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Sample records for cell carcinomas srcc

  1. Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) can arise from virtually all organs. However, primary SRCC of the breast is very rare. Until 2003, SRCC was placed under ‘mucin-producing carcinomas’ and separated from other carcinomas by the World Health Organization (WHO). To date, only a few cases have been reported. A case of a 46-year-old woman with primary SRCC of the breast is presented in this report. The patient underwent a right modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Characteristic features and differential diagnosis of this tumor are discussed in the light of pertinent literature. PMID:23938020

  2. Signet ring cell carcinoma of resectable metastatic colorectal cancer has rare surgical value.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfei; Wu, Lunpo; Jiang, Mengjie; Tan, Yinuo; Li, Dan; Chen, Fei; Jiang, Ting; Du, Jinlin

    2016-12-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a uniquely separated subgroup in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The aims are to investigate the value of resection in patients with resectable metastatic signet ring cell colorectal cancer. Patients with mCRC who underwent resection in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database during 1998-2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and COX models were used to analyze the differences in the survival. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between SRCC and other clinicopathological factors. Among the 3,568 patients, 94 (2.63%) patients had SRCC. The median survival time of patients with SRCC and non-SRCC were 17 and 29 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that SRCC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival. Logistic regression model based on variables identified by univariate analysis indicated that younger age (≤50 years old) (P = 0.005), female (P < 0.001), location in colon (P = 0.012), and N positive status (P = 0.003) were independent variables correlated with the SRCC subgroup. SRCC had a dramatically higher invalid surgical outcome rate than non-SRCC (P = 0.001). SRCC patients might benefit little from the resection of primary and metastatic lesions with a high rate of undergoing invalid operations. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:1004-1008. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prognosis and value of preoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal signet-ring cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Chun-Run; Wang, Rui; Wang, Mo-Jin; Ping, Jie; Zhuang, Wen

    2017-01-01

    As well known, signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare histological subtype of colorectal adenocarcinoma, which has been associated with poor prognosis and resistant to non-surgery therapy compared with common adenocarcinoma. In this study, we assessed the effect of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) for locally advanced rectal SRCC in a large patient group from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER, 1988–2011) database. SRCC was found in 0.9% (n = 622) rectal cancer (RC) patients in our study. In the PRT setting, SRCC had significantly worse cancer-specific survival than mucinous adenocarcinoma and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma patients (log-rank, P < 0.001). In terms of SRCC, stage III RC patients benefited from PRT (log-rank, P < 0.001) while stage II did not (P = 0.095). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that PRT was an independent benefit factor in stage III rectal SRCC patients (HR, 0.611; 95% CI, 0.407–0.919; P = 0.018). In conclusion, SRCC was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in stage III RC patients, but not in stage II. In the PRT setting of locally advanced RC, SRCC patients had significantly worse prognosis. PRT was an independent prognostic factor associated with improved survival in stage III rectal SRCC. PMID:28345614

  4. Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A novel management approach to a rare tumour

    PubMed Central

    Pugashetti, Neil; Yap, Stanley A.; Lara, Primo N.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Dall’Era, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the urinary bladder, a variant of adenocarcinoma, is exceedingly rare and as a result no gold standard exists for its management. We report a case of primary SRCC of the bladder with recurrent metastases; we utilized an innovative diagnostic approach and the patient exhibited a treatment response to palliative FOLFOX-6 chemotherapy. PMID:26085880

  5. Metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A novel management approach to a rare tumour.

    PubMed

    Pugashetti, Neil; Yap, Stanley A; Lara, Primo N; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Dall'Era, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the urinary bladder, a variant of adenocarcinoma, is exceedingly rare and as a result no gold standard exists for its management. We report a case of primary SRCC of the bladder with recurrent metastases; we utilized an innovative diagnostic approach and the patient exhibited a treatment response to palliative FOLFOX-6 chemotherapy.

  6. Prognosis of Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Colon and Rectum and their Distinction of Mucinous Adenocarcinoma with Signet Ring Cells. A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Pozos-Ochoa, Luis I; Lino-Silva, Leonardo S; León-Takahashi, Alberto M; Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa A

    2017-08-07

    Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the colorectum is very rare, comprising between <1% and 2.4% cases of colorectal cancer. Patients' prognoses are poor. Several case reports had described as SRCC cases that are mucinous adenocarcinomas (MAC) with signet ring cells (SRC). In order to clearly delineate between MAC with SRC and SRCC, we performed a retrospective study at a national cancer referral center in which survival and clinicopathological characteristics between these two forms were compared and also SRCC were characterized by immunohistochemistry. We retrieved 32 cases that had been classified as either SRCC or MAC with SRC subtypes. It was noted that SRCC patients presented at older ages, demonstrated more advanced clinical stages, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastases, and higher carcinoembrionic levels than MAC with SRC patients. Regarding SRCC immunophenotype, 50% showed loss of CDX2 expression, 33% were CK20 negative, 41.7% were CK7 positive, and 25% were negative for both CK7 and CK20. For the MAC with SRC and SRCC groups, the median disease-specific survival (DSS) was 46.1 months (95% CI 36.9-55.25) and 22.4 months (95% CI 5.1-39.7 [p = 0.039]), respectively. The 3-year DSS was 80.7% and 28.6% (p = 0.017) for the MAC and SRCC patients, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that SRCC was associated with decreased survival. SRCC had several clinicopathological features that permitted differentiation of MAC with SRC from SRCC patients, who had a poor DSS. A differential diagnosis for metastatic gastric cancer is only possible with a good clinicopathological correlation.

  7. Comparison of clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics in patients with mucinous carcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Yakup; Erdem, Gökmen Umut; Ozdemir, Nuriye Yıldırın; Demirci, Nebi Serkan; Hocazade, Cemil; Yazıcı, Ozan; Zengin, Nurullah

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether there are any clinicopathological or prognostic differences between mucinous gastric carcinoma (MGC) and signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Pathological parameters, clinical parameters, and treatment efficacy were compared in patients with MGC and SRCC. In total, 193 patients (51 with MGC and 142 with SRCC) were included in this study. Patients with SRCC in particular had notably higher lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, rate of Borrmann types III and IV, and stage III-IV cancer (according to its TNM stage) compared with patients with MGC. However, tumor size was larger in patients with MGC (tumor size ≥5 cm). Median overall survival (OS) was 29.8 months in the MGC group and 16.6 months in the SRCC group (p = .04). The median OS in stage I-III patients was 59.9 and 42.5 months in the MGC and SRCC groups, respectively (p = .35). Comparing OS between MGC and SRCC stage IV patients revealed that the median OS was 10.1 and 8.8 months, respectively (p = .96). Multivariate analysis of the entire patient group revealed that the presence of weight loss at diagnosis, distant metastasis, and lymph node involvement were significantly related to OS. Multivariate analysis also revealed that weight loss at the diagnosis and T3-4 tumors were significant factors influencing OS in the stage I-III group. Patients with SRCC had generally poorer prognosis and lower survival rates compared with patients with MGC. Further studies on the prognosis and treatment plan based on the pathological subtypes of SRCC and MGC are still needed.

  8. Secondary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kalyan; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Gangopadhyay, Mimi; Chakraborty, Subrata; Bera, Pranati

    2012-01-01

    True metastases to prostate from solid tumors are reported only in 0.2% of all surgical prostatic specimens and 2.9% of all male postmortems. Clinical context, morphological features, and immunohistochemical localization of prostate specific antigen (PSA) are supposed to clarify the differential diagnosis between a secondary and a primary tumor. We report an unusual and rare case of secondary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of prostate in which the clinical data and signet ring cell morphology pointed toward the diagnosis of a primary SRCC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for PSA not only proved the case to be a secondary SRCC but also initiated the process for diagnosis of the occult primary malignancy in the patient′s stomach. PMID:24027389

  9. An immunohistochemical study of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and colorectum: II. expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 in normal mucosa and in 42 cases

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Expression of MUC apomucins has rarely been investigated in the signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the stomach and colorectum. The author examined immunohistochemically the expression status of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 in 30 cases of gastric SRCC and 12 cases of colorectal SRCC. The normal distribution of these MUC apomucins was also examined in the non-tumorous parts of the stomach and colorectum. In normal tissues, the stomach epithelial cells consistently expressed MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, but consistently not MUC1. In colorectum, cryptal epithelial cells consistently expressed MUC2, but consistently not MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6. The expression pattern of the gastric SRCC was as follows: MUC1, 3/30 (10%); MUC2, 4/30 (13%); MUC5AC, 20/30 (67%), and MUC6 21/30 (70%). The expression pattern of the colorectal SRCC was as follows: MUC1, 5/12 (42%); MUC2, 11/12 (92%); MUC5AC, 4/12 (33%); and MUC6, 0/12 (0%). Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the expression of MUC1 (stomach SRCC 10% vs colorectal SRCC 42%), MUC2 (13% vs 92%), MUC5AC (67% vs 33%), and MUC6 (70% vs 0%). Thus, there was a significant tendency that primary gastric SRCC express MUC5AC and MUC6 but not MUC1 and MUC2, while primary colorectal SRCC express MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5A, but not MUC6. These different expressions of these MUC apomucins in gastric and colorectal SRCC seem useful to determine the primary site of metastatic SRCC and for differential diagnosis of SRCC of other sites. In the gastric SRCC, the up-regulation of MUC1 and the down-regulation of MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 appear to be associated with carcinogenesis, malignant potential, progression, and clinical behaviors in gastric SRCC. In the colorectal SRCC, the up-regulation of MUC1 and MUC5AC may be associated with carcinogenesis, malignant potential, progression, and clinical behaviors in colorectal SRCC. A comparative review of the present SRCC and presently reported ordinary adenocarcinoma and SRCC cases of the stomach and

  10. Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the colon and rectum.

    PubMed

    Arifi, Samia; Elmesbahi, Omar; Amarti Riffi, Afaf

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare entity accounting for nearly 1% of all colorectal carcinomas. It is an independent prognostic factor associated with less favorable outcome. This aggressiveness is mainly due to the intrinsic biology of these tumors. Here is an overview of the literature related to clinicopathological features, molecular biology, and management of SRCC of the colon and the rectum. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach: Impact on prognosis and specific therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pernot, Simon; Voron, Thibault; Perkins, Geraldine; Lagorce-Pages, Christine; Berger, Anne; Taieb, Julien

    2015-01-01

    While the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased worldwide in recent decades, the incidence of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is rising. SRCC has a specific epidemiology and oncogenesis and has two forms: early gastric cancer, which can be resected endoscopically in some cases and which has a better outcome than non-SRCC, and advanced gastric cancer, which is generally thought to have a worse prognosis and lower chemosensitivity than non-SRCC. However, the prognosis of SRCC and its chemosensitivity with specific regimens are still controversial as SRCC is not specifically identified in most studies and its poor prognosis may be due to its more advanced stage. It therefore remains unclear if a specific therapeutic strategy is justified, as the benefit of perioperative chemotherapy and the value of taxane-based chemotherapy are unclear. In this review we analyze recent data on the epidemiology, oncogenesis, prognosis and specific therapeutic strategies in both early and advanced SRCC of the stomach and in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. PMID:26523107

  12. Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach: Impact on prognosis and specific therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Pernot, Simon; Voron, Thibault; Perkins, Geraldine; Lagorce-Pages, Christine; Berger, Anne; Taieb, Julien

    2015-10-28

    While the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased worldwide in recent decades, the incidence of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is rising. SRCC has a specific epidemiology and oncogenesis and has two forms: early gastric cancer, which can be resected endoscopically in some cases and which has a better outcome than non-SRCC, and advanced gastric cancer, which is generally thought to have a worse prognosis and lower chemosensitivity than non-SRCC. However, the prognosis of SRCC and its chemosensitivity with specific regimens are still controversial as SRCC is not specifically identified in most studies and its poor prognosis may be due to its more advanced stage. It therefore remains unclear if a specific therapeutic strategy is justified, as the benefit of perioperative chemotherapy and the value of taxane-based chemotherapy are unclear. In this review we analyze recent data on the epidemiology, oncogenesis, prognosis and specific therapeutic strategies in both early and advanced SRCC of the stomach and in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer.

  13. An immunohistochemical study of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and colorectum: III. expressions of EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, p53, Ki-67 antigen, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63 in normal mucosa and in 42 cases

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    There have no comprehensive immunohistochemical studies of primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) in the stomach and colorectum. The author examined the expression of nine common antigens (EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, p53, Ki-67 antigen, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63) in the non-tumorous normal epithelium of the stomach and colorectum and in 42 cases of primary SRCC of the stomach (30 cases) and colorectum (12 cases). The normal epithelium of the stomach and colon consistently (100%) expressed EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, and Ki-67 (labeling <15%). Normal epithelium of these locations never expressed p53, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63. In the primary gastric SRCC, the expression percentage of EMA was 57% (17/30), CEA 100% (30/30), CA19-9 100% (30/30), CDX-2 43% (13/30), p53 83% (25/30), Ki-67 100% (30/30) (labeling index= 36 ± 23 %), TTF-1 0% (0/30), vimentin 0% (0/30), and p63 0% (0/30). In primary colorectal SRCC, the expression percentage of EMA was 25% (3/12), CEA 100% (12/12), CA19-9 100% (12/12), CDX-2 93% (28/30), p53 75% (9/12), Ki-67 100% (30/30) (labeling index= 47% ± 26 %), TTF-1 0% (0/12), vimentin 0% (0/12), and p63 0% (0/12). A comparative statistical analysis showed significant difference in EMA (gastric SRCC 57% vs colorectal SRCC 25%) and CDX-2 (43% vs 93%). There were no significant differences in the other seven antigens’ expression between primary gastric SRCC and primary colorectal SRCC. These findings provide much knowledge of primary SRCC of the stomach and colorectum. The data indicated primary gastric SRCC frequently express EMA but not CDX-2 whereas primary colorectal SRCC frequently express CDX-2 but not EMA. These findings also suggest that EMA and CDX-2 are down-regulated during the gastric SRCC carcinogenesis. This down regulations may be associated with the malignant transformation of gastric SRCC. The data of colorectal SRCC suggest EMA is markedly down-regulated and also suggest that this EMA down-regulation may be associated with the

  14. An immunohistochemical study of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and colorectum: III. Expressions of EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, p53, Ki-67 antigen, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63 in normal mucosa and in 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    There have no comprehensive immunohistochemical studies of primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) in the stomach and colorectum. The author examined the expression of nine common antigens (EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, p53, Ki-67 antigen, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63) in the non-tumorous normal epithelium of the stomach and colorectum and in 42 cases of primary SRCC of the stomach (30 cases) and colorectum (12 cases). The normal epithelium of the stomach and colon consistently (100%) expressed EMA, CEA, CA19-9, CDX-2, and Ki-67 (labeling <15%). Normal epithelium of these locations never expressed p53, TTF-1, vimentin, and p63. In the primary gastric SRCC, the expression percentage of EMA was 57% (17/30), CEA 100% (30/30), CA19-9 100% (30/30), CDX-2 43% (13/30), p53 83% (25/30), Ki-67 100% (30/30) (labeling index= 36 ± 23 %), TTF-1 0% (0/30), vimentin 0% (0/30), and p63 0% (0/30). In primary colorectal SRCC, the expression percentage of EMA was 25% (3/12), CEA 100% (12/12), CA19-9 100% (12/12), CDX-2 93% (28/30), p53 75% (9/12), Ki-67 100% (30/30) (labeling index= 47% ± 26 %), TTF-1 0% (0/12), vimentin 0% (0/12), and p63 0% (0/12). A comparative statistical analysis showed significant difference in EMA (gastric SRCC 57% vs colorectal SRCC 25%) and CDX-2 (43% vs 93%). There were no significant differences in the other seven antigens' expression between primary gastric SRCC and primary colorectal SRCC. These findings provide much knowledge of primary SRCC of the stomach and colorectum. The data indicated primary gastric SRCC frequently express EMA but not CDX-2 whereas primary colorectal SRCC frequently express CDX-2 but not EMA. These findings also suggest that EMA and CDX-2 are down-regulated during the gastric SRCC carcinogenesis. This down regulations may be associated with the malignant transformation of gastric SRCC. The data of colorectal SRCC suggest EMA is markedly down-regulated and also suggest that this EMA down-regulation may be associated with the

  15. Prognostic relevance of histopathological features in signet ring cell carcinoma of the colorectum.

    PubMed

    Barresi, Valeria; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Domati, Federica; Baron, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare variant of colorectal cancer (CRC), by definition composed of at least 50 % of neoplastic cells showing signet ring cell morphology. Colorectal SRCC is mainly characterized by aggressive clinical behavior, high pTNM stage and microsatellite instability (MSI). We assessed the prognostic value of several histopathological parameters (histological grade, venous invasion, lymphovascular invasion, MSI, mucin content, tumour budding, pTNM stage) in terms of disease free survival (DFS) and cancer specific survival (CSS) in a series of 32 SRCCs. We confirm that pTNM stage at diagnosis is relevant for predicting DFS and CSS in SRCC. In addition, we show on haematoxylin and eosin or immunohistochemically stained (CD34, podoplanin) sections that venous invasion and lymphovascular invasion are significantly associated with shorter DFS and CSS in SRCC. Notably, venous invasion assed by immunohistochemistry had the highest risk ratio and proved to be the only independent prognostic variable. Finally, we show that histological grade, as assessed on the percentage of formed glands, has prognostic relevance in SRCC as high-grade tumours (<50 % of glands) had significantly shorter CSS compared to low-grade tumours. This remained an independent variable at multivariate analysis. If our findings are confirmed in further studies, venous invasion as assessed by immunohistochemistry and histological Tgrade might be added to guidelines for SRCC reporting as significant prognostic factors.

  16. Signet-ring cell carcinoma coexisting with adenocarcinoma arising in a choledochal cyst: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rong; Zhang, Jun-feng; Liu, Wei; Huo, Yan-miao; Sun, Yong-wei

    2015-08-01

    Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is rare in the biliary system. We report a case of SRCC coexisting with adenocarcinoma, arising in a choledochal cyst of the extrahepatic bile duct. The patient was a 52-year-old man, hospitalized for the investigation of jaundice and pruritus. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a huge choledochal cyst and distal common bile duct cancer. The patient underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy with extended lymph node dissection. Histologic examination confirmed an SRCC coexisting with adenocarcinoma arising in a choledochal cyst. Postoperative chemotherapy had to be discontinued after only two cycles because the patient suffered serious side effects. Recurrence was detected in the bilioenteric anastomosis 4 months after surgery, and he died 6 months after surgery. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of SRCC arising in a choledochal cyst of the extrahepatic bile duct ever to be reported.

  17. Distribution of Lgr5-positive cancer cells in intramucosal gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tomoyuki; Uehara, Takeshi; Maruyama, Yasuhiro; Iwaya, Mai; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a putative intestinal stem cell marker that is also expressed in various tumors. To analyze its pathological characteristics in mucosal gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC), we investigated Lgr5 expression in 35 intramucosal gastric SRCC patients using RNAscope, a newly developed RNA in situ hybridization technique. Lgr5 expression in individual tumor cells was scored semi-quantitatively from 0 to 400. Ki67 was also examined by immunohistochemistry, with a linear arrangement of Ki67-expressing cells present in 20 of 35 cases. This area of Ki67-expressing cells was topographically divided into upper, middle, and lower regions. All cases with linear Ki67 expression patterns also had Lgr5-positive cells arranged in a linear fashion in the lower area-which was distinct from the area of high Ki67 expression. The rate of Ki67 positivity in Lgr5-positive cells was significantly lower than that of Lgr5-negative cells in areas of high Ki67 expression. In intramucosal SRCC, the low mitotic activity of Lgr5-positive cells suggests that they may represent cancer stem cells as seen in other types of stomach carcinomas. Intramucosal SRCC may therefore contain stem cells expressing Lgr5 in the lower area of the lamina propria, akin to normal gastric pyloric mucosa. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. An immunohistochemical study of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and colorectum: I. cytokeratin profile in 42 cases

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Expression of cytokeratin (CK) profiles in primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the stomach and colorectum have rarely reported; only two such studies are present in the world literature. Herein, an immunohistochemical study on cytokeratin (CK) expression was performed in 42 cases of primary SRCC of the stomach (30 cases) and colorectum (12 cases). SRCC was defined as an adenocarcinoma in which more than 50% adenocarcinoma cells showed SRCC phenotype with prominent intracytoplasmic mucins. In the gastric SRCC, the expression of CK was as follows; CK AE1/3 (30/30, 100%) CK CAM5.2 (30/30, 100%), CK 34BE12 (0/30, 0%), CK5/6 (2/30, 7%), CK7 (26/30, 89%), CK8 (12/30, 40%), CK14 (0/30, 0%), CK18 (30/30, 100%), CK19 (2/30, 7%), and CK20 (3/30, 10%). In the colorectal SRCC, the expression of CK was as follows; CK AE1/3 (12/12, 100%) CK CAM5.2 (12/12, 100%), CK 34BE12 (0/12, 0%), CK5/6 (0/12, 10%), CK7 (2/12, 17%), CK8 (3/12, 25%), CK14 (0/12, 0%), CK18 (12/12, 100%), CK19 (7/12, 58%), and CK20 (8/12, 67%). A statistical analysis showed that significant differences of CK expression between the gastric SRCC and colorectal SRCC were observed in CK7 (stomach 67% vs. colorectum 17%), CK19 (7% vs. 42%) and CK20 (13% vs. 67%); gastric SRCC tended to express CK7, but not CK19 and CK20, while colorectal SRCC tended to express CK19 and CK20, but not CK7. In gastric SRCC, CK7+/CK20- pattern was as follows: CK7+/CK20- (24/30, 81%), CK7+/CK20+ (2/30, 6%), CK7-/CK20+ (1/30, 3%), and CK7-/CK20- (3/30, 10%). CK7/CK19 patterns in gastric SRCC were as follows; CK7+/CK19- (25/30, 83%) CK7+/CK19+ (1/30, 3%), CK7-/CK19+ (1/30, 3%), CK7-/CK19- (3/30, 10%). In colorectal SRCC, the CK7/CK20 patterns were as follows: CK7+/CK20- (2/12, 17%), CK7+/CK20+ (0/12, 0%), CK7-/CK20+ (8/12, 66%), and CK7-/CK20- (2/12, 17%). The CK7/CK19 pattern in colorectal SRCC was as follows; CK7+/CK19- (1/12, 8%), CK7+/CK19+ (1/12, 8%), CK7-/CK19+ (6/12, 50%), and CK7-/CK19- (4/12, 34%). Statistical data

  19. Prognostic value of preoperative inflammatory response biomarkers in patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma and the establishment of a nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Liangyou; Ma, Xin; Li, Hongzhao; Chen, Luyao; Xie, Yongpeng; Zhao, Chaofei; Luo, Guoxiong; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    To examine the prognostic role of inflammatory response biomarkers in sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC). From January 2004 to May 2015, 103 patients with sRCC were enrolled in this study. Preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) were analyzed. Besides well-established clinicopathological prognostic factors, we evaluated the prognostic value of this four markers using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. Additionally, a nomogram was established to predict the prognosis of sRCC patients. Elevated NLR, dNLR and PLR were significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS), nevertheless, elevated LMR showed an adverse effect on reduced OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that NLR (HR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.50–11.00, P = 0.006) retained as independent factor. Incorporation of the NLR into a prognostic model including T stage, M stage, tumor necrosis and percentage of sarcomatoid generated a nomogram, which accurately predicted OS for sRCC patients. Preoperative NLR may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker in patients with sRCC and may help with clinical decisions about treatment intervention in clinical practice. The proposed nomogram can be used for the prediction of OS in patients with sRCC. PMID:27035802

  20. Pure primary signet ring cell carcinoma breast: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jashan; Dubey, V. K.; Makkar, Manisha; Suri, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the breast is a rare tumor and it is classified by World Health Organization in 2003 classification under ‘mucin producing carcinomas’. Pure form of SRCC breast is an extremely rare entity and very few cases have been reported in literature so far. We present a case of pure primary SRCC of the breast in a 70-year-old female, which was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytological features generally show cellular smears with tumor cells showing eccentrically placed large, irregular nuclei showing indentations at places with cytoplasmic vacuoles. This case is being presented in view of its characteristic cytological features and its rarity. PMID:24130416

  1. Rare Case of Anal Canal Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Associated with Perianal and Vulvar Pagetoid Spread

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae; Cho, Hyun Yee; Baek, Jeong-Heum; Jeong, Juhyeon; Ha, Seung Yeon; Seok, Jae Yeon; Park, Sung Won; Sym, Sun Jin; Lee, Kyu Chan; Chung, Dong Hae

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman was referred to surgery for incidentally found colonic polyps during a health examination. Physical examination revealed widespread eczematous skin lesion without pruritus in the perianal and vulvar area. Abdominopelvic computed tomography showed an approximately 4-cm-sized, soft tissue lesion in the right perianal area. Inguinal lymph node dissection and Mils’ operation extended to perianal and perivulvar skin was performed. Histologically, the anal canal lesion was composed of mucin-containing signet ring cells, which were similar to those found in Pagetoid skin lesions. It was diagnosed as an anal canal signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) with perianal and vulvar Pagetoid spread and bilateral inguinal lymph node metastasis. Anal canal SRCC is rare, and the current case is the third reported case in the English literature. Seven additional cases were retrieved from the world literature. Here, we describe this rare case of anal canal SRCC with perianal Pagetoid spread and provide a literature review. PMID:26447133

  2. Rare Case of Anal Canal Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Associated with Perianal and Vulvar Pagetoid Spread.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Rae; Cho, Hyun Yee; Baek, Jeong-Heum; Jeong, Juhyeon; Ha, Seung Yeon; Seok, Jae Yeon; Park, Sung Won; Sym, Sun Jin; Lee, Kyu Chan; Chung, Dong Hae

    2016-05-01

    A 61-year-old woman was referred to surgery for incidentally found colonic polyps during a health examination. Physical examination revealed widespread eczematous skin lesion without pruritus in the perianal and vulvar area. Abdominopelvic computed tomography showed an approximately 4-cm-sized, soft tissue lesion in the right perianal area. Inguinal lymph node dissection and Mils' operation extended to perianal and perivulvar skin was performed. Histologically, the anal canal lesion was composed of mucin-containing signet ring cells, which were similar to those found in Pagetoid skin lesions. It was diagnosed as an anal canal signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) with perianal and vulvar Pagetoid spread and bilateral inguinal lymph node metastasis. Anal canal SRCC is rare, and the current case is the third reported case in the English literature. Seven additional cases were retrieved from the world literature. Here, we describe this rare case of anal canal SRCC with perianal Pagetoid spread and provide a literature review.

  3. Early signet ring cell carcinoma arising from colonic adenoma: the molecular profiling supports the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Alberto; Cappellesso, Rocco; Lo Mele, Marcello; Peraro, Laura; Balsamo, Laura; Lanza, Cristiano; Fassan, Matteo; Rugge, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Among colorectal cancers, the prevalence of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is lower than 1%; to date, only 6 cases of early SRCCs arising in colonic adenoma have been reported. In spite of the well-established understanding of the phenotypic and genetic changes occurring in conventional colonic carcinogenesis, the molecular landscape of colon SRCC is still far to be elucidated. We describe the histologic and immunohistochemical phenotype and the molecular profile of a case of intramucosal SRCC developed within a 4.5-cm large sigmoid adenoma. The DNA sequencing of the 2 microdissected neoplastic components (adenomatous and SRCC) showed the same G12V KRAS mutation. Interestingly, although the adenomatous epithelium showed unequivocal p53 overexpression, no signet ring cancer cells featured p53 nuclear immunostain. This molecular pattern supports the unique histogenesis of the 2 coexisting neoplastic oncotypes, also suggesting that the signet ring cell component is derived from the molecular de-differentiation (p53 loss) of the preexisting adenomatous lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Good response of an aggressive rare variant of signet ring cell carcinoma of prostate with hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Deviprasad; Nayak, Brusabhanu; Seth, Amlesh

    2017-03-08

    Primary signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the prostate is a rare entity, characterised by its aggressive nature and dismal prognosis. We report a case of an advanced SRCC of the prostate presenting as a large pelvic mass with obstructive uropathy and rectal involvement managed by complete androgen blockade. At 24 months follow-up, the patient has no evidence of progression or metastasis. Aggressive management with multimodality approach combining surgery, radiation and hormonal ablation can result in long disease-free survival in some patients, despite the aggressive nature of this disease.

  5. The Characteristics and Prognostic Effect of E-Cadherin Expression in Colorectal Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Renjie; Ma, Xiaoji; Li, Yaqi; He, Yiping; Huang, Dan; Cai, Sanjun; Peng, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is rare. The aim of this study is to understand the clinicopathological features and identify the possible prognostic factors in colorectal SRCC. Methods Patients with SRCC who underwent primary lesion resection at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from September 2008 to July 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient’s gender, age, tumor location, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and E-cadherin expression were studied with prognosis, and the correlation between E-cadherin expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed. All clinicopathological and molecular factors were put into multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model for detecting independent prognostic factors. Results 59 patients accounting for 0.89% of total colorectal cancer patients met the criteria and were enrolled in the study. The median survival time is 28.9 months, and the 3-year survival rate is 62.7%. SRCC were seen more common in young male patients. Advanced stage was more common in SRCC, 58 (98.3%) patients had T3/T4 lesions, 52 (88.1%) patients had lymph node metastasis, and 14 (23.7%) patients had distant metastasis. Distant metastases were seen more common in peritoneal cavity. Distant metastasis (HR = 4.194, 95% CI: 1.297–13.567), lymphovascular invasion (HR = 2.888, 95% CI: 1.115–7.483), and E-cadherin expression (HR = 0.272, 95% CI: 0.096–0.768) were independent predictors for survival. Conclusions SRCC is a rare subtype of colorectal cancer with poor prognosis. Distant metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, and E-cadherin expression can predict prognosis of colorectal SRCCs independently. More precise therapy and more close surveillance are needed for these patients. PMID:27509205

  6. Signet ring cell carcinoma of the ampulla of vater: Report of a case and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wakasugi, Masaki; Tanemura, Masahiro; Furukawa, Kenta; Murata, Maiko; Miyazaki, Masanori; Oshita, Masahide; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Yasuoka, Hironao; Akamatsu, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the ampulla of vater is a very rare tumor that is reported infrequently in the literature. Presentation of case A 59-year-old woman visited our hospital for evaluation of elevated transaminase levels. On laboratory examination of tumor marker levels, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19–9 levels were normal, and DUPAN-2 was elevated. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed a 2 cm, enhanced mass in the periampullary region, with marked common bile duct dilatation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showed a swollen papilla of vater, with a reddish, erosive mucosa. Histological examination of biopsy samples from the ampulla of vater showed signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). The patient underwent radical pancreatoduodenectomy. Pathological examination showed that the SRCC had infiltrated into the duodenal muscularis propria and pancreatic parenchyma, and lymph node metastases were identified around the abdominal aorta and common hepatic artery. Based on the immunohistochemical staining patterns of the positive results for CDX2 and MUC2, the tumor cells in the present case appeared to have an intestinal type origin. The ampullary cancer was diagnosed as T3bN1M1, Stage IV according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification (UICC). After undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin–gemcitabine chemotherapy for 6 months, the patient has remained disease-free in the 7 months since surgery. Discussion SRCC of intestinal-type origin is associated with a favorable outcome. Conclusion Investigation to confirm the histological origin of SRCC by immunohistochemical staining might inform the treatment strategy and identify patients with ampullary SRCC who may have a good prognosis. PMID:26057354

  7. Metastatic Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Diana Murro; Park, Ji-Weon; Gattuso, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Primary bladder signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is extremely rare and associated with an aggressive course. To our knowledge, we describe the first metastatic bladder SRCC identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 68-year-old male with 1 year history of primary bladder SRCC with spinal metastasis presented with multiple falls and loss of consciousness. Brain imaging showed high signal in the frontoparietal sulci and superior cerebellum. CSF analysis was significant for increased leukocytes with monocyte predominance while protein and glucose values were within normal range. There was a hypercellular population of pleomorphic tumor cells with signet-ring morphology, similar to those seen in his diagnostic bladder biopsies. The signet-ring cells were positive for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and negative for CDX-2 and prostate-specific antigen. The patient's clinical condition rapidly deteriorated and he died less than a week after presentation. At autopsy, brain sections revealed signet ring cells in the meninges overlying the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, and pituitary with superficial invasion of the brain parenchyma. No brain parenchymal lesions were present. This case illustrates a unique complication of primary bladder SRCC. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:73-76. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia†

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157–61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  9. Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Taee, Ahmad; Almukhtar, Rawaa; Lai, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the increasingly sophisticated diagnostic workup, detailed investigations fail to reveal a primary site of origin for about 3–5% of metastatic tumors. The most commonly reported subtype in cancer of unknown primary origin is adenocarcinoma. Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare poorly differentiated aggressive subtype of adenocarcinoma that most commonly arise from the gastrointestinal tract. It usually presents late and is associated with poor prognosis. Treatment options remain limited to anecdotal reports. However, immunohistochemical studies can be useful in suggesting an origin and therefore may help guide investigations and treatment options. Here we present an unusual case of metastatic SRCC of unknown primary origin presenting as peritoneal carcinomatosis in a 73-year-old man. We also review the literature on metastatic SRCC of unknown primary origin and discuss the relevant findings. This work highlights the importance of collaboration between clinicians and pathologists as well as detailed histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses which can help guide investigations and management options. PMID:27570777

  10. Primary colonic signet ring cell carcinoma in a young patient

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Raghunath; Kumar, Neha; Krishna, Sunil; Shenoy, Rajgopal

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with colicky abdominal pain for 3 months. Pain was associated with episodes of vomiting, abdominal distension and constipation. She also had loss of weight for this duration. General physical examination was unremarkable and the abdomen was soft, with no palpable organomegaly. A CT of the abdomen showed small bowel and ascending colon dilation with multiple air fluid levels. There was also a short segment of circumferential bowel wall thickening and luminal narrowing in the hepatic flexure with sudden transition of bowel diameter. She underwent a right hemicolectomy after necessary preoperative investigations. Histopathology revealed signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). This case highlights the importance of detecting such a lesion in a young, otherwise fit woman. The challenge lies in early diagnosis and awareness of general practitioners about this aggressive form of colonic tumours. PMID:24654235

  11. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Linitis plastica like primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder - an extremely rare variant.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Pandey, P; Durgapal, P; Krishna, M

    2016-12-01

    Signet ring carcinoma (SRCC) of gallbladder is an extremely rare tumor accounting for approximately 3% of all gallbladder carcinomas, with a handful of case reports in the literature. We report a case of signet ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder in a 70 year-old female who was operated upon after the preoperative diagnosis of cholecystitis with cholelithiasis, based on ultrasonographic findings and subsequently diagnosed as signet ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder on histopathological examination. Grossly there was no discrete growth, instead tumor presented as linitis plastica like diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall. Microscopic examination revealed a diffusely infiltrative carcinoma comprised exclusively of signet ring cells and confirmed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue & Cytokeratin 7 stains. Post -operative clinico-radiological workup was done to exclude secondary. This highly aggressive signet ring cell carcinoma of gallbladder is being reported because of its rarity, its unique histomorphological features and diagnostic inadequacy of the routinely performed ultrasonography as well as highlighting the use of special stains and immunohistochemistry to exclude other possibilities. Our case highlights that routine histopathological examination of all the cholecystectomy specimens is a must to facilitate the early diagnosis of aggressive signet ring cell carcinoma gallbladder. © Copyright Società Italiana di Anatomia Patologica e Citopatologia Diagnostica, Divisione Italiana della International Academy of Pathology.

  13. [Clinicopathological features and prognostic analysis of patients with signet ring cell gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingli; Liang, Han; Deng, Jingyu; Ding, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Li; Liang, Yuexiang; Jiang, Nan

    2015-05-01

    To compare the clinicopathological features of signet ring cell gastric carcinoma (SRCC) with those of non-signet ring cell cancers and explore the prognostic factors of signet ring cell gastric carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1447 gastric cancer patients, including gastric signet ring cell and non-signet ring cell cancers. Their clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival data were analyzed. The differences in the age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM classification and surgical type were significant between gastric signet ring cell and non-signet ring cell gastric carcinomas. The 5-year survival rate of the patients with gastric signet ring cell carcinoma was 29.6%, while that of the non-signet ring cell cancers was 42.9% (P < 0.05). The 5-year survival rate for each stage of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma and non-signet ring cell cancers was 71.0% and 79.3% for stage I, 45.6% and 58.3% for stage II, 16.9% and 29.2% for stage III, and 6.0% and 11.9% for stage IV cases, respectively, with a significant difference only between stages III and IV cancers (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor diameter, T stage and N stage were independent prognostic factors for signet ring cell gastric carcinoma. The signet ring cell gastric carcinoma has unique clinicopathological features compared with non-signet ring cell carcinoma. Early detection and treatment can improve the prognosis for patients with gastric signet ring cell carcinoma.

  14. Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Megumi, Y; Nishimura, K

    1998-01-01

    Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma is a recently established subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Herein we report a case of chromophobe cell renal carcinoma in a 67-year-old male patient who occasionally underwent computed tomography. In a microscopic study with hematoxylin and eosin stain, clear eosinophilic cytoplasm, and a moderately atypical nucleus were observed. And it was stained positively by Hale's colloidal iron. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm was filled with numerous microvesicles. From these results, this tumor was pathologically diagnosed as chromophobe cell renal carcinoma.

  15. Differential expression of CD44 and CD24 markers discriminates the epitheliod from the fibroblastoid subset in a sarcomatoid renal carcinoma cell line: evidence suggesting the existence of cancer stem cells in both subsets as studied with sorted cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chin-Hsuan; Hsiung, Shih-Chieh; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Yen, Chih-Feng; Chou, Yah-Huei Wu; Lei, Wei-Yi; Pang, See-Tong; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liao, Shuen-Kuei

    2017-02-28

    Epithelioid and fibroblastoid subsets coexist in the human sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) cell line, RCC52, according to previous clonal studies. Herein, using monoclonal antibodies to CD44 and CD24 markers, we identified and isolated these two populations, and showed that CD44bright/CD24dim and CD44bright/CD24bright phenotypes correspond to epithelioid and fibroblastoid subsets, respectively. Both sorted subsets displayed different levels of tumorigenicity in xenotransplantation, indicating that each harbored its own cancer stem cells (CSCs). The CD44bright/CD24bright subset, associated with higher expression of MMP-7, -8 and TIMP-1 transcripts, showed greater migratory/invasive potential than the CD44bright/CD24dim subset, which was associated with higher expression of MMP-2, -9 and TIMP-2 transcripts. Both subsets differentially expressed stemness gene products c-Myc, Oct4A, Notch1, Notch2 and Notch3, and the RCC stem cell marker, CD105 in 4-5% of RCC52 cells. These results suggest the presence of CSCs in both sRCC subsets for the first time and should therefore be considered potential therapeutic targets for this aggressive malignancy.

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  18. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Carolina Barbosa de Sousa; Balassiano, Laila Klotz de Almeida; Pinto, Julyana Calegari; de Souza, Flávia Crespo Schueler; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Treu, Curt Mafra

    2016-01-01

    Although subungual squamous cell carcinoma is rare, it is the most common primary malignant neoplasms in this location. The higher incidence occurs in the fingernails, but involvement of the toenails is also possible. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma often looks like other more common benign lesions, such as fungal infection, onychomycosis, or viral wart. These factors, together with a general lack of awareness of this disease among physicians, often result in delayed diagnosis. Therefore, it is underdiagnosed, with few reports in the literature. The authors present a case of a man with a diagnosis of subungual squamous cell carcinoma in the hallux, without bone involvement, which was submitted to the appropriate surgical treatment. PMID:28099608

  19. [Imaging renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bazan, F; Busto, M

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy in adults and the most common malignancy in the kidney. It is thus a very common disease for radiologists. This review aims to provide a general overview of the imaging techniques used to diagnose, characterize, and help plan the treatment of renal cell carcinoma as well as to review basic aspects related to staging, imaging-guided percutaneous treatment, and follow-up in the most common clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring signet-ring cells in pregnant female

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, Pooja; Atri, Rajeev; Dhankhar, Rakesh; Kaushal, Vivek; Singh, Sunita; Sen, Rajeev; Pal, Manoj; Lathwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) of the colon and rectum are rare form, which present at an advanced stage and have poor prognosis. Different treatment policies of SRCC during different gestational age of pregnancy are explored from the literature. Case study A 26-year-old young pregnant female with 10-week gestation presented with constipation and blood in stools and on per rectal examination a tender circumferential stricture was present 2 cm above the anal verge. Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) pelvis of the patient revealed rectal thickening, the biopsy of which revealed characteristic appearance of “linitis plastica” and diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring morphology with wide spread positivity for cytokeratin & p53. With this diagnosis, patient underwent medical termination of pregnancy (MTP). Discussion SRCC of the colon comprises about only 1% of all cases of colon cancer. When compared with other types of adenocarcinoma, patients with SRCC in the colon are younger and more likely to experience lymph node metastasis. Its incidence in pregnancy is estimated to be less than 0.1%. Certainly, any pregnant patient who reports rectal bleeding or has hemoccult positive stool on examination deserves careful evaluation to rule out cancer. The complex treatment of colorectal cancer in pregnancy is based on the gestational age of the fetus, tumor stage and need for emergent vs. elective management. PMID:25830043

  1. Endomandibular acinic cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bondi, R; Nardi, P; Urso, C

    1989-01-01

    A rare case of endomandibular acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) in a white woman aged 79 is reported. Radiologic examination revealed an osteolytic area within the jaw, extending from the left molar region to the ascending branch. The tumor was located within a cavity of the mandible and did not seem to infiltrate the bone. Histologically, it was composed of large epithelial cells with granular cytoplasm, arranged in solid nests, sometimes displaying microcystic spaces. ACC generally occurs in salivary glands. In the reported case, the tumor was considered to arise from ectopic salivary tissue enclosed in the jaw, as no lesion was found in minor salivary glands.

  2. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  3. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  4. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Webb, Julie L; Burns, Rachel E; Brown, Holly M; LeRoy, Bruce E; Kosarek, Carrie E

    2009-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a relatively common, malignant neoplasm of dogs and cats that can arise in a variety of locations. The gross appearance of SCC can be variable and nonspecific, so definitive diagnosis requires microscopic examination of the tissue (cytology or histology). Several treatment modalities exist, but surgical excision, if possible, is regarded as the best treatment option. Early diagnosis and treatment of SCC are key because small, early-stage tumors are the most amenable to treatment and carry the best prognosis.

  6. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  7. Targeting Ovarian Carcinoma Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    expertise with expertise in gynecologic oncology /ovarian carcinoma and in animal models of cancer this proposal will: 1) Identify, isolate, and...more numerous differentiated progeny characterizing the malignancy . Although the clinical significance of these cancer stem cells (CSC) has been...the dramatic initial response rates in ovarian carcinoma represent therapeutic effectiveness against the differentiated cancer cells making up the

  8. Spindle cell carcinoma in maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Soumi; Sreelatha, S V; Hegde, Nidarsh; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinomas (sarcomatoid carcinomas) are rare tumours. It is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma which has spindled tumour cells, which simulate a true sarcoma, but are epithelial in origin. They are extremely uncommon in the head and neck region. Only five cases with maxillary origin have been discussed in the literature. As compared to squamous cell carcinoma of maxilla, this variant is associated with poor diagnosis and advanced disease at presentation, as is demonstrated in the case presented. There are no standard recommendations for management owing to the rarity of this histology. Surgery and radiotherapy form the mainstays of treatment. We report a rare case of spindle cell carcinoma involving the maxilla. PMID:23632620

  9. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

  10. [Basal cell carcinoma and rare form variants].

    PubMed

    Liersch, J; Schaller, J

    2014-09-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common primary cutaneous malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma represents a common and routine task for pathologists and dermatopathologists. The aim of this review is the clinical and histopathological presentation of the most common subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the rare variants of basal cell carcinoma and their differential diagnoses are also discussed.

  11. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  12. Renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, James J; Purdue, Mark P; Signoretti, Sabina; Swanton, Charles; Albiges, Laurence; Schmidinger, Manuela; Heng, Daniel Y; Larkin, James; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2017-03-09

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) denotes cancer originated from the renal epithelium and accounts for >90% of cancers in the kidney. The disease encompasses >10 histological and molecular subtypes, of which clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is most common and accounts for most cancer-related deaths. Although somatic VHL mutations have been described for some time, more-recent cancer genomic studies have identified mutations in epigenetic regulatory genes and demonstrated marked intra-tumour heterogeneity, which could have prognostic, predictive and therapeutic relevance. Localized RCC can be successfully managed with surgery, whereas metastatic RCC is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. However, over the past decade, marked advances in the treatment of metastatic RCC have been made, with targeted agents including sorafenib, sunitinib, bevacizumab, pazopanib and axitinib, which inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR), and everolimus and temsirolimus, which inhibit mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), being approved. Since 2015, agents with additional targets aside from VEGFR have been approved, such as cabozantinib and lenvatinib; immunotherapies, such as nivolumab, have also been added to the armamentarium for metastatic RCC. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of RCC, with a focus on ccRCC, as well as updates to complement the current clinical guidelines and an outline of potential future directions for RCC research and therapy.

  13. Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; bin-Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Kadivar, Ali; Sabeti, Bahare

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma and the steps which have been taken to reach more specific treatment and target therapy, in this type of cancer by developing most effective agents such as Sorafenib. To achieve this goal hundreds of research paper and published work has been overviewed and due to limitation of space in a paper just focus in most important points on renal cell carcinoma, treatment of RCC and clinical development of Sorafenib. The information presented this paper shows the advanced of human knowledge to provide more efficient drug in treatment of some complicated cancer such as RCC in promising much better future to fight killing disease.

  14. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  15. [Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Campos Arbulú, Ana L; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Sánchez Ruiz, Alejandro; Fernández Vila, Juan M; Dillon, Horacio S; Mezzadri, Norberto A

    2017-01-01

    Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  16. Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chinem, Valquiria Pessoa; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor associated with its cause. However, other elements of risk are described, such as light skin phototypes, advanced age, family history of skin carcinoma, light eyes and blond hair, freckles in childhood and immunosuppression. Behavioral aspects such as occupational sun exposure, rural labor and sunburns at a young age also play a role. Between 30% and 75% of the sporadic cases are associated with patched hedgehog gene mutation, but other genetic changes are also described. The tumor is commonly found in concomitance with skin lesions related to chronic sun exposure, such as actinic keratoses, solar lentigines and facial telangiectasia. The prevention of basal cell carcinoma is based on the knowledge of risk factors, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as on the adoption of specific measures, particularly in susceptible populations. The authors present a review of the epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

  17. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient*

    PubMed Central

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; da Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  18. Biomarkers of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Tin C; Wood, Christopher G; Karam, Jose A

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased steadily in past few decades and is partially attributable to the increased utilization of cross-sectional imaging. Many of these carcinomas are small incidental discoveries, although a subset leads to locally advanced or distant disease. Although its molecular pathophysiology is not completely understood, knowledge of hereditary RCCs has shed light on some of the pathways involved. More recently, the rapid advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have allowed for a deeper and more nuanced understanding of the genetic aberrations that lead up to and result from the transformation of a renal tubular epithelial cell into a carcinoma. These discoveries have allowed for the development of novel therapeutics that target these pathways. They have also led to the development of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers that could radically change the way RCC is diagnosed and treated. Although some of the current investigations are nascent and it remains to be seen which biomarkers will become clinically available, many candidate biomarkers show promise and require external validation. Ultimately, biomarkers may allow for cost-effective screening of high-risk patients, the identification of aggressive cancers among small renal masses, the identification of high-risk patients, the detection of recurrences postoperatively with minimal imaging, and the ability to choose appropriate targeted therapies for patients with metastatic disease.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  20. Simultaneous development of renal cell carcinoma and multifocal urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Heng-Chang; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Ng, Kwai-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of multifocal urothelial carcinoma (UC) and ipsilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. We report a 67-year-old woman with multifocal, infiltrating urothelial carcinoma and unilateral renal cell carcinoma. She was referred to our department because of painless gross hematuria. Cystoscopy, computed tomography and retrograde pyelography studies revealed bladder, bilateral renal and ureter UC. She was treated with transurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by bilateral nephroureterectomy. The pathological diagnosis was high-grade UC over the bladder and both renal pelves and ureters. A second tumor in the upper pole of the right kidney was reported as clear cell RCC. The patient was alive and still under careful surveillance at this writing.

  1. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  2. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Bruno Nagel; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Barrese, Tomas Zecchini; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely aggressive and rare tumor. Even though small cell carcinoma most commonly arises from the lungs there are several reports of small cell carcinoma in extrapulmonary sites. Due to its low frequency there is no well-established management for this disease. We report the case of a 61 year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also reviewed the literature for the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25517085

  3. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions head and neck squamous cell carcinoma head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close ... body cavities such as the airways and intestines. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) develops in the mucous ...

  4. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  5. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  6. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  7. Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Tonsil Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Marcotullio, Dario; Iannella, Giannicola; Zelli, Melissa; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy. Postoperative histology showed nests of cells with highly hyperchromatic nuclei and clear cytoplasm. These features enabled us to make the diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis. Only few authors described metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in this specific site. PMID:24455373

  8. Renal clear cell carcinoma and tonsil metastasis.

    PubMed

    Marcotullio, Dario; Iannella, Giannicola; Macri, Gian Franco; Marinelli, Caterina; Zelli, Melissa; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy. Postoperative histology showed nests of cells with highly hyperchromatic nuclei and clear cytoplasm. These features enabled us to make the diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis. Only few authors described metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in this specific site.

  9. Giant metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bognet, Rachel; Thompson, Christina; Campanelli, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    A 68-year-old man presented with a rapidly growing, asymptomatic mass on his left mid-back for the past 3 months. The patient's medical history revealed an intentional 60-pound weight loss over the previous 2 years along with smoking approximately 1 pack of cigarettes per day. On physical examination, a fungating, 11-cm red tumor with palpable broader underlying extension (23 cm total) was present on the left mid-back with distinct red dermal nodules in a dermatomal distribution. In close proximity were two ulcerated nodules, proven histologically to be basal cell carcinomas. In the left groin was massive, fixed lymphadenopathy. A punch biopsy of the tumor was performed, which showed a dense infiltrate of small, round hyperchromatic blue cells that stained positive for CD 56 and pancytokeratin in a perinuclear dot pattern. Tumor cells were negative for CK20, TTF, CK7, and LCA.

  10. Transitional cell bladder carcinoma with presentation mimicking ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Dabbs, D J; Olt, G J

    1996-05-01

    In the case described here, the patient's initial presentation suggested ovarian carcinoma. She had recurrent ascites, a pelvic mass, elevated CA-125, and extensive peritoneal carcinomatosis with transitional cell histology. The presence of hematuria prompted a cystoscopy, which revealed the true site of origin to be the urinary bladder rather than ovaries. This presentation is extremely rare for bladder cancer. Since transitional cell tumors from the bladder have a much worse prognosis than those of ovarian origin, it is important to identify the primary site correctly. Therefore, cystoscopy is essential for patients with hematuria, and should be considered in cases of apparent primary peritoneal carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

  11. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, G; Monari, P; Apalla, Z; Lallas, A

    2015-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human neoplasms, encompassing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but also cutaneous lymphomas, adnexal tumors, merckel cell carcinoma and other rare tumors. The incidence of BCC and SCC varies significantly among different populations, and the overall incidence of both tumors has increased over the last decades. Although generally associated with a favorable prognosis, recent evidence suggests that the mortality rates of SCC might have been underestimated up-to-date.1 According to Medicare data, NMSC is the fifth most expensive cancer for health care systems. This increased economic burden is not associated with the cost of treating an individual patient, but with the large number of affected patients and the recurrence rates.2 Therefore, the adequate management of the primary tumor with a complete excision becomes a priority not only for the patient but also for the public health systems. Multiple treatment modalities are currently usedin clinicalpractice for the treatment of NMSC. While surgical excision (SE) remains the gold standard of care, non-surgical techniques have gained appreciation due to lower morbidity and better cosmetic results. The optimal management of treatment includes a complete tumor clearance, preservation of the normal tissue function, and the best possible cosmetic outcome.3 Surgery with a predefined excision margin is the treatment of choice for most NMSCs, with Mohs micrographic surgery being recommended for tumors considered to be at a higher recurrence risk or those developing on cosmetically sensitive areas.4, 5 Therefore, the surgical approach of a NMSC consists with three different and equally important steps. First the preoperative clinical assessment of the tumor margins, which can be facilitated by the use of dermoscopy. Second, the definition of the surgical margins depending on the tumor subtype and its biological behavior. Finally, the surgical

  12. Poor outcome after cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis with signet ring cell histology.

    PubMed

    van Oudheusden, T R; Braam, H J; Nienhuijs, S W; Wiezer, M J; van Ramshorst, B; Luyer, P; de Hingh, I H

    2015-02-01

    Signet ring cell cancer (SRCC) patients have a poor oncologic outcome. The aim of this study was to determine whether the potential drawbacks of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) outweigh the benefits in patients with peritoneally metastasized SRCC. Patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin referred to two tertiary centers between April 2005 and December 2013 were identified and retrospectively analyzed. Data were compared between SRCC histology and other differentiations. Three-hundred-fifty-one patients were referred for CRS+HIPEC among which 20 (5.7%) patients were identified with SRCC histology. CRS + HIPEC was performed in 16 of these 20 (80%) and 252 out of the 331 remaining patients (76.1%). A higher proportion of patients in the SRCC-group were diagnosed with N2 stage (62.5% vs. 36.1%, P=0.04). A macroscopic complete resection was achieved in 87.5% and 97.2% respectively (P=0.04). Median survival was 14.1 months compared to 35.1 months (P<0.01). Recurrence occurred in 68.8% of the SRCC patients and in 43.7% of the other histology patients (P=0.05). Patients with SRCC and PC treated with CRS+HIPEC have a poor median survival only slightly reaching over 1 year. In the presence of other relative contraindications, SRCC histology should refrain a surgeon from performing CRS and HIPEC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clear cell carcinoma of ovary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Glasspool, Rosalind M; McNeish, Iain A

    2013-12-01

    Clear cell carcinomas of the female genital tract are rare tumours with a fearsome reputation for having poor responses to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy and poor prognosis. However, it is now clear that early-stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma has an excellent prognosis and may not require any adjuvant therapy. In addition, radiotherapy may also have a key role to play in adjuvant management of clear cell tumours. Identification of patients who truly do not need adjuvant chemotherapy is important. The past 3 years has seen a significant improvement in our understanding of clear cell carcinoma biology-in particular, the role of mutations in the chromatin remodelling gene ARID1A as key drivers that are common to clear cell carcinomas of ovarian and endometrial origin. Moreover, gynaecological clear cell carcinomas appear to share many features with renal clear cell tumours, suggesting a common pathogenesis. This raises the possibility of clinical trials that include patients with clear cell tumours from different organs of origin. Dissecting the role of disordered chromatin organisation in clear cell carcinoma pathogenesis is a key priority. Finally, the role of endometriosis and the attendant chronic inflammation are recognised. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 appears to play a key role in clear cell carcinoma biology and is an excellent potential therapeutic target.

  14. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis.

  15. [Therapy of basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L; Dirschka, T

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents the most common malignant skin tumour in fair-skinned people. Despite low metastatic potential, BCC can cause decisive tissue destruction and disfigurement by invasive growth. In addition to clinical and histologic diagnosis modern imaging techniques as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser microscopy have been introduced. BCCs with aggressive growth pattern and/or increased risk of relapse are preferentially treated surgically. For superficial BCCs various topical treatments and photodynamic therapy are available. Inhibitors of the sonic hedgehog pathway have been approved for symptomatic treatment of metastatic BCC and locally advanced BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy. Detailed knowledge of the clinical spectrum of BCC and an appropriate choice of therapy are mandatory for the successful treatment of BCC.

  16. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  17. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  18. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid transformation.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Neil A; Ayala, Alberto G; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2003-10-01

    We present a rare case of a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma that progressed to a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma. The tumor affected a 50-year-old man who had presented with right upper quadrant discomfort and hematuria and subsequently underwent a right radical nephrectomy. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of two distinct components, a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and a sarcomatoid component. The sarcomatoid component had exhibited aggressive behavior by spreading to a regional lymph node. This case report shows that chromophobe carcinoma can develop a sarcomatoid transformation with a high propensity for invasive growth and metastasis.

  19. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  20. Basosquamous cell carcinoma: a survey of 76 patients and a comparative analysis of basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Betti, Roberto; Crosti, Carlo; Ghiozzi, Simona; Cerri, Amilcare; Moneghini, Laura; Menni, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare epithelial tumor with a still confusing terminology. Since 2005 a more comprehensive and broader classification has existed. To retrospectively review our cases of BSC according to the new WHO definition and to re-evaluate their clinical and demographic characteristics and the margin involvement after traditional surgical excision. The data were compared with the same results obtained by basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Histologically confirmed carcinomas observed in our Department during a sixteen-year period (1994-2011) were studied. Surgical excision was evaluated following the international guidelines. Histopathologic subtypes of BSC were classified in accordance with accepted criteria. Seventy-six patients had a BSC, 305 a SCC, 3,643 a BCC. There were significant differences among the median age of BSCs, the total BCCs and Non-Aggressive BCCs (74.7, 68.8 and 68.3 years respectively; p<0.05). BSC was more significantly located on head-neck region than Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.04), and less on trunk than Mixed Histology BCC (p<0.01) and Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.005). BSC has higher prevalence of positive margins after excision than total (p<0.03) and Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.001). Basosquamous carcinoma fits to a tumor type with a different behavior pattern from non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma and more similar to squamous cell carcinoma or aggressive variants of basal cell carcinoma. Its infiltrative growth and the stromal reaction patterns give enough evidence to support the notion of considering basosquamous carcinoma as a relatively aggressive tumor.

  1. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  2. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  3. Perioperative Considerations in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Kate; Vasdev, Nikhil; Ashead, Jim; Lane, Tim; Hanbury, Damian; Nathan, Paul; Gowrie-Mohan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma are complex, with the potential for significant complications, and require extensive pre-, peri-, and postoperative management. This article discusses, in depth, the necessary considerations in the treatment of these patients. PMID:27833463

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  6. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  7. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  8. Apigenin inhibits renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shuai; Zhu, Yi; Li, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xiao; Liang, Zhen; Li, Shi-Qi; Xu, Xin; Chen, Hong; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xie, Li-Ping

    2017-03-21

    Apigenin, a natural flavonoid found in vegetables and fruits, has antitumor activity in several cancer types. The present study evaluated the effects and mechanism of action of apigenin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. We found that apigenin suppressed ACHN, 786-0, and Caki-1 RCC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A comet assay suggested that apigenin caused DNA damage in ACHN cells, especially at higher doses, and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest through ATM signal modulation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated p53 knockdown showed that apigenin-induced apoptosis was likely p53 dependent. Apigenin anti-proliferative effects were confirmed in an ACHN cell xenograft mouse model. Apigenin treatment reduced tumor growth and volume in vivo, and immunohistochemical staining revealed lower Ki-67 indices in tumors derived from apigenin-treated mice. These findings suggest that apigenin exposure induces DNA damage, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, p53 accumulation and apoptosis, which collectively suppress ACHN RCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Given its antitumor effects and low in vivo toxicity, apigenin is a highly promising agent for treatment of RCC.

  9. Cardiac metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pattni, Neeraj; Rennie, Andrew; Hall, Timothy; Norman, Aidan

    2015-09-09

    We present a case of isolated cardiac metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. An 89-year-old woman was due to undergo curative resection of a histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the retromolar region. On admission, it was noted that there were ECG changes, and following further investigations, the patient was diagnosed with a cardiac metastasis of her oral malignancy. The presentation, including the diagnostic difficulties, as well as the clinical features of this rare case, are discussed.

  10. Resection of intraocular squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Crawford, J B; Howes, E L; Weinstein, A J

    1992-01-01

    A patient with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was referred with 20/20 vision in an eye with obvious intraocular extension. A modified iridocyclochoroidectomy was performed and the tumour was removed. Three and a half years later the patient's vision is 20/30 and there is no recurrence. This is the first case in which an eye has been successfully salvaged with documented intraocular squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Images PMID:1739709

  11. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rabade, Nikhil R; Goel, Naina A

    2014-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial neoplasm of lacrimal gland. A clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma arising in the background of pleomorphic adenoma is common in the salivary glands but very rare in the lacrimal glands. We report the case of a 27 year old man whose lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma recurred several times over a period of four years and ultimately evolved into a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  12. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  13. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma: A diagnostic impediment

    PubMed Central

    Koduganti, Rekha Rani; Sehrawat, Sangeeta; Reddy, P. Veerendra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas represent 3% of cancers in men and 2% of cancers in women. More than 90% of oral cancer occurs in people older than 45 years Lesions of gingiva account for approximately 10% of the oral squamous cell carcinomas and may present clinically as an area of ulceration, exophytic mass, or red/white speckled patches. The proximity to the underlying periosteum may invite early bone invasion. Carcinoma of gingiva constitutes an extremely important group of neoplasms as the lesion frequently mimics the reactive and inflammatory conditions affecting the periodontium, delaying the diagnosis and making the prognosis of the patient poorer. A rare case of gingival squamous cell carcinoma has been reported here, in a 40 Year old male patient. Careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, radiographic, and laboratory investigations, along with a critical review of similar conditions led to the diagnosis, and treatment was initiated. PMID:22628973

  14. [Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  15. Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  16. Basal cell carcinoma and rhinophyma.

    PubMed

    Leyngold, Mark; Leyngold, Ilya; Letourneau, Peter R; Zamboni, William A; Shah, Himansu

    2008-10-01

    Rhinophyma, the end stage in the development of acne rosacea, is characterized by sebaceous hyperplasia, fibrosis, follicular plugging, and telangiectasia. Although it is commonly considered a cosmetic problem, it can result in gross distortion of soft tissue and airway obstruction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare finding in patients with rhinophyma. The objective of this study is to review the literature of BCC in rhinophyma and report on a case. A 70-year-old male presented with long-standing rosacea that resulted in a gross nasal deformity. The patient suffered from chronic drainage and recurrent infections that failed conservative treatment with oral and topical antibiotics. The patient decided to proceed with surgical intervention and underwent tangential excision and dermabrasion in the operating room. Since 1955 there have been 11 cases reported in the literature. In our case, the pathology report noted that the specimen had an incidental finding of a completely resected BCC. The patient did well postoperatively and at follow-up remains tumor-free. Despite the uncommon occurrence of BCC in resection specimens for rhinophyma, we recommend that all specimens be reviewed by a pathologist. If BCC is detected, re-excision may be necessary and careful follow-up is mandatory. Larger studies would be needed to determine the correlation between the 2 conditions.

  17. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M’rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy. PMID:27795755

  18. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  19. Synchronous Renal Neoplasm: Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Urothelial Carcinoma in the Same Kidney.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Huerto, Miguel Armando; Chávez-Valencia, Venice; Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    Abdominal computed tomography in a 64 year-old male presenting hematuria showed two malignant tumors in the left kidney, thus radical nephrectomy was realized. In histological preparations a clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a papillary urothelial carcinoma were identified occurring synchronously, which is a rare occurrence having only about 50 cases reported in the literature.

  20. Leukemoid reaction in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiyosawa, T; Hirano, S; Nakamura, J; Murata, S; Demitsu, T; Kato, H; Yaoita, H

    1996-08-01

    There have been no previous concrete reports of leukemoid reactions associated with squamous cell carcinoma originating in cutaneous tissue. Here we report a case of epidermal squamous cell carcinoma of the sacral region and an associated leukemoid reaction. The tumor invaded deeply and destroyed both the sacrum and coccyx. The white blood cell count was greater than 20,000/mm3. After resection of the tumor, white blood cells transiently decreased, but did not fall under 10,000/mm3. Post-operative infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Bacteroides caccae caused sepsis and further elevation of the leukocytes to greater than 50,000/mm3. The leukemoid reaction in the case appeared to have been caused initially by direct invasion of bone by epidermal squamous cell carcinoma and later by severe infection.

  1. Resectable pancreatic small cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Jordan M.; Narang, Amol K.; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Herman, Joseph M.; Cameron, John L.; Laheru, Dan; Eckhauser, Fred E.; Olson, Mathew T.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Miller, Robert C.; Andersen, Dana K.

    2011-01-01

    Primary pancreatic small cell carcinoma (SCC) is rare, with just over 30 cases reported in the literature. Only 7 of these patients underwent surgical resection with a median survival of 6 months. Prognosis of SCC is therefore considered to be poor, and the role of adjuvant therapy is uncertain. Here we report two institutions' experience with resectable pancreatic SCC. Six patients with pancreatic SCC treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (4 patients) and the Mayo Clinic (2 patients) were identified from prospectively collected pancreatic cancer databases and re-reviewed by pathology. All six patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Clinicopathologic data were analyzed, and the literature on pancreatic SCC was reviewed. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years (range 27–60). All six tumors arose in the head of the pancreas. Median tumor size was 3 cm, and all cases had positive lymph nodes except for one patient who only had five nodes sampled. There were no perioperative deaths and three patients had at least one postoperative complication. All six patients received adjuvant therapy, five of whom were given combined modality treatment with radiation, cisplatin, and etoposide. Median survival was 20 months with a range of 9–173 months. The patient who lived for 9 months received chemotherapy only, while the patient who lived for 173 months was given chemoradiation with cisplatin and etoposide and represents the longest reported survival time from pancreatic SCC to date. Pancreatic SCC is an extremely rare form of cancer with a poor prognosis. Patients in this surgical series showed favorable survival rates when compared to prior reports of both resected and unresectable SCC. Cisplatin and etoposide appears to be the preferred chemotherapy regimen, although its efficacy remains uncertain, as does the role of combined modality treatment with radiation. PMID:21464878

  2. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  3. Clinicopathological analysis of basal cell carcinoma of the anal region and its distinction from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patil, Deepa T; Goldblum, John R; Billings, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the anal region is rare and morphologically difficult to distinguish from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, particularly on biopsies. This distinction has therapeutic and prognostic implications. We reviewed morphological features of 9 basal cell carcinomas and 15 basaloid squamous cell carcinomas from the anal region diagnosed during 1993-2011 and determined the utility of Ber-EP4, BCL2, TP63, CK5/6, CDKN2A, and SOX2 as diagnostic tools. Immunostains were scored in a semi-quantitative manner (1+-1-10%, 2+-11-50%, 3+->50%). All basal cell carcinomas were located in the perianal region, while all basaloid squamous cell carcinomas originated in the anal canal/anorectum. Nodular subtype of basal cell carcinoma was the most common subtype. Retraction artifact was the only significant distinguishing histological feature of basal cell carcinoma compared with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (88% vs 26%; P=0.04). Atypical mitoses were more common in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (71% vs 11%; P=0.05). An in situ component was only present in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, and was noted in 6/15 cases. Basal cell carcinomas had 2-3+ Ber-EP4 (basal cell carcinoma 100% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 40%; P<0.001) and BCL2 immunoreactivity (basal cell carcinomas 100% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 33%; P<0.001). Diffuse CDKN2A and SOX2 expression was seen only in basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (basal cell carcinoma 0% vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma 93%; P<0.001). There was no difference in TP63 and CK5/6 expression. Perianal location, retraction artifact, and lack of atypical mitoses are histological features that help distinguish basal cell carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. An in situ component, when present, supports the diagnosis of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunostains are extremely helpful as diffuse Ber-EP4 and BCL2 expression is a feature of basal cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma

  4. TERT promoter mutations are frequent in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Griewank, Klaus G; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.

  5. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-19

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  6. Merkel cell carcinoma (primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of skin) mimicking basal cell carcinoma with review of different histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Succaria, Farah; Radfar, Arash; Bhawan, Jag

    2014-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy, which often has typical histopathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features. Sometimes the diagnosis is missed because of atypical histological or aberrant IHC findings. A case of MCC that showed irregular lobules of basaloid cells with keratotic areas on the initial shave biopsy is being reported. IHC showed positive staining for high-molecular weight cytokeratin but negative staining for cytokeratin 20, findings consistent with basal cell carcinoma. Subsequent excision specimen showed histopathologic features more typical of MCC. IHC still was negative for cytokeratin 20 but positive for synaptophysin. Review of the literature shows other examples of MCC with basal cell carcinoma-like features. Various other histopathologic differentiations of MCC include those that demonstrate squamous cell and eccrine carcinoma features and those that show melanocytic, lymphomatous, sarcomatous, muscular, and atypical fibroxanthoma-like features. Different histopathologic patterns and mimics of MCC are reviewed to help prevent dermatopathologists from misdiagnosing this aggressive tumor.

  7. Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Amy; Pena, Maria; Santi, Mariarita; Ali Ahmed, Atif

    2007-07-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder characterized by developmental anomalies and occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas and other tumors in early childhood. In this article, the authors report a case of a 19-year-old African American male with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and a history of medulloblastoma at age 2, meningioma at age 14, thyroid follicular adenomas with papillary carcinoma at age 15, and 2 basal cell carcinomas at ages 16 and 18. Recently, he developed sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC). The radiology and pathology of the sinonasal carcinoma are presented in this report. Review of the literature reveals that this is the first case of SNUC occurring in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

  8. [Vasculogenic mimicry in tongue squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaogen; Liu, Chundong; Luo, Luqiao; Cai, Xiaohui

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the presence of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and explore its clinical significance. Forty-two surgical specimens of tongue squamous cell carcinoma were examined for the presence of VM using HE staining and double staining of CD34 and PAS. Of the 42 specimens, 18 (42.86%) showed the presence of VM. VM was not correlated with the patients' age or gender, but with lymph node metastasis and the grade of tumor differentiation. Compared with tumors without VM, the tumors with VM had a significantly higher rate of lymph node metastasis (P<0.05) and a lower grade of differentiation (P<0.05). VM can be present in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and the poorly differentiated tumors contain more VM, which is associated with a greater likeliness of lymph node metastasis and a poorer prognosis.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma in Kauai, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Chuang, T Y; Reizner, G T; Elpern, D J; Stone, J L; Farmer, E R

    1995-06-01

    It is estimated that over 100,000 new cases of squamous cell carcinoma are diagnosed in the United States annually. This number is compounded by an increasing concern over the ozone layer depletion and the continued sunbathing behavior of many individuals. This could be particularly acute in Hawaii, which may have the highest rates of skin cancer in the country. We believe the updated information on skin cancer is essential to address the magnitude of the problem. A prospective 5-year population-based incidence study was conducted on Kauai, Hawaii, between 1983 and 1987 to investigate the frequency of squamous cell carcinomas in resident Caucasians. A total of 58 residents, 37 men and 21 women, were identified with an initial episode of squamous cell carcinoma during the 5-year period. The average annual incidence rate per 100,000 Kauai Caucasian residents, standardized to the 1980 U.S. white population, was 153 for men and 92 for women with a combined rate of 118. The average patient age was 66.4 years. The head and neck was the most common anatomic site, with the extremities second. Subsequent new squamous cell carcinoma occurred in 13.8% of patients. Only one patient (2%) developed a recurrence after treatment. Twenty-five patients (43%) had basal cell carcinoma simultaneously or at other earlier times. In Kauai the incidence rate of squamous cell carcinoma is the highest yet documented in the United States. No consistent trend in incidence rates was appreciated during this 5-year period.

  10. A Foreigner in Squamous Cell Carcinoma!

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, B S

    2013-01-01

    Giant cells are the soldiers of defensive system of our body. They differ based on the stimuli that provoked their formation. On the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common oral cancer, presents with varied histopathological features based on the degree of differentiation. Keratinizing islands of dysplastic squamous epithelial cells & a dense inflammatory response form the major component of well differentiated SCC. This keratin component may sometimes trigger foreign body giant cell (FBGC) reaction in the stroma, which may mislead the pathologist to aggressive forms of SCC containing pleomorphic giant cells. We encountered such an interesting case of foreign body giant cell reaction in oral SCC. Thus, the present article aims to provide a thorough knowledge on FBGC including their appearance, pathogenesis & significance in oral SCC. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Ganavi BS. A Foreigner in Squamous Cell Carcinoma!. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):147-50. PMID:24324320

  11. [Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant skin lesions--how to treat?].

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Sari; Jeskanen, Leila; Ylitalo, Leea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to UV radiation is considered the most important etiologic factor of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Consequently, exposed areas such as the scalp and face, are the primary areas for developing non-melanoma skin cancers. Once a patient has presented with one tumor, additional lesions are common. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture and biopsy or excision for histopathological analysis. Various non-surgical treatment options have been established. Superficial basal cell carcinoma, superficial carcinoma in situ and all actinic keratoses are preferentially treated non-surgically. Most other basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas should be surgically removed.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Forman, Seth B; Ferringer, Tammie C; Garrett, Algin B

    2007-05-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old white male with a basal cell carcinoma of the left thumb nail unit. Excision of the tumor via Mohs micrographic surgery was completed in 2 stages. The defect was repaired with a full thickness skin graft. Five months later the nail unit healed without complications. Prior to this report, 21 cases of basal cell carcinoma have been reported in the world literature. This case, as well as the prior reports, are reviewed with a focus on time to diagnosis, location, excisional technique, and method of repair.

  13. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  14. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  15. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the External Auditory Canal Previously Treated for Verrucous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Soo Jung; Yang, Chan Joo

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare malignancy with an annual incidence of one per one million people, accounting for less than 0.2% of all head and neck cancers. The most common histopathological type of EAC cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated, low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is a locally destructive, invasive, and slow growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. Verrucous carcinoma occurs predominantly in the oral cavity and larynx, and its occurrence in the EAC is extremely rare. In this report, we present a histologically confirmed case of verrucous carcinoma in the EAC and temporal bone, which for several years had been classified as epithelial hyperplasia. Two-and-a-half years after diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma, a recurrent mass was found and the lesion was then confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27942606

  16. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the External Auditory Canal Previously Treated for Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soo Jung; Yang, Chan Joo; Chung, Jong Woo

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare malignancy with an annual incidence of one per one million people, accounting for less than 0.2% of all head and neck cancers. The most common histopathological type of EAC cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated, low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is a locally destructive, invasive, and slow growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. Verrucous carcinoma occurs predominantly in the oral cavity and larynx, and its occurrence in the EAC is extremely rare. In this report, we present a histologically confirmed case of verrucous carcinoma in the EAC and temporal bone, which for several years had been classified as epithelial hyperplasia. Two-and-a-half years after diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma, a recurrent mass was found and the lesion was then confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy J; Mendez, Anthony; Donald, Carrlene; Nagel, Thomas Harold

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can infect the tonsillar tissues of the oropharynx and is associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article provides an overview to guide primary care providers in screening patients for oropharyngeal cancer and making appropriate referrals. The article also reviews available HPV vaccines and immunization adherence rates.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma associated with lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gooptu, C; Marks, N; Thomas, J; James, M P

    1998-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas are known to arise in certain chronic, scarring dermatoses and also to be associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We now report a case arising in a plaque of lupus vulgaris, the patient having received radiation from a Finsen lamp as a child for a tuberculous abscess in that region.

  19. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a meningomyelocele.

    PubMed Central

    Saksun, J. M.; Fisher, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the meningomyelocele of a 25-year-old man. This is the third such case reported. The possibility of malignant disease arising in this congenital defect must be taken into account when treatment is being considered. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:709475

  1. Urothelial carcinoma: Stem cells on the edge

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, William D.; Matsui, William; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; He, Xiaobing; Ling, Shizhang; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Tumors are heterogeneous collections of cells with highly variable abilities to survive, grow, and metastasize. This variability likely stems from epigenetic and genetic influences, either stochastic or hardwired by cell type-specific lineage programs. That differentiation underlies tumor cell heterogeneity was elegantly demonstrated in hematopoietic tumors, in which rare primitive cells (cancer stem cells (CSCs)) resembling normal hematopoietic stem cells are ultimately responsible for tumor growth and viability. Because of the compelling clinical implications CSCs pose—across the entire spectrum of cancers—investigators applied the CSC model to cancers arising in tissues with crudely understood differentiation programs. Instead of relying on differentiation, these studies used empirically selected markers and statistical arguments to identify CSCs. The empirical approach has stimulated important questions about “stemness” in cancer cells as well as the validity and stoichiometry of CSC assays. The recent identification of urothelial differentiation programs in urothelial carcinomas (UroCas) supports the idea that solid epithelial cancers (carcinomas) develop and differentiate analogously to normal epithelia and provides new insights about the spatial localization and molecular makeup of carcinoma CSCs. Importantly, CSCs from invasive UroCas (UroCSCs) appear well situated to exchange important signals with adjacent stroma, to escape immune surveillance, and to survive cytotoxic therapy. These signals have potential roles in treatment resistance and many participate in druggable cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss the implications of these findings in understanding CSCs and in better understanding how UroCas form, progress, and should be treated. PMID:20012172

  2. Psammomatous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Andrew; Smith, Emily; Chen, Stephanie; Chan, May P; Harms, Paul W

    2017-09-20

    Psammoma bodies (PBs) are concentric, lamellated calcifications commonly observed in malignancies such as papillary thyroid carcinoma and serous carcinoma of the ovary in which they may serve prognostic value. PBs are rare in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), with only 1 previously reported case. Here, we present 3 cases of cSCC displaying PBs. One case occurred in the setting of end-stage renal disease, whereas the other 2 cases were in patients who did not have comorbid conditions that might predispose to hypercalcemia and dystrophic calcification. All 3 tumors demonstrated classic immunophenotypic findings of cSCC. Our findings indicate that PBs are a rare but recurrent phenomenon in cSCC, with unknown prognostic significance. The potential for PB formation in cSCC should be kept in mind, as this may represent a diagnostic pitfall in tumors with limited sampling or unusual morphologies.

  3. A Case of Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Do, Mi Ok; Kim, Seong Hyun; Hahm, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a well-defined variant of squamous cell cancer in which significant portions of the neoplastic proliferation show a pseudoglandular or tubular microscopic pattern. It usually presents as a nodule with various colors, and it is accompanied by scaling, crusting, and ulceration on the sun-exposed areas of older aged individuals. Histologically, the tumor consists of a nodular, epidermal-derived proliferation that forms island-like structures. At least focally or sometimes extensively, the tumor cells shows a loss of cohesion within the central gland-like or tubular spaces. This tumor resembles the structure of eccrine neoplasms, but it is negative for dPAS, CEA and mucicarmine and it is only positive for EMA and cytokeratins. Herein we report a case of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma that occurred on the face of an 82-year-old woman. PMID:27303210

  4. [Single prostatic metastasis of a small cell lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Yañez, Isabel; Perez Lopez, Maria Eva; Rodriguez Lopez, Jose Angel; Arias Santos, Maria Dolores; Garcia Gomez, Jesus; Garcia Mata, Jesus

    2009-03-01

    To make the difference between two uncommon entities, small cell prostate carcinoma and prostatic metastasis of small cell lung cancer. We describe a case of single extrapulmonar metastasis in the prostate from small lung carcinoma. We describe a case of single extrapulmonar metastasis in the prostate from small lung carcinoma. Clinical and radiographic findings and inmunohistochemistry allow differential diagnosis.

  5. Laryngeal Dysplasia, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Variants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lester D R

    2017-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant epithelial tumor showing evidence of squamous differentiation. It is the most common malignancy of the larynx, with several variants (verrucous, exophytic or papillary, spindle-cell, basaloid, acantholytic, adenosquamous) recognized, with well-established precursor lesions. Dysplasia is now separated into only low-grade and high-grade categories. Each SCC variant has unique cytomorphologic features and histologic differential diagnoses that are important to consider, as management and outcomes are different.

  6. Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma: Epidemiology and Therapeutic Innovations.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Shalini V; Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2014-01-01

    Advanced basal cell carcinomas are a subset of basal cell carcinomas that can be difficult to treat either due to their local invasiveness, proximity to vital structures, or metastasis. The incidence of all basal cell carcinoma is increasing in the United States, although it is not known whether advanced basal cell carcinomas (aBCCs) are also increasing. Recently, highly targeted therapy based on knowledge of the basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis has become available either commercially or through human clinical trials. These orally available drugs inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway, and lead to advanced basal cell carcinoma shrinkage that can enable preservation of adjacent vital organs. In this review, we outline the role of Hedgehog pathway inhibitors as well as other treatment modalities such as excision, radiotherapy and more traditional chemotherapy in treating advanced basal cell carcinomas. We also highlight current gaps in knowledge regarding the use and side effects of this targeted therapy.

  7. [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Sinisa

    2009-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Incidence is reported to be 0.1-3.6%. We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface. Menarche occurred at age of 12. The patient was married, had two deliveries and had her first child at age of 26. She did not use contraceptive pills. Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007. Clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography were performed. Physical examination revealed a circumscribed and firm mass measuring 60 x 60 x 80 mm. Mammogram showed a round, high-density mass with almost regular but partially irregular margin. Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion. After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin). Patient had estrogen and progesteron receptors negative and was HER2/neu negative. After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum. After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed. Working group decided that radical mastectomy of left breast should be performed.

  8. Mechanisms behind signet ring cell carcinoma formation.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yasuhisa

    2014-08-08

    Signet ring cell carcinomas are highly malignant dedifferentiated adenocarcinomas. There are no cell-cell interactions between these round-shaped cells. They contain huge numbers of vacuoles, filled with mucins, which are secreted from the cells. The mechanism behind this phenotype has recently begun to be elucidated. In highly differentiated adenocarcinomas the ErbB2/ErbB3 complex is activated, which is followed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. p38 MAP kinase is activated downstream of PI3K and adherens junctions are disrupted via Rac1 activation. Loss of adherens junctions leads to the disappearance of tight junctions, which results in a loss of cell-cell interactions. Secretion of mucin is enhanced by activation of PI3K. One of the mucins - Muc4 - can activate ErbB2. Under normal conditions Muc4 and ErbB2 are separated by adherens and tight junctions, however in signet ring cells they are able to interact, since these junctions have been lost. Therefore, an activation loop is formed, consisting of ERbB2/ErbB3-Muc4-ErbB2/ErbB3. As a result, the ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling pathway becomes constitutively activated, cell-cell interactions are lost, and signet ring carcinomas are formed. As a result of constitutive activation of the ErbB2/ErbB3 complex, cell growth is continuously enhanced. Some signet ring cell carcinomas have been found to have mutations in the E-cadherin gene, which fits the above hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Laminin receptor on human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Terranova, V P; Rao, C N; Kalebic, T; Margulies, I M; Liotta, L A

    1983-01-01

    Human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells possess a receptor-like moiety on their surface that has a high binding affinity (Kd = 2 nM) for laminin, a glycoprotein localized in basement membranes. Laminin preferentially stimulates (8-fold) MCF-7 cells to attach to type IV (basement membrane) collagen, whereas fibronectin stimulates attachment only 2-fold for these cells on type I collagen. The attachment properties of two other human breast carcinoma cell lines to type IV collagen were also studied. The attachment of ZR-75-1 cells was stimulated 4-fold by laminin and 5-fold by fibronectin, whereas T47-D cell attachment was stimulated 2-fold by laminin and 7-fold by fibronectin. By employing protease-derived fragments of laminin, the major domains of the laminin molecule that participate in MCF-7 cell attachment to type IV collagen were identified. The whole laminin molecule has the configuration of a four-armed cross with three short arms and one long arm. A major cell-binding domain was found to reside near the intersection point of the short arms, and the type IV collagen-binding domain was associated with the globular end regions of the short arms. The receptor for laminin on the surface of these tumor cells may be involved in the initial interaction of tumor cells via laminin with the vascular basement membrane to facilitate invasion and subsequent promotion of metastasis. Images PMID:6300843

  10. Genomics and epigenomics of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maher, Eamonn R

    2013-02-01

    Kidney cancer accounts for about 2% of all cancers and worldwide >250,000 new cases of kidney cancer are diagnosed each year. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of adult kidney cancer and this review describes our current knowledge of the genetic and epigenetic basis of sporadic RCC. Though to date major advances in understanding the underlying the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have often been derived from studies of rare familial forms of renal cell carcinoma, large-scale genomic and epigenomic studies of sporadic tumours are beginning to provide clearer pictures of the genomic and epigenomic landscape of RCC and the key pathways implicated in the initiation and progression of the disease. Although current knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of RCC is incomplete, and mostly relates to clear cell (conventional) RCC, the next five years will see an unprecedented flood of genomic and epigenomic data and the key future challenges will relate to the utilisation of this data to develop novel genetic and epigenetic markers for diagnosis and prognosis and to develop novel targeted therapies in order to enable an age of personalised medicine.

  11. Cell survival curve for primary hepatic carcinoma cells and relationship between SF2 of hepatic carcinoma cells and radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Ying; Lin, Ju-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Sheng; Lan, Xiao; Cai, Xiao-Kun; Liang, Kuo-Huan; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the cell survival curve for primary hepatic carcinoma cells and to study the relationship between SF2 of primary hepatic carcinoma cells and radiosensitivity. METHODS: Hepatic carcinoma cells were cultured in vitro using 39 samples of hepatic carcinoma at stages II-IV. Twenty-nine samples were cultured successfully in the fifth generation cells. After these cells were radiated with different dosages, the cell survival ratio and SF2 were calculated by clonogenic assay and SF2 model respectively. The relationship between SF2 and the clinical pathological feature was analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine of thirty-nine samples were successfully cultured. After X-ray radiation of the fifth generation cells with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy, the cell survival rate was 41%, 36.5%, 31.0%, 26.8%, and 19%, respectively. There was a negative correlation between cell survival and irradiation dosage (r = -0.973, P<0.05). SF2 ranged 0.28-0.78 and correlated with the clinical stage and pathological grade of hepatic carcinoma (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between SF2 and D0.5 (r = 0.773, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: SF2 correlates with the clinical stage and pathological grade of hepatic carcinoma and is a marker for predicting the radiosensitivity of hepatic carcinomas. PMID:16437614

  12. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma with 'monster' cells: a mimic of pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Defty, Clare L; Segen, Joseph; Carter, Jonathan J; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Carr, Richard A

    2011-04-01

    Pleomorphic giant or 'monster' cells represent a well-recognized yet uncommon finding associated with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), usually of nodular type. We present a case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (basaloid SCC) with 'monster' cells that closely mimicked those described in pleomorphic nodular BCC. Clinically, the lesion presented as a fleshy, hyperkeratotic nodule in an 82-year-old woman. Histopathology revealed a basaloid lesion with lobulated borders and focal retraction artifact but a lack of prominent palisading or stromal mucin. There were areas of necrosis and small foci of keratinization. Striking bizarre monstrous pleomorphic nuclei were widely scattered throughout the lesion. Ber-EP4 immunohistochemistry proved to be negative and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) expression was moderate to strong in 70% of the basaloid epithelium. Monster cells have not previously been highlighted in cutaneous SCC or in its uncommon cutaneous basaloid variant. The prognostic significance of monster cells is unknown but, given the relative paucity of keratinization in basaloid SCC, these lesions should probably be regarded as poorly differentiated. We have not previously encountered an SCC that so closely resembles nodular BCC with pleomorphic monster cells and believe that this is the first such report in the literature.

  13. Dermoscopic criteria and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Del Busto-Wilhelm, Isabel; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2016-12-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is nowadays the most frequent skin cancer in the fair-skinned population. Clinical suspicion for BCC diagnosis can be easy in advance cases, but it sometimes sets a real challenge wherein dermoscopy has proven to be a useful tool. Dermoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that improves the clinical diagnosis of pigmented and non-pigmented BCC representing a link between macroscopic clinical dermatology and microscopic dermatopathology. The dermoscopy of basal cell carcinoma is currently very well-known, as well as the clinical and histopathological features of BCC subtypes. Recently some flowcharts and algorithms for the most common subtypes of BCC have been proposed. We review the latest literature on the topic to describe the most frequent dermoscopy patterns for each subtype.

  14. Laryngeal acinic cell carcinoma following thyroid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reibel, J.F.; McLean, W.C.; Cantrell, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Only three examples of acinic cell carcinoma of the larynx or trachea are found in the recent literature. A case of acinic cell carcinoma of the subglottic larynx and trachea was diagnosed and treated at the University of Virginia Medical Center. To our knowledge this is the first such case with a prior history of radiation to the neck. The patient is a 56-year-old woman who was irradiated for hyperthyroidism 46 years ago. When seen she also had parathyroid hyperplasia and multiple thyroid adenomas, conditions that frequently follow irradiation of the thyroid in children. These findings in this case support the concept that radiation may be responsible for inducing this tumor, which otherwise rarely occurs in this location. The use of electron microscopy was extremely useful in the diagnosis of this tumor. She was treated with total laryngectomy and right neck dissection and is now free of disease one year after surgery.

  15. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Ravinder S; Kufuor-Mensah, Eric

    2007-02-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female Persian cat was referred for evaluation of progressive paraplegia. The cat was thin, cachectic and paraplegic on presentation. The survey radiographs showed a left caudal pulmonary lesion and lytic skeletal lesions at the right iliac crest and left distal scapula. Due to a poor prognosis for complete recovery, the owner opted for euthanasia. Post-mortem examination revealed bilaterally small and irregular kidneys, lysis of the left iliac crest and left distal scapula and a dilated left ventricular lumen with a thin interventricular septum. Histologically, all the lesions were determined to be squamous cell carcinoma. It appears that the origin or the primary site of the malignancy in this case is pulmonary as cardiac and skeletal tissues are primarily mesenchymal in origin and are less likely to develop a primary epithelial malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, there is no description of cardiac or skeletal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat.

  16. Immunotherapy for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takashi; Doi, Toshihiko

    2017-05-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma have been frustrating to treat, with slow progress made on extending survival. Immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints, T cells, and infiltrating lymphocytes has shown promise in early studies. The efficacy of pembrolizumab and nivolumab is encouraging. Anti-chemokine receptors and oncolytic viruses are also making headway against these stubborn tumors; improved results when immune checkpoint inhibitors are combined with radiation therapy are eagerly anticipated. Adoptive T cell therapy and vaccines are also under development. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach cannot be emphasized enough.

  17. [Squamous cell carcinoma in lupus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Kimmritz, Jens; Hermes, Barbara; Schewe, Christiane; Haas, Norbert

    2004-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris and carcinoma in lupo have become rare events that take place in the developed countries only under special circumstances. A 53-year-old woman developed such a carcinoma. She suffered from alcoholism, a well known risk factor for tuberculosis. The diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was confirmed by biopsy when an erythematous lesion on her arm that had been present for 25 years enlarged and subsequently ulcerated. Chemotherapy was discontinued because of lack of compliance and the ulcer grew markedly over the following 16 months. Therefore the entire lesion was excised. Histology showed a squamous cell carcinoma within the ulcer. Neither further systemic manifestations of tuberculosis nor metastases of the carcinoma were found. Under continuous combined antituberculous therapy, the patient remained free of symptoms. This case underlines the problems associated with a disease that has been nearly forgotten in the western countries. It also shows that alcoholism is a risk factor for tuberculosis, along with debilitating diseases such as lymphoma and AIDS as well as immunosuppressive therapy.

  18. Genetic associations of transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herring, D W; Cartwright, R A; Williams, D D

    1979-04-01

    A series of 101 cases of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was contrasted with a control series for several genetic parameters. Three genetic associations were demonstrated with the TCC patients having A gene frequencies, HLA B5 and HLA CW4 genes all higher than might be expected by chance. A classification of the natural history of the disease is used to show that the HLA frequencies vary with the more or the less severe forms of the disease.

  19. Nursing Management of Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Pamela A; Freeman, Morganna L; Russell, Jeffery S

    2016-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and lethal skin cancer with few known treatment options. Management of this disease is challenging, and oncology nurses must understand the medical, physical, and psychosocial burden that MCC places on the patient and family caregivers. Patients must navigate a complex medical and insurance network that often fails to support patients with rare cancers. Nurses must advocate for these patients to ensure quality comprehensive cancer care.

  20. Gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Giovanni; Bella, Camillo Di; Cambareri, Antonino Roberto; Buda, Carmelo Antonio; Corti, Gianluigi; Magri, Filippo; Crippa, Stefano; Baldini, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. We describe a case of gastric metastasis due to primary lung cancer, revealed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haematogenous metastases to the stomach are a rare event. To our knowledge, only 55 cases have been described in the international literature. In these patients, the prognosis is very poor. We report herein a case of gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma, with a review of the literature about this rare entity. PMID:16810769

  1. [Radiotherapy for small cell lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Pourel, N

    2016-10-01

    Radiotherapy for small cell lung carcinoma has known significant improvements over the past 10 years especially through routine use of PET-CT in the initial work-up and contouring before treatment. Prophylactic cranial irradiation remains a standard of care for locally advanced disease and is a subject of controversy for metastatic disease. A new indication for thoracic radiotherapy may soon arise for metastatic disease, still confirmation studies are ongoing.

  2. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  3. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... other skin problems a person has experienced. Early treatment of basal cell skin cancer reduces the amount of surgery and scarring. Regular ... sun . People with NBCCS should not receive radiation therapy, as this will ... cell skin cancers. Screening recommendations may change over time as new ...

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Firnhaber, Jonathon M

    2012-07-15

    Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years.

  5. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  6. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  7. Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... removed and fertilized in a laboratory. When the embryos reach a certain size, 1 cell is removed ... question. The parents can then choose to transfer embryos that do not have the mutation. PGD has ...

  8. Desmosomal defects in acantholytic squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Charlene; Fitzpatrick, James E.; Koch, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (Acantholytic SCC) are epithelial tumors characterized by a loss of cell adhesion between neoplastic keratinocytes. The mechanism underlying loss of cell-cell adhesion in these tumors is not understood. Methods A retrospective analysis of acantholytic SCC (n=17) and conventional SCC (n=16, controls not showing acantholysis) was conducted using a set of desmosomal and adherens junction protein antibodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify tumors with loss of adhesion protein expression. Results The vast majority of acantholytic SCC (89%) showed focal loss of at least one desmosomal cell adhesion protein. Most interestingly, 65% of these tumors lost expression of two or more desmosomal proteins. Conclusions Loss of cell adhesion in acantholytic SCC is most likely linked to the focal loss of desmosomal protein expression, thus providing potential mechanistic insight into the patho-mechanism underlying this malignancy. PMID:25264142

  9. Primary oat cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.A. III; Robbins, K.T.; Stephens, J.; Dimery, I.W.; Batsakis, J.G.

    1987-02-01

    The aggressiveness of small (oat) cell carcinoma of the larynx presents a therapeutic challenge to the oncologist. Since the first description of this type of carcinoma in 1972, 52 patients have been reported in the literature and a variety of treatment regimens have been used. The purpose of this study was to report two new cases and review all previous reports to determine the disease's biological behavior, clinical manifestations, and optimum treatment. Thirty-five percent of the tumors were transglottic, and 27% were supraglottic. Fifty-four percent of patients had regional metastases at initial presentation and 17.6% had distant metastases. The median survival was 10 months for all patients. Patients who were treated with chemotherapy with or without other modalities had the best 2-year survival rates (52.2%). Forty-one percent of patients had regional recurrence only, 12.5% had regional recurrence and distant metastases, and 2% developed distant metastases only. We conclude that patients with oat cell carcinoma of the larynx should be treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgery is best reserved for persistent and recurrent disease at the primary site and neck.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2015-03-01

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass.

  11. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    V, Pavithra; Shalini, C.N. Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

  12. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  13. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  14. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  15. USP7 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Yin; Lin, Zong-Wu; Lu, Chun-Lai; Gu, Jie; Yuan, Yun-Feng; Xu, Feng-Kai; Liu, Rong-Hua; Ge, Di; Ding, Jian-Yong

    2015-03-01

    In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both USP7 expression and p53 gene status were reported to be an indicator of poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma patients; however, its roles and mechanisms in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma need to be clarified. The USP7 expression was examined in NSCLC tumors (excluding adenocarcinoma), their corresponding non-tumorous tissues, and NSCLC cells. Then, the prognostic role of USP7 was analyzed in 110 NSCLC samples (excluding the adenocarcinoma). Finally, the roles and mechanisms of USP7 in the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of a NSCLC cell were assessed using a specific vshRNA. The USP7 expression was higher in NSCLC tissues compared to non-tumorous samples, accordingly, the high level of USP7 was detected in NSCLC cell lines compared with HBE cell. After the USP7 downregulation, the H460 cells exhibited decreased metastasis/invasion in vitro and in vivo. The preliminary mechanism study indicated overexpression of USP7 might regulate the p53-MDM2 pathway by inducing the MDM2 de-ubiquitination and subsequent stabilization, which resulted in the upregulation of the Bad phosphorylation. Additionally, we also found that USP7 might induce cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition to enhance the cell invasive ability. Clinically, USP7 overexpression significantly correlated with malignant phenotype. Furthermore, the 5-year overall survival in patients with USP7(low) was higher than that of USP7(high). Multivariate analysis showed USP7 overexpression was an independent prognostic marker for these cancers. USP7 overexpression may regulate the survival and invasive properties of squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma cells, and may serve as a molecular target.

  16. Histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma in non-small cell lung carcinoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Morales, José Manuel; Cano-García, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The use of targeted therapies, especially tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), in specific groups of patients has dramatically improved the prognosis of this disease, although inevitably some patients will develop resistance to these drugs during active treatment. The most common cancer-associated acquired mutation is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Thr790Met (T790M) mutation. During active treatment with targeted therapies, histopathological transformation to small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) can occur in 3–15% of patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tumors. By definition, SCLC is a high-grade tumor with specific histological and genetic characteristics. In the majority of cases, a good-quality hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is enough to establish a diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other neoplasia such as sarcomatoid carcinomas, large-cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma, chronic inflammation, malignant melanoma, metastatic carcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma. A loss of the tumor-suppressor protein retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) is found in 100% of human SCLC tumors; therefore, it has an essential role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Other genetic pathways probably involved in the histopathological transformation include neurogenic locus notch homolog (NOTCH) and achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1). Histological transformation to SCLC can be suspected in NSCLC patients who clinically deteriorate during active treatment. Biopsy of any new lesion in this clinical setting is highly recommended to rule out a SCLC transformation. New studies are trying to assess this histological transformation by noninvasive measures such as measuring the concentration of serum neuron-specific enolase. PMID:27652204

  17. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  18. Laser printing of pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ringeisen, Bradley R; Kim, Heungsoo; Barron, Jason A; Krizman, David B; Chrisey, Douglas B; Jackman, Shawna; Auyeung, R Y C; Spargo, Barry J

    2004-01-01

    A technique by which to print patterns and multilayers of scaffolding and living cells could be used in tissue engineering to fabricate tissue constructs with cells, materials, and chemical diversity at the micron scale. We describe here studies using a laser forward transfer technology to print single-layer patterns of pluripotent murine embryonal carcinoma cells. This report focuses on verifying cell viability and functionality as well as the ability to differentiate cells after laser transfer. We find that when cells are printed onto model tissue scaffolding such as a layer of hydrogel, greater than 95% of the cells survive the transfer process and remain viable. In addition, alkaline comet assays were performed on transferred cells, showing minimal single-strand DNA damage from potential ultraviolet-cell interaction. We also find that laser-transferred cells express microtubular associated protein 2 after retinoic acid stimulus and myosin heavy chain protein after dimethyl sulfoxide stimulus, indicating successful neural and muscular pathway differentiation. These studies provide a foundation so that laser printing may next be used to build heterogeneous multilayer cellular structures, enabling cell growth and differentiation in heterogeneous three-dimensional environments to be uniquely studied.

  19. Small cell sweat gland carcinoma of childhood

    PubMed Central

    Drut, R; Giménez, O P; Oliva, J

    2005-01-01

    Small cell sweat gland carcinoma appears to represent a very unusual histological type of sweat gland anlage tumour presenting in children. The differential diagnosis from other small blue cell tumours involving the skin is often difficult. The present report confirms the original observation describing two patients of 2 and 5 years of age harbouring cutaneous tumours. The histology of these lesions showed a monomorphic proliferation of small cells with a high mitotic rate and areas of necrosis. Immunohistochemically, the cells were negative for desmin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, Cam 5.2, CD99, chromogranin, CD56, synaptophysin, and S-100, and focally positive for the pancytokeratin marker AE1/AE3, carcinoembryonic antigen (one case), and neurone specific enolase (one case). The prognosis of this type of tumour seems to be good. As more cases are added, the clinical pathological spectrum of the lesion will become better defined. PMID:16311358

  20. Combination therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Current therapy for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) consists of the serial administration of single agents. Combinations of VEGF and mTOR inhibitors have been disappointing in previous randomized trials. However, the combination of lenvatinib, a multitargeted agent that inhibits VEGF as well as FGF receptors, and everolimus demonstrated promising results in a randomized phase II trial. Moreover, the emergence of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors has spawned the investigation of combinations of these agents with VEGF inhibitors and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. These ongoing phase III trials in conjunction with the development of predictive biomarkers and agents inhibiting novel therapeutic targets may provide much needed advances in this still largely incurable disease. PMID:27047959

  1. [Expression of promyelocytic leukaemia protein in Bowen's disease, skin squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiongyu; Ma, Huiqun; Wang, Shijie; Ma, Yunyun; Zou, Xingwei; Li, Ruilian

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the expression of promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein of PML protein in Bowen's disease (BD), skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and explore the role of PML in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PML protein in normal skin tissues and lesions of Bowen's disease, SCC and BCC were detected with immunohistochemistry. Normal skin tissues did not express PML protein. In BCC, PML showed rather low expressions in the skin lesions (8.69% in cell nuclei and 4.35% in cytoplasm). The lesions in BD and SCC (grade I and II) showed obvious overexpression of PML protein in the cell nuclei and cytoplasm, and its expression in the cell nuclei of these lesions was significantly higher than that in grade III-IV SCC. PML protein may play an important role in the early stage of SCC, and its overexpression may contribute to the carcinogenesis and metastasis of SCC.

  2. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C

    2015-09-01

    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Great Imitator

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Indraneel; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Suresh; Talreja, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRC) is a rare renal tumor. Patients are usually asymptomatic; it is usually detected incidentally, during imaging studies for Bosniak type III and type IV renal cysts. These tumors rarely metastasize. The role of targeted therapy in such rare tumors is still controversial. We report a case of TCRC initially presented as a Bosniak type II renal cyst and was discovered ultimately to be a metastatic disease. This type of presentation might broaden our understanding of this rare disease. PMID:27601972

  4. [Renal cell carcinoma secondary to tuberculous nephritis].

    PubMed

    El Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Debbagh, Adili; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saad; El Mrini, Mohamed

    2005-04-01

    The combination of renal tuberculosis and renal cancer is rare. The authors report the case of a patient who was followed for multifocal pulmonary, hepatic and renal tuberculosis. The diagnosis of associated renal tumour was raised in the presence of suggestive radiological images. Tumourectomy was performed after tuberculostatic therapy, and histological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma associated with caseo-follicular tuberculous granulomas. The outcome was favourable after a follow-up of 2 years. The objective of this study is to analyse the pathogenesis, diagnostic features and treatment modalities of this exceptional combination.

  5. Advanced treatment for basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Oro, Anthony E

    2014-07-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists.

  6. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  7. Contemporary Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stukalin, Igor; Alimohamed, Nimira; Heng, Daniel Y.C.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The current standard of care focuses on the inhibition of angiogenesis through the targeting of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Over the past few years, research exploring novel targeted agents has blossomed, leading to the approval of various targeted therapies. Furthermore, results from the CheckMate025 and the METEOR trials have brought about two additional novel options: the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab and the MET/VEGFR/AXL inhibitor cabozantinib, respectively. With the variety of therapeutic agents available for treatment of mRCC, research examining appropriate sequencing and combinations of the drugs is ongoing. This review discusses the role of prognostic criteria, such as those from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) criteria. It also covers the current standard of treatment for mRCC with targeted therapy in first-, second-, and third-line setting. Additionally, the novel mechanism of action of nivolumab and cabozantinib, therapeutic sequencing and ongoing clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27471582

  8. Treatment of lung large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Pusceddu, Sara; Proto, Claudia; Macerelli, Marianna; Signorelli, Diego; Vitali, Milena; Ganzinelli, Monica; Gallucci, Rosaria; Zilembo, Nicoletta; Platania, Marco; Buzzoni, Roberto; de Braud, Filippo; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-06-01

    Lung large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (L-LCNEC) is a rare, aggressive, and difficult-to-treat tumor. It is classified as a neuroendocrine subtype of large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) belonging to the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) group, but it is also included in the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) group. Most of the available data related to its treatment derive from retrospective analyses or small case series. For patients with L-LCNEC, prognosis is generally very poor. In early stages (I-II-III), surgery is recommended but does not seem to be sufficient. Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy may be useful while the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is still not well defined. In patients with advanced L-LCNEC, the chemotherapy regimens used in SCLC still remain the standard of treatment, but results are not satisfactory. Due to their peculiar clinical and biological features and the lack of literature data, there is an emerging need for a consensus on the best treatment strategy for L-LCNEC and for the identification of new therapeutic options. In this review, we will discuss the key aspects of L-LCNEC management with the aim to clarify the most controversial issues.

  9. Percutaneous Cryoablation for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Georgiades, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. Nephron sparing resection (partial nephrectomy) has been the “gold standard” for the treatment of resectable disease. With the widespread use of cross sectional imaging techniques, more cases of renal cell cancers are detected at an early stage, i.e. stage 1A or 1B. This has provided an impetus for expanding the nephron sparing options and especially, percutaneous ablative techniques. Percutaneous ablation for RCC is now performed as a standard therapeutic nephron-sparing option in patients who are poor candidates for resection or when there is a need to preserve renal function due to comorbid conditions, multiple renal cell carcinomas, and/or heritable renal cancer syndromes. During the last few years, percutaneous cryoablation has been gaining acceptance as a curative treatment option for small renal cancers. Clinical studies to date indicate that cryoablation is a safe and effective therapeutic method with acceptable short and long term outcomes and with a low risk, in the appropriate setting. In addition it seems to offer some advantages over radio frequency ablation (RFA) and other thermal ablation techniques for renal masses.

  10. Ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma in a patient with suspected Gardner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, S G; Hirsch, S A; Listinsky, C M; Lyu, D J-H; Baur, D A

    2015-04-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma are rare malignancies arising in odontogenic epithelium within the jaws. Gardner syndrome is a multifaceted autosomal dominant condition, which results in multiple dentofacial anomalies along with premalignant colon polyp formation and tumor formation in the skin and other organs. We report a case of ameloblastic carcinoma with features of ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma and extensive clear cell change and melanin pigmentation in a patient with clinical features of Gardner syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, odontogenic carcinoma arising in a patient with features of Gardner syndrome has not been reported previously. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features of the case are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature.

  11. Autocrine Human Growth Hormone Stimulates Oncogenicity of Endometrial Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vijay; Perry, Jo K.; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M.; Kong, Xiang-Jun; Liu, Shu-Min; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Mitchell, Murray D.; Zhu, Tao; Lobie, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent published data have demonstrated elevated levels of human GH (hGH) in endometriosis and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Herein, we demonstrate that autocrine production of hGH can enhance the in vitro and in vivo oncogenic potential of endometrial carcinoma cells. Forced expression of hGH in endometrial carcinoma cell lines RL95-2 and AN3 resulted in an increased total cell number through enhanced cell cycle progression and decreased apoptotic cell death. In addition, autocrine hGH expression in endometrial carcinoma cells promoted anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration/invasion in vitro. In a xenograft model of human endometrial carcinoma, autocrine hGH enhanced tumor size and progression. Changes in endometrial carcinoma cell gene expression stimulated by autocrine hGH was consistent with the altered in vitro and in vivo behavior. Functional antagonism of hGH in wild-type RL95-2 cells significantly reduced cell proliferation, cell survival, and anchorage-independent cell growth. These studies demonstrate a functional role for autocrine hGH in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma and indicate potential therapeutic relevance of hGH antagonism in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. PMID:18450952

  12. Expression and function of FERMT genes in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kiriyama, Kenji; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Kubo, Terufumi; Tamura, Yasuaki; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Takahashi, Akari; Nakazawa, Emiri; Saka, Eri; Ragnarsson, Charlotte; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Inoda, Satoko; Asanuma, Hiroko; Takasu, Hideo; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Yasoshima, Takahiro; Hirata, Koichi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Invasion into the matrix is one of hallmarks of malignant diseases and is the first step for tumor metastasis. Thus, analysis of the molecular mechanisms of invasion is essential to overcome tumor cell invasion. In the present study, we screened for colon carcinoma-specific genes using a cDNA microarray database of colon carcinoma tissues and normal colon tissues, and we found that fermitin family member-1 (FERMT1) is overexpressed in colon carcinoma cells. FRRMT1, FERMT2 and FERMT3 expression was investigated in colon carcinoma cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that only FERMT1 had cancer cell-specific expression. Protein expression of FERMT1 was confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. To address the molecular functions of FERMT genes in colon carcinoma cells, we established FERMT1-, FERMT2- and FERMT3-overexpressing colon carcinoma cells. FERMT1-overexpressing cells exhibited greater invasive ability than did FERMT2- and FERMT3-overexpressing cells. On the other hand, FERMT1-, FERMT2- and FERMT3-overexpressing cells exhibited enhancement of cell growth. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that FERMT1 is expressed specifically in colon carcinoma cells, and has roles in matrix invasion and cell growth. These findings indicate that FERMT1 is a potential molecular target for cancer therapy.

  13. Renal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic islet cell carcinoma in a binturong (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    Klaphake, Eric; Shoieb, Ahmed; Ramsay, Ed; Schumacher, Juergen; Craig, Linden

    2005-03-01

    A 19-yr-old binturong (Arctictis binturong) with acute upper respiratory disease was euthanized. Postmortem findings included hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, and renal adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the spleen, pleura, and pericardium. A link between primary hepatic and renal neoplasms has been noted in older humans.

  14. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis. PMID:27757356

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma (BCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Sestini, S.; Stambouli, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2006-02-01

    We used two-photon microscopy towards the imaging of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Our aim was to evaluate the morphology of BCC using two-photon fluorescence excitation and to establish a correlation with histopathology. We built a custom two-photon microscope and we measured the system capabilities. The system allowed to perform a preliminary measurement on a fresh human skin tissue sample. A human skin tissue sample of BCC excised during dermatological surgery procedures were used. The clinical diagnosis of BCC was confirmed by subsequent histopathological examination. The sample was imaged using endogenous tissue fluorescence within 2-3 hours from the excision with a two photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope. The acquired images allowed an obvious discrimination of the neoplastic areas toward normal tissue, based on morphological differences and aberrations of the intensity of the fluorescence signal. Our results showed that BCC tissue has a more homogeneous structure in comparison to normal tissue as well as a higher fluorescent response. The images obtained by two photon microscopy were further compared to the images acquired by an optical microscope after the conventional histopathological examination on one part of the respective sample. Our suggested method may represent a new diagnostic tool that improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination alone, enabling the accurate discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from normal tissue.

  17. Intraventricular metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sava, I; Sava, Anca; Şapte, Elena; Mihailov, Claudia; Dumitrescu, Gabriela; Poeată, I; Sava, Florina; Haba, Danisia

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular tumors represent a diagnostic problem, due to a wide range of differential diagnosis, with an important variability of tumoral histological types in adult and pediatric population. Patient, Our case is represented by a patient, aged 48 years, without any history of significant personal pathology, accusing nausea, vomiting, and intensive headache. In the morning, he became confused, having hallucinations for a short period of time, and has accused drowsiness for several weeks. Imaging (CT and MRI) shows a neoformation in the third ventricle, accompanied by bilateral lateral ventricles dilatation, with predominantly annular enhancement. During surgery, through the middle third transcallosal interhemispheric approach, it was revealed a reddish, well-demarcated intraventricular mass, well vascularized and with a firm consistency. Final pathologic diagnosis was metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Initial postoperative evolution was good, and then neurological and respiratory condition worsened as a bronchopneumonia lead to patient's death in 12 days after surgery. Clear cell carcinoma metastasis located in the third ventricle should be taken into consideration for patients presenting a single intraventricular lesion even they have no documented primary malignancy.

  18. [Squamous cell carcinoma in localized scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Durčanská, V; Jedličková, H; Sláma, O; Velecký, L; Březinová, E; Vašků, V

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a young 26-year-old woman, who has been suffering from localised scleroderma (morphea) for 15 years. Recently, a lesion on the dorsum of her right foot ulcerated. Based on a CT scan and X-ray a diagnosis of ulcerative osteomyellitis was established. The patient was treated with a combination of antibiotics. Subsequent histological examinations showed granulomatous tissue and chronic inflammatory changes on top of pseudoepiteliomatous hyperplasia. The patients status was deteriorating, which resulted in a limb amputation under the knee. Three months later, there was a metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma found in the patients inguinal lymph node. In spite of combined therapy (surgery, radioterapy and systemic chemotherapy), new metastases occurred and the patient succumbed to the disease several months afterwards. The case was concluded as a squamous cell carcinoma camouflaged by osteomyelitis. Malignant turn of localised sclerodema is very rare. It usually occurs on the lower extremities of patients with a long course of the disease and is associated with pansclerotic or generalised variants of morphea.

  19. A Case of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehrtens, Sarah; Veitch, David; Kulakov, Elizabeth; Perrett, Conal M.

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old lady presented with multiple recurring painful lesions over her thighs, arms, and back. Past medical history included a left sided nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma and a hysterectomy for multiple uterine fibroids (leiomyomas). Histopathological examination revealed changes consistent with pilar leiomyomas. Gene mutation analysis confirmed a diagnosis of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon autosomal dominant condition characterised by the concurrent presentation of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas. Renal cell carcinoma associated with this condition is more aggressive and a significant cause of mortality. Due to this association with potentially fatal renal cell carcinoma we felt that it was important to highlight this case with an update on pathophysiology and management. PMID:27144040

  20. Advances in the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Sonal A.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common non-melanoma skin cancers worldwide. While most cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are easily managed, there is a high-risk subset of tumors that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Tumor characteristics as well as patient characteristics contribute to the classification of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas as low-risk vs. high-risk. Advances in the treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas largely relate to the management of this high-risk subset. Surgical and non-surgical management options, including newer targeted molecular therapies, will be discussed here. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to determine the exact significance of individual risk factors with respect to aggressive clinical behavior and the risks of metastasis and death, as well as the role of surgical and adjuvant therapies in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:25165569

  1. Pembrolizumab Combined With Cetuximab for Treatment of Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    HNSCC; Lip SCC; Oral Cavity Cancer; Oropharynx Cancer; Larynx Cancer; Hypopharynx Cancer; Nasopharynx Cancer; Sinonasal Carcinoma; Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Head and Neck Cancer; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: unusual subtype of prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Komura, Kazumasa; Inamoto, Teruo; Tsuji, Motomu; Ibuki, Naokazu; Koyama, Kohei; Ubai, Takanobu; Azuma, Haruhito; Katsuoka, Yoji

    2010-12-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate, which has been generally considered to be indolent, is an unusual histological type of prostatic carcinoma and is extremely rare. This tumor has been classified according to the prevalent pattern of growth as adenoid cystic carcinoma or basaloid cell carcinoma (BCC), with the former growth pattern being considered to be the main feature of this entity. A 67-year-old Japanese man was admitted to a general hospital with obstructive urinary symptoms. His prostate was slightly enlarged, stony hard, and with a rough surface on digital rectal examination, while serum prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations were within the normal ranges (0.007 and 0.9 ng/mL, respectively). 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) exhibited multiple accumulations suspicious for cancer metastases. Specimens obtained by prostatic needle biopsy showed immunohistochemical reactivity for cytokeratin 34βE12 and P63, findings that were identical to those seen in basal cell carcinoma. Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare tumor, reported in 56 cases so far, and among all these, the pure form of BCC is extremely rare. Immunohistochemistry is indispensable to distinguish this neoplasm from other unusual histological types of prostatic carcinomas. Our findings reveal that tumors with a basaloid cell-predominant pattern have significant potential for a poor prognosis, in contrast with the conventional understanding regarding this neoplasm.

  3. Targeting HIF2 in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyejin; Kaelin, William G

    2016-12-08

    Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor protein (pVHL) is the signature "truncal" event in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of kidney cancer. pVHL is part of a ubiquitin ligase the targets the α subunit of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor for destruction when oxygen is available. Preclinical studies strongly suggest that deregulation of HIF, and particularly HIF2, drives pVHL-defective renal carcinogenesis. Although HIF2α was classically considered undruggable, structural and chemical work by Rick Bruick and Kevin Gardner at University of Texas Southwestern laid the foundation for the development of small molecule direct HIF2α antagonists (PT2385 and the related tool compound PT2399) by Peloton Therapeutics that block the dimerization of HIF2α with its partner protein ARNT1. These compounds inhibit clear cell renal cell carcinoma growth in preclinical models, and PT2385 has now entered the clinic. Nonetheless, the availability of such compounds, together with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-based gene editing approaches, has revealed a previously unappreciated heterogeneity among clear cell renal carcinomas and patient-derived xenografts with respect to HIF2 dependence, suggesting that predictive biomarkers will be needed to optimize the use of such agents in the clinic.

  4. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  5. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  6. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  7. Basal cell carcinoma: clinical and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Di Stefani, A; Chimenti, S

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a slow-growing, locally invasive malignant epidermal skin neoplasm that represents the most common malignancy in Caucasians. The clinical presentation of BCC can be extremely variable: nodular, ulcerative, superficial, morpheiform, pigmented, and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus are the main clinical variants described. Clinical factors influencing negatively prognosis of BCC are: anatomic location, recurrence and/or persistance at site after treatment, and tumor size. A precise correlations between clinical and histopathological variants is not always possible, especially in biopsy samples. From a histopathological point of view various subtypes has been described: nodular, superficial, infiltrating, morpheiform, micronodular, fibroepithelial BCC and basosquamous carcinoma. A classification system based by growth pattern allows the identification of high-risk subtypes with potential tumor recurrence and aggressive biologic behavior such as infiltrating, morpheiform, micronodular and basosquamous subtypes. Further histopathological aspects determining high risk clinical morbidity are the level of invasion, perineural and lymphovascular invasion, involved surgical margins. The awareness of these clinicopathological features is helpful to better select the appropriate treatment management.

  8. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast with transformation from adenosquamous carcinoma to osteosarcomatoid and spindle cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Chuthapisith, Suebwong; Warnnissorn, Malee; Amornpinyokiat, Nattawut; Pradniwat, Kanapon; Angsusinha, Tamnit

    2013-09-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast refers to a heterogenous group of mammary carcinomas that contain a mixture of various cell types, including squamous cells, spindle cells and/or a mesenchymal component, such as bone or cartilage. To the best of our knowledge, the clinical course of a tumour that has undergone a transformation from one type of metaplastic carcinoma to another subtype has not previously been reported. The present study reports the five-year clinical and pathological course of a metaplastic breast carcinoma in a 55-year-old female, who was diagnosed with a sclerosing fibroadenomatous nodule with osseous metaplasia and focal atypia. A recurrent tumour was documented four years later, showing a predominant component of osteosarcoma with adenosquamous carcinoma. Upon pathological review of the initial mass, the diagnosis was changed to low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma. The patient was treated with breast conserving therapy. However, one year later, a recurrent metaplastic carcinoma with spindle cell morphology was documented and surgically removed by mastectomy. Subsequently, pulmonary invasion of the chest wall occurred and the patient eventually succumbed due to the invasive nature of the disease.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara.

  10. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  11. Snail heterogeneity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zaldumbide, Laura; Erramuzpe, Asier; Guarch, Rosa; Pulido, Rafael; Cortés, Jesús M; López, José I

    2016-03-08

    Intratumor heterogeneity may be responsible of the unpredictable aggressive clinical behavior that some clear cell renal cell carcinomas display. This clinical uncertainty may be caused by insufficient sampling, leaving out of histological analysis foci of high grade tumor areas. Although molecular approaches are providing important information on renal intratumor heterogeneity, a focus on this topic from the practicing pathologist' perspective is still pending. Four distant tumor areas of 40 organ-confined clear cell renal cell carcinomas were selected for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Tumor size, cell type (clear/granular), Fuhrman's grade, Staging, as well as immunostaining with Snail, ZEB1, Twist, Vimentin, E-cadherin, β-catenin, PTEN, p-Akt, p110α, and SETD2, were analyzed for intratumor heterogeneity using a classification and regression tree algorithm. Cell type and Fuhrman's grade were heterogeneous in 12.5 and 60 % of the tumors, respectively. If cell type was homogeneous (clear cell) then the tumors were low-grade in 88.57 % of cases. Immunostaining heterogeneity was significant in the series and oscillated between 15 % for p110α and 80 % for Snail. When Snail immunostaining was homogeneous the tumor was histologically homogeneous in 100 % of cases. If Snail was heterogeneous, the tumor was heterogeneous in 75 % of the cases. Average tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. Tumors larger than 3.7 cm were heterogeneous for Vimentin immunostaining in 72.5 % of cases. Tumors displaying negative immunostaining for both ZEB1 and Twist were low grade in 100 % of the cases. Intratumor heterogeneity is a common event in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which can be monitored by immunohistochemistry in routine practice. Snail seems to be particularly useful in the identification of intratumor heterogeneity. The suitability of current sampling protocols in renal cancer is discussed.

  12. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma: A novel clinicopathologic entity possibly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Akira; Kihara, Minoru; Kudo, Takumi; Hashimoto, Yuko; Suzuki, Shinichi; Daa, Tsutomu; Vuong, Huy Gia; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2017-07-06

    We report three cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-like thyroid carcinoma as a novel clinicopathologic entity possibly associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. A 15-year-old female, a 19-year-old male, and a 21-year-old male presented with primary thyroid carcinoma. Two of the patients had associated tuberous sclerosis complex. Macroscopically, the carcinomas showed invasive growth. Histologically, the carcinoma cells showed a trabecular pattern with thin vascular stroma, and were characterized by abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with perinuclear clearing, a prominent cell border, a wrinkled nuclear membrane, and binucleation, which are all features of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the carcinoma cells were positive for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and PAX8, and negative for CD10, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Vascular invasion was visible in all cases, but distant metastasis was not detected during follow-up. The original pathological diagnoses of the three cases were widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and oxyphilic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thus, the cases were similar to chromophobe renal cell carcinoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex as they were characterized by histologic findings consistent with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, occurrence in an adolescent or young adult, and favorable prognosis regardless of the presence of vascular invasion and an infiltrating growth pattern resembling poorly differentiated carcinoma. The etiopathogenesis also seemed to suggest the presence of the tuberous sclerosis complex genetic abnormality.

  13. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-07

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. [Current recommendations in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin].

    PubMed

    Kunte, C; Konz, B

    2007-05-01

    The incidence of the most common tumors of the skin, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, has risen rapidly in recent years. Dermatologists see in their daily practice many different clinical and histological variants of these tumors. They must be able to develop therapeutic strategies adapted to the tumor and the patient. Surgical excision remains the standard treatment. Micrographic histological evaluation should be employed in difficult locations, for large tumors and when there is increased risk of recurrence or metastasis. For initial or superficial lesions, other approaches such as radiation therapy, as well as curettage, cryosurgery, laser therapy and photodynamic therapy can be employed. An additional option is topical treatment with imiquimod or 5-flourouracil.

  15. Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-14

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

  16. Renal cell carcinoma in kidney allografts: histologic types, including biphasic papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Megan L; Higgins, John P

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk for malignancy, with about 5% incidence of cancer in native end-stage kidneys. Carcinoma in the renal allograft is far less common. Prior studies have demonstrated a propensity for renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) of papillary subtypes in end-stage kidneys, and perhaps in allograft kidneys, but most allograft studies lack detailed pathologic review and predate the current classification system. We reviewed our experience with renal carcinoma in kidney allografts at 2 academic centers applying the International Society of Urological Pathology classification, informed by immunohistochemistry. The incidence of renal allograft carcinoma was about 0.26% in our population. Of 12 allograft carcinomas, 6 were papillary (50%), 4 were clear cell (33%), 1 was clear cell (tubulo)papillary, and 1 chromophobe. Two of the papillary carcinomas had distinctive biphasic glomeruloid architecture matching the newly named "biphasic squamoid alveolar" pattern and were difficult to classify on core biopsies. The 2 cell types had different immunophenotypes in our hands (eosinophilic cells: RCC-/CK34betaE12+ weight keratin +/cyclin D1+; clear cells: RCC+/cytokeratin high molecular weight negative to weak/cyclin D1-). None of the patients experienced cancer recurrences or metastasis. Our study confirms the predilection for papillary RCCs in kidney allografts and highlights the occurrence of rare morphologic variants. Larger studies are needed with careful pathologic review, which has been lacking in the literature.

  17. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, Rachel; Roberts, Claudia; Waterboer, Tim; Steele, Jane; Marsden, Jerry; Steven, Neil M.; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus. PMID:24961933

  18. Downregulated Chibby in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with increased expression in laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jue; Ren, Gang; Zhao, De-An; Li, Bo-An; Cai, Cheng-Fu; Zhou, Yi; Luo, Xian-Yang

    2014-11-01

    Chibby (Cby) inhibits Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation by competing with Lef-1 (the transcription factor and target of β-catenin) to bind to β-catenin. This suggests that Cby could be a tumor suppressor protein. In the present study, we examined Cby expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its function and mechanism in laryngeal carcinoma cell lines. Cby expression levels were investigated by immunohistochemistry in a panel of 36 LSCC patient cases. The expression of β-catenin, c-myc and cyclin D1 in Hep-2 were determined through RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after overexpression of Cby was measured by TCF/LEF luciferase reporter gene assay. Proliferation, clone forming ability, cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis of Hep-2 cells were detected by MTT assay, plate colony forming assay, flow cytometry and TUNEL assay, respectively. This study showed that expression of Cby protein was strongly downregulated in LSCC tumor tissues in comparison to normal laryngeal mucosa samples. No significant correlation was found between the expression of Cby in tumor tissue and gender, age, clinical stage and tumor differentiation of laryngeal cancer patients. When Cby was overexpressed in Hep-2 cells, the expression of cyclin D1 was reduced and β-catenin activity was inhibited. Proliferation and plate colony forming assays revealed a significant inhibitory effect of Cby on growth and colony formation ability of Hep-2 cells after Cby overexpression in comparison to control and mock-infected cells. In addition, we also found that upregulated expression of Cby resulted in accumulation of numbers of cells in G0/G1 phase with concomitant decrease in S phase by cell cycle assay. TUNEL staining demonstrated that, compared with the control group, the rate of apoptosis in the plv-cs2.0-Cby group was significantly increased. Taken together, downregulation of Cby was observed in LSCC, but with no

  19. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Charles; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Poulsen, Michael; Martin, Jarad; Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  20. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-07-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC.

  1. Hürthle cell carcinoma: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Sara; Stang, Michael; Jiang, Xiaoyin “Sara”; Sosa, Julie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI). HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases. Patients with localized iodine-resistant disease who are not candidates for a wait-and-watch approach can be treated with localized therapies. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients with progressive, widely metastatic HCC. PMID:27853381

  2. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  3. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

  4. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John M.; Agrawal, Manish; Hauke, Ralph J.; Hutson, Thomas E.; Doshi, Gury; Fleming, Mark T.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network’s Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future. PMID:28326277

  5. CMV chemotherapy for advanced transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, G. M.; Mead, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Between May 1986 and September 1990 a total of 43 patients with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary tract have been treated at our institution with combination chemotherapy (CMV) consisting of cisplatin 100 mg m-2 i.v. day 2; methotrexate 30 mg m-2 i.v. days 1.8; and vinblastine 4 mg m-2 i.v. days 1.8. Chemotherapy was recycled on day 22 and continued for a maximum of six cycles in responding patients. Of 33 patients with measurable disease 8 (24%) achieved a complete remission (CR). The median survival for patients achieving a CR was 13 months (range 5-29+) whilst the median survival for all 43 patients was 7 months (range 1-29+). Only three patients are still alive--two are disease free. More effective and/or less toxic chemotherapy regimens are needed for the treatment of patients with metastatic TCC. PMID:1520591

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from neglected meningocele

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar A.; Raswan, Uday K.; Malik, Nayil K.; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Lone, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Background: A neural tube defect (NTD) is a common congenital anomaly with an incidence of 6.57–8.21 per 1000 live births. Patients usually present early because of obvious swelling or due to neurological deficit. However, neglecting the obvious cystic swelling on the back till its transformation into malignant tumor is rare. Case Description: We describe a case of malignant transformation of meningocele in a 60-year-old man. Magnetic resonance imaging showed sacral meningocele. Neurological examination revealed intact motor and sensory examination with normal bladder and bowel function. There were no signs of meningitis and hydrocephalus. Excision was done and biopsy revealed it as squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Meningocele should be treated early and possibility of malignant change should be kept in mind in neglected cases presenting in adulthood. PMID:28194302

  7. Sunitinib resistance in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Of the many targeted therapies introduced since 2006, sunitinib has carved its way to become the most commonly used first-line therapy for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Despite significant improvements in progression-free survival, 30% of the patients are intrinsically resistant to sunitinib and the remaining 70% who respond initially will eventually become resistant in 6–15 months. While the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance to sunitinib have been unravelling at a rapid rate, the mechanisms of intrinsic resistance remain elusive. Combination therapy, sunitinib rechallenge and sequential therapy have been investigated as means to overcome resistance to sunitinib. Of these, sequential therapy appears to be the most promising strategy. This mini review summarises our emerging understanding of the molecular mechanisms, and the strategies employed to overcome sunitinib resistance.

  8. Computed tomography in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Nyree; Grant, Lee Alexander; Bharwani, Nishat; Sohaib, S Aslam

    2009-08-01

    Recent developments in chemotherapy have resulted in several new drug treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These therapies have shown improved progression-free survival and are applicable to many more patients than the conventional cytokine-based treatments for metastatic RCC. Consequently imaging is playing a greater part in the management of such patients. Computed tomography (CT) remains the primary imaging modality with other imaging modalities playing a supplementary role. CT is used in the diagnosis and staging of metastatic RCC. It is used in the follow-up of patients after nephrectomy, in assessing the extent of metastatic disease, and in evaluating response to treatment. This review looks at the role of CT in patients with metastatic RCC and describes the appearances of metastatic RCC before and following systemic therapy.

  9. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  10. Topical tretinoin treatment in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brenner, S; Wolf, R; Dascalu, D I

    1993-03-01

    The efficiency of topical tretinoin was examined in a patient with basal cell carcinomas (BCC) for which conventional means of removal was inappropriate. Topical tretinoin was used to treat multiple arsenic-induced superficial BCCs in a 64-year-old woman. Topical tretinoin (0.05% twice daily) was administered to four lesions for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week interruption. After three cycles of treatment clinical healing of all the lesions was observed. Histopathological examination of the lesional biopsies showed no evidence of a tumor. However, 9 months later all four lesions relapsed and surgical excision disclosed BCC. The data indicate that topical tretinoin treatment of multiple superficial BCCs induces clinical and pathological regression of the lesions with a high rate of relapse. This report suggests that topical tretinoin is not an effective therapy for the cure of arsenic-induced superficial BCCs.

  11. Unilateral Blepharoptosis from Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Lorenzo; Sabatino, Francesco; Casale, Manuele; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2016-01-01

    Blepharoptosis is the drooping or inferior displacement of the upper eyelid. Blepharoptosis can be either congenital or acquired. Tumour metastasis is one of the acquired causes of blepharoptosis. The lungs, locoregional lymph nodes, bone and liver are the usual sites of metastases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, unusual locations of RCC have also been reported. Herein, we describe a case of a 47-year-old man with unilateral ptosis and blurred vision due to metastatic RCC. We describe the different causes of blepharopstosis, the path that led to the diagnosis, and how RCC can metastasize to unusual anatomical regions such as the orbit. Symptoms such as exophthalmos, lid edema, diplopia, ptosis, cranial nerve paralysis or blurred vision may mime a benign disease; however, they could also be the symptoms of a systemic malignancy. PMID:28326282

  12. Burden of basal cell carcinoma in USA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyuan; Elkin, Elena E; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy diagnosed in the USA and its incidence continues to increase. While BCC is still most prevalent in the older segments of the population, it is becoming ever more frequent in younger individuals. The costs of treatment and morbidity associated with BCCs place a heavy public health and economic burden on patients, their families and the American healthcare system and underscore the importance of efficient management and prevention efforts directed toward this malignancy. In this article, we address economic aspects of BCC using evidence from large-scale epidemiological studies. This information may help clinicians in developing better and more cost-effective methods for dealing with the most common cancer in America and in the world.

  13. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Errami, Mounir; Margulis, Vitali; Huerta, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Because of the asymptomatic natural history of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), by the time a diagnosis is made, metastatic disease is present in about one third of the cases. Thus, the overall survival of patients with RCC remains poor. Ultimately up to 50% of patients with RCC will develop metastases. Metastatic lesions from RCC are usually observed in the lungs, liver or bone. Metastases to the brain or the skin from RCC are rare. Here we present a patient diagnosed with RCC, found to have no evidence of metastases at the time of nephrectomy, who presented two years later with metastases to the scalp. We review the literature of patients with this rare site of metastasis and outline the overall prognosis of this lesion compared to other site of metastases from RCC. PMID:28191289

  14. Oral Carcinoma Cuniculatum: A New Entity in the Clinicopathological Spectrum of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Alka; Mane, Deepa

    2017-01-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is principally recognized as a variant of carcinoma involving foot. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes Oral Carcinoma Cuniculatum (OCC) as a distinct and rare clinicopathological variant of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). OCC is confused clinically and histologically with Verrucous Carcinoma (VC) and is often misdiagnosed as either VC or OSCC. To best of our knowledge, till date, only 50 cases of this tumour have been reported in oral cavity (including the present case) and only limited number of cases have been reported from Indian subcontinent. Pathognomonic feature of OCC is proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium and its infiltration into underlying stroma forming a complex pattern of keratin cores and keratin filled crypts. These complex crypts give it a likeness of rabbit burrow hence, the name cuniculatum (cuniculatus=‘rabbit warren’). The report aims to present a case of OCC of mandibular gingiva, discuss its diagnostic features and highlight its differences from VC and OSCC. PMID:28274074

  15. Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Algaba, Ferran; Ayala, Gustavo; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2010-08-01

    Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the epithelium covering glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin. Several histologic subtypes have been described, each with distinctive clinicopathologic and outcome features. The most common subtype is the usual SCC, representing one half to two thirds of penile carcinomas. Penile verruciform tumors encompass verrucous, warty (condylomatous), and papillary, not otherwise specified, carcinomas. As a group, verruciform tumors are low grade, with low metastatic and mortality rates. In contrast, basaloid and sarcomatoid carcinomas are among the most aggressive penile tumors. Other SCC variants, such as carcinoma cuniculatum and pseudohyperplastic, adenosquamous and acantholytic carcinomas, are rare. The most relevant clinicopathologic and outcome features are outlined for each of these SCC subtypes, and an algorithm that might aid the pathologist in the histologic classification is presented. In addition, recommendations for handling penile cancer specimens, frozen section specimens, and pathology reports are provided.

  16. [Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Thuret, R; Maurin, C; Sun, M; Perrotte, P; Karakiewicz, P I

    2011-04-01

    The median survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) increased from 10 to more than 40 months since the advent of targeted therapy. The transformation of mRCC from an initially lethal disease to a more favorable entity, albeit incurable, occurred with the transition from best supportive care, to cytokines, to finally sequential targeted therapies. Sunitinib and bevacizumab (level 1b) represent the first-line standard of care for patients with clear-cell mRCC vs temsirolimus (level 2) for those with high-risk features. Additionally, exploratory analyses of the temsirolimus data indicate important benefits for those with nonclear-cell mRCC histological subtypes. In second-line, everolimus proved its efficacy (level 1b). Nonetheless, sunitinib and sorafenib are also effective for nonclear-cell histological subtypes and after failure of other first-line treatment. The PFS benefits of first- and subsequent treatment-lines were confirmed in virtually all subgroup analyses. Potential survival benefits can be derived from cytoreductive nephrectomy (CNT), as was shown for cytokines in the general population, in sunitinib and bevacizumab-exposed patients. Phase III studies are ongoing to address the importance of CNT. This information is crucial to ensure timely delivery of a combination of medical and surgical therapies in this patient population.

  17. Neuroendocrine differentiation in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Houcine, Yoldez; Chelly, Ines; Zehani, Alia; Belhaj Kacem, Linda; Azzouz, Haifa; Rekik, Wafa; C, Hend; Haouet, Slim; Kchir, Nidhameddine

    2017-05-26

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the prototypical basaloid tumor of the skin. It may show various patterns simulating other cutaneous tumors due to its pleomorphism. It may have an unusal pattern of differentiation such as squamous, sebaceous, apocrine, eccrine, pilar, and endocrine differentiation. In order to establish the relative frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in BCC, we performed a retrospective study of 33 consecutive BCCs using conventional immunohistochemistry with two neuroendocrine antibodies: Chromogranine A and synaptophysine. The age of the patients ranged from 17-83 years with mean of 65 years. The male to female ratio was 16:17. In immunohistochimestry, Chromogranine A was seen in 72.2% (24/33) while Synaptophysine was positive in 9.09% (3/33). Their expression was cytoplasmic and membranous and was seen in the periphery of these tumors in the overlying cells. Positive staining of chromogranine A was high (75-100% of tumors cells) in 9%, intermediate (25-75% of tumors cells) in 33% of cases and relatively low (<25%) in 30.3% of cases.

  18. Is cutaneous leishmaniasis a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Chisti, M; Almasri, R; Hamadah, I

    2016-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common epithelial neoplasm of skin. Risk factors for the development of BCC include intermittent intense sun exposure, radiation therapy, family history of BCC, immune suppression and fair complexion, especially red hair. It can originate in scars like small pox, vaccination, chicken pox or surgical scars. We present a case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a leishmania scar on the nose, sixty years after the primary lesion. Although rare, BCC's have arisen in leishmania scars. Thus the possibility of basal cell carcinoma should be considered while dealing with such patients. Even though a causal relationship, if any, cannot be ascertained at present.

  19. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat.

  20. A patient with Multiple myeloma and Renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Farhad; Ghalamkari, Marziye; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Khatuni, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of two malignancies is rarely seen. A little association between hematologic malignancies especially multiple myeloma and renal cell carcinoma has been reported in the recent past. Several case series revealed a bidirectional association between these two malignancies which may be due to the common risk factors, similar cytokine growth requirements and clinical presentation. Here, we aim to describe a patient who had multiple myeloma and in his work up renal cell carcinoma was found out incidentally. We would like to create awareness among clinicians for the coincidence of Renal cell carcinoma and Multiple myeloma.

  1. A patient with Multiple myeloma and Renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Farhad; Ghalamkari, Marziye; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Khatuni, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of two malignancies is rarely seen. A little association between hematologic malignancies especially multiple myeloma and renal cell carcinoma has been reported in the recent past. Several case series revealed a bidirectional association between these two malignancies which may be due to the common risk factors, similar cytokine growth requirements and clinical presentation. Here, we aim to describe a patient who had multiple myeloma and in his work up renal cell carcinoma was found out incidentally. We would like to create awareness among clinicians for the coincidence of Renal cell carcinoma and Multiple myeloma. PMID:27047652

  2. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Ohe, Chisato; Kawakami, Fumi; Mikami, Shuji; Furuya, Mitsuko; Matsuura, Keiko; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Nagashima, Yoji; Zhou, Ming; Petersson, Fredrik; López, José I; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Amin, Mahul B

    2014-01-01

    The disease concept of clear cell (tubulo) papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) as a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma has been recently established. First described in the setting of end stage renal disease, this tumor type is more frequently recognized and encountered in a sporadic setting. In this article, we provide an overview of the recent understanding of this tumor. Macroscopically, tumors are well circumscribed with well-developed tumor capsule. Histologically, the tumor cells are cuboidal to low columnar cell with clear cytoplasm and papillary and tubulo-papillary configuration. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells generally show diffuse expression for cytokeratin 7, CA9 (cup-shaped pattern), HIF-1, GLUT-1 and high molecular weight cytokeratin, but negative for AMACR, RCC Ma and TFE3. CD10 is negative or focally positive in most tumors. Genetically, this tumor has no characteristics of clear cell RCC or papillary RCC. Prognostically, patients with CCP-RCC behave in an indolent fashion in all previously reported cases. In conclusion, although this tumor has been integrated into recent International Society of Urologic Pathology Classification of renal neoplasia, both aspects of disease concept and clinical behavior are yet to be fully elucidated. Further publications of large cohorts of patients will truly help understand the biologic potential and the molecular underpinnings of this tumor type.

  3. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  4. Telomere length and risk of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Sondak, Vernon K; Messina, Jane L; Fenske, Neil A.; Zager, Jonathan S.; Cherpelis, Basil S.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William J.; Burnette, Pearlie K.; Park, Jong Y.; Rollison, Dana E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Telomeres help maintain chromosomal structure and may influence tumorigenesis. We examined the association between telomere length and skin cancer in a clinic-based case-control study of 198 melanoma cases, 136 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 185 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 372 healthy controls. Methods Cases were histologically-confirmed patients treated at the Moffitt Cancer Center and University of South Florida Dermatology Clinic in Tampa, FL. Controls self-reported no history of cancer and underwent a skin cancer screening exam at study enrollment to rule out the presence of skin cancer. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure telomere length in peripheral blood samples. Results Melanoma patients had longer telomeres than controls (odds ratio (OR) = 3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.02 – 6.94 for highest versus lowest tertile) (p trend = <0.0001). In contrast, longer telomere length was significantly inversely associated with SCC (OR = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00 - 0.05 for highest versus lowest tertile) (p for trend = <0.0001) and BCC (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.19 for highest versus lowest tertile) (p for trend = <0.0001). Conclusion Telomere length may be involved in the development of skin cancer, although the effect on cancer risk differs for melanoma and non-melanoma carcinomas. Our findings suggest that long telomere length is positively associated with melanoma while inversely associated with SCC and BCC. PMID:23523330

  5. Telomere length and risk of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Anic, Gabriella M; Sondak, Vernon K; Messina, Jane L; Fenske, Neil A; Zager, Jonathan S; Cherpelis, Basil S; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William J; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Park, Jong Y; Rollison, Dana E

    2013-08-01

    Telomeres help maintain chromosomal structure and may influence tumorigenesis. We examined the association between telomere length and skin cancer in a clinic-based case-control study of 198 melanoma cases, 136 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 185 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 372 healthy controls. Cases were histologically confirmed patients treated at the Moffitt Cancer Center and University of South Florida Dermatology Clinic in Tampa, FL. Controls self-reported no history of cancer and underwent a skin cancer screening exam at study enrollment to rule out the presence of skin cancer. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure telomere length in peripheral blood samples. Melanoma patients had longer telomeres than controls (odds ratio (OR)=3.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.02-6.94 for highest versus lowest tertile) (P for trend=<0.0001). In contrast, longer telomere length was significantly inversely associated with SCC (OR=0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.05 for highest versus lowest tertile) (P for trend=<0.0001) and BCC (OR=0.10; 95% CI: 0.06-0.19 for highest versus lowest tertile) (P for trend=<0.0001). Telomere length may be involved in the development of skin cancer, although the effect on cancer risk differs for melanoma and non-melanoma carcinomas. Our findings suggest that long telomere length is positively associated with melanoma while inversely associated with SCC and BCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Immune Atlas of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, Stéphane; Levine, Jacob Harrison; Zanotelli, Vito Riccardo Tomaso; Silina, Karina; Schulz, Daniel; Bacac, Marina; Ries, Carola Hermine; Ailles, Laurie; Jewett, Michael Alexander Spencer; Moch, Holger; van den Broek, Maries; Beisel, Christian; Stadler, Michael Beda; Gedye, Craig; Reis, Bernhard; Pe'er, Dana; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2017-05-04

    Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment modulate cancer progression and are attractive therapeutic targets. Macrophages and T cells are key components of the microenvironment, yet their phenotypes and relationships in this ecosystem and to clinical outcomes are ill defined. We used mass cytometry with extensive antibody panels to perform in-depth immune profiling of samples from 73 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients and five healthy controls. In 3.5 million measured cells, we identified 17 tumor-associated macrophage phenotypes, 22 T cell phenotypes, and a distinct immune composition correlated with progression-free survival, thereby presenting an in-depth human atlas of the immune tumor microenvironment in this disease. This study revealed potential biomarkers and targets for immunotherapy development and validated tools that can be used for immune profiling of other tumor types. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diabetes and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Samy L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Luna, Maria; Werner, Sherry A

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: There is evidence that the incidence of solid tumors is markedly increased in patients with diabetes mellitus. In the current study, we investigate the association between diabetes and renal cancer. Patients and Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis of 473 patients who underwent nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was performed. Diabetic RCC patients were screened for age, gender, ethnicity, HgA1C, glucose levels and renal function. Results: Of the 473 cases with RCC, we identified 120 patients (25.4%) with a history of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes in RCC patients was higher in female than male subjects and in Hispanic compared to White and Other ethnic backgrounds. At diagnosis, the majority of diabetic RCC patients were 50-59 years of age. In diabetic RCC cases, clear cell type histology (92.0%), nuclear grade 2 (56.1%) and tumor size range from 1-5 cm (65.7%) were the most common in each category. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that diabetic RCC patients have a predominance of localized, small clear cell RCC. In addition, females with a history of RCC have a higher frequency of diabetes compared to males. This is the first report of clinical and histopathological features of RCC associated with diabetes. PMID:22232697

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma. Part 1: Basal Cell Carcinoma Has Come of Age.

    PubMed

    Deng, Min; Marsch, Amanda F; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Almost 2 centuries after its recognition, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common cancer worldwide, with a 30% overall lifetime risk in the United States and an incidence that continues to increase annually. The increasing incidence of BCC is multifactorial and likely correlates to multiple risk factors, including exposure to both ionizing and UV radiation. Despite its relatively indolent growth, what was once referred to as a rodent ulcer or basal cell epithelioma is now identified as a full-fledged malignancy. The authors describe the societal burden of this disease and characterize its malignant potential, emphasizing associated clinical and histopathologic prognostic features.

  9. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  10. Biphasic components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinomas are molecularly similar to each other, but distinct from, non-sarcomatoid renal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Kanishka; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Wani, Khalida; Patel, Lalit R; Voicu, Horatiu; Torres-Garcia, Wandaliz; Verhaak, Roel G W; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2015-10-01

    Sarcomatoid transformation, wherein an epithelioid carcinomatous tumour component coexists with a sarcomatoid histology, is a predictor of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Our understanding of sarcomatoid change has been hindered by the lack of molecular examination. Thus, we sought to characterize molecularly the biphasic epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma and compare them to non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We examined the transcriptome of the epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of advanced stage sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=43) and non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) from independent discovery and validation cohorts using the cDNA microarray and RNA-seq platforms. We analyzed DNA copy number profiles, generated using SNP arrays, from patients with sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=10) and advanced non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=155). The epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma had similar gene expression and DNA copy number signatures that were, however, distinct from those of high-grade, high-stage non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Prognostic clear cell renal cell carcinoma gene expression profiles were shared by the biphasic components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma and the sarcomatoid component showed a partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signature. Our genome-scale microarray-based transcript data were validated in an independent set of sarcomatoid and non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinomas using RNA-seq. Sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma is molecularly distinct from non-sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma, with its genetic programming largely shared by its biphasic morphological components. These data explain why a low percentage of sarcomatoid histology augurs a poor prognosis; suggest the

  11. Biphasic components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinomas are molecularly similar to each other, but distinct from, non‐sarcomatoid renal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Kanishka; Yoo, Suk‐Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Wani, Khalida; Patel, Lalit R.; Voicu, Horatiu; Torres‐Garcia, Wandaliz; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A.; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sarcomatoid transformation, wherein an epithelioid carcinomatous tumour component coexists with a sarcomatoid histology, is a predictor of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Our understanding of sarcomatoid change has been hindered by the lack of molecular examination. Thus, we sought to characterize molecularly the biphasic epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma and compare them to non‐sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We examined the transcriptome of the epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of advanced stage sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=43) and non‐sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) from independent discovery and validation cohorts using the cDNA microarray and RNA‐seq platforms. We analyzed DNA copy number profiles, generated using SNP arrays, from patients with sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=10) and advanced non‐sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=155). The epithelioid and sarcomatoid components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma had similar gene expression and DNA copy number signatures that were, however, distinct from those of high‐grade, high‐stage non‐sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Prognostic clear cell renal cell carcinoma gene expression profiles were shared by the biphasic components of sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma and the sarcomatoid component showed a partial epithelial‐to‐mesenchymal transition signature. Our genome‐scale microarray‐based transcript data were validated in an independent set of sarcomatoid and non‐sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinomas using RNA‐seq. Sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma is molecularly distinct from non‐sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma, with its genetic programming largely shared by its biphasic morphological components. These data explain why a low percentage of sarcomatoid histology

  12. [Cytology of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of lung: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    He, S R; Bai, Y P; Gong, H; Di, J; Chen, L; Dai, W D; Hu, S T; Liu, D G

    2016-04-08

    To evaluate the roles of cytomorphology and immunohistochemistry in distinguishing between basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSC) and small cell carcinoma (SCC) of lung. The direct smears and/or liquid-based cytology preparation (ThinPrep) of bronchial brushing/washing and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from 17 cases of biopsy-proven BSC of lung were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those from 17 cases of SCC. The cytomorphologic parameters analyzed included proportion of cohesive cell clusters, cell palisades/rosettes, adenoid cystic features, crushing artifact, nuclear maximum diameter, nuclear molding, scantiness of cytoplasm,"salt-and-pepper"nuclei, distinct nucleoli, spindly configuration, individual cell keratinization, necrosis, hyaline material, apoptosis and mitotic activity. Immunocytochemical/immunohistochemical study of 25 cases was performed. Ten FNA samples of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma were also analyzed for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 using amplification refractory mutation system. Most of the 17 BSC cases (15/17) showed a predominance of tightly cohesive tumor cell clusters. The proportion of isolated tumor cells was high in SCC (more than 60% in 14 cases). The nuclear maximum diameter of BSC was slightly larger than that of SCC (9 to 11 μm in BSC versus 7 to 9 μm in SCC)."Salt-in-pepper"nuclei, nuclear molding and crushing artifact were detected in all SCC cases (15/17, 17/17 and 14/17, respectively). These features were only occasionally found in BSC group. Nucleoli were present in BSC and rarely (2/17) in SCC. Only 9 of 17 BSC cases showed individual cell keratinization. The differences in the above-mentioned cytomorphologic features were statistically significance (P<0.05). The results of immunohistochemistry performed on the cell block sections and immunocytochemistry performed on the ThinPrep slides were identical to that performed on the corresponding biopsy specimens. The

  13. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: micro-RNA expression profiling and comparison with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Munari, Enrico; Marchionni, Luigi; Chitre, Apurva; Hayashi, Masamichi; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo; Gobbo, Stefano; Argani, Pedram; Allaf, Mohamad; Hoque, Mohammad O; Netto, George J

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) is a low-grade renal neoplasm with morphological characteristics mimicking both clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). However, despite some overlapping features, their morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular profiles are distinct. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression and are involved in various biological processes, including cancer development. To better understand the biology of this tumor, we aimed to analyze the miRNA expression profile of a set of CCPRCC using microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 cases diagnosed as CCPRCC were used in this study. Among the most differentially expressed miRNA in CCPRCC, we found miR-210, miR-122, miR-34a, miR-21, miR-34b*, and miR-489 to be up-regulated, whereas miR-4284, miR-1202, miR-135a, miR-1973, and miR-204 were down-regulated compared with normal renal parenchyma. To identify consensus of differentially regulated miRNA between CCPRCC, CCRCC, and PRCC, we additionally determined differential miRNA expression using 2 publically available microarray data sets from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE41282 and GSE3798). This comparison revealed that the miRNA expression profile of CCPRCC shows some overlapping characteristics between CCRCC and PRCC. Moreover, CCPRCC lacks dysregulation of important miRNAs typically associated with aggressive behavior. In summary, we describe the miRNA expression profile of a relatively infrequent type of renal cancer. Our results may help in understanding the molecular underpinning of this newly recognized entity.

  14. Increased Risk of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Vismodegib Therapy for Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Shalini V; Chang, Julia; Li, Shufeng; Henry, A Solomon; Wood, Douglas J; Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2016-05-01

    Smoothened inhibitors (SIs) are a new type of targeted therapy for advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and their long-term effects, such as increased risk of subsequent malignancy, are still being explored. To evaluate the risk of developing a non-BCC malignancy after SI exposure in patients with BCC. A case-control study at Stanford Medical Center, an academic hospital. Participants were higher-risk patients with BCC diagnosed from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2014. The dates of the analysis were January 1 to November 1, 2015. The exposed participants (cases) comprised patients who had confirmed prior vismodegib treatment, and the nonexposed participants (controls) comprised patients who had never received any SI. Because vismodegib was the first approved SI, only patients exposed to this SI were included. Hazard ratio for non-BCC malignancies after vismodegib exposure, adjusting for covariates. The study cohort comprised 180 participants. Their mean (SD) age at BCC diagnosis was 56 (16) years, and 68.9% (n = 124) were male. Fifty-five cases were compared with 125 controls, accounting for age, sex, prior radiation therapy or cisplatin treatment, Charlson Comorbidity Index, clinical follow-up time, immunosuppression, and basal cell nevus syndrome status. Patients exposed to vismodegib had a hazard ratio of 6.37 (95% CI, 3.39-11.96; P < .001), indicating increased risk of developing a non-BCC malignancy. Most non-BCC malignancies were cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, with a hazard ratio of 8.12 (95% CI, 3.89-16.97; P < .001), accounting for age and basal cell nevus syndrome status. There was no significant increase in other cancers. Increased risk for cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas after vismodegib therapy highlights the importance of continued skin surveillance after initiation of this therapy.

  15. Plasmablastic multiple myeloma following clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Somanath; Mokkappan, Sudhagar; Varghese, Renu G’ Boy; Veerappan, Ilangovan

    2014-01-01

    We aim to describe the clinicohaematological profile of an elderly male with plasmablastic multiple myeloma (MM) (IgG λ, International System Stage II) with an unfavourable outcome following chemotherapy. The serum interleukin-6 level was found to be markedly elevated (2464 pg/mL, reference; <50 pg/mL). Thirty-six months prior to MM diagnosis, he underwent left radical nephrectomy for a stage III (pT3N0M0) clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC, Fuhrman grade 2). The unique MM-RCC association, shared risk factors, myeloma pathobiology and clinical implications are discussed with a brief literature review. PMID:25103318

  16. Incidentally detected clear cell renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh; Gowda, Kiran Krishne; Rao, Raman Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma with rhabdoid differentiation (RCC-R) has an aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis. A recent consensus statement of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) proposed a nucleolar grading system (ISUP grade) for RCC to replace Fuhrman system and recommended reporting the presence of rhabdoid differentiation and considering tumors with rhabdoid differentiation to be ISUP Grade 4. We report a case of incidentally detected clear cell RCC-R in a 52-year-old man. This is one of the earliest cases of RCC-R (pT1b) detected and first such case from Indian subcontinent.

  17. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W.

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Helicobacter Pylory infection in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poyrazoglu, Omer Bilgehan; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Gultepe, Bilge Sumbul

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common esophageal diseases in the developing world, but the relationship between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Helicobacter pylori infection remains a neglected topic. The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A second purpose was to determine the incidence and factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection following esophagectomy. METHOD: The microorganism was identified by testing the gastric biopsy materials from 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients (66 females; 39 were esophagectomized) for urease activity in a medium containing urea and a power of hydrogen detection reagent and comparing the results with those from a healthy population. Differences in patient characteristics were assessed with chi-square tests and t-tests for categorical and continuous factors, respectively. RESULTS: The patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma had a significantly lower prevalence of Helicobacter pylori compared with the healthy population (p<0.001). The naive and esophagectomized patients, in contrast, showed no significant differences in Helicobacter pylori infection (p>0.005). Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma showed a significant association between leukocytosis and hypoglobulinemia and the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection (p=0.023 and p=0.045, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Helicobacter pylori is not an etiological factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We found a statistically significant negative correlation between esophageal squamous cell cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. These findings may guide new strategies for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy. PMID:28355360

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  20. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).

    PubMed

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-11-25

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5-10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  1. Understanding Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer in adults, is not a single disease but rather a collection of different tumor types driven by distinct genetic changes that arise within the same tissue.

  2. Recent advances in the management of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Ana M.; Nanus, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma have significantly improved over the past few years with the recent approval of two new agents resulting in prolonged progression-free and overall survival. PMID:27019698

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of cervix metastatic to ileal loop

    SciTech Connect

    Hulecki, S.J.; Klein, F.A.; Davis, J.E.

    1985-12-01

    A case is presented of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with an isolated metastasis to an ileal loop six years after diversion and seven years after definitive treatment of the primary lesion with irradiation.

  4. Heparanase expression and glycosaminoglycans profile in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Batista, Lucas Teixeira E Aguiar; Matos, Leandro Luongo; Machado, Leopoldo Ruiz; Suarez, Eloah Rabello; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Martins, João Roberto Maciel; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2012-11-01

    A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of renal cell carcinogenesis could contribute to a decrease in the mortality rate of this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and heparanase expression in renal cell carcinoma. The study included 24 patients submitted to nephrectomy with confirmed pathological diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. The majority of the samples (87.5%) were classified in the initial stage of renal cell carcinoma (clinical stages I and II). Heparanase messenger ribonucleic acid expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans were identified and quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis of renal cell carcinoma samples or non-neoplastic tissues obtained from the same patients (control group). The sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid were analyzed in urine samples of the patients before and after surgery. The data showed a significant statistical increase in chondroitin sulfate, and a decrease in heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate present in neoplastic tissues compared with non-neoplastic tissues. Higher heparanase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the neoplastic tissues was also shown, compared with the non-neoplastic tissues. The urine glycosaminoglycans profile showed no significant difference between renal cell carcinoma and control samples. Extracellular matrix changes observed in the present study clarify that heparanase is possibly involved with heparan sulfate turnover, and that heparanase and the glycosaminoglycans can modulate initial events of renal cell carcinoma development.

  5. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  6. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-01-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID

  7. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of cervix--a case report.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sanhita; Chakravorty, Shilaj; Kapoor, Poonam; Chattopadhyay, Debjit

    2005-07-01

    Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of uterine cervix is a rare variant of cervical carcinoma with features of high aggressiveness. It is difficult to manage these tumors. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and its prognosis is generally poor. The present report describes a 65 year old woman who presented with postmenopausal bleeding and had a friable polypoidal growth hanging from the cervix. Microscopic examination of the growth showed features of small cell carcinoma. Neuroendocrine cellular characteristics were assessed by using antibodies against neuron specific enolase. The case is being reported to create awareness of this rare entity

  8. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Krause, Mirja; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Vainio, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:27322325

  9. Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in both components of a combined Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation; each component had a similar but different novel Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen truncating mutation.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Takeshi; Kodama, Hajime; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuroda, Naoto; Yamasaki, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Osamu; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-03-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus infects up to 80% of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. Combined Merkel cell carcinoma and cutaneous tumors occur occasionally. Previous reports have suggested that Merkel cell polyomavirus is absent from combined Merkel cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. This is the first report that Merkel cell polyomavirus infected in both lesions of a combined Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. A 92-year-old Japanese man presented with a right thigh small subcutaneous mass. Histologic examination revealed a combined tumor with Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation. Both tumors and intermingled Merkel cells in basal cell carcinoma expressed Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen, and 17 and 240 copies of Merkel cell polyomavirus/cell were detected in the microdissected Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma specimens, respectively. Mutation analysis of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen revealed a novel truncating mutation in Merkel cell carcinoma and a similar but different mutation in the basal cell carcinoma. These results suggest that each was infected by a different Merkel cell polyomavirus subclone derived from a single Merkel cell polyomavirus.

  10. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  11. [Renal Cell Carcinoma metastases in the maxillofacial area: Case series.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Oslé, Sara; Prol, Carlos; Lardies, Rosa; Gaafar, Ayman; Barbier, Luis; Arruza, Antón

    2017-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an unpredictable malignancy. Sometimes, metastases are the disease debut. On the other hand, metastases could present years after treatment of the primary tumor. Four clinical cases of atypical metastases in the head and neck location are presented: parotid gland, mandibular bone, attached molar gingiva and masticator space. Physiopathology, clinics, histology and management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma at those anatomical regions are reviewed.

  12. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK.

  13. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Creighton, Chad J.; Fei, Suzanne S.; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A.; Murray, Bradley A.; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D.; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M.; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D.M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Ho, Thai; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y.; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J.; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Reuter, Victor E.; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl Simon; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D.; Penny, Robert J.; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W. Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T.; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R.; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Drummond, Jennifer; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D. Neil; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Moore, Richard A.; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N.; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J. Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L.; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J.; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C.; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K.; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L.; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M.; Winemiller, Cythnia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary renal cell carcinoma, accounting for 15% of renal cell carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma; no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. Methods We performed comprehensive molecular characterization utilizing whole-exome sequencing, copy number, mRNA, microRNA, methylation and proteomic analyses of 161 primary papillary renal cell carcinomas. Results Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas were found to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with Type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups based on molecular differences that influenced patient survival. MET alterations were associated with Type 1 tumors, whereas Type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-ARE pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was found in a distinct subset of Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma characterized by poor survival and mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Conclusions Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas are clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway are associated with Type 1 and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway with Type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in Type 2 convey a poor prognosis. Furthermore, Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma consists of at least 3 subtypes based upon molecular and phenotypic features. PMID:26536169

  14. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  15. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes.

  16. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Three Related Kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei).

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard; Killick, Rowena; Barrows, Michelle; Stidworthy, Mark

    2017-02-11

    We report three kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) with squamous cell carcinoma affecting the gingiva. These cases occurred in rapid succession in a related group of individuals of similar age, suggesting a familial tendency to this condition and a typical age of presentation. Other conditions affecting the oral cavity can mimic the appearance of oral squamous cell carcinoma in this species, and so knowledge of this condition can assist the veterinarian in making rapid decisions regarding prognosis and improving the welfare of these animals.

  17. [Small cell prostatic carcinoma detected at the stage of metastases].

    PubMed

    Rabii, Redouane; Meziane, Anas; Taha, Abdelatif; Joual, Abdenabi; El Mrini, Mohamed

    2004-09-01

    Small cell prostatic carcinoma is rare, with a poor prognosis. The authors report a case of small cell prostatic carcinoma in a 30-year-old patient diagnosed at the stage of metastases. Immunohistochemistry showed positive anti-neuron-specific enolase (NSE.) and anti-synaptophysin antibodies, while serum PSA was normal (1.2 ng/ml). The patient was treated by cisplatin-etoposide combination chemotherapy, but died 20 days after the first course.

  18. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Linehan, W Marston; Spellman, Paul T; Ricketts, Christopher J; Creighton, Chad J; Fei, Suzanne S; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A; Murray, Bradley A; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N; Hoadley, Katherine A; Robertson, A Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B; Laird, Peter W; Cherniack, Andrew D; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D M; Raphael, Benjamin J; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K; Hakimi, A Ari; Ho, Thai H; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J; Mills Shaw, Kenna R; Reuter, Victor E; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl S; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D; Penny, Robert J; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C; Zhang, Jiashan; Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, Harsha V; Drummond, Jennifer A; Gabriel, Stacey B; Gibbs, Richard A; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D Neil; Holt, Robert A; Hoyle, Alan P; Jefferys, Stuart R; Jones, Steven J M; Jones, Corbin D; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Moore, Richard A; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E; Mungall, Andrew J; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S; Perou, Charles M; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E; Schumacher, Steven E; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M; Winemiller, Cynthia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-14

    Papillary renal-cell carcinoma, which accounts for 15 to 20% of renal-cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that consists of various types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal-cell carcinoma, and no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. We performed comprehensive molecular characterization of 161 primary papillary renal-cell carcinomas, using whole-exome sequencing, copy-number analysis, messenger RNA and microRNA sequencing, DNA-methylation analysis, and proteomic analysis. Type 1 and type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups on the basis of molecular differences associated with patient survival. Type 1 tumors were associated with MET alterations, whereas type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was observed in a distinct subgroup of type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas that was characterized by poor survival and mutation of the gene encoding fumarate hydratase (FH). Type 1 and type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinomas were shown to be clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway were associated with type 1, and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway was associated with type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in type 2 conveyed a poor prognosis. Furthermore, type 2 papillary renal-cell carcinoma consisted of at least three subtypes based on molecular and phenotypic features. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

  19. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven ‘pure’ Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52–89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression. PMID:26022453

  20. Targeted therapy for orbital and periocular basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Vivian T; Pfeiffer, Margaret L; Esmaeli, Bita

    2013-01-01

    To review the literature on targeted therapy for orbital and periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and provide examples of patients recently treated with such therapy. The authors reviewed the literature on clinical results of targeted therapy and the molecular basis for targeted therapy in orbital and periocular BCC and cutaneous SCC. The authors also present representative cases from their practice. Mutation in the patched 1 gene (PTCH1) has been implicated in BCC, and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown in SCC. Vismodegib, an inhibitor of smoothened, which is activated upon binding of hedgehog to Ptc, has been shown to significantly decrease BCC tumor size or even produce complete resolution, especially in cases of basal cell nevus syndrome. Similarly, EGFR inhibitors have been shown to significantly decrease SCC tumor size in cases of locally advanced and metastatic disease. The authors describe successful outcomes after vismodegib treatment in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome with numerous bulky lesions of the eyelid and periocular region and erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor) treatment in a patient with SCC who was deemed not to be a good surgical candidate because of advanced SCC of the orbit with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes, advanced age, and multiple medical comorbidities. Targeted therapy using hedgehog pathway and EGFR inhibitors shows significant promise in treatment of orbital and periocular BCC and cutaneous SCC, respectively. Such targeted therapy may be appropriate for patients who are not good candidates for surgery.

  1. Merkel cell carcinoma – description of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Robert; Nenko, Dorota Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive skin cancer that derives from neuroendocrine cells of the skin. Merkel cell carcinoma morbidity has been continuously increasing for the last few years. Increasing reported incidence of MCC is probably connected with increasing occurrence of this kind of malignancy or with development of histological and immunohistochemical methods of sample examinations which have allowed for more precise diagnosis of skin tumor that might have previously not been accurately recognized. Merkel cell carcinoma develops as nodules early recognized as basocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, amelanotic melanoma or skin lymphoma. Merkel cell carcinoma can be morphologically similar to skin metastasis as well as mild changes such as lipoma, cysts, fibroma or vessel changes. Accurate diagnosis is very important because it determines successful management and risk of progression of disease. We describe 5 patients with MCC who underwent surgical excision and then, after estimation of stage of disease, complementary treatment. Our observations prove that every tumor with MCC should be cut out with wide margins and regional lymphadenectomy or sentinel node biopsy is compulsory. After cutting out MCC involved-field radiotherapy is necessary and improves prognosis. Presence of metastases in lymphatic nodes is an indication for complementary chemotherapy. PMID:24596523

  2. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  3. E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion prevents invasiveness of human carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The ability of carcinomas to invade and to metastasize largely depends on the degree of epithelial differentiation within the tumors, i.e., poorly differentiated being more invasive than well-differentiated carcinomas. Here we confirmed this correlation by examining various human cell lines derived from bladder, breast, lung, and pancreas carcinomas. We found that carcinoma cell lines with an epithelioid phenotype were noninvasive and expressed the epithelium-specific cell- cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (also known as Arc-1, uvomorulin, and cell-CAM 120/80), as visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy and by Western and Northern blotting, whereas carcinoma cell lines with a fibroblastoid phenotype were invasive and had lost E-cadherin expression. Invasiveness of these latter cells could be prevented by transfection with E-cadherin cDNA and was again induced by treatment of the transfected cells with anti-E-cadherin mAbs. These findings indicate that the selective loss of E-cadherin expression can generate dedifferentiation and invasiveness of human carcinoma cells, and they suggest further that E-cadherin acts as an invasion suppressor. PMID:2007622

  4. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma in a binturong (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    Childs-Sanford, Sara E; Peters, Rachel M; Morrisey, James K; Alcaraz, Ana

    2005-06-01

    An adult, female binturong (Arctictis binturong) was examined due to lethargy, inappetence, and an abdominal mass. Diagnostic investigations, including radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, clinical laboratory findings, and a fine-needle aspirate of the mass, were suggestive of a sarcoma with metastasis. Necropsy and histopathologic findings confirmed a widely disseminated sarcomatoid variant of a renal cell carcinoma, likely originating in the left kidney, with metastasis to the right kidney, spleen, pancreas, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, and lungs. This is the first report of this neoplasm in a binturong and only the second report in the veterinary literature. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a rare histologic variant of renal cell carcinoma that is aggressive, commonly metastatic, and associated with a very poor prognosis in humans. Accurate antemortem diagnosis of this tumor may be complicated by its biphasic morphology, which may resemble carcinoma or sarcoma (or both), often necessitating the use of immunohistochemical techniques.

  5. Renal Cell Carcinoma in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping; Cornejo, Kristine M.; Sadow, Peter M.; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Mingsheng; Xiao, Yu; Jiang, Zhong; Oliva, Esther; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Feldman, Adam S.; Paul, Elahna; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Jane J.; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Young, Robert H.; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in 2-4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Previous reports have noted a variety of histologic appearances in these cancers, but the full spectrum of morphologic and molecular features has not been fully elucidated. We encountered 46 renal epithelial neoplasms from 19 TSC patients and analyzed their clinical, pathological and molecular features, enabling separation of these 46 tumors into three groups. The largest subset of tumors (n=24) had a distinct morphological, immunological and molecular profile, including prominent papillary architecture and uniformly deficient SDHB expression prompting the novel term “TSC-associated papillary RCC.” The second group (n=15) was morphologically similar to a hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumor (HOCT) while the last 7 renal epithelial neoplasms of group 3 remained unclassifiable. The TSC-associated papillary RCCs (PRCC) had prominent papillary architecture lined by clear cells with delicate eosinophilic cytoplasmic thread-like strands that occasionally appeared more prominent and aggregated to form eosinophilic globules. All 24 (100%) of these tumors were the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) nucleolar grade 2 or 3 with mostly basally located nuclei. Tumor cells from 17 of 24 TSC-associated PRCC showed strong, diffuse labeling for CA-IX (100%), CK7 (94%), vimentin (88%), CD10 (83%), and were uniformly negative for succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), TFE3 and AMACR. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were found in 2 tumors, whereas chromosome 3p deletion and TFE3 translocations were not detected. In this study, we reported a sizable cohort of renal tumors seen in TSC and were able to identify them as different morphotypes which may help to expand the morphologic spectrum of TSC-associated RCC. PMID:24832166

  6. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology.

  7. Coexistence of Condylomata Acuminata with Warty Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Erman-Vlahovic, Mirna; Vlahovic, Jelena; Mrcela, Milanka; Hrgovic, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Condyloma acuminatum has previously been considered to be a benign growth with no malignant potential, but a review of the literature supports the concept that condylomata acuminata may precede or be associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) or warty squamous cell carcinoma (WSCC). Case report: We present a clinical case of a 58-year old woman with large, slow-growing, exophytic tumor of external genitalia shaped like a cauliflower with the propagation to both legs and behind. We performed multiple biopsies to detect potential malignancy but malignancy was not confirmed histologically. The presence of HPV (human papilloma virus) low and high risk was discovered. Inguinal lymph nodes were enlarged both sides, but cytologic examination identified no malignant cells. The patient was initially treated by the loop electro surgical excision procedure (LEEP) and podophilin solution on the rest of the condylomas. Condyloma acuminatum was confirmed histologically. Later, we performed a wide surgical excision of the rest of the condylomas. The new changes on the previously treated region were removed using LEEP. WSCC and ISCC were confirmed histologically so were radical vulvectomy and inguinal lymphadenectomy performed. The patient was advised to remain under close follow-up. PMID:28428680

  8. Development of squamous cell carcinoma into basal cell carcinoma under treatment with Vismodegib.

    PubMed

    Saintes, C; Saint-Jean, M; Brocard, A; Peuvrel, L; Renaut, J J; Khammari, A; Quéreux, G; Dréno, B

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in humans. Vismodegib, a Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, has proved its effectiveness in treating non-resectable advanced BCC. However, its action on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unknown. We present three SCC cases developed into BCC in vismodegib-treated patients. We have described three cases of patients developing SCC during treatment by vismodegib for BCC. Patient 1 was treated with vismodegib for five facial BCC. Due to the progression of one of the lesions at month 3 (M3), a biopsy was performed and showed SCC. Patient 2 was treated with vismodegib for a large facial BCC. A biopsy was performed at M2 on a BCC area not responding to treatment and showed SCC. Patient 3 was treated with vismodegib for a BCC on the nose. Due to vismodegib ineffectiveness, a biopsy was performed and showed SCC. Two similar cases have been described in the literature. This could be due to the appearance of the squamous contingent of a metatypical BCC or to the squamous differentiation of stem cells through inhibition of the hedgehog pathway. In practice, any dissociated response of a BCC to vismodegib should be biopsied. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Potential relationship between BK virus and renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Enver; Ozercan, Halil Ibrahim; Etem, Ebru Onalan; Aker, Fugen; Toraman, Zulal Asci; Seyrek, Adnan; Firdolas, Fatih

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential association between the presence of BK virus (BKV) DNA and mRNA and renal cell carcinoma and bladder transitional cell carcinoma. The formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples were obtained from 50 cancer patients with renal cell carcinoma, 40 cancer patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma, 45 control patients with the benign renal pathology, and from another 25 control patients with benign bladder pathology. The samples were subjected to nested PCR for detection of BKV DNA and real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) for determining mRNA levels of BKV. The results of the nested PCR indicated that 23 (14.3%) of 160 samples were positive for BKV DNA. The relationship between the cancer and the presence of BKV DNA was significant (P < 0.05). The BKV DNA positivity was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (P = 0.03), but not with that of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. The results of real-time RT-PCR showed that the mRNA of BKV VP1 was present in 69.5% of the BKV DNA positive samples. The levels of BKV mRNA were significantly higher in the renal cell cancer samples than in the control samples (P < 0.05). The results of the present study confirm the association between BKV and renal cell cancer. The findings also indicated that the presence of BKV DNA resulted in a fivefold increase in the risk of development of renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Carcinomas of ovary and lung with clear cell features: can immunohistochemistry help in differential diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Howell, Nicole R; Zheng, Wenxin; Cheng, Liang; Tornos, Carmen; Kane, Philip; Pearl, Michael; Chalas, Eva; Liang, Sharon X

    2007-04-01

    Metastatic lung carcinomas with clear cell morphology can be confused with primary ovarian clear cell carcinomas. We performed immunohistochemical stains in 14 cases of non-small cell lung carcinomas with clear cell features and 14 cases of ovarian clear cell carcinomas using a panel of markers, including thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Wilms tumor gene 1, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Among non-small cell lung carcinomas with clear cell features, 87.5% of adenocarcinomas (or 50% overall frequency in lung carcinomas) were positive for TTF-1, whereas none of the ovarian clear cell carcinomas were positive (P = 0.002). All 14 ovarian clear cell carcinomas stained for CA-125 as compared with 1 non-small cell lung carcinoma (P < 0.001). On the other hand, 85% of non-small cell lung carcinomas stained for CEA, whereas none of the ovarian clear cell carcinomas did (P < 0.001). Interestingly, 4 ovarian clear cell carcinomas (28%) showed positive staining for the germ cell marker OCT-4. Either lung or ovarian carcinomas stained for Wilms tumor gene 1, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor very infrequently; and the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that an immunohistochemical panel consisting of TTF-1, CEA, CA-125, and OCT-4 is helpful in distinguishing most pulmonary and ovarian carcinomas with clear cell features.

  11. Anabolic androgens affect the competitive interactions in cell migration and adhesion between normal mouse urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Chen, Chi-Cheng; Hung, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Ai-Lin; Chang, Chawnshang; Shyr, Chih-Rong

    2014-09-26

    The urothelium is constantly rebuilt by normal urothelial cells to regenerate damaged tissues caused by stimuli in urine. However, the urothelial carcinoma cells expand the territory by aberrant growth of tumor cells, which migrate and occupy the damaged tissues to spread outside and disrupt the normal cells and organized tissues and form a tumor. Therefore, the interaction between normal urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells affect the initiation and progression of urothelial tumors if normal urothelial cells fail to migrate and adhere to the damages sites to regenerate the tissues. Here, comparing normal murine urothelial cells with murine urothelial carcinoma cells (MBT-2), we found that normal cells had less migration ability than carcinoma cells. And in our co-culture system we found that carcinoma cells had propensity migrating toward normal urothelial cells and carcinoma cells had more advantages to adhere than normal cells. To reverse this condition, we used anabolic androgen, dihyrotestosterone (DHT) to treat normal cells and found that DHT treatment increased the migration ability of normal urothelial cells toward carcinoma cells and the adhesion capacity in competition with carcinoma cells. This study provides the base of a novel therapeutic approach by using anabolic hormone-enforced normal urothelial cells to regenerate the damage urothelium and defend against the occupancy of carcinoma cells to thwart cancer development and recurrence.

  12. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura S; Linehan, W Marston

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal-dominant hereditary syndrome, which is caused by germline mutations in the FH gene that encodes the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). HLRCC patients are predisposed to develop cutaneous leiomyomas, multiple, symptomatic uterine fibroids in young women resulting in early hysterectomies, and early onset renal tumors with a type 2 papillary morphology that can progress and metastasize, even when small. Since HLRCC-associated renal tumors can be more aggressive than renal tumors in other hereditary renal cancer syndromes, caution is warranted, and surgical intervention is recommended rather than active surveillance. At-risk members of an HLRCC family who test positive for the familial germline FH mutation should undergo surveillance by annual magnetic resonance imaging from the age of 8 years. Biochemical studies have shown that FH-deficient kidney cancer is characterized by a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis. It is hoped that through ongoing clinical trials evaluating targeted molecular therapies, an effective form of treatment for HLRCC-associated kidney cancer will be developed that will offer an improved prognosis for individuals affected with HLRCC-associated kidney cancer. PMID:25018647

  13. Chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Houlihan, Orla A; O'Neill, Brian D P

    2016-08-01

    Anal cancer is a relatively rare cancer, making up approximately 0.4% of all new diagnoses of cancer.(1) The incidence of anal cancer, however, has increased in recent years.(2) The aim of this paper is to review current treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the most common type of anal cancer. This review article focuses on recent and ongoing trials studying the outcomes of various chemoradiotherapy (CRT) regimens in the treatment of anal SCC. PubMed was initially searched for relevant trials. This search was then supplemented by hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of relevant conferences. CRT with mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been proven to have effective results in the treatment of anal SCC. Salvage surgery has a role in some patients in the treatment of persistent or recurrent disease beyond 26 weeks. The addition of induction or maintenance chemotherapy to CRT has not been shown to have any benefit. Primary CRT with MMC and 5-FU is the current standard treatment for anal SCC. There is currently no role for induction or maintenance chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Buti, Sebastiano; Bersanelli, Melissa; Donini, Maddalena; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC. PMID:25992216

  15. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Simon N; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Olafsson, Jon H; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-04-09

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10(-12)), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10(-9)), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10(-12)) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10(-16)). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, I; Martínez, A; Hernández, G; Hardisson, D; De Santiago, J

    2008-04-01

    Pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a rare tumour and its clinical behaviour is not correctly known. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the cases of SCC studied in our institution. The breast department's database was searched for patients diagnosed with breast SCC between September 1979 and June 2006. Pathological features, outcome aspects and prognosis were studied. All specimens were reviewed by our pathologist who performed inmunohistochemistry for hormone receptors. Eleven patients were identified (0.19%) between 5771 cases of breast cancer. Mean age was 64 (37-76) years and mean follow-up was 46 (6-216) months. Mean disease free survival (DFS) was 92 months (S.E.=33), with a 36% DFS rate at 5 years and the mean overall survival was 93 months (S.E.=34). Mean survival from the time recurrent disease was recognized was 9 (1-16) months. Tumours were hormone receptor negative. SCC of the breast is aggressive and often treatment-refractory. The role of different new chemotherapy regimens need to be explored.

  17. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  18. Basal cell carcinoma in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jesleen; Hadjicharalambous, Elena; Mehregan, Darius

    2012-04-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer most commonly affects Caucasians, and only rarely affects darker-skinned individuals. However, skin cancer in these groups is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Ultraviolet radiation is the major etiologic factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and likely plays a pivotal role in the development of other forms of skin cancer. Yet it is commonly thought among patients as well as physicians that darker pigmentation inherently affords complete protection from skin cancer development. This low index of suspicion results in delayed diagnoses and poorer outcomes. This review follows a detailed computer search that cross-matched the diagnosis of BCC with skin color type in a large commercial dermatopathology facility. The reported skin types, all Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI, and histories were confirmed. A predominance of pigmented BCCs was found in sun-exposed areas of these older individuals. Although less common in darker-skinned ethnic groups, BCC does occur and can pose significant morbidity. Thus, it is essential that dermatologists are familiar with the epidemiology and clinical presentation of all cutaneous malignancies in darker skin so that these patients are fully aware of risks as well as prevention of the disease.

  19. Emerging therapeutics in refractory renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koshkin, Vadim S; Rini, Brian I

    2016-06-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has seen the introduction of numerous new treatments over the past decade. However, the efficacy of these therapies has plateaued, and new treatment options are needed for the majority of patients with mRCC whose disease inevitably progresses through one or more standard therapies ('refractory' mRCC). Recently approved agents in this space have shown great promise. This article reviews the evidence behind current management strategies for mRCC. After reviewing clinical trials that established current first-line therapies and agents used in the refractory setting, we address new ideas for the treatment of refractory disease including combination therapies and novel targeted agents. In particular, we focus on targeted immunotherapy in refractory mRCC. We conclude by considering future directions in combination treatments utilizing these novel agents. Numerous approaches have produced tangible benefits for the treatment of patients with mRCC. These include development of next generation VEGFR/TKIs, targeted immunotherapy agents, and the development of combined regimens. In particular, immunotherapy agents targeting the PD1/PD-L1 pathway have shown great promise with a robust survival advantage seen in patients treated with nivolumab. A tolerable side effect profile of immunotherapy agents makes them amenable for use in combination therapies and ongoing trials are addressing this question.

  20. Histological subtypes of periocular basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert; Sun, Michelle T; Huilgol, Shyamala C; Madge, Simon; Selva, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine the proportion of different subtypes of periocular BCC in South Australia. Retrospective review. One thousand seven hundred thirteen consecutive periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) excision specimens. Histological analysis of consecutive periocular BCC specimens. Date of resection, patient age at resection, gender, tumour location, histological subtype and perineural invasion. From 2006 to 2012, a total of 1713 consecutive periocular BCC excision specimens were analysed. The mean age at resection was 68.8 years (median: 71, range: 21-101). Most specimens (56.4%) were removed from male patients. 52.7% involved the lower eyelid, 29.0% the medial canthus, 10.9% the lateral canthus and 7.5% the upper eyelid. The main histological subtypes identified were nodular (65.7%), infiltrative (17.5%), superficial (12.6%) and micronodular (4.2%). Of the specimens, 25.6% had more than one subtype. The most common subtype combinations were nodular with infiltrative (49.7%), and nodular with superficial (26.0%). The majority of periocular BCC were located on the lower lid and classified histologically as nodular. Infiltrative BCC occurred more frequently than the superficial subtype. As the proportion of mixed BCC containing aggressive subtypes is high, surgical excision with margin control should be considered for periocular BCC. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Pediatric and adolescent renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Young, Ezekiel E; Brown, Christopher T; Merguerian, Paul A; Akhavan, Ardavan

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an uncommon malignancy among children and adolescents. Because of this, there has been relatively sparse research and evidence on the topic. As the body of research regarding pediatric and adolescent RCC has developed in recent years, it has become increasingly clear that it demonstrates important differences from the much more common adult-type RCC. This review aims to examine and summarize the current literature, with a focus on the ways that pediatric and adolescent RCC differ from the adult disease, and to make recommendations for evaluation and management based on this evidence whenever possible. A thorough search of all articles relating to pediatric and adolescent RCC has been undertaken using PubMed. The reference lists from all relevant articles have been further reviewed, to ensure inclusion of all pertinent literature. The most significant development in recent years has been the realization that most of the pediatric and adolescent RCC cases, but only a very small fraction of adult RCC cases, demonstrate "translocation tumor" pathology. It is likely that such differences may eventually explain many of the previous observations regarding differences in behavior of RCC among children and teenagers. At this point, however, the relevance of translocation pathology to clinical management remains unclear, and so most continue to treat these patients in much the same way as those with the more conventional tumor subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the maxilla].

    PubMed

    Chatelain, B; Curlier, A; Euvrard, E; Vitte, F; Ricbourg, B; Meyer, C

    2011-06-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) of minor salivary glands (MSG) is a rare low-grade malignant neoplasm accounting for less than 1% of all salivary gland tumors. It usually affects the palate and the base of the tongue, and more rarely the parotid gland. We report a very rare maxillary localization. A 48-year-old male patient, without prior medical history, was referred to us for a painless gingival lesion of the right maxilla, extending from tooth 14 to 17, having appeared a few months before. The clinical examination was otherwise normal. Biopsy proved the diagnosis of HCCC. The CT scan revealed extension in maxillary sinus with bone osteolysis, and suspicion of cervical lymph nodes metastasis. The treatment was subtotal maxillectomy, cervical lymph node dissection, and postoperative radiotherapy because of incomplete bony resection. HCCC localization in the maxilla is extremely rare. This tumor may recur. The risk of metastasis is low; it concerns mainly lymph nodes. There is no treatment protocol consensus because the tumor is rare. Nevertheless, a wide local excision, with or without postoperative radiotherapy, seems to be the gold standard treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  5. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas: Mystery and Facts.

    PubMed

    Raghavapuram, Saikiran; Vaid, Arjun; Rego, Rayburn F

    2015-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is very rare as pancreas does not have any squamous cells. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. We describe such a case where in the patient presented with painless jaundice. CT and EUS confirmed the pancreatic mass biopsy of which showed squamous cell cancer.

  7. Signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma: a distinct subset of mucin-poor microsatellite-stable signet ring cell carcinoma associated with dismal prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J; Nikiforova, Marina N; Chang, Daniel T; Chu, Edward; Bahary, Nathan; Brand, Randall E; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J; Choudry, Haroon; Pai, Reetesh K

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated a consecutive series of signet ring cell colorectal carcinomas in an attempt to correlate the histopathologic pattern of infiltration with molecular alterations and prognosis. Of the 4760 primary colorectal carcinomas surgically resected between the years 2002 and 2012, 53 (1%) were composed of >50% signet ring cells. Of the 53 signet ring cell carcinomas, 40 (75%) were composed of >50% extracellular mucin with signet ring cells floating within pools of mucin and were subclassified as mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinomas. Thirteen (25%) carcinomas were characterized by diffusely infiltrating carcinomas with minimal to no extracellular mucin and were subclassified as mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas. All 13 mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas were either stage III or IV, whereas many cases of mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinoma were stage I or II (17 cases) (P=0.005). Compared with mucin-rich tumors, mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas more frequently demonstrated adverse histologic features such as lymphatic invasion (13/13, 100% vs. 22/40, 55%; P=0.002), venous invasion (6/13, 46% vs. 3/40, 8%; P=0.004), and perineural invasion (11/13, 85% vs. 9/40, 23%; P=0.0001). Twenty-three of 53 (43%) signet ring cell carcinomas demonstrated high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Twenty-two of 23 (96%) MSI-H signet ring cell carcinomas were mucin rich; only 1 MSI-H signet ring carcinoma was mucin poor (P=0.0033). Mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma had significantly reduced overall and recurrence-free survival compared with mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinomas (P=0.0035 and 0.0001, respectively), even when adjusting for tumor stage. Mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma had a higher propensity for peritoneal dissemination (5/13, 38%) compared with mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinoma (5/40, 12.5%), although this was not statistically significant (P=0.052). Finally, MSI-H and microsatellite-stable signet ring cell carcinomas had

  8. Basal cell carcinoma vs basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Webb, David V; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Verduin, Lindsey; Brill, Louis B; Wick, Mark R

    2015-04-01

    Typical cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are morphologically dissimilar. It is well known, however, that poorly differentiated SCC may assume a basaloid phenotype, complicating the histologic distinction between these 2 neoplasms. Selected immunohistochemical stains have been used in the past to aid in that differential diagnosis. In the current study, additional markers were evaluated to determine whether they would be helpful in that regard. Twenty-nine cases of metatypical (squamoid) BCC (MBCC) and 25 examples of basaloid SCC (BSCC) were studied using the antibodies Ber-EP4 and MOC-31 as well as a plant lectin preparation from Ulex europaeus I (UEA-1). The resulting immunostains were interpreted independently by 3 pathologists, and the results showed that MBCCs demonstrated strong and diffuse staining for Ber-EP4 (25/29) and MOC-31 (29/29). In contrast, BSCCs tended to be only sporadically reactive for both markers (4/25 and 1/25 cases, respectively). Labeling for UEA-1 was observed in almost all BSCCs (24/25), but only 6 of 29 cases of MBCC showed limited, focal staining with that lectin. These data suggest that MOC-31 is a useful marker in the specified differential diagnosis, especially when used together with UEA-1.

  9. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma growth rates and determinants of size in community patients.

    PubMed

    Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce; Hansen, Vibeke; Watson, Alan; Singh-Khaira, Gurpreet; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Goumas, Chris; Girgis, Afaf

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) have poorer outcomes if treated when large. We sought to estimate the growth rate of BCCs and SCCs and examine the relationship of personal, pathway, and cancer factors with cancer size (diameter). We surveyed patients, pathology, and treatment for invasive BCCs and SCCs in 1 Australian region in 2000 through 2001. BCC size increased with increasing time since first noticed. Relative to mean size at 0 to 2 months, the mean size ratio was 1.10 at 2 to 8 months and increased steadily to 1.81 at 5 to 10 years (P < .001). Few BCCs were untreated beyond 10 years. There was no consistent evidence that SCC size increased with increasing time. Larger BCCs were independently associated with older age, male sex, no skin checks by a physician, aggressive tumor type, ulceration and lesion-associated scar tissue, and larger SCCs with male sex, skin checks by a physician every 1 to 3 months, and location on limbs. Patient recall of dates and lack of thickness for SCCs are limitations. Earlier diagnosis of BCCs, perhaps through skin checks by a physician, may reduce their size and improve outcome. SCC size did not evidently increase with time. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: Report from the Zurich Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rehefeldt-Erne, Susanne; Nägeli, Mirjam C; Winterton, Nina; Felderer, Lea; Weibel, Lisa; Hafner, Jürg; Dummer, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) presents various symptoms and can disfigure patients. The estimated prevalence is around 1:100,000. To systematically investigate the clinical manifestations of NBCCS patients of the Zurich register and compare them with those described in 4 epidemiological studies performed in other countries. We analyzed patient characteristics and clinical manifestations in a register of 30 NBCCS patients in Zurich, Switzerland. We compared our findings to the results of 4 epidemiological studies performed in America, Australia, Japan and the UK. We obtained information concerning basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and jaw cysts from 28 patients out of our population of 30 NBCCS patients. The mean age at onset of the first BCC was 24 years, and the mean age at diagnosis of the first jaw cyst was 15.6 years. The average number of jaw cysts was 8.4; the average number of BCCs was 207. 72.5% of the examined BCCs showed a nodular histology, but we also found scirrhous and superficial types. The disease burden associated with NBCCS diagnosed in Swiss patients is significant and comparable to that of other countries. Regular skin examination and oromaxillary examinations should be performed early in diagnosis, and patients should undergo early UV protection. Nodular BCC is the most common BCC subtype in this patient population. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma after treatment of basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Tina; Abrouk, Michael; Sima, Camelia S; Sadetsky, Natalia; Hou, Jeannie; Caro, Ivor; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Arron, Sarah T

    2017-10-01

    Vismodegib is a first-in-class agent targeting the hedgehog signaling pathway for treatment of patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and metastatic BCC. There have been concerns about the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients treated with this drug. We sought to determine whether treatment with vismodegib is associated with an increase in the risk of cutaneous SCC. In this retrospective cohort study, patients treated with vismodegib as part of phase I and II clinical studies were compared with participants from the University of California, San Francisco, Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Cohort who received standard therapy for primary BCC. In total, 1675 patients were included in the analysis, and the development of SCC after vismodegib exposure was assessed. The use of vismodegib was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent development of SCC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-1.16). Covariates including age, sex, history of previous nonmelanoma skin cancer, and number of visits per year were significantly associated with the development of SCC. A limitation of the study was that a historic control cohort was used as a comparator. Vismodegib was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent SCC when compared with standard surgical treatment of BCC. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masferrer, Emili; Ferrándiz-Pulido, Carla; Masferrer-Niubò, Magalí; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alfredo; Gil, Inmaculada; Pont, Antoni; Servitje, Octavi; García de Herreros, Antonio; Lloveras, Belen; García-Patos, Vicenç; Pujol, Ramon M; Toll, Agustí; Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a phenomenon in epithelial tumors that involves loss of intercellular adhesion, mesenchymal phenotype acquisition and enhanced migratory potential. While the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process has been extensively linked to metastatic progression of squamous cell carcinoma, studies of the role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma containing high risk human papillomaviruses are scarce. Moreover, to our knowledge epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involvement in human penile squamous cell carcinoma, which can arise through transforming HPV infections or independently of HPV, has not been investigated. We evaluated the presence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers and their relationship to HPV in penile squamous cell carcinoma. We assessed the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition related transcription factors Twist, Zeb1 and Snail by immunohistochemical staining in 64 penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. HPV was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Simultaneous loss of membranous E-cadherin expression and vimentin over expression were noted in 43.5% of penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. HPV was significantly associated with loss of membranous E-cadherin but not with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Recurrence and mortality rates were significantly higher in cases showing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Our findings indicate that in penile squamous cell carcinoma epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is associated with poor prognosis but not with the presence of HPV. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Exenteration of the Orbit for Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Furdová, A; Horkovičová, K; Krčová, I; Krásnik, V

    2015-08-01

    Primary treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid and the inner corner is essentially surgical, but advanced lesions require extensive surgical interventions. In some cases it is necessary to continue with the mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. In this work we evaluate the indications of radical solutions in patients with basal cell carcinoma invading the orbit and the subsequent possibility for individually made prosthesis to cover the defect of the cavity. Indications to exenteration of the orbit in patients with basal cell carcinoma findings in 2008-2013. Case report of 2 patients. In period 2008-20013 at the Dept. of Ophthalmology, Comenius University in Bratislava totally 221 patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids and the inner corner were treated. In 5 cases (2.7 %) with infiltration of the orbit the radical surgical procedure, exenteration was necessary. In 3 patients exenteration was indicated as the first surgical procedure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, since they had never visited ophthalmologist before only at in the stage of infiltration of the orbit (stage T4). In one case was indicated exenteration after previous surgical interventions and relapses. After healing the cavity patients got individually prepared epithesis. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves the radical removal of the neoplasm entire eyelid and stage T1 or T2 can effectively cure virtually all tumors with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. In advanced stages (T4 stage) by infiltrating the orbit by basal cell carcinoma exenteration of the orbit is necessary. This surgery is a serious situation for the patient and also for his relatives. Individually made prosthesis helps the patient to be enrolled to the social environment.

  14. Spontaneous regression and recurrence of stage III Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Sandra Catharina Petronella; Groeneveld-Haenen, Christine P M; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine carcinoma originating in the skin. It is typically aggressive with a tendency to recur locally and metastasise. There have been several case reports about spontaneous regression of MCC over the past years, but to the best of our knowledge this is the first case of a regional lymph node metastasised MCC with complete spontaneous regression and recurrence. In addition, the primary tumour has an unusual localisation on the foot. PMID:25716042

  15. Primary small-cell carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Tuoc; Howard, Evan; Bredeweg, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis of rare breast cancers is expected to occur more frequently as screening compliance improves and diagnostic modalities become more sensitive. Well-defined treatment algorithms exist for the management of ductal and lobular carcinomas; however, less information is available to guide the treatment of atypical breast cancers. This case report describes a 38-year-old African American woman with primary small cell carcinoma of the breast and her treatment.

  16. Retinopathy secondary to radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Groomer, A.E.; Gutwein, D.E. )

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses a case of radiotherapy-induced retinopathy following treatment of squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment of the carcinoma with external beam radiotherapy to the supraorbital region and base of the skull was followed by the onset of retinopathy. The sensory retina, as well as other central nervous system tissues, is highly resistant to radiation damage; however, the retinal vasculature is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, producing a retinopathy that is characteristic of other vascular occlusive diseases. Management is discussed.

  17. Bilateral synchronous squamous cell tonsil carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Ugur, Mehmet Birol; Bahadir, Burak

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of numerous head and neck tumours is a known issue though bilateral synchronous tonsillar carcinoma reports are so uncommon that only 20 cases were found in a literature review. Most of these patients were treated with bilateral tonsillectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. We report, to our knowledge, the first case of bilateral synchronous tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma treated only with chemoradiotherapy without tonsillectomy.

  18. Utility of MRI features in differentiation of central renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvic urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wehrli, Natasha E; Kim, Min Ju; Matza, Brent W; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the utility of various morphologic and quantitative MRI features in differentiating central renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from renal pelvic urothelial carcinoma. Sixty patients (39 men and 21 women; mean [± SD] age, 65 ± 14 years; 48 with central RCC and 12 with renal pelvic urothelial carcinoma) who underwent MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (b values, 0, 400, and 800 s/mm(2)) and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, before histopathologic confirmation were included. Tumor T2 signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured and normalized to muscle and CSF (hereafter referred to as normalized T2 signal and normalized ADC, respectively) and then were compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Also, two blinded radiologists independently assessed all tumors for various qualitative features, which were compared with the Fisher exact test and unpaired Student t test. Urothelial carcinoma exhibited significantly lower normalized ADC than did RCC (p = 0.008), but no significant difference was seen in ADC or normalized T2 signal intensity (p = 0.247-0.773). Normalized ADC had the highest area under the curve (0.757); normalized ADC below an optimal threshold of 0.451 was associated with sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 71% for diagnosing urothelial carcinoma. Features that were significantly more prevalent in urothelial carcinoma included global impression of urothelial carcinoma, location centered within the collecting system, collecting system defect, extension to the ureteropelvic junction, preserved renal shape, absence of cystic or necrotic areas, absence of hemorrhage, homogeneous enhancement, and hypovascularity (all p < 0.033). Increased T1 signal intensity suggestive of hemorrhage was significantly more prevalent in RCC (p = 0.02). Interreader agreement for the subjective features ranged from 61.7% to 98.3%. In addition to various qualitative MRI parameters, normalized

  19. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with intratumoral and nodal extramedullary megakaryopoiesis: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Mast, Kelley J; Cheng, Liang; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2014-06-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is occasionally associated with erythrocytosis, hypothesized to result from tumoral production of erythropoietin. Rarely, intratumoral erythropoiesis has been identified, although intratumoral megakaryopoiesis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. We report the case of an 81-year-old man with myelofibrosis who underwent resection of a 9.8-cm clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Numerous megakaryocytes were present within the renal cell carcinoma; regional lymph nodes; and, to a lesser extent, the nonneoplastic kidney, glomeruli, and renal hilar soft tissue, in some areas associated with trilineage hematopoiesis. Immunohistochemistry verified the megakaryocytic lineage of the atypical cells (CD61, CD42b, and von Willebrand factor +; cytokeratin -). Intratumoral extramedullary megakaryopoiesis is a novel finding in clear cell renal cell carcinoma with potential to mimic high-grade carcinoma and involvement of lymph nodes. Careful attention to morphology, presence of other hematopoietic elements, and immunoprofile can facilitate recognition of this rare phenomenon.

  20. Morphine enhances renal cell carcinoma aggressiveness through promotes survivin level.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yabing; Ren, Zhongzhong; Ma, Shuyong; Yan, Wenjun; He, Man; Wang, Dong; Ding, Peiyan

    2017-11-01

    Morphine is an opioid analgesic drug often used for pain relief in cancer patients. However, there is growing evidence that morphine may modulate tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Unfortunately, the results obtained by these studies are still contradictory. In this study, we investigated the effect of morphine in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma 786-O, RLC-310 cells and whether morphine affects on tumor growth in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma 786-O, RLC-310 cells. The cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay, cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays. Immunofluorescence staining and Q-PCR was used to determine the Survivin expression. It was shown that morphine enhances proliferation of 786-O, RLC-310 cells, whereas morphine promoted the growth and aggressive phenotype of 786-O and RLC-310 cells in vitro though Survivin-dependent signaling. Our data showed that morphine promotes RCC growth and increases RCC progression via over-expression of Survivin.

  1. Synchronous occurrence of neuroendocrine colon carcinoma and hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Pinialidis, Dionisios; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Gakis, Christos; Nakos, Georgios; Sambaziotis, Dimitrios; Christofyllakis, Charalambos

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND-PURPOSE: The risk of secondary malignancy development in patients with hairy cell leukemia has been evaluated in several studies with varying results. The aim of this study is to describe a case of synchronous occurrence of neuroendocrine colon carcinoma and hairy cell leukemia. A 69-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed a rectal tumor, whereas biopsy specimens revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma. During the preoperative evaluation, pancytopenia was detected. At laparotomy, a mass was detected 16 cm from the anal verge and an anterior resection of the rectum was performed. Detailed histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the rectum. Postoperative evaluation of pancytopenia revealed hairy cell leukemia. The patient was initially treated with chemotherapy for hairy cell leukemia followed by chemotherapy for neuroendocrine colon carcinoma. Survival was 44 months. To our knowledge, synchronous occurrence of neuroendocrine colon carcinoma and hairy cell leukemia has not been previously reported in the literature. Given the rare incidence of both entities in the general population, it is highly unlikely that they occurred together by chance. Further research is needed to determine what would be the optimal management options of patients with simultaneous hairy cell leukemia and a neuroendocrine colon cancer.

  2. Small cell-like change in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal carcinoma, and invasive prostatic carcinoma: a study of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen; Han, Jeong S; Chang, Alex; Ross, Hillary M; Montironi, Rodolfo; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Lane, Zhaoli; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2013-03-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the prostate is associated with poor prognosis and different treatment from conventional acinar adenocarcinoma. Given the important clinicopathologic implications of a diagnosis of small cell carcinoma, we report 7 cases showing unusual, extensive small cell-like change in intraductal carcinoma and invasive carcinoma. Prostatic biopsies from 3 patients and radical prostatectomy specimens from 4 patients showed variably extensive small cell-like high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal carcinoma. Five cases were associated with conventional acinar adenocarcinoma (2 cases with Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7; 3 cases with Gleason 3 + 4 = 7). No small cell carcinoma was seen. Small and large ducts with small cell-like change showed solid and cribriform proliferations of atypical cells with abrupt transition between centrally located populations of small cells and more typical large dysplastic cells at the duct periphery. Rosette-like formations were noted within some involved ducts. Small cell-like change was characterized by crowded cells with uniformly bland vesicular nuclei and minimal cytoplasm and no significant mitotic or apoptotic activity. In 3 cases, similar small cell-like morphology was noted focally in invasive carcinoma. The small cell-like areas were negative for synaptophysin and chromogranin, focally positive for TTF-1, and weakly positive for racemase. Ki-67 labeled less than 5% with predominant labeling of the larger atypical cells and minimal reactivity in the small cell-like population. In summary, small cell-like change in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, intraductal carcinoma, and invasive carcinoma is not associated with small cell carcinoma; shows no immunohistochemical evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation; and likely is not an adverse prognostic feature.

  3. Spindle cell carcinoma progressed from transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    The author reports a very rare case of spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) of the urinary bladder progressed from ordinary papillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). A 63-year-old man complained of hematuria. A transurethral endoscopic examination revealed a papillary tumor, and transuthetral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT) was performed and was diagnosed as ordinary papillary urothelial TCC. Since then, he was treated with TUR-BT eight times. Chemotherapy, radiation, radical cystectomy and lymph nodes dissection were performed 16 years after the first TUR-BT. However, he developed rectal mucosal metastasis. He is now alive 17 years after the first presentation. All the TUR-BT specimens were ordinary papillary TCCs without invasion (pTa). Immunohistochemically, the TUR-BT specimens were positive for pancytokeratin, high molecular weight cytokeratin (CK), CK 5/6, CK 7, CK 18, CK 19, CK 20, p53, p63, Ki-67 (10%), and negative for other antigens examined including vimentin. The cystectomy bladder specimens show broad ulcers and polypoid lesions, and malignant spindle cells (SpCC) invading into muscular layer were present. No TCC elements were recognized. The tumor cells were positive strongly for vimentin, and less strongly for pancytokeratin, high molecular weight cytokeratin, CK 5/6, CK 14, CK 18, p53, p63 and Ki-67 (95%), and negative for other antigens examined. The rectal metastatic lesion showed SpCC without TCC elements, and were strongly positive for vimentin, and weakly positive for pancytokeratin, S100 protein, p53, p63, Ki-67 (90%), neuron-specific enolase, CD56, KIT and PDGFRA. It was negative for other antigen examined. It is strongly suggested that the present SpCC were progressed from ordinary TCC. PMID:22295151

  4. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets.

  5. Pancreatic-type Acinar Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach Included in Multiple Primary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yonenaga, Yoshikuni; Kurosawa, Manabu; Mise, Masahiro; Yamagishi, Miki; Higashide, Shunichi

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic-type acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) in the stomach is extraordinarily rare. We pathologically examined two cases with multiple primary carcinomas, including gastric tumors. Gastric cancer specimens were examined by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Both cases had cancer cells with acinar patterns, resembling pancreatic ACC. The cancer cells in the first case were positive for exocrine markers, including chymotrypsin, lipase and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT), as well as neuroendocrine markers, including chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The cancer cells in the second case were positive for chymotrypsin and alpha-1 ACT, while being slightly positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Ultrastructurally, cancer cells contained zymogen granules in both cases. The final diagnosis was pancreatic mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma and pure pancreatic ACC, respectively. We confirmed two cases with gastric pancreatic-type ACC included in multiple primary carcinomas. This type of double cancer has not been reported previously. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Gary D. Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-11-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

  7. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma. A review.

    PubMed

    Hadj Saïd, M; Ordioni, U; Benat, G; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Chossegros, C; Catherine, J-H

    2017-08-30

    Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is described as an exceptional and hard to diagnose malignant tumor which was first reported by Hansen in 1985. The purpose of this review article is to show that CCOC is a not that rare entity and to discuss its various aspects in order to enhance the diagnosis. A search in the English language literature was performed using the Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Medline databases between 1985 and 2016. Data were collected on epidemiologic, clinical, radiographic, histological, immunohistochemistrical, cytogenetic, management, follow-up and prognosis features of CCOC. Sixty-five studies from which a total of 95 case reports were included in the review. CCOC was generally seen in the fifth decade and the most common site was mandibular. The most frequently found symptoms were swelling, tooth mobility and pain. Radiologically, the image was radiolucent and could look like a cyst or a periodontal lesion. In situ hybridization techniques frequently expressed a gene fission of EWSR1. The treatment was mostly a radical surgical excision of the tumor with or without adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy. CCOC showed high rates of recurrence and mortality related with the presence of distance metastasis. Fission of EWSR1 gene could be the main element it the diagnosis of CCOC. A multidisciplinary approach, including a radiologist, pathologist and an oral & maxillofacial surgeon may be helpful in the evaluation and management of these lesions. With 95 reports found in English literature, we cannot say that CCOC is extremely rare anymore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Perianal basal cell carcinoma: a comparative histologic, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric study with basaloid carcinoma of the anus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cañas, M C; Fernández, F A; Rodilla, I G; Val-Bernal, J F

    1996-08-01

    Perianal basal cell carcinoma is a very rare tumor accounting for only 0.2% of the anorectal tumors. It must be distinguished from basaloid carcinoma of the anus, which resembles it histologically but shows a much more aggressive behavior, metastasizes early, and often proves fatal, thus requiring different therapy. Differential diagnosis of both entities by light microscopy may be difficult. Five cases of perianal basal cell carcinoma and five cases of basaloid carcinoma were studied by means of immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Some immunohistochemical markers, such as epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembrionic antigen, and keratins, as well as the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I stained basaloid carcinoma and were negative for basal cell carcinoma. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 seems to be a good marker for perianal basal cell carcinoma and useful in differentiating it from basaloid carcinoma of the anus. Basaloid carcinomas are associated with a significantly higher S-phase fraction than are perianal basal cell carcinomas (p < 0.01).

  9. An Integrated Metabolic Atlas of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, A Ari; Reznik, Ed; Lee, Chung-Han; Creighton, Chad J; Brannon, A Rose; Luna, Augustin; Aksoy, B Arman; Liu, Eric Minwei; Shen, Ronglai; Lee, William; Chen, Yang; Stirdivant, Steve M; Russo, Paul; Chen, Ying-Bei; Tickoo, Satish K; Reuter, Victor E; Cheng, Emily H; Sander, Chris; Hsieh, James J

    2016-01-11

    Dysregulated metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, manifested through alterations in metabolites. We performed metabolomic profiling on 138 matched clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC)/normal tissue pairs and found that ccRCC is characterized by broad shifts in central carbon metabolism, one-carbon metabolism, and antioxidant response. Tumor progression and metastasis were associated with metabolite increases in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism pathways. We develop an analytic pipeline and visualization tool (metabolograms) to bridge the gap between TCGA transcriptomic profiling and our metabolomic data, which enables us to assemble an integrated pathway-level metabolic atlas and to demonstrate discordance between transcriptome and metabolome. Lastly, expression profiling was performed on a high-glutathione cluster, which corresponds to a poor-survival subgroup in the ccRCC TCGA cohort.

  10. A rare bladder cancer - small cell carcinoma: review and update

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is rare, highly aggressive and diagnosed mainly at advanced stages. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy. The origin of the disease is unknown; however the multipotent stem cell theory applies best to this case. Histology and immunohistochemistry shows a tumour which is indistinguishable from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Coexistence of SCCB with other types of carcinoma is common. The staging system used is the TNM-staging of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. The treatment is extrapolated from that of SCLC. However, many patients with SCCB undergo radical resection which is rarely performed in SCLC. Patients with surgically resectable disease (< or = cT1-4aN0M0) should be managed with multimodal therapy associating chemotherapy, surgery and/or radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy using four chemotherapy cycles followed by radical cystectomy is the most effective therapeutic sequence. Patients with unresectable disease (> or = cT4bN+M+) should be managed with palliative chemotherapy based on neuroendocrine type regimens comprising a platinum drug (cisplatin in fit patients). The prognosis of the disease is poor mainly in the case of pure small cell carcinoma. Other research programs are needed to improve the outcome of SCCB. PMID:22078012

  11. [Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma: diagnostic and surgical treatment strategy].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-chao; Zhan, Han-xiang; Zhang, Tai-ping; Zhao, Yu-pei

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the clinical features, diagnostic and therapeutic strategy of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma. The data of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma patients who underwent surgical operations from January 2002 to January 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Six cases of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma, identified with pathology were collected, including 3 males and 3 females with the average of 47.8 yeas old. Upper abdominal pain was present in 5 cases, weight loss was present in 4 cases with the average of 12.5 kg. Other symptoms included nausea/vomiting, back pain and obstructive jaundice. The serum CA19-9 and CA24-2 level were significantly elevated in 2 cases. CT scan, MRI and DSA were the main imaging methods to diagnose this disease. However, no case was diagnosed as pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma before operation. All cases were confirmed by the pathological examination. Relatively high rates of surgical resection, long operative time, more blood loss and combined multi-organ resection were the characteristics of this disease's operative surgical procedures. The average period of postoperative follow-up process was 60 months, and the mean survival time was (32 ± 8) months. The clinical features and biological behavior of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma are different from those of ductal adenocarcinoma, while the relatively specific clinical manifestations and imaging changes will be helpful for qualitative diagnosis before operation. As it has high rate of resection and better prognosis, more radical surgical strategies should be carried out for patients of this disease.

  12. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Hajjah, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Nasr, A H; Khatri, M L

    2000-06-01

    Incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma seems to be relatively high in Yemen but not well documented. The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical profile of the Yemeni patients of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and to evaluate the possible relationship to kath chewing. With the help of a special protocol, all the patients of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma seen between October 1997 and December 1998 at the Ear, Nose and Throat and Dermatology Clinics of Saudi Hospital, Hajjah, Yemen Republic were subjected to detailed analysis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic studies in all the cases. All the 36 patients (23 male and 13 female) were Yemani nationals, aged 18 to 80 years (median age 50 years). Thirty patients were Kath addicts. The tumor was localized to the oral cavity in 17 (47%) patients, oropharynx in 1 (3%) patient, nasopharynx in 15 (42%) patients and larynx in 3 (8%) patients. The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma seems to be relatively high, especially the oral squamous cell carcinoma, all of whom had a habit of kath chewing, which may be considered as an important contributing factor.

  13. [Merkel cell carcinoma experience in a reference medical center.

    PubMed

    Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Devezé-Bocardi, Raúl; Ruiz-Juárez, Isabel; Grube-Pagola, Peter; Romero-Sierra, Graciela; Remes-Troche, José María; Silva-Cañetas, Carmen Sofía; Lozoya-López Escalera, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that occurs on areas exposed to ultraviolet light. It is usually asymptomatic and it is diagnosed late often. The treatment is surgical, associated with adjuvant radiotherapy. The objective was to present the experience in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma in a reference medical center. Methods: all patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Instituto de Investigaciones Médico-Biológicas of the Universidad Veracruzana during the period 2008 to 2011 were studied. Sex, age, evolution time, tumor localization, size, metastases and treatment were analyzed. Results: of 3217 patients treated, three cases were Merkel cell carcinoma (0.09 %), their age was 52.1 ± 14.17, male predominance of 66.67 %; the evolution time was of 29.66 ± 35.36 months; the tumour localization was on inguinal region, anterior chest and left arm; the noodle size was of 6.0 ± 5.19 cm; two patients had lymph node metastases. In two cases, resection and lymphadenectomy were performed. They all received radiation therapy and chemotherapy in one case. Histologically the medium variant predominated; immunohistochemistry was positive in the three cases. One patient died ten months after the study was done. Conclusions: our experience is similar with others authors, Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor, usually diagnosed late, and it has poor survival.

  14. Current diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alter, Mareike; Hillen, Uwe; Leiter, Ulrike; Sachse, Michael; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma represents is most common tumor in fair-skinned individuals. In Germany, age-standardized incidence rates are 63 (women) and 80 (men) per 100,000 population per year. Early lesions may be difficult to diagnose merely on clinical grounds. Here, noninvasive diagnostic tools such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy may be helpful. The clinical diagnosis is usually confirmed by histology. Standard therapy consists of complete excision with thorough histological examination, either by means of micrographic surgery or, depending on tumor size and location as well as infiltration, using surgical margins of 3-5 mm or more. In particular, multiple basal cell carcinomas (such as in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) and locally advanced as well as rarely also metastatic basal cell carcinoma may pose a therapeutic challenge. In superficial basal cell carcinoma, nonsurgical therapies such as photodynamic therapy or topical agents may be considered. In case of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, an interdisciplinary tumor board should issue therapeutic recommendations. These include radiation therapy as well as systemic therapy with a hedgehog inhibitor. © 2015 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Renal cell carcinoma: complete pathological response in a patient with gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    García-Campelo, Rosario; Quindós, Maria; Vázquez, Diana Dopico; López, Margarita Reboredo; Carral, Alberto; Calvo, Ovidio Fernández; Soto, José Manuel Rois; Grande, Enrique; Durana, Jesús; Antón-Aparicio, Luis Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A 75-year-old-man, with a 2-month history of abdominal pain, underwent a standard diagnostic workup that included a CT scan that showed a large right renal mass and subcentimeter nodes in the right and left lung lobes. In December 2003, the patient underwent right nephrectomy with adrenalectomy and a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (pT3N0M0 stage) was made. No further treatment was proposed and patient was followed up regularly. In October 2006, the annual gastrointestinal endoscopy showed asymptomatic multilobulated and polypoid masses in the gastric fundus and gastric body that corresponded to metastasis of the renal carcinoma that had been resected three years ago. Surgical treatment was refused and oral treatment with sunitinib (50 mg/day consecutively for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off) was initiated. Patient completed one cycle and development of acute toxicity (grade 3 asthenia, anorexia and mucositis) led to treatment interruption. After recovering from acute toxicity, the patient was proposed to reinitiate treatment with dose reduction, but he refused any medical treatment. At the follow-up visit, three months later, the gastrointestinal endoscopy showed four unspecific 2 mm nodules without malignant evidence. The whole-body CT did not reveal any other abnormality except for the known lung nodes. PET scan six months after treatment confirmed complete gastric response.

  17. Case report. Acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change arising from the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Chung, W-S; Park, M-S; Kim, D W; Kim, K W

    2011-12-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare malignant tumour developing from acinar cells, accounting for approximately 1% of pancreatic exocrine tumours. We experienced a case of an acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an acinar cell carcinoma with fatty change in the clinical literature.

  18. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus Revisited.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rondell P; Arnold, Christina A; Naini, Bita V; Lam-Himlin, Dora M

    2016-03-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, previously called cloacogenic carcinoma, is a subtype of SCC. There are very few data on the morphologic variation within basaloid SCC of the anus, which may contribute to misdiagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated cases originally diagnosed as basaloid SCC for histologic characterization. We retrieved and reviewed cases of basaloid SCC from 1994 to 2013. Ten (27%) cases were reclassified after review, including basal cell carcinoma (n=6), melanoma (n=2), and neuroendocrine carcinoma (n=2). The final group of basaloid SCC (n=27) showed a female predominance (median age=60 y; range, 42 to 92 y). Morphologically, basaloid SCC could be categorized into 4 groups: transitional carcinoma like (n=10), basaloid with peripheral palisade (n=13), adenoid cystic carcinoma like (n=3), and mucinous microcystic (n=1). In 19 cases the histologic patterns were pure and were mixed in the remainder. CK5/6, p16, and high-risk HPV were positive in all cases (n=27). SOX2 was positive in 18/22 cases. Clinical follow-up was available on 60% of cases; 9 patients (53%) developed local recurrence or metastasis, and 5 (29%) died of disease. Basaloid SCC of the anus is characterized by 4 major histologic patterns and is consistently HPV driven.

  19. Verrucoid Variant of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Clinicopathological Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Priya; Krithika, C.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jagdish, Praveena; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an exophytic, low-grade, well-differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is described as a lesion appearing in the sixth or seventh decade of life that has minimal aggressive potential and, in long-standing cases, has been shown to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder, and about one-third of the affected population develop oral squamous cell carcinoma. The histopathological diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma is challenging, and the interpretation of early squamous cell carcinoma requires immense experience. Here we present a rare case of a 24-year-old male with OSMF transforming to verrucous carcinoma with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Even though the case had a straightforward clinical diagnosis, the serial sectioning done for pathological diagnosis disclosed the squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  1. Vismodegib resistance in basal cell carcinoma: not a smooth fit.

    PubMed

    Ridky, Todd W; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-03-09

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, two complementary papers by Atwood and colleagues and Sharpe and colleagues show that basal cell carcinomas resistant to the Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib frequently harbor SMO mutations that limit drug binding, with mutations at some sites also increasing basal SMO activity.

  2. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  3. Oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytometric parameters of prognostic interest.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Bustillo, Ramón; Corchero-Martín, Guadalupe; García-Montesinos-Perea, Belén; Gonzalez-Terán, Tomás; Sánchez-Santolino, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The present study was made in order to find possible prognostic factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma, given that it is a frequent disease (3-4% of all malignant tumors) and is the cause of a high morbidity and mortality which justifies any attempt to contribute something towards the understanding of this pathology. 81 oral squamous cell carcinomas, treated with the same procedure, and retrieved from the archive of the Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander) were studied. Flow cytometry was carried out on 67 of the samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the cellular proliferative index and the mitotic index, ploidy and the S-phase factor. Likewise, none of the cytometric variables studied presented any association with the appearance of local relapse, distant metastases or survival. These variables cannot be used as a prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity.

  4. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype.

  5. Case report: microcystic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Radopoulos, Demetrios; Kalyvas, Konstantinos; Kotakidou, Rodi; Panagiotopoulou, Konstantina; Katsikas, Vasilios; Papathanasiou, Michalis

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of microcystic transitional cell carcinoma involving the urinary bladder, in a 38-year-old man, and we add our experience in the treatment of this neoplasm. The tumor was muscle invasive, and a radical cystectomy was performed. The patient received no postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and he has not signs of local recurrence or distal metastasis after 3 years of intense follow up. Even though the number of cases documented so far, is insufficient to draw safe conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of the microcystic variant of transitional cell carcinoma. Our case indicates that even in cases of microcystic transitional cell carcinoma with infiltrative nature, aggressive therapy is associated with good control of the disease locally and distally.

  6. Primary invasive ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Kaps, Simone; Richter, Marianne; Philipp, Martin; Bart, Madeleine; Eule, Corinna; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2005-01-01

    A 12-year-old Haflinger gelding was presented to the veterinary medical teaching hospital of the University of Zurich with a light-pink raised mass on the temporal limbus and conjunctiva of the left eye. Squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed histologically after keratectomy and cryotherapy. Seven months later, a smooth pink, progressively enlarging mass was observed within the cornea of the left eye. Ultrasonographically, the mass was not only infiltrating the corneal stroma but seemed to protrude into the anterior chamber. The globe was surgically removed and submitted for pathology. A histologic diagnosis of corneal ocular squamous cell carcinoma with deep stromal invasion, infiltration of the uveoscleral meshwork and iridocorneal angle and resulting intraocular extension was made. This is the first detailed description of a limbal squamous cell carcinoma with invasion into the cornea and uvea in the horse.

  7. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype. PMID:26734870

  8. Familial renal cell carcinoma: clinical and molecular genetic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Maher, E.R.; Yates, J.R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 2% of all human cancer, but familial cases are infrequent. Riches (1963) and Griffin et al. (1984) in a population-based case-control study found a family history of renal cell carcinoma in 2.4% of affected patients compared to 1.4% of controls. Nevertheless the importance of inherited tumours in clinical practice and medical research is disproportionate to their frequency. In clinical practice recognition of familial RCC can provide opportunities to prevent morbidity and mortality by appropriate screening. In medical research recent advances in molecular genetics offer the prospect of isolating the genes involved in the pathogenesis of familial RCC and of the more common sporadic cases. In this article we review the clinical and molecular genetics of inherited renal cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma). PMID:1997093

  9. Are primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases of renal cell carcinoma the same cancer?

    PubMed

    Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Aleksandra; Stec, Rafał; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is a process consisting of cells spreading from the primary site of the cancer to distant parts of the body. Our understanding of this spread is limited and molecular mechanisms causing particular characteristics of metastasis are still unknown. There is some evidence that primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases of RCC exhibit molecular differences that may effect on the biological characteristics of the tumor. Some authors have detected differences in clear cell and nonclear cell component between these 2 groups of tumors. Investigators have also determined that primary RCC and metastases of RCC diverge in their range of renal-specific markers and other protein expression, gene expression pattern, and microRNA expression. There are also certain proteins that are variously expressed in primary RCCs and their metastases and have effect on clinical outcome, e.g., endothelin receptor type B, phos-S6, and CD44. However, further studies are needed on large cohorts of patients to identify differences representing promising targets for prognostic purposes predicting disease-free survival and the metastatic burden of a patient as well as their suitability as potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, in this review we have attempted to summarize studies connected with differences between primary RCC and its metastases and their influence on the biological characteristics of renal cancer.

  10. An unusual combined thymic carcinoma composed of squamous cell carcinoma and type AB thymoma: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yufeng; Liu, Yang; Shi, Xiuying; Mao, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Yang; Fan, Chuifeng

    2017-01-17

    Combined thymic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of the thymus recently added to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. It involves at least one type of thymic carcinoma and another thymic epithelial tumor. The previously used term "combined thymic epithelial tumor" has been abandoned. Here, we present an unusual case of combined thymic carcinoma of the thymus in a 44-year-old male who had suffered from fever, chest pain, chest tightness and shortness of breath. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a mass approximately 6.4 cm × 4.2 cm in the anterior mediastinum, and a nonencapsulated tumor approximately 5.0 cm × 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm with an irregular shape was resected. The morphological features and the immunostaining pattern of the tumor revealed it to be an unusual combined thymic carcinoma consisting of type AB thymoma and squamous cell carcinoma. There were cysts of various sizes, some of which had crack-like structures, in the type AB thymoma area. A gradual transition could be seen between these structures and the squamous cell carcinoma, indicating that the carcinoma portion may have originated from the composition of the thymoma. Combined thymic carcinoma composed of type AB thymoma and squamous cell carcinoma is rare, and the carcinoma portion may have originated from epithelial structures in the type AB thymoma.

  11. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Yi-You; Hwang, Jen-I; Chou, Yi-Hong; Wang, Jia-Hwia; Chiang, Jen-Huey; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2005-05-01

    Preliminary data regarding the use of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are encouraging, and show the technique to be associated with minimal morbidity. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the clinical applications, treatment efficacy, and complications of percutaneous RFA in RCC. From February 2003 to February 2004, 12 consecutive patients with histopathologically proven RCC underwent imaging-guided percutaneous RFA. The mean age of the patients (8 men and 4 women) was 76 years (range, 56-87 years), and mean tumor diameter was 3.7 cm (range, 2.2-8.0 cm). The efficacy of RFA was evaluated with contrast-enhanced, dynamic computed tomography (CT) performed 1 month after treatment, and then every 3 months. A Radionics device with an internally cooled electrode was used in 7 patients, and a radiofrequency interstitial tissue ablation (RITA) device with an expandable needle electrode was used in 5. Complete necrosis was defined as a lack of contrast enhancement in the treated region on follow-up CT studies. Overall, 16 sessions of RFA were performed for 12 solitary renal tumors in 12 patients: 8 patients underwent a single RFA session, whereas 4 had 2 sessions. Dynamic CT after RFA showed complete necrosis in 9 of 12 tumors. In 3 patients with tumors of 4.5-8.0 cm in diameter, enhancement of residual tissue was observed after RFA treatment, thus indicating residual tumor. Complete tumor necrosis was seen in all 5 tumors (100%) of diameter < or = 3.0 cm; 3 of 4 tumors (75%) of diameter 3.1-5.0 cm; and 1 of 3 tumors (33%) of diameter > 5.0 cm. A big subcapsular hematoma, which was found in 1 patient after RFA, resolved completely within 10 months without treatment; no serious complications occurred in the other 11 patients. Percutaneous RFA is effective in the treatment of RCC. It is most successful for tumors not larger than 3 cm in diameter, and has a satisfactory success rate in tumors of 3-5 cm in

  12. CT findings of small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongjun; Rho, Ji Young; Kang, Seunghun; Yoo, Koun Joy; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to clarify the recognizable computed tomography (CT) features of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Contrast enhanced CT scans were reviewed retrospectively for mass location, mediastinal extension, and other concomitant findings in 142 patients with pathologically proven SCLC. SCLC was classified into hilar mass only (type I), hilar mass with ipsilateral mediastinal extension (type II), hilar mass with bilateral mediastinal extension (type III), and peripheral mass (type IV). When mediastinal lymphadenopathy (m-LAP) was indistinguishable from a hilar mass, we defined it as a mediastinal conglomerate mass (m-CM). Type IIa or IIIa had ipsilateral or bilateral m-LAP and type IIb, IIIb or IIIc had ipsilateral or bilateral m-CM. Type I (n = 8, 5.6%), type II (n = 58, 40.8%), type III (n = 55, 38.8%), and type IV (n = 21, 14.8%) were manifested. The combination of a hilar mass and m-CM was found in 68 patients (47.9%). Type IV masses showed lobulation in 11, microlobulation in 4, both lobulated and irregular margins in 4, and spiculation in 2. A total of 120 patients (84.5%) had a bronchial stenosis/obstruction; single (n = 52) and 2 or more (n = 68). Ninety-five patients (67.0%) had vascular invasion including main/lobar pulmonary artery and superior vena cava, and 55 (38.7%) had pleural effusion and/or pleural nodules. Concomitant parenchymal findings (n = 92, 64.8%) were noted: contiguous consolidation/nodule (n = 45), hematogeneous spread (n = 32), lymphangitic spread (n = 21), obstructive pneumonia (n = 22), and obstructive atelectasis (n = 14). In conclusion, the recognizable CT features of SCLC were a hilar mass with m-CM. Most of the hilar masses showed 2 or more bronchial stenoses/obstructions. Most cases of peripheral SCLC manifested as a lobulated mass rather than a spiculated mass. Vascular invasion and concomitant parenchymal findings were observed commonly. PMID:27893684

  13. MET Inhibition in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zuoquan; Lee, Young H.; Boeke, Marta; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.; Liu, Zongzhi; Bottaro, Donald P.; Kluger, Harriet M.; Shuch, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most lethal form of kidney cancer. Small molecule VEGFR inhibitors are widely used but are not curative and various resistance mechanisms such as activation of the MET pathway have been described. Dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitors have recently shown clinical benefit but limited preclinical data evaluates their effects in ccRCC. Methods: An interrogation of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was performed to evaluate oncogenic alterations in the MET/VEGFR2 pathway. We evaluated the in vitro effects of Cabozantinib, a dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, using a panel of ccRCC cell lines. Drug effects of cell viability and proliferation, migration, cell scatter, anchorage independent growth, and downstream MET/VEGFR2 signaling pathways were assessed. Results: Twelve percent of TCGA cases had possible MET/HGF oncogenic alterations with co-occurrence noted (p<0.001). MET/HGF altered cases had worse overall survival (p=0.044). Cabozantinib was a potent inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2 in vitro in our cell line panel. PI3K, MAPK and mTOR pathways were also suppressed by cabozantinib, however the effects on cell viability in vitro were modest. At nanomolar concentrations of cabozantinib, HGF-stimulated migration, invasion, cellular scattering and soft agar colony formation were inhibited. Conclusions: We provide further preclinical rationale for dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibition in ccRCC. While the MET pathway is implicated in VEGFR resistance, dual inhibitors may have direct anti-tumor effects in a patient subset with evidence of MET pathway involvement. Cabozantinib is a potent dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, significantly inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro and likely has anti-angiogenic effects similar to other VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Future work involving in vivo models will be useful to better define mechanisms of potential anti-tumor activity. PMID:27390595

  14. Clinicopathological characteristics of distant metastases of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma: An autopsy study of older Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoko; Seki, Atsuko; Nonaka, Keisuke; Kakizaki, Mototsune; Wang, Tan; Aida, Junko; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Nakano, Yuta; Kaneda, Daita; Takata, Tadayuki; Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Junko; Murayama, Shigeo; Takubo, Kaiyo; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Sawabe, Motoji; Arai, Tomio

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to clarify the characteristics of malignancies in older adults focusing on distant metastasis in the whole body. We retrospectively evaluated 7710 cases of autopsies (4011 men, 3699 women, median age of 80 years), and analyzed the characteristics of metastasis of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma in each organ. The total number of cases with adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or urothelial carcinoma was 2856, and most of them were adenocarcinomas. Among them, 1604 had metastatic lesions, and patients with metastasis were younger than those without metastasis. The major primary organs of adenocarcinoma were the stomach, colon, lung, prostate, gallbladder and pancreas, whereas those for squamous cell carcinoma were the lung, esophagus and uterus. Urothelial carcinoma cases were found in the urinary bladder, kidney and ureter. Metastatic adenocarcinomas mainly originated from the stomach, colon, lung, pancreas and gallbladder. Metastatic squamous cell carcinomas were from the lung, esophagus and uterus, whereas the kidney, bladder and ureter were the primary origins of metastatic urothelial carcinomas. Squamous cell carcinoma showed the highest incidence of metastasis, suggestive of it being of an aggressive phenotype. Furthermore, metastatic ability and the preferred metastatic sites varied among primary organs. We revealed an accurate incidence and the characteristics of metastatic cancer in a large-scale autopsy study of older Japanese patients from one institution. Identifying these features might prompt screening for malignancies, and consequently improve quality of life for older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  16. Focus Issue: Neck Dissection for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Van Abel, Kathryn M.; Moore, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The staging and prognosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is intimately tied to the status of the cervical lymph nodes. Due to the high risk for occult nodal disease, most clinicians recommend treating the neck for these primary tumors. While there are many modalities available, surgical resection of nodal disease offers both a therapeutic and a diagnostic intervention. We review the relevant anatomy, nodal drainage patterns, clinical workup, surgical management and common complications associated with neck dissection for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22586518

  17. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Navarra; Valentina, Abruzzese; Federico, Sista; Renato, Pietroletti

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o'clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area. PMID:25922781

  18. Tubulocystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Rare Renal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bindroo, Sandiya; Varshney, Neha; Mittal, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma of the kidney is a rare entity with less than one hundred cases reported so far. It was previously considered to have some similarities to various other renal cancers although this tumor has distinct macroscopic, microscopic and immuno-histochemical features. It is now a well-established entity in renal neoplastic pathology and has been recognized as a distinct entity in the 2012 Vancouver classification of renal tumors. This review aims to give an overview of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma after extensive literature search using PubMed and CrossRef.

  19. HPV-Related Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Andrzej; Szylberg, Łukasz

    Since more than 5 years, it becomes evident that there is a new group of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck area, namely human papillomavirus (HPV)-related (caused) tumors. As clinical statistics indicate, those patients have better prognosis, even despite more advanced stage compared to those with HPV-negative tumors. In fact, as a surrogate of HPV infection for clinical studies, an immunohistochemical expression of p16 protein is used. In the following chapter, the spectrum of squamous cell carcinomas variants with indication of the percentage cases with proved HPV infection will be presented.

  20. Basal cell carcinoma in two Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Ducatelle, Richard; Bosseler, Leslie; Van Caelenberg, Annemie; Versnaeyen, Han; Chiers, Koen; Martel, An

    2016-11-01

    Neoplastic disorders are frequently encountered in the practice of reptile medicine. Herein we report the clinical behavior, antemortem diagnosis, and histopathologic characteristics of a recurrent intraoral keratinizing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and a metastatic BCC of the carapace in 2 Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Although squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in tortoises show similar predilection sites and gross pathologic features, the BCCs described in our report were characterized by a remarkably fast and highly infiltrative growth in comparison to SCCs. Accordingly, early diagnosis including reliable discrimination from SCC is essential toward the management of this neoplastic entity in tortoises. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Yarak, Samira; Machado, Taila Yuri Siqueira; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Almeida, Mirian Luzia da Silva; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are hamartomatous lesions of the epidermis that, unlike other epidermal nevi (such as sebaceous nevus or nevus comedonicus), are rarely associated with malignant neoplasms. The majority of squamous cell carcinoma develop in linear or multiple epidermal nevus and rarely in solitary epidermal nevus. In general, the prognosis is favorable. We report a case of well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus. Although there is no consensus on prophylactic removal of epidermal nevus, its removal and biopsy should be considered if changes occur. PMID:28300931

  2. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  3. Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2008-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland is rare in both veterinary and human medicine. Whereas human metaplastic and squamous variants are known, the objectives of the current study were to ascertain the presence of such entities in canine mammary tumors and to distinguish them from other (epidermal, sweat gland) squamous tumors that may develop in the same area. A panel of antibodies (anti-cytokeratin [CK] 19, CK 14, CK 5/6, pancytokeratin, and vimentin) was used on 18 mammary gland malignancies with squamous features and 16 malignant skin tumors (11 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and 5 sweat glands). Fifteen of the 18 mammary carcinomas were classified as metaplastic carcinomas, and the remaining 3 were classified as squamous cell carcinomas. The 2 most useful markers to establish the histogenesis of mammary tumors were pancytokeratin and CK 19. All other antibodies were equally expressed (CK 14 and 5/6) in all histotypes. The antibody panel discriminated primary epidermal squamous tumors (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 negative) from gland-derived squamous neoplasms (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 positive) but failed to distinguish primary mammary tumors from other squamous tumors of glandular origin.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma in functional renal graft: Toward ablative treatments.

    PubMed

    Tillou, Xavier; Guleryuz, Kerem; Collon, Sylvie; Doerfler, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a kidney transplant tumor is a rare but serious issue with a double risk: the return to dialysis and the development of metastatic cancer. Publications on this topic are mainly case reports. The purpose of this review was to report an exhaustive literature review of functional graft renal cell carcinomas to highlight the impact of tumors on the renal graft outcomes. 201 de novo renal carcinomas in functional renal grafts from 69 publications were included. Incidence was estimated at 0.18%. Graft tumors were mostly asymptomatic (85.9%). Whatever the discovery circumstances of graft tumors, they were mostly documented by graft ultrasounds supplemented by CT-scanning or MR imaging. Nephron sparing surgery (95 patients) was the first treatment performed followed by radiofrequency ablation (38 patients) and cryotherapy (10 patients). The most common tumor graft histology was clear cell carcinoma (46.4%), followed by papillary carcinoma (43.7%). Specific mortality was 2.9% with 6 deaths. Renal graft cell carcinoma is a rare pathology with a low specific death. When possible, conservative treatment should be the first choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Existence of a squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin complex causes a deviation between squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations determined using two different immunoassays: first report of squamous cell carcinoma antigen coupling with immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Mori, Eriko; Kurano, Makoto; Tobita, Akiko; Shimosaka, Hironori; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma antigen is used as a tumour marker and is routinely measured in clinical laboratories. We validated two different immunoassays and found three cases in which the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations deviated greatly between the two immunoassays. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these deviations. Methods The squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations were determined using the ARCHITECT SCC (CLIA method) and the ST AIA-PACK SCC (FEIA method). We performed polyethylene glycol precipitation and size exclusion chromatography to assess the molecular weight and spike recovery and absorption tests to examine the presence of an autoantibody. Results Both methods exhibited good performances for the measurement of squamous cell carcinoma antigen, although a correlation test showed large differences in the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations measured using the two methods in three cases. The results of polyethylene glycol treatment and size exclusion chromatography indicated the existence of a large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen in these three cases. The spike recovery tests suggested the possible presence of an autoantibody against squamous cell carcinoma antigen. Moreover, the absorption test revealed that large squamous cell carcinoma antigen complexes were formed by the association of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgG in two cases and with both IgG and IgA in one case. Conclusions This study describes the existence of large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen that has complexed with immunoglobulin in the serum samples. The reason for the deviations between the two immunoassays might be due to differences of their reactivities against the squamous cell carcinoma antigen immune complexes with their autoantibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the coupling of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgA.

  6. Multiple skin cancers in a single patient: Multiple pigmented Bowen's disease, giant basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ravi; Sharma, Nidhi; Pandey, Kritika; Puri, K J P S

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common type of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Bowen's disease (BD), a premalignant condition, has a marginal potential (3-5%) to progress to invasive carcinoma. We report here a rarest of a rare case of multiple pigmented BD with overlying squamous cell cancer along with a giant neglected BCC on the scalp of a 76-year-old man. The occurrence of multiple BD and NMSC in a single patient compelled us to explore the following hypothesis: (1) The multiple precancerous and cancerous lesions can be due to common etiopathogenesis. Chronic ultraviolet exposure, immunosupresssion, human papillomavirus infection, dietary factors, and environmental factors including arsenic exposure were probed in to. (2) There is evolution of precancerous lesions into a different type of cancers in different time frame. (3) The new cancerous lesions are subsequent cancers that developed after neglected untreated primary cancer.

  7. Rapid induction of senescence in human cervical carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Edward C.; Yang, Eva; Lee, Chan-Jae; Lee, Han-Woong; Dimaio, Daniel; Hwang, Eun-Seong

    2000-09-01

    Expression of the bovine papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein in human cervical carcinoma cell lines repressed expression of the resident human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes and within a few days caused essentially all of the cells to synchronously display numerous phenotypic markers characteristic of cells undergoing replicative senescence. This process was accompanied by marked but in some cases transient alterations in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and by decreased telomerase activity. We propose that the human papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins actively prevent senescence from occurring in cervical carcinoma cells, and that once viral oncogene expression is extinguished, the senescence program is rapidly executed. Activation of endogenous senescence pathways in cancer cells may represent an alternative approach to treat human cancers.

  8. Expression of ZNF396 in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Juncheng; Kito, Yusuke; Okubo, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu

    2014-05-01

    Zfp191 represses differentiation and keeps various cells in the stem/progenitor stage. Here, we report that a Zfp191 homolog protein, ZNF396, is expressed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and possibly represses the expression of a Notch system effector molecule, Hes1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1), and prevents BCC cells from undergoing Notch-mediated squamous cell differentiation. ZNF396 immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus of 35 of 38 cutaneous BCC and 4 of 74 squamous cell carcinoma tissue specimens. In non-tumorous epidermal tissues, ZNF396 immunoreactivity was restricted in basal cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 induced the expression of Notch2, Hes1, and involucrin in cultured BCC cells. Finally, we found that siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 gene inhibited the proliferation of TE354.T basal cell carcinoma cells. ZNF396 might repress Notch-Hes1 signaling axis and prevent tumor cells from undergoing squamous differentiation in BCC.

  9. Nuclear localization of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Sato, Yuko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ito, Hideki; Shimonohara, Nozomi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsuo, Koma; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-03-15

    To clarify whether mutations in the large T gene encoded by Merkel cell polyomavirus affect the expression and function of large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cases, we investigated the expression of large T antigen in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody revealed that large T antigen was expressed in the nuclei of Merkel cell carcinoma cells with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Deletion mutant analyses identified an Arg-Lys-Arg-Lys sequence (amino acids 277-280) as a nuclear localization signal in large T antigen. Sequence analyses revealed that there were no mutations in the nuclear localization signal in any of the eleven Merkel cell polyomavirus strains examined. Furthermore, stop codons were not observed in the upstream of the nuclear localization signal in any of the Merkel cell carcinoma cases examined. These data suggest that the nuclear localization signal is highly conserved and functional in Merkel cell carcinoma cases.

  10. Quiz. Correct answer to the quiz. Check your diagnosis. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Keva; Liu, Kai-Wen; Chang, I-Wei

    2015-06-01

    We incidentally observed a case of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma of an 81-year-old woman, presenting with intermittent left flank pain. It is a recently described rare renal parenchymal tumor.

  11. UOK 268 Cell Line for Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties to co-develop the UOK 262 immortalized cell line as research tool to study aggressive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)-associated recurring kidney cancer.

  12. Clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas: are their differences attributable to distinct cells of origin?

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Dawn R; Tessier-Cloutier, Basile; Lawrence, Katherine M; Nazeran, Tayyebeh; Karnezis, Anthony N; Salamanca, Clara; Cheng, Angela S; McAlpine, Jessica N; Hoang, Lien N; Gilks, C Blake; Huntsman, David G

    2017-09-01

    Endometrial epithelium is the presumed tissue of origin for both eutopic and endometriosis-derived clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas. We had previously hypothesized that the morphological, biological and clinical differences between these carcinomas are due to histotype-specific mutations. Although some mutations and genomic landscape features are more likely to be found in one of these histotypes, we were not able to identify a single class of mutations that was exclusively present in one histotype and not the other. This lack of genomic differences led us to an alternative hypothesis that these cancers could arise from distinct cells of origin within endometrial tissue, and that it is the cellular context that accounts for their differences. In a proteomic screen, we identified cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) as a marker for clear cell carcinoma, as it is expressed at high levels in clear cell carcinomas of the ovary and endometrium. In the current study, we analysed normal Müllerian tissues, and found that CTH is expressed in ciliated cells of endometrium (both eutopic endometrium and endometriosis) and fallopian tubes. We then demonstrated that other ciliated cell markers are expressed in clear cell carcinomas, whereas endometrial secretory cell markers are expressed in endometrioid carcinomas. The same differential staining of secretory and ciliated cells was demonstrable in a three-dimensional organoid culture system, in which stem cells were stimulated to differentiate into an admixture of secretory and ciliated cells. These data suggest that endometrioid carcinomas are derived from cells of the secretory cell lineage, whereas clear cell carcinomas are derived from, or have similarities to, cells of the ciliated cell lineage. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of chaetocin on renal cell carcinoma cells and cytokine-induced killer cells.

    PubMed

    Rombo, Roman; Weiher, Hans; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H

    2016-01-01

    We examined the cytotoxic effects of chaetocin on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells and the possibility to combine the effects of chaetocin with the effects of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK) assayed by MTT assay and FACS analysis. Chaetocin is a thiodioxopiperazine produced by fungi belonging to the chaetomiaceae family. In 2007, it was first reported that chaetocin shows potent and selective ex vivo anti-cancer activity by inducing reactive oxygen species. CIK cells are generated from CD3+/CD56- T lymphocytes with double negative CD4-/CD8- phenotype that are isolated from human blood. The addition of distinct interleukins and antibodies results in the generation of CIK cells that are able to specifically target and destroy renal carcinoma cells. The results of this research state that the anti-ccRCC activity of chaetocin is weak and does not show a high grade of selectivity on clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells. Although the CIK cells show a high grade of selective anti-ccRCC activity, this effect could not be improved by the addition of chaetocin. So chaetocin seems to be no suitable agent for specific targeting ccRCC cells or for the combination therapy with CIK cells in renal cancer.

  14. Effect of chaetocin on renal cell carcinoma cells and cytokine-induced killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rombo, Roman; Weiher, Hans; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G.H.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the cytotoxic effects of chaetocin on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells and the possibility to combine the effects of chaetocin with the effects of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK) assayed by MTT assay and FACS analysis. Chaetocin is a thiodioxopiperazine produced by fungi belonging to the chaetomiaceae family. In 2007, it was first reported that chaetocin shows potent and selective ex vivo anti-cancer activity by inducing reactive oxygen species. CIK cells are generated from CD3+/CD56- T lymphocytes with double negative CD4-/CD8- phenotype that are isolated from human blood. The addition of distinct interleukins and antibodies results in the generation of CIK cells that are able to specifically target and destroy renal carcinoma cells. The results of this research state that the anti-ccRCC activity of chaetocin is weak and does not show a high grade of selectivity on clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells. Although the CIK cells show a high grade of selective anti-ccRCC activity, this effect could not be improved by the addition of chaetocin. So chaetocin seems to be no suitable agent for specific targeting ccRCC cells or for the combination therapy with CIK cells in renal cancer. PMID:27141211

  15. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase C correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yibo; Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Yu, Yajie; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Pu; Li, Shuang; Bao, Meiling; Yang, Jie; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun

    2017-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C is an isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase and a member of the cancer-testis antigens family. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of lactate dehydrogenase C and its basic mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma. First, a total of 133 cases of renal cell carcinoma samples were analysed in a tissue microarray, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between lactate dehydrogenase C expression and renal cell carcinoma progression. Lactate dehydrogenase C protein levels and messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues, and the patients with positive lactate dehydrogenase C expression had a shorter progression-free survival, indicating the oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase C in renal cell carcinoma. In addition, further cytological experiments demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase C could prompt renal cell carcinoma cells to produce lactate, and increase metastatic and invasive potential of renal cell carcinoma cells. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase C could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. In summary, these findings showed lactate dehydrogenase C was associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma and played a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase C may act as a novel biomarker for renal cell carcinoma progression and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  16. Two different scenarios of squamous cell carcinoma within advanced Basal cell carcinomas: cases illustrating the importance of serial biopsy during vismodegib usage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gefei A; Sundram, Uma; Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2014-09-01

    Vismodegib is a Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for advanced basal cell carcinoma. We present 2 cases of clinically significant squamous cell carcinoma within the tumor bed of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma found during vismodegib treatment. The first case is that of a patient with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma responsive to vismodegib but with an enlarging papule within the tumor bed. On biopsy, this papule was an invasive acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma. The second case is that of a patient with Gorlin syndrome with a locally advanced basal cell carcinoma that was stable while the patient was receiving therapy with vismodegib for 2.5 years but subsequently increased in size. Biopsy specimens from this tumor showed invasive squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell subtype. In both cases, the squamous cell carcinomas were surgically resected. These cases highlight the importance of repeated biopsy in locally advanced basal cell carcinomas in 2 clinical situations: (1) when an area within the tumor responds differentially to vismodegib, and (2) when a tumor stops being suppressed by vismodegib. Timely diagnosis of non-basal cell histologic characteristics is critical to institution of effective therapy.

  17. Small-cell carcinoma of the ovary in peritoneal fluid.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, S M

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of small-cell carcinoma of the ovary in the ascitic fluid and peritoneal/pelvic washings of a 30- and 28-yr-old woman, respectively, are presented and discussed. Smear preparations from the ascitic fluid showed loose clusters and single malignant cells with scant cytoplasm and nuclei with smooth to irregular nuclear membranes, granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. In the second case peritoneal/pelvic washing specimens contained clusters and single malignant cells with a moderate amount of cytoplasm and nuclei with smooth nuclear membranes, granular, clumped chromatin, and prominent nucleoli. Hisology confirmed the diagnosis of small-cell carcinoma of the ovary. These are the first reported cases of this rare ovarian neoplasm present on fluid cytology. Its differentiation from other small-cell neoplasms on peritoneal fluid cytology from young women is discussed.

  18. Immunotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Unverzagt, Susanne; Moldenhauer, Ines; Nothacker, Monika; Roßmeißl, Dorothea; Hadjinicolaou, Andreas V; Peinemann, Frank; Greco, Francesco; Seliger, Barbara

    2017-05-15

    Since the mid-2000s, the field of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has experienced a paradigm shift from non-specific therapy with broad-acting cytokines to specific regimens, which directly target the cancer, the tumour microenvironment, or both.Current guidelines recommend targeted therapies with agents such as sunitinib, pazopanib or temsirolimus (for people with poor prognosis) as the standard of care for first-line treatment of people with mRCC and mention non-specific cytokines as an alternative option for selected patients.In November 2015, nivolumab, a checkpoint inhibitor directed against programmed death-1 (PD-1), was approved as the first specific immunotherapeutic agent as second-line therapy in previously treated mRCC patients. To assess the effects of immunotherapies either alone or in combination with standard targeted therapies for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and their efficacy to maximize patient benefit. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), ISI Web of Science and registers of ongoing clinical trials in November 2016 without language restrictions. We scanned reference lists and contacted experts in the field to obtain further information. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs with or without blinding involving people with mRCC. We collected and analyzed studies according to the published protocol. Summary statistics for the primary endpoints were risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We rated the quality of evidence using GRADE methodology and summarized the quality and magnitude of relative and absolute effects for each primary outcome in our 'Summary of findings' tables. We identified eight studies with 4732 eligible participants and an additional 13 ongoing studies. We categorized studies into comparisons, all against standard therapy accordingly as first-line (five comparisons) or second-line therapy (one comparison

  19. Follicular atrophoderma with multiple basal cell carcinomas (Bazex).

    PubMed

    Gould, D J; Barker, D J

    1978-10-01

    Five patients from a single family are reported who have an inherited condition of which the main features are follicular atrophoderma, abnormalities of scalp hair and multiple basal cell carcinomas. Thes abnormalities are consistent with the syndrome described by Bazex et al. (1964). The pattern of inheritance of this condition is discussed.

  20. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma in proximal humerus of a dog

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Sarah; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Nykamp, Stephanie G.; Allavena, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was diagnosed in the proximal humerus of a dog that was presented with persistent right forelimb lameness with no clinical signs of urinary tract involvement. A diagnosis of TCC was made from surgical biopsy of the humeral lesion with subsequent necropsy revealing the prostatic urethra as the primary site of the tumor. PMID:22379204

  1. Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Ruth M; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Cole, Bryan E; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Terahertz pulse imaging has been used for the first time to study basal cell carcinoma ex vivo, the most common form of skin cancer. This noninvasive technique uses part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0.1-2.7 THz. A total of 21 samples were imaged; the study was performed blind and results were compared to histology. Each image consisted of possible diseased tissue and normal tissue from the same patient. The diseased tissue showed an increase in absorption compared to normal tissue, which is attributed to either an increase in the interstitial water within the diseased tissue or a change in the vibrational modes of water molecules with other functional groups. Seventeen of the images showed a significant difference between the normal and the diseased tissue. These were confirmed by histology to be basal cell carcinomas. Of the remaining four cases, three showed no contrast and were confirmed as blind controls of normal tissue; the fourth case was a suspected basal cell carcinoma but showed no contrast, and histology showed no tumor. Cross-sections of the terahertz images, showing the terahertz absorption, were compared to histology. Regions of increased terahertz absorption agreed well with the location of the tumor sites. Resolutions at 1 THz of 350 microm laterally and 40 microm axially in skin were attainable with our system. These results demonstrate the ability of terahertz pulse imaging to distinguish basal cell carcinoma from normal tissue, and this macroscopic technique may, in the future, help plan surgery.

  2. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N; Linn, Kathleen A; Dickinson, Ryan M; Carr, Anthony P

    2008-09-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  3. Unusual Presentation of Ulcerative Postauricular Swelling as Sebaceous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Prem; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Paramjit; Singla, Lakshay

    2016-01-01

    Sebaceous glands have high concentration over head and neck region. Despite high concentration, sebaceous cell adenoma and carcinomas are infrequent. Sebaceous cell carcinoma is an uncommon, cutaneous aggressive tumor arising from the sebaceous glands and seen almost exclusively on the eyelids (75%). It accounts for just 0.2–0.7% of all eyelid tumors in the USA and very few cases that have originated in areas other than the eyelids have been reported. A 67-year-old male presented with swelling (3 cm × 4 cm), on the right postauricular region, since about 1-month. The swelling became ulcerative and associated with progressive tinnitus and hoarseness of voice. The patient was investigated. Fine-needle aspiration cytology suggested sebaceous cell carcinoma. Then excision biopsy was done, and histopathological examination of excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis. Extraorbital sebaceous cell carcinoma is an aggressive and invasive malignancy. It clinically mimics other diseases and is difficult to diagnose. Hence, an accurate and prompt diagnosis is crucial because of its fulminant course, serious associations with Muir-Torre syndrome and high potential for regional and distant metastasis. PMID:27843279

  4. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. ); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); Zitelli, J.A. )

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  5. [Care of Merkel cell carcinoma and role of the radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Rehailia-Blanchard, Amel; Pigné, Grégoire; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Vallard, Alexis; El Meddeb Hamrouni, Anis; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare neuro-endocrine tumor of skin with a poor prognosis. Data available in literature are scarce. Current treatment for locoregional disease is based on combined treatment by surgery and radiotherapy. However these treatments are controversial. The aim of the present review is to sum up the different available studies and to compare national and international guidelines.

  6. [Successful therapy of metastatic basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib].

    PubMed

    Zutt, M; Mazur, F; Bergmann, M; Lemke, A J; Kaune, K M

    2014-11-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with giant basal cell carcinoma on the abdomen which had metastasized. He was treated with oral vismodegib. Both the primary ulcerated tumor on the abdomen and the metastases responded. Vismodegib was well tolerated without significant side effects. The tumor recurred promptly after vismodegib was discontinued, and then was resistant to therapy when vismodegib was re-administered.

  7. Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Diagnostic Challenge and Clinical Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Wai Leong; Lee, Joyce Siong See; Chio, Martin Tze-wei

    2016-01-01

    Subungual squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity and difficult to diagnose as its clinical presentation may resemble benign conditions. This case report highlights the need to maintain a high clinical index of suspicion, and recommends a practical approach for subungual conditions. Dermoscopy and a biopsy for histology are important adjuncts to clinch the diagnosis. PMID:27920677

  8. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in a meningioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Han, H S; Kim, E Y; Han, J Y; Kim, Y B; Hwang, T S; Chu, Y C

    2000-10-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is rare. We report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in meningioma. A 67-year-old woman presented a two-week history of motor dysphagia and decreased short-term memory. She had undergone a left radical nephrectomy for a renal cell carcinoma 7 years ago, and had not received any adjuvant therapy. MRI disclosed a 3.0 x 3.0 x 3.0-cm sized round tentorial-based extraaxial mass with peritumoral edema in the left posterior temporal lobe. During operation, the tumor was found to be an encapsulated mass firmly attached to the tentorium. Histologically, the tumor was a meningotheliomatous meningioma extensively infiltrated by metastatic renal cell carcinoma, accompanying widespread coagulative necrosis. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin revealed strong positivity only in the renal cell carcinoma component. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Post-operative radiation therapy was applied to the whole brain. Three months after operation, the patient developed right hemiparesis and dysphagia. Brain MRI at that time did not reveal recurrence or any other causative lesions, although the whole body scan disclosed uptake at the second lumbar vertebra and rib. The patient refused further treatment.

  9. Discovering Biomarkers within the Genomic Landscape of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    A, Sankin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular sequencing technology have led to the discovery of numerous biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These biomarkers have the potential to predict clinical outcomes and aid in clinical management decisions. The following commentary is a review of the preliminary data on some of the most promising genetic biomarker candidates. PMID:27104219

  10. Discovering Biomarkers within the Genomic Landscape of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    A, Sankin

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in molecular sequencing technology have led to the discovery of numerous biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These biomarkers have the potential to predict clinical outcomes and aid in clinical management decisions. The following commentary is a review of the preliminary data on some of the most promising genetic biomarker candidates.

  11. Differential expression of aquaporin 5 and aquaporin 3 in squamous cell carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Shunsuke; Wada, Koichiro; Usami, Yu; Tanaka, Noriaki; Aikawa, Tomonao; Okura, Masaya; Nakajima, Atsushi; Kogo, Mikihiko; Kamisaki, Yoshinori

    2012-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a membrane protein family involved in the selective transport of water across cell membranes. Recent studies have reported the expression of AQP5 in several tumor types such as gastric, pulmonary, ovarian, pancreatic and colorectal cancer. We have previously reported the expression on tumor cells and the important role of AQP3 on cell growth in tongue cancer. However, little is known about the expression and precise role of AQP5 on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue. We investigated the expression of AQP5 and AQP3 in human oral SCC and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Overexpression of both AQP5 and AQP3 were immunohistochemically observed on tumor cells in SCC, whereas ACC cells were faintly stained with those antibodies against AQPs. Treatment with pan-AQP inhibitor or specific AQP5-siRNA showed inhibition of cell growth in SCC cell lines via the inhibition of integrins and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. AQPs play important roles in cell growth in SCC rather than ACC.

  12. Comparison of seven cell lines derived from human gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, T; Hojo, H; Watanabe, H

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate various histological features of gastric cancers, seven human gastric adenocarcinomas were studied in vitro and in nude mice. Growth pattern of each cultured cell line in vitro corresponded well to the histological type of parent tumor. The cell lines, MKN7, MKN74, and MKN28 derived from differentiated carcinomas showed morphological characteristics of intestinal differentiation in cell polarity and microvilli with core-filaments in vitro as well as in nude mice. However, they gradually diminished the characteristics in course of time. The cell lines, MKN 45 and OKAJIMA, derived from undifferentiated carcinomas, had natures of not only ordinary gastric mucosa but also intestinal metaplastic mucosa. They seem to have multipotentiality for differentiation, and preserved well the natures for long periods of culture. The KWS-I cell line composed of undifferentiated cells in vitro displayed the potential for differentiation in nude mice. However, the differentiation of KATO-III cells derived from a signet-ring cell carcinoma was suppressed in nude mice. The common abnormality of chromosome was not found, and the growth rate in vitro was not dependent on the histological type of parent tumor.

  13. Comprehensive molecular characterization of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2013-07-04

    Genetic changes underlying clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) include alterations in genes controlling cellular oxygen sensing (for example, VHL) and the maintenance of chromatin states (for example, PBRM1). We surveyed more than 400 tumours using different genomic platforms and identified 19 significantly mutated genes. The PI(3)K/AKT pathway was recurrently mutated, suggesting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target. Widespread DNA hypomethylation was associated with mutation of the H3K36 methyltransferase SETD2, and integrative analysis suggested that mutations involving the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex (PBRM1, ARID1A, SMARCA4) could have far-reaching effects on other pathways. Aggressive cancers demonstrated evidence of a metabolic shift, involving downregulation of genes involved in the TCA cycle, decreased AMPK and PTEN protein levels, upregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway and the glutamine transporter genes, increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein, and altered promoter methylation of miR-21 (also known as MIR21) and GRB10. Remodelling cellular metabolism thus constitutes a recurrent pattern in ccRCC that correlates with tumour stage and severity and offers new views on the opportunities for disease treatment.

  14. COMPREHENSIVE MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CLEAR CELL RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Genetic changes underlying clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) include alterations in genes controlling cellular oxygen sensing (e.g. VHL) and the maintenance of chromatin states (e.g. PBRM1). We surveyed more than 400 tumors using different genomic platforms and identified 19 significantly mutated genes. The PI3K/Akt pathway was recurrently mutated, suggesting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target. Widespread DNA hypomethylation was associated with mutation of the H3K36 methyltransferase SETD2, and integrative analysis suggested that mutations involving the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex (PBRM1, ARID1A, SMARCA4) could have far-reaching effects on other pathways. Aggressive cancers demonstrated evidence of a metabolic shift, involving down-regulation of genes involved in the TCA cycle, decreased AMPK and PTEN protein levels, up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway and the glutamine transporter genes, increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein, and altered promoter methylation of miR-21 and GRB10. Remodeling cellular metabolism thus constitutes a recurrent pattern in ccRCC that correlates with tumor stage and severity and offers new views on the opportunities for disease treatment. PMID:23792563

  15. The epigenetic landscape of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kluzek, Katarzyna; Bluyssen, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of all kidney tumors. During the last few years, epigenetics has emerged as an important mechanism in ccRCC pathogenesis. Recent reports, involving large-scale methylation and sequencing analyses, have identified genes frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and recurrent mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulatory proteins. Interestingly, three of detected genes (PBRM1, SETD2 and BAP1) are located on chromosome 3p, near the VHL gene, inactivated in over 80% ccRCC cases. This suggests that 3p alterations are an essential part of ccRCC pathogenesis. Moreover, most of the proteins encoded by these genes cooperate in histone H3 modifications. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest discoveries shedding light on deregulation of chromatin machinery in ccRCC. Newly described ccRCC-specific epigenetic alterations could potentially serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and become an object of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:28326264

  16. Inhibitory effects of xanthohumol from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Chien; Liu, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Nan; Duan, Kow-Jen; Lin, Ming-Tse

    2008-11-01

    Xanthohumol is one of the main flavonoids in hop extracts and in beer. Very few investigations of xanthohumol have studied hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the inhibitory effects of xanthohumol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were investigated. The IC(50) values of xanthohumol for two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and one normal hepatocyte cell line were 108, 166 and 211 microm, respectively. Normal murine hepatocyte cell line had more resistance to xanthohumol than hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Besides, the inhibitory effects of xanthohumol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were attributed to apoptosis as indicated in the results of flow cytometry, fluorescent nuclear staining and electrophoresis of oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. Hop xanthohumol was more efficient in the growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines than the flavonoids silibinin and naringin from thistle and citrus. It was shown for the first time that xanthohumol from hops effectively inhibits proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.

  17. GLUT-1 immunoexpression in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Angadi, Vidya C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2015-06-01

    Glucose transporters, such as GLUT-1, mediate the important mechanisms involved in cellular glucose influx, allowing cells to proliferate and survive. The significance of GLUT-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been less explored, and no study has investigated it in relation to verrucous carcinoma (VC). We evaluated 30 cases each of OED, OSCC, and VC, graded further on the basis of their differentiation, immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression, along with 10 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) as controls. In OSCC, GLUT-1 expression increased with the degree of dysplasia and increasing grade (P < 0.001). The expression in VC was predominantly membranous and intense, resembling well differentiated OSCC. This increase of GLUT-1 expression in OSCC along with the degree of dysplasia and the histologic grade reflects the expanding glycolytic response to hypoxia. This is the first study to have revealed prominent GLUT-1 expression in VC, highlighting its inherent metabolic capacity.

  18. A case of mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Ikuko; Ando, Takao; Haraguchi, Ai; Horie, Ichiro; Imaizumi, Misa; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Uga, Tatsuya; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A medullary thyroid carcinoma is a malignant tumor derived from the C-cells of the thyroid. Despite their distinct embryological origin, medullary thyroid carcinomas are exceptionally accompanied by a tumor derived from the follicular cells; this is defined as mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma. There have been controversies regarding the origin of this rare mixed thyroid carcinoma questioning whether or not a mixed carcinoma originates from a common cancer stem cell. We present a case of mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma in which two thyroid carcinomas were found intermingled in the thyroid as well as in the metastatic cervical lymph nodes. We examined the tumor by immunostaining with thyroglobulin, calcitonin, and thyroid transcription factor-1, and also reviewed the literature and discuss the origin of this rare mixed thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Unusual localization of a common cutaneous neoplasm: basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tecimer, Rukiye Selin; Yildiz, Kürsat Demir; Aktürk, Aysun Sikar; Bilen, Nilgün

    2013-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of the skin carcinomas and ultraviolet radiation is the major risk factor in the etiopathogenesis. However, reports of unusual sites for BCC are increased in the literature. Authors draw attention to possibility of other etiological agents for BCC like local trauma, ageing, ionizing radiation, arsenic, chronic inflammation, and immune deficiency. Here, we reported a 74-year-old male patient with nodular BCC on groin. We thought that ageing or local trauma may have a role in its formation.

  20. Isolated adrenal masses in nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Bernardino, M.E.; Miller, J.I.; Mansour, K.; Greene, D.; Davis, W.A.

    1984-10-01

    Computed tomography has become an important diagnostic modality in the preoperative staging of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. The adrenal glands represent one of the most frequent sites of metastasis. Therefore, an isolated adrenal mass discovered on preoperative thoracoabdominal CT poses a diagnostic problem. Three hundred thirty patients with histologically proved nonsmall-cell bronchogenic carcinoma were evaluated. Thirty-two had adrenal masses without further evidence of disease in the abdomen, Eight of these 32 masses were metastases, 17 were proved adenomas, and 7 did not undergo biopsy. Thus an isolated adrenal mass is more likely benign than metastatic, and biopsy is advocated prior to withholding potentially curative surgery.

  1. [Synchronous bilateral chromophobe cell renal carcinoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Mukai, Masatoshi; Imamura, Ryoichi; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2009-09-01

    An 81-year-old female presented with abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography scan showed a 26 x 22 mm tumor in the left kidney and 43 x 37 mm tumor in the right kidney. Clinical diagnosis was bilateral renal cell carcinoma, left; cT1a, right; cT1bN0M0. We planned primary unilateral partial nephrectomy, followed by secondary contralateral radical nephrectomy. Left partial nephrectomy was performed and 4 months later, laparoscopic right renal nephrectomy was performed without serious postoperative renal dysfunction. Pathological diagnosis of both tumors was chromophobe renal carcinoma. The patient has been doing well without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis.

  2. Perineural Spread of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Manifesting as Ophthalmoplegia

    PubMed Central

    Koukkoulli, Antigoni; Koutroumanos, Nikolas; Kidd, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 89-year-old female presented with horizontal diplopia and was diagnosed with VI nerve palsy attributed to a microvascular event. She subsequently progressed to develop an orbital apex syndrome, with neuroimaging demonstrating tumour invasion. Eighteen months earlier, she had squamous cell carcinoma of the forehead excised with clear margins. Intraneural and perineural spread of squamous carcinoma from the face to the cranial cavity is an important cause of delayed cranial nerve palsies after local excision of the skin tumour. PMID:27928347

  3. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  4. Citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Cho, Eunyoung; Feskanich, Diane; Li, Wen-Qing; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Qureshi, Abrar A

    2015-10-01

    Animal experiments have demonstrated the photocarcinogenic properties of furocoumarins, a group of naturally occurring chemicals that are rich in citrus products. We conducted a prospective study for citrus consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin based on data from 41530 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010) and 63759 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) who were free of cancers at baseline. Over 24-26 years of follow-up, we documented 20840 incident BCCs and 3544 incident SCCs. Compared to those who consumed citrus products less than twice per week, the pooled multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.99-1.08] for BCC and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.00-1.30) for SCC for those who consumed two to four times per week, 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.11) for BCC and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02-1.28) for SCC for five to six times per week, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.16) for BCC and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08-1.37) for SCC for once to 1.4 times per day and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09-1.23) for BCC and 1.21 (95% Cl: 1.06-1.38) for SCC for 1.5 times per day or more (P trend = 0.001 for BCC and 0.04 for SCC). In contrast, consumption of non-citrus fruit and juice appeared to be inversely associated with risk of BCC and SCC. Our findings support positive associations between citrus consumption and risk of cutaneous BCC and SCC in two cohorts of men and women, and call for further investigations to better understand the potential photocarcinogenesis associated with dietary intakes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas consistently show histologic evidence of in situ changes: a clinicopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, S T; Hurwitz, R M; Buckel, L J; Gray, H R

    1999-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma on sun-damaged skin is a malignant neoplasm that evolves from its inception as squamous cell carcinoma in situ, which is commonly referred to as an actinic keratosis. In this study, we reviewed 1011 squamous cell carcinomas on sun-damaged skin and found that nearly 100% of these lesions contained histopathologic changes consistent with squamous cell carcinoma in situ at the periphery or within the confines of the squamous cell carcinoma. These malignant changes began in single layer areas of the lower epidermis and evolved into the epidermis and dermis.

  6. Intratumoral morphologic and molecular heterogeneity of rhabdoid renal cell carcinoma: challenges for personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh R; Murugan, Paari; Patel, Lalit R; Voicu, Horatiu; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Wani, Khalida; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G; Creighton, Chad J; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Czerniak, Bogdan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Sircar, Kanishka

    2015-09-01

    Rhabdoid histology in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma may also be influenced by molecular alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between histologic features and salient molecular changes in rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We macrodissected the rhabdoid and clear-cell epithelioid components from 12 cases of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. We assessed cancer-related mutations from eight cases using a clinical next-generation exome-sequencing platform. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (n=8) and non-rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) was assessed by RNA-seq and gene expression microarray. VHL (63%) showed identical mutations in all regions from the same tumor. BAP1 (38%) and PBRM1 (13%) mutations were identified in the rhabdoid but not in the epithelioid component and were mutually exclusive in 3/3 cases and 1 case, respectively. SETD2 (63%) mutations were discordant between different histologic regions in 2/5 cases, with mutations called only in the epithelioid and rhabdoid components, respectively. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma was distinct from advanced-stage and high-grade clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. The diverse histologic components of rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, however, showed a similar transcriptomic program, including a similar prognostic gene expression signature. Rhabdoid clear-cell renal cell carcinoma is transcriptomically distinct and shows a high rate of SETD2 and BAP1 mutations and a low rate of PBRM1 mutations. Driver mutations in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma are often discordant across different morphologic regions, whereas the gene expression program is relatively stable. Molecular profiling of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma may improve by assessing for gene expression and sampling tumor foci from different

  7. Intratumoral Morphologic and Molecular Heterogeneity of Rhabdoid Renal Cell Carcinoma: Challenges for Personalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh R.; Murugan, Paari; Patel, Lalit R.; Voicu, Horatiu; Yoo, Suk-Young; Majewski, Tadeusz; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Wani, Khalida; Tannir, Nizar; Karam, Jose A.; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G.; Creighton, Chad J.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Baggerly, Keith A.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Sircar, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid histology in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma may also be influenced by molecular alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between histologic features and salient molecular changes in rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We macrodissected the rhabdoid and clear cell epithelioid components from 12 cases of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We assessed cancer related mutations from 8 cases using a clinical next generation exome sequencing platform. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=8) and non-rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n=37) was assessed by RNA-seq and gene expression microarray. VHL (63%) showed identical mutations in all regions from the same tumor. BAP1 (38%) and PBRM1 (13%) mutations were identified in the rhabdoid but not the epithelioid component and were mutually exclusive in 3/3 cases and 1 case, respectively. SETD2 (63%) mutations were discordant between different histologic regions in 2/5 cases, with mutations called only in the epithelioid and rhabdoid components, respectively. The transcriptome of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma was distinct from advanced stage and high grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The diverse histologic components of rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma, however, showed a similar transcriptomic program, including a similar prognostic gene expression signature. Rhabdoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma is transcriptomically distinct and shows a high rate of SETD2 and BAP1 mutations and a low rate of PBRM1 mutations. Driver mutations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma are often discordant across different morphologic regions whereas the gene expression program is relatively stable. Molecular profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma may improve by assessing for gene expression and sampling tumor foci from different histologic

  8. Metachronous squamous-cell carcinoma of the colon and treatment of rectal squamous carcinoma with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brammer, R D; Taniere, P; Radley, S

    2009-02-01

    Rectal squamous-cell carcinoma is a rare tumour with an incidence of less than 1 per 1000 cases. We report such a case treated with chemoradiotherapy. The patient developed a metastasis in the spleen and a further squamous tumour in the right colon, both of which were successfully resected. No histological evidence of recurrent rectal tumour has been found. Two years following presentation, the patient remains disease-free although symptomatic from a radiotherapy-induced stricture of the rectum.

  9. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma and pilonidal cyst disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Francesco; Lauro, Mario; Tirone, Lucio Pasquale; Festa, Rosa Maria; Peluso, Gaia; Mazzoni, Giada; Scognamiglio, Marco; Grimaldi, Simona; Fresini, Antonio

    2015-02-20

    Il carcinoma a cellule squamose insorgente su malattia del seno pilonidale è una patologia abbastanza rara che sopraggiunge in presenza di malattia con decorso decennale. È caratterizzato da una crescita lenta ma da un’elevata invasività locale. Gli autori riportano il caso di un paziente di 63 anni con storia pluridecennale di malattia del seno pilonidale con ascessualizzazioni ricorrenti trattato chirurgicamente con resezione ampia e ricostruzione mediante uso di lembi. A distanza di 30 mesi non sono state osservate complicanze o recidive locali.

  11. Thyroid Langerhans cell histiocytosis and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Mohammed; Alhakami, Hadi; AlSubayea, Haia; Alfattani, Naif; Guler, Mohammet; Satti, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A 27-year-old female, married with two children, presented to our clinic with a 1-year history of thyroid swelling and pressure symptoms on lying backward and bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. The patient was a known case of panhypopituitarism for 5 years. Comprehensive patient evaluation including FNAC with papillary thyroid cancer result then she underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection and final histologic examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma in the background of lymphocytic thyroiditis, associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The draining cervical lymph nodes were also involved by LCH and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the association of LCH with papillary thyroid carcinoma in the thyroid has been reported, their co-existence with LCH in the draining lymph nodes is very uncommon. PMID:27867869

  12. SOX2 and Rb1 in esophageal small-cell carcinoma: their possible involvement in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hirotaka; Kasajima, Atsuko; Kamei, Takashi; Miura, Tsuyoshi; Oka, Naomi; Yazdani, Samaneh; Ozawa, Yohei; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Sakurada, Akira; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yoichi; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Okada, Yoshinori; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2017-05-01

    Clinicopathological features and pathogenesis of esophageal small-cell carcinoma remain unclear. We hypothesized common cellular origin and pathogenesis in small-cell carcinoma of esophagus and lung associated with SOX2 overexpression and loss of Rb1. Expression of squamous-basal markers (CK5/6 and p40), glandular markers (CK18 and CEA), SOX2, and Rb1 were evaluated in 15 esophageal small-cell carcinomas, 46 poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and 88 small-cell lung carcinoma, as well as 16 embryonic esophagus. Esophageal small-cell carcinoma expressed higher levels of glandular markers and lower levels of squamous-basal markers than poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. No significant differences were observed in immunohistochemistry profiles between small-cell carcinoma of the esophagus and the lung. SOX2 expression was high in esophageal small-cell carcinoma (70%±33% of nuclei), small-cell lung carcinoma (70%±26%), and the embryonic esophagus (75%±4%), and it was significantly lower in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (29%±28%). Rb1 expression was significantly lower in esophageal small-cell carcinoma (0.3%±1%), small-cell lung carcinoma (2%±6%), and the embryonic esophagus (7%±5%), and it was significantly higher in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (51%±24%). The immunohistochemistry profiles of small-cell carcinoma of the esophagus and the lung are highly similar. The loss of Rb1 function is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of both neoplasms. In addition, SOX2 overexpression observed in esophageal and lung small-cell carcinoma as well as in the embryonic esophagus indicated that esophageal small-cell carcinoma may arise from embryonic-like stem cells in the esophageal epithelium. The two distinct differentiation patterns (neuroendocrine and glandular) of esophageal small-cell carcinoma further support the fact that SOX2 has a pivotal role in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into

  13. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma and breast carcinoma following repeated fluoroscopic examinations of the chest.

    PubMed

    Myskowski, P L; Gumpertz, E; Safai, B

    1985-03-01

    A 69-year-old white Italian woman was first seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in 1981 concerning several skin growths on her back. The patient had had several basal cell carcinomas surgically removed from her back during the preceding 5 years. There was no history of arsenic ingestion or prolonged sun exposure and her family history was negative for skin cancer. The patient had developed pulmonary tuberculosis in 1938 and was treated with pneumothorax therapy. She had had more than 50 fluoroscopic examinations of the chest following this therapy, as well as multiple diagnostic x-ray films since that time. She recalled that she had faced the fluoroscopy beam during the procedure. In 1959, she had a transabdominal hysterectomy for fibroid tumors. In 1980 she underwent a right modified radical mastectomy for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast; biopsies of lymph nodes were negative. Physical examination revealed a thin, white woman with a right mastectomy scar. On the back, clustered in the interscapular region, were multiple scars and nine erythematous nodules with pearly borders, telangiectasia, and translucent surfaces. Within several nodules there were areas of light and dark brown pigmentation. There were no other suspicious lesions on the head, chest, or extremities, nor did the patient show any evidence of the basal cell nevus syndrome. Biopsy of all lesions revealed basal cell carcinoma, some of which were pigmented, without evidence of chronic radiodermatitis. All lesions were treated with curettage and electrodesiccation three times with good cosmetic results (Fig. 1).

  15. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC.

  16. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-03-05

    After injection of 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10/sup 6/ Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle.

  17. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma arising in tattooed skin.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Deba P; Dentlinger, Renee B; Forystek, Amanda M; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  18. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Deba P.; Dentlinger, Renee B.; Forystek, Amanda M.; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare. PMID:21274289

  19. Congenital hepatic fibrosis, liver cell carcinoma and adult polycystic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Manes, J L; Kissane, J M; Valdes, A J

    1977-06-01

    In reviewing the literature, we found no liver cell carcinoma (LCC) or well-documented adult polycystic kidneys (APK) associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF). We report a 69-year-old man with CHF, LCC, APK, duplication cyst of distal portion of stomach, two calcified splenic artery aneurysms, myocardial fibrosis and muscular hypertrophy of esophagus. The LCC was grossly predunculated and microscopically showed prominent fibrosis and hyaline intracytoplasmic inclusions in the tumor cells.

  20. Review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu George; Rooban, T; Janani, V; Joshua, E; Rao, UK; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Malignancies are usually preceded by the presence of various paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which could be the indirect and/or remote effects of the metabolites produced by neoplastic cells. PNS manifested by oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, which is the most common head and neck malignancy, are highlighted in this review. Knowledge of the clinical spectrum of these syndromes will equip the oral physician for early diagnosis and management of these hidden malignancies, especially of the pharyngeal region. PMID:21731261

  1. Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma. Case series 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Ramón; Gil-Carcedo, Elisa; Alonso, David; Vallejo, Luis A; Oñate, Juan M; Gil-Carcedo, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma was first described by Toker in 1972. It is an uncommon, primary neuroendocrine skin carcinoma which appears in the dermoepidermic area, grows fast, is very aggressive and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this work is to highlight the importance of this tumour, which develops mainly in the skin of the head and neck area, and whose prevalence has increased in recent years. We gathered data on 16 patients suffering cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma treated at our hospital between September 12, 1991 and July 13, 2012. We indicated the age and gender of patients. We described the area where the tumour was located, indicating the size in millimetres, according to the major axis of the lesion. Most of the patients studied were over 70 years old, except for one who was 55. The highest frequency of cases appeared among patients aged over 80 years. In the cases studied, when the tumour appeared in the head and neck region (10/16), its location could be nasal-lateronasal, cheek-malar, upper eyelid, frontal or mandibular. The major axis of the lesion ranged between 7 and 35 mm. Unlike with epidermoid or basocellular carcinomas, recurrence and ganglionar metastases were common. Immunohistochemical (CK20) tests are essential for a correct diagnosis. Treatment is usually surgical and occasionally followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This carcinoma is not a very common skin tumour. It appears in old age, in the head and neck region in 50% of cases and often leads to exitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Myoepithelial cells in lobular carcinoma in situ: distribution and immunophenotype.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jindal, Sonali; Martel, Maritza; Wu, Yaping; Schedin, Pepper; Troxell, Megan

    2016-09-01

    Myoepithelial cells have important physical and paracrine roles in breast tissue development, maintenance, and tumor suppression. Recent molecular and immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated phenotypic alterations in ductal carcinoma in situ-associated myoepithelial cells. Although the relationship of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and myoepithelial cells was described in 1980, further characterization of LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells is lacking. We stained 27 breast specimens harboring abundant LCIS with antibodies to smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, smooth muscle actin, and calponin. Dual stains for E-cadherin/smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and CK7/p63 were also performed. In each case, the intensity and distribution of staining in LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells were compared with normal breast tissue on the same slide. In 78% of the cases, LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells demonstrated decreased staining intensity for one or more myoepithelial markers. The normal localization of myoepithelial cells (flat against the basement membrane, pattern N) was seen in 96% of LCIS, yet 85% of cases had areas with myoepithelial cell cytoplasm oriented perpendicular to the basement membrane (pattern P), and in 30% of cases, myoepithelial cells appeared focally admixed with LCIS cells (pattern C). This study characterizes detailed architectural and immunophenotypic alterations of LCIS-associated myoepithelial cells. The finding of variably diminished staining favors application of several myoepithelial immunostains in clinical practice. The interaction of LCIS with myoepithelial cells, especially in light of the perpendicular and central architectural arrangements, deserves further mechanistic investigation.

  3. Basosquamous carcinoma and metatypical basal cell carcinoma: a review of treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kattie J; Cappel, Mark A; Killian, Jill M; Brewer, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) and metatypical basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) are uncommon tumors poorly defined in the literature. Available studies suggest these tumors carry a greater risk of recurrence and metastases than basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and, in some studies, squamous cell carcinomas. Formal treatment recommendations are not fully established. To analyze BSC and MBCC separately, evaluate whether they are distinct tumor subtypes, and analyze Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) efficacy for BSC and MBCC. Retrospective review of medical records and histologic specimens was conducted for 293 patients with 303 biopsy-proven BSCs or MBCCs treated with MMS between 1996 and 2004. In total, 32 BSCs and 128 MBCCs were identified. Surgical and follow-up data were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier estimates of recurrence-free survival after MMS were 100% at one year for both tumor subtypes and were 100% for BSC and 93.8% for MBCC at 5 years. Initial mean sizes were 1.5 cm for BSC and 1.3 cm for MBCC. Approximately 7% represented recurrent tumors at surgery. Of six patients with recurrences, none had known metastatic disease. Limitations include retrospective design, analysis of only head and neck sites, and small sample sizes. BSC and MBCC showed no significant distinguishing characteristics to separate them into two BCC subtypes. Reported recurrence rates for BSC and MBCC are 12-45% with wide local excision; estimated recurrence rates are 4.1% with MMS. Our study showed recurrence-free survival of 95.1% at five years. Hence, MMS is effective in treating these BCC subtypes. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Relation between hyaluronan synthesis and cell morphology in ovarian clear cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriko; Shibata, Kasumi; Uchigasaki, Shinya; Kurose, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinomas often show a spherule-like mucoid stroma. In ascitic fluid, they form spheroids with a hollow acellular space. In spite of the absence of stromal cells, both the mucoid stroma and hollow spheroids contain abundant extracellular matrix, and one of the major components is hyaluronan. It has been suggested that tumor-derived hyaluronan plays a significant role in the formation of these structures. To clarify this, a hyaluronan inhibition assay was performed on HAC-2, a clear cell carcinoma cell line, in vitro. When hyaluronan synthesis was inhibited by 4-methylumbelliferone, HAC-2 failed to show the spherule-like accumulation of hyaluronan or hollow spheroids. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis was associated with the reduction of cell growth. Analysis of 28 archival ascites cytology specimens showed that clear cell carcinomas expressed hyaluronan more frequently than serous carcinomas (11 of 14 vs 3 of 14, respectively, P < 0.05). All of these facts indicate that tumor-derived hyaluronan is essential for the formation of the mucoid stroma or hollow spheroids, and that hyaluronan is also involved in the regulation of cell growth in ovarian clear cell carcinomas. The inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis could be a potential adjunctive therapy for refractory clear cell carcinomas outside the ovary. © 2016 The Authors. Pathology International published by Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    PubMed Central

    Gon, Sonia; Majumdar, Bipasa; Dey, Ranjan Kumar; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively. PMID:24049389

  6. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity.

    PubMed

    Gon, Sonia; Majumdar, Bipasa; Dey, Ranjan Kumar; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

  7. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  8. Are endometrial carcinoma cells disseminated at hysteroscopy functionally viable?

    PubMed

    Arikan, G; Reich, O; Weiss, U; Hahn, T; Reinisch, S; Tamussino, K; Pickel, H; Desoye, G

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of transtubal dissemination of endometrial carcinoma cells by hysteroscopy and the functional viability of disseminated tumor cells by assessing cell adhesion in an in vitro model. We studied 24 uteri obtained at TAH+BSO in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Further inclusion criteria were negative peritoneal cytology, no involvement of the uterine serosa or extrauterine disease, and endometrial surface involvement >1 cm in diameter. In vitro fluid hysteroscopy was performed with a 5-mm single-flow rigid hysteroscope. A maximum of 150 ml saline was infused at a maximum pressure of 100 mm Hg for a maximum of 3 min. Fluid running off through the tubes was collected. The cell suspension was enriched by a density gradient centrifugation. The isolated cells had a mean viability of 90% as judged by trypan blue exclusion. Viable cells (5 x 10(4) per 2-cm(2) polyvinyl chloride well plate) were cultured with equal parts of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimal essential medium and Ham's F-12 for 24 h. The endpoint of the analysis was the adherence of tumor cells to the polyvinyl chloride well plate, which was taken as a proxy for functional cell viability. Cytological evaluation was performed separately by two cytologists blinded to the source and date of the smears. Transtubal fluid dissemination was seen in 20 of 24 (83%) uteri. Tumor cells were found in 17 specimens (71%). In 10 (42%) specimens the disseminated tumor cells were functionally viable. Our model suggests that hysteroscopy can cause dissemination of malignant cells into the abdominal cavity from uteri containing endometrial carcinoma and that these cells can be functionally viable and adhere to a matrix. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Detection and Characterization of Carcinoma Cells in the Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racila, Emilian; Euhus, David; Weiss, Arthur J.; Rao, Chandra; McConnell, John; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1998-04-01

    A highly sensitive assay combining immunomagnetic enrichment with multiparameter flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analysis has been developed to detect, enumerate, and characterize carcinoma cells in the blood. The assay can detect one epithelial cell or less in 1 ml of blood. Peripheral blood (10-20 ml) from 30 patients with carcinoma of the breast, from 3 patients with prostate cancer, and from 13 controls was examined by flow cytometry for the presence of circulating epithelial cells defined as nucleic acid+, CD45-, and cytokeratin+. Highly significant differences in the number of circulating epithelial cells were found between normal controls and patients with cancer including 17 with organ-confined disease. To determine whether the circulating epithelial cells in the cancer patients were neoplastic cells, cytospin preparations were made after immunomagnetic enrichment and were analyzed. Epithelial cells from patients with breast cancer generally stained with mAbs against cytokeratin and 3 of 5 for mucin-1. In contrast, no cells that stained for these antigens were observed in the blood from normal controls. The morphology of the stained cells was consistent with that of neoplastic cells. Of 8 patients with breast cancer followed for 1-10 months, there was a good correlation between changes in the level of tumor cells in the blood with both treatment with chemotherapy and clinical status. The present assay may be helpful in early detection, in monitoring disease, and in prognostication.

  10. Antioxidants block proteasome inhibitor function in endometrial carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Llobet, David; Eritja, Nuria; Encinas, Mario; Sorolla, Anabel; Yeramian, Andree; Schoenenberger, Joan Antoni; Llombart-Cussac, Antonio; Marti, Rosa M; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2008-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors can be effective in inducing apoptotic cell death in endometrial carcinoma cell lines and primary culture explants. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for proteasome inhibitor-induced cell killing. Antioxidants can thus block apoptosis (cell death) triggered by proteasome inhibition. Here, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (edaravone and tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cells treated with aldehyde proteasome inhibitors (MG-132 or ALLN), the boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib) and the epoxyketone, epoxomicin. We show that tiron specifically inhibited the cytotoxic effects of bortezomib, whereas edaravone inhibited cell death caused by aldehyde-based proteasome inhibitors. We have, however, found that edaravone completely inhibited accumulation of ubiquitin and proteasome activity decrease caused by MG-132 or ALLN, but not by bortezomib. Conversely, tiron inhibited the ubiquitin accumulation and proteasome activity decrease caused by bortezomib. These results suggest that edaravone and tiron rescue cells of proteasome inhibitors from cell death, by inhibiting blockade of proteasome caused by MG-132 and ALLN or bortezomib, respectively. We also tested other antioxidants, and we found that vitamin C inhibited bortezomib-induced cell death. Similar to tiron, vitamin C inhibited cell death by blocking the ability of bortezomib to inhibit the proteasome. Until now, all the antioxidants that blocked proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death also blocked the proteasome inhibitor mechanism of action.

  11. Composite renal cell carcinoma with clear cell renal cell carcinomatous and carcinoid tumoral elements: a first case report.

    PubMed

    Bressenot, A; Delaunay, C; Gauchotte, G; Oliver, A; Boudrant, G; Montagne, K

    2010-02-01

    Renal endocrine tumours are extremely rare, and carcinoid tumoral elements in renal cell carcinoma have never been reported. This is the first report of a composite renal cell carcinoma containing a clear cell renal cell carcinoma associated with carcinoid tumoral elements, in a patient with synchronous metastatic disease. In the absence of specific radiological and clinical manifestations, typical morphological features as well as an immunostaining profile of neuroendocrine differentiation were identified by microscopy. Secondary nodal and liver localisations were characterised by carcinoid elements only. Despite antiangiogenic therapy, liver metastasis progressed, suggesting that adjuvant therapy cannot be based on the presence of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma component. In this context, extensive tissue sampling is recommended to reveal the endocrine component that is the most aggressive element of such a composite carcinoma.

  12. Molecular aspects of renal cell carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Hari; Huh, Jung-Sik; Rove, Kyle O; Crompton, Luiza; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Kim, Fernando J

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tubules of the kidney. RCC, the incidence of which is increasing annually, represents five percent of adult epithelial cancers. Clear cell carcinoma represents the most frequent histological subtype. RCC is characterized by a lack of early warning signs, diverse clinical manifestations. Incidentally detected tumors in asymptomatic individuals have been steadily increasing owing to the increased usage of various imaging technologies. Currently there are no recommendations for screening to detect and make an early diagnosis of renal cancer. But in recent years, the discovery of new molecular and cytogenetic markers has led to the recognition and classification of several novel subtypes of RCC, and the introduction of molecular-targeted therapy for advanced-stage RCC. We performed a literature review using PubMed and discuss current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, treatment, and future research directions of RCC. PMID:21969126

  13. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epigenomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans. PMID:22175027

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Esplin, D G; Wilson, S R; Hullinger, G A

    2003-05-01

    Tumors of the perianal area of dogs are common and include multiple tumor types. Whereas perianal adenomas occur often, adenocarcinomas of the apocrine glands of the anal sac occur less frequently. A review of the literature revealed no reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising from the epithelial lining of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinomas originating from the lining of the anal sac were diagnosed in five dogs. Microscopically, the tumors consisted of variably sized invasive nests and cords of epithelial cells displaying squamous differentiation. Four of the five dogs were euthanatized because of problems associated with local infiltration by the tumors. In the fifth dog, there was no evidence of tumor 7 months after surgical removal, but further follow up was not available.

  15. Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Alonso-Alegre, Elisa M; Rodriguez-Alvaro, Alfonso; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Martinez-de-Merlo, Elena M; Sanchez-Maldonado, Belen

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old female adult reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Madrid for evaluation of a conjunctival mass on the left eye which had been present for about 2 months. A surgical excision was performed and biopsy material submitted for light microscopic evaluation which confirmed the diagnosis of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma. Nuclear p53 immunolabeling was found in 52% of the neoplastic cells. Follow-up examination at 12 months postsurgery did not reveal recurrence of this neoplasm. Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported previously in reindeer and seems to have similar characteristics to the one existing in bovine species.

  16. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Diane E; Fong, Derek L; Vogel, Keith W; Durning, W McIntyre; Torrence, Anne E; Rose, Timothy M; Staheli, Jeannette P; Baldessari, Audrey; Murnane, Robert D; Hukkannen, Renee R

    2014-06-01

    An adult, gravid, female pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) presented for facial swelling centered on the left mandible that was approximately 5 cm wide. Differential diagnoses included infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic origins. Definitive antemortem diagnosis was not possible, and the macaque's condition worsened despite supportive care. Necropsy findings included a mandibular mass that was locally invasive and expansile, encompassing approximately 80% of the left mandibular bone. The mass replaced portions of the soft palate, hard palate, sinuses, ear canal, and the caudal-rostral calvarium and masseter muscle. Histologically, the mass was a neoplasm that was poorly circumscribed, unencapsulated, and infiltrative invading regional bone and soft tissue. The mass consisted of polygonal squamous epithelial cells with intercellular bridging that breached the epithelial basement membrane and formed invasive nests, cords, and trabeculae. The mitotic rate averaged 3 per 400× field of view, with occasional bizarre mitotic figures. Epithelial cells often exhibited dyskeratosis, and the nests often contained compact lamellated keratin (keratin pearls). The neoplasm was positive via immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratin, variably positive for S100, and negative for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and desmin. The gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with an aggressive oral squamous cell carcinoma. The neoplasm was negative via PCR for papilloma virus. In general, neoplasia in macaques is rare. Although squamous cell carcinomas are one of the most common oral neoplasia in many species, to our knowledge this case represents the first reported oral squamous cell carcinoma in a pigtailed macaque.

  17. Dichloroacetate induces protective autophagy in esophageal squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hong-Yu; Wang, He-Nan; Xia, Feng-Yu; Sun, Yan; Liu, Hong-Li; Yan, Li-Li; Li, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Dong-Chun; Xu, Mei-Mei

    2017-09-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) is an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, which promotes the flux of carbohydrates into mitochondria and enhances the aerobic oxidation of glucose. DCA has previously been demonstrated to exhibit antitumor properties. The present study revealed that treatment with DCA induced increased levels of autophagy-associated proteins in esophageal squamous carcinoma cells while minimally affecting apoptosis. The present study examined the localization of light chain (LC)-3 by adenovirus infection with a green fluorescent protein (FP)-red FP-LC3 reporter construction and confirmed that DCA treatment induced significant autophagy. Furthermore, the inhibition of DCA-induced autophagy facilitated cell apoptosis and improved the drug sensitivity of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells to DCA and 5-FU (5-fluorouracil). The proliferation of TE-1 cells was markedly inhibited at low concentrations of DCA and 5-FU treatment when subjected to Atg5 mRNA interference, indicating that autophagy performed a protective role in cell survival upon DCA treatment. To determine the underlying mechanism of DCA-induced autophagy, the present study measured alterations in autophagy-associated signaling pathways. Notably, the protein kinase B (Akt)-mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, an important negative regulator of autophagy, was demonstrated to be suppressed by DCA treatment. These results may direct the development of novel strategies for the treatment of esophageal squamous carcinoma based on the combined use of DCA and autophagy inhibitors.

  18. Verrucous carcinoma of the renal pelvis with a focus of conventional squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baseskioğlu, Barbaros; Yenilmez, Aydın; Acıkalın, Mustafa; Can, Cavit; Dönmez, Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with an extremely well-differentiated microscopic appearance. It is able to show extensive local invasion, but practically never metastasizes. VCs mostly occur in the oral cavity, larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, vulva, vagina, anorectal region, penis and skin. VCs sometimes coexist with conventional SCCs, and in these instances they are associated with a higher recurrence rate than pure VCs. The occurrence of VC in the renal pelvis is very rare and to date only 4 cases have been reported. We report here a case of VC with a focus of conventional SCC in the renal pelvis. The patient showed fistula formation by residual tumor in the follow-up period.

  19. Reversine induces autophagic cell death through the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in urothelial carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chiung-Yao; Chen, Jeng-Sheng; Chang, Shun-Kai; Shen, Cheng-Huang

    2017-10-03

    Urothelial carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Effective treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma remains a clinical challenge with poor outcomes in these patients. Previous reports have shown that the expression of aurora kinase is associated with clinical stage and prognosis; hence, aurora kinases are potential targets in urothelial carcinoma therapy. Reversine, an aurora kinase inhibitor, was analyzed for its cytotoxicity in this study. Cell proliferation, flow cytometry, western blotting, and immunofluorescent assay were used to determine the effect of reversine on urothelial carcinoma cells. The results showed that reversine significantly inhibits the growth of urothelial carcinoma cell lines. Reversine induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, leading to autophagic cell death by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Reversine induced significant cell death in urothelial carcinoma cells. Our results suggest that reversine may be a suitably small molecule for treating urothelial carcinoma in the future.

  20. TERT promoter mutations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hosen, Ismail; Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Heidenreich, Barbara; Sitaram, Raviprakash T; Ljungberg, Börje; Roos, Göran; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-05-15

    We screened promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) for activating somatic mutations in 188 tumors from patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Twelve tumors (6.4%) carried a mutation within the core promoter region of the gene. The mutations were less frequent in high grade tumors compared to low grade tumors [odds ratio (OR) = 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.72, p = 0.02]. Multivariate analysis for cause specific survival showed statistically significant poor outcome in patients with TERT promoter mutations [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.13-7.39, p = 0.03]. A common polymorphism (rs2853669) within the locus seemed to act as a modifier of the effect of the mutations on patient survival as the noncarriers of the variant allele with the TERT promoter mutations showed worst survival (HR = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.24-8.98, p = 0.02). We also measured relative telomere length (RTL) in tumors and difference between tumors with and without the TERT promoter mutations was not statistically significant. Similarly, no difference in patient survival based on RTL in tumors was observed. Our study showed a relatively low frequency of TERT promoter mutations in ccRCC. Nevertheless, patients with the mutations, particularly in the absence of the rs2853669 variant showed the worst disease-specific survival. Thus, it is possible that the TERT promoter mutations define a small subset of tumors with an aggressive behavior. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Imaging the clear cell renal cell carcinoma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Todd M.; Seeley, Erin H.; Fadare, Oluwole; Caprioli, Richard M.; Clark, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A key barrier to identification of tissue biomarkers of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the heterogeneity of protein expression within tissue. However, by providing spectra for every 0.05 mm2 area of tissue, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) reveals the spatial distribution of peptides. We sought to determine whether this approach could be used to identify and map protein signatures of ccRCC. Methods We constructed two tissue microarrays (TMA) with two cores each of matched tumor and normal tissue from nephrectomy specimens of 70 patients with ccRCC. Samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS). Peptide signatures were identified within each TMA that differentiated cancer from normal tissue and then cross-validated. MS/MS sequencing was performed to determine identities of select differentially expressed peptides, and immunohistochemistry was used for validation. Results Peptide signatures were identified that demonstrated a classification accuracy within each TMA of 94.7–98.5% for each 0.05mm2 spot (spectrum) and 96.9–100% for each tissue core. Cross-validation across TMA's revealed classification accuracies of 82.6–84.7% for each spot and 88.9–92.4% for each core. We identified vimentin, histone 2A.X, and alpha-enolase as proteins with greater expression in cancer tissue, and validated this by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions IMS was able to identify and map specific peptides that accurately distinguished malignant from normal renal tissue, demonstrating its potential as a novel, high-throughput approach to ccRCC biomarker discovery. Given the multiple pathways and known heterogeneity involved in tumors such as ccRCC, multiple peptide signatures that maintain their spatial relationships may outperform traditional protein biomarkers. PMID:23009866

  2. [Metatypical basal-cell carcinoma (MTC) or basosquamos carcinoma (BSC): surgical therapy].

    PubMed

    Tarallo, Mauro; Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Sorvillo, Valentina; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2011-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer in the world with an incidence 18-20 times greater than that of malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which probably arises from immature pluripotential cells, is the most common malignant tumor of the skin in Caucasian. It occurs mostly on sun-exposed areas such as neck and face. MATERIAL OR STUDY: We performed a retrospective study of 327 consecutive patients, diagnosed for metatypical basal cell carcinoma. Tumors were analyzed and measured from the surgeon, excision margins were marked on the basis of palpable or visual alteration of the burden. The minimum surgical margin was equal to the short axis of the ellipse. Therapy was made according to guidelines. A relevant difference came out between two genders. 213 Males (65%) were affected in comparison with only 114 females (35%). Concerning areas affected, first is cervico-facial area with a prevalence of 220 cases (67.3%), second trunk 33 cases (10.1%), third other areas 29 cases (8.86%), fourth limbs 32 cases (9.80%), fifth scalp with 13 cases (4%). Diagnosis is based on histological analysis. Histologically MTC is divided into two subtypes: intermediated and mixed. In the intermediate form transitional zones and tumor islets are found together, thus combining features of BCC and SCC In mixed subtype typical basal cells coexist with areas of conglomerated squamous cells, squamous pearls could be present.

  3. Xanthohumol inhibits proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Yin, Shankai; Zheng, Hongliang; Min, Daliu

    2016-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a flavonoid compound that exhibits antioxidant and anticancer effects, and is used to treat atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the cell proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to understand the mechanism of its action. The effects of xanthohumol on the cell viability and apoptosis rate of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells were assessed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) p53 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as anti-apoptotic markers, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol significantly inhibited the proliferation of SCC4 cells. Furthermore, xanthohumol treatment (40 µM) induced SCC4 cell apoptosis, as indicated by the significant increase in activity and expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, PARP, p53 and AIF. By contrast, the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 was significantly decreased following treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that xanthohumol mediates growth suppression and apoptosis induction, which was mediated via the suppression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and activation of PARP, p53 and AIF signaling pathways. Therefore, future studies that investigate xanthohumol as a potential therapeutic agent for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma are required.

  4. Xanthohumol inhibits proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Yin, Shankai; Zheng, Hongliang; Min, Daliu

    2016-01-01

    Xanthohumol is a flavonoid compound that exhibits antioxidant and anticancer effects, and is used to treat atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the cell proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to understand the mechanism of its action. The effects of xanthohumol on the cell viability and apoptosis rate of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells were assessed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) p53 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as anti-apoptotic markers, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol significantly inhibited the proliferation of SCC4 cells. Furthermore, xanthohumol treatment (40 µM) induced SCC4 cell apoptosis, as indicated by the significant increase in activity and expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, PARP, p53 and AIF. By contrast, the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 was significantly decreased following treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that xanthohumol mediates growth suppression and apoptosis induction, which was mediated via the suppression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and activation of PARP, p53 and AIF signaling pathways. Therefore, future studies that investigate xanthohumol as a potential therapeutic agent for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma are required. PMID:28105237

  5. Thulium laser supported nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sciarra, Alessandro; Von Heland, Magnus; Minisola, Francesco; Salciccia, Stefano; Cattarino, Susanna; Gentile, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the feasibility, advantages and results of the use of a thulium laser in nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma. In this single center prospective study 10 consecutive high risk patients underwent open or laparoscopic thulium laser assisted enucleation for small peripheral renal cell carcinoma at our department. We used a 2.0 μm continuous or pulsed thulium laser. This diode pumped solid state laser emits a wavelength of 2,013 nm in the infrared spectrum and penetrates tissue to a depth of 0.5 mm. The entire tumor enucleation was performed using the frontal thulium laser fiber. In all cases the thulium laser produced a smooth incision of the renal parenchyma and a safe delineation of the plane between the tumor and the surrounding tissue. In addition, in the off clamp procedures bleeding was limited during the dissection and did not interfere with the definition of the surgical plane. Median surgical time from the beginning of the laser assisted tumor dissection to the end, after verification of bleeding control on the cut surface, was 15 minutes (range 12 to 20). No significant (less than 40 cc) blood loss occurred during the laser assisted tumor dissection. All cases were clear cell renal cell carcinoma and no positive surgical margins were found. In all cases postoperative management was uncomplicated without evidence of hemorrhage. In our prospective preliminary experience, thulium laser assisted enucleation for renal cell carcinoma is a feasible, safe and effective procedure. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Update on the medical treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ravaud, Alain; Wallerand, Hervé; Culine, Stéphane; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Fergelot, Patricia; Bensalah, Karim; Patard, Jean-Jacques

    2008-08-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has long been treated only by immunotherapy with good results only in a small population of patients. In recent years, major improvements in treatment possibilities have occurred with the advent of anti-angiogenic drugs. In the past 2 yr, pivotal phase III trials have confirmed this major breakthrough by increasing the progression-free survival rates and/or overall survival rates provided by sunitinib, sorafenib, and bevacizumab, and more recently by the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitors temsirolimus and everolimus. To update the previous review on smart drugs published in the European Journal in 2006 (Patard JJ, et al. Understanding the importance of smart drugs in renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2006; 49:633-43). Critical review of published literature 2006-2008 (Pubmed website search words: renal cell carcinoma and/or targeted therapy and prospective trials) and more recent meeting abstracts (American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007). Quality assessment included prospective phase I-III trials and critical evaluations with low numbers of patients, retrospective analyses, and slide presentations of meeting abstracts. This review presents the current situation and provides more recent data on sequential treatment, the association of targeted drugs, and the treatment of non-clear-cell histologies. Treatment of mRCC with targeted therapy centers on at least two major pathways: angiogenesis and mTOR involving inhibiting drugs that may be used alone, in combination, or sequentially.

  7. Human lung small-cell carcinoma contains bombesin.

    PubMed Central

    Erisman, M D; Linnoila, R I; Hernandez, O; DiAugustine, R P; Lazarus, L H

    1982-01-01

    The presence of immunoreactive bombesin in a human lung small-cell carcinoma grown in nude mice was established by several criteria: (i) Radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts for bombesin revealed approximately 6.5 pmol/g of tissue; (ii) bombesin was found in 12-14% of the tumor cells by immunohistochemical localization; (iii) gel filtration of small-cell carcinoma extract on Sephadex G-75 and Bio-Gel P-4 gave only a single peak of immunoreactivity, which occurred at the elution volume of bombesin; and (iv) reverse-phase HPLC of acid-solubilized extracts separated the immunoreactive material into three discrete peaks, one of which eluted with a retention time identical to that of synthetic bombesin. The presence of bombesin may represent the ectopic expression of this peptide in small-cell carcinoma, because immunoreactive bombesin was found in human fetal and neonatal lung but apparently not in adult lung tissue [Wharton, J., Polak, J. M., Bloom, S. R., Ghatei, M. A., Solcia, E., Brown, M. R. & Pearse, A. G. E. (1978) Nature (London) 273, 769-770]. The immunoreactive bombesin previously found in mammalian tissues is considerably larger than amphibian bombesin; these data substantiate the presence of a mammalian form of bombesin in a human tumor that may have a structure similar to that of the amphibian peptide. Images PMID:6285381

  8. Increased Sox2 copy number in lung squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, HIDEFUMI; YOKOTA, KEISUKE; HIKOSAKA, YU; MORIYAMA, SATORU; YANO, MOTOKI; FUJII, YOSHITAKA

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 is necessary for foregut morphogenesis. Sox2 is also required for the normal development of the trachea and lung. Recently, Sox2 amplifications were investigated using large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism arrays in esophageal and lung cancer. We hypothesized that Sox2 overexpression might be correlated with clinicopathological features of lung cancers. The increased copy number of the Sox2 gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplifications in 127 surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer cases from Nagoya City University Hospital, Japan. A total of 87 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases were involved. An increased Sox2 gene copy number was found in 42 (33.1%) lung cancer patients. Increased Sox2 copy number status was significantly correlated with gender (females, 9.5% vs. males, 34.1%; p=0.0026), smoking status (never smoker, 4.8% vs. smoker, 32.9%; p=0.0003) and pathological subtypes (squamous cell carcinoma, 44.8% vs. non-squamous cell carcinoma, 7.5%; p<0.0001). However, among the SCCs, the Sox2 copy number status was not significantly correlated with gender, smoking status, pathological stage or differentiation status. An increased Sox2 copy number is common within SCC. PMID:22969842

  9. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p <0.001). A colony of circulating endothelial progenitor cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p <0.001). The culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p <0.001). The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p <0.001). Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p <0.001). Earlier emergence of circulating endothelial progenitor cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results

  10. NEDD 4 binding protein 2-like 1 promotes cancer cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Kurihara, Miyako; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Rina; Kirita, Tadaaki; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although cancer cell invasion and metastasis are crucial for tumor progression, detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the invasion and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma are unclear. Comparison of transcriptional profiles using a cDNA microarray demonstrated that N4BP2L1, a novel oncogene expressed by neural precursor cells, is involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of N4BP2L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma is regulated by activation of miR-448 and is higher than in normal oral mucosa. Knockdown of N4BP2L1 and upregulation of miR-448 significantly reduced the invasive potential of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. We studied N4BP2L1 expression in 187 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and found its overexpression to be significantly associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0155) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0136). Expression of miR-448 was found to be inversely associated with that of N4BP2L1 (P = 0.0019). Cox proportional hazards analysis identified N4BP2L1 expression as an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P = 0.0349). Our results suggest that N4BP2L1 plays an important role in tumor cell invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies on expression of N4BP2L1 may provide new insight into its function and clarify its potential as biomarker in human oral cancer.

  11. Merkel Cell Carcinoma With Gastric Metastasis and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zishuo Ian; Schuster, Jessica A; Kudelka, Andrzej P; Huston, Tara L

    2016-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm, with a propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Very few cases of metastases to the gastrointestinal tract have been reported in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to report a case of MCC metastasizing to the stomach, its clinical presentation, and its management. A PubMed search was made using the following search terms: "Merkel cell carcinoma," "gastric," and "metastasis." The investigators report a case of MCC metastatic to the stomach presenting with melena, syncope, early satiety, increasing fatigue, and unintentional weight loss. The other known cases of gastrointestinal metastasis of MCC are summarized and critically reviewed. Although MCC spreading to the stomach is exceedingly rare, because of MCC's high recurrence rate and metastatic potential, it should be considered in patients with histories of MCC presenting with recent weight loss, early satiety, and gastrointestinal bleeding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Multilocular Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma or Cystic Nephroma?

    PubMed Central

    Cortez-Betancourt, Roberto; Alías-Melgar, Alejandro; Botello-Gómez, Pedro Jair; Ramírez-Garduño, Emilio; Trujillo-Vázquez, Eric Iván; Torres-Santos, Yosimart; Mata-Martínez, José Antonio; Carreño- de la Rosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) in literature is very low and confounding MCRCC with cystic nephroma (CN) is even more unusual. The aim of this report is to present a case of MCRCC and emphasize the importance of the preoperative radiologic evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmation to obtain an accurate diagnosis. A 73-year-old woman presented with a history of 4-month right flank pain. CT showed a Bosniak type III renal mass. After laparoscopic partial nephrectomy the initial report was cystic nephroma. Immunohistochemical staining was performed being positive for Epithelial Membrane Antigen thus changing the diagnosis to MCRCC. Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma cannot reliably be distinguished from cystic nephroma neither by physical examination nor by radiologic evaluation; immunohistochemical staining assay is useful to differentiate between these conditions allowing an accurate diagnosis and proper follow-up. PMID:28074169

  13. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone.

  14. Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy: an emphasis on squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nathaniel W.; Sensibaugh, Jordan; Ardeshiri, Ardaland; Blanchard, Adam; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Our previous study reported a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.2% in rapidly detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) when nuclei were stained with acridine orange. Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCCs) and infiltrative BCCs remain difficult to detect. More complete screening can be achieved utilizing both acridine orange for nuclei staining and eosin for cytoplasmic contrast, using two lasers to excite the two stains independently. Nuclear fluorescence is achieved by staining with acridine orange (0.5mM, 60 s), and cytoplasmic fluorescence is achieved by staining with eosin working solution (30 s). This work shows good morphological contrast of SCC and infiltrative BCC with eosin, acridine orange, and reflectance, and presents a means for rapid SCC and infiltrative BCC detection in fresh skin excisions using multimodal confocal microscopy. In addition, digital staining is shown to effectively simulate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology with confocal mosaics.

  15. Animal models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Martin, Chelsea K; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common oral cancer worldwide. Local bone invasion into the maxilla or mandible and metastasis to regional lymph nodes often result in a poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and shortened survival time for HNSCC patients. Poor response to treatment and clinical outcomes are the major concerns in this aggressive cancer. Multiple animal models have been developed to replicate spontaneous HNSCC and investigate genetic alterations and novel therapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of HNSCC as well as the traditional animal models used in HNSCC preclinical research. The value and challenges of each in vivo model are discussed. Similarity between HNSCC in humans and cats and the possibility of using spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) as a model for HNSCC in translational research are highlighted.

  16. Focal cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma following radium-223 extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Benjegerdes, Katie E.; Housewright, Chad D.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term sequelae due to extravasation of intravenous radioisotopes resulting in radiation injuries are rarely reported. As the use of radioactive isotopes for the treatment of osteoblastic metastases increases, information regarding the prevention, treatment, and long-term monitoring of suspected extravasation injury will become increasingly important. We present a patient with no previous history of skin cancer who developed an aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at the site of prior radium-223 extravasation. We recommend that patients who experience extravasation of therapeutic radioisotopes be monitored by dermatologists for long-term sequelae. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma should be recognized as a rare but potential adverse event following cutaneous extravasation of radium-223 and is likely a side effect that is severely underreported. PMID:28127143

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Kwon, Young Suk; Labib, Mina; Foran, David J.; Singer, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    As the most common neoplasm arising from the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to have a significant impact on global health. Conventional cross-sectional imaging has always served an important role in the staging of RCC. However, with recent advances in imaging techniques and postprocessing analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now has the capability to function as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarker for RCC. For this narrative literature review, a PubMed search was conducted to collect the most relevant and impactful studies from our perspectives as urologic oncologists, radiologists, and computational imaging specialists. We seek to cover advanced MR imaging and image analysis techniques that may improve the management of patients with small renal mass or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26609190

  18. Pure Primary Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma Perforating the Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Aiko; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Rectal perforation is uncommon in ovarian cancer, even in advanced stages. Pure primary ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare subtype of ovarian cancer and has not been reported to cause rectal perforation. A 50-year-old woman presented with rectal bleeding. Rectosigmoidoscopy suggested perforation of a pelvic tumor into the rectum. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9 cm heterogeneous mass in the pouch of Douglas. We performed complete cytoreduction, including an en-bloc resection of the tumor and rectosigmoid colon. Histopathology showed squamous cell carcinoma of the left ovary penetrating the rectal wall. A common symptom of rectal bleeding was caused by a very rare entity of ovarian cancer penetrating the rectal wall, but thorough evaluation led to its accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:28316851

  19. Cyclin B1 overexpression in conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma-A correlation with clinicopathological features

    PubMed Central

    Hallikeri, Kaveri S.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Hongal, Sudheer G.; Sanjaya, P R.; Sagari, Sheetalkumar G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nuclear localization of cyclin B1 is an indicator for cells undergoing mitotic division, and the overexpression has shown promising results as a good prognostic predictor for patients of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Cyclin B1 overexpression among histological grades of conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma (COSCC), as well as comparison with verrucous carcinoma (VC) has been less investigated. Study Design: Immunohistochemical expression of cyclin B1 was compared with various clinicopathological features in 30 primary COSCC and 31 primary VC cases. Result: Cyclin B1 showed significant overexpression for some clinical features for both the variants of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In histopathological variants, statistical significance was observed among grades of COSCC, as well as COSCC and its grades with VC. The concomitant increase in cyclin B1 overexpression from VC to grades COSCC was observed. Conclusion: Our study findings draw attention to cyclin B1 overexpression is involved in early carcinogenesis, cell differentiation and tumor proliferation. Key words:Cyclin B1, oral squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, head and neck cancer. PMID:23722120

  20. [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Mioko; Rikimaru, Fumihide; Higaki, Yuichiro; Masuda, Muneyuki

    2014-06-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the developmental malformations and its carcinogenic nature. This syndrome shows various symptoms of multiple cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, ketatocystic odontogenic tumors, and inborn abnormalities in the bone and skin. Although basal cell nevus syndrome itself is a rare disorder, we experienced a very rare case in which squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity developed, and not cutaneous basal cell carcinoma. Only 4 similar cases have been reported in the English literature. The patient was a 33-year-old woman. She was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate, and basal cell nevus syndrome in our hospital. The patient underwent surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate, with postoperative chemoradiothetrapy. Since patients with this syndrome tend to form basal cell carcinoma when exposed to X-ray radiation, we perform radiotherapy with care.

  1. Classification of human carcinoma cells using multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćinar, Umut; Y. Ćetin, Yasemin; Ćetin-Atalay, Rengul; Ćetin, Enis

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for automatically classifying human carcinoma cell images using textural features. An image dataset containing microscopy biopsy images from different patients for 14 distinct cancer cell line type is studied. The images are captured using a RGB camera attached to an inverted microscopy device. Texture based Gabor features are extracted from multispectral input images. SVM classifier is used to generate a descriptive model for the purpose of cell line classification. The experimental results depict satisfactory performance, and the proposed method is versatile for various microscopy magnification options.

  2. Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Mehar C.; Uppal, Manpreet; Chumber, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the kidney are rare, and present a unique diagnostic challenge. We report the case of an elderly male who presented with a large cystic neoplasm, which was a diagnostic dilemma clinically and radiologically. Histopathological examination showed a tumour composed of variably sized tubules lined by atypical cells having large round nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Hobnailing was seen at places. Tumour cells were immunopositive for pancytokeratin, vimentin, CD10, CK19 and AMACR, confirming a diagnosis of tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TC-RCC). PMID:26425234

  3. Expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor in desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jedrych, Jaroslaw; McNiff, Jennifer M

    2013-05-01

    The histological discrimination between desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma encountered in small biopsies is challenging when only morphological criteria are applied. The objective of this study is to test the use of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) as an adjunct aid in classification of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for p75NTR antigen was performed on routinely processed biopsies of 37 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, 11 infiltrative basal cell carcinomas, and 9 microcystic adnexal carcinomas diagnosed by morphological criteria in conjunction with results of CK20 immunostains. Cases were analyzed for the extent and intensity of p75NTR expression. Diffuse immunoreactivity was defined as involving >90% of tumor cells. Of the 37 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, 35 (94%) displayed strong diffuse immunoreactivity of tumor cells, proving high sensitivity of the marker to detect this tumor. However, despite the fact that diffuse p75NTR expression reached statistical significance in differentiating desmoplastic trichoepithelioma from infiltrative basal cell carcinoma (Fisher exact test P < 0.0001) and microcystic adnexal carcinoma (P < 0.0016), specificity of the stain is unsatisfactory because strong diffuse expression of p75NTR by neoplastic cells was observed in 4 (36%) cases of infiltrative basal cell carcinomas and 4 (44%) cases of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. This study demonstrates a significant difference in p75NTR expression in selected sclerosing neoplasms of the skin. Nevertheless, the practical value of p75NTR as an adjunct marker in the differential diagnosis of these tumors seems to be limited because of significant overlap in amount of p75NTR immunoreactivity.

  4. Adipocyte secreted factors enhance aggressiveness of prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ângela; Pereira, Sofia S; Costa, Madalena; Morais, Tiago; Pinto, Ana; Fernandes, Rúben; Monteiro, Mariana P

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and risk of mortality of prostate cancer. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this risk association is the change in adipokines expression that could promote the development and progression of the prostate tumor cells. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of preadipocyte and adipocyte secretome in the proliferation, migration and invasion of androgen independent prostate carcinoma cells (RM1) and to assess cell proliferation in the presence of the adiposity signals leptin and insulin. RM1 cells were co-cultured in with preadipocytes, adipocytes or cultured in their respective conditioned medium. Cell proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and XTT viability test. Cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing injury assay of RM1 cells cultured with conditioned media. Cellular invasion of RM1 cells co-cultured with adipocytes and preadipocytes was assessed using matrigel membranes. Preadipocyte conditioned medium was associated with a small increase in RM1 proliferation, while adipocytes conditioned media significantly increased RM1 cell proliferation (p<0.01). Adipocytes also significantly increased the RM1 cells proliferation in co-culture (p <0.01). Cell migration was higher in RM1 cells cultured with preadipocyte and adipocyte conditioned medium. RM1 cell invasion was significantly increased after co-culture with preadipocytes and adipocytes (p <0.05). Insulin also increased significantly the cell proliferation in contrast to leptin, which showed no effect. In conclusion, prostate carcinoma cells seem to be influenced by factors secreted by adipocytes that are able to increase their ability to proliferate, migrate and invade.

  5. Adipocyte Secreted Factors Enhance Aggressiveness of Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ângela; Pereira, Sofia S.; Costa, Madalena; Morais, Tiago; Pinto, Ana; Fernandes, Rúben; Monteiro, Mariana P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and risk of mortality of prostate cancer. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this risk association is the change in adipokines expression that could promote the development and progression of the prostate tumor cells. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of preadipocyte and adipocyte secretome in the proliferation, migration and invasion of androgen independent prostate carcinoma cells (RM1) and to assess cell proliferation in the presence of the adiposity signals leptin and insulin. RM1 cells were co-cultured in with preadipocytes, adipocytes or cultured in their respective conditioned medium. Cell proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and XTT viability test. Cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing injury assay of RM1 cells cultured with conditioned media. Cellular invasion of RM1 cells co-cultured with adipocytes and preadipocytes was assessed using matrigel membranes. Preadipocyte conditioned medium was associated with a small increase in RM1 proliferation, while adipocytes conditioned media significantly increased RM1 cell proliferation (p<0.01). Adipocytes also significantly increased the RM1 cells proliferation in co-culture (p <0.01). Cell migration was higher in RM1 cells cultured with preadipocyte and adipocyte conditioned medium. RM1 cell invasion was significantly increased after co-culture with preadipocytes and adipocytes (p <0.05). Insulin also increased significantly the cell proliferation in contrast to leptin, which showed no effect. In conclusion, prostate carcinoma cells seem to be influenced by factors secreted by adipocytes that are able to increase their ability to proliferate, migrate and invade. PMID:25928422

  6. [Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin. 2 clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, A; Boschi, L; Ismail, I; Raducci, A

    1990-04-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin is a tumor generally found in elderly people. This neoplasm involves primarily the dermis; it is locally aggressive often metastatizing to the lymph nodes and, sometimes, diffusely in the body. It must be considered in the diagnostic approach of the cutaneous neoplastic nodules. The clinical, histologic and ultrastructural features of two cases are presented and compared with previously reported examples.

  7. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  8. Bone pulsating metastasis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cınar, Murat; Derincek, Alihan; Karan, Belgin; Akpınar, Sercan; Tuncay, Cengiz

    2010-11-01

    Pulsation on the bone cortex surface is a rare condition. Pulsative palpation of the superficial-located bone tumors can be misperceived as an aneurysm. Fifty-eight-year-old man is presented with pulsating bone mass in his proximal tibia. During angiographic examination, hypervascular masses were diagnosed both at right kidney and at right proximal tibia. Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed after abdominal CT scan. Proximal tibia biopsy was complicated with projectile bleeding.

  9. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  10. Regulation of glycolysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Glycolysis is highly upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HNSCC glycolysis is an important contributor to disease progression and decreases sensitivity to radiation or chemotherapy. Despite therapeutic advances, the survival rates for HNSCC patients remain low. Understanding glycolysis regulation in HNSCC will facilitate the development of effective therapeutic strategies for this disease. In this review, we will evaluate the regulation of altered HNSCC glycolysis and possible therapeutic approaches by targeting glycolytic pathways.

  11. Merkel cell carcinoma: case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Danae L; Roberts, Jerry; Gogate, Prema; Goodwin, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive, highly metastatic, often fatal, primary neuroendocrine tumor typically located on sun-exposed skin. It is frequently found in white males aged 60 to 70 years. The somewhat typical benign clinical appearance of the lesion can result in a delayed diagnosis, leading to a less than optimal outcome. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alveolar cell carcinoma: diagnostic pitfalls in evaluating the chest roentgenogram

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, M.S.; Bailey, W.C.

    1985-02-01

    A report is given of two patients with initial symptoms of congestive heart failure who had an extensive work-up that failed to reveal any signs of pulmonary malignancy. Subsequent biopsy by fiberoptic bronchoscopy confirmed alveolar cell carcinoma in both cases, suggesting that bronchoscopy with biopsy should be considered in patients with congestive heart failure if pulmonary edema does not resolve with appropriate therapy. 11 references, 2 figures.

  13. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Sole: An Easily Missed Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hone, Natalie L.; Grandhi, Radhika; Ingraffea, Adam A.

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection. PMID:27920679

  14. Thermal Protection during Percutaneous Thermal Ablation of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Anthony W.; Littrup, Peter J.; Walther, McClellan M.; Hvizda, Julia; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal injury to collateral structures is a known complication of thermal ablation of tumors. The authors present the use of CO2 dissection and inserted balloons to protect the bowel during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation and cryotherapy of primary and locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma. These techniques offer the potential to increase the number of tumors that can be treated with RF ablation or cryotherapy from a percutaneous approach. PMID:15231890

  15. Subconjunctival "ring" recurrence of Basal cell carcinoma of the globe.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott; Cnaan, Ran Ben; Paramanathan, Nirosha; Davies, Michael; Benger, Ross; Ghabrial, Raf

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common indication for orbital exenteration. The recurrence rate of BCC removed with microscopically controlled histology sections is up to 6%. The authors describe the recurrence of a lower eyelid BCC resected with microscopic control that did not manifest itself until 15 years later as a subconjunctival lesion, encircling the globe, and without apparent skin involvement. BCC can present in any manner following surgery, and therefore, judicious follow-up is necessary even after microscopically controlled resection.

  16. Regulation of glycolysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Glycolysis is highly upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HNSCC glycolysis is an important contributor to disease progression and decreases sensitivity to radiation or chemotherapy. Despite therapeutic advances, the survival rates for HNSCC patients remain low. Understanding glycolysis regulation in HNSCC will facilitate the development of effective therapeutic strategies for this disease. In this review, we will evaluate the regulation of altered HNSCC glycolysis and possible therapeutic approaches by targeting glycolytic pathways. PMID:28191478

  17. p16-Positive small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Melgoza, Frank; Brewster, Wendy R; Wilczynski, Sharon; Rutgers, Joanne

    2006-07-01

    We report herein a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium that extended to the cervix and showed strong immunohistochemical staining for p16. The p16 staining raised the possibility of a human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tumor, because in the cervix, a positive p16 immunohistochemical stain is presumptive evidence of HPV. However, the current case was HPV negative. We discuss the molecular pathogenesis of non-HPV-related increased p16 expression.

  18. Notch signaling is significantly suppressed in basal cell carcinomas and activation induces basal cell carcinoma cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Yu, Mei; Zloty, David; Bell, Robert H.; Wang, Eddy; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Leung, Gigi; Haegert, Anne; Carr, Nicholas; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    A subset of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are directly derived from hair follicles (HFs). In some respects, HFs can be defined as ‘ordered’ skin appendage growths, while BCCs can be regarded as ‘disordered’ skin appendage growths. The aim of the present study was to examine HFs and BCCs to define the expression of common and unique signaling pathways in each skin appendage. Human nodular BCCs, along with HFs and non-follicular skin epithelium from normal individuals, were examined using microarrays, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, BCC cells and root sheath keratinocyte cells from HFs were cultured and treated with Notch signaling peptide Jagged1 (JAG1). Gene expression, protein levels, and cell apoptosis susceptibility were assessed using qPCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry, respectively. Specific molecular mechanisms were found to be involved in the process of cell self-renewal in the HFs and BCCs, including Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways. However, several key Notch signaling factors showed significant differential expression in BCCs compared with HFs. Stimulating Notch signaling with JAG1 induced apoptosis of BCC cells by increasing Fas ligand expression and downstream caspase-8 activation. The present study showed that Notch signaling pathway activity is suppressed in BCCs, and is highly expressed in HFs. Elements of the Notch pathway could, therefore, represent targets for the treatment of BCCs and potentially in hair follicle engineering. PMID:28259916

  19. Notch signaling is significantly suppressed in basal cell carcinomas and activation induces basal cell carcinoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Yu, Mei; Zloty, David; Bell, Robert H; Wang, Eddy; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Leung, Gigi; Haegert, Anne; Carr, Nicholas; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J

    2017-04-01

    A subset of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are directly derived from hair follicles (HFs). In some respects, HFs can be defined as 'ordered' skin appendage growths, while BCCs can be regarded as 'disordered' skin appendage growths. The aim of the present study was to examine HFs and BCCs to define the expression of common and unique signaling pathways in each skin appendage. Human nodular BCCs, along with HFs and non‑follicular skin epithelium from normal individuals, were examined using microarrays, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, BCC cells and root sheath keratinocyte cells from HFs were cultured and treated with Notch signaling peptide Jagged1 (JAG1). Gene expression, protein levels, and cell apoptosis susceptibility were assessed using qPCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry, respectively. Specific molecular mechanisms were found to be involved in the process of cell self‑renewal in the HFs and BCCs, including Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways. However, several key Notch signaling factors showed significant differential expression in BCCs compared with HFs. Stimulating Notch signaling with JAG1 induced apoptosis of BCC cells by increasing Fas ligand expression and downstream caspase-8 activation. The present study showed that Notch signaling pathway activity is suppressed in BCCs, and is highly expressed in HFs. Elements of the Notch pathway could, therefore, represent targets for the treatment of BCCs and potentially in hair follicle engineering.

  20. Differentiation of highly metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zhenlin; Sun, Zhenzhen; Li, Jingwen; Ye, Qing; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Xie, Shusen

    2016-10-01

    The primary hypothesis tested in the study was that nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells at different stage of invasion and metastasis can be differentiated using multiphoton microscopy (MPM). CNE1 and CNE2Z cells were cultured and used in this study. The activity of cell migration and invasion was measured using Transwell assays. At the same time, the morphologic features were quantified from the multiphoton images. The measurements of Transwell migration and invasion showed that the invasion and migration of CNE2Z cells were significantly enhanced when compared with that of CNE1 cells. Also, statistically significant differences in the morphologic features were found between two kinds of cancer cells. In conclusion, it is feasible to use MPM to differentiate cancer cells with different stage of invasion and metastasis.

  1. Cardenolide glycosides from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea exhibit carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward renal adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Tomofumi; Kuroda, Minpei; Matsuo, Yukiko; Kubo, Satoshi; Tamura, Chikako; Sakamoto, Nami; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Four cardenolide glycosides, glucodigifucoside (2), 3'-O-acetylglucoevatromonoside (9), digitoxigenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-3-O-acetyl-β-D-digitoxopyranoside (11), and purpureaglycoside A (12), isolated from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human renal adenocarcinoma cell line ACHN. These compounds exhibited significantly lower IC50 values against ACHN than that against normal human renal proximal tubule-derived cell line HK-2. In particular, 2 exhibited the most potent and carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity, with a sixfold lower IC50 value against ACHN than that against HK-2. Measurement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor levels revealed that upregulation of p21/Cip1 expression was involved in the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity of 2. Further, compound 2 also exhibited the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

  2. Spindle cell variant of ameloblastic carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yuki; Fujita, Shuichi; Yanamoto, Souichi; Yamada, Shin-ichi; Rokutanda, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kentaro; Ikeda, Tohru; Umeda, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Spindle cell variant of ameloblastic carcinoma is an extremely rare tumor. Severe dedifferentiated spindle cell variants are diagnostically challenging, particularly in small biopsy specimens. Here, we report a case of spindle cell variant of ameloblastic carcinoma in the mandible of a 69-year-old male patient and review the available literature. The tumor was surgically resected under general anesthesia. Histopathologic diagnosis of spindle cell carcinoma was made on incisional biopsy, and the final diagnosis was confirmed as spindle cell variant of ameloblastic carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry using cytokeratin and CK19 is helpful in determining the origin of spindle cell variant of ameloblastic carcinoma, particularly CK19 indicated that sarcomatoid spindle cells are derived from odontogenic epithelium. A review demonstrated higher mean age of patients compared with that of other types of ameloblastic carcinoma. The rates of mortality and local recurrence were concurrently 30%. No recurrence or metastasis was seen in the 23-month follow-up period in the present case.

  3. Unbalanced acetylcholinesterase activity in larynx squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Castillo-González, Ana Cristina; Pelegrín-Hernández, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Cerón, Susana; Madrona, Antonio Piñero; Noguera, José Antonio; López-Moreno, María Fuensanta; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Vidal, Cecilio J; Hellín-Meseguer, Diego; Cabezas-Herrera, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that a non-neuronal cholinergic system is expressed aberrantly in airways. A proliferative effect is exerted directly by cholinergic agonists through the activation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. In cancer, particularly those related with smoking, the mechanism through which tumour cells respond to aberrantly activated cholinergic signalling is a key question. Fifty paired pieces of larynx squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissue were compared in terms of their acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). The AChE activity in non-cancerous tissues (0.248 ± 0.030 milliunits per milligram of wet tissue; mU/mg) demonstrates that upper respiratory tissues express sufficient AChE activity for controlling the level of acetylcholine (ACh). In larynx carcinomas, the AChE activity decreased to 0.157 ± 0.024 mU/mg (p=0.009). Larynx cancer patients exhibiting low ACh-degrading enzymatic activity had a significantly shorter overall survival (p=0.031). Differences in the mRNA levels of alternatively spliced AChE isoforms and molecular compositions were noted between glottic and supraglottic cancers. Our results suggest that the low AChE activity observed in larynx squamous cell carcinoma may be useful for predicting the outcome of patients.

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Jonathan N.; Nakamura, Leah Y.; Pacelli, Anna; Humphreys, Mitchell R.; Castle, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    Nine patients treated with primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the prostate were identified among 29,783 cases of prostate cancer evaluated at Mayo Clinic from January 15, 1970, until January 2, 2009. A PubMed search of the English-language literature published from January 1, 1980, to January 1, 2010, was then performed using the key words signet ring cell and prostate, identifying 42 cases. This study reviews those cases, along with the additional 9 reported herein, and evaluates clinical characteristics, histologic diagnoses, treatment modalities, and outcomes. Mean age at diagnosis was 68 years (range, 50-85 years), and mean prostate-specific antigen level was 95.3 ng/mL (range, 1.9-536.0 ng/mL; to convert to μg/L, multiply by 1). Most patients (66%) had non–stage IV carcinoma, the most common Gleason sum was 8 (33%), and mean survival was 29 months. The presence of a primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the prostate was best confirmed by negative findings on gastrointestinal work-up, a positive stain for prostate-specific acid phosphatase, and negative carcinoembryonic antigen test results. PMID:21123640

  6. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Naushad, Q N

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity a type of Oral Cancer in young patients is a very rare occurrence particularly during the first decade of life. Oral cancer is predominantly an aggressive neoplasm of middle-aged people where 96% of the patients are more than 40 years of age and it occurs mainly due to the excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol. In South-East Asia it has a higher rate of occurrence than the rest of the world, partly due to increased consumption of chewing tobacco and various harmful spices, areca nuts and betel quids. These rare varieties of aggressive neoplasm commonly affect tongue and lip. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy who had an exophytic type of granulomatous lesion with some indurated borders which diffusely involved the left side of the hard palate, alveolar mucosa, left maxillary antrum and aggressively emerged within the left orbit by engulfing the left inferior rectus muscle. The purpose of this case report is to provide information that younger group can suffer from oral squamous cell carcinoma though it is very rare and this younger group would appear to have a biologically more aggressive tumor and they require more complex treatment. The role of more aggressive initial therapy must be considered.

  7. RENAL CELL CARCINOMA METASTASIS TO THE SINONASAL CAVITY: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marijan; Krvavica, Ana; Rudić, Milan

    2015-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of all adult malignant tumors. Common sites of metastases are lungs, bone, liver, brain and adrenal glands. Metastatic disease to the head and neck ranges from 15% to 30%. The 5-year survival rate after nephrectomy is 60%-75%, but with multiorgan metastases the 5-year survival rate is significantly lower, 0-7%. A case is presented of a female patient diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma metastases to the paranasal sinuses, diagnosed and treated at the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, Zadar General Hospital, Zadar, Croatia. The tumor was surgically removed. Unfortunately, the patient died one year after the procedure due to multiorgan failure. Although metastases of renal cell carcinoma to the head and neck are very rare, it should be first suspected when investigating a metastatic tumor in this region. Surgical excision offers the best hope for long term survival. In case of unresectable tumor, other treatment options should be considered such as radiotherapy, immunotherapy and chemotherapy.

  8. Renal cell carcinoma with vascular invasion: Mortality and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cabello, M A; Laso-García, I; Donis-Canet, F; Gómez-Dos-Santos, V; Varona-Crespo, C; Burgos-Revilla, F J

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of the results of patients who had been operated of renal cell carcinoma with vascular invasion in our institution, evaluation of prognostic factors and complications. Retrospective observational study of 37 patients diagnosed of renal cell carcinoma with vascular invasion operated between May 1999 and July 2013. We used the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Mantel-Haenszel's test (log rank) and the Cox's proportional hazards analysis test to analyse the risk factors of mortality. The median age was 60 years. Mean follow-up period was 42.1 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival were 53.8and 36.3 months, respectively. There was statistical association between overall survival and ASA (p=0.047), tumor stage (p=0.003), lymph node involvement (p=0.024), presence of metastases (p=0.013), level of tumor thrombus (p=0, 05) and histological type (p=0.001). 14 patients had grade IIIb complications or higher according to the Clavien Dindo classification, the most frequent was bleeding. Renal cell carcinoma with vascular invasion is a disease with high rate of mortality. Surgery is a therapeutic option that can be curative. The number of complications is important. Survival is conditioned by the ASA, tumor stage, the level of tumor thrombus, lymph node involvement, metastasis and histological type. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [An expert system for differential diagnosis of medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V A; Emel'ianova, O A; Gladyshev, A O

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the quantitative regularities of pathological changes in the nuclei and aggregates of C and B cells and to build an expert system on their basis for the differential diagnosis of medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma. Puncture smears with histologically verified medullary (C cell) carcinoma and oxyphilic cell (B cell) carcinoma were investigated. The nuclei and aggregates of C cells and B cells (Hürthle cells, oncocytes) were morphometrically examined with a computer color image analyzer on the basis of a light microscope and a digital photo camera. The quantitative regularities of the degree of C and B cell aggregation in medullary and oxyphilic cell thyroid carcinoma were found by morphometry. The threshold values for the aggregates in the comparison groups and their weight coefficients formed the basis for the expert system to differentially diagnose medullary and oxyphilic cell carcinoma at the initial stages of patient examination. The clinical trials showed the high efficiency of the developed expert system.

  10. Honey induces apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Afshari, Jalil Tavakkol; Davoodi, Saiedeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The fact that antioxidants have several preventative effects against different diseases, such as coronary diseases, inflammatory disorders, neurologic degeneration, aging, and cancer, has led to the search for food rich in antioxidants. Honey has been used as a traditional food and medical source since ancient times. However, recently many scientists have been concentrating on the antioxidant property of honey. By use of human renal cancer cell lines (ACHN), we investigated the antiproliferative activity, apoptosis, and the antitumor activity of honey. Materials and Methods: The cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with 10% fetal bovine serum treated with different concentrations of honey for 3 consecutive days. Cell viability was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) by flow cytometry. Results: Honey decreased the cell viability in the malignant cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The IC 50 values against the ACHN cell lines were determined as 1.7 ± 0.04% and 2.1 ± 0.03% μg/mL after 48 and 72 h, respectively. Honey induced apoptosis of the ACHN cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by flow cytometry histogram of treated cells. Conclusion: It might be concluded that honey may cause cell death in the ACHN cells, in which apoptosis plays an important role. Most of the drugs used in the cancer treatment are apoptotic inducers, hence apoptotic nature of honey is considered vital. Therefore, it prompted us to investigate honey as a potential candidate for renal cancer treatment. PMID:21472079

  11. Accurate Detection of Carcinoma Cells by Use of a Cell Microarray Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yamamura, Shohei; Yatsushiro, Shouki; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Abe, Kaori; Shinohara, Yasuo; Tamiya, Eiichi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate detection and analysis of circulating tumor cells plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cancer treatment. Methods and Findings A cell microarray chip was used to detect spiked carcinoma cells among leukocytes. The chip, with 20,944 microchambers (105 µm width and 50 µm depth), was made from polystyrene; and the formation of monolayers of leukocytes in the microchambers was observed. Cultured human T lymphoblastoid leukemia (CCRF-CEM) cells were used to examine the potential of the cell microarray chip for the detection of spiked carcinoma cells. A T lymphoblastoid leukemia suspension was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 15 min standing to allow the leukocytes to settle down into the microchambers. Approximately 29 leukocytes were found in each microchamber when about 600,000 leukocytes in total were dispersed onto a cell microarray chip. Similarly, when leukocytes isolated from human whole blood were used, approximately 89 leukocytes entered each microchamber when about 1,800,000 leukocytes in total were placed onto the cell microarray chip. After washing the chip surface, PE-labeled anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody and APC-labeled anti-CD326 (EpCAM) monoclonal antibody solution were dispersed onto the chip surface and allowed to react for 15 min; and then a microarray scanner was employed to detect any fluorescence-positive cells within 20 min. In the experiments using spiked carcinoma cells (NCI-H1650, 0.01 to 0.0001%), accurate detection of carcinoma cells was achieved with PE-labeled anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, verification of carcinoma cells in the microchambers was performed by double staining with the above monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion The potential application of the cell microarray chip for the detection of CTCs was shown, thus demonstrating accurate detection by double staining for cytokeratin and EpCAM at the single carcinoma cell level. PMID:22396762

  12. The utility of PAX-2 and renal cell carcinoma marker immunohistochemistry in distinguishing papillary renal cell carcinoma from nonrenal cell neoplasms with papillary features.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shree G; Gokden, Murat; McKenney, Jesse K; Phan, Dan C; Cox, Roni Michelle; Kelly, Thomas; Gokden, Neriman

    2010-12-01

    PAX-2, a homeogene expressed during kidney development, has been studied as a marker of renal origin in both primary and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but not in papillary neoplasms or in comparison with RCC marker (RCCma). We studied immunohistochemical expression of PAX-2 and RCCma in 24 papillary RCC (PRCC) and 66 nonrenal cell papillary neoplasms (NRCPN) from a variety of organs. Of the PRCC, 16/24 (67%) were positive for PAX-2; 23/24 (96%) were positive for RCCma. Of the NRCPN, 9/66 (14%) is positive for PAX-2 [4/10 (40%) ovarian papillary serous carcinomas, 5/9 (56%) uterine papillary serous carcinomas]; RCCma was positive in 28/66 (42%), including 9/9 (100%) papillary thyroid carcinomas, 8/10 (80%) ovarian papillary serous carcinomas, 4/9 (44%) uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 1/10 (10%) papillary urothelial carcinomas, 1/2 (50%) intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas of the pancreas, 3/3 (100%) choroid plexus papillomas, 1/1 (100%) pituitary adenoma with papillary features, and 1/2 (50%) lung adenocarcinomas with papillary features. The sensitivity of PAX-2+/RCCma+ immunophenotype for PRCC was 58% with a specificity of 54%. There is significant overlap between the expressions of these markers in PRCC and NRCPN; however, the positivity of RCCma and/or PAX-2 is 100% sensitive for PRCC and may prove useful in the initial work up of metastases of unknown primary. PAX-2 and RCCma immunohistochemistry should be interpreted with caution in papillary neoplasms, with particular attention to the possibility of ovarian and uterine papillary serous carcinomas, which can express both PAX-2 and RCCma.

  13. Distinctive behaviour of live biopsy-derived carcinoma cells unveiled using coherence-controlled holographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most aggressive tumours and is typically diagnosed too late. Late diagnosis requires an urgent decision on an effective therapy. An individualized test of chemosensitivity should quickly indicate the suitability of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. No ex vivo chemosensitivity assessment developed thus far has become a part of general clinical practice. Therefore, we attempted to explore the new technique of coherence-controlled holographic microscopy to investigate the motility and growth of live cells from a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsy. We expected to reveal behavioural patterns characteristic for malignant cells that can be used to imrove future predictive evaluation of chemotherapy. We managed to cultivate primary SACR2 carcinoma cells from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biopsy verified through histopathology. The cells grew as a cohesive sheet of suspected carcinoma origin, and western blots showed positivity for the tumour marker p63 confirming cancerous origin. Unlike the roundish colonies of the established FaDu carcinoma cell line, the SACR2 cells formed irregularly shaped colonies, eliciting the impression of the collective invasion of carcinoma cells. Time-lapse recordings of the cohesive sheet activity revealed the rapid migration and high plasticity of these epithelial-like cells. Individual cells frequently abandoned the swiftly migrating crowd by moving aside and crawling faster. The increasing mass of fast migrating epithelial-like cells before and after mitosis confirmed the continuation of the cell cycle. In immunofluorescence, analogously shaped cells expressed the p63 tumour marker, considered proof of their origin from a carcinoma. These behavioural traits indicate the feasible identification of carcinoma cells in culture according to the proposed concept of the carcinoma cell dynamic phenotype. If further developed, this approach could later serve in a new functional

  14. The utility of PAX-2 in distinguishing metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma from its morphologic mimics: an immunohistochemical study with comparison to renal cell carcinoma marker.

    PubMed

    Gokden, Neriman; Gokden, Murat; Phan, Dan C; McKenney, Jesse K

    2008-10-01

    PAX-2 is a homeogene expressed during kidney development. Although immunohistochemical expression of PAX-2 has been described in a variety of primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes and in metastatic RCC, its specificity as a marker of renal lineage in a metastatic setting has not been fully evaluated. In addition, its utility has not been directly compared with the most widely used antibody in this setting, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCCma). We studied PAX-2 expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) and in a variety of nonrenal neoplasms with clear cytoplasm that may potentially mimic CC-RCC. Archival material from 27 CC-RCCs metastatic to various organs and 50 close morphologic mimics of CC-RCC were retrieved. Immunohistochemistry with PAX-2 and RCCmapi antibodies was performed on each case. Nuclear staining (PAX-2) or membranous staining (RCCma) was scored semiquantitatively. Twenty-three of 27 (85%) metastatic CC-RCCs showed nuclear immunoreactivity for PAX-2, whereas RCCma reactivity was found in 19 of 27 (70%). The immunoprofiles of the metastatic CC-RCC were PAX-2+/RCCma+: 19 of 27 (70%), PAX-2+/RCCma-: 5 of 27 (19%), PAX-2-/RCCma+: 2 of 27 (7%), and PAX-2-/RCCma-: 1 of 27 (4%). Five of the 50 mimics of CC-RCC (10%) had at least focal nuclear reactivity with PAX-2, including 1 of 3 parathyroid carcinomas (33%), 3 of 7 clear cell carcinomas of the ovary (43%), and the 1 clear cell papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis. Membranous RCCma reactivity was identified in 26 of the 50 mimics (52%). We conclude that PAX-2 is a useful marker for distinguishing metastatic CC-RCC from its potential morphologic mimics, but caution must be used in certain differential diagnostic settings where nonrenal tumors such as parathyroid carcinoma, ovarian clear cell carcinoma, and clear cell papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis were shown to express both PAX-2 and RCCma.

  15. Myoepithelial Cell Differentiation Markers in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Progression

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tanya D.; Jindal, Sonali; Agunbiade, Samiat; Gao, Dexiang; Troxell, Megan; Borges, Virginia F.; Schedin, Pepper

    2016-01-01

    We describe a preclinical model that investigates progression of early-stage ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and report that compromised myoepithelial cell differentiation occurs before transition to invasive disease. Human breast cancer MCF10DCIS.com cells were delivered into the mouse mammary teat by intraductal injection in the absence of surgical manipulations and accompanying wound-healing confounders. DCIS-like lesions developed throughout the mammary ducts with full representation of human DCIS histologic patterns. Tumor cells were incorporated into the normal mammary epithelium, developed ductal intraepithelial neoplasia and DCIS, and progressed to invasive carcinoma, suggesting the model provides a rigorous approach to study early stages of breast cancer progression. Mammary glands were evaluated for myoepithelium integrity with immunohistochemical assays. Progressive loss of the myoepithelial cell differentiation markers p63, calponin, and α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the mouse myoepithelium surrounding DCIS-involved ducts. p63 loss was an early indicator, calponin loss intermediate, and α-smooth muscle actin a later indicator of compromised myoepithelium. Loss of myoepithelial calponin was specifically associated with gain of the basal marker p63 in adjacent tumor cells. In single time point biopsies obtained from 16 women diagnosed with pure DCIS, a similar loss in myoepithelial cell markers was observed. These results suggest that further research is warranted into the role of myoepithelial cell p63 and calponin expression on DCIS progression to invasive disease. PMID:26343330

  16. BRAF mutation in colorectal carcinomas with signet ring cell component.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Serap; Onguru, Onder

    2017-08-01

    : Signet ring cell carcinoma is a rare subtype of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with an associated BRAFV600E mutation. We investigated frequencies of BRAF mutation in 28 CRCs containing variable signet ring cell component and their relation with clinicopathologic parameters. : According to the presence of signet ring cell component, tumors were categorized into groups as follows: 0%-9%, 10%-24%, 25%-49%, and >50%. Genomic DNA was isolated and analyzed for BRAF V600E gene mutation by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Eleven of 28 cases (39.3%) showed BRAFV600E mutation, which was also confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To elucidate the importance of existence of signet ring cell component at the molecular level, we separated cases into two groups with cut-off levels of 10% and 50%, which pertain to percentages of signet ring cells. : Seven of 19 cases (36.8%) under the threshold of 50% and four of nine cases (44.4%) over this threshold value demonstrated BRAF mutation. Three of 7 cases (42.8%) featuring <10% signet ring cell component and eight out of 21 cases (38.1%) showing >10% were BRAF mutated. : BRAF mutation must be closely associated with the presence of malignant signet ring cells regardless of their percentages.

  17. Signet ring cell carcinoma of the eyelid - the monocle tumour.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Anouck Leuba; Heegaard, Steffen; Clemmensen, Ole; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2008-04-01

    We report the clinical and histopathological characteristics of two cases of signet ring cell carcinoma of the eye lids, and discuss the histogenesis of this neoplasm. Two 72-year-old Caucasian males both presented with slowly growing tumours of the eyelids. The tumours were excised and specimens were examined using light- and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Clinically, the tumours infiltrated both eyelids on one side of the face with swelling and periocular inflammation, creating a monocle-like appearance. Extensive clinical work-up excluded periocular metastases. Histopathologically, the tumours were composed of rather bland cells with mainly histiocytoid morphology. A minor proportion had a signet ring cell appearance. The cytoplasmic inclusions giving the signet ring morphology were PAS- and colloidal iron positive. The tumour cells reacted with antibodies against cytokeratins, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and lysozyme. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated tumour cells containing intracytoplasmic vacuoles lined by microvilli. The tumour cells aggregated in duct-like clusters. A diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma was made in both cases. Histopathological, immunohistological and ultrastructural findings indicated that the tumours were of sweat gland origin.

  18. Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity is very rare. A 76-year-old man presented with epistaxis and admitted to our hospital. His past histories were right radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinomas at the age of 68 years and brain infarction at the age of 75 years. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a red polyp of the right nasal cavity. Imaging modalities including CT and MRI also revealed a tumor measuring 2 x 3 x 2 cm. Angiography showed that the tumor is very hypervascular. Clinical diagnosis was angiogenic tumors including hemangioma, sinonasal hemangiopericytoma, and paraganglioma. A blood data showed anemia and low platerets, and bone marrow biopsy revealed myelodysplastic syndrome. A coiling embolization of the feeding artery was performed, and the tumor reduced markedly. The tumor was resected almost entirely. Pathologically, the tumor was 2 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm red tumor. The tumor cells had clear cytoplasm, and arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. Atypia is mild. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratin (AE1/3, CAM5.2), RCC ma, CD10, and Ki-67 (labeling=20%), but negative for CD34, factor-VIII-related antigen, CEA, EMA, melanosome (HMB45), S100 protein, p53, and HepPar-1. The pathological diagnosis was made without knowledge of kidney status. A pathological diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma of clear cell type (grade 1) was made. The patient is now free from tumor, and palliative chemoradiation is considered.

  19. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  20. Carcinocythaemia (carcinoma cell leukaemia) in a dog: an acute leukaemia-like picture due to metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amati, M; Miele, F; Avallone, G; Banco, B; Bertazzolo, W

    2012-08-01

    An eight-year-old entire female boxer was presented with a two-week history of anorexia and lethargy and two-day history of unilateral left epistaxis. Clinical findings and laboratory test results suggested disseminated intravascular coagulation. On blood smear evaluation, occasional large epithelioid-like unclassified cells were detected. Occasionally these cells were organised in small clusters. Bone marrow examination revealed a marked infiltration by a malignant population of the same epithelioid-like cells. The dog was euthanased because of the guarded prognosis. Following histology and immunohistochemistry, a widespread undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary origin was diagnosed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of carcinoma cell leukaemia reported in a dog. Carcinoma cell leukaemia is a rare oncological condition previously described in humans, characterised by non-haematopoietic neoplastic cells in peripheral blood. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Papillary squamous cell carcinoma presenting on the gingiva.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saba M; Gossweiler, Michael K; Zunt, Susan L; Edwards, Michael D; Blanchard, Steven B

    2005-12-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. PSCC can occur as either an in situ or invasive tumor. The sites of occurrence in order of the most to least prevalent are the larynx, oropharynx, and nasopharynx. We present an unusual case of PSCC occurring on the gingiva. A 72-year-old white female presented with a chief complaint of tooth mobility in the right posterior mandible. Clinical examination revealed a Miller's Class 2 mobility of tooth #28 along with an erythematous, papillary appearance of the lingual gingiva on teeth #27, #28, and #29. Her dental history revealed treatment of tooth #28 with locally delivered antibiotics. Her medical history revealed a diagnosis of breast cancer 8 years prior to examination that was treated with partial mastectomy and radiation therapy. An initial differential clinical diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma or metastatic carcinoma was made. Surgical therapy included extraction of tooth #28 and an excisional biopsy of the lesion on the lingual gingiva. Microscopic evaluation of the gingival specimen revealed a neoplastic papillary proliferation of the surface epithelium with a thick layer of parakeratin, deep parakeratin-lined crypts, and a thickened spinous cell layer along with islands and strands of malignant epithelium. The microscopic appearance of the lesion was characteristic for PSSC. The patient's tumor was removed via a block resection that included teeth #27 through #31 and a radical neck dissection. This is a case report of PSCC occurring on the gingiva. This report demonstrates that, even though oral cancers involving the periodontium are a relatively rare occurrence, periodontists cannot be complacent about the diagnosis of periodontal bone loss. It also highlights the importance of utilizing a histopathologic examination to confirm the clinical diagnosis for any suspicious lesion.

  2. Identification and characterization of CD133+CD44+ cancer stem cells from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Wu, Yongyan; Gao, Wei; Li, Fei; Bo, Yunfeng; Zhu, Meixia; Fu, Rong; Liu, Qingqing; Wen, Shuxin; Wang, Binquan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma ranks second among head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Cancer stem cells can support cancer growth and malignant behavior. Therefore, cancer stem cells isolated from laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissue could be used to investigate the initiation, progression, and treatment strategies of this cancer. Methods: We isolated CD133-CD44-, CD133-CD44+, CD133+CD44- and CD133+CD44+ cell populations from laryngeal squamous-cell carcinoma cell lines Hep2 and TU-177 by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Sphere formation, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation, resistance to radio- and chemotherapy, and in vivo tumorigenicity of these populations were evaluated. Moreover, we investigated the expression of the stem-cell markers (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) in CD133-CD44-, CD133-CD44+, CD133+CD44-, CD133+CD44+ cell populations and parental Hep2 and TU-177 cells. Results: As compared with CD133-CD44-, CD133-CD44+, CD133+CD44- populations and parental cells, CD133+CD44+ cells showed higher cell viability, migration and invasive capability and colony formation ability as well as stronger resistance to cisplatin and irradiation. Moreover, levels of SOX2 and OCT4 and tumorigenicity in nude mice were greater in CD133+CD44+ Hep2 and TU-177 cells than other cell populations and parental cells. Conclusion: The CD133+CD44+ population of laryngeal squamous-cell carcinoma Hep2 and TU-177 cells have stem cell properties and showed more malignant features than CD133+CD44- and CD133-CD44+ cell populations. CD133+CD44+ cancer stem cells may be a promising target for developing anticancer drugs and treatment strategies for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:28261352

  3. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feller, Liviu; Wood, Neil H; Khammissa, Razia A G; Lemmer, Johan

    2010-07-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx.

  4. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability.

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of rectum presenting in a man: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary squamous cell carcinomas of the colorectum are very uncommon. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, only 114 cases of squamous cell carcinoma in the colorectum exist in the reported literature. Here we report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum in the ethnic Kashmiri population in northern India. Case Presentation The case of a 60-year-old male patient (Asian) with a pure squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is presented here. The patient underwent a curative surgery with concomitant chemotherapy. Two years after the initial curative resection of the tumor he is still alive. Conclusion The prognosis for squamous cell carcinoma of the colorectum is worse than for that of adenocarcinoma, because of the delayed diagnosis. The etiopathogenicity of squamous cell carcinoma of the colorectum is discussed. Surgical resection of the lesion seems to be the treatment of choice. Chemotherapy also helps in improvement of the prognosis. PMID:21118539