the relationship between contraction waves, low waves and locomotive forces, and attempt characterize conditions necessary to generate directed motion.

  5. Viscumins functionally modulate cell motility-associated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Schötterl, Sonja; Hübner, Miriam; Armento, Angela; Veninga, Vivien; Wirsik, Naita Maren; Bernatz, Simon; Lentzen, Hans; Mittelbronn, Michel; Naumann, Ulrike

    2017-02-01

    In Europe extracts from Viscum album L., the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Viscumins (mistletoe lectins, ML) have been scrutinized as important active components of mistletoe and exhibit a variety of anticancer effects such as stimulation of the immune system, induction of cytotoxicity, reduction of tumor cell motility as well as changes in the expression of genes associated with cancer development and progression. By microarray expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and RT-PCR based validation of microarray data we demonstrate for the Viscum album extract Iscador Qu and for the lectins Aviscumine and ML-1 that in glioma cells these drugs differentially modulate the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell migration and invasion, including processes modulating cell architecture and cell adhesion. A variety of differentially expressed genes in ML treated cells are associated with the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway or are targets of TGF-β. ML treatment downregulated the expression of TGF-β itself, of the TGF-β receptor II (TGFBR2), of the TGF-β intracellular signal transducer protein SMAD2, and of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-14. Even if the changes in gene expression differ between Aviscumine, Iscador Qu and ML-1, the overall regulation of motility associated gene expression by all drugs showed functional effects since tumor cell motility was reduced in a ML-dependent manner. Therefore, ML containing compounds might provide clinical benefit as adjuvant therapeutics in the treatment of patients with invasively growing tumors such as glioblastomas.

  6. RhoJ/TCL regulates endothelial motility and tube formation and modulates actomyosin contractility and focal adhesion numbers.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Leszczynska, Katarzyna; Abraham, Sabu; Scarcia, Margherita; Hiltbrunner, Sabina; Marshall, Christopher J; Mavria, Georgia; Bicknell, Roy; Heath, Victoria L

    2011-03-01

    RhoJ/TCL was identified by our group as an endothelial-expressed Rho GTPase. The aim of this study was to determine its tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and function in endothelial migration and tube formation. Using in situ hybridization, RhoJ was localized to endothelial cells in a set of normal and cancerous tissues and in the vasculature of mouse embryos; endogenous RhoJ was localized to focal adhesions by immunofluorescence. The proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor activated RhoJ in endothelial cells. Using either small interfering (si)RNA-mediated knockdown of RhoJ expression or overexpression of constitutively active RhoJ (daRhoJ), RhoJ was found to positively regulate endothelial motility and tubule formation. Downregulating RhoJ expression increased focal adhesions and stress fibers in migrating cells, whereas daRhoJ overexpression resulted in the converse. RhoJ downregulation resulted in increased contraction of a collagen gel and increased phospho-myosin light chain, indicative of increased actomyosin contractility. Pharmacological inhibition of Rho-kinase (which phosphorylates myosin light chain) or nonmuscle myosin II reversed the defective tube formation and migration of RhoJ knockdown cells. RhoJ is endothelial-expressed in vivo, activated by vascular endothelial growth factor, localizes to focal adhesions, regulates endothelial cell migration and tube formation, and modulates actomyosin contractility and focal adhesion numbers.

  7. Mathematics of cell motility: have we got its number?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical and computational modeling is rapidly becoming an essential research technique complementing traditional experimental biological methods. However, lack of standard modeling methods, difficulties of translating biological phenomena into mathematical language, and differences in biological and mathematical mentalities continue to hinder the scientific progress. Here we focus on one area—cell motility—characterized by an unusually high modeling activity, largely due to a vast amount of quantitative, biophysical data, ‘modular’ character of motility, and pioneering vision of the area’s experimental leaders. In this review, after brief introduction to biology of cell movements, we discuss quantitative models of actin dynamics, protrusion, adhesion, contraction, and cell shape and movement that made an impact on the process of biological discovery. We also comment on modeling approaches and open questions. PMID:18461331

  8. Quantum-dot-based cell motility assay.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weiwei; Pellegrino, Teresa; Parak, Wolfgang J; Boudreau, Rosanne; Le Gros, Mark A; Gerion, Daniele; Alivisatos, A Paul; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2005-06-28

    Because of their favorable physical and photochemical properties, colloidal CdSe/ZnS-semiconductor nanocrystals (commonly known as quantum dots) have enormous potential for use in biological imaging. In this report, we present an assay that uses quantum dots as markers to quantify cell motility. Cells that are seeded onto a homogeneous layer of quantum dots engulf and absorb the nanocrystals and, as a consequence, leave behind a fluorescence-free trail. By subsequently determining the ratio of cell area to fluorescence-free track area, we show that it is possible to differentiate between invasive and noninvasive cancer cells. Because this assay uses simple fluorescence detection, requires no significant data processing, and can be used in live-cell studies, it has the potential to be a powerful new tool for discriminating between invasive and noninvasive cancer cell lines or for studying cell signaling events involved in migration.

  9. Both contractile axial and lateral traction force dynamics drive amoeboid cell motility.

    PubMed

    Bastounis, Effie; Meili, Ruedi; Álvarez-González, Begoña; Francois, Joshua; del Álamo, Juan C; Firtel, Richard A; Lasheras, Juan C

    2014-03-17

    Chemotaxing Dictyostelium discoideum cells adapt their morphology and migration speed in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Using Fourier traction force microscopy, we measured the spatiotemporal evolution of shape and traction stresses and constructed traction tension kymographs to analyze cell motility as a function of the dynamics of the cell's mechanically active traction adhesions. We show that wild-type cells migrate in a step-wise fashion, mainly forming stationary traction adhesions along their anterior-posterior axes and exerting strong contractile axial forces. We demonstrate that lateral forces are also important for motility, especially for migration on highly adhesive substrates. Analysis of two mutant strains lacking distinct actin cross-linkers (mhcA(-) and abp120(-) cells) on normal and highly adhesive substrates supports a key role for lateral contractions in amoeboid cell motility, whereas the differences in their traction adhesion dynamics suggest that these two strains use distinct mechanisms to achieve migration. Finally, we provide evidence that the above patterns of migration may be conserved in mammalian amoeboid cells.

  10. Interstitial flows promote an amoeboid cell phenotype and motility of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Huang, Yu Ling; Zheng, Angela; Wu, Mingming

    2015-03-01

    Lymph nodes, the drainage systems for interstitial flows, are clinically known to be the first metastatic sites of many cancer types including breast and prostate cancers. Here, we demonstrate that breast cancer cell morphology and motility is modulated by interstitial flows in a cell-ECM adhesion dependent manner. The average aspect ratios of the cells are significantly lower (or are more amoeboid like) in the presence of the flow in comparison to the case when the flow is absent. The addition of exogenous adhesion molecules within the extracellular matrix (type I collagen) enhances the overall aspect ratio (or are more mesenchymal like) of the cell population. Using measured cell trajectories, we find that the persistence of the amoeboid cells (aspect ratio less than 2.0) is shorter than that of mesenchymal cells. However, the maximum speed of the amoeboid cells is larger than that of mesenchymal cells. Together these findings provide the novel insight that interstitial flows promote amoeboid cell morphology and motility and highlight the plasticity of tumor cell motility in response to its biophysical environment. Supported by NIH Grant R21CA138366.

  11. The shed ectodomain of Nr-CAM stimulates cell proliferation and motility, and confers cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Kaplan, Anna; Raveh, Shani; Gavert, Nancy; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ben-Ze'ev, Avri

    2005-12-15

    Nr-CAM, a cell-cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule family, known for its function in neuronal outgrowth and guidance, was recently identified as a target gene of beta-catenin signaling in human melanoma and colon carcinoma cells and tissue. Retrovirally mediated transduction of Nr-CAM into fibroblasts induces cell motility and tumorigenesis. We investigated the mechanisms by which Nr-CAM can confer properties related to tumor cell behavior and found that Nr-CAM expression in NIH3T3 cells protects cells from apoptosis in the absence of serum by constitutively activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT signaling pathways. We detected a metalloprotease-mediated shedding of Nr-CAM into the culture medium of cells transfected with Nr-CAM, and of endogenous Nr-CAM in B16 melanoma cells. Conditioned medium and purified Nr-CAM-Fc fusion protein both enhanced cell motility, proliferation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT activation. Moreover, Nr-CAM was found in complex with alpha4beta1 integrins in melanoma cells, indicating that it can mediate, in addition to homophilic cell-cell adhesion, heterophilic adhesion with extracellular matrix receptors. Suppression of Nr-CAM levels by small interfering RNA in B16 melanoma inhibited the adhesive and tumorigenic capacities of these cells. Stable expression of the Nr-CAM ectodomain in NIH3T3 cells conferred cell transformation and tumorigenesis in mice, suggesting that the metalloprotease-mediated shedding of Nr-CAM is a principal route for promoting oncogenesis by Nr-CAM.

  12. Wet-surface-enhanced ellipsometric contrast microscopy identifies slime as a major adhesion factor during bacterial surface motility.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Adrien; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Mouhamar, Fabrice; Mignot, Tâm; Theodoly, Olivier

    2012-06-19

    In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes both cell adhesion and specific recognition, which is essential for central developmental processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, live studies of the dynamic interactions between cells and the ECM, for example during motility, have been greatly impaired by imaging limitations: mostly the ability to observe the ECM at high resolution in absence of specific staining by live microscopy. To solve this problem, we developed a unique technique, wet-surface enhanced ellipsometry contrast (Wet-SEEC), which magnifies the contrast of transparent organic materials deposited on a substrate (called Wet-surf) with exquisite sensitivity. We show that Wet-SEEC allows both the observation of unprocessed nanofilms as low as 0.2 nm thick and their accurate 3D topographic reconstructions, directly by standard light microscopy. We next used Wet-SEEC to image slime secretion, a poorly defined property of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that move across solid surfaces in absence of obvious extracellular appendages (gliding). Using combined Wet-SEEC and fluorescent-staining experiments, we observed slime deposition by gliding Myxococcus xanthus cells at unprecedented resolution. Altogether, the results revealed that in this bacterium, slime associates preferentially with the outermost components of the motility machinery and promotes its adhesion to the substrate on the ventral side of the cell. Strikingly, analogous roles have been proposed for the extracellular proteoglycans of gliding diatoms and apicomplexa, suggesting that slime deposition is a general means for gliding organisms to adhere and move over surfaces.

  13. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Allicin Decrease Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Biofilm Formation, Adhesion Ability, and Swimming Motility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolong; Sha, Kaihui; Xu, Guangya; Tian, Hanwen; Wang, Xiaoying; Chen, Shanze; Wang, Yi; Li, Jingyu; Chen, Junli; Huang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) biofilm formation enables the organism to avoid the host immune system, resist antibiotics, and provide a reservoir for persistent infection. Once the biofilm is established, eradication of the infection becomes difficult. Therefore, strategies against UPEC biofilm are urgently required. In this study, we investigated the effect of allicin, isolated from garlic essential oil, on UPEC CFT073 and J96 biofilm formation and dispersal, along with its effect on UPEC adhesion ability and swimming motility. Sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of allicin decreased UPEC biofilm formation and affected its architecture. Allicin was also capable of dispersing biofilm. Furthermore, allicin decreased the bacterial adhesion ability and swimming motility, which are important for biofilm formation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that allicin decreased the expression of UPEC type 1 fimbriae adhesin gene fimH. Docking studies suggested that allicin was located within the binding pocket of heptyl α-d-mannopyrannoside in FimH and formed hydrogen bonds with Phe1 and Asn135. In addition, allicin decreased the expression of the two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) cognate response regulator gene uvrY and increased the expression of the RNA binding global regulatory protein gene csrA of UPEC CFT073, which is associated with UPEC biofilm. The findings suggest that sub-MICs of allicin are capable of affecting UPEC biofilm formation and dispersal, and decreasing UPEC adhesion ability and swimming motility. PMID:27367677

  14. Subinhibitory Concentrations of Allicin Decrease Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Biofilm Formation, Adhesion Ability, and Swimming Motility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolong; Sha, Kaihui; Xu, Guangya; Tian, Hanwen; Wang, Xiaoying; Chen, Shanze; Wang, Yi; Li, Jingyu; Chen, Junli; Huang, Ning

    2016-06-29

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) biofilm formation enables the organism to avoid the host immune system, resist antibiotics, and provide a reservoir for persistent infection. Once the biofilm is established, eradication of the infection becomes difficult. Therefore, strategies against UPEC biofilm are urgently required. In this study, we investigated the effect of allicin, isolated from garlic essential oil, on UPEC CFT073 and J96 biofilm formation and dispersal, along with its effect on UPEC adhesion ability and swimming motility. Sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of allicin decreased UPEC biofilm formation and affected its architecture. Allicin was also capable of dispersing biofilm. Furthermore, allicin decreased the bacterial adhesion ability and swimming motility, which are important for biofilm formation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that allicin decreased the expression of UPEC type 1 fimbriae adhesin gene fimH. Docking studies suggested that allicin was located within the binding pocket of heptyl α-d-mannopyrannoside in FimH and formed hydrogen bonds with Phe1 and Asn135. In addition, allicin decreased the expression of the two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) cognate response regulator gene uvrY and increased the expression of the RNA binding global regulatory protein gene csrA of UPEC CFT073, which is associated with UPEC biofilm. The findings suggest that sub-MICs of allicin are capable of affecting UPEC biofilm formation and dispersal, and decreasing UPEC adhesion ability and swimming motility.

  15. Both contractile axial and lateral traction force dynamics drive amoeboid cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Bastounis, Effie; Meili, Ruedi; Álvarez-González, Begoña; Francois, Joshua; del Álamo, Juan C.; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Chemotaxing Dictyostelium discoideum cells adapt their morphology and migration speed in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Using Fourier traction force microscopy, we measured the spatiotemporal evolution of shape and traction stresses and constructed traction tension kymographs to analyze cell motility as a function of the dynamics of the cell’s mechanically active traction adhesions. We show that wild-type cells migrate in a step-wise fashion, mainly forming stationary traction adhesions along their anterior–posterior axes and exerting strong contractile axial forces. We demonstrate that lateral forces are also important for motility, especially for migration on highly adhesive substrates. Analysis of two mutant strains lacking distinct actin cross-linkers (mhcA− and abp120− cells) on normal and highly adhesive substrates supports a key role for lateral contractions in amoeboid cell motility, whereas the differences in their traction adhesion dynamics suggest that these two strains use distinct mechanisms to achieve migration. Finally, we provide evidence that the above patterns of migration may be conserved in mammalian amoeboid cells. PMID:24637328

  16. Cell motility and local viscoelasticity of fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Koch, D; Cardenas, R; Käs, J; Shih, C K

    2005-12-01

    Viscoelastic changes of the lamellipodial actin cytoskeleton are a fundamental element of cell motility. Thus, the correlation between the local viscoelastic properties of the lamellipodium (including the transitional region to the cell body) and the speed of lamellipodial extension is studied for normal and malignantly transformed fibroblasts. Using our atomic force microscopy-based microrheology technique, we found different mechanical properties between the lamellipodia of malignantly transformed fibroblasts (H-ras transformed and SV-T2 fibroblasts) and normal fibroblasts (BALB 3T3 fibroblasts). The average elastic constants, K, in the leading edge of SV-T2 fibroblasts (0.48 +/- 0.51 kPa) and of H-ras transformed fibroblasts (0.42 +/- 0.35 kPa) are significantly lower than that of BALB 3T3 fibroblasts (1.01 +/- 0.40 kPa). The analysis of time-lapse phase contrast images shows that the decrease in the elastic constant, K, for malignantly transformed fibroblasts is correlated with the enhanced motility of the lamellipodium. The measured mean speeds are 6.1 +/- 4.5 microm/h for BALB 3T3 fibroblasts, 13.1 +/- 5.2 microm/h for SV-T2 fibroblasts, and 26.2 +/- 11.5 microm/h for H-ras fibroblasts. Furthermore, the elastic constant, K, increases toward the cell body in many instances which coincide with an increase in actin filament density toward the cell body. The correlation between the enhanced motility and the decrease in viscoelastic moduli supports the Elastic Brownian Ratchet model for driving lamellipodia extension.

  17. Cell Motility and Local Viscoelasticity of Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Park, S.; Koch, D.; Cardenas, R.; Käs, J.; Shih, C. K.

    2005-01-01

    Viscoelastic changes of the lamellipodial actin cytoskeleton are a fundamental element of cell motility. Thus, the correlation between the local viscoelastic properties of the lamellipodium (including the transitional region to the cell body) and the speed of lamellipodial extension is studied for normal and malignantly transformed fibroblasts. Using our atomic force microscopy-based microrheology technique, we found different mechanical properties between the lamellipodia of malignantly transformed fibroblasts (H-ras transformed and SV-T2 fibroblasts) and normal fibroblasts (BALB 3T3 fibroblasts). The average elastic constants, K, in the leading edge of SV-T2 fibroblasts (0.48 ± 0.51 kPa) and of H-ras transformed fibroblasts (0.42 ± 0.35 kPa) are significantly lower than that of BALB 3T3 fibroblasts (1.01 ± 0.40 kPa). The analysis of time-lapse phase contrast images shows that the decrease in the elastic constant, K, for malignantly transformed fibroblasts is correlated with the enhanced motility of the lamellipodium. The measured mean speeds are 6.1 ± 4.5 μ m/h for BALB 3T3 fibroblasts, 13.1 ± 5.2 μm/h for SV-T2 fibroblasts, and 26.2 ± 11.5 μm/h for H-ras fibroblasts. Furthermore, the elastic constant, K, increases toward the cell body in many instances which coincide with an increase in actin filament density toward the cell body. The correlation between the enhanced motility and the decrease in viscoelastic moduli supports the Elastic Brownian Ratchet model for driving lamellipodia extension. PMID:16199496

  18. Cortical Contractility Triggers a Stochastic Switch to Fast Amoeboid Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Summary 3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. PMID:25679761

  19. GAR22β regulates cell migration, sperm motility, and axoneme structure

    PubMed Central

    Gamper, Ivonne; Fleck, David; Barlin, Meltem; Spehr, Marc; Sayad, Sara El; Kleine, Henning; Maxeiner, Sebastian; Schalla, Carmen; Aydin, Gülcan; Hoss, Mareike; Litchfield, David W.; Lüscher, Bernhard; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal cytoskeleton remodeling is pivotal for cell adhesion and migration. Here we investigated the function of Gas2-related protein on chromosome 22 (GAR22β), a poorly characterized protein that interacts with actin and microtubules. Primary and immortalized GAR22β−/− Sertoli cells moved faster than wild-type cells. In addition, GAR22β−/− cells showed a more prominent focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β overexpression or its reexpression in GAR22β−/− cells reduced cell motility and focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β–actin interaction was stronger than GAR22β–microtubule interaction, resulting in GAR22β localization and dynamics that mirrored those of the actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, GAR22β interacted with the regulator of microtubule dynamics end-binding protein 1 (EB1) via a novel noncanonical amino acid sequence, and this GAR22β–EB1 interaction was required for the ability of GAR22β to modulate cell motility. We found that GAR22β is highly expressed in mouse testes, and its absence resulted in reduced spermatozoa generation, lower actin levels in testes, and impaired motility and ultrastructural disorganization of spermatozoa. Collectively our findings identify GAR22β as a novel regulator of cell adhesion and migration and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of diverse cytoskeleton-dependent processes. PMID:26564797

  20. Correlation of cell membrane dynamics and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Essential events of cell development and homeostasis are revealed by the associated changes of cell morphology and therefore have been widely used as a key indicator of physiological states and molecular pathways affecting various cellular functions via cytoskeleton. Cell motility is a complex phenomenon primarily driven by the actin network, which plays an important role in shaping the morphology of the cells. Most of the morphology based features are approximated from cell periphery but its dynamics have received none to scant attention. We aim to bridge the gap between membrane dynamics and cell states from the perspective of whole cell movement by identifying cell edge patterns and its correlation with cell dynamics. Results We present a systematic study to extract, classify, and compare cell dynamics in terms of cell motility and edge activity. Cell motility features extracted by fitting a persistent random walk were used to identify the initial set of cell subpopulations. We propose algorithms to extract edge features along the entire cell periphery such as protrusion and retraction velocity. These constitute a unique set of multivariate time-lapse edge features that are then used to profile subclasses of cell dynamics by unsupervised clustering. Conclusions By comparing membrane dynamic patterns exhibited by each subclass of cells, correlated trends of edge and cell movements were identified. Our findings are consistent with published literature and we also identified that motility patterns are influenced by edge features from initial time points compared to later sampling intervals. PMID:22372978

  1. Colony Expansion of Socially Motile Myxococcus xanthus Cells Is Driven by Growth, Motility, and Exopolysaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Pintu; Kissoon, Kimberley; Cornejo, Isabel; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2016-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a model organism for studies of multicellular behavior in bacteria, moves exclusively on solid surfaces using two distinct but coordinated motility mechanisms. One of these, social (S) motility is powered by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and requires the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by neighboring cells. As a result, S motility requires close cell-to-cell proximity and isolated cells do not translocate. Previous studies measuring S motility by observing the colony expansion of cells deposited on agar have shown that the expansion rate increases with initial cell density, but the biophysical mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. To understand the dynamics of S motility-driven colony expansion, we developed a reaction-diffusion model describing the effects of cell density, EPS deposition and nutrient exposure on the expansion rate. Our results show that at steady state the population expands as a traveling wave with a speed determined by the interplay of cell motility and growth, a well-known characteristic of Fisher’s equation. The model explains the density-dependence of the colony expansion by demonstrating the presence of a lag phase–a transient period of very slow expansion with a duration dependent on the initial cell density. We propose that at a low initial density, more time is required for the cells to accumulate enough EPS to activate S-motility resulting in a longer lag period. Furthermore, our model makes the novel prediction that following the lag phase the population expands at a constant rate independent of the cell density. These predictions were confirmed by S motility experiments capturing long-term expansion dynamics. PMID:27362260

  2. Bidirectional Bacterial Gliding Motility Powered by the Collective Transport of Cell Surface Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Hirofumi; Nakane, Daisuke; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2013-12-01

    The gliding motility of Flavobacterium johnsoniae is driven by moving surface adhesive proteins. Recently, these motility components were observed to travel along a closed loop on the cell surface. The mechanism by which such moving surface adhesins give rise to cell motion remains unknown. On the basis of the unique motility properties of F. johnsoniae, we present a generic model for bidirectional motion of rigidly coupled adhesins, which are propelled in opposite directions. Using analytical and numerical methods, we demonstrate that, for a sufficiently large adhesin speed, bidirectional motion arises from spontaneous symmetry breaking. The model also predicts that, close to the bifurcation point, a weak asymmetry in the binding dynamics is sufficient to facilitate directed motility, indicating that the direction of motion could be sensitively regulated internally in response to inhomogeneity of the environment.

  3. Prediction of traction forces of motile cells

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Clément; Laurent, Valérie M.; Michel, Richard; Peschetola, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    When crawling on a flat substrate, living cells exert forces on it via adhesive contacts, enabling them to build up tension within their cytoskeleton and to change shape. The measurement of these forces has been made possible by traction force microscopy (TFM), a technique which has allowed us to obtain time-resolved traction force maps during cell migration. This cell ‘footprint’ is, however, not sufficient to understand the details of the mechanics of migration, that is how cytoskeletal elements (respectively, adhesion complexes) are put under tension and reinforce or deform (respectively, mature and/or unbind) as a result. In a recent paper, we have validated a rheological model of actomyosin linking tension, deformation and myosin activity. Here, we complement this model with tentative models of the mechanics of adhesion and explore how closely these models can predict the traction forces that we recover from experimental measurements during cell migration. The resulting mathematical problem is a PDE set on the experimentally observed domain, which we solve using a finite-element approach. The four parameters of the model can then be adjusted by comparison with experimental results on a single frame of an experiment, and then used to test the predictive power of the model for following frames and other experiments. It is found that the basic pattern of traction forces is robustly predicted by the model and fixed parameters as a function of current geometry only. PMID:27708765

  4. Triggering cell adhesion, migration or shape change with a dynamic surface coating.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Stijn F M; Maiuri, Paolo; Marie, Emmanuelle; Tribet, Christophe; Piel, Matthieu

    2013-03-25

    There's an APP for that: cell-repellent APP (azido-[polylysine-g-PEG]) is used to create substrates for spatially controlled dynamic cell adhesion. The simple addition of a functional peptide to the culture medium rapidly triggers cell adhesion. This highly accessible yet powerful technique allows diverse applications, demonstrated through tissue motility assays, patterned coculturing and triggered cell shape change.

  5. Activated Membrane Patches Guide Chemotactic Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Inbal; Skoge, Monica L.; Charest, Pascale G.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Firtel, Richard A.; Loomis, William F.; Levine, Herbert; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cells are able to crawl on surfaces and guide their motility based on environmental cues. These cues are interpreted by signaling systems which couple to cell mechanics; indeed membrane protrusions in crawling cells are often accompanied by activated membrane patches, which are localized areas of increased concentration of one or more signaling components. To determine how these patches are related to cell motion, we examine the spatial localization of RasGTP in chemotaxing Dictyostelium discoideum cells under conditions where the vertical extent of the cell was restricted. Quantitative analyses of the data reveal a high degree of spatial correlation between patches of activated Ras and membrane protrusions. Based on these findings, we formulate a model for amoeboid cell motion that consists of two coupled modules. The first module utilizes a recently developed two-component reaction diffusion model that generates transient and localized areas of elevated concentration of one of the components along the membrane. The activated patches determine the location of membrane protrusions (and overall cell motion) that are computed in the second module, which also takes into account the cortical tension and the availability of protrusion resources. We show that our model is able to produce realistic amoeboid-like motion and that our numerical results are consistent with experimentally observed pseudopod dynamics. Specifically, we show that the commonly observed splitting of pseudopods can result directly from the dynamics of the signaling patches. PMID:21738453

  6. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required for the transition of

  7. Characterisation of chicken TES and its role in cell spreading and motility.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Elen; Coutts, Amanda S; Black, Donald M

    2004-03-01

    Previously we identified TES as a candidate tumour suppressor gene that is located at human chromosome 7q31.1. More recently, we and others have shown TES to encode a novel LIM domain protein that localises to focal adhesions. Here, we present the cloning and functional analysis of the chicken orthologue of TES, cTES. The TES proteins are highly conserved between chicken and human, showing 89% identity at the amino acid level. We show that the cTES protein localised at focal adhesions, actin stress fibres, and sites of cell-cell contact, and GST-cTES can pull-down zyxin and actin. To investigate a functional role for cTES, we looked at the effect of its overexpression on cell spreading and cell motility. Cells overexpressing cTES showed increased cell spreading on fibronectin, and decreased cell motility, compared to RCAS vector transfected control cells. The data from our studies with cTES support our previous findings with human TES and further implicate TES as a member of a complex of proteins that function together to regulate cell adhesion and additionally demonstrate a role for TES in cell motility. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Swimming motility plays a key role in the stochastic dynamics of cell clumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xianghong; Nellas, Ricky B.; Byrn, Matthew W.; Russell, Matthew H.; Bible, Amber N.; Alexandre, Gladys; Shen, Tongye

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic cell-to-cell interactions are a prerequisite to many biological processes, including development and biofilm formation. Flagellum induced motility has been shown to modulate the initial cell-cell or cell-surface interaction and to contribute to the emergence of macroscopic patterns. While the role of swimming motility in surface colonization has been analyzed in some detail, a quantitative physical analysis of transient interactions between motile cells is lacking. We examined the Brownian dynamics of swimming cells in a crowded environment using a model of motorized adhesive tandem particles. Focusing on the motility and geometry of an exemplary motile bacterium Azospirillum brasilense, which is capable of transient cell-cell association (clumping), we constructed a physical model with proper parameters for the computer simulation of the clumping dynamics. By modulating mechanical interaction (‘stickiness’) between cells and swimming speed, we investigated how equilibrium and active features affect the clumping dynamics. We found that the modulation of active motion is required for the initial aggregation of cells to occur at a realistic time scale. Slowing down the rotation of flagellar motors (and thus swimming speeds) is correlated to the degree of clumping, which is consistent with the experimental results obtained for A. brasilense.

  9. Polarized cell motility induces hydrogen peroxide to inhibit cofilin via cysteine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jenifer M; Gabrielsen, Mads; Chim, Ya Hua; Munro, June; McGhee, Ewan J; Sumpton, David; Eaton, Philip; Anderson, Kurt I; Yin, Huabing; Olson, Michael F

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal cell motility is driven by polarized actin polymerization [1]. Signals at the leading edge recruit actin polymerization machinery to promote membrane protrusion, while matrix adhesion generates tractive force to propel forward movement. To work effectively, cell motility is regulated by a complex network of signaling events that affect protein activity and localization. H2O2 has an important role as a diffusible second messenger [2], and mediates its effects through oxidation of cysteine thiols. One cell activity influenced by H2O2 is motility [3]. However, a lack of sensitive and H2O2-specific probes for measurements in live cells has not allowed for direct observation of H2O2 accumulation in migrating cells or protrusions. In addition, the identities of proteins oxidized by H2O2 that contribute to actin dynamics and cell motility have not been characterized. We now show, as determined by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, that motile cells generate H2O2 at membranes and cell protrusions and that H2O2 inhibits cofilin activity through oxidation of cysteines 139 (C139) and 147 (C147). Molecular modeling suggests that C139 oxidation would sterically hinder actin association, while the increased negative charge of oxidized C147 would lead to electrostatic repulsion of the opposite negatively charged surface. Expression of oxidation-resistant cofilin impairs cell spreading, adhesion, and directional migration. These findings indicate that H2O2 production contributes to polarized cell motility through localized cofilin inhibition and that there are additional proteins oxidized during cell migration that might have similar roles.

  10. Alcohol-based quorum sensing plays a role in adhesion and sliding motility of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Gori, Klaus; Knudsen, Peter B; Nielsen, Kristian F; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2011-12-01

    The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was investigated for its production of alcohol-based quorum sensing (QS) molecules including the aromatic alcohols phenylethanol, tyrosol, tryptophol and the aliphatic alcohol farnesol. Debaryomyces hansenii produced phenylethanol and tyrosol, which were primarily detected from the end of exponential phase indicating that they are potential QS molecules in D. hansenii as previously shown for other yeast species. Yields of phenylethanol and tyrosol produced by D. hansenii were, however, lower than those produced by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and varied with growth conditions such as the availability of aromatic amino acids, ammonium sulphate, NaCl, pH and temperature. Tryptophol was only produced in the presence of tryptophane, whereas farnesol in general was not detectable. Especially, the type strain of D. hansenii (CBS767) had good adhesion and sliding motility abilities, which seemed to be related to a higher hydrophobicity of the cell surface of D. hansenii (CBS767) rather than the ability to form pseudomycelium. Addition of phenylethanol, tyrosol, tryptophol and farnesol was found to influence both adhesion and sliding motility of D. hansenii. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational approaches to substrate-based cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2016-07-01

    Substrate-based crawling motility of eukaryotic cells is essential for many biological functions, both in developing and mature organisms. Motility dysfunctions are involved in several life-threatening pathologies such as cancer and metastasis. Motile cells are also a natural realisation of active, self-propelled 'particles', a popular research topic in nonequilibrium physics. Finally, from the materials perspective, assemblies of motile cells and evolving tissues constitute a class of adaptive self-healing materials that respond to the topography, elasticity and surface chemistry of the environment and react to external stimuli. Although a comprehensive understanding of substrate-based cell motility remains elusive, progress has been achieved recently in its modelling on the whole-cell level. Here we survey the most recent advances in computational approaches to cell movement and demonstrate how these models improve our understanding of complex self-organised systems such as living cells.

  12. Computational approaches to substrate-based cell motility

    DOE PAGES

    Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2016-07-15

    Substrate-based crawling motility of eukaryotic cells is essential for many biological functions, both in developing and mature organisms. Motility dysfunctions are involved in several life-threatening pathologies such as cancer and metastasis. Motile cells are also a natural realization of active, self-propelled ‘particles’, a popular research topic in nonequilibrium physics. Finally, from the materials perspective, assemblies of motile cells and evolving tissues constitute a class of adaptive self-healing materials that respond to the topography, elasticity, and surface chemistry of the environment and react to external stimuli. Although a comprehensive understanding of substrate-based cell motility remains elusive, progress has been achieved recentlymore » in its modeling on the whole cell level. Furthermore we survey the most recent advances in computational approaches to cell movement and demonstrate how these models improve our understanding of complex self-organized systems such as living cells.« less

  13. Computational approaches to substrate-based cell motility

    SciTech Connect

    Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2016-07-15

    Substrate-based crawling motility of eukaryotic cells is essential for many biological functions, both in developing and mature organisms. Motility dysfunctions are involved in several life-threatening pathologies such as cancer and metastasis. Motile cells are also a natural realization of active, self-propelled ‘particles’, a popular research topic in nonequilibrium physics. Finally, from the materials perspective, assemblies of motile cells and evolving tissues constitute a class of adaptive self-healing materials that respond to the topography, elasticity, and surface chemistry of the environment and react to external stimuli. Although a comprehensive understanding of substrate-based cell motility remains elusive, progress has been achieved recently in its modeling on the whole cell level. Furthermore we survey the most recent advances in computational approaches to cell movement and demonstrate how these models improve our understanding of complex self-organized systems such as living cells.

  14. Shielding of the Geomagnetic Field Alters Actin Assembly and Inhibits Cell Motility in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Wei-Chuan; Zhang, Zi-Jian; Wang, Dong-Liang; Liu, Ying; Bartlett, Perry F.; He, Rong-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that absence of the geomagnetic field (GMF), the so-called hypomagnetic field (HMF) environment, alters the biological functions in seemingly non-magnetosensitive cells and organisms, which indicates that the GMF could be sensed by non-iron-rich and non-photo-sensing cells. The underlying mechanisms of the HMF effects on those cells are closely related to their GMF sensation but remain poorly understood so far. Previously, we found that the HMF represses expressions of genes associated with cell migration and cytoskeleton assembly in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cell line). Here, we measured the HMF-induced changes on cell morphology, adhesion, motility and actin cytoskeleton in SH-SY5Y cells. The HMF inhibited cell adhesion and migration accompanied with a reduction in cellular F-actin amount. Moreover, following exposure to the HMF, the number of cell processes was reduced and cells were smaller in size and more round in shape. Furthermore, disordered kinetics of actin assembly in vitro were observed during exposure to the HMF, as evidenced by the presence of granule and meshed products. These results indicate that elimination of the GMF affects assembly of the motility-related actin cytoskeleton, and suggest that F-actin is a target of HMF exposure and probably a mediator of GMF sensation. PMID:27029216

  15. Physical models of collective cell motility: from cell to tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camley, B. A.; Rappel, W.-J.

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we review physics-based models of collective cell motility. We discuss a range of techniques at different scales, ranging from models that represent cells as simple self-propelled particles to phase field models that can represent a cell’s shape and dynamics in great detail. We also extensively review the ways in which cells within a tissue choose their direction, the statistics of cell motion, and some simple examples of how cell–cell signaling can interact with collective cell motility. This review also covers in more detail selected recent works on collective cell motion of small numbers of cells on micropatterns, in wound healing, and the chemotaxis of clusters of cells.

  16. Mapping cell surface adhesion by rotation tracking and adhesion footprinting

    PubMed Central

    Li, Isaac T. S.; Ha, Taekjip; Chemla, Yann R.

    2017-01-01

    Rolling adhesion, in which cells passively roll along surfaces under shear flow, is a critical process involved in inflammatory responses and cancer metastasis. Surface adhesion properties regulated by adhesion receptors and membrane tethers are critical in understanding cell rolling behavior. Locally, adhesion molecules are distributed at the tips of membrane tethers. However, how functional adhesion properties are globally distributed on the individual cell’s surface is unknown. Here, we developed a label-free technique to determine the spatial distribution of adhesive properties on rolling cell surfaces. Using dark-field imaging and particle tracking, we extract the rotational motion of individual rolling cells. The rotational information allows us to construct an adhesion map along the contact circumference of a single cell. To complement this approach, we also developed a fluorescent adhesion footprint assay to record the molecular adhesion events from cell rolling. Applying the combination of the two methods on human promyelocytic leukemia cells, our results surprisingly reveal that adhesion is non-uniformly distributed in patches on the cell surfaces. Our label-free adhesion mapping methods are applicable to the variety of cell types that undergo rolling adhesion and provide a quantitative picture of cell surface adhesion at the functional and molecular level. PMID:28290531

  17. Mapping cell surface adhesion by rotation tracking and adhesion footprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Isaac T. S.; Ha, Taekjip; Chemla, Yann R.

    2017-03-01

    Rolling adhesion, in which cells passively roll along surfaces under shear flow, is a critical process involved in inflammatory responses and cancer metastasis. Surface adhesion properties regulated by adhesion receptors and membrane tethers are critical in understanding cell rolling behavior. Locally, adhesion molecules are distributed at the tips of membrane tethers. However, how functional adhesion properties are globally distributed on the individual cell’s surface is unknown. Here, we developed a label-free technique to determine the spatial distribution of adhesive properties on rolling cell surfaces. Using dark-field imaging and particle tracking, we extract the rotational motion of individual rolling cells. The rotational information allows us to construct an adhesion map along the contact circumference of a single cell. To complement this approach, we also developed a fluorescent adhesion footprint assay to record the molecular adhesion events from cell rolling. Applying the combination of the two methods on human promyelocytic leukemia cells, our results surprisingly reveal that adhesion is non-uniformly distributed in patches on the cell surfaces. Our label-free adhesion mapping methods are applicable to the variety of cell types that undergo rolling adhesion and provide a quantitative picture of cell surface adhesion at the functional and molecular level.

  18. Differential Function of N-Cadherin and Cadherin-7 in the Control of Embryonic Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sylvie; Beauvais-Jouneau, Alice; Delouvée, Annie; Thiery, Jean Paul

    1999-01-01

    Similar amounts of N-cadherin and cadherin-7, the prototypes of type I and type II cadherin, induced cell-cell adhesion in murine sarcoma 180 transfectants, Ncad-1 and cad7-29, respectively. However, in the initial phase of aggregation, Ncad-1 cells aggregated more rapidly than cad7-29 cells. Isolated Ncad-1 and cad7-29 cells adhered and spread in a similar manner on fibronectin (FN), whereas aggregated cad7-29 cells were more motile and dispersed than aggregated Ncad-1 cells. cad7-29 cells established transient contacts with their neighbors which were stabilized if FN-cell interactions were perturbed. In contrast, Ncad-1 cells remained in close contact when they migrated on FN. Both β-catenin and cadherin were more rapidly downregulated in cad7-29 than in Ncad-1 cells treated with cycloheximide, suggesting a higher turnover rate for cadherin-7–mediated cell-cell contacts than for those mediated by N-cadherin. The extent of FN-dependent focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation was much lower if the cells had initiated N-cadherin–mediated rather than cadherin-7–mediated cell adhesion before plating. On grafting into the embryo, Ncad-1 cells did not migrate and remained at or close to the graft site, even after 48 h, whereas grafted cad7-29 cells dispersed efficiently into embryonic structures. Thus, the adhesive phenotype of cadherin-7–expressing cells is regulated by the nature of the extracellular matrix environment which also controls the migratory behavior of the cells. In addition, adhesions mediated by different cadherins differentially regulate FN-dependent signaling. The transient contacts specifically observed in cadherin- 7–expressing cells may also be important in the control of cell motility. PMID:10427101

  19. Wet-surface–enhanced ellipsometric contrast microscopy identifies slime as a major adhesion factor during bacterial surface motility

    PubMed Central

    Ducret, Adrien; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Mouhamar, Fabrice; Mignot, Tâm; Theodoly, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes both cell adhesion and specific recognition, which is essential for central developmental processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, live studies of the dynamic interactions between cells and the ECM, for example during motility, have been greatly impaired by imaging limitations: mostly the ability to observe the ECM at high resolution in absence of specific staining by live microscopy. To solve this problem, we developed a unique technique, wet-surface enhanced ellipsometry contrast (Wet-SEEC), which magnifies the contrast of transparent organic materials deposited on a substrate (called Wet-surf) with exquisite sensitivity. We show that Wet-SEEC allows both the observation of unprocessed nanofilms as low as 0.2 nm thick and their accurate 3D topographic reconstructions, directly by standard light microscopy. We next used Wet-SEEC to image slime secretion, a poorly defined property of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that move across solid surfaces in absence of obvious extracellular appendages (gliding). Using combined Wet-SEEC and fluorescent-staining experiments, we observed slime deposition by gliding Myxococcus xanthus cells at unprecedented resolution. Altogether, the results revealed that in this bacterium, slime associates preferentially with the outermost components of the motility machinery and promotes its adhesion to the substrate on the ventral side of the cell. Strikingly, analogous roles have been proposed for the extracellular proteoglycans of gliding diatoms and apicomplexa, suggesting that slime deposition is a general means for gliding organisms to adhere and move over surfaces. PMID:22665761

  20. Daucus carota Pentane/Diethyl Ether Fraction Inhibits Motility and Reduces Invasion of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zgheib, Perla; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohamad; Nasrallah, Anita; Taleb, Robin I; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2014-01-01

    Daucus carota (DC) is a herb used in folklore medicine in Lebanon to treat numerous diseases including cancer. Recent studies in our laboratory on DC oil and its fractions revealed potent anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the most potent DC fraction, pentane/diethyl ether (50:50), on lung, skin, breast and glioblastoma cancer cell motility and invasion. Upon treatment, a pronounced decrease in cancer cell motility was observed in the 4 cell lines. The treatment also led to a decrease in cancer cell invasion and an increased cell adhesion. Additionally, the DC fraction caused a decrease in the activation of the ρ-GTPases Rac and CDC42, a finding that may partially explain the treatment-induced decrease in cell motility. The current study demonstrates a crucial effect of the DC pentane/diethyl ether fraction on cancer cell motility and metastasis, making it a potential candidate for cancer therapy specifically targeting cancer motility and metastasis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Cell Motility as Persistent Random Motion: Theories from Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Selmeczi, David; Mosler, Stephan; Hagedorn, Peter H.; Larsen, Niels B.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Experimental time series for trajectories of motile cells may contain so much information that a systematic analysis will yield cell-type-specific motility models. Here we demonstrate how, using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as examples. The two resulting models reflect the cells' different roles in the organism, it seems, and show that a cell has a memory of past velocities. They also suggest how to distinguish quantitatively between various surfaces' compatibility with the two cell types. PMID:15951372

  2. Cell-substrate impedance fluctuations of single amoeboid cells encode cell-shape and adhesion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Helmar; Gerhardt, Matthias; Höppner, Nadine; Krüger, Kirsten; Tarantola, Marco; Beta, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We show systematic electrical impedance measurements of single motile cells on microelectrodes. Wild-type cells and mutant strains were studied that differ in their cell-substrate adhesion strength. We recorded the projected cell area by time-lapse microscopy and observed irregular oscillations of the cell shape. These oscillations were correlated with long-term variations in the impedance signal. Superposed to these long-term trends, we observed fluctuations in the impedance signal. Their magnitude clearly correlated with the adhesion strength, suggesting that strongly adherent cells display more dynamic cell-substrate interactions.

  3. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  4. cAMP receptor protein regulates mouse colonization, motility, fimbria-mediated adhesion, and stress tolerance in uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Lin; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Huang, Kuo-Tong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2017-08-04

    Cyclic AMP receptor protein (Crp) is a major transcriptional regulator in bacteria. This study demonstrated that Crp affects numerous virulence-related phenotypes, including colonization of mice, motility, fimbria-mediated adhesion, and glucose stress tolerance in uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. Diabetic mice were more susceptible to kidney colonization by wild-type strain than nondiabetic mice, in which the crp mutant exhibited increased kidney colonization. Loss of crp or addition of 10% glucose increased the P. mirabilis adhesion to kidney cells. Direct negative regulation of pmpA (which encodes the major subunit of P-like fimbriae) expression by Crp was demonstrated using a reporter assay and DNase I footprinting. Moreover, the pmpA/crp double mutant exhibited reduced kidney adhesion comparable to that of the pmpA mutant, and mouse kidney colonization by the pmpA mutant was significantly attenuated. Hence, the upregulation of P-like fimbriae in the crp mutant substantially enhanced kidney colonization. Moreover, increased survival in macrophages, increased stress tolerance, RpoS upregulation, and flagellum deficiency leading to immune evasion may promote kidney colonization by the crp mutant. This is the first study to elucidate the role of Crp in the virulence of uropathogenic P. mirabilis, underlying mechanisms, and related therapeutic potential.

  5. A novel role for BRCA1 in regulating breast cancer cell spreading and motility

    PubMed Central

    Coene, Elisabeth D.; Gadelha, Catarina; White, Nicholas; Malhas, Ashraf; Thomas, Benjamin; Shaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains in BRCA1 are essential for tumor suppressor function, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We identified ezrin, radixin, and moesin as BRCA1 BRCT domain–interacting proteins. Ezrin–radixin–moesin (ERM) and F-actin colocalized with BRCA1 at the plasma membrane (PM) of cancer cells, especially at leading edges and focal adhesion sites. In stably expressing cancer cells, high levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-BRCA11634–1863 acted as a dominant-negative factor, displacing endogenous BRCA1 from the PM. This led to delayed cell spreading, increased spontaneous motility, and irregular monolayer wound healing. MCF-7 cells (intact BRCA1) showed lower motility than HCC1937 cells (truncated BRCA1), but expression of EGFP-BRCA11634–1863 in MCF-7 increased motility. Conversely, full-length BRCA1 expression in HCC1937 decreased motility but only if the protein retained ubiquitin ligase activity. We conclude that full-length BRCA1 is important for complete tumor suppressor activity via interaction of its BRCT domains with ERM at the PM, controlling spreading and motility of cancer cells via ubiquitin ligase activity. PMID:21282464

  6. Relationship between neuronal migration and cell-substratum adhesion: laminin and merosin promote olfactory neuronal migration but are anti- adhesive

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Regulation by the extracellular matrix (ECM) of migration, motility, and adhesion of olfactory neurons and their precursors was studied in vitro. Neuronal cells of the embryonic olfactory epithelium (OE), which undergo extensive migration in the central nervous system during normal development, were shown to be highly migratory in culture as well. Migration of OE neuronal cells was strongly dependent on substratum- bound ECM molecules, being specifically stimulated and guided by laminin (or the laminin-related molecule merosin) in preference to fibronectin, type I collagen, or type IV collagen. Motility of OE neuronal cells, examined by time-lapse video microscopy, was high on laminin-containing substrata, but negligible on fibronectin substrata. Quantitative assays of adhesion of OE neuronal cells to substrata treated with different ECM molecules demonstrated no correlation, either positive or negative, between the migratory preferences of cells and the strength of cell-substratum adhesion. Moreover, measurements of cell adhesion to substrata containing combinations of ECM proteins revealed that laminin and merosin are anti-adhesive for OE neuronal cells, i.e., cause these cells to adhere poorly to substrata that would otherwise be strongly adhesive. The evidence suggests that the anti- adhesive effect of laminin is not the result of interactions between laminin and other ECM molecules, but rather an effect of laminin on cells, which alters the way in which cells adhere. Consistent with this view, laminin was found to interfere strongly with the formation of focal contacts by OE neuronal cells. PMID:1918163

  7. Shear force-based genetic screen reveals negative regulators of cell adhesion and protrusive activity

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, Thomas J.; Kamprad, Nadine; Edwards, Marc; Borleis, Jane; Watson, Ayende J.; Tarantola, Marco; Devreotes, Peter N.

    2017-01-01

    The model organism Dictyostelium discoideum has greatly facilitated our understanding of the signal transduction and cytoskeletal pathways that govern cell motility. Cell–substrate adhesion is downstream of many migratory and chemotaxis signaling events. Dictyostelium cells lacking the tumor suppressor PTEN show strongly impaired migratory activity and adhere strongly to their substrates. We reasoned that other regulators of migration could be obtained through a screen for overly adhesive mutants. A screen of restriction enzyme-mediated integration mutagenized cells yielded numerous mutants with the desired phenotypes, and the insertion sites in 18 of the strains were mapped. These regulators of adhesion and motility mutants have increased adhesion and decreased motility. Characterization of seven strains demonstrated decreased directed migration, flatness, increased filamentous actin-based protrusions, and increased signal transduction network activity. Many of the genes share homology to human genes and demonstrate the diverse array of cellular networks that function in adhesion and migration. PMID:28847951

  8. Microfabricated systems and assays for studying the cytoskeletal organization, micromechanics, and motility patterns of cancerous cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Sabil; Pilans, Didzis; Makurath, Monika; Hermans, Thomas M.; Kandere-Grzybowska, Kristiana; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2014-08-28

    Cell motions are driven by coordinated actions of the intracellular cytoskeleton – actin, microtubules (MTs) and substrate/focal adhesions (FAs). This coordination is altered in metastatic cancer cells resulting in deregulated and increased cellular motility. Microfabrication tools, including photolithography, micromolding, microcontact printing, wet stamping and microfluidic devices have emerged as a powerful set of experimental tools with which to probe and define the differences in cytoskeleton organization/dynamics and cell motility patterns in non-metastatic and metastatic cancer cells. In this paper, we discuss four categories of microfabricated systems: (i) micropatterned substrates for studying of cell motility sub-processes (for example, MT targeting of FAs or cell polarization); (ii) systems for studying cell mechanical properties, (iii) systems for probing overall cell motility patterns within challenging geometric confines relevant to metastasis (for example, linear and ratchet geometries), and (iv) microfluidic devices that incorporate co-cultures of multiple cell types and chemical gradients to mimic in vivo intravasation/extravasation steps of metastasis. Finally, together, these systems allow for creating controlled microenvironments that not only mimic complex soft tissues, but are also compatible with live cell high-resolution imaging and quantitative analysis of single cell behavior.

  9. Microfabricated systems and assays for studying the cytoskeletal organization, micromechanics, and motility patterns of cancerous cells

    DOE PAGES

    Huda, Sabil; Pilans, Didzis; Makurath, Monika; ...

    2014-08-28

    Cell motions are driven by coordinated actions of the intracellular cytoskeleton – actin, microtubules (MTs) and substrate/focal adhesions (FAs). This coordination is altered in metastatic cancer cells resulting in deregulated and increased cellular motility. Microfabrication tools, including photolithography, micromolding, microcontact printing, wet stamping and microfluidic devices have emerged as a powerful set of experimental tools with which to probe and define the differences in cytoskeleton organization/dynamics and cell motility patterns in non-metastatic and metastatic cancer cells. In this paper, we discuss four categories of microfabricated systems: (i) micropatterned substrates for studying of cell motility sub-processes (for example, MT targeting ofmore » FAs or cell polarization); (ii) systems for studying cell mechanical properties, (iii) systems for probing overall cell motility patterns within challenging geometric confines relevant to metastasis (for example, linear and ratchet geometries), and (iv) microfluidic devices that incorporate co-cultures of multiple cell types and chemical gradients to mimic in vivo intravasation/extravasation steps of metastasis. Finally, together, these systems allow for creating controlled microenvironments that not only mimic complex soft tissues, but are also compatible with live cell high-resolution imaging and quantitative analysis of single cell behavior.« less

  10. Microfabricated Systems and Assays for Studying the Cytoskeletal Organization, Micromechanics, and Motility Patterns of Cancerous Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Sabil; Pilans, Didzis; Makurath, Monika; Hermans, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cell motions are driven by coordinated actions of the intracellular cytoskeleton – actin, microtubules (MTs) and substrate/focal adhesions (FAs). This coordination is altered in metastatic cancer cells resulting in deregulated and increased cellular motility. Microfabrication tools, including photolithography, micromolding, microcontact printing, wet stamping and microfluidic devices have emerged as a powerful set of experimental tools with which to probe and define the differences in cytoskeleton organization/dynamics and cell motility patterns in non-metastatic and metastatic cancer cells. In this review, we discuss four categories of microfabricated systems: (i) micropatterned substrates for studying of cell motility sub-processes (for example, MT targeting of FAs or cell polarization); (ii) systems for studying cell mechanical properties, (iii) systems for probing overall cell motility patterns within challenging geometric confines relevant to metastasis (for example, linear and ratchet geometries), and (iv) microfluidic devices that incorporate co-cultures of multiple cells types and chemical gradients to mimic in vivo intravasation/extravasation steps of metastasis. Together, these systems allow for creating controlled microenvironments that not only mimic complex soft tissues, but are also compatible with live cell high-resolution imaging and quantitative analysis of single cell behavior. PMID:26900544

  11. Cell migration in schizophrenia: Patient-derived cells do not regulate motility in response to extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Tee, Jing Yang; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Fan, Yongjun; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2017-03-09

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder linked to a large number of risk genes. The function of these genes in disease etiology is not fully understood but pathway analyses of genomic data suggest developmental dysregulation of cellular processes such as neuronal migration and axon guidance. Previous studies of patient-derived olfactory cells show them to be more motile than control-derived cells when grown on a fibronectin substrate, motility that is dependent on focal adhesion kinase signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patient-derived cells are responsive to other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that bind integrin receptors. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells from nine patients and nine matched controls were grown on ECM protein substrates at increasing concentrations and their movement was tracked for 24h using automated high-throughput imaging. Control-derived cells increased their motility as the ECM substrate concentration increased, whereas patient-derived cell motility was little affected by ECM proteins. Patient and control cells had appropriate integrin receptors for these ECM substrates and detected them as shown by increases in focal adhesion number and size in response to ECM proteins, which also induced changes in cell morphology and cytoskeleton. These observations indicate that patient cells failed to translate the detection of ECM proteins into appropriate changes in cell motility. In a sense, patient cells act like a moving car whose accelerator is jammed, moving at the same speed without regard to the external environment. This focuses attention on cell motility regulation rather than speed as key to impairment of neuronal migration in the developing brain in schizophrenia.

  12. Role of the RNA-binding protein IMP-2 in muscle cell motility.

    PubMed

    Boudoukha, Selim; Cuvellier, Sylvain; Polesskaya, Anna

    2010-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) are a family of posttranscriptional regulatory factors with well-understood roles in embryonic development and cancer but with poorly characterized functions in normal adult cells and tissues. We now show that IMP-2, the most ubiquitously expressed member of the family, is abundant in human and mouse adult skeletal myoblasts, where it is indispensable for cell motility and for stabilization of microtubules. To explore the functions of IMP-2, we analyzed the transcripts that were differentially regulated in IMP-2-depleted myoblasts and bound to IMP-2 in normal myoblasts. Among them were the mRNAs of PINCH-2, an important mediator of cell adhesion and motility, and MURF-3, a microtubule-stabilizing protein. By gain- and loss-of-function assays and gel shift experiments, we show that IMP-2 regulates the expression of PINCH-2 and MURF-3 proteins via direct binding to their mRNAs. Upregulation of PINCH-2 in IMP-2-depleted myoblasts is the key event responsible for their decreased motility. Our data reveal how the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by IMP-2 contributes to the control of adhesion structures and stable microtubules and demonstrate an important function for IMP-2 in cellular motility.

  13. L1CAM stimulates glioma cell motility and proliferation through the fibroblast growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Vishnu; Temburni, Murali K; Kappes, John C; Galileo, Deni S

    2013-04-01

    The L1CAM cell adhesion/recognition molecule (L1, CD171) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) both are expressed by human high-grade glioma cells, but their potential actions in controlling cell behavior have not been linked. L1 actions in cancer cells have been attributed mainly to integrin receptors, and we demonstrated previously that L1-stimulated glioma cell migration correlates with integrin expression, increased focal adhesion kinase activation and focal complex turnover. Our analyses of datasets revealed FGFR is overexpressed in glioma regardless of grade, while ADAM10 metalloprotease expression increases with glioma grade. Here, we used dominant-negative and short hairpin RNA approaches to inhibit the activation of FGFR1 and expression of L1, respectively. An L1 peptide that inhibits L1-FGFR interaction and PD173074, a chemical inhibitor of FGFR1 activity, also were used to elucidate the involvement of L1-FGFR interactions on glioma cell behavior. Time-lapse cell motility studies and flow cytometry cell cycle analyses showed that L1 operates to increase glioma cell motility and proliferation through FGFR activation. Shutdown of both L1 expression and FGFR activity in glioma cells resulted in a complete termination of cell migration in vitro. These studies show for the first time that soluble L1 ectodomain (L1LE) acts on glioma cells through FGFRs, and that FGFRs are used by glioma cells for increasing motility as well as proliferation in response to activation by L1LE ligand. Thus, effective treatment of high-grade glioma may require simultaneous targeting of L1, FGFRs, and integrin receptors, which would reduce glioma cell motility as well as proliferation.

  14. GAR22β regulates cell migration, sperm motility, and axoneme structure.

    PubMed

    Gamper, Ivonne; Fleck, David; Barlin, Meltem; Spehr, Marc; El Sayad, Sara; Kleine, Henning; Maxeiner, Sebastian; Schalla, Carmen; Aydin, Gülcan; Hoss, Mareike; Litchfield, David W; Lüscher, Bernhard; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Spatiotemporal cytoskeleton remodeling is pivotal for cell adhesion and migration. Here we investigated the function of Gas2-related protein on chromosome 22 (GAR22β), a poorly characterized protein that interacts with actin and microtubules. Primary and immortalized GAR22β(-/-) Sertoli cells moved faster than wild-type cells. In addition, GAR22β(-/-) cells showed a more prominent focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β overexpression or its reexpression in GAR22β(-/-) cells reduced cell motility and focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β-actin interaction was stronger than GAR22β-microtubule interaction, resulting in GAR22β localization and dynamics that mirrored those of the actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, GAR22β interacted with the regulator of microtubule dynamics end-binding protein 1 (EB1) via a novel noncanonical amino acid sequence, and this GAR22β-EB1 interaction was required for the ability of GAR22β to modulate cell motility. We found that GAR22β is highly expressed in mouse testes, and its absence resulted in reduced spermatozoa generation, lower actin levels in testes, and impaired motility and ultrastructural disorganization of spermatozoa. Collectively our findings identify GAR22β as a novel regulator of cell adhesion and migration and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of diverse cytoskeleton-dependent processes. © 2016 Gamper et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Mechanics of Nascent Cell Adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejean, Cecile O.; Schaefer, Andrew W.; Forscher, Paul; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2009-03-01

    Cells have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical and biochemical cues from their environment. In neurons, the binding and restraint of transmembrane cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) can trigger acute periods of axon growth. Preceding growth, the cell must create a stiff mechanical linkage between the CAM and the cytoskeleton. Using holographic optical tweezers, we manipulate CAM-coated beads on the membrane of the cell. We investigate the dynamics of the mechanical properties of this linkage as a function of time, applied force, and CAM density. We find that CAM-coated beads exhibit stochastic intermittent binding to the cytoskeleton. In time, we observed that the adhesions stiffen and their mechanical properties depend on the applied force. Treatment of cells with small molecules that alter cytoskeletal dynamics are used to probe the roles of actin filament assembly and myosin motor activity in adhesion formation.

  16. Substrate microtopography can enhance cell adhesive and migratory responsiveness to matrix ligand density.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, C S; Moghe, P V

    2001-02-01

    The regulation of cell motility by ligand density on substrates with variable microtopography is not well understood. In this report, we studied the adhesion and motility behavior of HepG2 cells on microtextured poly(glycolic-co-lactic)acid (PGLA) copolymer substrates, whose surface bioactivity was differentially modified through the adsorption of 0-5.5 ng/cm(2) collagen. Microtextured PGLA substrates were fabricated as thin films with a uniform surface distribution of micropores of median size of 3.1 +/- 1.5 microm and three-dimensional root mean squared roughness of 0.253 microm. Even in the absence of collagen, cells on microtextured substrates responded to substrate topography by exhibiting a 200% increase in adhesion strength compared with untextured controls and ventral localization of the intracellular adhesion protein vinculin. Further enhancement in adhesion strength (420% over untextured, untreated substrates) was demonstrated with bioactivated, microtextured surfaces, indicating that cell adhesion responses to topography and surface ligand density were cooperative. Our motility studies of cells on untextured substrates adsorbed with different levels of collagen demonstrated that a classical biphasic relationship between the cell population averaged migration rate, mu, and the collagen ligand density was preserved. However, comparison of cell motility responses between untextured and microtextured substrates indicates that the motility versus ligand density curve shifted, such that equivalent levels of cell motility were achieved at lower ligand density on microtextured surfaces. Furthermore, the maximum mu values achieved on the microtextured substrates exceeded those on untextured substrates by twofold. Taken together, we show that the magnitude of subcellular scale microtexture of a polymer substrate can sensitize the cell motility responsiveness to substrate ligand concentration; we suggest that the underlying mechanisms involve alteration in the

  17. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination. PMID:20822528

  18. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control.

    PubMed

    Parri, Matteo; Chiarugi, Paola

    2010-09-07

    Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  19. Specific maltose derivatives modulate the swarming motility of nonswarming mutant and inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Shetye, Gauri S; Singh, Nischal; Jia, Changqing; Nguyen, Chan D K; Wang, Guirong; Luk, Yan-Yeung

    2014-07-07

    We have demonstrated that specific synthetic maltose derivatives activate the swarming motility of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa nonswarming mutant (rhlA) at low concentration, but inhibit it at high concentration. Although these molecules are not microbicidal, active maltose derivatives with bulky hydrocarbon groups inhibited bacterial adhesion, and exhibited biofilm inhibition and dispersion (IC50 ~20 μM and DC50 ~30 μM, respectively). Because the swarming motility of the rhlA mutant is abolished by the lack natural rhamnolipids, the swarming activation suggests that maltose derivatives are analogues of rhamnolipids. Together, these results suggest a new approach of controlling multiple bacterial activities (bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, and swarming motility) by a set of disaccharide-based molecules.

  20. A Comparison of Computational Models for Eukaryotic Cell Shape and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, William R.; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell motility involves complex interactions of signalling molecules, cytoskeleton, cell membrane, and mechanics interacting in space and time. Collectively, these components are used by the cell to interpret and respond to external stimuli, leading to polarization, protrusion, adhesion formation, and myosin-facilitated retraction. When these processes are choreographed correctly, shape change and motility results. A wealth of experimental data have identified numerous molecular constituents involved in these processes, but the complexity of their interactions and spatial organization make this a challenging problem to understand. This has motivated theoretical and computational approaches with simplified caricatures of cell structure and behaviour, each aiming to gain better understanding of certain kinds of cells and/or repertoire of behaviour. Reaction–diffusion (RD) equations as well as equations of viscoelastic flows have been used to describe the motility machinery. In this review, we describe some of the recent computational models for cell motility, concentrating on simulations of cell shape changes (mainly in two but also three dimensions). The problem is challenging not only due to the difficulty of abstracting and simplifying biological complexity but also because computing RD or fluid flow equations in deforming regions, known as a “free-boundary” problem, is an extremely challenging problem in applied mathematics. Here we describe the distinct approaches, comparing their strengths and weaknesses, and the kinds of biological questions that they have been able to address. PMID:23300403

  1. Self-Organized Cell Motility from Motor-Filament Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Du, XinXin; Doubrovinski, Konstantin; Osterfield, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Cell motility is driven primarily by the dynamics of the cell cytoskeleton, a system of filamentous proteins and molecular motors. It has been proposed that cell motility is a self-organized process, that is, local short-range interactions determine much of the dynamics that are required for the whole-cell organization that leads to polarization and directional motion. Here we present a mesoscopic mean-field description of filaments, motors, and cell boundaries. This description gives rise to a dynamical system that exhibits multiple self-organized states. We discuss several qualitative aspects of the asymptotic states and compare them with those of living cells. PMID:22768929

  2. PRL-3 promotes cell adhesion by interacting with JAM2 in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Xing, Xiaofang; Yang, Yongyong; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3), also termed PTP4A3, is a metastasis-related protein tyrosine phosphatase. Its expression levels are significantly correlated with the progression and survival of a wide range of malignant tumors. However, the mechanism by which PRL-3 promotes tumor invasion and metastasis is not clear. In the present study, the functions of PRL-3 were systemically analyzed in the key events of metastasis including, motility and adhesion. A cell wounding assay, cell spread assay and cell-matrix adhesion assay were carried out to analyze the cell movement and cell adhesion ability of colon cancer, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assay was confirmed the interaction of PRL-3 and JAM2. It was demonstrated that PRL-3 promoted the motility of Flp-In-293 and LoVo colon cancer cells and increased the distribution of cell skeleton proteins on the cell protrusions. In addition, stably expressing PRL-3 reduced the spreading speed of colon cancer cells and cell adhesion on uncoated, fibronectin-coated and collagen I-coated plates. Mechanistically, junction adhesion molecular 2 (JAM2) was identified as a novel interacting protein of PRL-3. The findings of the present study revealed the roles of PRL-3 in cancer cell motility and adhesion process, and provided information on the possibility of PRL-3 increase cell-cell adhesion by associating with JAM2.

  3. PRL-3 promotes cell adhesion by interacting with JAM2 in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Shenyi; Meng, Lin; Xing, Xiaofang; Yang, Yongyong; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3), also termed PTP4A3, is a metastasis-related protein tyrosine phosphatase. Its expression levels are significantly correlated with the progression and survival of a wide range of malignant tumors. However, the mechanism by which PRL-3 promotes tumor invasion and metastasis is not clear. In the present study, the functions of PRL-3 were systemically analyzed in the key events of metastasis including, motility and adhesion. A cell wounding assay, cell spread assay and cell-matrix adhesion assay were carried out to analyze the cell movement and cell adhesion ability of colon cancer, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assay was confirmed the interaction of PRL-3 and JAM2. It was demonstrated that PRL-3 promoted the motility of Flp-In-293 and LoVo colon cancer cells and increased the distribution of cell skeleton proteins on the cell protrusions. In addition, stably expressing PRL-3 reduced the spreading speed of colon cancer cells and cell adhesion on uncoated, fibronectin-coated and collagen I-coated plates. Mechanistically, junction adhesion molecular 2 (JAM2) was identified as a novel interacting protein of PRL-3. The findings of the present study revealed the roles of PRL-3 in cancer cell motility and adhesion process, and provided information on the possibility of PRL-3 increase cell-cell adhesion by associating with JAM2. PMID:27588115

  4. L1 stimulation of human glioma cell motility correlates with FAK activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Muhua; Li, Yupei; Chilukuri, Kalyani; Brady, Owen A; Boulos, Magdy I; Kappes, John C; Galileo, Deni S

    2011-10-01

    The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been shown or implicated to function in stimulation of cell motility in several cancer types, including high-grade gliomas. Our previous work demonstrated the expression and function of L1 protein in stimulation of cell motility in rat glioma cells. However, the mechanism of this stimulation is still unclear. This study further investigated the function of L1 and L1 proteolysis in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell migration and invasion, as well as the mechanism of this stimulation. L1 mRNA was found to be present in human T98G GBM cell line but not in U-118 MG grade III human glioma cell line. L1 protein expression, proteolysis, and release were found in T98G cells and human surgical GBM cells by Western blotting. Exosome-like vesicles released by T98G cells were purified and contained full-length L1. In a scratch assay, T98G cells that migrated into the denuded scratch area exhibited upregulation of ADAM10 protease expression coincident with loss of surface L1. GBM surgical specimen cells exhibited a similar loss of cell surface L1 when xenografted into the chick embryo brain. When lentivirally introduced shRNA was used to attenuate L1 expression, such T98G/shL1 cells exhibited significantly decreased cell motility by time lapse microscopy in our quantitative Super Scratch assay. These cells also showed a decrease in FAK activity and exhibited increased focal complexes. L1 binding integrins which activate FAK were found in T98G and U-118 MG cells. Addition of L1 ectodomain-containing media (1) rescued the decreased cell motility of T98G/shL1 cells and (2) increased cell motility of U-118 MG cells but (3) did not further increase T98G cell motility. Injection of L1-attenuated T98G/shL1 cells into embryonic chick brains resulted in the absence of detectable invasion compared to control cells which invaded brain tissue. These studies support a mechanism where glioma cells at the edge of a cell mass

  5. L1 stimulation of human glioma cell motility correlates with FAK activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Muhua; Li, Yupei; Chilukuri, Kalyani; Brady, Owen A.; Boulos, Magdy I.; Kappes, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been shown or implicated to function in stimulation of cell motility in several cancer types, including high-grade gliomas. Our previous work demonstrated the expression and function of L1 protein in stimulation of cell motility in rat glioma cells. However, the mechanism of this stimulation is still unclear. This study further investigated the function of L1 and L1 proteolysis in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell migration and invasion, as well as the mechanism of this stimulation. L1 mRNA was found to be present in human T98G GBM cell line but not in U-118 MG grade III human glioma cell line. L1 protein expression, proteolysis, and release were found in T98G cells and human surgical GBM cells by Western blotting. Exosome-like vesicles released by T98G cells were purified and contained full-length L1. In a scratch assay, T98G cells that migrated into the denuded scratch area exhibited upregulation of ADAM10 protease expression coincident with loss of surface L1. GBM surgical specimen cells exhibited a similar loss of cell surface L1 when xenografted into the chick embryo brain. When lentivirally introduced shRNA was used to attenuate L1 expression, such T98G/shL1 cells exhibited significantly decreased cell motility by time lapse microscopy in our quantitative Super Scratch assay. These cells also showed a decrease in FAK activity and exhibited increased focal complexes. L1 binding integrins which activate FAK were found in T98G and U-118 MG cells. Addition of L1 ectodomain-containing media (1) rescued the decreased cell motility of T98G/shL1 cells and (2) increased cell motility of U-118 MG cells but (3) did not further increase T98G cell motility. Injection of L1-attenuated T98G/shL1 cells into embryonic chick brains resulted in the absence of detectable invasion compared to control cells which invaded brain tissue. These studies support a mechanism where glioma cells at the edge of a cell mass

  6. Geometry-Driven Polarity in Motile Amoeboid Cells.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Oliver; Guven, Can; Theves, Matthias; Driscoll, Meghan; Losert, Wolfgang; Beta, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Motile eukaryotic cells, such as leukocytes, cancer cells, and amoeba, typically move inside the narrow interstitial spacings of tissue or soil. While most of our knowledge of actin-driven eukaryotic motility was obtained from cells that move on planar open surfaces, recent work has demonstrated that confinement can lead to strongly altered motile behavior. Here, we report experimental evidence that motile amoeboid cells undergo a spontaneous symmetry breaking in confined interstitial spaces. Inside narrow channels, the cells switch to a highly persistent, unidirectional mode of motion, moving at a constant speed along the channel. They remain in contact with the two opposing channel side walls and alternate protrusions of their leading edge near each wall. Their actin cytoskeleton exhibits a characteristic arrangement that is dominated by dense, stationary actin foci at the side walls, in conjunction with less dense dynamic regions at the leading edge. Our experimental findings can be explained based on an excitable network model that accounts for the confinement-induced symmetry breaking and correctly recovers the spatio-temporal pattern of protrusions at the leading edge. Since motile cells typically live in the narrow interstitial spacings of tissue or soil, we expect that the geometry-driven polarity we report here plays an important role for movement of cells in their natural environment.

  7. Focal Adhesion Kinase Modulates Cell Adhesion Strengthening via Integrin Activation

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Kristin E.; Dumbauld, David W.; Burns, Kellie L.; Hanks, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK in integrin activation was confirmed in human fibroblasts with knocked-down FAK expression. The FAK autophosphorylation Y397 site was required for the enhancements in adhesion strengthening and integrin-binding responses. This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell–ECM forces. PMID:19297531

  8. Cell-Cell Adhesion and Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Staging of breast cancer. In: K.I. Bland and E.M. Copeland (eds.), The breast: Comprehensive management of benign and malignant diseases , pp. 313-330... desmosomes . The physical strength of adhesion between two cells is likely to be dependent upon a number of factors, including the number of adhesion

  9. Quantifying the roles of random motility and directed motility using advection-diffusion theory for a 3T3 fibroblast cell migration assay stimulated with an electric field.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Matthew J; Lo, Kai-Yin; Sun, Yung-Shin

    2017-03-17

    Directed cell migration can be driven by a range of external stimuli, such as spatial gradients of: chemical signals (chemotaxis); adhesion sites (haptotaxis); or temperature (thermotaxis). Continuum models of cell migration typically include a diffusion term to capture the undirected component of cell motility and an advection term to capture the directed component of cell motility. However, there is no consensus in the literature about the form that the advection term takes. Some theoretical studies suggest that the advection term ought to include receptor saturation effects. However, others adopt a much simpler constant coefficient. One of the limitations of including receptor saturation effects is that it introduces several additional unknown parameters into the model. Therefore, a relevant research question is to investigate whether directed cell migration is best described by a simple constant tactic coefficient or a more complicated model incorporating saturation effects. We study directed cell migration using an experimental device in which the directed component of the cell motility is driven by a spatial gradient of electric potential, which is known as electrotaxis. The electric field (EF) is proportional to the spatial gradient of the electric potential. The spatial variation of electric potential across the experimental device varies in such a way that there are several subregions on the device in which the EF takes on different values that are approximately constant within those subregions. We use cell trajectory data to quantify the motion of 3T3 fibroblast cells at different locations on the device to examine how different values of the EF influences cell motility. The undirected (random) motility of the cells is quantified in terms of the cell diffusivity, D, and the directed motility is quantified in terms of a cell drift velocity, v. Estimates D and v are obtained under a range of four different EF conditions, which correspond to normal

  10. Cell motility and antibiotic tolerance of bacterial swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wenlong

    Many bacteria species can move across moist surfaces in a coordinated manner known as swarming. It is reported that swarm cells show higher tolerance to a wide variety of antibiotics than planktonic cells. We used the model bacterium E. coli to study how motility affects the antibiotic tolerance of swarm cells. Our results provide new insights for the control of pathogenic invasion via regulating cell motility. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail: zwlong@live.com.

  11. Form and Function in Cell Motility: From Fibroblasts to Keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Herant, Marc; Dembo, Micah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It is plain enough that a horse is made for running, but similar statements about motile cells are not so obvious. Here the basis for structure-function relations in cell motility is explored by application of a new computational technique that allows realistic three-dimensional simulations of cells migrating on flat substrata. With this approach, some cyber cells spontaneously display the classic irregular protrusion cycles and handmirror morphology of a crawling fibroblast, and others the steady gliding motility and crescent morphology of a fish keratocyte. The keratocyte motif is caused by optimal recycling of the cytoskeleton from the back to the front so that more of the periphery can be devoted to protrusion. These calculations are a step toward bridging the gap between the integrated mechanics and biophysics of whole cells and the microscopic molecular biology of cytoskeletal components. PMID:20409459

  12. Endothelial cell migration on surfaces modified with immobilized adhesive peptides.

    PubMed

    Kouvroukoglou, S; Dee, K C; Bizios, R; McIntire, L V; Zygourakis, K

    2000-09-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) migration has been studied on aminophase surfaces with covalently bound RGDS and YIGSRG cell adhesion peptides. The fluorescent marker dansyl chloride was used to quantify the spatial distribution of the peptides on the modified surfaces. Peptides appeared to be distributed in uniformly dispersed large clusters separated by areas of lower peptide concentrations. We employed digital time-lapse video microscopy and image analysis to monitor EC migration on the modified surfaces and to reconstruct the cell trajectories. The persistent random walk model was then applied to analyze the cell displacement data and compute the mean root square speed, the persistence time, and the random motility coefficient of EC. We also calculated the time-averaged speed of cell locomotion. No differences in the speed of cell locomotion on the various substrates were noted. Immobilization of the cell adhesion peptides (RGDS and YIGSRG), however, significantly increased the persistence of cell movement and, thus, the random motility coefficient. These results suggest that immobilization of cell adhesion peptides on the surface of implantable biomaterials may lead to enhanced endothelization rates.

  13. Paxillin mediates sensing of physical cues and regulates directional cell motility by controlling lamellipodia positioning.

    PubMed

    Sero, Julia E; Thodeti, Charles K; Mammoto, Akiko; Bakal, Chris; Thomas, Sheila; Ingber, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    Physical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) guide directional migration by spatially controlling where cells form focal adhesions (FAs), which in turn regulate the extension of motile processes. Here we show that physical control of directional migration requires the FA scaffold protein paxillin. Using single-cell sized ECM islands to constrain cell shape, we found that fibroblasts cultured on square islands preferentially activated Rac and extended lamellipodia from corner, rather than side regions after 30 min stimulation with PDGF, but that cells lacking paxillin failed to restrict Rac activity to corners and formed small lamellipodia along their entire peripheries. This spatial preference was preceded by non-spatially constrained formation of both dorsal and lateral membrane ruffles from 5-10 min. Expression of paxillin N-terminal (paxN) or C-terminal (paxC) truncation mutants produced opposite, but complementary, effects on lamellipodia formation. Surprisingly, pax-/- and paxN cells also formed more circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs) than pax+ cells, while paxC cells formed fewer CDRs and extended larger lamellipodia even in the absence of PDGF. In a two-dimensional (2D) wound assay, pax-/- cells migrated at similar speeds to controls but lost directional persistence. Directional motility was rescued by expressing full-length paxillin or the N-terminus alone, but paxN cells migrated more slowly. In contrast, pax-/- and paxN cells exhibited increased migration in a three-dimensional (3D) invasion assay, with paxN cells invading Matrigel even in the absence of PDGF. These studies indicate that paxillin integrates physical and chemical motility signals by spatially constraining where cells will form motile processes, and thereby regulates directional migration both in 2D and 3D. These findings also suggest that CDRs may correspond to invasive protrusions that drive cell migration through 3D extracellular matrices.

  14. PTP-PEST controls motility, adherens junction assembly, and Rho GTPase activity in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Rosario; Rengifo-Cam, William; Schaller, Michael D.; Evers, B. Mark

    2010-01-01

    An important step in carcinoma progression is loss of cell-cell adhesion leading to increased invasion and metastasis. We show here that the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-PEST, is a critical regulator of cell-cell junction integrity and epithelial cell motility. Using colon carcinoma cells, we show that the expression level of PTP-PEST regulates cell motility. Either transient small interfering RNA or stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PTP-PEST enhances haptotactic and chemotactic migration of KM12C colon carcinoma cells. Furthermore, KM12C cells with stably knocked down PTP-PEST exhibit a mesenchymal-like phenotype with prominent membrane ruffles and lamellae. In contrast, ectopic expression of PTP-PEST in KM20 or DLD-1 cells, which lack detectable endogenous PTP-PEST expression, suppresses haptotactic migration. Importantly, we find that PTP-PEST localizes in adherens junctions. Concomitant with enhanced motility, stable knockdown of PTP-PEST causes a disruption of cell-cell junctions. These effects are due to a defect in junctional assembly and not to a loss of E-cadherin expression. Adherens junction assembly is impaired following calcium switch in KM12C cells with stably knocked down PTP-PEST and is accompanied by an increase in the activity of Rac1 and a suppression of RhoA activity in response to cadherin engagement. Taken together, these results suggest that PTP-PEST functions as a suppressor of epithelial cell motility by controlling Rho GTPase activity and the assembly of adherens junctions. PMID:20519451

  15. Paxillin Mediates Sensing of Physical Cues and Regulates Directional Cell Motility by Controlling Lamellipodia Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Sero, Julia E.; Thodeti, Charles K.; Mammoto, Akiko; Bakal, Chris; Thomas, Sheila; Ingber, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) guide directional migration by spatially controlling where cells form focal adhesions (FAs), which in turn regulate the extension of motile processes. Here we show that physical control of directional migration requires the FA scaffold protein paxillin. Using single-cell sized ECM islands to constrain cell shape, we found that fibroblasts cultured on square islands preferentially activated Rac and extended lamellipodia from corner, rather than side regions after 30 min stimulation with PDGF, but that cells lacking paxillin failed to restrict Rac activity to corners and formed small lamellipodia along their entire peripheries. This spatial preference was preceded by non-spatially constrained formation of both dorsal and lateral membrane ruffles from 5–10 min. Expression of paxillin N-terminal (paxN) or C-terminal (paxC) truncation mutants produced opposite, but complementary, effects on lamellipodia formation. Surprisingly, pax−/− and paxN cells also formed more circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs) than pax+ cells, while paxC cells formed fewer CDRs and extended larger lamellipodia even in the absence of PDGF. In a two-dimensional (2D) wound assay, pax−/− cells migrated at similar speeds to controls but lost directional persistence. Directional motility was rescued by expressing full-length paxillin or the N-terminus alone, but paxN cells migrated more slowly. In contrast, pax−/− and paxN cells exhibited increased migration in a three-dimensional (3D) invasion assay, with paxN cells invading Matrigel even in the absence of PDGF. These studies indicate that paxillin integrates physical and chemical motility signals by spatially constraining where cells will form motile processes, and thereby regulates directional migration both in 2D and 3D. These findings also suggest that CDRs may correspond to invasive protrusions that drive cell migration through 3D extracellular matrices. PMID

  16. Knockdown of Golgi phosphoprotein 2 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and motility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xiaodi; Sun, Ting; Jiang, Junchang; Li, Ying; Chen, Mingliang; Wei, Zhen; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhou, Linfu

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GP73) is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where it serves as a biomarker and indicator of disease progression. We used MTS assays, anchorage-independent cell colony formation assays and a xenograft tumor model to show that GP73-specific siRNAs inhibit HCC proliferation in HepG2, SMMC-7721, and Huh7 cell lines and in vivo. Following GP73 silencing, levels of p-Rb, a factor related to metastasis, were reduced, but cell cycle progression was unaffected. Our results suggest that GP73 silencing may not directly suppress proliferation, but may instead inhibit cell motility. Results from proliferation assays suggest GP73 reduces expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors and promotes cell motility, while transwell migration and invasion assays indicated a possible role in metastasis. Immunofluorescence co-localization microscopy and immunoblotting showed that GP73 decreases expression of N-cadherin and E-cadherin, two key factors in EMT, which may in turn decrease intracellular adhesive forces and promote cell motility. This study confirmed that GP73 expression leads to increased expression of EMT-related proteins and that GP73 silencing reduces HCC cell migration in vitro. These findings suggest that GP73 silencing through siRNA delivery may provide a novel low-toxicity therapy for the inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. PMID:26870893

  17. Stimulation of glioma cell motility by expression, proteolysis, and release of the L1 neural cell recognition molecule.

    PubMed

    Yang, Muhua; Adla, Shalini; Temburni, Murali K; Patel, Vivek P; Lagow, Errin L; Brady, Owen A; Tian, Jing; Boulos, Magdy I; Galileo, Deni S

    2009-10-29

    Malignant glioma cells are particularly motile and can travel diffusely through the brain parenchyma, apparently without following anatomical structures to guide their migration. The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been implicated in contributing to stimulation of motility and metastasis of several non-neural cancer types. We explored the expression and function of L1 protein as a stimulator of glioma cell motility using human high-grade glioma surgical specimens and established rat and human glioma cell lines. L1 protein expression was found in 17 out of 18 human high-grade glioma surgical specimens by western blotting. L1 mRNA was found to be present in human U-87/LacZ and rat C6 and 9L glioma cell lines. The glioma cell lines were negative for surface full length L1 by flow cytometry and high resolution immunocytochemistry of live cells. However, fixed and permeablized cells exhibited positive staining as numerous intracellular puncta. Western blots of cell line extracts revealed L1 proteolysis into a large soluble ectodomain (~180 kDa) and a smaller transmembrane proteolytic fragment (~32 kDa). Exosomal vesicles released by the glioma cell lines were purified and contained both full-length L1 and the proteolyzed transmembrane fragment. Glioma cell lines expressed L1-binding alphavbeta5 integrin cell surface receptors. Quantitative time-lapse analyses showed that motility was reduced significantly in glioma cell lines by 1) infection with an antisense-L1 retroviral vector and 2) L1 ectodomain-binding antibodies. Our novel results support a model of autocrine/paracrine stimulation of cell motility in glioma cells by a cleaved L1 ectodomain and/or released exosomal vesicles containing L1. This mechanism could explain the diffuse migratory behavior of high-grade glioma cancer cells within the brain.

  18. Stimulation of glioma cell motility by expression, proteolysis, and release of the L1 neural cell recognition molecule

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Muhua; Adla, Shalini; Temburni, Murali K; Patel, Vivek P; Lagow, Errin L; Brady, Owen A; Tian, Jing; Boulos, Magdy I; Galileo, Deni S

    2009-01-01

    Background Malignant glioma cells are particularly motile and can travel diffusely through the brain parenchyma, apparently without following anatomical structures to guide their migration. The neural adhesion/recognition protein L1 (L1CAM; CD171) has been implicated in contributing to stimulation of motility and metastasis of several non-neural cancer types. We explored the expression and function of L1 protein as a stimulator of glioma cell motility using human high-grade glioma surgical specimens and established rat and human glioma cell lines. Results L1 protein expression was found in 17 out of 18 human high-grade glioma surgical specimens by western blotting. L1 mRNA was found to be present in human U-87/LacZ and rat C6 and 9L glioma cell lines. The glioma cell lines were negative for surface full length L1 by flow cytometry and high resolution immunocytochemistry of live cells. However, fixed and permeablized cells exhibited positive staining as numerous intracellular puncta. Western blots of cell line extracts revealed L1 proteolysis into a large soluble ectodomain (~180 kDa) and a smaller transmembrane proteolytic fragment (~32 kDa). Exosomal vesicles released by the glioma cell lines were purified and contained both full-length L1 and the proteolyzed transmembrane fragment. Glioma cell lines expressed L1-binding αvβ5 integrin cell surface receptors. Quantitative time-lapse analyses showed that motility was reduced significantly in glioma cell lines by 1) infection with an antisense-L1 retroviral vector and 2) L1 ectodomain-binding antibodies. Conclusion Our novel results support a model of autocrine/paracrine stimulation of cell motility in glioma cells by a cleaved L1 ectodomain and/or released exosomal vesicles containing L1. This mechanism could explain the diffuse migratory behavior of high-grade glioma cancer cells within the brain. PMID:19874583

  19. TUTORIAL: An introduction to cell motility for the physical scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2004-03-01

    Directed, purposeful movement is one of the qualities that we most closely associate with living organisms, and essentially all known forms of life on this planet exhibit some type of self-generated movement or motility. Even organisms that remain sessile most of the time, like flowering plants and trees, are quite busy at the cellular level, with large organelles, including chloroplasts, constantly racing around within cellular boundaries. Directed biological movement requires that the cell be able to convert its abundant stores of chemical energy into mechanical energy. Understanding how this mechanochemical energy transduction takes place and understanding how small biological forces generated at the molecular level are marshaled and organized for large-scale cellular or organismal movements are the focus of the field of cell motility. This tutorial, aimed at readers with a background in physical sciences, surveys the state of current knowledge and recent advances in modeling cell motility.

  20. An introduction to cell motility for the physical scientist.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Daniel A; Theriot, Julie A

    2004-06-01

    Directed, purposeful movement is one of the qualities that we most closely associate with living organisms, and essentially all known forms of life on this planet exhibit some type of self-generated movement or motility. Even organisms that remain sessile most of the time, like flowering plants and trees, are quite busy at the cellular level, with large organelles, including chloroplasts, constantly racing around within cellular boundaries. Directed biological movement requires that the cell be able to convert its abundant stores of chemical energy into mechanical energy. Understanding how this mechanochemical energy transduction takes place and understanding how small biological forces generated at the molecular level are marshaled and organized for large-scale cellular or organismal movements are the focus of the field of cell motility. This tutorial, aimed at readers with a background in physical sciences, surveys the state of current knowledge and recent advances in modeling cell motility.

  1. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Dictates Podocyte Motility and Focal Adhesion Turnover by Modulating Paxillin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiwei; Ge, Yan; Liu, Zhihong; Gong, Rujun

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant focal adhesion turnover is centrally involved in podocyte actin cytoskeleton disorganization and foot process effacement. The structural and dynamic integrity of focal adhesions is orchestrated by multiple cell signaling molecules, including glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a multitasking kinase lately identified as a mediator of kidney injury. However, the role of GSK3β in podocytopathy remains obscure. In doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-injured podocytes, lithium, a GSK3β inhibitor and neuroprotective mood stabilizer, obliterated the accelerated focal adhesion turnover, rectified podocyte hypermotility, and restored actin cytoskeleton integrity. Mechanistically, lithium counteracted the doxorubicin-elicited GSK3β overactivity and the hyperphosphorylation and overactivation of paxillin, a focal adhesion–associated adaptor protein. Moreover, forced expression of a dominant negative kinase dead mutant of GSK3β highly mimicked, whereas ectopic expression of a constitutively active GSK3β mutant abolished, the effect of lithium in doxorubicin-injured podocytes, suggesting that the effect of lithium is mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of GSK3β. Furthermore, paxillin interacted with GSK3β and served as its substrate. In mice with doxorubicin nephropathy, a single low dose of lithium ameliorated proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Consistently, lithium therapy abrogated GSK3β overactivity, blunted paxillin hyperphosphorylation, and reinstated actin cytoskeleton integrity in glomeruli associated with an early attenuation of podocyte foot process effacement. Thus, GSK3β-modulated focal adhesion dynamics might serve as a novel therapeutic target for podocytopathy. PMID:25239564

  2. Cell-Substrate Adhesion by Amoeboid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Panta, Krishna

    Amoeboid migration is a rapid (10 μm min-1) mode of migration that some tumor cells exhibit. To permit such rapid movement, the adhesive contacts between the cell and the substrate must be relatively short-lived and weak. In this study, we investigate the basic adhesive character of amoeboid cells (D. discoideum) in contact with silanized glass substrates. We observe the initiation and spreading of the adhesive contacts that these cells establish as they settle under gravity onto the substrate and relax towards mechanical equilibrium. The use of interference reflection microscopy and cellular tethering measurements have allowed us to determine the basic adhesive properties of the cell: the membrane-medium interfacial energy; the bending modulus; the equilibrium contact angle; and the work of adhesion. We find the time scale on which settling occurs to be longer than expected. Implications of these results on adhesion and migration will be discussed. The authors are grateful for support from NSF (CBET-1451903) and NIH (1R21EY026392).

  3. Cellular Scale Anisotropic Topography Guides Schwann Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Directed migration of Schwann cells (SC) is critical for development and repair of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding aspects of motility specific to SC, along with SC response to engineered biomaterials, may inform strategies to enhance nerve regeneration. Rat SC were cultured on laminin-coated microgrooved poly(dimethyl siloxane) platforms that were flat or presented repeating cellular scale anisotropic topographical cues, 30 or 60 µm in width, and observed with timelapse microscopy. SC motion was directed parallel to the long axis of the topography on both the groove floor and the plateau, with accompanying differences in velocity and directional persistence in comparison to SC motion on flat substrates. In addition, feature dimension affected SC morphology, alignment, and directional persistence. Plateaus and groove floors presented distinct cues which promoted differential motility and variable interaction with the topographical features. SC on the plateau surfaces tended to have persistent interactions with the edge topography, while SC on the groove floors tended to have infrequent contact with the corners and walls. Our observations suggest the capacity of SC to be guided without continuous contact with a topographical cue. SC exhibited a range of distinct motile morphologies, characterized by their symmetry and number of extensions. Across all conditions, SC with a single extension traveled significantly faster than cells with more or no extensions. We conclude that SC motility is complex, where persistent motion requires cellular asymmetry, and that anisotropic topography with cellular scale features can direct SC motility. PMID:21949703

  4. Quantitative measurement of changes in adhesion force involving focal adhesion kinase during cell attachment, spread, and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.-C.; Su, H.-W.; Lee, C.-C.; Tang, M.-J.; Su, F.-C. . E-mail: fcsu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-04-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical protein for the regulation of integrin-mediated cellular functions and it can enhance cell motility in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induction. We utilized optical trapping and cytodetachment techniques to measure the adhesion force between pico-Newton and nano-Newton (nN) for quantitatively investigating the effects of FAK on adhesion force during initial binding (5 s), beginning of spreading (30 min), spreadout (12 h), and migration (induced by HGF) in MDCK cells with overexpressed FAK (FAK-WT), FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK), as well as normal control cells. Optical tweezers was used to measure the initial binding force between a trapped cell and glass coverslide or between a trapped bead and a seeded cell. In cytodetachment, the commercial atomic force microscope probe with an appropriate spring constant was used as a cyto-detacher to evaluate the change of adhesion force between different FAK expression levels of cells in spreading, spreadout, and migrating status. The results demonstrated that FAK-WT significantly increased the adhesion forces as compared to FRNK cells throughout all the different stages of cell adhesion. For cells in HGF-induced migration, the adhesion force decreased to almost the same level ({approx}600 nN) regardless of FAK levels indicating that FAK facilitates cells to undergo migration by reducing the adhesion force. Our results suggest FAK plays a role of enhancing cell adhesive ability in the binding and spreading, but an appropriate level of adhesion force is required for HGF-induced cell migration.

  5. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing for the quantification of endothelial proliferation, barrier function, and motility.

    PubMed

    Szulcek, Robert; Bogaard, Harm Jan; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P

    2014-03-28

    Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) is an in vitro impedance measuring system to quantify the behavior of cells within adherent cell layers. To this end, cells are grown in special culture chambers on top of opposing, circular gold electrodes. A constant small alternating current is applied between the electrodes and the potential across is measured. The insulating properties of the cell membrane create a resistance towards the electrical current flow resulting in an increased electrical potential between the electrodes. Measuring cellular impedance in this manner allows the automated study of cell attachment, growth, morphology, function, and motility. Although the ECIS measurement itself is straightforward and easy to learn, the underlying theory is complex and selection of the right settings and correct analysis and interpretation of the data is not self-evident. Yet, a clear protocol describing the individual steps from the experimental design to preparation, realization, and analysis of the experiment is not available. In this article the basic measurement principle as well as possible applications, experimental considerations, advantages and limitations of the ECIS system are discussed. A guide is provided for the study of cell attachment, spreading and proliferation; quantification of cell behavior in a confluent layer, with regard to barrier function, cell motility, quality of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions; and quantification of wound healing and cellular responses to vasoactive stimuli. Representative results are discussed based on human microvascular (MVEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but are applicable to all adherent growing cells.

  6. Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing for the Quantification of Endothelial Proliferation, Barrier Function, and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Szulcek, Robert; Bogaard, Harm Jan; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P.

    2014-01-01

    Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) is an in vitro impedance measuring system to quantify the behavior of cells within adherent cell layers. To this end, cells are grown in special culture chambers on top of opposing, circular gold electrodes. A constant small alternating current is applied between the electrodes and the potential across is measured. The insulating properties of the cell membrane create a resistance towards the electrical current flow resulting in an increased electrical potential between the electrodes. Measuring cellular impedance in this manner allows the automated study of cell attachment, growth, morphology, function, and motility. Although the ECIS measurement itself is straightforward and easy to learn, the underlying theory is complex and selection of the right settings and correct analysis and interpretation of the data is not self-evident. Yet, a clear protocol describing the individual steps from the experimental design to preparation, realization, and analysis of the experiment is not available. In this article the basic measurement principle as well as possible applications, experimental considerations, advantages and limitations of the ECIS system are discussed. A guide is provided for the study of cell attachment, spreading and proliferation; quantification of cell behavior in a confluent layer, with regard to barrier function, cell motility, quality of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions; and quantification of wound healing and cellular responses to vasoactive stimuli. Representative results are discussed based on human microvascular (MVEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but are applicable to all adherent growing cells. PMID:24747269

  7. HES6 enhances the motility of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, Caroline M; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko; Williamson, Daniel; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Shipley, Janet; Murai, Kasumi; Jones, Philip H

    2013-01-01

    Absract: HES6, a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors, plays multiple roles in myogenesis. It is a direct target of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD and has been shown to regulate the formation of the myotome in development, myoblast cell cycle exit and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the expression and function of HES6 in rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft tissue tumor which expresses myogenic genes but fails to differentiate into muscle. We show that HES6 is expressed at high levels in the subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas expressing PAX/FOXO1 fusion genes (ARMSp). Knockdown of HES6 mRNA in the ARMSp cell line RH30 reduces proliferation and cell motility. This phenotype is rescued by expression of mouse Hes6 which is insensitive to HES6 siRNA. Furthermore, expression microarray analysis indicates that the HES6 knockdown is associated with a decrease in the levels of Transgelin, (TAGLN), a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of TAGLN decreases cell motility, whilst TAGLN overexpression rescues the motility defect resulting from HES6 knockdown. These findings indicate HES6 contributes to the pathogenesis of ARMSp by enhancing both proliferation and cell motility.

  8. SUSCEPTIBILITY AND PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS OF MOTILE AND NON MOTILE CELLS OF HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS (CHLOROPHYCEAE) TO PHOTOOXIDATIVE STRESS(1).

    PubMed

    Han, Danxiang; Wang, Junfeng; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2012-06-01

    The life cycle of the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis consists of motile and nonmotile stages under typical growing conditions. In this study, we observed that motile cells were more susceptible than nonmotile cells to high light, resulting in a decrease in population density and photo-bleaching. Using two Haematococcus strains, CCAP 34/12 (a motile cell dominated strain) and SAG 34/1b (a nonmotile cell dominated strain), as model systems we investigated the cause of cell death and the protective mechanisms of the cells that survived high light. The death of motile cells under high light was attributed to the generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused severe damage to the photosynthetic components and the membrane system. Motile cells were able to dissipate excess light energy by nonphotochemical quenching and to relax ROS production by a partially up-regulated scavenging enzyme system. However, these strategies were not sufficient to protect the motile cells from high light stress. In contrast, nonmotile cells were able to cope with and survive under high light by (i) relaxing the over-reduced photosynthetic electron transport chain (PETC), thereby effectively utilizing PETC-generated NADPH to produce storage starch, neutral lipid, and astaxanthin, and thus preventing formation of excess ROS; (ii) down-regulating the linear electron transport by decreasing the level of cytochrome f; and (iii) consuming excess electrons produced by PSII via a significantly enhanced plastid terminal oxidase pathway.

  9. Angiogenesis in Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Gaoyuan; Fehrenbach, Melane L.; Williams, James T.; Finklestein, Jeffrey M.; Zhu, Jing-Xu; DeLisser, Horace M.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 has been previously implicated in endothelial cell migration; additionally, anti-PECAM-1 antibodies have been shown to inhibit in vivo angiogenesis. Studies were therefore performed with PECAM-1-null mice to further define the involvement of PECAM-1 in blood vessel formation. Vascularization of subcutaneous Matrigel implants as well as tumor angiogenesis were both inhibited in PECAM-1-null mice. Reciprocal bone marrow transplants that involved both wild-type and PECAM-1-deficient mice revealed that the impaired angiogenic response resulted from a loss of endothelial, but not leukocyte, PECAM-1. In vitro wound migration and single-cell motility by PECAM-1-null endothelial cells were also compromised. In addition, filopodia formation, a feature of motile cells, was inhibited in PECAM-1-null endothelial cells as well as in human endothelial cells treated with either anti-PECAM-1 antibody or PECAM-1 siRNA. Furthermore, the expression of PECAM-1 promoted filopodia formation and increased the protein expression levels of Cdc42, a Rho GTPase that is known to promote the formation of filopodia. In the developing retinal vasculature, numerous, long filamentous filopodia, emanating from endothelial cells at the tips of angiogenic sprouts, were observed in wild-type animals, but to a lesser extent in the PECAM-1-null mice. Together, these data further establish the involvement of endothelial PECAM-1 in angiogenesis and suggest that, in vivo, PECAM-1 may stimulate endothelial cell motility by promoting the formation of filopodia. PMID:19574426

  10. Heparin regulates B6FS cell motility through a FAK/actin cytoskeleton axis

    PubMed Central

    Voudouri, Kallirroi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Tsiaoussis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare, heterogeneous tumors of mesenchymal origin with an aggressive behavior. Heparin is a mixture of heavily sulfated, linear glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which participate in the regulation of various cell biological functions. Heparin is considered to have significant anticancer capabilities, although the mechanisms involved have not been fully defined. In the present study, the effects of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on B6FS fibrosarcoma cell motility were examined. Both preparations of heparin were shown to both enhance B6FS cell adhesion (p<0.01 and p<0.05), and migration (p<0.05), the maximal effect being evident at the concentration of 10 µg/ml. The utilization of FAK-deficient cells demonstrated that the participation of FAK was obligatory for heparin-dependent fibrosarcoma cell adhesion (p<0.05). The results of confocal microscopy indicated that heparin was taken up by the B6FS cells, and that UFH and LMWH induced F-actin polymerization. Heparitinase digestion demonstrated that the endogenous heparan sulfate (HS) chains did not affect the motility of the B6FS cells (p>0.05, not significant). In conclusion, both UFH and LMWH, through a FAK/actin cytoskeleton axis, promoted the adhesion and migration of B6FS fibrosarcoma cells. Thus, our findings indicate that the responsiveness of fibrosarcoma cells to the exogenous heparin/HS content of the cancer microenvironment may play a role in their ability to become mobile and metastasize. PMID:27572115

  11. Measurement systems for cell adhesive forces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dennis W; García, Andrés J

    2015-02-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) involves integrin receptor-ligand binding and clustering to form focal adhesion (FA) complexes, which mechanically link the cell's cytoskeleton to the ECM and regulate fundamental cell signaling pathways. Although elucidation of the biochemical events in cell-matrix adhesive interactions is rapidly advancing, recent studies show that the forces underlying cell-matrix adhesive interactions are also critical to cell responses. Therefore, multiple measurement systems have been developed to quantify the spatial and temporal dynamics of cell adhesive forces, and these systems have identified how mechanical events influence cell phenotype and FA structure-function relationships under physiological and pathological settings. This review focuses on the development, methodology, and applications of measurement systems for probing (a) cell adhesion strength and (b) 2D and 3D cell traction forces.

  12. Model of Cell Crawling Controlled by Mechanosensitive Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, M.; Sens, P.

    2017-06-01

    We study the motility of model cells and biomimetic soft objects crawling over a substrate covered with adhesive linkers. The cell exerts traction forces on the substrate through the active periodic motion of molecular complexes to which the linkers bind and unbind stochastically. We first show that the diffusion coefficient of a force dipole (unable by symmetry to perform directed motion) is maximal for a finite ratio of the unbinding to binding rates, highlighting the role of adhesion kinetics on cell translocation. We next show that cells exerting more complex traction force distributions may exhibit directed motion only if the linkers are mechanosensitive, i.e., if the bonds' lifetime decreases (slip bonds) or increases (catch bonds) under stress. The average migration speed is higher in the catch-bond regime but so are the fluctuations, yielding a biased diffusive motion characterized by a Peclet number smaller than in the slip-bond regime.

  13. Cell adhesion molecules and sleep.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Emma Kate; Ballester Roig, Maria Neus; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-03-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play essential roles in the central nervous system, where some families are involved in synaptic development and function. These synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the formation of neuronal networks. Recent findings from studies examining the consequences of sleep loss suggest that these molecules are candidates to act in sleep regulation. This review highlights the experimental data that lead to the identification of SAMs as potential sleep regulators, and discusses results supporting that specific SAMs are involved in different aspects of sleep regulation. Further, some potential mechanisms by which SAMs may act to regulate sleep are outlined, and the proposition that these molecules may serve as molecular machinery in the two sleep regulatory processes, the circadian and homeostatic components, is presented. Together, the data argue that SAMs regulate the neuronal plasticity that underlies sleep and wakefulness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Extracellular matrix composition and interstitial pH modulate NHE1-mediated melanoma cell motility.

    PubMed

    Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Domikowsky, Britta; Schwöppe, Christian; Krähling, Hermann; Mally, Sabine; Schäfers, Michael; Hermann, Sven; Shahin, Victor; Haier, Jörg; Schwab, Albrecht; Stock, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is required for human melanoma cell adhesion and migration. The goal of the present study was to suppress mouse melanoma (B16V) cell invasion in vivo by inhibiting NHE1. Intravital observations in mobilized left liver lobes of laparotomized male Sprague-Dawley rats disclosed that five minutes after intra-arterial administration of the B16V cell suspension, cells adhered to the endothelia of liver sinusoidal capillaries and started to migrate into the surrounding liver tissue. In the presence of the NHE1-specific inhibitor cariporide, migration/invasion was reduced by about 50% while adhesion was not lowered. Time-lapse video microscopy and adhesion/invasion assays revealed that in vitro, blockade of NHE1 by cariporide i) significantly decreased the migratory speed of the cells and ii) completely inhibited the invasive behavior of both an artificial, basement membrane-like and a dermis-like matrix. Cells were more motile on the basement membrane and more invasive on the dermis-like matrix. Small-animal PET (positron-emission tomography) analyses of B16V metastasis in female C57BL/6 mice showed that, although NHE1 inhibition hardly affected the percentage of animals developing metastases or relapses, metastases seem to get directed to the lungs in cariporide-treated animals while animals feeding on the standard diet show metastases spread all over the body. We conclude that i) B16V cells prefer to invade a dermis-like rather than a basement membrane-like matrix; ii) the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition strongly impacts on NHE1-dependent in vitro cell motility and invasion; and iii) the lungs are metastasis‑prone and impair the efficiency of cariporide due to their ECM composition and the pulmonary interstitial (extravascular) pH.

  15. Regulation of epithelial cell organization by tuning cell-substrate adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ravasio, Andrea; Le, Anh Phuong; Saw, Thuan Beng; Tarle, Victoria; Ong, Hui Ting; Bertocchi, Cristina; Mège, René-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Gov, Nir S; Ladoux, Benoit

    2015-10-01

    Collective migration of cells is of fundamental importance for a number of biological functions such as tissue development and regeneration, wound healing and cancer metastasis. The movement of cell groups consisting of multiple cells connected by cell-cell junctions depends on both extracellular and intercellular contacts. Epithelial cell assemblies are thus regulated by a cross-talk between cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions. Here, we investigated the onset of collective migration in groups of cells as they expand from a few cells into large colonies as a function of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein coating. By varying the amount of ECM presented to the cells, we observe that the mode of colony expansion, as well as their overall geometry, is strongly dependent on substrate adhesiveness. On high ECM protein coated surfaces, cells at the edges of the colonies are well spread exhibiting large outward-pointing protrusive activity, whereas cellular colonies display more circular and convex shapes on less adhesive surfaces. Actin structures at the edge of the colonies also show different organizations with the formation of lamellipodial structures on highly adhesive surfaces and a pluricellular actin cable on less adhesive ones. The analysis of traction forces and cell velocities within the cellular assemblies confirm these results. By increasing ECM protein density, cells exert higher traction forces together with a higher outward motility at the edges. Furthermore, tuning cell-cell adhesion of epithelial cells modified the mode of expansion of the colonies. Finally, we used a recently developed computational model to recapitulate the emergent experimental behaviors of expanding cell colonies and extract that the main effect of the different cell-substrate interactions is on the ability of edge cells to form outward lamellipodia-driven motility. Overall, our data suggest that switching behaviors of epithelial cell assemblies result in a tug-of-war between

  16. Hyperswarming adaptations in a bacterium improve collective motility without enhancing single cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Deforet, Maxime; van Ditmarsch, Dave; Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Xavier, Joao B.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a monoflagellated bacterium that can use its single polar flagellum to swim through liquids and move collectively over semisolid surfaces, a behavior called swarming. Previous studies have shown that experimental evolution in swarming colonies leads to the selection of hyperswarming bacteria with multiple flagella. Here we show that the advantage of such hyperswarmer mutants cannot be explained simply by an increase in the raw swimming speed of individual bacteria in liquids. Cell tracking of time-lapse microscopy to quantify single-cell swimming patterns reveals that both wild-type and hyperswarmers alternate between forward and backward runs, rather than doing the run-and-tumble characteristic of enteric bacteria such as E. coli. High-throughput measurement of swimming speeds reveals that hyperswarmers do not swim faster than wild-type in liquid. Wild-type reverses swimming direction in sharp turns without a significant impact on its speed, whereas multiflagellated hyperswarmers tend to alternate fast and slow runs and have wider turning angles. Nonetheless, macroscopic measurement of swimming and swarming speed in colonies shows that hyperswarmers expand faster than wild-type on surfaces and through soft agar matrices. A mathematical model explains how wider turning angles lead to faster spreading when swimming through agar. Our study describes for the first time the swimming patterns in multiflagellated P. aeruginosa mutants and reveals that collective and individual motility in bacteria are not necessarily correlated. Understanding bacterial adaptations to surface motility, such as hyperswarming, requires a collective behavior approach. PMID:24622509

  17. Cell Motility Resulting form Spontaneous Polymerization Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten

    2014-03-01

    The crawling of living cells on solid substrates is often driven by the actin cytoskeleton, a network of structurally polar filamentous proteins that is intrinsically driven by the hydrolysis of ATP. How cells organize their actin network during crawling is still poorly understood. A possible general mechanism underlying actin organization has been offered by the observation of spontaneous actin polymerization waves in various different cell types. We use a theoretical approach to investigate the possible role of spontaneous actin waves on cell crawling. To this end, we develop a meanfield framework for studying spatiotemporal aspects of actin assembly dynamics, which helped to identify possible origins of self-organized actin waves. The impact of these waves on cell crawling is then investigated by using a phase-field approach to confine the actin network to a cellular domain. We find that spontaneous actin waves can lead to directional or amoeboidal crawling. In the latter case, the cell performs a random walk. Within our deterministic framework, this behavior is due to complex spiral waves inside the cell. Finally, we compare the seemingly random motion of our model cells to the dynamics of cells of the human immune system. These cells patrol the body in search for infected cells and we discuss possible implications of our theory for the search process' efficiency. Work was funded by the DFG through KR3430/1, GK1276, and SFB 1027.

  18. High-Frequency Mechanostimulation of Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kadem, Laith F; Suana, K Grace; Holz, Michelle; Wang, Wei; Westerhaus, Hannes; Herges, Rainer; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2017-01-02

    Cell adhesion is regulated by molecularly defined protein interactions and by mechanical forces, which can activate a dynamic restructuring of adhesion sites. Previous attempts to explore the response of cell adhesion to forces have been limited to applying mechanical stimuli that involve the cytoskeleton. In contrast, we here apply a new, oscillatory type of stimulus through push-pull azobenzenes. Push-pull azobenzenes perform a high-frequency, molecular oscillation upon irradiation with visible light that has frequently been applied in polymer surface relief grating. We here use these oscillations to address single adhesion receptors. The effect of molecular oscillatory forces on cell adhesion has been analyzed using single-cell force spectroscopy and gene expression studies. Our experiments demonstrate a reinforcement of cell adhesion as well as upregulated expression levels of adhesion-associated genes as a result of the nanoscale "tickling" of integrins. This novel type of mechanical stimulus provides a previously unprecedented molecular control of cellular mechanosensing.

  19. Memo mediates ErbB2-driven cell motility.

    PubMed

    Marone, Romina; Hess, Daniel; Dankort, David; Muller, William J; Hynes, Nancy E; Badache, Ali

    2004-06-01

    Clinical studies have revealed that cancer patients whose tumours have increased ErbB2 expression tend to have more aggressive, metastatic disease, which is associated with parameters predicting a poor outcome. The molecular basis underlying ErbB2-dependent cell motility and metastases formation, however, still remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that activation of a set of signalling molecules, including MAPK, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and Src, is required for Neu/ErbB2-dependent lamellipodia formation and for motility of breast carcinoma cells. Stimulation of these molecules, however, failed to induce efficient cell migration in the absence of Neu/ErbB2 phosphorylation at Tyr 1201 or Tyr 1227. We describe a novel molecule, Memo (mediator of ErbB2-driven cell motility), that interacts with a phospho-Tyr 1227-containing peptide, most probably through the Shc adaptor protein. After Neu/ErbB2 activation, Memo-defective cells form actin fibres and grow lamellipodia, but fail to extend microtubules towards the cell cortex. Our data suggest that Memo controls cell migration by relaying extracellular chemotactic signals to the microtubule cytoskeleton.

  20. High-Throughput, Label-Free Isolation of Cancer Stem Cells on the Basis of Cell Adhesion Capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanqing; Wu, Minhao; Han, Xin; Wang, Ping; Qin, Lidong

    2015-09-07

    Herein we report a microfluidics method that enriches cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells on the basis of cell adhesion properties. In our on-chip enrichment system, cancer cells were driven by hydrodynamic forces to flow through microchannels coated with basement membrane extract. Highly adhesive cells were captured by the functionalized microchannels, and less adhesive cells were collected from the outlets. Two heterogeneous breast cancer cell lines (SUM-149 and SUM-159) were successfully separated into enriched subpopulations according to their adhesive capacity, and the enrichment of the cancer stem cells was confirmed by flow cytometry biomarker analysis and tumor-formation assays. Our findings show that the less adhesive phenotype is associated with a higher percentage of CSCs, higher cancer-cell motility, and higher resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.

  1. Where to Go: Breaking the Symmetry in Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration in the “correct” direction is pivotal for many biological processes. Although most work is devoted to its molecular mechanisms, the cell’s preference for one direction over others, thus overcoming intrinsic random motility, epitomizes a profound principle that underlies all complex systems: the choice of one axis, in structure or motion, from a uniform or symmetric set of options. Explaining directional motility by an external chemo-attractant gradient does not solve but only shifts the problem of causation: whence the gradient? A new study in PLOS Biology shows cell migration in a self-generated gradient, offering an opportunity to take a broader look at the old dualism of extrinsic instruction versus intrinsic symmetry-breaking in cell biology. PMID:27196433

  2. Diversification of caldesmon-linked actin cytoskeleton in cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Mayanagi, Taira

    2011-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in regulating cell motility. Caldesmon (CaD) is an actin-linked regulatory protein found in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells that is conserved among a variety of vertebrates. It binds and stabilizes actin filaments, as well as regulating actin-myosin interaction in a calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM)- and/or phosphorylation-dependent manner. CaD function is regulated qualitatively by Ca2+/CaM and by its phosphorylation state and quantitatively at the mRNA level, by three different transcriptional regulation of the CALD1 gene. CaD has numerous functions in cell motility, such as migration, invasion and proliferation, exerted via the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we will outline recent findings regarding CaD's structural features and functions. PMID:21350330

  3. Interaction of pathogenic bacteria with rabbit appendix M cells: bacterial motility is a key feature in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Marta; Sirard, Jean Claude; Sansonetti, Philippe; Pringault, Eric; Kernéis, Sophie

    2004-05-01

    Rabbit appendix consists mainly of lymphoid follicles (LF) covered by M cells, the specialized antigen-sampling cells of the mucosal immune system, and surrounded by glandular epithelium. Until now, these M cells have been characterized morphologically and histologically by using cellular markers. Here, the adhesion and transport of pathogenic bacteria were investigated to assess the function of M cells of the appendix. We used the enteroinvasive motile Salmonella typhimurium and the rabbit enteropathogenic non-motile Escherichia coli RDEC-1, which are known to target specifically rabbit M cells of Peyer's patches (PPs). We found that S. typhimurium efficiently attached and was transported through appendix M cells in vivo. In contrast to S. typhimurium, RDEC-1 targeted M cells only ex vivo, when bacteria were allowed to have direct contact with the surface of the follicle. The difference in interaction of the two bacteria with appendix M cells led us to investigate whether this could be correlated with the lack of motility of RDEC-1. We used an aflagellate mutant of S. typhimurium and found that it had the same infection phenotype as RDEC-1. Gene complementation restored the efficiency of infection to that of S. typhimurium wild-type strain. In conclusion, we show that M cells of the appendix display features of the canonical M cells of PP, since they efficiently sample luminal pathogenic bacteria. However, due to the morphology of the appendix, motile bacteria appear to be more potent in their interactions with appendix M cells.

  4. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  5. A bacterial extracellular DNA inhibits settling of motile progeny cells within a biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Berne, Cécile; Kysela, David T.; Brun, Yves V.

    2010-01-01

    In natural systems, bacteria form complex, surface-attached communities known as biofilms. This lifestyle presents numerous advantages compared to unattached or planktonic life, such as exchange of nutrients, protection from environmental stresses and increased tolerance to biocides. Despite such benefits, dispersal also plays an important role in escaping deteriorating environments and in successfully colonizing favorable, unoccupied habitat patches. The α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus produces a motile swarmer cell and a sessile stalked cell at each cell division. We show here that C. crescentus extracellular DNA (eDNA) inhibits the ability of its motile cell type to settle in a biofilm. eDNA binds to the polar holdfast, an adhesive structure required for permanent surface attachment and biofilm formation, thereby inhibiting cell attachment. Since stalked cells associate tightly with the biofilm through their holdfast, we hypothesize that this novel mechanism acts on swarmer cells born in a biofilm, where eDNA can accumulate to a sufficient concentration to inhibit their ability to settle. By targeting a specific cell type in a biofilm, this mechanism modulates biofilm development and promotes dispersal without causing a potentially undesirable dissolution of the existing biofilm. PMID:20598083

  6. Cancer cell motility: lessons from migration in confined spaces

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Colin D.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo. Understanding cancer cell locomotion through physiologically relevant confining tracks could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to combat metastasis. PMID:27909339

  7. Cancer cell motility: lessons from migration in confined spaces.

    PubMed

    Paul, Colin D; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-02-01

    Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo. Understanding cancer cell locomotion through physiologically relevant confining tracks could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to combat metastasis.

  8. Biochemistry of actomyosin-dependent cell motility (a review).

    PubMed Central

    Korn, E D

    1978-01-01

    Actins and myosins similar to the major proteins of muscle are the major molecular components of intricate mechanochemical systems that perform numerous vital motility and structural functions in all eukaryotic cells. In this article, after a brief summary of the morphological distribution and ultrastructure of actin, myosin, and interrelated proteins of nonmuscle cells, our present knowledge of their biochemistry is critically appraised from the perspective that understanding complex cellular processes depends ultimately on the identification, purification, and biochemical characterization of the proteins involved. Although few conclusions are reached, possible molecular mechanisms for cellular regulation of actin polymerization, filament association, actomyosin ATPase activity, and mechanochemical coupling are discussed and a number of potentially fruitful directions for further research are suggested. These include comparative biochemical investigations and the study of the interaction of heterologous proteins, but particular emphasis is given to the need for quantitative studies at the molecular level of motility proteins purified from a single cellular source. PMID:147464

  9. The influence of electric field and confinement on cell motility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Samorajski, Justin; Kreimer, Rachel; Searson, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D.

  10. The Influence of Electric Field and Confinement on Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Samorajski, Justin; Kreimer, Rachel; Searson, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D. PMID:23555674

  11. Automated real-time measurement of chemotactic cell motility.

    PubMed

    Hadjout, N; Laevsky, G; Knecht, D A; Lynes, M A

    2001-11-01

    We have developed a novel method, (ECIS/taxis), for monitoring cell movement in response to chemotactic and chemokinetic factors. In this system, cells migrate in an under-agarose environment, and their positions are monitored using the electric cell-substrate impedance sensor technology to measure the impedance change at a target electrode, that is lithographed onto the substrate, as the cells arrive at the target. In the studies reported here, Dictyostelium discoideum was used as a prototypical, motile eukaryotic cell. Using the ECIS/taxis system, the arrival of cells at the target electrode was proportional to the dose offolate used to stimulate the cells and could be assessed by changes in resistance at the electrode. ECIS/taxis was readily able to distinguish between wild-type cells and a mutant that is deficient in its chemotactic response. Finally, we have shown that an agent that interferes with chemotactic motility leads to the delayed arrival of cells at the target electrode. The multi-well assay configuration allows for simultaneous automated screening of many samples for chemotactic or anti-chemotactic activity. This assay system is compatible with measurements of mammalian cell movement and should be valuable in the assessment of both agonists and antagonists of cell movement.

  12. Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder associated with the loss of synapses between neurons in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins which are expressed at the synaptic plasma membranes of neurons. These proteins play key roles in formation and maintenance of synapses and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Genetic studies and biochemical analysis of the human brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and sera from AD patients indicate that levels and function of synaptic cell adhesion molecules are affected in AD. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules interact with Aβ, a peptide accumulating in AD brains, which affects their expression and synaptic localization. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules also regulate the production of Aβ via interaction with the key enzymes involved in Aβ formation. Aβ-dependent changes in synaptic adhesion affect the function and integrity of synapses suggesting that alterations in synaptic adhesion play key roles in the disruption of neuronal networks in AD. PMID:27242933

  13. Focal Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Ewa K; Aspalter, Irene M; Sixt, Michael

    2016-10-06

    Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate. Here, we review the investigations that have led to challenging the requirement of specific adhesions for migration, discuss the physical mechanisms proposed for cell body translocation during focal adhesion-independent migration, and highlight the remaining open questions for the future.

  14. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  15. Modelling cell motility and chemotaxis with evolving surface finite elements.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Charles M; Stinner, Björn; Venkataraman, Chandrasekhar

    2012-11-07

    We present a mathematical and a computational framework for the modelling of cell motility. The cell membrane is represented by an evolving surface, with the movement of the cell determined by the interaction of various forces that act normal to the surface. We consider external forces such as those that may arise owing to inhomogeneities in the medium and a pressure that constrains the enclosed volume, as well as internal forces that arise from the reaction of the cells' surface to stretching and bending. We also consider a protrusive force associated with a reaction-diffusion system (RDS) posed on the cell membrane, with cell polarization modelled by this surface RDS. The computational method is based on an evolving surface finite-element method. The general method can account for the large deformations that arise in cell motility and allows the simulation of cell migration in three dimensions. We illustrate applications of the proposed modelling framework and numerical method by reporting on numerical simulations of a model for eukaryotic chemotaxis and a model for the persistent movement of keratocytes in two and three space dimensions. Movies of the simulated cells can be obtained from http://homepages.warwick.ac.uk/∼maskae/CV_Warwick/Chemotaxis.html.

  16. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility.

    PubMed

    Sens, Pierre; Plastino, Julie

    2015-07-15

    Cell membrane shape changes are important for many aspects of normal biological function, such as tissue development, wound healing and cell division and motility. Various disease states are associated with deregulation of how cells move and change shape, including notably tumor initiation and cancer cell metastasis. Cell motility is powered, in large part, by the controlled assembly and disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Much of this dynamic happens in close proximity to the plasma membrane due to the fact that actin assembly factors are membrane-bound, and thus actin filaments are generally oriented such that their growth occurs against or near the membrane. For a long time, the membrane was viewed as a relatively passive scaffold for signaling. However, results from the last five years show that this is not the whole picture, and that the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton are intimately linked to the mechanics of the cell membrane. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the role of plasma membrane mechanics in cell cytoskeleton dynamics and architecture, showing that the cell membrane is not just an envelope or a barrier for actin assembly, but is a master regulator controlling cytoskeleton dynamics and cell polarity.

  17. Quantitative methods for analyzing cell-cell adhesion in development.

    PubMed

    Kashef, Jubin; Franz, Clemens M

    2015-05-01

    During development cell-cell adhesion is not only crucial to maintain tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis, it also activates signalling pathways important for the regulation of different cellular processes including cell survival, gene expression, collective cell migration and differentiation. Importantly, gene mutations of adhesion receptors can cause developmental disorders and different diseases. Quantitative methods to measure cell adhesion are therefore necessary to understand how cells regulate cell-cell adhesion during development and how aberrations in cell-cell adhesion contribute to disease. Different in vitro adhesion assays have been developed in the past, but not all of them are suitable to study developmentally-related cell-cell adhesion processes, which usually requires working with low numbers of primary cells. In this review, we provide an overview of different in vitro techniques to study cell-cell adhesion during development, including a semi-quantitative cell flipping assay, and quantitative single-cell methods based on atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) or dual micropipette aspiration (DPA). Furthermore, we review applications of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based molecular tension sensors to visualize intracellular mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion sites. Finally, we describe a recently introduced method to quantitate cell-generated forces directly in living tissues based on the deformation of oil microdroplets functionalized with adhesion receptor ligands. Together, these techniques provide a comprehensive toolbox to characterize different cell-cell adhesion phenomena during development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Live cell imaging of neuronal growth cone motility and guidance in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The neuronal growth cone, a highly motile structure at the tip of neuronal processes, is an excellent model system for studying directional cell movements. While biochemical and genetic approaches unveiled molecular interactions between ligand, receptor, signaling and cytoskeleton-associated proteins controlling axonal growth and guidance, in vitro live cell imaging has emerged as a crucial approach for dissecting cellular mechanisms of growth cone motility and guidance. Important insights into these mechanisms have been gained from studies using the large growth cones elaborated by Aplysia californica neurons, an outstanding model system for live cell imaging for a number of reasons. Identified neurons can be isolated and imaged at room temperature. Aplysia growth cones are 5–10 times larger than growth cones from other species, making them suitable for quantitative high-resolution imaging of cytoskeletal protein dynamics and biophysical approaches. Lastly, protein, RNA, fluorescent probes and small molecules can be microinjected into the neuronal cell body for localization and functional studies. The following chapter describes culturing of Aplysia bag cell neurons, live cell imaging of neuronal growth cones using differential interference contrast and fluorescent speckle microscopy as well as the restrained bead interaction assay to induce adhesion-mediated growth cone guidance in vitro. PMID:21748670

  19. Cathepsin E Deficiency Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease and Modifies Dendritic Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Mengwasser, Jörg; Babes, Liane; Cordes, Steffen; Mertlitz, Sarah; Riesner, Katarina; Shi, Yu; McGearey, Aleixandria; Kalupa, Martina; Reinheckel, Thomas; Penack, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Microbial products influence immunity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). In this context, the role of cathepsin E (Ctse), an aspartate protease known to cleave bacterial peptides for antigen presentation in dendritic cells (DCs), has not been studied. During experimental acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we found infiltration by Ctse-positive immune cells leading to higher Ctse RNA- and protein levels in target organs. In Ctse-deficient allo-SCT recipients, we found ameliorated GVHD, improved survival, and lower numbers of tissue-infiltrating DCs. Donor T cell proliferation was not different in Ctse-deficient vs. wild-type allo-SCT recipients in MHC-matched and MHC-mismatched models. Furthermore, Ctse-deficient DCs had an intact ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation, suggesting that its role in antigen presentation may not be the main mechanism how Ctse impacts GVHD. We found that Ctse deficiency significantly decreases DC motility in vivo, reduces adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM), and diminishes invasion through ECM. We conclude that Ctse has a previously unrecognized role in regulating DC motility that possibly contributes to reduced DC counts and ameliorated inflammation in GVHD target organs of Ctse-deficient allo-SCT recipients. However, our data do not provide definite proof that the observed effect of Ctse−/− deficiency is exclusively mediated by DCs. A contribution of Ctse−/−-mediated functions in other recipient cell types, e.g., macrophages, cannot be excluded. PMID:28298913

  20. Membrane tension feedback on shape and motility of eukaryotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Benjamin; Aranson, Igor S.; Ziebert, Falko

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a phase field model of a single cell crawling on a substrate, we investigate how the properties of the cell membrane affect the shape and motility of the cell. Since the membrane influences the cell dynamics on multiple levels and provides a nontrivial feedback, we consider the following fundamental interactions: (i) the reduction of the actin polymerization rate by membrane tension; (ii) area conservation of the cell's two-dimensional cross-section vs. conservation of the circumference (i.e. membrane inextensibility); and (iii) the contribution from the membrane's bending energy to the shape and integrity of the cell. As in experiments, we investigate two pertinent observables - the cell's velocity and its aspect ratio. We find that the most important effect is the feedback of membrane tension on the actin polymerization. Bending rigidity has only minor effects, visible mostly in dynamic reshaping events, as exemplified by collisions of the cell with an obstacle.

  1. Polymorphonuclear cell motility, ankylosing spondylitis, and HLA B27.

    PubMed Central

    Pease, C T; Fordham, J N; Currey, H L

    1984-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function was studied in 29 subjects with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Of these, 20 were HLA B27+ve and 9 B27-ve. There were 30 controls and, of these, 15 were B27+ve. Random and directed cell migration was measured by 2 techniques: migration through a micropore filter and migration under an agar film. The chemo-attractant was either case in-activated serum or zymosan-activated serum. By both techniques directed motility was increased in subjects with B27 or with AS when compared to the B27-ve controls. This suggests that the disease AS and the possession of B27 are both associated with increased PMN motility. PMID:6608924

  2. Polymorphonuclear cell motility, ankylosing spondylitis, and HLA B27.

    PubMed

    Pease, C T; Fordham, J N; Currey, H L

    1984-04-01

    Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function was studied in 29 subjects with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Of these, 20 were HLA B27+ve and 9 B27-ve. There were 30 controls and, of these, 15 were B27+ve. Random and directed cell migration was measured by 2 techniques: migration through a micropore filter and migration under an agar film. The chemo-attractant was either case in-activated serum or zymosan-activated serum. By both techniques directed motility was increased in subjects with B27 or with AS when compared to the B27-ve controls. This suggests that the disease AS and the possession of B27 are both associated with increased PMN motility.

  3. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer. PMID:25629974

  4. TES is a novel focal adhesion protein with a role in cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Amanda S; MacKenzie, Elaine; Griffith, Elen; Black, Donald M

    2003-03-01

    Previously, we identified TES as a novel candidate tumour suppressor gene that mapped to human chromosome 7q31.1. In this report we demonstrate that the TES protein is localised at focal adhesions, actin stress fibres and areas of cell-cell contact. TES has three C-terminal LIM domains that appear to be important for focal adhesion targeting. Additionally, the N-terminal region is important for targeting TES to actin stress fibres. Yeast two-hybrid and biochemical analyses yielded interactions with several focal adhesion and/or cytoskeletal proteins including mena, zyxin and talin. The fact that TES localises to regions of cell adhesion suggests that it functions in events related to cell motility and adhesion. In support of this, we demonstrate that fibroblasts stably overexpressing TES have an increased ability to spread on fibronectin.

  5. Regulation of Cell–Cell Adhesion by Rac and Rho Small G Proteins in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takaishi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takuya; Kotani, Hirokazu; Nishioka, Hideo; Takai, Yoshimi

    1997-01-01

    The Rho small G protein family, consisting of the Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 subfamilies, regulates various cell functions, such as cell shape change, cell motility, and cytokinesis, through reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show here that the Rac and Rho subfamilies furthermore regulate cell–cell adhesion. We prepared MDCK cell lines stably expressing each of dominant active mutants of RhoA (sMDCK-RhoDA), Rac1 (sMDCK-RacDA), and Cdc42 (sMDCK-Cdc42DA) and dominant negative mutants of Rac1 (sMDCK-RacDN) and Cdc42 (sMDCK-Cdc42DN) and analyzed cell adhesion in these cell lines. The actin filaments at the cell–cell adhesion sites markedly increased in sMDCK-RacDA cells, whereas they apparently decreased in sMDCK-RacDN cells, compared with those in wild-type MDCK cells. Both E-cadherin and β-catenin, adherens junctional proteins, at the cell–cell adhesion sites also increased in sMDCK-RacDA cells, whereas both of them decreased in sMDCK-RacDN cells. The detergent solubility assay indicated that the amount of detergent-insoluble E-cadherin increased in sMDCK-RacDA cells, whereas it slightly decreased in sMDCK-RacDN cells, compared with that in wild-type MDCK cells. In sMDCK-RhoDA, -Cdc42DA, and -Cdc42DN cells, neither of these proteins at the cell–cell adhesion sites was apparently affected. ZO-1, a tight junctional protein, was not apparently affected in any of the transformant cell lines. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that sMDCK-RacDA cells tightly made contact with each other throughout the lateral membranes, whereas wild-type MDCK and sMDCK-RacDN cells tightly and linearly made contact at the apical area of the lateral membranes. These results suggest that the Rac subfamily regulates the formation of the cadherin-based cell– cell adhesion. Microinjection of C3 into wild-type MDCK cells inhibited the formation of both the cadherin-based cell–cell adhesion and the tight junction, but microinjection of C3 into sMDCK-RacDA cells showed little

  6. ZRP-1 controls Rho GTPase-mediated actin reorganization by localizing at cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chen-Yu; Ohsugi, Miho; Abe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2007-08-15

    Focal adhesion protein ZRP-1/TRIP6 has been implicated in actin reorganization and cell motility. The role of ZRP-1, however, remained obscure because previously reported data are often conflicting one another. In the present study, we examined roles of ZRP-1 in HeLa cells. ZRP-1 is localized to the cell-cell contact sites as well as to cell-matrix contact sites in HeLa cells. RNA-interference-mediated depletion of ZRP-1 from HeLa cells revealed that ZRP-1 is essential not only for the formation of stress fibers and assembly of mature focal adhesions, but also for the actin reorganization at cell-cell contact sites and for correct cell-cell adhesion and, thus, for collective cell migration. Impairment of focal adhesions and stress fibers caused by ZRP-1 depletion has been associated with reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK. However, maturation of focal adhesions could not be recovered by expression of active FAK. Interestingly, stress fibers in ZRP-1-depleted cells were ameliorated by exogenous expression of RhoA. We also found that total Rac1 activity is elevated in ZRP-1-depleted cells, resulting in abnormal burst of actin polymerization and dynamic membrane protrusions. Taken together, we conclude that that ZRP-1 plays a crucial role in coupling the cell-matrix/cell-cell-contact signals with Rho GTPase-mediated actin remodeling by localizing at cell-matrix and cell-cell contact sites.

  7. Immobilization of motile bacterial cells via dip-pen nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamjav, Dorjderem; Rozhok, Sergey; Holz, Richard C.

    2010-06-01

    A strategy to bind bacterial cells to surfaces in a directed fashion via dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is presented. Cellular attachment to pre-designed DPN generated microarrays was found to be dependent on the shape and size of the surface feature. While this observation is likely due in part to a dense, well formed mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) monolayer generated via DPN, it may also simply be due to the physical shape of the surface structure. Motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells were observed to bind to DPN generated mercaptohexadecanoic acid/poly-L-lysine (MHA/PLL) line patterns, 'blocks' made up of eight lines with 100 nm spacings, with ~ 80% occupancy. Cellular binding to these 'block' surface structures occurs via an electrostatic interaction between negatively charged groups on the bacterial cell surface and positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL) assemblies. These data indicate that these DPN generated 'block' surface structures provide a promising footprint for the attachment of motile bacterial cells that may find utility in cell based biosensors or single cell studies.

  8. Learning and memory: an emergent property of cell motility.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Michel; Bi, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we develop the argument that the molecular/cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory are an adaptation of the mechanisms used by all cells to regulate cell motility. Neuronal plasticity and more specifically synaptic plasticity are widely recognized as the processes by which information is stored in neuronal networks engaged during the acquisition of information. Evidence accumulated over the last 25 years regarding the molecular events underlying synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses has shown the remarkable convergence between those events and those taking place in cells undergoing migration in response to extracellular signals. We further develop the thesis that the calcium-dependent protease, calpain, which we postulated over 25 years ago to play a critical role in learning and memory, plays a central role in the regulation of both cell motility and synaptic plasticity. The findings discussed in this review illustrate the general principle that fundamental cell biological processes are used for a wide range of functions at the level of organisms.

  9. Lattice-free models of directed cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Carolyn; Plank, Michael J.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Directed cell migration often occurs when individual cells move in response to an external chemical stimulus. Cells can respond by moving in either the direction of increasing (chemoattraction) or decreasing (chemorepulsion) concentration. Many previous models of directed cell migration use a lattice-based framework where agents undergo a lattice-based random walk and the direction of nearest-neighbour motility events is biased in a preferred direction. Such lattice-based models can lead to unrealistic configurations of agents, since the agents always move on an artificial lattice structure which is never observed experimentally. We present a lattice-free model of directed cell migration that incorporates two key features. First, agents move on a continuous domain, with the possibility that there is some preferred direction of motion. Second, to be consistent with experimental observations, we enforce a crowding mechanism so that motility events that would lead to agent overlap are not permitted. We compare simulation data from the new lattice-free model with a more traditional lattice-based model. To provide additional insight into the lattice-free model, we construct an approximate conservation statement which corresponds to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation in the continuum limit. The solution of this mean-field model compares well with averaged data from the individual-based model.

  10. Loss of SNAP29 Impairs Endocytic Recycling and Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, Debora; Lugassy, Yevgenia; Sprecher, Eli; Horowitz, Mia

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular membrane trafficking depends on the ordered formation and consumption of transport intermediates and requires that membranes fuse with each other in a tightly regulated and highly specific manner. Membrane anchored SNAREs assemble into SNARE complexes that bring membranes together to promote fusion. SNAP29 is a ubiquitous synaptosomal-associated SNARE protein. It interacts with several syntaxins and with the EH domain containing protein EHD1. Loss of functional SNAP29 results in CEDNIK syndrome (Cerebral Dysgenesis, Neuropathy, Ichthyosis and Keratoderma). Using fibroblast cell lines derived from CEDNIK patients, we show that SNAP29 mediates endocytic recycling of transferrin and β1-integrin. Impaired β1-integrin recycling affected cell motility, as reflected by changes in cell spreading and wound healing. No major changes were detected in exocytosis of VSVG protein from the Golgi apparatus, although the Golgi system acquired a dispersed morphology in SNAP29 deficient cells. Our results emphasize the importance of SNAP29 mediated membrane fusion in endocytic recycling and consequently, in cell motility. PMID:20305790

  11. IQGAP3 Is Essential for Cell Proliferation and Motility During Zebrafish Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Bianhong; Thisse, Bernard; Bloom, George S.; Thisse, Christine

    2015-01-01

    IQGAPs are scaffolding proteins that regulate actin assembly, exocyst function, cell motility, morphogenesis, adhesion and division. Vertebrates express 3 family members: IQGAP1, IQGAP2 and IQGAP3. IQGAP1 is known to stimulate nucleation of branched actin filaments through N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex following direct binding to cytoplasmic tails of ligand-activated growth factor receptors, including EGFR, VEGFR2 and FGFR1. By contrast, little is known about functions of IQGAP2 or IQGAP3. Using in situ hybridization on whole mount zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, we show that IQGAP1 and IQGAP2 are associated with discrete tissues and organs, while IQGAP3 is mainly expressed in proliferative cells throughout embryonic and larval development. Morpholino knockdowns of IQGAP1 and IQGAP2 have little effect on embryo morphology while loss of function of IQGAP3 affects both cell proliferation and cell motility. IQGAP3 morphant phenotypes are similar to those resulting from overexpression of dominant negative forms of Ras or of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1), suggesting that IQGAP3 plays a role in FGFR1-Ras-ERK signaling. In support of this hypothesis, dominant negative forms of FGFR1 or Ras could be rescued by co-injection of zebrafish IQGAP3 mRNA, strongly suggesting that IQGAP3 acts as a downstream regulator of the FGFR1-Ras signaling pathway. PMID:26286209

  12. Simultaneous optical measurements of cell motility and growth.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Shamira; Mir, Mustafa; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-10-01

    It has recently been shown that spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) developed in our laboratory can be used to quantify the dry mass growth of single cells with femtogram sensitivity [M. Mir et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 32 (2011)]. Here we show that it is possible to measure the motility of single cells in conjunction with the dry mass measurements. Specifically the effect of poly-L-lysine substrate on the dry mass growth of Drosophila S2 cells is studied. By measuring the mean square displacement of single cells and clusters it is shown that cells that adhere better to the surface are unable to grow. Using such a technique it is possible to measure both growth and morphogenesis, two of the cornerstones of developmental biology.

  13. Roles played by a subset of integrin signaling molecules in cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hajime; Mazaki, Yuichi; Kurokawa, Kazuo; Hanks, Steven K; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Sabe, Hisataka

    2004-07-19

    Integrins can intercommunicate with cadherins. Here, we examined their possible relationship by use of small interfering RNA-mediated protein knockdown in HeLa cells. We found that a subset of integrin signaling molecules, namely Fak and paxillin, but not p130 Crk-associated substrate or proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2, participate in processes regulating N-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion. Paxillin was found to be required primarily for the recruitment of Fak to robust focal adhesions. Our results suggest that at least some signals involving Fak are linked to a mechanism down-regulating Rac1 activity at the cell periphery, which appears to be important for the formation of N-cadherin-based adhesions in motile cells. Our analyses simultaneously exemplified the essential role of Fak in the maintenance of cell-cell adhesions in collective cell migration, a type of migration occurring in embryonic development and carcinoma invasion.

  14. Diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration and the dependence of cell adhesion on substrate stiffness.

    PubMed

    Moazzem Hossain, M; Wang, Xin; Bergan, Raymond C; Jin, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Calponin is an actin filament-associated protein and its h2 isoform inhibits cell motility. Here we report significant expression of h2-calponin in prostate epithelial cells, which is diminished in cancerous cells. Comparison between a prostate cancer cell line PC3 and its metastatic derivative PC3-M showed lower levels of h2-calponin in PC3-M, corresponding to faster rates of cell proliferation and migration. Substrate adhesion of PC3 and PC3-M cells was positively correlated to the level of h2-calponin and the adhesion of PC3-M exhibited a higher dependence on substrate stiffness. Such effects of h2-calponin on cell proliferation, migration and substrate adhesion were also seen in normal versus cancerous primary prostate cells. Further supporting the role of h2-calponin in inhibiting cell motility, fibroblasts isolated from h2-calponin knockout mice proliferated and migrated faster than that of wild type fibroblasts. Transfective over-expression of h2-calponin in PC3-M cells effectively inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The results suggest that the diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells increases cell motility, decreases substrate adhesion, and promotes adhesion on high stiffness substrates.

  15. Diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, migration and the dependence of cell adhesion on substrate stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Moazzem Hossain, M.; Wang, Xin; Bergan, Raymond C.; Jin, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Calponin is an actin filament-associated protein and its h2 isoform inhibits cell motility. Here we report significant expression of h2-calponin in prostate epithelial cells, which is diminished in cancerous cells. Comparison between a prostate cancer cell line PC3 and its metastatic derivative PC3-M showed lower levels of h2-calponin in PC3-M, corresponding to faster rates of cell proliferation and migration. Substrate adhesion of PC3 and PC3-M cells was positively correlated to the level of h2-calponin and the adhesion of PC3-M exhibited a higher dependence on substrate stiffness. Such effects of h2-calponin on cell proliferation, migration and substrate adhesion were also seen in normal versus cancerous primary prostate cells. Further supporting the role of h2-calponin in inhibiting cell motility, fibroblasts isolated from h2-calponin knockout mice proliferated and migrated faster than that of wild type fibroblasts. Transfective over-expression of h2-calponin in PC3-M cells effectively inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The results suggest that the diminished expression of h2-calponin in prostate cancer cells increases cell motility, decreases substrate adhesion, and promotes adhesion on high stiffness substrates. PMID:25161871

  16. Traveling waves in actin dynamics and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Jun; Mogilner, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Much of current understanding of cell motility arose from studying steady treadmilling of actin arrays. Recently, there have been a growing number of observations of a more complex, non-steady, actin behavior, including self-organized waves. It is becoming clear that these waves result from activation and inhibition feedbacks in actin dynamics acting on different scales, but the exact molecular nature of these feedbacks and respective roles of biomechanics and biochemistry are still unclear. Here, we review recent advances achieved in experimental and theoretical studies of actin waves and discuss mechanisms and physiological significance of wavy protrusions. PMID:22985541

  17. The HP0256 gene product is involved in motility and cell envelope architecture of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for gastritis, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. The bacterium displays 5-6 polar sheathed flagella that are essential for colonisation and persistence in the gastric mucosa. The biochemistry and genetics of flagellar biogenesis in H. pylori has not been fully elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the gene HP0256, annotated as hypothetical, was a FliJ homologue. In Salmonella, FliJ is a chaperone escort protein for FlgN and FliT, two proteins that themselves display chaperone activity for components of the hook, the rod and the filament. Results Ablation of the HP0256 gene in H. pylori significantly reduced motility. However, flagellin and hook protein synthesis was not affected in the HP0256 mutant. Transmission electron transmission microscopy revealed that the HP0256 mutant cells displayed a normal flagellum configuration, suggesting that HP0256 was not essential for assembly and polar localisation of the flagella in the cell. Interestingly, whole genome microarrays of an HP0256 mutant revealed transcriptional changes in a number of genes associated with the flagellar regulon and the cell envelope, such as outer membrane proteins and adhesins. Consistent with the array data, lack of the HP0256 gene significantly reduced adhesion and the inflammatory response in host cells. Conclusions We conclude that HP0256 is not a functional counterpart of FliJ in H. pylori. However, it is required for full motility and it is involved, possibly indirectly, in expression of outer membrane proteins and adhesins involved in pathogenesis and adhesion. PMID:20377912

  18. Contractility Modulates Cell Adhesion Strengthening Through Focal Adhesion Kinase and Assembly of Vinculin-Containing Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Dumbauld, David W.; Shin, Heungsoo; Gallant, Nathan D.; Michael, Kristin E.; Radhakrishna, Harish; García, Andrés J.

    2010-01-01

    Actin-myosin contractility modulates focal adhesion assembly, stress fiber formation, and cell migration. We analyzed the contributions of contractility to fibroblast adhesion strengthening using a hydrodynamic adhesion assay and micropatterned substrates to control cell shape and adhesive area. Serum addition resulted in adhesion strengthening to levels 30–40% higher than serum-free cultures. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase or Rho-kinase blocked phosphorylation of myosin light chain to similar extents and eliminated the serum-induced enhancements in strengthening. Blebbistatin-induced inhibition of myosin II reduced serum-induced adhesion strength to similar levels as those obtained by blocking myosin light chain phosphorylation. Reductions in adhesion strengthening by inhibitors of contractility correlated with loss of vinculin and talin from focal adhesions without changes in integrin binding. In vinculin-null cells, inhibition of contractility did not alter adhesive force, whereas controls displayed a 20% reduction in adhesion strength, indicating that the effects of contractility on adhesive force are vinculin-dependent. Furthermore, in cells expressing FAK, inhibitors of contractility reduced serum-induced adhesion strengthening as well as eliminated focal adhesion assembly. In contrast, in the absence of FAK, these inhibitors did not alter adhesion strength or focal adhesion assembly. These results indicate that contractility modulates adhesion strengthening via FAK-dependent, vinculin-containing focal adhesion assembly. PMID:20205236

  19. Rock `N' Rho in Outer Hair Cell Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Kalinec, G.; Kalinec, F.; Billadeau, D. D.; Urrutia, R.

    2003-02-01

    RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1, small GTPases of the Rho family, are crucial regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and mediate different types of cell motility. They also help to maintain cellular homeostasis, actively regulating the structure and mechanical properties of the cells. We investigated the expression in the guinea-pig cochlea of the serine/threonine kinase ROCK, a well-known effector of RhoA, and measured electromotile amplitude in outer hair cells (OHCs) internally perfused with C3 and Y-27632, pharmacological inhibitors of RhoA and ROCK respectively, and dominant-negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42. We found that a RhoA/ROCK-mediated signaling pathway is important for mechanical homeostasis of cochlear OHCs, and identified ROCK as a potential target to selectively modulate outer hair cell electromotility.

  20. Regulation of epithelial cell organization by tuning cell-substrate adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ravasio, Andrea; Le, Anh Phuong; Saw, Thuan Beng; Tarle, Victoria; Ong, Hui Ting; Bertocchi, Cristina; Mège, René-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Gov, Nir; Ladoux, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Collective migration of cells is of fundamental importance for a number of biological functions such as tissue development and regeneration, wound healing and cancer metastasis. The movement of cell groups consisting of multiple cells connected by cell-cell junctions depends on both extracellular and intercellular contacts. Epithelial cell assemblies are thus regulated by a cross-talk between cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions. Here, we investigated the onset of collective migration in groups of cells as they expand from few cells into large colonies as a function of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) protein coating. By varying the amount of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) presented to the cells, we observe that the mode of colony expansion as well as their overall geometry is strongly dependent on substrate adhesiveness. On high ECM protein coated surfaces, cells at the edges of the colonies are well spread exhibiting large outward-pointing protrusive activity whereas cellular colonies display more circular and convex shapes on less adhesive surfaces. Actin structures at the edge of the colonies also show different organizations with the formation of lamellipodial structures on highly adhesive surfaces and a pluricellular actin cable on less adhesive ones. The analysis of traction forces and cell velocities within the cellular assemblies confirm these results. By increasing ECM protein density, cells exert higher traction forces together with a higher outward motility at the edges. Furthermore, tuning cell-cell adhesion of epithelial cell lines modified the mode of expansion of the colonies. Finally, we used a recently developed computational model to recapitulate the emergent experimental behaviors of expanding cell colonies and extract that the main observed differences are dependent on the different cell-substrate interactions. Overall, our data suggest that switching behaviors of epithelial cell assemblies results of a tug-of-war between friction forces

  1. Mechanochemical symmetric breaking in cell motility of slime mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Robert; Zhang, Shun; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The cytoplasm of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum exhibits regular rhythmic periodic shuttle streaming though the cell in the direction of motion. The fluid motion is driven by the periodic contraction of an actin-myosin gel that is regulated by a calcium oscillation. When the organism is small (< 100 microns) there is no shuttle streaming, but beyond this size, regular back-and-forth streaming appears and the cell begins to migrate. In this talk we analyze a mechanochemical model of the cell which includes the intracellular fluid, the active contractile cytoskeleton, the adhesion to the substrate, and the dynamics of a chemical oscillator. We use this analysis along with experimental data to identify the instability related to the onset of streaming in order to bring insight into how contraction, flow, and adhesion are coordinated during locomotion.

  2. Adhesion of cells to polystyrene surfaces

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The surface treatment of polystyrene, which is required to make polystyrene suitable for cell adhesion and spreading, was investigated. Examination of surfaces treated with sulfuric acid or various oxidizing agents using (a) x-ray photoelectron and attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and (b) measurement of surface carboxyl-, hydroxyl-, and sulfur-containing groups by various radiochemical methods showed that sulfuric acid produces an insignificant number of sulfonic acid groups on polystyrene. This technique together with various oxidation techniques that render surfaces suitable for cell culture generated high surface densities of hydroxyl groups. The importance of surface hydroxyl groups for the adhesion of baby hamster kidney cells or leukocytes was demonstrated by the inhibition of adhesion when these groups were blocked: blocking of carboxyl groups did not inhibit adhesion and may raise the adhesion of a surface. These results applied to cell adhesion in the presence and absence of serum. The relative unimportance of fibronectin for the adhesion and spreading of baby hamster kidney cells to hydroxyl-rich surfaces was concluded when cells spread on such surfaces after protein synthesis was inhibited with cycloheximide, fibronectin was removed by trypsinization, and trypsin activity was stopped with leupeptin. PMID:6355120

  3. The prostate metastasis suppressor gene NDRG1 differentially regulates cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anup; Mendonca, Janet; Ying, James; Kim, Hea-Soo; Verdone, James E; Zarif, Jelani C; Carducci, Michael; Hammers, Hans; Pienta, Kenneth J; Kachhap, Sushant

    2017-06-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) functions as a suppressor of prostate cancer metastasis. Elucidating pathways that drive survival and invasiveness of NDRG1-deficient prostate cancer cells can help in designing therapeutics to target metastatic prostate cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead NDRG1-deficient prostate cancer cells to increased invasiveness remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that NDRG1-deficient prostate tumors have decreased integrin expression and reduced cell adhesion and motility. Our data indicate that loss of NDRG1 differentially affects Rho GTPases. Specifically, there is a downregulation of active RhoA and Rac1 GTPases with a concomitant upregulation of active Cdc42 in NDRG1-deficient cells. Live cell imaging using a fluorescent sensor that binds to polymerized actin revealed that NDRG1-deficient cells have restricted actin dynamics, thereby affecting cell migration. These cellular and molecular characteristics are in sharp contrast to what is expected after loss of a metastasis suppressor. We further demonstrate that NDRG1-deficient cells have increased resistance to anoikis and increased invasiveness which is independent of its elevated Cdc42 activity. Furthermore, NDRG1 regulates expression and glycosylation of EMMPRIN, a master regulator of matrix metalloproteases. NDRG1 deficiency leads to an increase in EMMPRIN expression with a concomitant increase in matrix metalloproteases and thus invadopodial activity. Using a three-dimensional invasion assay and an in vivo metastasis assay for human prostate xenografts, we demonstrate that NDRG1-deficient prostate cancer cells exhibit a collective invasion phenotype and are highly invasive. Thus, our findings provide novel insights suggesting that loss of NDRG1 leads to a decrease in actin-mediated cellular motility but an increase in cellular invasion, resulting in increased tumor dissemination which

  4. Role of differential adhesion in cell cluster evolution: from vasculogenesis to cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaykrishna; Hussain, Fazle; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions are fundamental to numerous physiological processes, including angiogenesis, tumourigenesis, metastatic spreading and wound healing. We use cellular potts model to computationally predict the organisation of cells within a 3D matrix. The energy potentials regulating cell-cell (JCC) and cell-matrix (JMC) adhesive interactions are systematically varied to represent different, biologically relevant adhesive conditions. Chemotactically induced cell migration is also addressed. Starting from a cluster of cells, variations in relative cell adhesion alone lead to different cellular patterns such as spreading of metastatic tumours and angiogenesis. The combination of low cell-cell adhesion (high JCC) and high heterotypic adhesion (low JMC) favours the fragmentation of the original cluster into multiple, smaller cell clusters (metastasis). Conversely, cellular systems exhibiting high-homotypic affinity (low JCC) preserve their original configuration, avoiding fragmentation (organogenesis). For intermediate values of JCC and JMC (i.e. JCC/JMC ∼ 1), tubular and corrugated structures form. Fully developed vascular trees are assembled only in systems in which contact-inhibited chemotaxis is activated upon cell contact. Also, the rate of secretion, diffusion and sequestration of chemotactic factors, cell deformability and motility do not significantly affect these trends. Further developments of this computational model will predict the efficacy of therapeutic interventions to modulate the diseased microenvironment by directly altering cell cohesion.

  5. Antagonists of alcohol inhibition of cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Wilkemeyer, Michael F.; Sebastian, Anita B.; Smith, Sherri A.; Charness, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that alcohols act within specific binding pockets of selective neural proteins; however, antagonists at these sites have not been identified. 1-Alcohols from methanol through 1-butanol inhibit with increasing potency the cell–cell adhesion mediated by the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule L1. An abrupt cutoff exists after 1-butanol, with 1-pentanol and higher 1-alcohols showing no effect. Here, we demonstrate surprisingly strict structural requirements for alcohol inhibition of cell–cell adhesion in L1-transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and in NG108–15 neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cells treated with BMP-7, an inducer of L1 and neural cell adhesion molecule. The target site discriminates the tertiary structure of straight-chain and branched-chain alcohols and appears to comprise both a hydrophobic binding site and an adjacent hydrophilic allosteric site. Modifications to the 2- and 3-carbon positions of 1-butanol increased potency, whereas modifications that restrict movement about the 4-carbon abolished activity. The effects of ethanol and 1-butanol on cell–cell adhesion were antagonized by 1-pentanol (IC50 = 715 μM) and 1-octanol (IC50 = 3.6 μM). Antagonism by 1-octanol was complete, reversible, and noncompetitive. 1-Octanol also antagonized ethanol inhibition of BMP-7 morphogenesis in NG108–15 cells. 1-Octanol and related compounds may prove useful in dissecting the role of altered cell adhesion in ethanol-induced injury of the nervous system. PMID:10725368

  6. Modeling the formation of cell-matrix adhesions on a single 3D matrix fiber.

    PubMed

    Escribano, J; Sánchez, M T; García-Aznar, J M

    2015-11-07

    Cell-matrix adhesions are crucial in different biological processes like tissue morphogenesis, cell motility, and extracellular matrix remodeling. These interactions that link cell cytoskeleton and matrix fibers are built through protein clutches, generally known as adhesion complexes. The adhesion formation process has been deeply studied in two-dimensional (2D) cases; however, the knowledge is limited for three-dimensional (3D) cases. In this work, we simulate different local extracellular matrix properties in order to unravel the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the formation of cell-matrix adhesions in 3D. We aim to study the mechanical interaction of these biological structures through a three dimensional discrete approach, reproducing the transmission pattern force between the cytoskeleton and a single extracellular matrix fiber. This numerical model provides a discrete analysis of the proteins involved including spatial distribution, interaction between them, and study of the different phenomena, such as protein clutches unbinding or protein unfolding.

  7. FIBULIN-3 IS UNIQUELY UPREGULATED IN MALIGNANT GLIOMAS AND PROMOTES TUMOR CELL MOTILITY AND INVASION

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bin; Thirtamara-Rajamani, Keerthi K.; Sim, Hosung; Viapiano, Mariano S.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are highly invasive tumors with an almost invariably rapid and lethal outcome. Surgery and chemoradiotherapy fail to remove resistant tumor cells that disperse within normal tissue, which are a major cause for disease progression and therapy failure. Infiltration of the neural parenchyma is a distinctive property of malignant gliomas compared to other solid tumors. Thus, glioma cells are thought to produce unique molecular changes that remodel the neural extracellular matrix and form a microenvironment permissive for their motility. Here we describe the unique expression and pro-invasive role of fibulin-3, a mesenchymal matrix protein specifically upregulated in gliomas. Fibulin-3 is downregulated in peripheral tumors and thought to inhibit tumor growth. However, we found fibulin-3 highly upregulated in gliomas and cultured glioma cells, although the protein was undetectable in normal brain or cultured astrocytes. Overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that fibulin-3 did not seem to affect glioma cell morphology or proliferation, but enhanced substrate-specific cell adhesion and promoted cell motility and dispersion in organotypic cultures. Moreover, orthotopic implantation of fibulin-3-overexpressing glioma cells resulted in diffuse tumors with increased volume and rostrocaudal extension compared to controls. Tumors and cultured cells overexpressing fibulin-3 also showed elevated expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases, such as MMP-2/9 and ADAMTS-5. Taken together, our results suggest that fibulin-3 has a unique expression and pro-tumoral role in gliomas, and could be a potential target against tumor progression. Strategies against this glioma-specific matrix component could disrupt invasive mechanisms and restrict dissemination of these tumors. PMID:19887559

  8. Analytical cell adhesion chromatography reveals impaired persistence of metastatic cell rolling adhesion to P-selectin

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jaeho; Edwards, Erin E.; McClatchey, P. Mason; Thomas, Susan N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Selectins facilitate the recruitment of circulating cells from the bloodstream by mediating rolling adhesion, which initiates the cell–cell signaling that directs extravasation into surrounding tissues. To measure the relative efficiency of cell adhesion in shear flow for in vitro drug screening, we designed and implemented a microfluidic-based analytical cell adhesion chromatography system. The juxtaposition of instantaneous rolling velocities with elution times revealed that human metastatic cancer cells, but not human leukocytes, had a reduced capacity to sustain rolling adhesion with P-selectin. We define a new parameter, termed adhesion persistence, which is conceptually similar to migration persistence in the context of chemotaxis, but instead describes the capacity of cells to resist the influence of shear flow and sustain rolling interactions with an adhesive substrate that might modulate the probability of extravasation. Among cell types assayed, adhesion persistence to P-selectin was specifically reduced in metastatic but not leukocyte-like cells in response to a low dose of heparin. In conclusion, we demonstrate this as an effective methodology to identify selectin adhesion antagonist doses that modulate homing cell adhesion and engraftment in a cell-subtype-selective manner. PMID:26349809

  9. Keratins mediate localization of hemidesmosomes and repress cell motility.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Kristin; Roth, Wera; Kröger, Cornelia; Loschke, Fanny; Lederer, Marcell; Hüttelmaier, Stefan; Magin, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    The keratin (K)-hemidesmosome (HD) interaction is crucial for cell-matrix adhesion and migration in several epithelia, including the epidermis. Mutations in constituent proteins cause severe blistering skin disorders by disrupting the adhesion complex. Despite extensive studies, the role of keratins in HD assembly and maintenance is only partially understood. Here we address this issue in keratinocytes in which all keratins are depleted by genome engineering. Unexpectedly, such keratinocytes maintain many characteristics of their normal counterparts. However, the absence of the entire keratin cytoskeleton leads to loss of plectin from the hemidesmosomal plaque and scattering of the HD transmembrane core along the basement membrane zone. To investigate the functional consequences, we performed migration and adhesion assays. These revealed that, in the absence of keratins, keratinocytes adhere much faster to extracellular matrix substrates and migrate approximately two times faster compared with wild-type cells. Reexpression of the single keratin pair K5 and K14 fully reversed the above phenotype. Our data uncover a role of keratins, which to our knowledge is previously unreported, in the maintenance of HDs upstream of plectin, with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. They support the view that the downregulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition supports the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells.

  10. Keratins mediate localization of hemidesmosomes and repress cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Kristin; Roth, Wera; Loschke, Fanny; Lederer, Marcell; Hüttelmaier, Stefan; Magin, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The keratin-hemidesmosome interaction is crucial for cell-matrix adhesion and migration in several epithelia including the epidermis. Mutations in constituent proteins cause severe blistering skin disorders by disrupting the adhesion complex. Despite extensive studies, the role of keratins in hemidesmosome assembly and maintenance is only partially understood. Here, we address this issue in keratinocytes in which all keratins are depleted by genome engineering. Unexpectedly, such keratinocytes maintain many characteristics of normal counterparts. The absence of the entire keratin cytoskeleton, however, leads to loss of plectin from the hemidesmosomal plaque and scattering of the hemidesmosome transmembrane core along the basement membrane zone. To investigate the functional consequences, we performed migration and adhesion assays. These revealed that in the absence of keratins, keratinocytes adhere much faster to ECM substrates and migrate ~2 times faster compared to wildtype cells. Re-expression of the single keratin pair K5 and K14 fully reversed the above phenotype. Our data uncover a novel role of keratins in the maintenance of hemidesmosomes upstream of plectin with implications for epidermal homeostasis and pathogenesis. They support the view that the downregulation of keratins observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition supports the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. PMID:22895363

  11. PDE8 controls CD4(+) T cell motility through the PDE8A-Raf-1 kinase signaling complex.

    PubMed

    Basole, Chaitali P; Nguyen, Rebecca K; Lamothe, Katie; Vang, Amanda; Clark, Robert; Baillie, George S; Epstein, Paul M; Brocke, Stefan

    2017-08-26

    The levels of cAMP are regulated by phosphodiesterase enzymes (PDEs), which are targets for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. We have previously shown that PDE8 regulates T cell motility. Here, for the first time, we report that PDE8A exerts part of its control of T cell function through the V-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Raf-1) kinase signaling pathway. To examine T cell motility under physiologic conditions, we analyzed T cell interactions with endothelial cells and ligands in flow assays. The highly PDE8-selective enzymatic inhibitor PF-04957325 suppresses adhesion of in vivo myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) activated inflammatory CD4(+) T effector (Teff) cells to brain endothelial cells under shear stress. Recently, PDE8A was shown to associate with Raf-1 creating a compartment of low cAMP levels around Raf-1 thereby protecting it from protein kinase A (PKA) mediated inhibitory phosphorylation. To test the function of this complex in Teff cells, we used a cell permeable peptide that selectively disrupts the PDE8A-Raf-1 interaction. The disruptor peptide inhibits the Teff-endothelial cell interaction more potently than the enzymatic inhibitor. Furthermore, the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction was identified as a target of disruptor peptide mediated reduction of adhesion, spreading and locomotion of Teff cells under flow. Mechanistically, we observed that disruption of the PDE8A-Raf-1 complex profoundly alters Raf-1 signaling in Teff cells. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that PDE8A inhibition by enzymatic inhibitors or PDE8A-Raf-1 kinase complex disruptors decreases Teff cell adhesion and migration under flow, and represents a novel approach to target T cells in inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial spread from cell to cell: beyond actin-based motility.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Carole J; Dragoi, Ana-Maria; Talman, Arthur; Agaisse, Hervé

    2015-09-01

    Several intracellular pathogens display the ability to propagate within host tissues by displaying actin-based motility in the cytosol of infected cells. As motile bacteria reach cell-cell contacts they form plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells and resolve into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes, thereby achieving spread from cell to cell. Seminal studies have defined the bacterial and cellular factors that support actin-based motility. By contrast, the mechanisms supporting the formation of protrusions and their resolution into vacuoles have remained elusive. Here, we review recent advances in the field showing that Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri have evolved pathogen-specific mechanisms of bacterial spread from cell to cell.

  13. Synchronization of Spontaneous Active Motility of Hair Cell Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tracy-Ying; Ji, Seung; Bozovic, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear exhibit an active process, believed to be crucial for achieving the sensitivity of auditory and vestibular detection. One of the manifestations of the active process is the occurrence of spontaneous hair bundle oscillations in vitro. Hair bundles are coupled by overlying membranes in vivo; hence, explaining the potential role of innate bundle motility in the generation of otoacoustic emissions requires an understanding of the effects of coupling on the active bundle dynamics. We used microbeads to connect small groups of hair cell bundles, using in vitro preparations that maintain their innate oscillations. Our experiments demonstrate robust synchronization of spontaneous oscillations, with either 1:1 or multi-mode phase-locking. The frequency of synchronized oscillation was found to be near the mean of the innate frequencies of individual bundles. Coupling also led to an improved regularity of entrained oscillations, demonstrated by an increase in the quality factor. PMID:26540409

  14. Rho and Rab Small G Proteins Coordinately Reorganize Stress Fibers and Focal Adhesions in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Hiroshi; Takaishi, Kenji; Nakano, Katsutoshi; Kodama, Atsuko; Oishi, Hideto; Shiozaki, Hitoshi; Monden, Morito; Sasaki, Takuya; Takai, Yoshimi

    1998-01-01

    The Rho subfamily of the Rho small G protein family (Rho) regulates formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions in many types of cultured cells. In moving cells, dynamic and coordinate disassembly and reassembly of stress fibers and focal adhesions are observed, but the precise mechanisms in the regulation of these processes are poorly understood. We previously showed that 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) first induced disassembly of stress fibers and focal adhesions followed by their reassembly in MDCK cells. The reassembled stress fibers showed radial-like morphology that was apparently different from the original. We analyzed here the mechanisms of these TPA-induced processes. Rho inactivation and activation were necessary for the TPA-induced disassembly and reassembly, respectively, of stress fibers and focal adhesions. Both inactivation and activation of the Rac subfamily of the Rho family (Rac) inhibited the TPA-induced reassembly of stress fibers and focal adhesions but not their TPA-induced disassembly. Moreover, microinjection or transient expression of Rab GDI, a regulator of all the Rab small G protein family members, inhibited the TPA-induced reassembly of stress fibers and focal adhesions but not their TPA-induced disassembly, indicating that, furthermore, activation of some Rab family members is necessary for their TPA-induced reassembly. Of the Rab family members, at least Rab5 activation was necessary for the TPA-induced reassembly of stress fibers and focal adhesions. The TPA-induced, small G protein-mediated reorganization of stress fibers and focal adhesions was closely related to the TPA-induced cell motility. These results indicate that the Rho and Rab family members coordinately regulate the TPA-induced reorganization of stress fibers and focal adhesions that may cause cell motility. PMID:9725912

  15. CAGE, a novel cancer/testis antigen gene, promotes cell motility by activation ERK and p38 MAPK and downregulating ROS.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyeeun; Shim, Eunsook; Lee, Hansoo; Hahn, Janghee; Kang, Dongmin; Lee, Yun-Sil; Jeoung, Dooil

    2006-06-30

    We previously identified a novel cancer/testis antigen gene CAGE by screening cDNA expression libraries of human testis and gastric cancer cell lines with sera of gastric cancer patients. CAGE is expressed in many cancers and cancer cell lines, but not in normal tissues apart from the testis. In the present study, we investigated its role in the motility of cells of two human cancer cell lines: HeLa and the human hepatic cancer cell line, SNU387. Induction of CAGE by tetracycline or transient transfection enhanced the migration and invasiveness of HeLa cells, but not the adhesiveness of either cell line. Overexpression of CAGE led to activation of ERK and p38 MAPK but not Akt, and inhibition of ERK by PD98059 or p38 MAPK by SB203580 counteracted the CAGE-promoted increase in motility in both cell lines. Overexpression of CAGE also resulted in a reduction of ROS and an increase of ROS scavenging, associated with induction of catalase activity. Inhibition of ERK and p38 MAPK increased ROS levels in cells transfected with CAGE, suggesting that ROS reduce the motility of both cell lines. Inhibition of ERK and p38 MAPK reduced the induction of catalase activity resulting from overexpression of CAGE, and inhibition of catalase reduced CAGE-promoted motility. We conclude that CAGE enhances the motility of cancer cells by activating ERK and p38 MAPK, inducing catalase activity, and reducing ROS levels.

  16. Exendin-4 Induces Cell Adhesion and Differentiation and Counteracts the Invasive Potential of Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuti, Susanna; Squecco, Roberta; Cellai, Ilaria; Fibbi, Benedetta; Marone, Ilaria Maddalena; Giuliani, Corinna; Modi, Giulia; Francini, Fabio; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Peri, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Exendin-4 is a molecule currently used, in its synthetic form exenatide, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exendin-4 binds and activates the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R), thus inducing insulin release. More recently, additional biological properties have been associated to molecules that belong to the GLP-1 family. For instance, Peptide YY and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide have been found to affect cell adhesion and migration and our previous data have shown a considerable actin cytoskeleton rearrangement after exendin-4 treatment. However, no data are currently available on the effects of exendin-4 on tumor cell motility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this molecule on cell adhesion, differentiation and migration in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS. We first demonstrated, by Extra Cellular Matrix cell adhesion arrays, that exendin-4 increased cell adhesion, in particular on a vitronectin substrate. Subsequently, we found that this molecule induced a more differentiated phenotype, as assessed by i) the evaluation of neurite-like protrusions in 3D cell cultures, ii) the analysis of the expression of neuronal markers and iii) electrophysiological studies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exendin-4 reduced cell migration and counteracted anchorage-independent growth in neuroblastoma cells. Overall, these data indicate for the first time that exendin-4 may have anti-tumoral properties. PMID:23990978

  17. The interplay between G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) at the crossroads of epithelial cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Lafarga, Vanesa; Mayor, Jr, Federico; Penela, Petronila

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is emerging as a key integrative node in cell migration control. In addition to its canonical role in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors involved in chemotaxis, novel recently identified GRK2 substrates and interacting partners appear to mediate the GRK2-dependent modulation of diverse molecular processes involved in motility, such as gradient sensing, cell polarity or cytoskeletal reorganization. We have recently identified an interaction between GRK2 and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a major cytoplasmic α-tubulin deacetylase involved in cell motility and adhesion. GRK2 dynamically associates with and phosphorylates HDAC6 to stimulate its α-tubulin deacetylase activity at specific cellular localizations such as the leading edge of migrating cells, thus promoting local tubulin deacetylation and enhanced motility. This GRK2-HDAC6 functional interaction may have important implications in pathological contexts related to aberrant epithelial cell migration. PMID:23076141

  18. The interplay between cell motility and tissue architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2013-03-01

    Glandular tissue form arboreal networks comprised of acini and tubes. Loss of structure is concomitant with the in vivo pathologic state. In vitro models have been shown to recapitulate the functional units of the mammary gland and other organs. Despite our much improved understanding gleaned from both in vitro and in vivo interrogation, the mechanisms by which cells are able to achieve the correct tissue organization remain elusive. How do single mammary epithelial cells form polarized acini when cultured in a surrogate basement membrane gel but not on 2D surfaces? Simply put, how does a cell know which way is up? Why do malignant breast cells show a differential response in that they form non-polarized aggregates? Recently, it was determined that non-malignant cells undergo multiple rotations to establish acini while tumor cells are randomly motile during tumor formation. Can it be that a tumor cell has simply lost its way. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Cancer Institute.

  19. Motility, viability, and calcium in the sperm cells.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Jorge

    2014-04-01

    Sperm cells are complicated in vitro models. Their viability is limited, and physiology is complex. The study of their properties is of great application in the animal production as viable and functional gametes are essential. It has been shown that the decrease of sperm cell viability parallels an increase of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reactive oxygen species is secondary to normal metabolic processes of the cell-like flagellar movement. There is evidence of strategies that reduce ROS levels by using exogenous or endogenous antioxidants with the intention that seminal plasma protects the sperm cells and increases viability. Perhaps viability can increase by reducing that flagellar movement which is regulated by calcium. The phenomenon has not been fully characterized, but it is established that in certain mammalian models, the entrance of calcium via specific channels such as CATsper or voltage-dependent channels, signals flagellar movement. Previous reports have indicated that a change in the concentration of calcium or if the temperature is altered, the function of mammal sperm cells is reduced or blocked and viability prolonged. Fish sperm can remain immobile for several weeks but when activated the number of mobile and viable sperm is reduced at a faster rate. However, if the cells are not mobilized the semen can be preserved for longer periods. As presented in this paper, this supports the notion that by modulating calcium channels to reduce motility the viability of these cells can increase.

  20. Functional Peptides from Laminin-1 Improve the Cell Adhesion Capacity of Recombinant Mussel Adhesive Protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Ji, Lina; Hua, Zichun

    2017-01-01

    Since cell adhesion is important for cell processes such as migration and proliferation, it is a crucial consideration in biomaterial design and development. Based on the fusion of mussel adhesive protein fp151 with laminin-1-originated functional peptides we designed fusion proteins (fLA4, fLG6 and fAG73) and explored their cell adhesion properties. In our study, cell adhesion analysis showed that protein fLG6 and fLA4 had a significantly higher cell adhesion property for A549 than fp151. Moreover, protein fAG73 also displayed a strong adhesion capacity for Hela cells. In conclusion, the incorporation of functional peptides with integrin and heparin/heparan sulphate binding capacity into mussel adhesive protein will promote the application of mussel adhesive protein as cell adhesion biomaterial. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Bistability of cell adhesion in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Artem; Cao, Jianshu

    2011-09-07

    Cell adhesion plays a central role in multicellular organisms helping to maintain their integrity and homeostasis. This complex process involves many different types of adhesion proteins, and synergetic behavior of these proteins during cell adhesion is frequently observed in experiments. A well-known example is the cooperation of rolling and stationary adhesion proteins during the leukocytes extravasation. Despite the fact that such cooperation is vital for proper functioning of the immune system, its origin is not fully understood. In this study we constructed a simple analytic model of the interaction between a leukocyte and the blood vessel wall in shear flow. The model predicts existence of cell adhesion bistability, which results from a tug-of-war between two kinetic processes taking place in the cell-wall contact area-bond formation and rupture. Based on the model results, we suggest an interpretation of several cytoadhesion experiments and propose a simple explanation of the existing synergy between rolling and stationary adhesion proteins, which is vital for effective cell adherence to the blood vessel walls in living organisms.

  2. The contribution of cell-cell signaling and motility to bacterial biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Shrout, Joshua D.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Many bacteria grow attached to a surface as biofilms. Several factors dictate biofilm formation, including responses by the colonizing bacteria to their environment. Here we review how bacteria use cell-cell signaling (also called quorum sensing) and motility during biofilm formation. Specifically, we describe quorum sensing and surface motility exhibited by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous environmental organism that acts as an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. P. aeruginosa uses acyl-homoserine lactone signals during quorum sensing to synchronize gene expression important to the production of polysaccharides, rhamnolipid, and other virulence factors. Surface motility affects the assembly and architecture of biofilms, and some aspects of motility are also influenced by quorum sensing. While some genes and their function are specific to P. aeruginosa, many aspects of biofilm development can be used as a model system to understand how bacteria differentially colonize surfaces. PMID:22053126

  3. Lrs14 transcriptional regulators influence biofilm formation and cell motility of Crenarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Orell, Alvaro; Peeters, Eveline; Vassen, Victoria; Jachlewski, Silke; Schalles, Sven; Siebers, Bettina; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2013-01-01

    Like bacteria, archaea predominately exist as biofilms in nature. However, the environmental cues and the molecular mechanisms driving archaeal biofilm development are not characterized. Here we provide data suggesting that the transcriptional regulators belonging to the Lrs14-like protein family constitute a key regulatory factor during Sulfolobus biofilm development. Among the six lrs14-like genes encoded by Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, the deletion of three led to markedly altered biofilm phenotypes. Although Δsaci1223 and Δsaci1242 deletion mutants were impaired in biofilm formation, the Δsaci0446 deletion strain exhibited a highly increased extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, leading to a robust biofilm structure. Moreover, although the expression of the adhesive pili (aap) genes was upregulated, the genes of the motility structure, the archaellum (fla), were downregulated rendering the Δsaci0446 strain non-motile. Gel shift assays confirmed that Saci0446 bound to the promoter regions of fla and aap thus controlling the expression of both cell surface structures. In addition, genetic epistasis analysis using Δsaci0446 as background strain identified a gene cluster involved in the EPS biosynthetic pathway of S. acidocaldarius. These results provide insights into both the molecular mechanisms that govern biofilm formation in Crenarchaea and the functionality of the Lrs14-like proteins, an archaea-specific class of transcriptional regulators. PMID:23657363

  4. Membrane tension feedback on shape and motility of eukaryotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Benjamin; Aranson, Igor S.; Ziebert, Falko

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a phase field model of a single cell crawling on a substrate, we investigate how the properties of the cell membrane affect the shape and motility of the cell. Since the membrane influences the cell dynamics on multiple levels and provides a nontrivial feedback, we consider the following fundamental interactions: (i) the reduction of the actin polymerization rate by membrane tension; (ii) area conservation of the cell’s two-dimensional cross-section vs. conservation of the circumference (i.e. membrane inextensibility); and (iii) the contribution from the membrane’s bending energy to the shape and integrity of the cell. As in experiments, we investigate two pertinent observables — the cell’s velocity and its aspect ratio. We find that the most important effect is the feedback of membrane tension on the actin polymerization. Bending rigidity has only minor effects, visible mostly in dynamic reshaping events, as exemplified by collisions of the cell with an obstacle.

  5. Claudin-5 is involved in breast cancer cell motility through the N-WASP and ROCK signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown dysregulation in TJ structure of several cancers including breast. Claudin-5 is a protein member of the TJ structure expressed in both endothelial and epithelial cells. This study examined the level of expression and distribution of Claudin-5 in human breast cancer tissues and the effect of knockdown and forced expression of Claudin-5 in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Methods Immunohistochemistry and quantitative-PCR were used to analyse patient tissue samples. The Claudin-5 gene was cloned and overexpressed or knocked down using ribozyme technology in human breast cancer cells. Changes in function were assessed using in vitro assays for invasion, growth, adhesion, wounding, motility, transepithelial resistance and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Changes in cell behaviour were achieved through the use of Hepatocyte Growth factor (HGF) which we have shown to affect TJ function and expression of TJ proteins. In addition, an in vivo model was used for tumour growth assays. Results data was analyzed using a Students two sample t-test and by Two-way Anova test when the data was found to be normalized and have equal variances. In all cases 95% confidence intervals were used. Results Patients whose tumours expressed high levels of Claudin-5 had shorter survival than those with low levels (p = 0.004). Investigating in vitro the effect of altering levels of expression of Claudin-5 in MDA-MB-231cells revealed that the insertion of Claudin-5 gene resulted in significantly more motile cells (p < 0.005). Low levels of Claudin-5 resulted in a decrease in adhesion to matrix (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a possible link between Claudin-5 and N-WASP, and Claudin-5 and ROCK was demonstrated when interactions between these proteins were seen in the cells. Moreover, followed by treatment of N-WASP inhibitor (Wiskostatin) and ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) cell motility was assessed in response to the inhibitors. Results showed

  6. Modulating malignant epithelial tumor cell adhesion, migration and mechanics with nanorod surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyeon; Chu, Byung Hwan; Sen, Shamik; Gupte, Anand; Chancellor, T J; Chang, Chih-Yang; Ren, Fan; Kumar, Sanjay; Lele, Tanmay P

    2011-02-01

    The failure of tumor stents used for palliative therapy is due in part to the adhesion of tumor cells to the stent surface. It is therefore desirable to develop approaches to weaken the adhesion of malignant tumor cells to surfaces. We have previously developed SiO₂ coated nanorods that resist the adhesion of normal endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The adhesion mechanisms in malignant tumor cells are significantly altered from normal cells; therefore, it is unclear if nanorods can similarly resist tumor cell adhesion. In this study, we show that the morphology of tumor epithelial cells cultured on nanorods is rounded compared to flat surfaces and associated with decreased cellular stiffness and non-muscle myosin II phosphorylation. Tumor cell viability and proliferation was unchanged on nanorods. Adherent cell numbers were significantly decreased while single tumor cell motility was increased on nanorods compared to flat surfaces. Together, these results suggest that nanorods can be used to weaken malignant tumor cell adhesion, and therefore potentially improve tumor stent performance.

  7. Bisphenol A Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Reduces the Motile Potential of Murine LM8 Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kidani, Teruki; Yasuda, Rie; Miyawaki, Joji; Oshima, Yusuke; Miura, Hiromasa; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the proliferation and motility potential of murine LM8 osteosarcoma cells. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with or without 80 μM BPA. The effect of BPA on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study. Ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) to visualize cell morphology. Cell motility was assayed using inserts with uncoated membranes in invasion chambers. Expression of cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) was determined by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. BPA reduced the DNA content of cultures and the number of BrdU-positive cells. BPA induced a change in morphology from cuboidal with multiple filopodia on the cell surface to spindle-shaped with a smooth cell surface. BPA-treated cells expressed less CDC42 and were less motile than untreated cells. BPA inhibited DNA replication and cell proliferation. BPA inhibited filopodia formation and motile potential by inhibiting CDC42 expression in LM8 cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Cell motility and thermodynamic fluctuations tailoring quantum mechanics for biology.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, K

    2001-01-01

    Cell motility underlying muscle contraction is an instance of thermodynamics tailoring quantum mechanics for biology. Thermodynamics is intrinsically multi-agential in admitting energy consumers in the form of energy-deficient thermodynamic fluctuations. The onset of sliding movement of an actin filament on myosin molecules in the presence of ATP molecules to be hydrolyzed demonstrates that thermodynamic fluctuations transform their nature so as to accommodate themselves to energy transduction subject to the first law of thermodynamics. The transition from transversal to longitudinal fluctuations of an actin filament with the increase of ATP concentration coincides with the change in the nature of energy consumers acting upon thermal energy in the light of the first law, eventually embodying a uniform sliding movement of an actin filament.

  9. Automated cell tracking tools for quantitative motility studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Christophe; Zhang, Bo; Blazquez, Samantha; Labruyère, Elisabeth; Frischknecht, Freddy; Ménard, Robert; Guillén, Nancy; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Optical microscopy in 2 or 3 dimensions allows extensive observations of the motility and morphology of living cells, in culture or in tissue. This leads to an exploding accumulation of imaging data and shifts the bottleneck from data acquisition to data analysis. Manual image analysis is often either impossible or exceedingly time-consuming and subject to uncontrollable user bias and errors. Computerized methods promise to ensure fast, accurate and reproducible processing, but the basic image analysis functions available in standard commercial software are generally not adapted to the complexity of biological images. For this reason, we develop methods based on active contours, a powerful and flexible technique to segment and track objects, that has become very popular in computer vision research. Here, we describe the main benefits and limitations of active contours for our application, and our efforts to adapt and improve these methods for the analysis of cellular dynamics.

  10. Migratory and adhesive properties of Xenopus laevis primordial germ cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dzementsei, Aliaksandr; Schneider, David; Janshoff, Andreas; Pieler, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary The directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) to the site of gonad formation is an advantageous model system to study cell motility. The embryonic development of PGCs has been investigated in different animal species, including mice, zebrafish, Xenopus and Drosophila. In this study we focus on the physical properties of Xenopus laevis PGCs during their transition from the passive to the active migratory state. Pre-migratory PGCs from Xenopus laevis embryos at developmental stages 17–19 to be compared with migratory PGCs from stages 28–30 were isolated and characterized in respect to motility and adhesive properties. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we observed a decline in adhesiveness of PGCs upon reaching the migratory state, as defined by decreased attachment to extracellular matrix components like fibronectin, and a reduced adhesion to somatic endodermal cells. Data obtained from qPCR analysis with isolated PGCs reveal that down-regulation of E-cadherin might contribute to this weakening of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, however, using an in vitro migration assay, we found that movement of X. laevis PGCs can also occur independently of specific interactions with their neighboring cells. The reduction of cellular adhesion during PGC development is accompanied by enhanced cellular motility, as reflected in increased formation of bleb-like protrusions and inferred from electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as well as time-lapse image analysis. Temporal alterations in cell shape, including contraction and expansion of the cellular body, reveal a higher degree of cellular dynamics for the migratory PGCs in vitro. PMID:24285703

  11. Connexin 43 expressed in endothelial cells modulates monocyte‑endothelial adhesion by regulating cell adhesion proteins.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongdong; Sun, Guoliang; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Chenfang; Ge, Mian; Luo, Gangjian; Hei, Ziqing

    2015-11-01

    Adhesion between circulating monocytes and vascular endothelial cells is a key initiator of atherosclerosis. In our previous studies, it was demonstrated that the expression of connexin (Cx)43 in monocytes modulates cell adhesion, however, the effects of the expression of Cx43 in endothelial cells remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of the expression of Cx43 in endothelial cells in the process of cell adhesion. A total of four different methods with distinct mechanisms were used to change the function and expression of Cx43 channels in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: Cx43 channel inhibitor (oleamide), enhancer (retinoic acid), overexpression of Cx43 by transfection with pcDNA‑Cx43 and knock‑down of the expression of Cx43 by small interfering RNA against Cx43. The results indicated that the upregulation of the expression of Cx43 enhanced monocyte‑endothelial adhesion and this was markedly decreased by downregulation of Cx43. This mechanism was associated with Cx43‑induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule‑1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule‑1. The effects of Cx43 in endothelial cells was independent of Cx37 or Cx40. These experiments suggested that local regulation of endothelial Cx43 expression within the vasculature regulates monocyte‑endothelial adhesion, a critical event in the development of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory pathologies, with baseline adhesion set by the expression of Cx43. This balance may be crucial in controlling leukocyte involvement in inflammatory cascades.

  12. The Molecular Architecture of Cell Adhesion: Dynamic Remodeling Revealed by Videonanoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sergé, Arnauld

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane delimits the cell, which is the basic unit of living organisms, and is also a privileged site for cell communication with the environment. Cell adhesion can occur through cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. Adhesion proteins such as integrins and cadherins also constitute receptors for inside-out and outside-in signaling within proteolipidic platforms. Adhesion molecule targeting and stabilization relies on specific features such as preferential segregation by the sub-membrane cytoskeleton meshwork and within membrane proteolipidic microdomains. This review presents an overview of the recent insights brought by the latest developments in microscopy, to unravel the molecular remodeling occurring at cell contacts. The dynamic aspect of cell adhesion was recently highlighted by super-resolution videomicroscopy, also named videonanoscopy. By circumventing the diffraction limit of light, nanoscopy has allowed the monitoring of molecular localization and behavior at the single-molecule level, on fixed and living cells. Accessing molecular-resolution details such as quantitatively monitoring components entering and leaving cell contacts by lateral diffusion and reversible association has revealed an unexpected plasticity. Adhesion structures can be highly specialized, such as focal adhesion in motile cells, as well as immune and neuronal synapses. Spatiotemporal reorganization of adhesion molecules, receptors, and adaptors directly relates to structure/function modulation. Assembly of these supramolecular complexes is continuously balanced by dynamic events, remodeling adhesions on various timescales, notably by molecular conformation switches, lateral diffusion within the membrane and endo/exocytosis. Pathological alterations in cell adhesion are involved in cancer evolution, through cancer stem cell interaction with stromal niches, growth, extravasation, and metastasis. PMID:27200348

  13. The Molecular Architecture of Cell Adhesion: Dynamic Remodeling Revealed by Videonanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sergé, Arnauld

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane delimits the cell, which is the basic unit of living organisms, and is also a privileged site for cell communication with the environment. Cell adhesion can occur through cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. Adhesion proteins such as integrins and cadherins also constitute receptors for inside-out and outside-in signaling within proteolipidic platforms. Adhesion molecule targeting and stabilization relies on specific features such as preferential segregation by the sub-membrane cytoskeleton meshwork and within membrane proteolipidic microdomains. This review presents an overview of the recent insights brought by the latest developments in microscopy, to unravel the molecular remodeling occurring at cell contacts. The dynamic aspect of cell adhesion was recently highlighted by super-resolution videomicroscopy, also named videonanoscopy. By circumventing the diffraction limit of light, nanoscopy has allowed the monitoring of molecular localization and behavior at the single-molecule level, on fixed and living cells. Accessing molecular-resolution details such as quantitatively monitoring components entering and leaving cell contacts by lateral diffusion and reversible association has revealed an unexpected plasticity. Adhesion structures can be highly specialized, such as focal adhesion in motile cells, as well as immune and neuronal synapses. Spatiotemporal reorganization of adhesion molecules, receptors, and adaptors directly relates to structure/function modulation. Assembly of these supramolecular complexes is continuously balanced by dynamic events, remodeling adhesions on various timescales, notably by molecular conformation switches, lateral diffusion within the membrane and endo/exocytosis. Pathological alterations in cell adhesion are involved in cancer evolution, through cancer stem cell interaction with stromal niches, growth, extravasation, and metastasis.

  14. Liprin-α1 and ERC1 control cell edge dynamics by promoting focal adhesion turnover

    PubMed Central

    Astro, Veronica; Tonoli, Diletta; Chiaretti, Sara; Badanai, Sabrina; Sala, Kristyna; Zerial, Marino; de Curtis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Liprin-α1 and ERC1 are interacting scaffold proteins regulating the motility of normal and tumor cells. They act as part of plasma membrane-associated platforms at the edge of motile cells to promote protrusion by largely unknown mechanisms. Here we identify an amino-terminal region of the liprin-α1 protein (liprin-N) that is sufficient and necessary for the interaction with other liprin-α1 molecules. Similar to liprin-α1 or ERC1 silencing, expression of the liprin-N negatively affects tumor cell motility and extracellular matrix invasion, acting as a dominant negative by interacting with endogenous liprin-α1 and causing the displacement of the endogenous ERC1 protein from the cell edge. Interfering with the localization of ERC1 at the cell edge inhibits the disassembly of focal adhesions, impairing protrusion. Liprin-α1 and ERC1 proteins colocalize with active integrin β1 clusters distinct from those colocalizing with cytoplasmic focal adhesion proteins, and influence the localization of peripheral Rab7-positive endosomes. We propose that liprin-α1 and ERC1 promote protrusion by displacing cytoplasmic adhesion components to favour active integrin internalization into Rab7-positive endosomes. PMID:27659488

  15. Liprin-α1 and ERC1 control cell edge dynamics by promoting focal adhesion turnover.

    PubMed

    Astro, Veronica; Tonoli, Diletta; Chiaretti, Sara; Badanai, Sabrina; Sala, Kristyna; Zerial, Marino; de Curtis, Ivan

    2016-09-23

    Liprin-α1 and ERC1 are interacting scaffold proteins regulating the motility of normal and tumor cells. They act as part of plasma membrane-associated platforms at the edge of motile cells to promote protrusion by largely unknown mechanisms. Here we identify an amino-terminal region of the liprin-α1 protein (liprin-N) that is sufficient and necessary for the interaction with other liprin-α1 molecules. Similar to liprin-α1 or ERC1 silencing, expression of the liprin-N negatively affects tumor cell motility and extracellular matrix invasion, acting as a dominant negative by interacting with endogenous liprin-α1 and causing the displacement of the endogenous ERC1 protein from the cell edge. Interfering with the localization of ERC1 at the cell edge inhibits the disassembly of focal adhesions, impairing protrusion. Liprin-α1 and ERC1 proteins colocalize with active integrin β1 clusters distinct from those colocalizing with cytoplasmic focal adhesion proteins, and influence the localization of peripheral Rab7-positive endosomes. We propose that liprin-α1 and ERC1 promote protrusion by displacing cytoplasmic adhesion components to favour active integrin internalization into Rab7-positive endosomes.

  16. Yielding Elastic Tethers Stabilize Robust Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Matt J.; Luo, Jonathon P.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds. PMID:25473833

  17. Correlating single cell motility with population growth dynamics for flagellated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sucheta; Bhat, Vidya; Mittal, Aditya

    2007-08-15

    Many bacteria used for biotechnological applications are naturally motile. Their "bio-nanopropeller" driven movement allows searching for better environments in a process called chemotaxis. Since bacteria are extremely small in size compared to the bulk fluid volumes in bioreactors, single cell motility is not considered to influence bioreactor operations. However, with increasing interest in localized fluid flow inside reactors, it is important to ask whether individual motility characteristics of bacteria are important in bioreactor operations. The first step in this direction is to try to correlate single cell measurements with population data of motile bacteria in a bioreactor. Thus, we observed the motility behavior of individual bacterial cells, using video microscopy with 33 ms time resolution, as a function of population growth dynamics of batch cultures in shake flasks. While observing the motility behavior of the most intensively studied bacteria, Escherichia coli, we find that overall bacterial motility decreases with progression of the growth curve. Remarkably, this is due to a decrease in a specific motility behavior called "running". Our results not only have direct implications on biofilm formations, but also provide a new direction in bioprocess design research highlighting the role of individual bacterial cell motility as an important parameter.

  18. Phosphorylation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by c-Abl leads to cell motility.

    PubMed

    Poppe, M; Feller, S M; Römer, G; Wessler, S

    2007-05-24

    Helicobacter pylori induces a strong motogenic response in infected gastric epithelial host cells, which is enhanced by translocation of the pathogenic factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into host cells via a specialized type IV secretion system. Once injected into the cytosol CagA is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases followed by Src inactivation. Hence, it remained unknown why CagA is constantly phosphorylated in sustained H. pylori infections to induce cell migration, whereas other substrates of Src kinases are dephosphorylated. Here, we identify the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl as a crucial mediator of H. pylori-induced migration and novel CagA kinase in epithelial cells. Upon H. pylori infection c-Abl directly interacts with CagA and localizes in focal adhesion complexes and membrane ruffles, which are highly dynamic cytoskeletal structures necessary for cell motility. Selective inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by STI571 or shRNA abrogates sustained CagA phosphorylation and epithelial cell migration, indicating a pivotal role of c-Abl in H. pylori infection and pathogenicity. These results implicate c-Abl as a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention in H. pylori-related gastric diseases.

  19. Drosophila neurotactin mediates heterophilic cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Barthalay, Y; Hipeau-Jacquotte, R; de la Escalera, S; Jiménez, F; Piovant, M

    1990-01-01

    Neurotactin is a 135 kd membrane glycoprotein which consists of a core protein, with an apparent molecular weight of 120 kd, and of N-linked oligosaccharides. In vivo, the protein can be phosphorylated in presence of radioactive orthophosphate. Neurotactin expression in the larval CNS and in primary embryonic cell cultures suggests that it behaves as a contact molecule between neurons or epithelial cells. Electron microscopy studies reveal that neurotactin is uniformly expressed along the areas of contacts between cells, without, however, being restricted to a particular type of junction. It putative adhesive properties have been tested by transfecting non adhesive Drosophila S2 cells with neurotactin cDNA. Heat shocked transfected cells do not aggregate, suggesting that neurotactin does not mediate homophilic cell adhesion. However, these transfected cells bind to a subpopulation of embryonic cells which probably possess a related ligand. The location at cellular junctions between specific neurons or epithelial cells, the heterophilic binding to a putative ligand and the ability to be phosphorylated are consistent with the suggestion that neurotactin functions as an adhesion molecule. Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 PMID:2120048

  20. Pattern formation in cell membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis; Hategan, A.; Sengupta, K.; Sackmann, E.

    2004-03-01

    Strong adhesion of highly active cells often nucleates focal adhesions or related structures that are, over time, reinforced by cytoskeleton (actin, etc.). Red cells lack such complex adhesion systems, but they are shown here to also exhibit complex spatial patterns within an adhesive contact zone. While strong adhesion and spreading of the red cell to a dense poly-L-lysine surface appears complete in < 1 s by reflective interference microscopy, over longer times of 10-15 min or more distinct patterns in fluorescently labeled membrane components emerge. The fluorescent lipid Fl-PE (fluorescein phosphoethanolamine), in particular, is seen to diffuse and reorganize (eg. worm-like domains of <500 nm) within the contact zone, independent of whether the cell is intact or ruptured. Lipid patterns are accompanied by visible perturbations in band 3 distribution and weaker perturbations in membrane skeleton actin. Although fluorescent poly-L-lysine is shown to be uniform under cells, pressing down on the membrane quenches the lipid patterns and reveals the topographical basis for pattern formation. Regions of strong contact are thus separated by regions where the membrane is more distant from the surface.

  1. Quercetin suppresses intracellular ROS formation, MMP activation, and cell motility in human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Eun; Chung, Min-Yu; Lim, Tae Gyu; Huh, Won Bum; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won

    2013-09-01

    Cell metastasis is a major cause of death from cancer and can arise from excessive levels of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the natural flavonoid quercetin can inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activities through the attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, an event expected to lead to the inhibition of cell motility. To induce sustained ROS formation, cells were treated with phenazine methosulfate (PMS; 1 μM). Noncytotoxic concentrations of quercetin inhibited PMS-induced increases in cell motility in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. While nearly 100% of cells were observed to migrate after 24 h of PMS treatment, quercetin significantly (P < 0.01) suppressed this effect. We also found that quercetin, up to 10 μg/mL, attenuated PMS-induced MMP-2 activation. We then investigated whether the decreased levels of MMP-2 activation could be attributable to lower levels of ROS formation by quercetin. We found that quercetin treatments significantly attenuated PMS-induced ROS formation (P < 0.01) and resulted in decreased cell motility associated with a reduction in MMP-2 and -9 activitiy in HT1080 cells, even in the absence of PMS treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that quercetin inhibits cell motility via the inhibition of MMP activation in HT1080 cells in the presence and absence of PMS. This is likely to be a result of the suppression of intracellular ROS formation by quercetin. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity in oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells.

    PubMed

    Rajeev Chaudhari, Pratik; Emlit Charles, Silvania; D'Souza, Zinia Charlotte; Murlidhar Vaidya, Milind

    2017-08-31

    BPAG1e and Plectin are hemidesmosomal linker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins to the cell surface through β4 integrin. Recent reports indicate that these proteins play a role in various cellular processes apart from their known anchoring function. However, the available literature is inconsistent. Further, the previous study from our laboratory suggested that Keratin8/18 pair promotes cell motility and tumor progression by deregulating β4 integrin signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that linker proteins may have a role in neoplastic progression of OSCC. Downregulation of hemidesmosomal linker proteins in OSCC derived cells resulted in reduced cell migration accompanied by alterations in actin organization. Further, decreased MMP9 activity led to reduced cell invasion in linker proteins knockdown cells. Moreover, loss of these proteins resulted in reduced tumorigenic potential. SWATH analysis demonstrated upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in linker proteins downregulated cells as compared to vector control cells. Further, the defects in phenotype upon linker proteins ablation were rescued upon loss of NDRG1 in linker proteins knockdown background. These data together indicate that hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity possibly through NDRG1 in OSCC derived cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Id-1 promotes TGF-{beta}1-induced cell motility through HSP27 activation and disassembly of adherens junction in prostate epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Di Kaijun; Wong, Y.C. Wang Xianghong

    2007-11-15

    Id-1 (inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding-1) has been positively associated with cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasiveness during tumorigenesis. In addition, Id-1 has been shown to modulate cellular sensitivity to TGF-{beta}1 (transforming growth factor {beta}1). Here we demonstrate a novel role of Id-1 in promoting TGF-{beta}1-induced cell motility in a non-malignant prostate epithelial cell line, NPTX. We found that Id-1 promoted F-actin stress fiber formation in response to TGF-{beta}1, which was associated with increased cell-substrate adhesion and cell migration in NPTX cells. In addition, this positive effect of Id-1 on TGF-{beta}1-induced cell motility was mediated through activation of MEK-ERK signaling pathway and subsequent phosphorylation of HSP27 (heat shock protein 27). Furthermore, Id-1 disrupted the adherens junction complex in TGF-{beta}1-treated cells through down-regulation of E-cadherin, redistribution of {beta}-catenin, along with up-regulation of N-cadherin. These lines of evidence reveal a novel tumorigenic role of Id-1 through reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and disassembly of cell-cell adhesion in response to TGF-{beta}1 in human prostate epithelial cells, and suggest that intracellular Id-1 levels might be a determining factor for switching TGF-{beta}1 from a growth inhibitor to a tumor promoter during prostate carcinogenesis.

  4. Systematic analysis of tumour cell-extracellular matrix adhesion identifies independent prognostic factors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jocelyn P.; Natrajan, Rachael C.; Yuan, Yinyin; Tan, Aik-Choon; Huang, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are fundamental for discrete steps in breast cancer progression. In particular, cancer cell adhesion to ECM proteins present in the microenvironment is critical for accelerating tumour growth and facilitating metastatic spread. To assess the utility of tumour cell-ECM adhesion as a means for discovering prognostic factors in breast cancer survival, here we perform a systematic phenotypic screen and characterise the adhesion properties of a panel of human HER2 amplified breast cancer cell lines across six ECM proteins commonly deregulated in breast cancer. We determine a gene expression signature that defines a subset of cell lines displaying impaired adhesion to laminin. Cells with impaired laminin adhesion showed an enrichment in genes associated with cell motility and molecular pathways linked to cytokine signalling and inflammation. Evaluation of this gene set in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) cohort of 1,964 patients identifies the F12 and STC2 genes as independent prognostic factors for overall survival in breast cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential of in vitro cell adhesion screens as a novel approach for identifying prognostic factors for disease outcome. PMID:27556857

  5. Transposon insertions in the Flavobacterium johnsoniae ftsX gene disrupt gliding motility and cell division.

    PubMed

    Kempf, M J; McBride, M J

    2000-03-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae is a gram-negative bacterium that exhibits gliding motility. To determine the mechanism of flavobacterial gliding motility, we isolated 33 nongliding mutants by Tn4351 mutagenesis. Seventeen of these mutants exhibited filamentous cell morphology. The region of DNA surrounding the transposon insertion in the filamentous mutant CJ101-207 was cloned and sequenced. The transposon was inserted in a gene that was similar to Escherichia coli ftsX. Two of the remaining 16 filamentous mutants also carried insertions in ftsX. Introduction of the wild-type F. johnsoniae ftsX gene restored motility and normal cell morphology to each of the three ftsX mutants. CJ101-207 appears to be blocked at a late stage of cell division, since the filaments produced cross walls but cells failed to separate. In E. coli, FtsX is thought to function with FtsE in translocating proteins involved in potassium transport, and perhaps proteins involved in cell division, into the cytoplasmic membrane. Mutations in F. johnsoniae ftsX may prevent translocation of proteins involved in cell division and proteins involved in gliding motility into the cytoplasmic membrane, thus resulting in defects in both processes. Alternatively, the loss of gliding motility may be an indirect result of the defect in cell division. The inability to complete cell division may alter the cell architecture and disrupt gliding motility by preventing the synthesis, assembly, or functioning of the motility apparatus.

  6. Functions of LIM proteins in cell polarity and chemotactic motility.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Bharat; Khurana, Taruna; Khaire, Nandkumar; Noegel, Angelika A

    2002-10-15

    LimC and LimD are two novel LIM proteins of Dictyostelium, which are comprised of double and single LIM domains, respectively. Green fluorescent protein-fused LimC and LimD proteins preferentially accumulate at areas of the cell cortex where they co-localize with actin and associate transiently with cytoskeleton-dependent dynamic structures like phagosomes, macropinosomes and pseudopods. Furthermore, both LimC and LimD interact directly with F-actin in vitro. Mutant cells that lack either LimC or LimD, or both, exhibit normal growth. They are, however, significantly impaired in growth under stress conditions and are highly sensitive to osmotic shock, suggesting that LimC and LimD contribute towards the maintenance of cortical strength. Moreover, we noted an altered morphology and F-actin distribution in LimD(-) and LimC(-)/D(-) mutants, and changes in chemotactic motility associated with an increased pseudopod formation. Our results reveal both unique and overlapping roles for LimC and LimD, and suggest that both act directly on the actin cytoskeleton and provide rigidity to the cortex.

  7. Functions of LIM proteins in cell polarity and chemotactic motility

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Bharat; Khurana, Taruna; Khaire, Nandkumar; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2002-01-01

    LimC and LimD are two novel LIM proteins of Dictyostelium, which are comprised of double and single LIM domains, respectively. Green fluorescent protein-fused LimC and LimD proteins preferentially accumulate at areas of the cell cortex where they co-localize with actin and associate transiently with cytoskeleton-dependent dynamic structures like phagosomes, macropinosomes and pseudopods. Furthermore, both LimC and LimD interact directly with F-actin in vitro. Mutant cells that lack either LimC or LimD, or both, exhibit normal growth. They are, however, significantly impaired in growth under stress conditions and are highly sensitive to osmotic shock, suggesting that LimC and LimD contribute towards the maintenance of cortical strength. Moreover, we noted an altered morphology and F-actin distribution in LimD– and LimC–/D– mutants, and changes in chemotactic motility associated with an increased pseudopod formation. Our results reveal both unique and overlapping roles for LimC and LimD, and suggest that both act directly on the actin cytoskeleton and provide rigidity to the cortex. PMID:12374734

  8. Influence of Helical Cell Shape on Motility of Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardcastle, Joseph; Martinez, Laura; Salama, Nina; Bansil, Rama; Boston University Collaboration; University of Washington Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria's body shape plays an important role in motility by effecting chemotaxis, swimming mechanisms, and swimming speed. A prime example of this is the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori;whose helical shape has long been believed to provide an advantage in penetrating the viscous mucus layer protecting the stomach lining, its niche environment. To explore this we have performed bacteria tracking experiments of both wild-type bacteria along with mutants, which have a straight rod shape. A wide distribution of speeds was found. This distribution reflects both a result of temporal variation in speed and different shape morphologies in the bacterial population. Our results show that body shape plays less role in a simple fluid. However, in a more viscous solution the helical shape results in increased swimming speeds. In addition, we use experimentally obtained cell shape measurements to model the hydrodynamic influence of cell shape on swimming speed using resistive force theory. The results agree with the experiment, especially when we fold in the temporal distribution. Interestingly, our results suggest distinct wild-type subpopulations with varying number of half helices can lead to different swimming speeds. NSF PHY

  9. Asynchrony in the growth and motility responses to environmental changes by individual bacterial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Umehara, Senkei; Hattori, Akihiro; Inoue, Ippei; Yasuda, Kenji . E-mail: yasuda.bmi@tmd.ac.jp

    2007-05-04

    Knowing how individual cells respond to environmental changes helps one understand phenotypic diversity in a bacterial cell population, so we simultaneously monitored the growth and motility of isolated motile Escherichia coli cells over several generations by using a method called on-chip single-cell cultivation. Starved cells quickly stopped growing but remained motile for several hours before gradually becoming immotile. When nutrients were restored the cells soon resumed their growth and proliferation but remained immotile for up to six generations. A flagella visualization assay suggested that deflagellation underlies the observed loss of motility. This set of results demonstrates that single-cell transgenerational study under well-characterized environmental conditions can provide information that will help us understand distinct functions within individual cells.

  10. Heme-oxygenase-1 implications in cell morphology and the adhesive behavior of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gueron, Geraldine; Giudice, Jimena; Valacco, Pia; Paez, Alejandra; Elguero, Belen; Toscani, Martin; Jaworski, Felipe; Leskow, Federico Coluccio; Cotignola, Javier; Marti, Marcelo; Binaghi, Maria; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Although previous studies in PCa have focused on cell adherens junctions (AJs), key players in metastasis, they have left the molecular mechanisms unexplored. Inflammation and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical in the regulation of cell adhesion and the integrity of the epithelium. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) counteracts oxidative and inflammatory damage. Here, we investigated whether HO-1 is implicated in the adhesive and morphological properties of tumor cells. Genes differentially regulated by HO-1 were enriched for cell motility and adhesion biological processes. HO-1 induction, increased E-cadherin and β-catenin levels. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a striking remodeling of E-cadherin/β-catenin based AJs under HO-1 modulation. Interestingly, the enhanced levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin coincided with a markedly change in cell morphology. To further our analysis we sought to identify HO-1 binding proteins that might participate in the regulation of cell morphology. A proteomics approach identified Muskelin, as a novel HO-1 partner, strongly implicated in cell morphology regulation. These results define a novel role for HO-1 in modulating the architecture of cell-cell interactions, favoring a less aggressive phenotype and further supporting its anti-tumoral function in PCa. PMID:24961479

  11. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Andrew D; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2015-11-09

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils.

  12. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils.

  13. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils. PMID:26548801

  14. Modulating Influence of Chemotactic Factor-Induced Cell Adhesiveness on Granulocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Jorg; Dahinden, Clemens

    1979-01-01

    The importance of adhesion in regulating locomotion and accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) has remained vague. We found that the chemotaxis of human PMN resuspended in heat-inactivated plasma was maximal toward 1-10 nM N-formyl-met-leu-phe (f-Met-Leu-Phe), but fell below random motility toward ≥ 100 nM. This impressive decrease of motility was paralleled by increased cell adherence on Petri dishes being minimal at 1 nM and maximal at >10 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe (6±1 and 37±2% [SE] adherent cells, respectively). Checked by phase-contrast microscopy, cells under stimulated adhesion lost the typical bipolar shape of moving PMN and became immobilized and highly flattened. PMN, preexposed to 250 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe and tested after washing, retained increased adhesiveness and showed extremely low random and chemotactic motility. In contrast, preexposure to 1 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe had no effect on chemotaxis. Supporting the concept that immobilizing hyperadhesiveness does not correspond to a general functional hyporesponsiveness of PMN, no depression of the initial ingestion rate was observed in the presence of 250 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe. Moreover, a close correlation was found between the induction of PMN adhesiveness and the stimulation of the hexose monophosphate pathway activity as well as of lysomal enzyme release (r ≥ 0.98). Thus, “chemotactic deactivation” and “high-dose inhibition of chemotaxis” by N-formyl peptides is the consequence of increased cell adhesiveness. This phenomenon provides a mechanism for cell trapping at the inflammatory site. Conversely, if operative in circulating blood, e.g., in septicemia, it may impair PMN emigration to such sites. Images PMID:447862

  15. Activation of the complement cascade enhances motility of leukemic cells by downregulating expression of HO-1

    PubMed Central

    Abdelbaset-Ismail, A; Borkowska-Rzeszotek, S; Kubis, E; Bujko, K; Brzeźniakiewicz-Janus, K; Bolkun, L; Kloczko, J; Moniuszko, M; Basak, G W; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Ratajczak, M Z

    2017-01-01

    As a crucial arm of innate immunity, the complement cascade (ComC) is involved both in mobilization of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood and in their homing to BM. Despite the fact that ComC cleavage fragments alone do not chemoattract normal HSPCs, we found that leukemia cell lines as well as clonogenic blasts from chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia patients respond robustly to C3 and C5 cleavage fragments by chemotaxis and increased adhesion. This finding was supported by the detection of C3a and C5a receptors in cells from human malignant hematopoietic cell lines and patient blasts at the mRNA (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and protein level (fluorescence-activated cell sorting), and by the demonstration that these receptors respond to stimulation by C3a and C5a by phosphorylation of p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT). We also found that inducible heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is a negative regulator of ComC-mediated trafficking of leukemic cells, and that stimulation of leukemic cells by C3 or C5 cleavage fragments activates p38 MAPK, which downregulates HO-1 expression, rendering cells more mobile. We conclude that activation of the ComC in leukemia/lymphoma patients (for example, as a result of accompanying infections) enhances the motility of malignant cells and contributes to their spread in a p38 MAPK–HO-1-dependent manner. Therefore, inhibition of p38 MAPK or upregulation of HO-1 by small-molecule modulators would have a beneficial effect on ameliorating cell migration-mediated expansion of leukemia/lymphoma cells when the ComC becomes activated. PMID:27451975

  16. Activation of the complement cascade enhances motility of leukemic cells by downregulating expression of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Abdelbaset-Ismail, A; Borkowska-Rzeszotek, S; Kubis, E; Bujko, K; Brzeźniakiewicz-Janus, K; Bolkun, L; Kloczko, J; Moniuszko, M; Basak, G W; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Ratajczak, M Z

    2017-02-01

    As a crucial arm of innate immunity, the complement cascade (ComC) is involved both in mobilization of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood and in their homing to BM. Despite the fact that ComC cleavage fragments alone do not chemoattract normal HSPCs, we found that leukemia cell lines as well as clonogenic blasts from chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia patients respond robustly to C3 and C5 cleavage fragments by chemotaxis and increased adhesion. This finding was supported by the detection of C3a and C5a receptors in cells from human malignant hematopoietic cell lines and patient blasts at the mRNA (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and protein level (fluorescence-activated cell sorting), and by the demonstration that these receptors respond to stimulation by C3a and C5a by phosphorylation of p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT). We also found that inducible heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is a negative regulator of ComC-mediated trafficking of leukemic cells, and that stimulation of leukemic cells by C3 or C5 cleavage fragments activates p38 MAPK, which downregulates HO-1 expression, rendering cells more mobile. We conclude that activation of the ComC in leukemia/lymphoma patients (for example, as a result of accompanying infections) enhances the motility of malignant cells and contributes to their spread in a p38 MAPK-HO-1-dependent manner. Therefore, inhibition of p38 MAPK or upregulation of HO-1 by small-molecule modulators would have a beneficial effect on ameliorating cell migration-mediated expansion of leukemia/lymphoma cells when the ComC becomes activated.

  17. Loss of β-PIX inhibits focal adhesion disassembly and promotes keratinocyte motility via myosin light chain activation.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Sho; Stimac, Gregory P; Hopkinson, Susan B; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2017-07-15

    During healing of the skin, the cytoskeleton of keratinocytes and their matrix adhesions, including focal adhesions (FAs), undergo reorganization. These changes are coordinated by small GTPases and their regulators, including the guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF7). In fibroblasts, β-PIX activates small GTPases, thereby enhancing migration. In keratinocytes in vitro, β-PIX localizes to FAs. To study β-PIX functions, we generated β-PIX knockdown keratinocytes. During wound closure of β-PIX knockdown cell monolayers, disassembly of FAs is impaired, and their number and size are increased. In addition, in the β-PIX knockdown cells, phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC; also known as MYL2) is present not only in the leading edge of cells at the wound front, but also in the cells following the front, while p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), a regulator of MLC kinase (MYLK), is mislocalized. Inhibition or depletion of MYLK restores FA distribution in β-PIX knockdown cells. Traction forces generated by β-PIX knockdown cells are increased relative to those in control cells, a result consistent with an unexpected enhancement in the migration of single β-PIX knockdown cells and monolayers of such cells. We propose that targeting β-PIX might be a means of promoting epithelialization of wounds in vivo. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Collective cell streams in epithelial monolayers depend on cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czirók, András; Varga, Katalin; Méhes, Előd; Szabó, András

    2013-07-01

    We report spontaneously emerging, randomly oriented, collective streaming behavior within a monolayer culture of a human keratinocyte cell line, and explore the effect of modulating cell adhesions by perturbing the function of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules. We demonstrate that decreasing cell adhesion induces narrower and more anisotropic cell streams, reminiscent of decreasing the Taylor scale of turbulent liquids. To explain our empirical findings, we propose a cell-based model that represents the dual nature of cell-cell adhesions. Spring-like connections provide mechanical stability, while a cellular Potts model formalism represents surface-tension driven attachment. By changing the relevance and persistence of mechanical links between cells, we are able to explain the experimentally observed changes in emergent flow patterns.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates cell motile activity through LPA receptor-3 in liver epithelial WB-F344 cells.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Ayano; Tanabe, Eriko; Inoue, Serina; Kitayoshi, Misaho; Okimoto, Souta; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2013-04-12

    Hydrogen peroxide which is one of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediates a variety of biological responses, including cell proliferation and migration. In the present study, we investigated whether lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling is involved in cell motile activity stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. The rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide at 0.1 or 1 μM for 48 h. In cell motility assays, hydrogen peroxide treated cells showed significantly high cell motile activity, compared with untreated cells. To measure the expression levels of LPA receptor genes, quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis was performed. The expressions of LPA receptor-3 (Lpar3) in hydrogen peroxide treated cells were significantly higher than those in control cells, but not Lpar1 and Lpar2 genes. Next, to assess the effect of LPA3 on cell motile activity, the Lpar3 knockdown cells from WB-F344 cells were also treated with hydrogen peroxide. The cell motile activity of the knockdown cells was not stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, in liver cancer cells, hydrogen peroxide significantly activated cell motility of Lpar3-expressing cells, but not Lpar3-unexpressing cells. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA3 may be mainly involved in cell motile activity of WB-F344 cells stimulated by hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Multiple scale model for cell migration in monolayers: Elastic mismatch between cells enhances motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Benoit; Bresler, Yony; Wirtz, Denis; Grant, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We propose a multiscale model for monolayer of motile cells that comprise normal and cancer cells. In the model, the two types of cells have identical properties except for their elasticity; cancer cells are softer and normal cells are stiffer. The goal is to isolate the role of elasticity mismatch on the migration potential of cancer cells in the absence of other contributions that are present in real cells. The methodology is based on a phase-field description where each cell is modeled as a highly-deformable self-propelled droplet. We simulated two types of nearly confluent monolayers. One contains a single cancer cell in a layer of normal cells and the other contains normal cells only. The simulation results demonstrate that elasticity mismatch alone is sufficient to increase the motility of the cancer cell significantly. Further, the trajectory of the cancer cell is decorated by several speed “bursts” where the cancer cell quickly relaxes from a largely deformed shape and consequently increases its translational motion. The increased motility and the amplitude and frequency of the bursts are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates cell motile activity through LPA receptor-3 in liver epithelial WB-F344 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Ayano; Tanabe, Eriko; Inoue, Serina; Kitayoshi, Misaho; Okimoto, Souta; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •Hydrogen peroxide stimulates cell motility of WB-F344 cells. •LPA{sub 3} is induced by hydrogen peroxide in WB-F344 cells. •Cell motility by hydrogen peroxide is inhibited in LPA{sub 3} knockdown cells. •LPA signaling is involved in cell migration by hydrogen peroxide. -- Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide which is one of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediates a variety of biological responses, including cell proliferation and migration. In the present study, we investigated whether lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling is involved in cell motile activity stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. The rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide at 0.1 or 1 μM for 48 h. In cell motility assays, hydrogen peroxide treated cells showed significantly high cell motile activity, compared with untreated cells. To measure the expression levels of LPA receptor genes, quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis was performed. The expressions of LPA receptor-3 (Lpar3) in hydrogen peroxide treated cells were significantly higher than those in control cells, but not Lpar1 and Lpar2 genes. Next, to assess the effect of LPA{sub 3} on cell motile activity, the Lpar3 knockdown cells from WB-F344 cells were also treated with hydrogen peroxide. The cell motile activity of the knockdown cells was not stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, in liver cancer cells, hydrogen peroxide significantly activated cell motility of Lpar3-expressing cells, but not Lpar3-unexpressing cells. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA{sub 3} may be mainly involved in cell motile activity of WB-F344 cells stimulated by hydrogen peroxide.

  2. Intracellular Theileria annulata Promote Invasive Cell Motility through Kinase Regulation of the Host Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Min; Baumgartner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular, protozoan Theileria species parasites are the only eukaryotes known to transform another eukaryotic cell. One consequence of this parasite-dependent transformation is the acquisition of motile and invasive properties of parasitized cells in vitro and their metastatic dissemination in the animal, which causes East Coast Fever (T. parva) or Tropical Theileriosis (T. annulata). These motile and invasive properties of infected host cells are enabled by parasite-dependent, poorly understood F-actin dynamics that control host cell membrane protrusions. Herein, we dissected functional and structural alterations that cause acquired motility and invasiveness of T. annulata-infected cells, to understand the molecular basis driving cell dissemination in Tropical Theileriosis. We found that chronic induction of TNFα by the parasite contributes to motility and invasiveness of parasitized host cells. We show that TNFα does so by specifically targeting expression and function of the host proto-oncogenic ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. Blocking either TNFα secretion or MAP4K4 expression dampens the formation of polar, F-actin-rich invasion structures and impairs cell motility in 3D. We identified the F-actin binding ERM family proteins as MAP4K4 downstream effectors in this process because TNFα-induced ERM activation and cell invasiveness are sensitive to MAP4K4 depletion. MAP4K4 expression in infected cells is induced by TNFα-JNK signalling and maintained by the inhibition of translational repression, whereby both effects are parasite dependent. Thus, parasite-induced TNFα promotes invasive motility of infected cells through the activation of MAP4K4, an evolutionary conserved kinase that controls cytoskeleton dynamics and cell motility. Hence, MAP4K4 couples inflammatory signaling to morphodynamic processes and cell motility, a process exploited by the intracellular Theileria parasite to increase its host cell's dissemination capabilities. PMID:24626571

  3. Theory of deformable substrates for cell motility studies.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, M A

    1996-01-01

    Linear theory is used to relate the tractions F applied by a cell to the resulting deformation of fluid, viscoelastic, or solid substrates. The theory is used to fit data in which the motion of a fluid surface in the neighborhood of a motile keratocyte is visualized with the aid of embedded beads. The data are best fit by modeling the surface layer as a two-dimensional, nearly incompressible fluid. The data favor this model over another plausible model, the planar free boundary of a three-dimensional fluid. In the resulting diagrams for the distribution of F, it is found that both curl F and div F are concentrated in the lateral extrema of the lamellipodium. In a second investigation, a nonlinear theory of weak wrinkles in a solid substrate is proposed. The in-plane stress tensor plays the role of a metric. Compression wrinkles are found in regions where this metric is negative definite. Tension wrinkles arise, in linear approximation, at points on the boundary between positive definite and indefinite regions, and are conjectured to be stabilized by nonlinear effects. Data for the wrinkles that would be produced by keratocyte traction are computed, and these agree qualitatively with observed keratocyte wrinkles. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:8842205

  4. Quantitative single-cell motility analysis of platelet-rich plasma-treated endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Oda, Masafumi; Hara, Toshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been widely applied in regenerative therapy due to its high concentration of growth factors. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have provided evidence supporting the angiogenic activity of PRP. To more directly demonstrate how PRP acts on endothelial cells, we examined the PRP-induced changes in the motility of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by examining the involvement of VEGF. Time-lapse quantitative imaging demonstrated that in the initial phase (∼2 h) of treatment, PRP substantially stimulated cell migration in a wound-healing assay. However, this effect of PRP was not sustained at significant levels beyond the initial phase. The average net distance of cell migration at 10 h was 0.45 ± 0.16 mm and 0.82 ± 0.23 mm in control and PRP-stimulated cells, respectively. This effect was also demonstrated with recombinant human VEGF and was significantly attenuated by a neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody. Immunofluorescent examination of paxillin and actin fibers demonstrated that PRP concomitantly up-regulated focal adhesion and cytoskeletal formation. Western blotting analysis of phosphorylated VEGFR2 demonstrated that PRP mainly stimulated the phosphorylation of immature VEGFR2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, an action that was completely blocked by the neutralizing antibody. Taken together, these data suggest that PRP acts directly on endothelial cells via the activation of VEGFR2 to transiently up-regulate their motility. Thus, the possibility that PRP desensitizes target endothelial cells for a relatively long period of time after short-term activation should be considered when the controlled release system of PRP components is designed.

  5. Vaccinia locomotion in host cells: evidence for the universal involvement of actin-based motility sequences ABM-1 and ABM-2.

    PubMed

    Zeile, W L; Condit, R C; Lewis, J I; Purich, D L; Southwick, F S

    1998-11-10

    Vaccinia uses actin-based motility for virion movement in host cells, but the specific protein components have yet to be defined. A cardinal feature of Listeria and Shigella actin-based motility is the involvement of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). This essential adapter recognizes and binds to actin-based motility 1 (ABM-1) consensus sequences [(D/E)FPPPPX(D/E), X = P or T] contained in Listeria ActA and in the p90 host-cell vinculin fragment generated by Shigella infection. VASP, in turn, provides the ABM-2 sequences [XPPPPP, X = G, P, L, S, A] for binding profilin, an actin-regulatory protein that stimulates actin filament assembly. Immunolocalization using rabbit anti-VASP antibody revealed that VASP concentrates behind motile virions in HeLa cells. Profilin was also present in these actin-rich rocket tails, and microinjection of 10 microM (intracellular) ABM-2 peptide (GPPPPP)3 blocked vaccinia actin-based motility. Vinculin did not colocalize with VASP on motile virions and remained in focal adhesion contacts; however, another ABM-1-containing host protein, zyxin, was concentrated at the rear of motile virions. We also examined time-dependent changes in the location of these cytoskeletal proteins during vaccinia infection. VASP and zyxin were redistributed dramatically several hours before the formation of actin rocket tails, concentrating in the viral factories of the perinuclear cytoplasm. Our findings underscore the universal involvement of ABM-1 and ABM-2 docking sites in actin-based motility of Listeria, Shigella, and now vaccinia.

  6. CHRNA5 as negative regulator of nicotine signaling in normal and cancer bronchial cells: effects on motility, migration and p63 expression.

    PubMed

    Krais, Annette M; Hautefeuille, Agnès H; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Krutovskikh, Vladimir; Tournier, Jean-Marie; Birembaut, Philippe; Thépot, Amélie; Paliwal, Anupam; Herceg, Zdenko; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Hainaut, Pierre L

    2011-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies have linked lung cancer risk with a region of chromosome 15q25.1 containing CHRNA3, CHRNA5 and CHRNB4 encoding α3, α5 and β4 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), respectively. One of the strongest associations was observed for a non-silent single-nucleotide polymorphism at codon 398 in CHRNA5. Here, we have used pharmacological (antagonists) or genetic (RNA interference) interventions to modulate the activity of CHRNA5 in non-transformed bronchial cells and in lung cancer cell lines. In both cell types, silencing CHRNA5 or inhibiting receptors containing nAChR α5 with α-conotoxin MII exerted a nicotine-like effect, with increased motility and invasiveness in vitro and increasing calcium influx. The effects on motility were enhanced by addition of nicotine but blocked by inhibiting CHRNA7, which encodes the homopentameric receptor α7 subunit. Silencing CHRNA5 also decreased the expression of cell adhesion molecules P120 and ZO-1 in lung cancer cells as well as the expression of DeltaNp63α in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. These results demonstrate a role for CHRNA5 in modulating adhesion and motility in bronchial cells, as well as in regulating p63, a potential oncogene in squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. The Role of Cell-Cell Adhesion in Wound Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Sander, Leonard M.; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.

    2007-07-01

    We present a stochastic model which describes fronts of cells invading a wound. In the model cells can move, proliferate, and experience cell-cell adhesion. We find several qualitatively different regimes of front motion and analyze the transitions between them. Above a critical value of adhesion and for small proliferation large isolated clusters are formed ahead of the front. This is mapped onto the well-known ferromagnetic phase transition in the Ising model. For large adhesion, and larger proliferation the clusters become connected (at some fixed time). For adhesion below the critical value the results are similar to our previous work which neglected adhesion. The results are compared with experiments, and possible directions of future work are proposed.

  8. Actin-based motility drives baculovirus transit to the nucleus and cell surface.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Taro; Volkman, Loy E; Welch, Matthew D

    2010-07-26

    Most viruses move intracellularly to and from their sites of replication using microtubule-based mechanisms. In this study, we show that nucleocapsids of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus undergo intracellular motility driven by actin polymerization. Motility requires the viral P78/83 capsid protein and the host Arp2/3 complex. Surprisingly, the virus directs two sequential and coordinated phases of actin-based motility. Immediately after cell entry, motility enables exploration of the cytoplasm and collision with the nuclear periphery, speeding nuclear entry and the initiation of viral gene expression. Nuclear entry itself requires transit through nuclear pore complexes. Later, after the onset of early gene expression, motility is required for accumulation of a subpopulation of nucleocapsids in the tips of actin-rich surface spikes. Temporal coordination of actin-based nuclear and surface translocation likely enables rapid transmission to neighboring cells during infection in insects and represents a distinctive evolutionary strategy for overcoming host defenses.

  9. The effect of the physical properties of the substrate on the kinetics of cell adhesion and crawling studied by an axisymmetric diffusion-energy balance coupled model.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Dooki, Aref; Shodja, Hossein M; Malekmotiei, Leila

    2015-05-14

    In this paper an analytical approach to study the effect of the substrate physical properties on the kinetics of adhesion and motility behavior of cells is presented. Cell adhesion is mediated by the binding of cell wall receptors and substrate's complementary ligands, and tight adhesion is accomplished by the recruitment of the cell wall binders to the adhesion zone. The binders' movement is modeled as their axisymmetric diffusion in the fluid-like cell membrane. In order to preserve the thermodynamic consistency, the energy balance for the cell-substrate interaction is imposed on the diffusion equation. Solving the axisymmetric diffusion-energy balance coupled equations, it turns out that the physical properties of the substrate (substrate's ligand spacing and stiffness) have considerable effects on the cell adhesion and motility kinetics. For a rigid substrate with uniform distribution of immobile ligands, the maximum ligand spacing which does not interrupt adhesion growth is found to be about 57 nm. It is also found that as a consequence of the reduction in the energy dissipation in the isolated adhesion system, cell adhesion is facilitated by increasing substrate's stiffness. Moreover, the directional movement of cells on a substrate with gradients in mechanical compliance is explored with an extension of the adhesion formulation. It is shown that cells tend to move from soft to stiff regions of the substrate, but their movement is decelerated as the stiffness of the substrate increases. These findings based on the proposed theoretical model are in excellent agreement with the previous experimental observations.

  10. Methods for Observing and Quantifying Muscle Satellite Cell Motility and Invasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Lund, Dane K; McAnulty, Patrick; Siegel, Ashley L; Cornelison, Ddw

    2017-01-01

    Motility and/or chemotaxis of satellite cells has been suggested or observed in multiple in vitro and in vivo contexts. Satellite cell motility also affects the efficiency of muscle regeneration, particularly in the context of engrafted exogenous cells. Consequently, there is keen interest in determining what cell-autonomous and environmental factors influence satellite cell motility and chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the ability of activated satellite cells to relocate in vivo would suggest that they must be able to invade and transit through the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is supported by studies in which alteration or addition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity enhanced the spread of engrafted satellite cells. However, despite its potential importance, analysis of satellite cell motility or invasion quantitatively even in an in vitro setting can be difficult; one of the most powerful techniques for overcoming these difficulties is timelapse microscopy. Identification and longitudinal evaluation of individual cells over time permits not only quantification of variations in motility due to intrinsic or extrinsic factors, it permits observation and analysis of other (frequently unsuspected) cellular activities as well. We describe here three protocols developed in our group for quantitatively analyzing satellite cell motility over time in two dimensions on purified ECM substrates, in three dimensions on a living myofiber, and in three dimensions through an artificial matrix.

  11. Effects of cochlear loading on the motility of active outer hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Ó Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Outer hair cells (OHCs) power the amplification of sound-induced vibrations in the mammalian inner ear through an active process that involves hair-bundle motility and somatic motility. It is unclear, though, how either mechanism can be effective at high frequencies, especially when OHCs are mechanically loaded by other structures in the cochlea. We address this issue by developing a model of an active OHC on the basis of observations from isolated cells, then we use the model to predict the response of an active OHC in the intact cochlea. We find that active hair-bundle motility amplifies the receptor potential that drives somatic motility. Inertial loading of a hair bundle by the tectorial membrane reduces the bundle’s reactive load, allowing the OHC’s active motility to influence the motion of the cochlear partition. The system exhibits enhanced sensitivity and tuning only when it operates near a dynamical instability, a Hopf bifurcation. This analysis clarifies the roles of cochlear structures and shows how the two mechanisms of motility function synergistically to create the cochlear amplifier. The results suggest that somatic motility evolved to enhance a preexisting amplifier based on active hair-bundle motility, thus allowing mammals to hear high-frequency sounds. PMID:23509256

  12. Role of Liprins in the Regulation of Tumor Cell Motility and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Chiaretti, Sara; de Curtis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Invasion leading to the formation of metastasis is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Analysis of different human cancers has led to the identification of the PPFIA1 gene encoding the protein liprin-α1, a possible player in cancer. The PPFIA1 gene is amplified in malignant tumors, including about 20% of breast cancers. Also the liprin-α1 protein is found overexpressed in tumors. Liprin-α1 belongs to the liprin family of cytosolic scaffold proteins that includes four liprin-α, two liprin-β members, and liprin-γ/kazrinE. In this review we will discuss the available evidence on the role of different members of the liprin family in distinct aspects of tumor cell migration and invasion. Evidence from in vitro studies indicates that the widely expressed liprin-α1 protein regulates the migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. Liprin-α1 affects cell migration and invasion by regulating the organization of lamellipodia and invadopodia, two structures relevant to cell invasion. In the cell liprin-α1 forms a complex with liprin-β1, ERC1/ELKS and LL5 proteins, which localizes at the front of migrating cells and positively regulates lamellipodia stability, and integrin-mediated focal adhesions. On the other hand, liprin-β2 appears to play a role as tumor suppressor by inhibiting breast cancer cell motility and invasion. The available data indicate that liprins are central players in the regulation of tumor cell invasion, therefore representing interesting targets for anti-metastatic therapy.

  13. Multi-scale models for cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yinghao; Chen, Jiawen; Xie, Zhong-Ru

    2014-03-01

    The interactions of membrane receptors during cell adhesion play pivotal roles in tissue morphogenesis during development. Our lab focuses on developing multi-scale models to decompose the mechanical and chemical complexity in cell adhesion. Recent experimental evidences show that clustering is a generic process for cell adhesive receptors. However, the physical basis of such receptor clustering is not understood. We introduced the effect of molecular flexibility to evaluate the dynamics of receptors. By delivering new theory to quantify the changes of binding free energy in different cellular environments, we revealed that restriction of molecular flexibility upon binding of membrane receptors from apposing cell surfaces (trans) causes large entropy loss, which dramatically increases their lateral interactions (cis). This provides a new molecular mechanism to initialize receptor clustering on the cell-cell interface. By using the subcellular simulations, we further found that clustering is a cooperative process requiring both trans and cis interactions. The detailed binding constants during these processes are calculated and compared with experimental data from our collaborator's lab.

  14. Loss of Myoferlin Redirects Breast Cancer Cell Motility towards Collective Migration

    PubMed Central

    Volakis, Leonithas I.; Li, Ruth; Ackerman, William E.; Mihai, Cosmin; Bechel, Meagan; Summerfield, Taryn L.; Ahn, Christopher S.; Powell, Heather M.; Zielinski, Rachel; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration plays a central role in the invasion and metastasis of tumors. As cells leave the primary tumor, they undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate as single cells. Epithelial tumor cells may also migrate in a highly directional manner as a collective group in some settings. We previously discovered that myoferlin (MYOF) is overexpressed in breast cancer cells and depletion of MYOF results in a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and reduced invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the biomechanical mechanisms governing cell motility during MYOF depletion are poorly understood. We first demonstrated that lentivirus-driven shRNA-induced MYOF loss in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (MDA-231MYOF-KD) leads to an epithelial morphology compared to the mesenchymal morphology observed in control (MDA- 231LTVC) and wild-type cells. Knockdown of MYOF led to significant reductions in cell migration velocity and MDA- 231MYOF-KD cells migrated directionally and collectively, while MDA-231LTVC cells exhibited single cell migration. Decreased migration velocity and collective migration were accompanied by significant changes in cell mechanics. MDA-231MYOF-KD cells exhibited a 2-fold decrease in cell stiffness, a 2-fold increase in cell-substrate adhesion and a 1.5-fold decrease in traction force generation. In vivo studies demonstrated that when immunocompromised mice were implanted with MDA- 231MYOF-KD cells, tumors were smaller and demonstrated lower tumor burden. Moreover, MDA- 231MYOF-KD tumors were highly circularized and did not invade locally into the adventia in contrast to MDA- 231LTVC-injected animals. Thus MYOF loss is associated with a change in tumor formation in xenografts and leads to smaller, less invasive tumors. These data indicate that MYOF, a previously unrecognized protein in cancer, is involved in MDA-MB-231 cell migration and contributes to biomechanical alterations. Our results indicate that changes in

  15. Investigation of adhesion and mechanical properties of human glioma cells by single cell force spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Laura; Bourkoula, Eugenia; Migliorini, Elisa; Palma, Anita; Pucer, Anja; Skrap, Miran; Scoles, Giacinto; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela; Lazzarino, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Active cell migration and invasion is a peculiar feature of glioma that makes this tumor able to rapidly infiltrate into the surrounding brain tissue. In our recent work, we identified a novel class of glioma-associated-stem cells (defined as GASC for high-grade glioma--HG--and Gasc for low-grade glioma--LG) that, although not tumorigenic, act supporting the biological aggressiveness of glioma-initiating stem cells (defined as GSC for HG and Gsc for LG) favoring also their motility. Migrating cancer cells undergo considerable molecular and cellular changes by remodeling their cytoskeleton and cell interactions with surrounding environment. To get a better understanding about the role of the glioma-associated-stem cells in tumor progression, cell deformability and interactions between glioma-initiating stem cells and glioma-associated-stem cells were investigated. Adhesion of HG/LG-cancer cells on HG/LG-glioma-associated stem cells was studied by time-lapse microscopy, while cell deformability and cell-cell adhesion strengths were quantified by indentation measurements by atomic force microscopy and single cell force spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that for both HG and LG glioma, cancer-initiating-stem cells are softer than glioma-associated-stem cells, in agreement with their neoplastic features. The adhesion strength of GSC on GASC appears to be significantly lower than that observed for Gsc on Gasc. Whereas, GSC spread and firmly adhere on Gasc with an adhesion strength increased as compared to that obtained on GASC. These findings highlight that the grade of glioma-associated-stem cells plays an important role in modulating cancer cell adhesion, which could affect glioma cell migration, invasion and thus cancer aggressiveness. Moreover this work provides evidence about the importance of investigating cell adhesion and elasticity for new developments in disease diagnostics and therapeutics.

  16. Investigation of Adhesion and Mechanical Properties of Human Glioma Cells by Single Cell Force Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andolfi, Laura; Bourkoula, Eugenia; Migliorini, Elisa; Palma, Anita; Pucer, Anja; Skrap, Miran; Scoles, Giacinto; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela; Lazzarino, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Active cell migration and invasion is a peculiar feature of glioma that makes this tumor able to rapidly infiltrate into the surrounding brain tissue. In our recent work, we identified a novel class of glioma-associated-stem cells (defined as GASC for high-grade glioma -HG- and Gasc for low-grade glioma -LG-) that, although not tumorigenic, act supporting the biological aggressiveness of glioma-initiating stem cells (defined as GSC for HG and Gsc for LG) favoring also their motility. Migrating cancer cells undergo considerable molecular and cellular changes by remodeling their cytoskeleton and cell interactions with surrounding environment. To get a better understanding about the role of the glioma-associated-stem cells in tumor progression, cell deformability and interactions between glioma-initiating stem cells and glioma-associated-stem cells were investigated. Adhesion of HG/LG-cancer cells on HG/LG-glioma-associated stem cells was studied by time-lapse microscopy, while cell deformability and cell-cell adhesion strengths were quantified by indentation measurements by atomic force microscopy and single cell force spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that for both HG and LG glioma, cancer-initiating-stem cells are softer than glioma-associated-stem cells, in agreement with their neoplastic features. The adhesion strength of GSC on GASC appears to be significantly lower than that observed for Gsc on Gasc. Whereas, GSC spread and firmly adhere on Gasc with an adhesion strength increased as compared to that obtained on GASC. These findings highlight that the grade of glioma-associated-stem cells plays an important role in modulating cancer cell adhesion, which could affect glioma cell migration, invasion and thus cancer aggressiveness. Moreover this work provides evidence about the importance of investigating cell adhesion and elasticity for new developments in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25390644

  17. Cell adhesion on nanotextured slippery superhydrophobic substrates.

    PubMed

    Di Mundo, Rosa; Nardulli, Marina; Milella, Antonella; Favia, Pietro; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Gristina, Roberto

    2011-04-19

    In this work, the response of Saos2 cells to polymeric surfaces with different roughness/density of nanometric dots produced by a tailored plasma-etching process has been studied. Topographical features have been evaluated by atomic force microscopy, while wetting behavior, in terms of water-surface adhesion energy, has been evaluated by measurements of drop sliding angle. Saos2 cytocompatibility has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, and optical microscopy. The similarity in outer chemical composition has allowed isolation of the impact of the topographical features on cellular behavior. The results indicate that Saos2 cells respond differently to surfaces with different nanoscale topographical features, clearly showing a certain inhibition in cell adhesion when the nanoscale is particularly small. This effect appears to be attenuated in surfaces with relatively bigger nanofeatures, though these express a more pronounced slippery/dry wetting character. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Cell division resets polarity and motility for the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Cameron W; Madukoma, Chinedu S; Mahserejian, Shant; Alber, Mark S; Shrout, Joshua D

    2014-11-01

    Links between cell division and other cellular processes are poorly understood. It is difficult to simultaneously examine division and function in most cell types. Most of the research probing aspects of cell division has experimented with stationary or immobilized cells or distinctly asymmetrical cells. Here we took an alternative approach by examining cell division events within motile groups of cells growing on solid medium by time-lapse microscopy. A total of 558 cell divisions were identified among approximately 12,000 cells. We found an interconnection of division, motility, and polarity in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. For every division event, motile cells stop moving to divide. Progeny cells of binary fission subsequently move in opposing directions. This behavior involves M. xanthus Frz proteins that regulate M. xanthus motility reversals but is independent of type IV pilus "S motility." The inheritance of opposing polarity is correlated with the distribution of the G protein RomR within these dividing cells. The constriction at the point of division limits the intracellular distribution of RomR. Thus, the asymmetric distribution of RomR at the parent cell poles becomes mirrored at new poles initiated at the site of division.

  19. Tyrosyl Phosphorylated Serine-Threonine Kinase PAK1 is a Novel Regulator of Prolactin-Dependent Breast Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to discover the cellular pathways regulating breast cancer metastasis, little is known as to how prolactin (PRL) cooperates with extracellular environment and cytoskeletal proteins to regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion. We implicated serine-threonine kinase p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a novel target for PRL-activated Janus-kinase 2 (JAK2). JAK2-dependent PAK1 tyrosyl phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulation of both PAK1 kinase activity and scaffolding properties of PAK1. Tyrosyl phosphorylated PAK1 facilitates PRL-dependent motility via at least two mechanisms: formation of paxillin/GIT1/βPIX/pTyr-PAK1 complexes resulting in increased adhesion turnover and phosphorylation of actin-binding protein filamin A. Increased adhesion turnover is the basis for cell migration and phosphorylated filamin A stimulates the kinase activity of PAK1 and increases actin-regulating activity to facilitate cell motility. Tyrosyl phosphorylated PAK1 also stimulates invasion of breast cancer cells in response to PRL and three-dimensional (3D) collagen IV via transcription and secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in a MAPK-dependent manner. These data illustrate the complex interaction between PRL and the cell microenvironment in breast cancer cells and suggest a pivotal role for PRL/PAK1 signaling in breast cancer metastasis. PMID:25472536

  20. Phylogeny of a neural cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Hall, A K; Rutishauser, U

    1985-07-01

    The phylogeny of adhesion among cells derived from neural tissue has been examined using a combination of functional and immunological analyses. The presence of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) was evaluated with respect to NCAM-specific antigenic determinants attached to a polypeptide chain with appropriate electrophoretic properties. By these criteria, NCAM-like molecules were detected in all embryonic and adult vertebrates tested, and an adult mollusc, but not in an adult insect, crustacean, or nematode. The functional assays measured adhesiveness by simple aggregation of neural membrane vesicles, as well as by NCAM-specific binding between membranes from different species. The presence of the NCAM antigen in vertebrate membranes correlated with binding activity in both the NCAM-specific and general adhesion assays, implying that the adhesiveness of these membranes largely reflects NCAM-mediated binding. The results also indicate that NCAM function has been conserved during the evolution of vertebrates, and supports the possibility that mechanisms of nerve-nerve, nerve-muscle, and nerve-glial interaction, which have been demonstrated previously to involve NCAM, may be similar for many chordates. Whereas NCAM was not detected in adult fly and worm, these species did express NCAM-like antigens transiently during early development. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NCAM is required during several periods of development, and that the functions of this molecule in nematodes and insects may be distinct from or a subset of those that occur in vertebrates. The expanded role of the molecule represented by its expression during later stages of vertebrate development may thus have been an important contribution to the evolution of chordates.

  1. Mechanisms and Functions of Vinculin Interactions with Phospholipids at Cell Adhesion Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Tina; Brown, David T.

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeletal protein vinculin is a major regulator of cell adhesion and attaches to the cell surface by binding to specific phospholipids. Structural, biochemical, and biological studies provided much insight into how vinculin binds to membranes, what components it recognizes, and how lipid binding is regulated. Here we discuss the roles and mechanisms of phospholipids in regulating the structure and function of vinculin and of its muscle-specific metavinculin splice variant. A full appreciation of these processes is necessary for understanding how vinculin regulates cell motility, migration, and wound healing, and for understanding of its role in cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26728462

  2. Urokinase type plasminogen activator mediates Interleukin-17-induced peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cell motility and transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Krstić, Jelena; Obradović, Hristina; Jauković, Aleksandra; Okić-Đorđević, Ivana; Trivanović, Drenka; Kukolj, Tamara; Mojsilović, Slavko; Ilić, Vesna; Santibañez, Juan F; Bugarski, Diana

    2015-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to migrate toward damaged tissues increasing tissue regeneration. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects associated with many inflammatory diseases. Although IL-17 can modulate MSC functions, its capacity to regulate MSC migration is not well elucidated so far. Here, we studied the role of IL-17 on peripheral blood (PB) derived MSC migration and transmigration across endothelial cells. IL-17 increased PB-MSC migration in a wound healing assay as well as cell mobilization from collagen gel. Concomitantly IL-17 induced the expression of urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) without affecting matrix metalloproteinase expression. The incremented uPA expression mediated the capacity of IL-17 to enhance PB-MSC migration in a ERK1,2 MAPK dependent way. Also, IL-17 induced PB-MSC migration alongside with changes in cell polarization and uPA localization in cell protrusions. Moreover, IL-17 increased PB-MSC adhesion to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration, as well as increased the capacity of PB-MSC adhesion to fibronectin, in an uPA-dependent fashion. Therefore, our data suggested that IL-17 may act as chemotropic factor for PB-MSCs by incrementing cell motility and uPA expression during inflammation development.

  3. The shift in GH3 cell shape and cell motility is dependent on MLCK and ROCK.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Rodríguez, Dulce; Solano Agama, Carmen; González-Pozos, Sirenia; Vicente Méndez-Méndez, Juan; Ortiz Plata, Alma; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Mendoza-Garrido, María E

    2017-05-01

    Cytoskeletal organization, actin-myosin contractility and the cell membrane together regulate cell morphology in response to the cell environment, wherein the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an indispensable component. Plasticity in cell shape enables cells to adapt their migration mode to their surroundings. GH3 endocrine cells respond to different ECM proteins, acquiring different morphologies: a rounded on collagen I-III (C I-III) and an elongated on collagen IV (C IV). However, the identities of the molecules that participate in these responses remain unknown. Considering that actin-myosin contractility is crucial to maintaining cell shape, we analyzed the participation of MLCK and ROCK in the acquisition of cell shape, the generation of cellular tension and the cell motility mode. We found that a rounded shape with high cortical tension depends on MLCK and ROCK, whereas in cells with an elongated shape, MLCK is the primary protein responsible for cell spreading. Further, in cells with a slow and directionally persistent motility, MLCK predominates, while rapid and erratic movement is ROCK-dependent. This behavior also correlates with GTPase activation. Cells on C I-III exhibited higher Rho-GTPase activity than cells on C IV and vice versa with Rac-GTPase activity, showing a plastic response of GH3 cells to their environment, leading to the generation of different cytoskeleton and membrane organizations and resulting in two movement strategies, rounded and fibroblastoid-like. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Weak Power Frequency Magnetic Field Acting Similarly to EGF Stimulation, Induces Acute Activations of the EGFR Sensitive Actin Cytoskeleton Motility in Human Amniotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Cao, Mei-Ping; Shen, Yun-Yun; Chu, Ke-Ping; Tao, Wu-Bin; Song, Wei-Tao; Liu, Li-Ping; Wang, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Yu-Fang; Chen, Shu-De; Zeng, Qun-Li; Xia, Ruo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have examined the motility-related effects of weak power frequency magnetic fields (MFs) on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-sensitive motility mechanism, including the F-actin cytoskeleton, growth of invasive protrusions and the levels of signal molecules in human amniotic epithelial (FL) cells. Without extracellular EGF stimulation, the field stimulated a large growth of new protrusions, especially filopodia and lamellipodia, an increased population of vinculin-associated focal adhesions. And, an obvious reduction of stress fiber content in cell centers was found, corresponding to larger cell surface areas and decreased efficiency of actin assembly of FL cells in vitro, which was associated with a decrease in overall F-actin content and special distributions. These effects were also associated with changes in protein content or distribution patterns of the EGFR downstream motility-related signaling molecules. All of these effects are similar to those following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of the cells and are time dependent. These results suggest that power frequency MF exposure acutely affects the migration/motility-related actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is regulated by the EGFR-cytoskeleton signaling pathway. Therefore, upon the MF exposure, cells are likely altered to be ready to transfer into a state of migration in response to the stimuli. PMID:24505297

  5. Extracellular matrix rigidity governs smooth muscle cell motility in a biphasic fashion.

    PubMed

    Peyton, Shelly R; Putnam, Andrew J

    2005-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that mechanical cues inherent to the extracellular matrix (ECM) may be equally as critical as its chemical identity in regulating cell behavior. We hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the ECM directly regulate the motility of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and tested this hypothesis using polyacrylamide substrates with tunable mechanical properties. Quantification of the migration speed on uniformly compliant hydrogels spanning a range of stiffnesses (Young's moduli values from 1.0 to 308 kPa for acrylamide/bisacrylamide ratios between 5/0.1% and 15/1.2%, respectively) revealed a biphasic dependence on substrate compliance, suggesting the existence of an optimal substrate stiffness capable of supporting maximal migration. The value of this optimal stiffness shifted depending on the concentration of ECM protein covalently attached to the substrate. Specifically, on substrates presenting a theoretical density of 0.8 microg/cm(2) fibronectin, the maximum speed of 0.74 +/- 0.09 microm/min was achieved on a 51.9 kPa gel; on substrates presenting a theoretical density of 8.0 microg/cm(2) fibronectin, the maximum speed of 0.72 +/- 0.06 microm/min occurred on a softer 21.6 kPa gel. Pre-treatment of cells with Y27632, an inhibitor of the Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway, reduced these observed maxima to values comparable to those on non-optimal stiffnesses. In parallel, quantification of TritonX-insoluble vinculin via Western blotting, coupled with qualitative fluorescent microscopy, revealed that the formation of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers also depends on ECM stiffness. Combined, these data suggest that the mechanical properties of the underlying ECM regulate Rho-mediated contractility in SMCs by disrupting a presumptive cell-ECM force balance, which in turn regulates cytoskeletal assembly and ultimately, cell migration. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood using phenol-formaldehyde remains the industrial standard in wood product bond durability. Not only does this adhesive infiltrate the cell wall, it also is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers, particularly guaiacyl lignin. However, the mechanism by which phenol-formaldehyde adhesive intergrally interacts and bonds to...

  7. Force nanoscopy of cell mechanics and cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufrêne, Yves F.; Pelling, Andrew E.

    2013-05-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to mechanical stimuli in their environment and have several evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to these cues. It is becoming increasingly recognized that many cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, possess a diverse set of proteins to translate mechanical cues into biochemical signalling and to mediate cell surface interactions such as cell adhesion. Moreover, the mechanical properties of cells are involved in regulating cell function as well as serving as indicators of disease states. Importantly, the recent development of biophysical tools and nanoscale methods has facilitated a deeper understanding of the role that physical forces play in modulating cell mechanics and cell adhesion. Here, we discuss how atomic force microscopy (AFM) has recently been used to investigate cell mechanics and cell adhesion at the single-cell and single-molecule levels. This knowledge is critical to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern mechanosensing, mechanotransduction, and mechanoresponse in living cells. While pushing living cells with the AFM tip provides a means to quantify their mechanical properties and examine their response to nanoscale forces, pulling single surface proteins with a functionalized tip allows one to understand their role in sensing and adhesion. The combination of these nanoscale techniques with modern molecular biology approaches, genetic engineering and optical microscopies provides a powerful platform for understanding the sophisticated functions of the cell surface machinery, and its role in the onset and progression of complex diseases.

  8. Automated detection of whole-cell mitochondrial motility and its dependence on cytoarchitectural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Judith; Chou, Philip; Eckmann, David M

    2015-07-01

    Current methodologies used for mitochondrial motility analysis tend to either overlook individual mitochondrial tracks or analyze only peripheral mitochondria instead of mitochondria in all regions of the cell. Furthermore, motility analysis of an individual mitochondrion is usually quantified by establishing an arbitrary threshold for "directed" motion. In this work, we created a custom, publicly available computational algorithm based on a previously published approach (Giedt et al., 2012. Ann Biomed Eng 40:1903-1916) in order to characterize the distribution of mitochondrial movements at the whole-cell level, while still preserving information about single mitochondria. Our technique is easy to use, robust, and computationally inexpensive. Images are first pre-processed for increased resolution, and then individual mitochondria are tracked based on object connectivity in space and time. When our method is applied to microscopy fields encompassing entire cells, we reveal that the mitochondrial net distances in fibroblasts follow a lognormal distribution within a given cell or group of cells. The ability to model whole-cell mitochondrial motility as a lognormal distribution provides a new quantitative paradigm for comparing mitochondrial motility in naïve and treated cells. We further demonstrate that microtubule and microfilament depolymerization shift the lognormal distribution in directions which indicate decreased and increased mitochondrial movement, respectively. These findings advance earlier work on neuronal axons (Morris and Hollenbeck, 1993. J Cell Sci 104:917-927) by relating them to a different cell type, applying them on a global scale, and automating measurement of mitochondrial motility in general.

  9. The deubiquitinating enzyme USP17 is essential for GTPase subcellular localization and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    de la Vega, Michelle; Kelvin, Alyson A.; Dunican, Dara J.; McFarlane, Cheryl; Burrows, James F.; Jaworski, Jakub; Stevenson, Nigel J.; Dib, Karim; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Scott, Christopher J.; Long, Aideen; Johnston, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes are now emerging as potential therapeutic targets that control many cellular processes, but few have been demonstrated to control cell motility. Here, we show that ubiquitin-specific protease 17 (USP17) is rapidly and transiently induced in response to chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and IL-8/CXCL8 in both primary cells and cell lines, and that its depletion completely blocks chemokine-induced cell migration and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Using live cell imaging, we demonstrate that USP17 is required for both elongated and amoeboid motility, in addition to chemotaxis. USP17 has previously been reported to disrupt Ras localization and we now find that USP17 depletion blocks chemokine-induced subcellular relocalization of GTPases Cdc42, Rac and RhoA, which are GTPases essential for cell motility. Collectively, these results demonstrate that USP17 has a critical role in cell migration and may be a useful drug target for both inflammatory and metastatic disease. PMID:21448158

  10. Cell Shapes and Traction Forces Determine Stress in Motile Confluent Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbo; Bi, Dapeng; Czajkowski, Michael; Manning, Lisa; Marchetti, Cristina

    Collective cell migration is a highly regulated process involved in wound healing, cancer metastasis and morphogenesis. The understanding of the regulatory mechanism requires the study of mechanical interactions among cells that coordinate their active motion. To this end, we develop a method that determines cellular forces and tissue stresses from experimentally accessible cell shapes and traction forces. This approach allows us for the first time to calculate membrane tensions and hydrostatic pressures at a cellular level in collective migrating cell layers out of equilibrium. It helps us understand the mechanical origin of tissue stresses as previous inferred using Traction Force Microscopy (TFM). We test this approach on a new model of motile confluent tissue, which we term Self-propelled Voronoi Model (SPV) that incorporates cell elasticity, Contractility and motility. With the model, we explore the mechanical properties of confluent motile tissue as a function of cell activities and cell shapes in various geometries.

  11. Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarsky, Ivan; Lyb, Yunbo; Weaver, Westbrook; Su, Ting-Wei; Mudanyali, Onur; Ozcan, Aydogan; di Carlo, Dino

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative cell motility studies are necessary for understanding biophysical processes, developing models for cell locomotion and for drug discovery. Such studies are typically performed by controlling environmental conditions around a lens-based microscope, requiring costly instruments while still remaining limited in field-of-view. Here we present a compact cell monitoring platform utilizing a wide-field (24 mm2) lensless holographic microscope that enables automated single-cell tracking of large populations that is compatible with a standard laboratory incubator. We used this platform to track NIH 3T3 cells on polyacrylamide gels over 20 hrs. We report that, over an order of magnitude of stiffness values, collagen IV surfaces lead to enhanced motility compared to fibronectin, in agreement with biological uses of these structural proteins. The increased throughput associated with lensfree on-chip imaging enables higher statistical significance in observed cell behavior and may facilitate rapid screening of drugs and genes that affect cell motility.

  12. The extracellular electrical resistivity in cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gleixner, Raimund; Fromherz, Peter

    2006-04-01

    The interaction of cells in a tissue depends on the nature of the extracellular matrix. The electrical properties of the narrow extracellular space are unknown. Here we consider cell adhesion mediated by extracellular matrix protein on a solid substrate as a model system. We culture human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells on silica coated with fibronectin and determine the electrical resistivity in the cell-solid junction rhoJ=rJdJ by combining measurements of the sheet resistance rJ and of the distance dJ between membrane and substrate. The sheet resistance is obtained from phase fluorometry of the voltage-sensitive dye ANNINE-5 by alternating-current stimulation from the substrate. The distance is measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy. We change the resistivity of the bath in a range from 66 Omega cm to 750 Omega cm and find that the sheet resistance rJ is proportionally enhanced, but that the distance is invariant around dJ=75 nm. In all cases, the resulting resistivity rhoJ is indistinguishable from the resistivity of the bath. A similar result is obtained for rat neurons cultured on polylysine. On that basis, we propose a "bulk resistivity in cell adhesion" model for cell-solid junctions. The observations suggest that the electrical interaction between cells in a tissue is determined by an extracellular space with the electrical properties of bulk electrolyte.

  13. Regulation of Motility, Invasion and Metastatic Potential of Squamous Cell Carcinoma by 1,25D3

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyu; Yu, Wei-Dong; Su, Bing; Seshadri, Mukund; Luo, Wei; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND 1,25D3, the active metabolite of vitamin D, has been shown to exhibit broad spectrum anti-tumor activity in xenograft animal models. However, its activity against metastatic disease has not been extensively investigated. METHODS Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or 1,25D3-resistant variant SCC-DR cells were treated with 1,25D3. Actin organization was examined by immunofluorescence assay. Cell migration was assessed by “wound” healing and chemotactic migration assay. Cell invasion was assessed by Matrigel-based invasion assay and in situ zymography. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and secretion was examined by immunoblot analysis and ELISA, respectively. E-cadherin expression was assessed by flow cytometry, immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of E-cadherin was achieved by siRNA. Experimental metastasis mouse model was done by intravenous injection of tumor cells. Lung tumor development was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, gross observation and histology. RESULTS SCC cellular morphology and actin organization were altered by 10 nM of 1,25D3. 1,25D3 inhibited SCC cell motility and invasion, which was associated with reduced expression and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9. 1,25D3 promoted the expression of E-cadherin. These findings were not observed in SCC-DR cells. Knock down of E-cadherin rescued 1,25D3-inhibited cell migration. Intravenous injection of SCC or SCC-DR cells resulted in the establishment of extensive pulmonary lesions in saline-treated C3H mice. Treatment with 1,25D3 resulted in a marked reduction in the formation of lung tumor colonies in animals injected with SCC but not SCC-DR cells. CONCLUSIONS 1,25D3 suppresses SCC cell motility, invasion and metastasis, partially through the promotion of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. PMID:22833444

  14. Focal adhesion kinase maintains, but not increases the adhesion of dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuyan; Shao, Meiying; Zou, Wenlin; Wang, Linyan; Cheng, Ran; Hu, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) functions as a key enzyme in the integrin-mediated adhesion-signalling pathway. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of FAK on adhesion of human dental pulp (HDP) cells. We transfected lentiviral vectors to silence or overexpress FAK in HDP cells ex vivo. Early cell adhesion, cell survival and focal contacts (FCs)-related proteins (FAK and paxillin) were examined. By using immunofluorescence, the formation of FCs and cytoskeleton was detected, respectively. We found that both adhesion and survival of HDP cells were suppressed by FAK inhibition. However, FAK overexpression slightly inhibited cell adhesion and exhibited no change in cell survival compared with the control. A thick rim of cytoskeleton accumulated and smaller dot-shaped FCs appeared in FAK knockdown cells. Phosphorylation of paxillin (p-paxillin) was inhibited in FAK knockdown cells, verifying that the adhesion was inhibited. Less cytoskeleton and elongated FCs were observed in FAK-overexpressed cells. However, p-paxillin had no significant difference compared with the control. In conclusion, the data suggest that FAK maintains cell adhesion, survival and cytoskeleton formation, but excessive FAK has no positive effects on these aspects.

  15. Inhibition of Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression and Cell Adhesion by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α

    PubMed Central

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an important role in determining cell shape and function in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While links between metabolism and cell adhesion were previously suggested, the exact context and molecular details of such a cross-talk remain incompletely understood. Here we show that PGC-1α, a pivotal transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, acts to inhibit expression of cell adhesion genes. Using cell lines, primary cells and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate expression of a variety of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on cell adhesion gene expression. Interestingly, the L2/L3 motifs of PGC-1α, necessary for nuclear hormone receptor activation, are only partly required for inhibition of several cell adhesion genes by PGC-1α. Finally, PGC-1α is able to modulate adhesion of primary fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells to extracellular matrix proteins. Our results delineate a cross talk between a central pathway controlling metabolic regulation and cell adhesion, and identify PGC-1α as a molecular link between these two major cellular networks. PMID:27984584

  16. Inhibition of Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression and Cell Adhesion by the Metabolic Regulator PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Neri; Roeder, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays an important role in determining cell shape and function in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. While links between metabolism and cell adhesion were previously suggested, the exact context and molecular details of such a cross-talk remain incompletely understood. Here we show that PGC-1α, a pivotal transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, acts to inhibit expression of cell adhesion genes. Using cell lines, primary cells and mice, we show that both endogenous and exogenous PGC-1α down-regulate expression of a variety of cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, results obtained using mRNA stability measurements as well as intronic RNA expression are consistent with a transcriptional effect of PGC-1α on cell adhesion gene expression. Interestingly, the L2/L3 motifs of PGC-1α, necessary for nuclear hormone receptor activation, are only partly required for inhibition of several cell adhesion genes by PGC-1α. Finally, PGC-1α is able to modulate adhesion of primary fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells to extracellular matrix proteins. Our results delineate a cross talk between a central pathway controlling metabolic regulation and cell adhesion, and identify PGC-1α as a molecular link between these two major cellular networks.

  17. NMU signaling promotes endometrial cancer cell progression by modulating adhesion signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ting-Yu; Wu, Fang-Ju; Chang, Chia-Lin; Li, Zhongyou; Luo, Ching-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) was originally named based on its strong uterine contractile activity, but little is known regarding its signaling/functions in utero. We identified that NMU and one of its receptors, NMUR2, are not only present in normal uterine endometrium but also co-expressed in endometrial cancer tissues, where the NMU level is correlated with the malignant grades and survival of patients. Cell-based assays further confirmed that NMU signaling can promote cell motility and proliferation of endometrial cancer cells derived from grade II tumors. Activation of NMU pathway in these endometrial cancer cells is required in order to sustain expression of various adhesion molecules, such as CD44 and integrin alpha1, as well as production of their corresponding extracellular matrix ligands, hyaluronan and collagen IV; it also increased the activity of SRC and its downstream proteins RHOA and RAC1. Thus, it is concluded that NMU pathway positively controls the adhesion signaling-SRC-Rho GTPase axis in the tested endometrial cancer cells and that changes in cell motility and proliferation can occur when there is manipulation of NMU signaling in these cells either in vitro or in vivo. Intriguingly, this novel mechanism also explains how NMU signaling promotes the EGFR-driven and TGFβ receptor-driven mesenchymal transitions. Through the above axis, NMU signaling not only can promote malignancy of the tested endometrial cancer cells directly, but also helps these cells to become more sensitive to niche growth factors in their microenvironment. PMID:26849234

  18. The cross-talk of LDL-cholesterol with cell motility: Insights from the Niemann Pick Type C1 mutation and altered integrin trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Monira; Rentero, Carles; Conway, James R; Murray, Rachael Z; Timpson, Paul; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol is considered indispensible for the recruitment and functioning of integrins in focal adhesions for cell migration. However, the physiological cholesterol pools that control integrin trafficking and focal adhesion assembly remain unclear. Using Niemann Pick Type C1 (NPC) mutant cells, which accumulate Low Density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol in late endosomes (LE), several recent studies indicate that LDL-cholesterol has multiple roles in regulating focal adhesion dynamics. Firstly, targeting of endocytosed LDL-cholesterol from LE to focal adhesions controls their formation at the leading edge of migrating cells. Other newly emerging literature suggests that this may be coupled to vesicular transport of integrins, Src kinase and metalloproteases from the LE compartment to focal adhesions. Secondly, our recent work identified LDL-cholesterol as a key factor that determines the distribution and ability of several Soluble NSF Attachment Protein (SNAP) Receptor (SNARE) proteins, key players in vesicle transport, to control integrin trafficking to the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. Collectively, dietary, genetic and pathological changes in cholesterol metabolism may link with efficiency and speed of integrin and ECM cell surface delivery in metastatic cancer cells. This commentary will summarize how direct and indirect pathways enable LDL-cholesterol to modulate cell motility. PMID:26366834

  19. Motile hepatocellular carcinoma cells preferentially secret sugar metabolism regulatory proteins via exosomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lu, Shaohua; Zhou, Ye; Meng, Kun; Chen, Zhipeng; Cui, Yizhi; Shi, Yunfeng; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are deliverers of critically functional proteins, capable of transforming target cells in numerous cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesize that the motility of HCC cells can be featured by comparative proteome of exosomes. Hence, we performed the super-SILAC-based MS analysis on the exosomes secreted by three human HCC cell lines, including the non-motile Hep3B cell, and the motile 97H and LM3 cells. More than 1400 exosomal proteins were confidently quantified in each MS analysis with highly biological reproducibility. We justified that 469 and 443 exosomal proteins represented differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the 97H/Hep3B and LM3/Hep3B comparisons, respectively. These DEPs focused on sugar metabolism-centric canonical pathways per ingenuity pathway analysis, which was consistent with the gene ontology analysis on biological process enrichment. These pathways included glycolysis I, gluconeogenesis I and pentose phosphate pathways; and the DEPs enriched in these pathways could form a tightly connected network. By analyzing the relative abundance of proteins and translating mRNAs, we found significantly positive correlation between exosomes and cells. The involved exosomal proteins were again focusing on sugar metabolism. In conclusion, motile HCC cells tend to preferentially export more sugar metabolism-associated proteins via exosomes that differentiate them from non-motile HCC cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Computer-assisted quantification of motile and invasive capabilities of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Karthiga Santhana; Pillong, Max; Kunze, Jens; Burghardt, Isabel; Weller, Michael; Grotzer, Michael A.; Schneider, Gisbert; Baumgartner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of cancer cell dissemination and its control by extrinsic and intrinsic cellular factors is hampered by the lack of adequate and efficient analytical tools for quantifying cell motility. Oncology research would greatly benefit from such a methodology that allows to rapidly determine the motile behaviour of cancer cells under different environmental conditions, including inside three-dimensional matrices. We combined automated microscopy imaging of two- and three-dimensional cell cultures with computational image analysis into a single assay platform for studying cell dissemination in high-throughput. We have validated this new approach for medulloblastoma, a metastatic paediatric brain tumour, in combination with the activation of growth factor signalling pathways with established pro-migratory functions. The platform enabled the detection of primary tumour and patient-derived xenograft cell sensitivity to growth factor-dependent motility and dissemination and identified tumour subgroup-specific responses to selected growth factors of excellent diagnostic value. PMID:26486848

  1. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via LPA4 and LPA6 negatively regulates cell motile activities of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Kaori; Onishi, Yuka; Inui, Karin; Node, Yusuke; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2017-01-29

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular biological lipid and interacts with six subtypes of G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA1 to LPA6). LPA receptors exhibit a variety of cellular functions, depending on types of cancer cells. In this study, to assess the roles of LPA4 and LPA6 in cell growth and motile activities of colon cancer cells, LPA4 and LPA6 knockdown cells were established from DLD1 and HCT116 cells. LPA treatment increased the cell growth activities of LPA4 and LPA6 knockdown cells, compared with control cells. The cell motile activities of LPA4 and LPA6 knockdown cells were significantly higher than those of control cells. To evaluate the effects of LPA4 and LPA6 on cell motile activity induced by anticancer drug, long-term fluorouracil (5-FU) treated (DLD-5FU) cells were generated. The expression levels of LPAR1, LPAR4 and LPAR6 genes were significantly increased in DLD-5FU cells. DLD-5FU cells showed the high cell motile activity, compared with DLD1 cells. The increased cell motile activity was markedly stimulated by LPA4 and LPA6 knockdown. In contrast, the cell motile activity enhanced by 5-FU treatment was suppressed by LPA1 knockdown. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA4 and LPA6 negatively regulates the cell motile activities of DLD1 and HCT116 cells as well as long-term 5-FU treated cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns.

    PubMed

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tavangar, Amirhossein; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-09-10

    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  3. Cell adhesion under hydrodynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, P K; Jones, D A; McIntire, L V; Smith, C W

    2001-05-01

    This unit describes a hydrodynamic assay to study the relative importance of various receptor/ligand interactions in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion and to quantitate the strength of their binding. The basic protocol describes how to assemble the single-chamber flow system with the substrate, add the cells in suspension, and record the experiment on videotape. Alternate protocols present assays to determine how monoclonal antibodies and stimulating and inhibiting agents affect the substrate and the perfusing cells in suspension. Another alternate protocol details the use of the double-chamber flow system. Support protocols describe how to construct the single- and double-chamber flow systems and how to analyze the data from an experiment. Recording and analyzing the flow experiment requires the use of video equipment and, optionally, a computer and imaging software.

  4. Reconstitution of in vivo macrophage-tumor cell pairing and streaming motility on one-dimensional micro-patterned substrates

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ved P.; Beaty, Brian T.; Patsialou, Antonia; Liu, Huiping; Clarke, Michael; Cox, Dianne; Condeelis, John S.; Eddy, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    In mammary tumors, intravital imaging techniques have uncovered an essential role for macrophages during tumor cell invasion and metastasis mediated by an epidermal growth factor (EGF)/colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) paracrine loop. It was previously demonstrated that mammary tumors in mice derived from rat carcinoma cells (MTLn3) exhibited high velocity migration on extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers. These cells form paracrine loop-dependent linear assemblies of alternating host macrophages and tumor cells known as “streams.” Here, we confirm by intravital imaging that similar streams form in close association with ECM fibers in a highly metastatic patient-derived orthotopic mammary tumor (TN1). To understand the in vivo cell motility behaviors observed in streams, an in vitro model of fibrillar tumor ECM utilizing adhesive 1D micropatterned substrates was developed. MTLn3 cells on 1D fibronectin or type I collagen substrates migrated with higher velocity than on 2D substrates and displayed enhanced lamellipodial protrusion and increased motility upon local interaction and pairing with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Inhibitors of EGF or CSF-1 signaling disrupted this interaction and reduced tumor cell velocity and protrusion, validating the requirement for an intact paracrine loop. Both TN1 and MTLn3 cells in the presence of BMMs were capable of co-assembling into linear arrays of alternating tumor cells and BMMs that resembled streams in vivo, suggesting the stream assembly is cell autonomous and can be reconstituted on 1D substrates. Our results validate the use of 1D micropatterned substrates as a simple and defined approach to study fibrillar ECM-dependent cell pairing, migration and relay chemotaxis as a complementary tool to intravital imaging. PMID:24634804

  5. Cellular adhesome screen identifies critical modulators of focal adhesion dynamics, cellular traction forces and cell migration behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fokkelman, Michiel; Balcıoğlu, Hayri E; Klip, Janna E; Yan, Kuan; Verbeek, Fons J; Danen, Erik H J; van de Water, Bob

    2016-08-17

    Cancer cells migrate from the primary tumour into surrounding tissue in order to form metastasis. Cell migration is a highly complex process, which requires continuous remodelling and re-organization of the cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions. Here, we aimed to identify genes controlling aspects of tumour cell migration, including the dynamic organization of cell-matrix adhesions and cellular traction forces. In a siRNA screen targeting most cell adhesion-related genes we identified 200+ genes that regulate size and/or dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions in MCF7 breast cancer cells. In a subsequent secondary screen, the 64 most effective genes were evaluated for growth factor-induced cell migration and validated by tertiary RNAi pool deconvolution experiments. Four validated hits showed significantly enlarged adhesions accompanied by reduced cell migration upon siRNA-mediated knockdown. Furthermore, loss of PPP1R12B, HIPK3 or RAC2 caused cells to exert higher traction forces, as determined by traction force microscopy with elastomeric micropillar post arrays, and led to considerably reduced force turnover. Altogether, we identified genes that co-regulate cell-matrix adhesion dynamics and traction force turnover, thereby modulating overall motility behaviour.

  6. Cellular adhesome screen identifies critical modulators of focal adhesion dynamics, cellular traction forces and cell migration behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fokkelman, Michiel; Balcıoğlu, Hayri E.; Klip, Janna E.; Yan, Kuan; Verbeek, Fons J.; Danen, Erik H. J.; van de Water, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells migrate from the primary tumour into surrounding tissue in order to form metastasis. Cell migration is a highly complex process, which requires continuous remodelling and re-organization of the cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions. Here, we aimed to identify genes controlling aspects of tumour cell migration, including the dynamic organization of cell-matrix adhesions and cellular traction forces. In a siRNA screen targeting most cell adhesion-related genes we identified 200+ genes that regulate size and/or dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions in MCF7 breast cancer cells. In a subsequent secondary screen, the 64 most effective genes were evaluated for growth factor-induced cell migration and validated by tertiary RNAi pool deconvolution experiments. Four validated hits showed significantly enlarged adhesions accompanied by reduced cell migration upon siRNA-mediated knockdown. Furthermore, loss of PPP1R12B, HIPK3 or RAC2 caused cells to exert higher traction forces, as determined by traction force microscopy with elastomeric micropillar post arrays, and led to considerably reduced force turnover. Altogether, we identified genes that co-regulate cell-matrix adhesion dynamics and traction force turnover, thereby modulating overall motility behaviour. PMID:27531518

  7. The Moving Boundary Node Method: A level set-based, finite volume algorithm with applications to cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Wolgemuth, Charles W.; Zajac, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell crawling is a highly complex biophysical and biochemical process, where deformation and motion of a cell are driven by internal, biochemical regulation of a poroelastic cytoskeleton. One challenge to building quantitative models that describe crawling cells is solving the reaction-diffusion-advection dynamics for the biochemical and cytoskeletal components of the cell inside its moving and deforming geometry. Here we develop an algorithm that uses the level set method to move the cell boundary and uses information stored in the distance map to construct a finite volume representation of the cell. Our method preserves Cartesian connectivity of nodes in the finite volume representation while resolving the distorted cell geometry. Derivatives approximated using a Taylor series expansion at finite volume interfaces lead to second order accuracy even on highly distorted quadrilateral elements. A modified, Laplacian-based interpolation scheme is developed that conserves mass while interpolating values onto nodes that join the cell interior as the boundary moves. An implicit time-stepping algorithm is used to maintain stability. We use the algoirthm to simulate two simple models for cellular crawling. The first model uses depolymerization of the cytoskeleton to drive cell motility and suggests that the shape of a steady crawling cell is strongly dependent on the adhesion between the cell and the substrate. In the second model, we use a model for chemical signalling during chemotaxis to determine the shape of a crawling cell in a constant gradient and to show cellular response upon gradient reversal. PMID:20689723

  8. Human NK cell development requires CD56-mediated motility and formation of the developmental synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Emily M.; Gunesch, Justin T.; Dixon, Amera; Orange, Jordan S.

    2016-01-01

    While distinct stages of natural killer (NK) cell development have been defined, the molecular interactions that shape human NK cell maturation are poorly understood. Here we define intercellular interactions between developing NK cells and stromal cells which, through contact-dependent mechanisms, promote the generation of mature, functional human NK cells from CD34+ precursors. We show that developing NK cells undergo unique, developmental stage-specific sustained and transient interactions with developmentally supportive stromal cells, and that the relative motility of NK cells increases as they move through development in vitro and ex vivo. These interactions include the formation of a synapse between developing NK cells and stromal cells, which we term the developmental synapse. Finally, we identify a role for CD56 in developmental synapse structure, NK cell motility and NK cell development. Thus, we define the developmental synapse leading to human NK cell functional maturation. PMID:27435370

  9. Cell adhesion: integrating cytoskeletal dynamics and cellular tension

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Thomas; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration affects all morphogenetic processes and contributes to numerous diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. For most cells in most environments, movement begins with protrusion of the cell membrane followed by the formation of new adhesions at the cell front that link the actin cytoskeleton to the substratum, generation of traction forces that move the cell forwards and disassembly of adhesions at the cell rear. Adhesion formation and disassembly drive the migration cycle by activating Rho GTPases, which in turn regulate actin polymerization and myosin II activity, and therefore adhesion dynamics. PMID:20729930

  10. N-acetylgalactosamine glycans function in cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells: A role for truncated O-glycans in metastatic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bapu, Deepashree; Runions, John; Kadhim, Munira; Brooks, Susan Ann

    2016-06-01

    Failure in O-glycan chain extension exposing Tn antigen (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr) is clinically associated with cancer metastasis. This study provides evidence of a functional role for aberrant GalNAc-glycans in cancer cell capture from blood flow and/or adhesion to endothelium. Adhesion of breast cancer cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers was modelled under sweeping flow. Adhesion of metastatic, GalNAc glycan-rich, MCF7 and ZR 75 1 cells to endothelium increased over timepoints up to 1.5 hour, after which it plateaued. Adhesion was significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) when cell surface GalNAc-glycans were masked, an effect not seen in GalNAc glycan-poor, non-metastatic BT 474 cells. Masking irrelevant galactose- and mannose-glycans had no inhibitory effect. Imaging of cells post-adhesion over a 24 hour time course using confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed that up to 6 hours post-adhesion, motile, rounded cancer cells featuring lamellipodia-like processes crawled on an intact endothelial monolayer. From 6-12 hours post-adhesion, cancer cells became stationary, adopted a smooth, circular flattened morphology, and endothelial cells retracted from around them leaving cleared zones in which the cancer cells proceeded to form colonies through cell division.

  11. Cell Adhesion Strength Is Controlled by Intermolecular Spacing of Adhesion Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Selhuber-Unkel, C.; Erdmann, T.; López-García, M.; Kessler, H.; Schwarz, U.S.; Spatz, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Spatial patterning of biochemical cues on the micro- and nanometer scale controls numerous cellular processes such as spreading, adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Using force microscopy we show that the lateral spacing of individual integrin receptor-ligand bonds determines the strength of cell adhesion. For spacings ≥90 nm, focal contact formation was inhibited and the detachment forces as well as the stiffness of the cell body were significantly decreased compared to spacings ≤50 nm. Analyzing cell detachment at the subcellular level revealed that rupture forces of focal contacts increase with loading rate as predicted by a theoretical model for adhesion clusters. Furthermore, we show that the weak link between the intra- and extracellular space is at the intracellular side of a focal contact. Our results show that cells can amplify small differences in adhesive cues to large differences in cell adhesion strength. PMID:20159150

  12. Flagellum density regulates Proteus mirabilis swarmer cell motility in viscous environments.

    PubMed

    Tuson, Hannah H; Copeland, Matthew F; Carey, Sonia; Sacotte, Ryan; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with urinary tract infections. In the lab, P. mirabilis cells become long and multinucleate and increase their number of flagella as they colonize agar surfaces during swarming. Swarming has been implicated in pathogenesis; however, it is unclear how energetically costly changes in P. mirabilis cell morphology translate into an advantage for adapting to environmental changes. We investigated two morphological changes that occur during swarming--increases in cell length and flagellum density--and discovered that an increase in the surface density of flagella enabled cells to translate rapidly through fluids of increasing viscosity; in contrast, cell length had a small effect on motility. We found that swarm cells had a surface density of flagella that was ∼5 times larger than that of vegetative cells and were motile in fluids with a viscosity that inhibits vegetative cell motility. To test the relationship between flagellum density and velocity, we overexpressed FlhD(4)C(2), the master regulator of the flagellar operon, in vegetative cells of P. mirabilis and found that increased flagellum density produced an increase in cell velocity. Our results establish a relationship between P. mirabilis flagellum density and cell motility in viscous environments that may be relevant to its adaptation during the infection of mammalian urinary tracts and movement in contact with indwelling catheters.

  13. Effect of surface potential on epithelial cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Yun; Kao, Wei-Lun; You, Yun-Wen; Chu, Yi-Hsuan; Chu, Kuo-Jui; Chen, Peng-Jen; Wu, Chen-Yi; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2016-05-01

    Cell adhesion is the basis of individual cell survival, division and motility. Hence, understanding the effects that the surface properties have on cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology are crucial. In particular, surface charge/potential has been identified as an important factor that affects cell behavior. However, how cells respond to incremental changes in surface potential remains unclear. By using binary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified Au surfaces that are similar in mechanical/chemical properties and provide a series of surface potentials, the effect of surface potential on the behavior of cells can be studied. In this work, the effect of surface potential on epithelial cells, including human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), were examined. The results showed that the adhesion density of epithelial cells increased with increasing surface potential, which is similar to but varied more significantly compared with fibroblasts. The proliferation rate is found to be independent of surface potential in both cell types. Furthermore, epithelial cells show no morphological change with respect to surface potential, whereas the morphology of the fibroblasts clearly changed with the surface potential. These differences between the cell types were rationalized by considering the difference in extracellular matrix composition. Laminin-dominant epithelial cells showed higher adhesion density and less morphological change than did fibronectin-dominant fibroblasts because the more significant adsorption of positively charged laminin on the surface enhanced the adhesion of epithelial cells. In contrast, due to the dominance of negatively charged fibronectin that adsorbed weakly on the surface, fibroblasts had to change their morphology to fit the inhomogeneous fibronectin-adsorbed area.

  14. Cell substratum adhesion during early development of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Marco; Bae, Albert; Fuller, Danny; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Loomis, William F

    2014-01-01

    Vegetative and developed amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum gain traction and move rapidly on a wide range of substrata without forming focal adhesions. We used two independent assays to quantify cell-substrate adhesion in mutants and in wild-type cells as a function of development. Using a microfluidic device that generates a range of hydrodynamic shear stress, we found that substratum adhesion decreases at least 10 fold during the first 6 hr of development of wild type cells. This result was confirmed using a single-cell assay in which cells were attached to the cantilever of an atomic force probe and allowed to adhere to untreated glass surfaces before being retracted. Both of these assays showed that the decrease in substratum adhesion was dependent on the cAMP receptor CAR1 which triggers development. Vegetative cells missing talin as the result of a mutation in talA exhibited slightly reduced adhesive properties compared to vegetative wild-type cells. In sharp contrast to wild-type cells, however, these talA mutant cells did not show further reduction of adhesion during development such that after 5 hr of development they were significantly more adhesive than developed wild type cells. In addition, both assays showed that substrate adhesion was reduced in 0 hr cells when the actin cytoskeleton was disrupted by latrunculin. Consistent with previous observations, substrate adhesion was also reduced in 0 hr cells lacking the membrane proteins SadA or SibA as the result of mutations in sadA or sibA. However, there was no difference in the adhesion properties between wild type AX3 cells and these mutant cells after 6 hr of development, suggesting that neither SibA nor SadA play an essential role in substratum adhesion during aggregation. Our results provide a quantitative framework for further studies of cell substratum adhesion in Dictyostelium.

  15. Dispersal evolution in neoplasms: The role of disregulated metabolism in the evolution of cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Aktipis, C. Athena; Maley, Carlo C.; Pepper, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Here we apply the theoretical framework of dispersal evolution to understand the emergence of invasive and metastatic cells. We investigate whether the disregulated metabolism characteristic of cancer cells may play a causal role in selection for cell motility, and thus to the tissue invasion and metastasis that define cancer. Using an agent-based computational model, we demonstrate that cells with higher metabolism evolve to have higher rates of movement and that ‘neoplastic’ cells with higher metabolism rates are able to persist in a population of ‘normal’ cells with low metabolic rates, but only if increased metabolism is accompanied by increased motility. This is true even when the cost of motility is high. These findings suggest that higher rates of cell metabolism lead to selection for motile cells in pre-malignant neoplasms, which may pre-adapt cells for subsequent invasion and metastasis. This has important implications for understanding the progression of cancer from less invasive to more invasive cell types. PMID:21930797

  16. Suppressive effects of 3-bromopyruvate on the proliferation and the motility of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) is an analogue of pyruvate, which is the final product of glycolysis that enters the citric acid cycle. The present study aimed to investigate the suppressive effects of 3BP on the proliferation and motility of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. HLF and PLC/PRF/5 cells were cultured with 3BP and subjected to an MTS assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Cell motility was analyzed using a scratch assay. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine the expression levels of cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9. Proliferation of both cell lines was significantly suppressed by 3BP at 100 µM (P<0.05). The expression level of cyclin D1 was decreased after 3BP treatment at 100 µM in both cell lines (P<0.05). Pyknotic nuclei were observed in the cells cultured with 3BP at 100 µM. These results revealed that 3BP suppressed cell proliferation, decreased the expression of cyclin D1, and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. 3BP significantly suppressed motility in both cell lines (P<0.05). The expression level of MMP9 was significantly decreased (P<0.05). 3BP suppressed the proliferation and motility of HCC cells by decreasing the expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9.

  17. Regulation of breast cancer cell motility by T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing protein

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing protein (Tiam1) is an Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac)-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor that was isolated based on its ability to induce a metastatic phenotype. In polarized migrating keratinocytes, Tiam1 is found at the leading edge, where it cooperates with the protease-activated receptor 1 (Par1) complex to establish front-to-rear polarity. Although a positive correlation has been observed between Tiam1 expression and tumor grade in a variety of human malignancies, including breast, its role in breast cancer cells has not yet been examined. Methods Tiam1 expression and Rac activity were examined in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines that exhibit different degrees of cell motility. The contribution of Tiam1 to cell motility was directly examined by using transwell motility and wound-healing assays. Results Although we observed a striking, positive correlation between Tiam1 expression and cell motility in the panel of breast cancer cell lines, we did not observe a correlation between Tiam1 expression and overall levels of Rac activity. Consistent with this, small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-mediated suppression of Tiam1 expression limits the motility of cell lines in which Tiam1 expression is high (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453) but does not substantially alter the overall levels of activated Rac. Tiam1 overexpression is also not sufficient to increase the motility of more poorly motile cells (T-47D) or to increase Rac activity. Immunofluorescence and cellular fractionations indicate that Tiam1 is found predominantly in the Golgi of breast cancer cells, and in the latter case, Tiam1 was shown to co-fractionate with a limited pool of Rac1. Consistent with this Golgi localization, Tiam1 supports cell motility and Golgi reorientation in response to serum in a wound-healing assay using MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435S cells. Conclusions Tiam1 expression correlates with cell

  18. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Premnath, Priyatha; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-09-10

    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  19. Trichomonas adhere and phagocytose sperm cells: adhesion seems to be a prominent stage during interaction.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Marlene; de Andrade Rosa, Ivone; da Silva Fontes, Reginaldo; Burla Dias, Angelo José

    2008-03-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas vaginalis are extracellular parasites of the urogenital tract of cattle and humans, respectively. They cause infertility and abortion, but there is no documented information on the susceptibility of bovine sperm cells to this cattle parasite. The aim of this present work was to study the effects provoked by T. foetus and T. vaginalis when in interaction with bovine and human sperm cells. The bovine and human spermatozoa were obtained from uninfected bulls and men, respectively, and were exposed to living trichomonads over different periods of time. Light microscopy, video microscopy, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy first revealed a tropism, then a close proximity followed by a tight adhesion between these two different cells. A decrease in the spermatozoa motility was observed as well intense semen agglutination. The adhesion between trichomonads to the sperm cell occurred either by the flagella or sperm head. Motile parasites were observed during the next 12 h, whereas sperm cells in contact with the parasites rapidly became immotile. The parasites were able to maintain the sperm cells attached to their cell surface, followed by phagocytosis. This process began with a tight membrane-membrane adhesion and the incorporation of the sperm cell within an intracellular vacuole. Afterwards, the sperm cell was gradually digested in lysosomes. Many trichomonads were injured and/or died on making contact with the spermatozoa possibly due to necrosis. Results from this study demonstrated that both T. foetus and T. vaginalis interact with sperm cells provoking damage and death of these reproductive cells. Differences in the behavior of both trichomonads were evident, showing that T. vaginalis was much more virulent than T. foetus. The possible role of trichomonads in reproductive failure is discussed.

  20. β-Catenin-regulated myeloid cell adhesion and migration determine wound healing.

    PubMed

    Amini-Nik, Saeid; Cambridge, Elizabeth; Yu, Winston; Guo, Anne; Whetstone, Heather; Nadesan, Puviindran; Poon, Raymond; Hinz, Boris; Alman, Benjamin A

    2014-06-01

    A β-catenin/T cell factor-dependent transcriptional program is critical during cutaneous wound repair for the regulation of scar size; however, the relative contribution of β-catenin activity and function in specific cell types in the granulation tissue during the healing process is unknown. Here, cell lineage tracing revealed that cells in which β-catenin is transcriptionally active express a gene profile that is characteristic of the myeloid lineage. Mice harboring a macrophage-specific deletion of the gene encoding β-catenin exhibited insufficient skin wound healing due to macrophage-specific defects in migration, adhesion to fibroblasts, and ability to produce TGF-β1. In irradiated mice, only macrophages expressing β-catenin were able to rescue wound-healing deficiency. Evaluation of scar tissue collected from patients with hypertrophic and normal scars revealed a correlation between the number of macrophages within the wound, β-catenin levels, and cellularity. Our data indicate that β-catenin regulates myeloid cell motility and adhesion and that β-catenin-mediated macrophage motility contributes to the number of mesenchymal cells and ultimate scar size following cutaneous injury.

  1. β-Catenin–regulated myeloid cell adhesion and migration determine wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Amini-Nik, Saeid; Cambridge, Elizabeth; Yu, Winston; Guo, Anne; Whetstone, Heather; Nadesan, Puviindran; Poon, Raymond; Hinz, Boris; Alman, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    A β-catenin/T cell factor–dependent transcriptional program is critical during cutaneous wound repair for the regulation of scar size; however, the relative contribution of β-catenin activity and function in specific cell types in the granulation tissue during the healing process is unknown. Here, cell lineage tracing revealed that cells in which β-catenin is transcriptionally active express a gene profile that is characteristic of the myeloid lineage. Mice harboring a macrophage-specific deletion of the gene encoding β-catenin exhibited insufficient skin wound healing due to macrophage-specific defects in migration, adhesion to fibroblasts, and ability to produce TGF-β1. In irradiated mice, only macrophages expressing β-catenin were able to rescue wound-healing deficiency. Evaluation of scar tissue collected from patients with hypertrophic and normal scars revealed a correlation between the number of macrophages within the wound, β-catenin levels, and cellularity. Our data indicate that β-catenin regulates myeloid cell motility and adhesion and that β-catenin–mediated macrophage motility contributes to the number of mesenchymal cells and ultimate scar size following cutaneous injury. PMID:24837430

  2. SPAG9 controls the cell motility, invasion and angiogenesis of human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XIAORONG; ZHOU, WENLAI; LIU, SHIQING

    2016-01-01

    Sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) is an oncoprotein involved in the progression of various human malignancies; however, its role in osteosarcoma (OS) remains poorly evaluated. The present study used Matrigel™ cell migration and invasion assays, tube formation assay, Cell Counting kit-8, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to investigate the role of SPAG9 in OS cell motility, invasion and angiogenesis. The results of the present study demonstrated that SPAG9 expression was upregulated in OS tissues, as compared with adjacent normal tissues, and knockdown of SPAG9 in an OS cell line inhibited cell motility and invasion via inactivation of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that silencing of SPAG9 in OS cells inhibited tube formation, the proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, and suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion, contributing to a reduction in angiogenesis. The results of the present study indicated that SPAG9 may be an important regulator in OS and may be involved in metastasis. Therefore SPAG9 may be a promising target for the treatment of metastatic OS. PMID:26893659

  3. Electrical field effects on endothelial cell adhesion and growth on conducting biomaterials surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Gwen Elaine

    A major problem for vascular graft implants is poor long-term patency for small-diameter (<6 mm) prostheses. Small-diameter woven Dacron RTM or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) grafts often occlude in a short time due to thrombus or polytetrafluoroethylene intimal hyperplasia. It has generally been considered that an endothelial cell lining of such grafts might reduce thrombogenicity and thereby produce a more biomimetic prosthesis. Electrical stimulation has been studied for effects on in vitro cell growth, motility, and adhesion characteristics, as well as for in vivo wound healing. A comprehensive literature review was conducted which suggested the need for further research concerning the effects of electrical fields on endothelial cell adhesion and growth properties. The focus of these studies was therefore to determine the effect of electrical fields on the proliferation and adhesion characteristics of endothelial cells cultured on various substrates using low-voltage direct current. Voltages of 0, 0.5, and 1 volt were used for in vitro endothelial cell cultures plated at 50,000 and 100,000 cells/mL. Growth experiments were performed on glass, MylarRTM, Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-glass, on ITO-, carbon-, and gold-palladium-coated MylarRTM, and on polypyrrole-coated DacronRTM. Proliferation of endothelial cells was determined at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Adhesion characteristics were measured using a novel flow adhesion system. Characterization was via cell staining in conjunction with optical microscopy and a 6-keto-prostaglandin-F 1alpha assay to measure cell viability. Results of these cell growth studies in electric fields indicate that low voltage stimulation moderately increased endothelial cell growth on most substrates. The release of 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1alpha decreased over time at most cell concentrations and voltage levels. Cell adhesion experiments provided contrary results to the growth studies and suggested Rested that low-voltage electric

  4. Molecular markers of cell adhesion in ameloblastomas. An update

    PubMed Central

    González-González, Rogelio; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Damian-Matsumura, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common odontogenic tumor of epithelial origin, and though it is of a benign nature, it frequently infiltrates the bone, has a high rate of recurrence and could potentially become malignant. Cellular adhesion potentially plays an important role in the manifestation of these characteristics and in the tumor biology of ameloblastomas. Losses of cell-cell and extracellular matrix adhesion and cohesion are among the first events that occur in the invasion and growth of tumors of epithelial origin. The present review includes a description of the molecules that are involved in cell adhesion as reported for various types of ameloblastomas and discusses the possible roles of these molecules in the biological behaviors of this odontogenic tumor. Knowledge of the complex mechanisms in which these molecules play a role is critical for the research and discovery of future therapeutic targets. Key words:Ameloblastoma, cellular adhesion, molecular markers, cell-cell adhesion, extracellular matrix-cell adhesion. PMID:23986011

  5. A random cell motility gradient downstream of FGF controls elongation of an amniote embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bénazéraf, Bertrand; Francois, Paul; Baker, Ruth E.; Denans, Nicolas; Little, Charles D.; Pourquie, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. Here, we used tissue ablation in the chicken embryo to demonstrate that the caudal presomitic mesoderm (PSM) plays a key role in axis elongation. Using time-lapse microscopy, we analysed the movements of fluorescently labelled cells in the PSM during embryo elongation which revealed a clear posterior-to-anterior gradient of cell motility and directionality in the PSM. We tracked the movement of the PSM extracellular matrix in parallel with the labelled cells and subtracted the extracellular matrix movement from the global motion of cells. After subtraction, cell motility remained graded but lacked directionality, indicating that the posterior cell movements associated with axis elongation in the PSM are not intrinsic but reflect tissue deformation. The gradient of cell motion along the PSM parallels the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gradient 1, which has been implicated in the control of cell motility in this tissue2. Both FGF signalling gain- and loss-of-function experiments lead to disruption of the motility gradient and a slowing down of axis elongation. Furthermore, embryos treated with cell movement inhibitors (Blebbistatin or RhoK inhibitor), but not cell cycle inhibitors, show a slower axis elongation rate. We propose that the gradient of random cell motility downstream of FGF signalling in the PSM controls posterior elongation in the amniote embryo. Our data suggest that tissue elongation is an emergent property that arises from the collective regulation of graded, random cell motion rather than by the regulation of directionality of individual cellular movements. PMID:20613841

  6. Temperature Modulation of Integrin-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Félix; Chu, Calvin; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Qin, Yujing; Moy, Vincent T.

    2010-01-01

    In response to external stimuli, cells modulate their adhesive state by regulating the number and intrinsic affinity of receptor/ligand bonds. A number of studies have shown that cell adhesion is dramatically reduced at room or lower temperatures as compared with physiological temperature. However, the underlying mechanism that modulates adhesion is still unclear. Here, we investigated the adhesion of the monocytic cell line THP-1 to a surface coated with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a function of temperature. THP-1 cells express the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), a receptor for ICAM-1. Direct force measurements of cell adhesion and cell elasticity were carried out by atomic force microscopy. Force measurements revealed an increase of the work of de-adhesion with temperature that was coupled to a gradual decrease in cellular stiffness. Of interest, single-molecule measurements revealed that the rupture force of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex decreased with temperature. A detailed analysis of the force curves indicated that temperature-modulated cell adhesion was mainly due to the enhanced ability of cells to deform and to form a greater number of longer membrane tethers at physiological temperatures. Together, these results emphasize the importance of cell mechanics and membrane-cytoskeleton interaction on the modulation of cell adhesion. PMID:20816050

  7. Adhesion to fibronectin promotes the activation of the p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Bearz, A; Tell, G; Formisano, S; Merluzzi, S; Colombatti, A; Pucillo, C

    1999-01-01

    The β1 integrins are a family of heterodimeric adhesion receptors involved in cell‐to‐cell contacts and cell‐to‐extracellular matrix interactions. Through their adhesive role, integrins participate in transduction of outside/inside signals and contribute to trigger a multitude of cellular events such as differentiation, cell activation, and motility. The fibronectin integrin receptors, α4β1 and α5β1, can function as costimulatory molecules in T‐cell receptor (TCR)‐dependent T‐cell activation. In the current study the Jurkat T‐cell line was used as a model system to investigate the TCR‐independent role of cell adhesion to fibronectin in the activation of Zap‐70, a central molecule in the signalling events in T cells. Upon adhesion to plastic immobilized fibronectin but not to bovine serum albumin (BSA) the phosphorylation of p125FAK, a protein kinase that localizes to focal adhesion sites, was induced. Moreover, clustering of fibronectin receptors led to the detection of a p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex. Finally, while the complex between fak‐B, another protein kinase localized to focal adhesion sites, and Zap‐70 was detected in cells plated either on BSA or on fibronectin, the formation of the p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex appeared specifically induced following fibronectin‐mediated integrin clustering. These data suggest the existence of a high degree of specificity when the members of the β1 integrin family mediate signalling pathways in T cells. PMID:10594689

  8. Boyden chamber-based method for characterizing the distribution of adhesions and cytoskeletal structure in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tóvári, József; Futosi, Krisztina; Bartal, Alexandra; Tátrai, Enikő; Gacs, Alexandra; Kenessey, István; Paku, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    A 2D model was previously presented that describes the gliding motility of human fibrosarcoma cells. The model was based on the observation that adhesions are present only on the outer rim of the leading lamella of the semicircular cell. The present model describes the organization of adhesions and the cytoskeleton of migrating HT1080 fibrosarcoma and LX2 hepatic stellate cells in three dimensions. The migration assays were performed in a modified Boyden chamber using fibronectin, Matrigel, or collagen I as chemoattractants. The distribution of the adhesions was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope, and following decoration with heavy meromyosin, the organization of actin filaments was analyzed by electron microscopy. Double labeling was performed to study the relationship of the actin and vimentin filament network in the moving cells. Vinculin containing adhesions were observed only at the front of the cell in the form of a ring while passing through a filter pore of the Boyden chamber. Actin filaments were present only below the plasma membrane, except the very tip of the leading lamella. Vimentin intermediate filaments were localized around the cell nucleus behind the actin filament-rich lamella. This paper describes a model of the organization of adhesions and the cytoskeleton of migrating cells in the Boyden chamber. The model is based on the observation that adhesions are present only at the leading edge of the cell. The results extend the earlier 2D model of cell locomotion into 3D. PMID:25482525

  9. Boyden chamber-based method for characterizing the distribution of adhesions and cytoskeletal structure in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tóvári, József; Futosi, Krisztina; Bartal, Alexandra; Tátrai, Enikő; Gacs, Alexandra; Kenessey, István; Paku, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    A 2D model was previously presented that describes the gliding motility of human fibrosarcoma cells. The model was based on the observation that adhesions are present only on the outer rim of the leading lamella of the semicircular cell. The present model describes the organization of adhesions and the cytoskeleton of migrating HT1080 fibrosarcoma and LX2 hepatic stellate cells in three dimensions. The migration assays were performed in a modified Boyden chamber using fibronectin, Matrigel, or collagen I as chemoattractants. The distribution of the adhesions was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope, and following decoration with heavy meromyosin, the organization of actin filaments was analyzed by electron microscopy. Double labeling was performed to study the relationship of the actin and vimentin filament network in the moving cells. Vinculin containing adhesions were observed only at the front of the cell in the form of a ring while passing through a filter pore of the Boyden chamber. Actin filaments were present only below the plasma membrane, except the very tip of the leading lamella. Vimentin intermediate filaments were localized around the cell nucleus behind the actin filament-rich lamella. This paper describes a model of the organization of adhesions and the cytoskeleton of migrating cells in the Boyden chamber. The model is based on the observation that adhesions are present only at the leading edge of the cell. The results extend the earlier 2D model of cell locomotion into 3D.

  10. Inhibitory Activity of (+)-Usnic Acid against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Motility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Jeong, Min-Hye; Crişan, Florin; Yu, Young Hyun; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Choi, Kyung Hee; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. With the aim of screening new anti-cancer agents that inhibit cancer cell motility, we tested the inhibitory activity of seven lichen species collected from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains against migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-metastatic activity. Among them, Alectoria samentosa, Flavocetraria nivalis, Alectoria ochroleuca, and Usnea florida showed significant inhibitory activity against motility of human lung cancer cells. HPLC results showed that usnic acid is the main compound in these lichens, and (+)-usnic acid showed similar inhibitory activity that crude extract have. Mechanistically, β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity and KITENIN-mediated AP-1 activity were decreased by (+)-usnic acid treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The quantitative real-time PCR data showed that (+)-usnic acid decreased the mRNA level of CD44, Cyclin D1 and c-myc, which are the downstream target genes of both β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1. Also, Rac1 and RhoA activities were decreased by treatment with (+)-usnic acid. Interestingly, higher inhibitory activity for cell invasion was observed when cells were treated with (+)-usnic acid and cetuximab. These results implied that (+)-usnic acid might have potential activity in inhibition of cancer cell metastasis, and (+)-usnic acid could be used for anti-cancer therapy with a distinct mechanisms of action.

  11. Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility.

    PubMed

    Sada, Masafumi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Horioka, Kohei; Okumura, Takashi; Moriyama, Taiki; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-28

    Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs blocked parallel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 expression in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Metabolic activity of sperm cells: correlation with sperm cell concentration, viability and motility in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Gil, Sílvia; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Taberner, Ester; Piles, Miriam; Sabés, Manel; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2016-10-01

    The resazurin reduction test (RRT) is a useful technique to assess the metabolic rate of sperm cells. RRT depends on the ability of metabolically active cells to reduce the non-fluorescent dye resazurin to the fluorescent resorufin. The aim of this study was to develop a vital fluorometric method to evaluate metabolic activity of rabbit sperm cells. Twenty-five rabbit males were included in the study. Viability and morphology, motility and metabolic activity were evaluated using an eosin-nigrosin staining, a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and the RRT, respectively. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between RRT and semen parameters. After evaluation, a concentration of 10 × 106 sperm cells/ml was selected for further experiments with RRT. No significant correlation was found between the RRT results and the motility parameters. However, after RRT a significant positive correlation between relative fluorescence units and the percentage of alive spermatozoa (r = 0.62; P = 0.001) and a negative one with the percentage of sperm cells with acrosomic abnormalities (r = -0.45; P < 0.05) were detected. The vital assessment of metabolic rate of sperm cells by RRT could provide more information about semen quality than other routine semen analysis, correlating with sperm viability and acrosome status information.

  13. Inhibitory Activity of (+)-Usnic Acid against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Jeong, Min-Hye; Crişan, Florin; Yu, Young Hyun; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Choi, Kyung Hee; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. With the aim of screening new anti-cancer agents that inhibit cancer cell motility, we tested the inhibitory activity of seven lichen species collected from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains against migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-metastatic activity. Among them, Alectoria samentosa, Flavocetraria nivalis, Alectoria ochroleuca, and Usnea florida showed significant inhibitory activity against motility of human lung cancer cells. HPLC results showed that usnic acid is the main compound in these lichens, and (+)-usnic acid showed similar inhibitory activity that crude extract have. Mechanistically, β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity and KITENIN-mediated AP-1 activity were decreased by (+)-usnic acid treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The quantitative real-time PCR data showed that (+)-usnic acid decreased the mRNA level of CD44, Cyclin D1 and c-myc, which are the downstream target genes of both β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1. Also, Rac1 and RhoA activities were decreased by treatment with (+)-usnic acid. Interestingly, higher inhibitory activity for cell invasion was observed when cells were treated with (+)-usnic acid and cetuximab. These results implied that (+)-usnic acid might have potential activity in inhibition of cancer cell metastasis, and (+)-usnic acid could be used for anti-cancer therapy with a distinct mechanisms of action. PMID:26751081

  14. Bladder cancer cell growth and motility implicate cannabinoid 2 receptor-mediated modifications of sphingolipids metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bettiga, Arianna; Aureli, Massimo; Colciago, Giorgia; Murdica, Valentina; Moschini, Marco; Lucianò, Roberta; Canals, Daniel; Hannun, Yusuf; Hedlund, Petter; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Colombo, Renzo; Bassi, Rosaria; Samarani, Maura; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Benigni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The inhibitory effects demonstrated by activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB) on cancer proliferation and migration may also play critical roles in controlling bladder cancer (BC). CB expression on human normal and BC specimens was tested by immunohistochemistry. Human BC cells RT4 and RT112 were challenged with CB agonists and assessed for proliferation, apoptosis, and motility. Cellular sphingolipids (SL) constitution and metabolism were evaluated after metabolic labelling. CB1-2 were detected in BC specimens, but only CB2 was more expressed in the tumour. Both cell lines expressed similar CB2. Exposure to CB2 agonists inhibited BC growth, down-modulated Akt, induced caspase 3-activation and modified SL metabolism. Baseline SL analysis in cell lines showed differences linked to unique migratory behaviours and cytoskeletal re-arrangements. CB2 activation changed the SL composition of more aggressive RT112 cells by reducing (p < 0.01) Gb3 ganglioside (−50 ± 3%) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, −40 ± 4%), which ended up to reduction in cell motility (−46 ± 5%) with inhibition of p-SRC. CB2-selective antagonists, gene silencing and an inhibitor of SL biosynthesis partially prevented CB2 agonist-induced effects on cell viability and motility. CB2 activation led to ceramide-mediated BC cell apoptosis independently of SL constitutive composition, which instead was modulated by CB2 agonists to reduce cell motility. PMID:28191815

  15. The Interplay between Signaling and Metabolism in Breast Cancer Cell Motility and Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarfaty, Ilan

    2013-03-01

    The initiation and growth of tumor metastases require tumor cells go through a transition between collective-to-individual cell migration. Understanding the molecular, cellular and physical mechanisms of these different migration modes is limited. We focus on the tumor cell migration induced by Hepatocyte Growth Factor / Scatter Factor (HGF/SF) - Met-signaling, a master regulator of cell motility in normal and malignant processes. Met has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis and several Met targeting agents have been introduced into the clinic, and are currently in all phases of clinical trials Our analysis demonstrates that Met signaling dramatically alter the morpho-kinetic dynamics of collective migration of tumor cells. It induce a ``wave'' of increasing velocities that propagates back from the leading edge, increases cells' orientation and cooperation capabilities. In parallel Met signaling induces amoeboid cell motility that increased cell individuality. The decision making regarding the motility mode is dependent on the extent of activation of unique signal and metabolic cues. We present a combination of molecular imaging, conceptual and modeling framework for the analysis and assessment of the collective mesenchymal to epithelial versus amoeboid motility. Combined together our analysis can contribute to the understanding of metastasis and personalizing anti Met targeted therapy.

  16. A quantitative evaluation of cell migration by the phagokinetic track motility assay.

    PubMed

    Nogalski, Maciej T; Chan, Gary C T; Stevenson, Emily V; Collins-McMillen, Donna K; Yurochko, Andrew D

    2012-12-04

    Cellular motility is an important biological process for both unicellular and multicellular organisms. It is essential for movement of unicellular organisms towards a source of nutrients or away from unsuitable conditions, as well as in multicellular organisms for tissue development, immune surveillance and wound healing, just to mention a few roles(1,2,3). Deregulation of this process can lead to serious neurological, cardiovascular and immunological diseases, as well as exacerbated tumor formation and spread(4,5). Molecularly, actin polymerization and receptor recycling have been shown to play important roles in creating cellular extensions (lamellipodia), that drive the forward movement of the cell(6,7,8). However, many biological questions about cell migration remain unanswered. The central role for cellular motility in human health and disease underlines the importance of understanding the specific mechanisms involved in this process and makes accurate methods for evaluating cell motility particularly important. Microscopes are usually used to visualize the movement of cells. However, cells move rather slowly, making the quantitative measurement of cell migration a resource-consuming process requiring expensive cameras and software to create quantitative time-lapsed movies of motile cells. Therefore, the ability to perform a quantitative measurement of cell migration that is cost-effective, non-laborious, and that utilizes common laboratory equipment is a great need for many researchers. The phagokinetic track motility assay utilizes the ability of a moving cell to clear gold particles from its path to create a measurable track on a colloidal gold-coated glass coverslip(9,10). With the use of freely available software, multiple tracks can be evaluated for each treatment to accomplish statistical requirements. The assay can be utilized to assess motility of many cell types, such as cancer cells(11,12), fibroblasts(9), neutrophils(13), skeletal muscle cells(14

  17. Cell Adhesion in Epidermal Development and Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Lechler, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Cell–cell adhesions are necessary for structural integrity and barrier formation of the epidermis. Here, we discuss insights from genetic and cell biological studies into the roles of individual cell–cell junctions and their composite proteins in regulating epidermal development and function. In addition to individual adhesive functions, we will discuss emerging ideas on mechanosensation/transduction of junctions in the epidermis, noncanonical roles for adhesion proteins, and crosstalk/interdependencies between the junctional systems. These studies have revealed that cell adhesion proteins are connected to many aspects of tissue physiology including growth control, differentiation, and inflammation. PMID:25733147

  18. Repulsive cues combined with physical barriers and cell–cell adhesion determine progenitor cell positioning during organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paksa, Azadeh; Bandemer, Jan; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Razin, Nitzan; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Minina, Sofia; Meyen, Dana; Biundo, Antonio; Leidel, Sebastian A.; Peyrieras, Nadine; Gov, Nir S.; Keller, Philipp J.; Raz, Erez

    2016-01-01

    The precise positioning of organ progenitor cells constitutes an essential, yet poorly understood step during organogenesis. Using primordial germ cells that participate in gonad formation, we present the developmental mechanisms maintaining a motile progenitor cell population at the site where the organ develops. Employing high-resolution live-cell microscopy, we find that repulsive cues coupled with physical barriers confine the cells to the correct bilateral positions. This analysis revealed that cell polarity changes on interaction with the physical barrier and that the establishment of compact clusters involves increased cell–cell interaction time. Using particle-based simulations, we demonstrate the role of reflecting barriers, from which cells turn away on contact, and the importance of proper cell–cell adhesion level for maintaining the tight cell clusters and their correct positioning at the target region. The combination of these developmental and cellular mechanisms prevents organ fusion, controls organ positioning and is thus critical for its proper function. PMID:27088892

  19. Fascin, an Actin-bundling Protein, Induces Membrane Protrusions and Increases Cell Motility of Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Shigeko; Yamakita, Yoshihiko; Ono, Shoichiro; Matsumura, Fumio

    1998-01-01

    Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that is found in membrane ruffles, microspikes, and stress fibers. The expression of fascin is greatly increased in many transformed cells, as well as in specialized normal cells including neuronal cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells. A morphological characteristic common to these cells expressing high levels of fascin is the development of many membrane protrusions in which fascin is predominantly present. To examine whether fascin contributes to the alterations in microfilament organization at the cell periphery, we have expressed fascin in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells to levels as high as those found in transformed cells and in specialized normal cells. Expression of fascin results in large changes in morphology, the actin cytoskeleton, and cell motility: fascin-transfected cells form an increased number of longer and thicker microvilli on apical surfaces, extend lamellipodia-like structures at basolateral surfaces, and show disorganization of cell–cell contacts. Cell migration activity is increased by 8–17 times when assayed by modified Boyden chamber. Microinjection of a fascin protein into LLC-PK1 cells causes similar morphological alterations including the induction of lamellipodia at basolateral surfaces and formation of an increased number of microvilli on apical surfaces. Furthermore, microinjection of fascin into REF-52 cells, normal fibroblasts, induces the formation of many lamellipodia at all regions of cell periphery. These results together suggest that fascin is directly responsible for membrane protrusions through reorganization of the microfilament cytoskeleton at the cell periphery. PMID:9571235

  20. PAK6 targets to cell–cell adhesions through its N-terminus in a Cdc42-dependent manner to drive epithelial colony escape

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Elizabeth M.; Sun, Xiaowen; Olberding, Jordan R.; Ha, Byung Hak; Boggon, Titus J.; Calderwood, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The six serine/threonine kinases in the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family are important regulators of cell adhesion, motility and survival. PAK6, which is overexpressed in prostate cancer, was recently reported to localize to cell–cell adhesions and to drive epithelial cell colony escape. Here we report that PAK6 targeting to cell–cell adhesions occurs through its N-terminus, requiring both its Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain and an adjacent polybasic region for maximal targeting efficiency. We find PAK6 localization to cell–cell adhesions is Cdc42-dependent, as Cdc42 knockdown inhibits PAK6 targeting to cell–cell adhesions. We further find the ability of PAK6 to drive epithelial cell colony escape requires kinase activity and is disrupted by mutations that perturb PAK6 cell–cell adhesion targeting. Finally, we demonstrate that all type II PAKs (PAK4, PAK5 and PAK6) target to cell–cell adhesions, albeit to differing extents, but PAK1 (a type I PAK) does not. Notably, the ability of a PAK isoform to drive epithelial colony escape correlates with its targeting to cell–cell adhesions. We conclude that PAKs have a broader role in the regulation of cell–cell adhesions than previously appreciated. PMID:26598554

  1. The cell ratchet: Interplay between efficient protrusions and adhesion determines cell motion

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Riveline, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many physiological and pathological processes involve directed cell motion. In general, migrating cells are represented with a polarized morphology with extending and retracting protrusions at the leading edge. However, cell motion is a more complex phenomenon. Cells show heterogeneous morphologies and high protrusive dynamics is not always related to cell shape. This prevents the quantitative prediction of cell motion and the identification of cellular mechanisms setting directionality. Here we discuss the importance of protrusion fluctuations in directed cell motion. We show how their spatiotemporal distribution and dynamics determine the fluctuations and directions of cell motion for NIH3T3 fibroblasts plated on micro-patterned adhesive ratchets.1 We introduce efficient protrusions and direction index which capture short-term cell motility over hours: these new read-outs allow the prediction of parameters characteristic for the long-term motion of cells over days. The results may have important implications for the study of biological phenomena where directed cell migration is involved, in morphogenesis and in cancer. PMID:26313125

  2. Specific roles of Rac1 and Rac2 in motile functions of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Niggli, Verena; Schlicht, Dominique; Affentranger, Sarah

    2009-09-04

    Rho family proteins are constitutively activated in the highly invasive human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. We now investigated the specific roles of Rac1 and Rac2 in regulating morphology, F-actin organization, adhesion, migration, and chemotaxis of HT1080 cells. Downregulation of Rac1 using specific siRNA probes resulted in cell rounding, markedly decreased spreading, adhesion, and chemotaxis of HT1080 cells. 2D migration on laminin-coated surfaces in contrast was not markedly affected. Selective Rac2 depletion did not affect cell morphology, cell adhesion, and 2D migration, but significantly reduced chemotaxis. Downregulation of both Rac1 and Rac2 resulted in an even more marked reduction, but not complete abolishment, of chemotaxis indicating distinct as well as overlapping roles of both proteins in chemotaxis. Rac1 thus is selectively required for HT1080 cell spreading and adhesion whereas Rac1 and Rac2 are both required for efficient chemotaxis.

  3. Small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR, integrins and FAK selectively decrease L1CAM-stimulated glioblastoma cell motility and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Hannah J; Galileo, Deni S

    2016-06-01

    The cell adhesion/recognition protein L1CAM (L1; CD171) has previously been shown to act through integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathways to increase the motility and proliferation of glioblastoma cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Here, we investigated the effects of clinically relevant small-molecule inhibitors of the integrin, FAK and FGFR signaling pathways on glioblastoma-derived cells to determine their effectiveness and selectivity for diminishing L1-mediated stimulation. The effects of the FGFR inhibitor PD173074, the FAK inhibitors PF431396 and Y15 and the αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin inhibitor cilengitide were assessed in L1-positive and L1-negative variants of the human glioblastoma-derived cell lines T98G and U-118 MG. Their motility and proliferation were quantified using time-lapse microscopy and DNA content/cell cycle analyses, respectively. The application of all four inhibitors resulted in reductions in L1-mediated motility and proliferation rates of L1-positive glioblastoma-derived cells, down to the level of L1-negative cells when used at nanomolar concentrations, whereas no or much smaller reductions in these rates were obtained in L1-negative cells. In addition, we found that single inhibitor treatment resulted in maximum effects (i.e., combinations of FAK or integrin inhibitors with the FGFR inhibitor were rarely more effective). These results suggest that FAK may act as a point of convergence between the integrin and FGFR signaling pathways stimulated by L1 in these cells. We here show for the first time that small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR, integrins and FAK effectively and selectively abolish L1-stimulated migration and proliferation of glioblastoma-derived cells. Our results suggest that these inhibitors have the potential to reduce the aggressiveness of high-grade gliomas expressing L1.

  4. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Fetting, Jennifer L; Spencer, Susan A; Wolff, Tanya

    2009-10-01

    Directed cellular movements are a universal feature of morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Differential adhesion between the stationary and motile cells promotes these cellular movements to effect spatial patterning of cells. A prominent feature of Drosophila eye development is the 90 degrees rotational movement of the multicellular ommatidial precursors within a matrix of stationary cells. We demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecules Echinoid (Ed) and Friend of Echinoid (Fred) act throughout ommatidial rotation to modulate the degree of ommatidial precursor movement. We propose that differential levels of Ed and Fred between stationary and rotating cells at the initiation of rotation create a permissive environment for cell movement, and that uniform levels in these two populations later contribute to stopping the movement. Based on genetic data, we propose that ed and fred impart a second, independent, ;brake-like' contribution to this process via Egfr signaling. Ed and Fred are localized in largely distinct and dynamic patterns throughout rotation. However, ed and fred are required in only a subset of cells - photoreceptors R1, R7 and R6 - for normal rotation, cells that have only recently been linked to a role in planar cell polarity (PCP). This work also provides the first demonstration of a requirement for cone cells in the ommatidial rotation aspect of PCP. ed and fred also genetically interact with the PCP genes, but affect only the degree-of-rotation aspect of the PCP phenotype. Significantly, we demonstrate that at least one PCP protein, Stbm, is required in R7 to control the degree of ommatidial rotation.

  5. Cell adhesion molecules: detection with univalent second antibody

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Identification of cell surface molecules that play a role in cell-cell adhesion (here called cell adhesion molecules) has been achieved by demonstrating the inhibitory effect of univalent antibodies that bind these molecules in an in vitro assay of cell-cell adhesion. A more convenient reagent, intact (divalent) antibody, has been avoided because it might agglutinate the cells rather than blocking cell-cell adhesion. In this report, we show that intact rabbit immunoglobulin directed against certain cell surface molecules of Dictyostelium discoideum blocks cell-cell adhesion when the in vitro assay is performed in the presence of univalent goat anti-rabbit antibody. Under appropriate experimental conditions, the univalent second antibody blocks agglutination induced by the rabbit antibody without significantly interfering with its effect on cell-cell adhesion. This method promises to be useful for screening monoclonal antibodies raised against potential cell adhesion molecules because: (a) it allows for the screening of large numbers of antibody samples without preparation of univalent fragments; and (b) it requires much less antibody because of the greater affinity of divalent antibodies for antigens. PMID:6970200

  6. MDM2 promotes cell motility and invasiveness through a RING-finger independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Polański, Radosław; Warburton, Hazel E; Ray-Sinha, Arpita; Devling, Timothy; Pakula, Hubert; Rubbi, Carlos P; Vlatković, Nikolina; Boyd, Mark T

    2010-11-19

    Recent studies connect MDM2 with increased cell motility, invasion and/or metastasis proposing an MDM2-mediated ubiquitylation-dependent mechanism. Interestingly, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) p53/MDM2 co-expression is associated with reduced survival which is independently linked with metastasis. We therefore investigated whether expression of p53 and/or MDM2 promotes aggressive cell phenotypes. Our data demonstrate that MDM2 promotes increased motility and invasiveness in RCC cells (N.B. similar results are obtained in non-RCC cells). This study shows for the first time both that endogenous MDM2 significantly contributes to cell motility and that this does not depend upon the MDM2 RING-finger, i.e. is independent of ubiquitylation (and NEDDylation). Our data suggest that protein-protein interactions provide a likely mechanistic basis for MDM2-promoted motility which may constitute future therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Melanoma Proteoglycan Modifies Gene Expression to Stimulate Tumor Cell Motility, Growth and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianbo; Price, Matthew A.; Li, GuiYuan; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Salgia, Ravi; Jagedeeswaran, Ramasamy; Carlson, Jennifer H.; Ferrone, Soldano; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is a plasma membrane-associated proteoglycan that facilitates the growth, motility and invasion of tumor cells. MCSP expression in melanoma cells enhances integrin function and constitutive activation of Erk 1,2. The current studies were performed to determine the mechanism by which MCSP expression promotes tumor growth and motility. The results demonstrate that MCSP expression in radial growth phase (RGP), vertical growth phase (VGP) or metastatic cell lines causes sustained activation of Erk 1,2, enhanced growth and motility which all require the cytoplasmic domain of the MCSP core protein. MCSP expression in an RGP cell line also promotes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) based on changes in cell morphology and the expression of several EMT markers. Finally MCSP enhances the expression of c-Met and HGF, and inhibiting c-Met expression or activation limits the increased growth and motility of multiple melanoma cell lines. The studies collectively demonstrate an importance for MCSP in promoting progression by an epigenetic mechanism and they indicate that MCSP could be targeted to delay or inhibit tumor progression in patients. PMID:19738072

  8. Actin-based motility drives baculovirus transit to the nucleus and cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, Taro; Volkman, Loy E.

    2010-01-01

    Most viruses move intracellularly to and from their sites of replication using microtubule-based mechanisms. In this study, we show that nucleocapsids of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus undergo intracellular motility driven by actin polymerization. Motility requires the viral P78/83 capsid protein and the host Arp2/3 complex. Surprisingly, the virus directs two sequential and coordinated phases of actin-based motility. Immediately after cell entry, motility enables exploration of the cytoplasm and collision with the nuclear periphery, speeding nuclear entry and the initiation of viral gene expression. Nuclear entry itself requires transit through nuclear pore complexes. Later, after the onset of early gene expression, motility is required for accumulation of a subpopulation of nucleocapsids in the tips of actin-rich surface spikes. Temporal coordination of actin-based nuclear and surface translocation likely enables rapid transmission to neighboring cells during infection in insects and represents a distinctive evolutionary strategy for overcoming host defenses. PMID:20660627

  9. High Avidity CD8+ T Cells Efficiently Eliminate Motile HIV-Infected Targets and Execute a Locally Focused Program of Anti-Viral Function

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Maria Hottelet; Forcier, Talitha; McAndrew, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Michael; Chen, Huabiao; Juelg, Boris; Walker, Bruce D.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination of HIV from an initial site of infection is facilitated by motile HIV-infected CD4+ T-cells. However, the impact of infected target cell migration on antigen recognition by HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells is unclear. Using a 3D in vitro model of tissue, we visualized dynamic interactions between HIV-infected or peptide-pulsed CD4+ T-cells and HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells. CTLs engaged motile HIV-infected targets, but ∼50% of targets broke contact and escaped. In contrast, immobilized target cells were readily killed, indicating target motility directly inhibits CD8+ T-cell function. Strong calcium signals occurred in CTLs killing a motile target but calcium signaling was weak or absent in CTLs which permitted target escape. Neutralization of adhesion receptors LFA-1 and CD58 inhibited CD8+ T-cell function within the 3D matrix, demonstrating that efficient motile target lysis as dependent on adhesive engagement of targets. Antigen sensitivity (a convolution of antigen density, TCR avidity and CD8 coreceptor binding) is also critical for target recognition. We modulated this parameter (known as functional avidity but referred to here as “avidity” for the sake of simplicity) by exploiting common HIV escape mutations and measured their impact on CTL function at the single-cell level. Targets pulsed with low avidity mutant antigens frequently escaped while CTLs killed targets bearing high avidity antigen with near-perfect efficiency. CTLs engaged, arrested, and killed an initial target bearing high avidity antigen within minutes, but serial killing was surprisingly rare. CD8 cells remained committed to their initial dead target for hours, accumulating TCR signals that sustained secretion of soluble antiviral factors. These data indicate that high-avidity CD8+ T-cells execute an antiviral program in the precise location where antigen has been sensed: CTL effector functions are spatiotemporally coordinated with an early lytic phase followed by a sustained

  10. High avidity CD8+ T cells efficiently eliminate motile HIV-infected targets and execute a locally focused program of anti-viral function.

    PubMed

    Foley, Maria Hottelet; Forcier, Talitha; McAndrew, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Michael; Chen, Huabiao; Juelg, Boris; Walker, Bruce D; Irvine, Darrell J

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination of HIV from an initial site of infection is facilitated by motile HIV-infected CD4(+) T-cells. However, the impact of infected target cell migration on antigen recognition by HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cells is unclear. Using a 3D in vitro model of tissue, we visualized dynamic interactions between HIV-infected or peptide-pulsed CD4(+) T-cells and HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cells. CTLs engaged motile HIV-infected targets, but ∼ 50% of targets broke contact and escaped. In contrast, immobilized target cells were readily killed, indicating target motility directly inhibits CD8(+) T-cell function. Strong calcium signals occurred in CTLs killing a motile target but calcium signaling was weak or absent in CTLs which permitted target escape. Neutralization of adhesion receptors LFA-1 and CD58 inhibited CD8(+) T-cell function within the 3D matrix, demonstrating that efficient motile target lysis as dependent on adhesive engagement of targets. Antigen sensitivity (a convolution of antigen density, TCR avidity and CD8 coreceptor binding) is also critical for target recognition. We modulated this parameter (known as functional avidity but referred to here as "avidity" for the sake of simplicity) by exploiting common HIV escape mutations and measured their impact on CTL function at the single-cell level. Targets pulsed with low avidity mutant antigens frequently escaped while CTLs killed targets bearing high avidity antigen with near-perfect efficiency. CTLs engaged, arrested, and killed an initial target bearing high avidity antigen within minutes, but serial killing was surprisingly rare. CD8 cells remained committed to their initial dead target for hours, accumulating TCR signals that sustained secretion of soluble antiviral factors. These data indicate that high-avidity CD8(+) T-cells execute an antiviral program in the precise location where antigen has been sensed: CTL effector functions are spatiotemporally coordinated with an early lytic phase followed by a

  11. Effect of channel geometry on cell adhesion in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Green, James V; Kniazeva, Tatiana; Abedi, Mehdi; Sokhey, Darshan S; Taslim, Mohammad E; Murthy, Shashi K

    2009-03-07

    Microfluidic channels coated with ligands are a versatile platform for the separation or enrichment of cells from small sample volumes. This adhesion-based mode of separation is mediated by ligand-receptor bonds between the cells and channel surface and also by fluid shear stress. This paper demonstrates how aspects of microchannel geometry can play an additional role in controlling cell adhesion. With a combination of computational fluid dynamics modeling and cell adhesion experiments, channels with sharp turns are shown to have regions with near-zero velocity at the turn regions where large numbers of cells adhere or become collected. The lack of uniform adhesion in the turn regions compared to other regions of these channels, together with the large variability in observed cell adhesion indicates that channels with sharp turns are not optimal for cell-capture applications where predictable cell adhesion is desired. Channels with curved turns, on the other hand are shown to provide more uniform and predictable cell adhesion provided the gap between parallel arms of the channels is sufficiently wide. The magnitude of cell adhesion in these curved channels is comparable to that in straight channels with no turns.

  12. Breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 3-p130(Cas) interactions promote adhesion disassembly and invasion in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cross, A M; Wilson, A L; Guerrero, M S; Thomas, K S; Bachir, A I; Kubow, K E; Horwitz, A R; Bouton, A H

    2016-11-10

    Adhesion turnover is critical for cell motility and invasion. We previously demonstrated that the adaptor molecule breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 3 (BCAR3) promotes adhesion disassembly and breast tumor cell invasion. One of two established binding partners of BCAR3 is the adaptor molecule, p130(Cas). In this study, we sought to determine whether signaling through the BCAR3-Cas complex was responsible for the cellular functions of BCAR3. We show that the entire pool of BCAR3 is in complex with Cas in invasive breast tumor cells and that these proteins colocalize in dynamic cellular adhesions. Although accumulation of BCAR3 in adhesions did not require Cas binding, a direct interaction between BCAR3 and Cas was necessary for efficient dissociation of BCAR3 from adhesions. The dissociation rates of Cas and two other adhesion molecules, α-actinin and talin, were also significantly slower in the presence of a Cas-binding mutant of BCAR3, suggesting that turnover of the entire adhesion complex was delayed under these conditions. As was the case for adhesion turnover, BCAR3-Cas interactions were found to be important for BCAR3-mediated breast tumor cell chemotaxis toward serum and invasion in Matrigel. Previous work demonstrated that BCAR3 is a potent activator of Rac1, which in turn is an important regulator of adhesion dynamics and invasion. However, in contrast to wild-type BCAR3, ectopic expression of the Cas-binding mutant of BCAR3 failed to induce Rac1 activity in breast cancer cells. Together, these data show that the ability of BCAR3 to promote adhesion disassembly, tumor cell migration and invasion, and Rac1 activity is dependent on its ability to bind to Cas. The activity of BCAR3-Cas complexes as a functional unit in breast cancer is further supported by the co-expression of these molecules in multiple subtypes of human breast tumors.

  13. Effects of Hedera helix L. extracts on rat prostate cancer cell proliferation and motility

    PubMed Central

    Gumushan-Aktas, Hatice; Altun, Seyhan

    2016-01-01

    Hedera helix L., a member of Araliaceae family, has antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and anti-inflammatory effects, and is used in cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of treatment with extracts of leaves and unripened fruits of H. helix on rat prostate cancer cell lines with markedly different metastatic potentials: Mat-LyLu cells (strongly metastatic) and AT-2 cells (weakly metastatic). The effects of the extracts on cell kinetics and migration were determined. Tetrodotoxin was used to block the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) associated specifically with Mat-LyLu cells. Cell proliferation was detected spectrophotometrically using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The mitotic index was determined using the Feulgen staining method. Lateral motility was quantified by wound-healing assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that cell kinetics (proliferation and mitotic activity) and motility were inhibited by ethanolic leaf extract of H. helix. The ethanolic extract of H. helix fruit suppressed Mat-LyLu cell migration, with no effect on proliferation. The opposite effects were observed in AT-2 cells; migration was not affected but proliferation was inhibited. In conclusion, the ethanolic fruit extract of H. helix may inhibit the cell migration of Mat-LyLu cells by blocking VGSCs. However, the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of H. helix treatment on the lateral motility of the cancer cells is unclear. PMID:27698887

  14. LAP2 Is Widely Overexpressed in Diverse Digestive Tract Cancers and Regulates Motility of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Baek, Sungmin; Sim, Hey-Eun; Yoon, Sik; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Young; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2012-01-01

    Background Lamina-associated polypeptides 2 (LAP2) is a nuclear protein that connects the nuclear lamina with chromatin. Although its critical roles in genetic disorders and hematopoietic malignancies have been described, its expression and roles in digestive tract cancers have been poorly characterized. Methods To examine the expression of LAP2 in patient tissues, we performed immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. To examine motility of cancer cells, we employed Boyden chamber, wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. To reveal its roles in metastasis in vivo, we used a liver metastasis xenograft model. To investigate the underlying mechanism, a cDNA microarray was conducted. Results Immunohistochemistry in patient tissues showed widespread expression of LAP2 in diverse digestive tract cancers including stomach, pancreas, liver, and bile duct cancers. Real-time PCR confirmed that LAP2β is over-expressed in gastric cancer tissues. Knockdown of LAP2β did not affect proliferation of most digestive tract cancer cells except pancreatic cancer cells. However, knockdown of LAP2β decreased motility of all tested cancer cells. Moreover, overexpression of LAP2β increased motility of gastric and pancreatic cancer cells. In the liver metastasis xenograft model, LAP2β increased metastatic efficacy of gastric cancer cells and mortality in tested mice. cDNA microarrays showed the possibility that myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) and interleukin6 (IL6) may mediate LAP2β-regulated motility of cancer cells. Conclusions From the above results, we conclude that LAP2 is widely overexpressed in diverse digestive tract cancers and LAP2β regulates motility of cancer cells and suggest that LAP2β may have utility for diagnostics and therapeutics in digestive tract cancers. PMID:22745766

  15. S100A4 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and promotes cell growth and cell motility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Na; Sato, Daisuke; Saiki, Yuriko; Sunamura, Makoto; Fukushige, Shinichi; Horii, Akira

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines. • Knockdown of S100A4 suppressed proliferation in lung cancer cells. • Forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility in lung cancer cells. • PRDM2 was found to be one of the downstream suppressed genes of S100A4. - Abstract: S100A4, a small calcium-binding protein belonging to the S100 protein family, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and is widely accepted to associate with metastasis by regulating the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, its biological role in lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that S100A4 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells, irrespective of histological subtype. Then we performed knockdown and forced expression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines and found that specific knockdown of S100A4 effectively suppressed cell proliferation only in lung cancer cells with S100A4-overexpression; forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility only in S100A4 low-expressing lung cancer cells. PRDM2 and VASH1, identified as novel upregulated genes by microarray after specific knockdown of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer, were also analyzed, and we found that PRDM2 was significantly upregulated after S100A4-knockdown in one of two analyzed S100A4-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Our present results suggest that S100A4 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis by means of cell proliferation and motility by a pathway similar to that in pancreatic cancer.

  16. Glycolysis is the primary bioenergetic pathway for cell motility and cytoskeletal remodeling in human prostate and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Takumi; Verdone, James E.; Huang, Jessie; Kahlert, Ulf D.; Hernandez, James R.; Torga, Gonzalo; Zarif, Jelani C.; Epstein, Tamir; Gatenby, Robert; McCartney, Annemarie; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.; Mooney, Steven M.; An, Steven S.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of a cancer cell to detach from the primary tumor and move to distant sites is fundamental to a lethal cancer phenotype. Metabolic transformations are associated with highly motile aggressive cellular phenotypes in tumor progression. Here, we report that cancer cell motility requires increased utilization of the glycolytic pathway. Mesenchymal cancer cells exhibited higher aerobic glycolysis compared to epithelial cancer cells while no significant change was observed in mitochondrial ATP production rate. Higher glycolysis was associated with increased rates of cytoskeletal remodeling, greater cell traction forces and faster cell migration, all of which were blocked by inhibition of glycolysis, but not by inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Thus, our results demonstrate that cancer cell motility and cytoskeleton rearrangement is energetically dependent on aerobic glycolysis and not oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial derived ATP is insufficient to compensate for inhibition of the glycolytic pathway with regard to cellular motility and CSK rearrangement, implying that localization of ATP derived from glycolytic enzymes near sites of active CSK rearrangement is more important for cell motility than total cellular ATP production rate. These results extend our understanding of cancer cell metabolism, potentially providing a target metabolic pathway associated with aggressive disease. PMID:25426557

  17. Increased count, motility, and total motile sperm cells collected across three consecutive ejaculations within 24 h of oocyte retrieval: implications for management of men presenting with low numbers of motile sperm for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Said, Al-Hasen; Reed, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate changes in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile sperm cells per ejaculate, across three consecutive ejaculates collected from individuals within 24 h preceding an IVF cycle. Men presenting with oligoasthenozoospermia or asthenozoospemia attempted three ejaculates within 24 h preceding IVF. Ejaculate 1 was produced the afternoon prior to oocyte retrieval, and ejaculates 2 and 3 were produced the morning of oocyte retrieval with 2-3 h between collections. Ejaculates 1 and 2 were extended 1:1 v/v with room temperature rTYBS. Test tubes were placed into a beaker of room temperature water, then placed at 4 °C for gradual cooling. Ejaculate 3 was not extended, but pooled with ejaculates 1 and 2 and processed for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Out of 109 oocyte retrievals, 28 men were asked to attempt multiple consecutive ejaculations. Among this population, 25/28 (89.3 %) were successful, and 3/28 men (10.7 %) could only produce two ejaculates. Mean volumes for ejaculates 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from each other (p < 0.01); the volume decreased for each ejaculate. Mean sperm counts, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile cells per ejaculate for the ejaculates1, 2, and 3 demonstrated the following: ejaculates 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but counts, motility, and total motile sperm were improved over ejaculate 1 (p < 0.01). Pooling three consecutive ejaculates within 24 h increased the numbers of available motile sperm in this population by 8-fold compared to the first ejaculate alone, facilitating avoidance of sperm cryopreservation and additional centrifugation steps that could affect sperm viability and/or function.

  18. Identification of CD9 extracellular domains important in regulation of CHO cell adhesion to fibronectin and fibronectin pericellular matrix assembly.

    PubMed

    Cook, George A; Longhurst, Celia M; Grgurevich, Svetozar; Cholera, Shila; Crossno, Joseph T; Jennings, Lisa K

    2002-12-15

    CD9, a 24-kDa member of the tetraspanin family, influences cellular growth and development, activation, adhesion, and motility. Our investigation focuses on the hypothesis that the CD9 second extracellular loop (EC2) is important in modulating cell adhesive events. Using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression system, we previously reported that CD9 expression inhibited cell adhesion to fibronectin and fibronectin matrix assembly. For the first time, a functional epitope on CD9 EC2 that regulates these processes is described. Binding of mAb7, an EC2-specific anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody, reversed the CD9 inhibitory activity on CHO cell adhesion and fibronectin matrix assembly. This reversal of cell phenotype also was observed in CHO cells expressing CD9 EC2 truncations. Furthermore, our data showed that the EC2 sequence (173)LETFTVKSCPDAIKEVFDNK(192) was largely responsible for the CD9-mediated CHO cell phenotype. Two peptides, (135)K-V(172) (peptide 5b) and (168)P-I(185) (peptide 6a), selectively blocked mAb7 binding to soluble CD9 and to CD9 on intact cells. These active peptides reversed the influence of CD9 expression on CHO cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, confocal microscopy revealed that CD9 colocalized with the integrin alpha(5)beta(1) and cytoskeletal F-actin in punctate clusters on the cell surface, particularly at the cell margins. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed CD9 association with beta(1) integrin. The cellular distribution and colocalization of focal adhesion kinase and alpha-actinin with cytoskeletal actin was also influenced by CD9 expression. Thus, CD9 may exhibit its effect by modulating the composition of adhesive complexes important in facilitating cell adhesion and matrix assembly.

  19. Glycosylation of the laminin receptor (α3β1) regulates its association with tetraspanin CD151: Impact on cell spreading, motility, degradation and invasion of basement membrane by tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amit; Bane, Sanjay M; Kalraiya, Rajiv D

    2014-04-01

    Invasion is the key requirement for cancer metastasis. Expression of β1,6 branched N-oligosaccharides associated with invasiveness, has been shown to promote adhesion to most Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) and basement membrane (BM) components and haptotactic motility on ECM (fibronectin) but attenuate it on BM (laminin/matrigel) components. To explore the mechanism and to evaluate the significance of these observations in terms of invasion, highly invasive B16BL6 cells were compared with the parent (B16F10) cells or B16BL6 cells in which glycosylation was inhibited. We demonstrate that increased adhesion to matrix components induced secretion of MMP-9, important for invasion. Further, both the subunits of integrin receptors for fibronectin (α5β1) and laminin (α3β1) on B16BL6 cells were shown to carry these oligosaccharides. Although, glycosylation of receptors had no effect on their surface expression, it had same differential effect on cell spreading as haptotactic motility. Absence of correlation between invasiveness and expression of most tetraspanins (major regulators of integrin function) hints at an alternate mechanism. Here we show that glycosylation on α3β1 impedes its association with CD151 and modulates spreading and motility of cells apparently to reach an optimum required for invasion of BM. These studies demonstrate the complex mechanisms used by cancer cells to be invasive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to a human oral cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, K P; Fives-Taylor, P M

    1994-01-01

    Two quantitative, rapid assays were developed to study the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium associated with periodontal disease, to human epithelial cells. The human oral carcinoma cell line KB was grown in microtiter plates, and adherent bacteria were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans serum and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody or [3H]thymidine-labeled bacteria. Adhesion was found to be time dependent and increased linearly with increasing numbers of bacteria added. Variation in the level of adhesion was noted among strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Adhesion was not significantly altered by changes in pH (from pH 5 to 9) but was sensitive to sodium chloride concentrations greater than 0.15 M. Pooled human saliva was inhibitory for adhesion when bacteria were pretreated with saliva before being added to the cells. Pretreatment of the KB cells with saliva did not inhibit adhesion. Protease treatment of A. actinomycetemcomitans reduced adhesion of the bacteria to KB cells. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that a protein(s) is required for bacterial adhesion and that host components may play a role in modulating adhesion to epithelial cells. Images PMID:8063383

  1. Cell Adhesion on Amyloid Fibrils Lacking Integrin Recognition Motif*

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Reeba S.; George, Edna; Singh, Pradeep K.; Salot, Shimul; Anoop, Arunagiri; Jha, Narendra Nath; Sen, Shamik; Maji, Samir K.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloids are highly ordered, cross-β-sheet-rich protein/peptide aggregates associated with both human diseases and native functions. Given the well established ability of amyloids in interacting with cell membranes, we hypothesize that amyloids can serve as universal cell-adhesive substrates. Here, we show that, similar to the extracellular matrix protein collagen, amyloids of various proteins/peptides support attachment and spreading of cells via robust stimulation of integrin expression and formation of integrin-based focal adhesions. Additionally, amyloid fibrils are also capable of immobilizing non-adherent red blood cells through charge-based interactions. Together, our results indicate that both active and passive mechanisms contribute to adhesion on amyloid fibrils. The present data may delineate the functional aspect of cell adhesion on amyloids by various organisms and its involvement in human diseases. Our results also raise the exciting possibility that cell adhesivity might be a generic property of amyloids. PMID:26742841

  2. Patterned Poly(dopamine) Films for Enhanced Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Cortez-Jugo, Christina; Choi, Gwan H; Björnmalm, Mattias; Dai, Yunlu; Yoo, Pil J; Caruso, Frank

    2017-01-18

    Engineered materials that promote cell adhesion and cell growth are important in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we produced poly(dopamine) (PDA) films with engineered patterns for improved cell adhesion. The patterned films were synthesized via the polymerization of dopamine at the air-water interface of a floating bed of spherical particles. Subsequent dissolution of the particles yielded free-standing PDA films with tunable geometrical patterns. Our results show that these patterned PDA films significantly enhance the adhesion of both cancer cells and stem cells, thus showing promise as substrates for cell attachment for various biomedical applications.

  3. Patterned hybrid nanohole array surfaces for cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Nathan P; Lou, Yi; Muth, John F; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2009-10-06

    We report the fabrication of hybrid nanohole array surfaces to study the role of the surface nanoevironment on cell adhesion and cell migration. We use polystyrene beads and reactive ion etching to control the size and the spacing between nanoholes on a tailored self-assembled monolayer inert gold surface. The arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and brightfield microscopy. For cell adhesion studies, cells were seeded to these substrates to study the effect of ligand spacing on cell spreading, stress fiber formation, and focal adhesion structure and size. Finally, comparative cell migration rates were examined on the various nanohole array surfaces using time-lapse microscopy.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-induced α-catenin downregulation enhances the motility of human colorectal cancer cells in an NF-κB signaling-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guoping; Yang, Shifeng; Zhang, Gu; Xu, Yanxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Sun, Wenyong; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    α-Catenin is an important molecule involved in the maintenance of cell–cell adhesion and a prognostic marker in cancer since its expression is essential for preventing cancer metastasis. However, the mechanism that leads to the downregulation of α-catenin in cancer progression remains unclear. The present study revealed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB signaling activation suppressed α-catenin expression and motility in SW620 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and transwell migration assays. LPS treatment reduced both the mRNA and protein expression of α-catenin and thereby enhanced cell motility. Conversely, incubating cells with an NF-κB inhibitor disrupted these effects. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of p65 alone mimicked the effects of LPS stimulation. In CRC tissues, the presence of enteric bacterial LPS-related neutrophil-enriched foci was correlated with α-catenin downregulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that LPS-induced NF-κB signaling is related to α-catenin suppression and enhanced cell motility in CRC. Therefore, NF-κB is a novel potential therapeutic target for CRC metastasis. PMID:28008274

  5. Maspin acts at the cell membrane to inhibit invasion and motility of mammary and prostatic cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, S; Carey, J; Seftor, E A; Dias, L; Hendrix, M J; Sager, R

    1996-01-01

    Maspin, a novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin), inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis of mammary carcinoma. We show here that recombinant maspin protein blocks the motility of these carcinoma cells in culture over 12 h, as demonstrated by time-lapse video microscopy. Lamellopodia are withdrawn but ruffling continues. Both exogenous recombinant maspin and maspin expressed by tumor transfectants exhibit inhibitory effects on cell motility and cell invasion as shown in modified Boyden chamber assays. In addition, three prostatic cancer cell lines treated with recombinant maspin exhibited similar inhibition of both invasion and motility, suggesting a similar mode of maspin action in these two glandular epithelial cancers. When mammary carcinoma cells were treated with recombinant maspin, the protein was shown by immunostaining to bind specifically to the cell surface, suggesting that maspin activity is membrane associated. When pretreated with antimaspin antibody, maspin loses its inhibitory effects on both invasion and motility. However, when maspin is added to these cells preceding antibody treatment, the activity of maspin is no longer inhibited by subsequent addition of the antibody. It is concluded therefore that the inhibition of invasion and motility by maspin is initially localized to the cell surface. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876194

  6. Differential effects of EGF and amphiregulin on adhesion molecule expression and migration of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Solic, N; Davies, D E

    1997-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent morphogen affecting cell shape and motility through regulation of adhesive interactions. We have characterized the morphological effects of EGF on GP2d and GP5d colon carcinoma cell lines and have compared the ability of the heparin-binding EGF receptor ligand amphiregulin (AR) to elicit the same effects. EGF induced a marked epithelial-mesenchymal transition in both cell lines. This effect was evident at 7 pM EGF and was associated with a reduction in cellular adherens junctions and diminished cell-cell contact; it was also associated with an increase in expression of alpha2-integrin as well as enhanced adhesion to the substratum and cell spreading. These changes in adhesion molecule expression were accompanied by enhanced migration on collagen. Blockade of cell growth with mitomycin C did not prevent the EGF-induced morphological change, showing that the mitogenic and morphogenic responses of the GP cells were separable. The phosphatidyl inositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin inhibited basal proliferation but had no effect on the EGF-induced morphological change, further suggesting that the PI 3-kinase pathway was not involved in the morphogenic response of these cells. Amphiregulin stimulated proliferation of both cell lines, but could only elicit a modest morphological change if used at considerably higher doses or if growth was blocked with mitomycin C. In cells treated with 55 nM AR, alpha2-integrin expression was slightly increased; however, unlike the EGF case, adherens junctions remained intact. These differences in the ability of EGF and amphiregulin to affect cellular adhesion and migration may be significant factors influencing normal and tumor cell behavior.

  7. Melanoma Cell Adhesion and Migration Is Modulated by the Uronyl 2-O Sulfotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Nikolovska, Katerina; Spillmann, Dorothe; Haier, Jörg; Ladányi, Andrea; Stock, Christian; Seidler, Daniela G.

    2017-01-01

    Although the vast majority of melanomas are characterized by a high metastatic potential, if detected early, melanoma can have a good prognostic outcome. However, once metastasised, the prognosis is bleak. We showed previously that uronyl-2-O sulfotransferase (Ust) and 2-O sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) are involved in cell migration. To demonstrate an impact of 2-O sulfation in metastasis we knocked-down Ust in mouse melanoma cells. This significantly reduced the amount of Ust protein and enzyme activity. Furthermore, in vitro cell motility and adhesion were significantly reduced correlating with the decrease of cellular Ust protein. Single cell migration of B16VshUst(16) cells showed a decreased cell movement phenotype. The adhesion of B16V cells to fibronectin depended on α5β1 but not αvβ3 integrin. Inhibition of glycosaminoglycan sulfation or blocking fibroblast growth factor receptor (FgfR) reduced α5 integrin in B16V cell lines. Interestingly, FgfR1 expression and activation was reduced in Ust knock-down cells. In vivo, pulmonary metastasis of B16VshUst cells was prevented due to a reduction of α5 integrin. As a proof of concept UST knock-down in human melanoma cells also showed a reduction in ITGa5 and adhesion. This is the first study showing that Ust, and consequently 2-O sulfation of the low affinity receptor for FgfR CS/DS, reduces Itga5 and leads to an impaired adhesion and migration of melanoma cells. PMID:28107390

  8. Short Peptides Enhance Single Cell Adhesion and Viability on Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Veiseh, Mandana; Veiseh, Omid; Martin, Michael C.; Asphahani, Fareid; Zhang, Miqin

    2011-01-01

    Single cell patterning holds important implications for biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, medicine, and bioinformatics. The challenge for single cell patterning is to produce small islands hosting only single cells and retaining their viability for a prolonged period of time. This study demonstrated a surface engineering approach that uses a covalently-bound short peptide as a mediator to pattern cells with improved single cell adhesion and prolonged cellular viability on gold patterned SiO2 substrates. The underlying hypothesis is that cell adhesion is regulated by the type, availability and stability of effective cell adhesion peptides, and thus covalently bound short peptides would promote cell spreading and thus, single cell adhesion and viability. The effectiveness of this approach and the underlying mechanism for the increased probability of single cell adhesion and prolonged cell viability by short peptides were studied by comparing cellular behavior of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells on three model surfaces whose gold electrodes were immobilized with fibronectin, physically adsorbed Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Tyr, and covalently-bound Lys-Arg-Glu-Asp-Val-Tyr, respectively. The surface chemistry and binding properties were characterized by reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both short peptides were superior to fibronectin in producing adhesion of only single cells, while the covalently bound peptide also reduced apoptosis and necrosis of adhered cells. Controlling cell spreading by peptide binding domains to regulate apoptosis and viability represents a fundamental mechanism in cell-materials interaction and provides an effective strategy in engineering arrays of single cells. PMID:17371055

  9. Methods for fabricating microarrays of motile bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rozhok, Sergey; Shen, Clifton K-F; Littler, Pey-Lih H; Fan, Zhifang; Liu, Chang; Mirkin, Chad A; Holz, Richard C

    2005-04-01

    Motile bacterial cell microarrays were fabricated by attaching Escherichia coli K-12 cells onto predesigned 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid patterned microarrays, which were covalently functionalized with E. coli antibodies or poly-L-lysine. By utilizing 11-mercaptoundecyl-penta(ethylene glycol) or 11-mercapto-1-undecanol as passivating molecules, nonspecific binding of E. coli was significantly reduced. Microcontact printing and dip-pen nanolithography were used to prepare microarrays for bacterial adhesion, which was studied by optical fluorescence and atomic force microscopy. These data indicate that single motile E. coli can be attached to predesigned line or dot features and binding can occur via the cell body or the flagella of bacteria. Adherent bacteria are viable (remain alive and motile after adhesion to patterned surface features) for more than four hours. Individual motile bacterial cells can be placed onto predesigned surface features that are at least 1.3 microm in diameter or larger. The importance of controlling the adhesion of single bacterial cell to a surface is discussed with regard to biomotor design.

  10. Identification and characterization of three Vibrio alginolyticus non-coding RNAs involved in adhesion, chemotaxis, and motility processes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lixing; Hu, Jiao; Su, Yongquan; Qin, Yingxue; Kong, Wendi; Ma, Ying; Xu, Xiaojin; Lin, Mao; Yan, Qingpi

    2015-01-01

    The capability of Vibrio alginolyticus to adhere to fish mucus is a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Our previous research showed that stress conditions, such as Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+, and low pH, can reduce this adhesion ability. Non-coding (nc) RNAs play a crucial role in regulating bacterial gene expression, affecting the bacteria's pathogenicity. To investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the decline in adhesion ability caused by stressors, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational techniques to detect stressed ncRNA dynamics. These approaches yielded three commonly altered ncRNAs that are predicted to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, which plays a key role in the adhesion process of bacteria. We hypothesized they play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. In this study, we validated the effects of these three ncRNAs on their predicted target genes and their role in the V. alginolyticus adhesion process with RNA interference (i), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), northern blot, capillary assay, and in vitro adhesion assays. The expression of these ncRNAs and their predicted target genes were confirmed by qPCR and northern blot, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data and the target prediction. Overexpression of these ncRNAs was capable of reducing the chemotactic and adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus, and the expression levels of their target genes were also significantly reduced. Our results indicated that these three ncRNAs: (1) are able to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, and (2) play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. PMID:26217589

  11. Identification and characterization of three Vibrio alginolyticus non-coding RNAs involved in adhesion, chemotaxis, and motility processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lixing; Hu, Jiao; Su, Yongquan; Qin, Yingxue; Kong, Wendi; Ma, Ying; Xu, Xiaojin; Lin, Mao; Yan, Qingpi

    2015-01-01

    The capability of Vibrio alginolyticus to adhere to fish mucus is a key virulence factor of the bacteria. Our previous research showed that stress conditions, such as Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and low pH, can reduce this adhesion ability. Non-coding (nc) RNAs play a crucial role in regulating bacterial gene expression, affecting the bacteria's pathogenicity. To investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the decline in adhesion ability caused by stressors, we combined high-throughput sequencing with computational techniques to detect stressed ncRNA dynamics. These approaches yielded three commonly altered ncRNAs that are predicted to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, which plays a key role in the adhesion process of bacteria. We hypothesized they play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus. In this study, we validated the effects of these three ncRNAs on their predicted target genes and their role in the V. alginolyticus adhesion process with RNA interference (i), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), northern blot, capillary assay, and in vitro adhesion assays. The expression of these ncRNAs and their predicted target genes were confirmed by qPCR and northern blot, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data and the target prediction. Overexpression of these ncRNAs was capable of reducing the chemotactic and adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus, and the expression levels of their target genes were also significantly reduced. Our results indicated that these three ncRNAs: (1) are able to regulate the bacterial chemotaxis pathway, and (2) play a key role in the adhesion process of V. alginolyticus.

  12. Regulation of Breast Cancer Cell Motility by Golgi-Mediated Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    localized to the Golgi apparatus (Figure 4A) where it interfered with Dbs function, and limited Cdc42 activation. Next we determined whether this was...in the Golgi apparatus is required to support directed migration, but not overall cell movement, per se. Since Golgi reorientation is thought to be...Motility by Golgi -Mediated Signaling PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ian Paul Whitehead, Ph.D

  13. Annexin A6 contributes to the invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells by influencing the organization and localization of functional focal adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakwe, Amos M.; Koumangoye, Rainelli; Guillory, Bobby; Ochieng, Josiah

    2011-04-01

    The interaction of annexin A6 (AnxA6) with membrane phospholipids and either specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components or F-actin suggests that it may influence cellular processes associated with rapid plasma membrane reorganization such as cell adhesion and motility. Here, we examined the putative roles of AnxA6 in adhesion-related cellular processes that contribute to breast cancer progression. We show that breast cancer cells secrete annexins via the exosomal pathway and that the secreted annexins are predominantly cell surface-associated. Depletion of AnxA6 in the invasive BT-549 breast cancer cells is accompanied by enhanced anchorage-independent cell growth but cell-cell cohesion, cell adhesion/spreading onto collagen type IV or fetuin-A, cell motility and invasiveness were strongly inhibited. To explain the loss in adhesion/motility, we show that vinculin-based focal adhesions in the AnxA6-depleted BT-549 cells are elongated and randomly distributed. These focal contacts are also functionally defective because the activation of focal adhesion kinase and the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway were strongly inhibited while the MAP kinase pathway remained constitutively active. Compared with normal human breast tissues, reduced AnxA6 expression in breast carcinoma tissues correlates with enhanced cell proliferation. Together this suggests that reduced AnxA6 expression contributes to breast cancer progression by promoting the loss of functional cell-cell and/or cell-ECM contacts and anchorage-independent cell proliferation.

  14. [Molecular mechanisms underlying cell adhesion--molecules mediating lymphocyte migration].

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, M

    2000-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play crucial roles in a variety of in vivo responses such as development of various tissues in embryos and also in the body defence mechanism in the postnatal period. Defects in adhesion molecules thus result in various pathological disorders. Recent investigation has identified a large number of novel adhesion molecules, particularly those involved in the extravasation of leukocytes including lymphocytes. However, there still appears to be a substantial number of unidentified adhesion molecules. In addition, signal transduction as well as regulatory mechanisms of adhesion molecules remain not fully explored. I will herein describe general characteristics of adhesion molecules and also discuss issues that need to be urgently resolved in the field of cell adhesion.

  15. Effects of curvature and cell-cell interaction on cell adhesion in microvessels.

    PubMed

    Yan, W W; Liu, Y; Fu, B M

    2010-10-01

    It has been found that both circulating blood cells and tumor cells are more easily adherent to curved microvessels than straight ones. This motivated us to investigate numerically the effect of the curvature of the curved vessel on cell adhesion. In this study, the fluid dynamics was carried out by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and the cell dynamics was governed by the Newton's law of translation and rotation. The adhesive dynamics model involved the effect of receptor-ligand bonds between circulating cells and endothelial cells (ECs). It is found that the curved vessel would increase the simultaneous bond number, and the probability of cell adhesion is increased consequently. The interaction between traveling cells would also affect the cell adhesion significantly. For two-cell case, the simultaneous bond number of the rear cell is increased significantly, and the curvature of microvessel further enhances the probability of cell adhesion.

  16. Protein conformation as a regulator of cell-matrix adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Vesa P; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard

    2014-04-14

    The dynamic regulation of cell-matrix adhesion is essential for tissue homeostasis and architecture, and thus numerous pathologies are linked to altered cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and ECM scaffold. The molecular machinery involved in cell-matrix adhesion is complex and involves both sensory and matrix-remodelling functions. In this review, we focus on how protein conformation controls the organization and dynamics of cell-matrix adhesion. The conformational changes in various adhesion machinery components are described, including examples from ECM as well as cytoplasmic proteins. The discussed mechanisms involved in the regulation of protein conformation include mechanical stress, post-translational modifications and allosteric ligand-binding. We emphasize the potential role of intrinsically disordered protein regions in these processes and discuss the role of protein networks and co-operative protein interactions in the formation and consolidation of cell-matrix adhesion and extracellular scaffolds.

  17. Ultraweak sugar-sugar interactions for transient cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Pincet, F; Le Bouar, T; Zhang, Y; Esnault, J; Mallet, J M; Perez, E; Sinaÿ, P

    2001-01-01

    Carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions are rarely considered in biologically relevant situations such as cell recognition and adhesion. One Ca(2+)-mediated homotypic interaction between two Lewis(x) determinants (Le(x)) has been proposed to drive cell adhesion in murine embryogenesis. Here, we confirm the existence of this specific interaction by reporting the first direct quantitative measurements in an environment akin to that provided by membranes. The adhesion between giant vesicles functionalized with Le(x) was obtained by micropipette aspiration and contact angle measurements. This interaction is below the thermal energy, and cell-cell adhesion will require a large number of molecules, as illustrated by the Le(x) concentration peak observed at the cell membranes during the morula stage of the embryo. This adhesion is ultralow and therefore difficult to measure. Such small interactions explain why the concept of specific interactions between carbohydrates is often neglected. PMID:11222296

  18. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Mediates Microtubule Destabilization To Promote Cell Motility and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Laura M.; Stakaityte, Gabriele; Wood, Jennifer, J.; Abdul-Sada, Hussein; Griffiths, David A.; Howell, Gareth J.; Wheat, Rachel; Blair, G. Eric; Steven, Neil M.; Macdonald, Andrew; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer of neuroendocrine origin with a high propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the majority of MCC cases due to the expression of the MCPyV small and large tumor antigens (ST and LT, respectively). Although a number of molecular mechanisms have been attributed to MCPyV tumor antigen-mediated cellular transformation or replication, to date, no studies have investigated any potential link between MCPyV T antigen expression and the highly metastatic nature of MCC. Here we use a quantitative proteomic approach to show that MCPyV ST promotes differential expression of cellular proteins implicated in microtubule-associated cytoskeletal organization and dynamics. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that MCPyV ST expression promotes microtubule destabilization, leading to a motile and migratory phenotype. We further highlight the essential role of the microtubule-associated protein stathmin in MCPyV ST-mediated microtubule destabilization and cell motility and implicate the cellular phosphatase catalytic subunit protein phosphatase 4C (PP4C) in the regulation of this process. These findings suggest a possible molecular mechanism for the highly metastatic phenotype associated with MCC. IMPORTANCE Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the majority of cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer with a high metastatic potential. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to virally induced cancer development have yet to be fully elucidated. In particular, no studies have investigated any potential link between the virus and the highly metastatic nature of MCC. We demonstrate that the MCPyV small tumor antigen (ST) promotes the destabilization of the host cell microtubule network, which leads to a more motile and migratory cell phenotype. We further show that MCPyV ST induces this process by regulating the phosphorylation status of the cellular microtubule

  19. cAMP-induced Epac-Rap activation inhibits epithelial cell migration by modulating focal adhesion and leading edge dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Karen S; Raaijmakers, Judith H; Bruinsma, Wytse; Bos, Johannes L; de Rooij, Johan

    2008-06-01

    Epithelial cell migration is a complex process crucial for embryonic development, wound healing and tumor metastasis. It depends on alterations in cell-cell adhesion and integrin-extracellular matrix interactions and on actomyosin-driven, polarized leading edge protrusion. The small GTPase Rap is a known regulator of integrins and cadherins that has also been implicated in the regulation of actin and myosin, but a direct role in cell migration has not been investigated. Here, we report that activation of endogenous Rap by cAMP results in an inhibition of HGF- and TGFbeta-induced epithelial cell migration in several model systems, irrespective of the presence of E-cadherin adhesion. We show that Rap activation slows the dynamics of focal adhesions and inhibits polarized membrane protrusion. Importantly, forced integrin activation by antibodies does not mimic these effects of Rap on cell motility, even though it does mimic Rap effects in short-term cell adhesion assays. From these results, we conclude that Rap inhibits epithelial cell migration, by modulating focal adhesion dynamics and leading edge activity. This extends beyond the effect of integrin affinity modulation and argues for an additional function of Rap in controlling the migration machinery of epithelial cells.

  20. Cleavage and Cell Adhesion Properties of Human Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (HEPCAM)*

    PubMed Central

    Tsaktanis, Thanos; Kremling, Heidi; Pavšič, Miha; von Stackelberg, Ricarda; Mack, Brigitte; Fukumori, Akio; Steiner, Harald; Vielmuth, Franziska; Spindler, Volker; Huang, Zhe; Jakubowski, Jasmine; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Luxenburger, Elke; Lauber, Kirsten; Lenarčič, Brigita; Gires, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (HEPCAM) is a tumor-associated antigen frequently expressed in carcinomas, which promotes proliferation after regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Here, we describe extracellular shedding of HEPCAM at two α-sites through a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) and at one β-site through BACE1. Transmembrane cleavage by γ-secretase occurs at three γ-sites to generate extracellular Aβ-like fragments and at two ϵ-sites to release human EPCAM intracellular domain HEPICD, which is efficiently degraded by the proteasome. Mapping of cleavage sites onto three-dimensional structures of HEPEX cis-dimer predicted conditional availability of α- and β-sites. Endocytosis of HEPCAM warrants acidification in cytoplasmic vesicles to dissociate protein cis-dimers required for cleavage by BACE1 at low pH values. Intramembrane cleavage sites are accessible and not part of the structurally important transmembrane helix dimer crossing region. Surprisingly, neither chemical inhibition of cleavage nor cellular knock-out of HEPCAM using CRISPR-Cas9 technology impacted the adhesion of carcinoma cell lines. Hence, a direct function of HEPCAM as an adhesion molecule in carcinoma cells is not supported and appears to be questionable. PMID:26292218

  1. Chemically programmed cell adhesion with membrane-anchored oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Selden, Nicholas S.; Todhunter, Michael E.; Jee, Noel Y.; Liu, Jennifer S.; Broaders, Kyle E.; Gartner, Zev J.

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion organizes the structures of tissues and mediates their mechanical, chemical, and electrical integration with their surroundings. Here, we describe a strategy for chemically controlling cell adhesion using membrane anchored single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. The reagents are pure chemical species prepared from phosphoramidites synthesized in a single chemical step from commercially available starting materials. The approach enables rapid, efficient, tunable cell adhesion, independent of proteins or glycans, by facilitating interactions with complementary labeled surfaces or other cells. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by imaging drug-induced changes in the membrane dynamics of non-adherent human cells while chemically immobilized on a passivated glass surface. PMID:22176556

  2. Huaier Aqueous Extract Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Cell Motility via the AKT/GSK3β/β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Yu, Yinhua; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has gained popularity due to its ability to kill tumor cells. Recently, the apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Trametes robiniophila murr (Huaier) have been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on cell mobility and tumor growth in ovarian cancer. Cell viability and motility were measured using SRB, scratch and migration assays. Cell apoptosis was analysed by annexin V/PI staining. Using a reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) assay, we analyzed the levels of 153 proteins and/or phosphorylations in Huaier-treated and untreated cells. Huaier inhibited cell viability and induced both early and late apoptosis in SKOV3, SKOV3.ip1 and Hey cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell invasiveness and migration were also suppressed significantly. The RPPA results showed significant differences (of at least 30%; P <0.05) in the levels of 7 molecules in SKOV3 cells and 10 in SKOV3.ip1 cells between the untreated and treated cells. Most of the molecules identified play roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis or cell adhesion/invasion. Western blot analysis further validated that Huaier treatment resulted in decreased AKT phosphorylation, enhanced expression of total GSK3β, inhibition of the phosphorylation of GSK3β on S9, reduction of both cytoplasmic β-catenin expression and nuclear β-catenin translocation, and transcriptional repression of several Wnt/β-catenin target genes (DIXDC1, LRP6, WNT5A, and cyclin D1). After knocking down GSK3β, β-catenin expression could not be inhibited by Huaier. Finally, Huaier inhibited the growth of ovarian tumor xenografts in vivo. These studies indicate that Huaier inhibits tumor cell mobility in ovarian cancer via the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:23667667

  3. Extracellular Vesicles from Vascular Endothelial Cells Promote Survival, Proliferation and Motility of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurachi, Masashi; Mikuni, Masahiko; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    We previously examined the effect of brain microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) transplantation on rat white matter infarction, and found that MVEC transplantation promoted remyelination of demyelinated axons in the infarct region and reduced apoptotic death of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). We also found that the conditioned medium (CM) from cultured MVECs inhibited apoptosis of cultured OPCs. In this study, we examined contribution of extracellular vesicles (EVs) contained in the CM to its inhibitory effect on OPC apoptosis. Removal of EVs from the CM by ultracentrifugation reduced its inhibitory effect on OPC apoptosis. To confirm whether EVs derived from MVECs are taken up by cultured OPCs, we labeled EVs with PKH67, a fluorescent dye, and added them to OPC cultures. Many vesicular structures labeled with PKH67 were found within OPCs immediately after their addition. Next we examined the effect of MVEC-derived EVs on OPC behaviors. After 2 days in culture with EVs, there was significantly less pyknotic and more BrdU-positive OPCs when compared to control. We also examined the effect of EVs on motility of OPCs. OPCs migrated longer in the presence of EVs when compared to control. To examine whether these effects on cultured OPCs are shared by EVs from endothelial cells, we prepared EVs from conditioned media of several types of endothelial cells, and tested their effects on cultured OPCs. EVs from all types of endothelial cells we examined reduced apoptosis of OPCs and promoted their motility. Identification of the molecules contained in EVs from endothelial cells may prove helpful for establishment of effective therapies for demyelinating diseases. PMID:27403742

  4. Cell adhesion to plasma-coated PVC.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Elidiane C; de Souza, Eduardo S; de Moraes, Francine S; Duek, Eliana A R; Lucchesi, Carolina; Schreiner, Wido H; Durrant, Steven F; Cruz, Nilson C

    2014-01-01

    To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, P(Ar), was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with P(Ar) between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing P(Ar), except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices.

  5. Cell Adhesion to Plasma-Coated PVC

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Elidiane C.; de Souza, Eduardo S.; de Moraes, Francine S.; Duek, Eliana A. R.; Lucchesi, Carolina; Schreiner, Wido H.; Durrant, Steven F.; Cruz, Nilson C.

    2014-01-01

    To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, PAr, was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with PAr between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing PAr, except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices. PMID:25247202

  6. Improved method for the quantification of motility in glia and other morphologically complex cells.

    PubMed

    Sild, Mari; Chatelain, Robert P; Ruthazer, Edward S

    2013-01-01

    Cells such as astrocytes and radial glia with many densely ramified, fine processes pose particular challenges for the quantification of structural motility. Here we report the development of a method to calculate a motility index for individual cells with complex, dynamic morphologies. This motility index relies on boxcar averaging of the difference images generated by subtraction of images collected at consecutive time points. An image preprocessing step involving 2D projection, edge detection, and dilation of the raw images is first applied in order to binarize the images. The boxcar averaging of difference images diminishes the impact of artifactual pixel fluctuations while accentuating the group-wise changes in pixel values which are more likely to represent real biological movement. Importantly, this provides a value that correlates with mean process elongation and retraction rates without requiring detailed reconstructions of very complex cells. We also demonstrate that additional increases in the sensitivity of the method can be obtained by denoising images using the temporal frequency power spectra, based on the fact that rapid intensity fluctuations over time are mainly due to imaging artifact. The MATLAB programs implementing these motility analysis methods, complete with user-friendly graphical interfaces, have been made publicly available for download.

  7. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... the intestines, adhesions can cause partial or complete bowel obstruction . Adhesions inside the uterine cavity, called Asherman syndrome , ... 1. Read More Appendicitis Asherman syndrome Glaucoma Infertility Intestinal obstruction Review Date 4/5/2016 Updated by: Irina ...

  8. Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue. Normally, internal tissues and organs have slippery surfaces so they can shift easily as the body moves. Adhesions cause tissues and organs to stick together. They ...

  9. Rab5 Isoforms Orchestrate a “Division of Labor” in the Endocytic Network; Rab5C Modulates Rac-Mediated Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-I; Schauer, Kristine; Kong, Chen; Harding, Andrew R.; Goud, Bruno; Stahl, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Rab5, the prototypical Rab GTPase and master regulator of the endocytic pathway, is encoded as three differentially expressed isoforms, Rab5A, Rab5B and Rab5C. Here, we examined the differential effects of Rab5 isoform silencing on cell motility and report that Rab5C, but neither Rab5A nor Rab5B, is selectively associated with the growth factor-activation of Rac1 and with enhanced cell motility. Initial observations revealed that silencing of Rab5C expression, but neither Rab5A nor Rab5C, led to spindle-shaped cells that displayed reduced formation of membrane ruffles. When subjected to a scratch wound assay, cells depleted of Rab5C, but not Rab5A or Rab5B, demonstrated reduced cell migration. U937 cells depleted of Rab5C also displayed reduced cell motility in a Transwell plate migration assay. To examine activation of Rac, HeLa cells stably expressing GFP-Rac1 were independently depleted of Rab5A, Rab5B or Rab5C and seeded onto coverslips imprinted with a crossbow pattern. 3-D GFP-Rac1 images of micro-patterned cells show that GFP-Rac1 was less localized to the cell periphery in the absence of Rab5C. To confirm the connection between Rab5C and Rac activation, HeLa cells depleted of Rab5 isoforms were starved and then stimulated with EGF. Rac1 pull-down assays revealed that EGF-stimulated Rac1 activity was significantly suppressed in Rab5C-suppressed cells. To determine whether events upstream of Rac activation were affected by Rab5C, we observed that EGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in cells depleted of Rab5C. Finally, since spatio-temporal assembly/disassembly of adhesion complexes are essential components of cell migration, we examined the effect of Rab5 isoform depletion on the formation of focal adhesion complexes. Rab5C-depleted HeLa cells have significantly fewer focal adhesion foci, in accordance with the lack of persistent lamellipodial protrusions and reduced directional migration. We conclude that Rab5 isoforms selectively oversee the

  10. Detection of rare antigen-presenting cells through T cell-intrinsic meandering motility, mediated by Myo1g.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Audrey; Patino-Lopez, Genaro; Beemiller, Peter; Nambiar, Rajalakshmi; Ben-Aissa, Khadija; Liu, Yin; Totah, Fadi J; Tyska, Matthew J; Shaw, Stephen; Krummel, Matthew F

    2014-07-31

    To mount an immune response, T lymphocytes must successfully search for foreign material bound to the surface of antigen-presenting cells. How T cells optimize their chances of encountering and responding to these antigens is unknown. T cell motility in tissues resembles a random or Levy walk and is regulated in part by external factors including chemokines and lymph-node topology, but motility parameters such as speed and propensity to turn may also be cell intrinsic. Here we found that the unconventional myosin 1g (Myo1g) motor generates membrane tension, enforces cell-intrinsic meandering search, and enhances T-DC interactions during lymph-node surveillance. Increased turning and meandering motility, as opposed to ballistic motility, is enhanced by Myo1g. Myo1g acts as a "turning motor" and generates a form of cellular "flânerie." Modeling and antigen challenges show that these intrinsically programmed elements of motility search are critical for the detection of rare cognate antigen-presenting cells.

  11. Retinoic acid induces nuclear FAK translocation and reduces breast cancer cell adhesion through Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Angel Matías; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Vargas-Roig, Laura María; Flamini, Marina Inés

    2016-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, with metastases being the cause of death in 98%. In previous works we have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the main retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligand, is involved in the metastatic process by inhibiting migration through a reduced expression of the specific migration-related proteins Moesin, c-Src, and FAK. At present, our hypothesis is that RA also acts for short periods in a non-genomic action to cooperate with motility reduction and morphology of breast cancer cells. Here we identify that the administration of 10(-6) M RA (10-20 min) induces the activation of the migration-related proteins Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in T-47D breast cancer cells. The phosphorylation exerted by the selective agonists for RARα and RARβ, on Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin was comparable to the activation exerted by RA. The RARγ agonist only led to a weak activation, suggesting the involvement of RARα and RARβ in this pathway. We then treated the cells with different inhibitors that are involved in cell signaling to regulate the mechanisms of cell motility. RA failed to activate Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in cells treated with Src inhibitor (PP2) and PI3K inhibitor (WM), suggesting the participation of Src-PI3K in this pathway. Treatment with 10(-6) M RA for 20 min significantly decreased cell adhesion. However, when cells were treated with 10(-6) M RA and FAK inhibitor, the RA did not significantly inhibit adhesion, suggesting a role of FAK in the adhesion inhibited by RA. By immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analysis we demonstrated that RA induced nuclear FAK translocation leading to a reduced cellular adhesion. These findings provide new information on the actions of RA for short periods. RA participates in cell adhesion and subsequent migration, modulating the relocation and activation of proteins involved in cell migration.

  12. c-Src inactivation reduces renal epithelial cell-matrix adhesion, proliferation, and cyst formation

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Justine; Zheleznova, Nadezhda N.

    2011-01-01

    c-Src is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase whose activity is induced by phosphorylation at Y418 and tran