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Sample records for cell cervical cancer

  1. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical cancers are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer is the easiest gynecological cancer to prevent with ... HPV on a woman's cervix. Certain types of HPV can lead to cervical cancer. Your doctor will swab the cervix for cells. ...

  2. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-07

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  3. Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

  4. ADXS11-001 High Dose HPV+ Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Effects of Immunotherapy; Metastatic/Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  5. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  6. Wnt-11 overexpression promoting the invasion of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Heng; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Shizhuo; Pang, Xiaoao; Zhang, Shulan

    2016-09-01

    Wnt-11 is a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. However, Wnt-11 expression in cervical cancer has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt-11 in cervical tumor proliferation and invasion. This study examined 24 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 78 cervical cancer samples. The expression of Wnt-11 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) E6 oncoprotein was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of Wnt-11, HR-HPV E6, JNK-1, phosphorylated JNK-1(P-JNK1), and β-catenin was examined by western blot analysis following Wnt-11 knockdown or overexpression in HeLa or SiHa cells, respectively. The promotion of cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion was investigated using the cell counting kit-8 and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. Wnt-11 and HR-HPV E6 expression increased in a manner that corresponded with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics cancer stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and HPV infection. Wnt-11 protein expression was positively associated with HR-HPV E6 protein expression in all 78 cervical cancer samples (P < 0.001). Furthermore, Wnt-11 was positively associated with P-JNK1 expression and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. These observations suggest that the increased Wnt-11 expression observed in cervical cancer cells may lead to the phosphorylation and activation of JNK-1 and significantly promote tumor cell proliferation and cell migration/invasion through activation of the Wnt/JNK pathway. Consequently, Wnt-11 may serve as a novel target for cervical cancer therapy.

  7. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. ...

  8. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed ... Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time Screening tests can find abnormal cells so they ...

  9. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Tirapazamine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  10. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  11. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  12. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Methods Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Results Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Conclusion Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression. PMID:22443139

  13. NHERF1 Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Tao; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Qiong; Shi, Wen; Wang, Qiqi; Yang, Ying; He, Junqi

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is routinely utilized in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. However, resistance has been the major limitation. In this study, we found that Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) was downregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Analysis based on a cervical cancer dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed association of NHERF1 expression with disease-free survival of patients received cisplatin treatment. NHERF1 overexpression inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant HeLa cells, whereas NHERF1 knockdown had inverse effects. While parental HeLa cells were more resistant to cisplatin after NHERF1 knockdown, NHERF1 overexpression in CaSki cells promoted cisplatin sensitivity. Overexpression and knockdown studies also showed that NHERF1 significantly inhibited AKT and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that NHERF1 can sensitize cisplatin-refractory cervical cancer cells. This study may help to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in tumors. PMID:28085111

  14. Atezolizumab and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent, Persistent, or Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  15. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  16. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  17. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pap test results are not normal. • Get the HPV vaccine. It protects against the types of HPV that ... for cervical cancer. To learn more about the HPV vaccine visit www. cdc. gov/ hpv . • D on’t ...

  19. Cervical cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... factors for cervical cancer include: Not getting the HPV vaccine Being economically disadvantaged Having a mother who took ... be prevented by doing the following: Get the HPV vaccine . The vaccine prevents most types of HPV infection ...

  20. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases of cervical cancer and the number of deaths due to cervical cancer since 1950. Cervical dysplasia ... for cervical cancer helps decrease the number of deaths from the disease. Regular screening of women between ...

  4. Carbon nanowall scaffold to control culturing of cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Kondo, Hiroki; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Sekine, Makoto; Baba, Yoshinobu; Hori, Masaru

    2014-12-01

    The effect of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) on the culturing rate and morphological control of cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells) was investigated. CNWs with different densities were grown using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and subjected to post-growth plasma treatment for modification of the surface terminations. Although the surface wettability of the CNWs was not significantly dependent on the CNW densities, the cell culturing rates were significantly dependent. Morphological changes of the cells were not significantly dependent on the density of CNWs. These results indicate that plasma-induced surface morphology and chemical terminations enable nanobio applications using carbon nanomaterials.

  5. High expression of prolactin receptor is associated with cell survival in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The altered expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) has been implicated in breast and other types of cancer. There are few studies that have focused on the analysis of PRL/PRLR in cervical cancer where the development of neoplastic lesions is influenced by the variation of the hormonal status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PRL/PRLR and the effect of PRL treatment on cell proliferation and apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines. Results High expression of multiple PRLR forms and PRLvariants of 60–80 kDa were observed in cervical cancer cell lines compared with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes evaluated by Western blot, immunofluorecence and real time PCR. Treatment with PRL (200 ng/ml) increased cell proliferation in HeLa cells determined by the MTT assay at day 3 and after 1 day a protective effect against etoposide induced apoptosis in HeLa, SiHa and C-33A cervical cancer cell lines analyzed by the TUNEL assay. Conclusions Our data suggests that PRL/PRLR signaling could act as an important survival factor for cervical cancer. The use of an effective PRL antagonist may provide a better therapeutic intervention in cervical cancer. PMID:24148306

  6. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical cancer in women aged 30–65 years. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Human Papillomavirus ( ...

  8. Inhibiting CD146 by its Monoclonal Antibody AA98 Improves Radiosensitivity of Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huawen

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death of females worldwide. Radiotherapy is considered effective for cervical cancer treatment, but the low radiosensitivity found in some cases severely affects therapeutic outcomes. This study aimed to reveal the role of CD146, an important adhesion molecule facilitating tumor angiogenesis, in regulating radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells. Material/Methods CD146 protein expression was compared in normal cells, cervical cancer cells with lower radiosensitivity, and cervical cancer cells with higher sensitivity from cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. Anti-CD146 monoclonal antibody AA98 was used to inhibit CD146 in human cervical cancer SiHa cells with relatively low radiosensitivity, and then the cell survival and apoptosis changes after radiation were detected by colony formation assay and flow cytometry. Results CD146 protein was significantly up-regulated in cervical cancer cells (P<0.001), especially in cancer cells with lower radiosensitivity. The SiHa cells treated with AA98 showed more obvious inhibition in cell survival (P<0.05) and promotion in cell apoptosis (P<0.01) after radiation, compared to the untreated cells. More dramatic changes in apoptotic factors Caspase 3 and Bcl-XL were also detected in AA98-treated cells. Conclusions These results indicate that inhibiting CD146 improves the effect of radiation in suppressing SiHa cells. This study shows the potential of CD146 as a target for increasing radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells, which might allow improvement in treatment outcome in cervical cancer. Further studies are necessary for understanding the detailed mechanism of CD146 in regulating radiosensitivity. PMID:27647179

  9. Analysis of human papillomavirus E7 protein status in C-33A cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andreas; Jenewein, Brigitte; Pircher, Haymo; Rostek, Ursula; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Zwerschke, Werner

    2015-02-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the main etiologic factor for the development of cervical cancer. Infections by these viruses have been detected in virtually all cervical cancers. C-33A is one of the rare cervical cancer derived cell lines considered as HPV-negative. Employing monoclonal antibodies raised against a conformational epitope of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein, we present evidence suggesting that E7-positive cells can be sporadically and transiently detected in C-33A cell cultures. Immunoblotting with affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal anti-HPV 16 E7 antisera and q-RT-PCR analysis suggest that these cells do probably not express HPV-16 E7. Moreover, we show that the HPV E7 protein level differs considerably between individual cells in cultures of several established cervical cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that expression of the E7 protein is variable in established cervical cancer cell lines including C-33A cells.

  10. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As2O3 induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As2O3 on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As2O3 than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As2O3 than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As2O3 treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As2O3 is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; ...

  12. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; ...

  15. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} inhibits growth of cervical cancer cells and expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. • HPV-negative cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. • HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-16 positive cancer cells. • Down-regulation of HPV oncogenes by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is partially due to the diminished AP-1 binding. - Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  16. Integration of human papillomavirus type 16 in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanopiene, Daiva; Stumbryte, Ausra; Bausyte, Raminta; Kirvelaitis, Edgaras; Simanaviciene, Vaida; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains an important cause of women morbidity and mortality. The progression of cervical pathology correlates with the HPV integration into the host genome. However, the data on the viral integration status in cervical dysplasias are controversial. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the status of HPV integration in two types of cervical pathology – invasive and non invasive cervical cancer (e.g. carcinoma in situ). 156 women were included in the study: 66 women were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (CC) and 90 with non invasive cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, CIS). 74.2% [95% PI: 63.64÷84.76] of specimens collected from women with diagnosed CC and 85.6% [95% PI: 85.53÷92.85] of CIS specimens were positive for HPV. The most prevalent HPV genotype in both groups was HPV16. To evaluate HPV integration, three selected HPV16 E2 gene fragments were analyzed by PCR. In the majority of CC and CIS specimens the amplification of all three HPV16 E2 gene fragments was observed. The episomal HPV16 form was detected in the majority of CC and CIS specimens. The deletion of all three HPV16 E2 gene fragments was detected in 9.4% of CC specimens and 2.2% of CIS specimens. Finally, integration status could not be used as diagnostical additional test to distinguish between invasive and non invasive cervical cancer. PMID:28352670

  17. Lysophosphatidic Acid Inhibits Apoptosis Induced by Cisplatin in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yanxia; Yang, Ya; Wang, Ji; Li, Yi; Ma, Hongbing; Cai, Hui; Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Shufeng; Li, Zongfang; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Wang, Jiansheng; Liu, Rui; Yan, Yanli; Xue, Chaofan; Shi, Xiaowei; Tan, Li; Ren, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) level has been found significantly increased in the serum of patients with ovarian, cervical, and colon cancers. LPA level in cervical cancer patients is significantly higher than in healthy controls. LPA receptors were found highly expressed in cervical cancer cells, suggesting LPA may play a role in the development of cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of LPA on the apoptosis induced by cisplatin (DDP) in cervical cancer cell line and the underlying changes in signaling pathways. Our study found that cisplatin induced apoptosis of Hela cell through inhibiting expression of Bcl-2, upregulating the expression of Bax, Fas-L, and the enzyme activity of caspase-3 (p < 0.05); LPA significantly provided protection against the apoptosis induced by cisplatin by inhibiting the above alterations in apoptotic factor caused by cisplatin (p < 0.05). Moreover, PI3K/AKT pathway was found to be important for the LPA antiapoptosis effect, and administration of PI3K/AKT partially reversed the LPA-mediated protection against cisplatin-induced apoptosis (p < 0.05). These findings have shed new lights on the LPA bioactivity in cervical cancer cells and pointed to a possible sensitization scheme through combined administration of PI3K inhibitor and cisplatin for better treatment of cervical cancer patients, especially those with elevated LPA levels. PMID:26366416

  18. Fra-1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS-like antigen-1 (Fra-1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra-1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra-1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra-1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra-1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway.

  19. Cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, John H

    2012-06-01

    Standard treatment for invasive cervical cancer involves either radical surgery or radiotherapy. Childbearing is therefore impossible after either of these treatments. A fertility-sparing option, however, by radical trachelectomy has been shown to be effective, provided that strict criteria for selection are followed. Fertility rates are high, whereas recurrence is low, indicating that a more conservative approach to dealing with early small cervical tumours is feasible. Careful preoperative assessment by magnetic resonance imaging scans allows accurate measurement of the tumour with precise definition to plan surgery. This will ensure an adequate clear margin by wide excision of the tumour excising the cervix by radical vaginal trachelectomy with surrounding para-cervical and upper vaginal tissues. An isthmic cerclage is inserted to provide competence at the level of the internal orifice. A primary vagino-isthmic anastomosis is conducted to restore continuity of the lower genital tract. Subsequent pregnancies require careful monitoring in view of the high risk of spontaneous premature rupture of the membranes. Delivery by classical caesarean section is necessary at the onset of labour or electively before term. Over 1100 such procedures have been carried out vaginally or abdominally, resulting in 240 live births. Radical vaginal trachelectomy with a laparoscopic pelvic-node dissection offers the least morbid and invasive route for surgery, provided that adequate surgical skills have been obtained.

  20. Involvement of retinoblastoma-associated protein 48 during photodynamic therapy of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuxia; Wang, Lijun; Ren, Xingye; Pan, Yulu; Peng, Yan; Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Cuige; Zhang, Youzhong

    2017-03-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA‑PDT) is an effective treatment option for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, the precancerous lesion of cervical cancer, and early cervical cancer, particularly for young or nulliparous women who want to remain fertile. A previous report described the involvement of histone deacetylases (HDAC) during ALA‑PDT mediated apoptosis in the cerebral cortex of a mouse model. Retinoblastoma‑associated protein 48 (RbAp48), a highly abundant component of HDACs, is a critical mediator that controls the transforming activity of human papillomavirus 16 in cervical cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of RbAp48 in ALA‑PDT‑induced cell death in cervical cancer cells. RbAp48 was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines treated with ALA‑PDT, including SiHa and HeLa cells. To establish the relevance of RbAp48 and the efficacy of ALA‑PDT in cervical cancer cells, the effect of ALA‑PDT was investigated in SiHa or HeLa cells following the depletion of RbAp48 by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Reduction of RbAp48 led to the reduced suppression of proliferation and apoptosis induced by ALA‑PDT in cervical cancer cells, which was associated with a reduction in tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), retinoblastoma (Rb), apoptosis‑related enzyme caspase‑3, and increased levels of the oncogenic genes, human papillomavirus E6 and E7. These results provide evidence that RbAp48 is an important contributor to the efficacy of ALA‑PDT in cervical cancer cells. RbAp48 may be a therapeutic target that may help to improve the treatment of cervical cancer.

  1. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Samarzija, Ivana; Beard, Peter

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  2. CLDN1 expression in cervical cancer cells is related to tumor invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-li; Hu, Zheng; Zhu, Da; Ding, Wen-cheng; Liu, Dan; Li, Ke-zhen; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Even though infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) is very important, it is not the sole cause of cervical cancer. Because it is known that genetic variations that result from HPV infection are probably the most important causes of cervical cancer, we used human whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization to detect the copy number variations of genes in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The results of the array were validated by PCR, FISH and immunohistochemistry. We find that the copy number and protein expression of claudin-1 (CLDN1) increase with the progression of cervical cancer. The strong positive staining of CLDN1 in the cervical lymph node metastasis group received a significantly higher score than the staining in the group with no lymph node metastasis of cervical cancer tissues. The overexpression of CLDN1 in SiHa cells can increase anti-apoptosis ability and promote invasive ability of these cells accompanied by a decrease in expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin as well as an increase in the expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. CLDN1 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through its interaction with SNAI1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CLDN1 overexpression has significant effects on the growth and metastasis of xenografted tumors in athymic mice. These data suggest that CLDN1 promotes invasion and metastasis in cervical cancer cells via the expression of EMT/invasion-related genes. Therefore, CLDN1 could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:27974683

  3. Development and evaluation of topotecan loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: A study in cervical cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Jie; Zhang, Zhen; Xie, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2016-12-01

    The study aims at statistical development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with topotecan hydrochloride for avoiding the drawbacks of conventional drug therapies used in cervical cancer. Twenty SLN batches were prepared using organic solvent evaporation method to provide response surface curves. Thereafter, optimized SLNs were obtained using numeric method based on desirability functions providing maximum drug loading and appropriate particle size. Physical characterization of optimized TPH loaded SLNs was performed in terms of particle size, zeta potential, transmission and scanning electron microscopic evaluation. Cytotoxicity studies were performed against cervical cancer cell lines, including cervical squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HeLa) and human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SiHa). Also, Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cells (3T3-L1) and African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells were used to evaluate biocompatibility in normal cells. As pronounced from the results, optimized SLNs may provide an attractive alternative to conventional cervical cancer drug products.

  4. Location and Density of Immune Cells in Precursor Lesions and Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Astrid M; Jaramillo, Roberto; Baena, Armando; Castaño, Jorge; Olaya, Natalia; Zea, Arnold H; Herrero, Rolando; Sanchez, Gloria I

    2013-04-01

    Only a small proportion of women infected with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) develop cervical cancer. Host immune response seems to play a role eliminating the viral infection and preventing progression to cancer. Characterization of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in cervical pre-neoplastic lesions and cervical cancer may be helpful to understand the mechanisms that mediate this protection. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in the localization and density (cells/mm(2)) of CD8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cells and Tregs (CD25 + Foxp3+) in cervical pre-neoplastic lesions and cervical cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of sections of 96 (26 CIN1, 21 CIN2, 25 CIN3, and 24 SCC) samples revealed that regardless of CIN grades, CD8+ T-cells are more abundant than CD4+, CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells in both the stroma and epithelium. There was a higher density of CD8+ cells in the stroma of cervical cancer compared to CIN3 (OR = 4.20, 95% CI 1.2-15), CIN2 (OR = 7.86, 95% CI 1.7-36.4) and CIN1 (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.1-17). Studies evaluating whether these cells are recruited before or after cancer progression will be helpful to understand the role of these cells in the natural history of HPV-induced lesions.

  5. MicroRNA-195 inhibits proliferation of cervical cancer cells by targeting cyclin D1a.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wei, Heng; Yin, Duo; Lu, Yanming; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Qiao; Ma, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Shulan

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent gynecological malignancies in women worldwide. MicroRNA-195 (miR-195) was recently found highly expressed in cervical cancer. However, the role of miR-195 in the pathology of cervical cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we first confirmed the downregulation of miR-195 in primary cervical cancer tissues. For the functional study, we introduced the sequences of miR-195 or miR-195 inhibitor into Hela and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines. Overexpression of miR-195 inhibited the proliferation of both Hela and SiHa cells. In contrast, reducing the endogenous miR-195 level by miR-195 inhibitor promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Flow cytometric assay showed that overexpression of miR-195 induced G1 phase arrest, whereas miR-195 inhibitor shortened G1 phase of cervical cancer cells. In addition, the suppressive role of miR-195 in cell cycle was also demonstrated by the western blot results of various cell cycle indicators, such as phosphorylated retinoblastoma (p-Rb) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), in the gain and loss of function experiments. Furthermore, Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay revealed that miR-195 targeted the 3'-untranslated region of cyclin D1a transcript, such as to regulate cyclin D1 expression. In summary, our results suggest that miR-195 acts as a suppressor in the proliferation and cell cycle of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting cyclin D1a mRNA.

  6. Overexpression of miR-21 promotes the proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells via the inhibition of PTEN.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjie; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Qiongying; Zhu, Dingjun

    2015-06-01

    The oncogenic miR-21 has been widely recognized to promote the development and progression of various types of malignant tumors, but not cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of miR-21 and PTEN in cervical cancer specimens using quantitative PCR. The miR-21 level was then manipulated in the cervical cancer lines and the regulation of miR-21 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells was determined. Additionally, we determined the role of PTEN in the miR-21-regulated proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. miR-21 was upregulated in the cervical cancer specimens, negatively correlating with the PTEN mRNA level. Transfection of the miR-21 mimics was markedly promoted, whereas the miR-21 inhibitor suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, with a significant inhibition of PTEN expression. In addition, the overexpression of PTEN markedly inhibited the proliferation and migration of the cervical cancer cells. The present study showed the upregulation of miR-21 in invasive cervical cancers, and confirmed the promotion of miR-21 with regard to the proliferation, migration and invasion in cervical cancer cells via inhibiting the PTEN expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm that the miR-21/PTEN pathway promotes cervical cancer.

  7. Discrimination Between Cervical Cancer Cells and Normal Cervical Cells Based on Longitudinal Elasticity Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xueqin; Zhong, Yunxin; Ye, Ting; Wang, Dajing; Mao, Bingwei

    2015-12-01

    The mechanical properties of cells are considered promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer. Recently, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation technology has been utilized for the examination of cell cortex mechanics in order to distinguish malignant cells from normal cells. However, few attempts to evaluate the biomechanical properties of cells have focused on the quantification of the non-homogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cellular structures. In the present study, we applied a variation of the method of Carl and Schillers to investigate the differences between longitudinal elasticity of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (CaSki) and normal cervical epithelial cells (CRL2614) using AFM. The results reveal a three-layer heterogeneous structure in the probing volume of both cell types studied. CaSki cells exhibited a lower whole-cell stiffness and a softer nuclei zone compared to the normal counterpart cells. Moreover, a better differentiated cytoskeleton was found in the inner cytoplasm/nuclei zone of the normal CRL2614 cells, whereas a deeper cytoskeletal distribution was observed in the probing volume of the cancerous counterparts. The sensitive cortical panel of CaSki cells, with a modulus of 0.35~0.47 kPa, was located at 237~225 nm; in normal cells, the elasticity was 1.20~1.32 kPa at 113~128 nm. The present improved method may be validated using the conventional Hertz-Sneddon method, which is widely reported in the literature. In conclusion, our results enable the quantification of the heterogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cancer cells, in particular the correlation with the corresponding depth. Preliminary results indicate that our method may potentially be applied to improve the detection of cancerous cells and provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease.

  8. Cervical Dysplasia: Is It Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... showed cervical dysplasia. What does that mean? Is it cancer? Answers from Shannon K. Laughlin-Tommaso, M. ... the abnormal cells. Dysplasia could go away on its own or, rarely, it could develop into cancer. ...

  9. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases of cervical cancer and the number of deaths due to cervical cancer since 1950. Cervical dysplasia ... for cervical cancer helps decrease the number of deaths from the disease. Regular screening of women between ...

  11. Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines: a primary study

    PubMed Central

    Barh, D; Viswanathan, G

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women in the Indian subcontinent and the incidences and death rates are gradually increasing over the years. Several dietary phytochemicals have been reported to have growth inhibitory and apoptotic effect on HeLa and other cervical cell lines. In this study, using Hoechst 33342 staining, MTT, Annexin V-FLUOS/PI and TUNEL assays we demonstrated that Syzygium cumini extract inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phytochemical, its mode of action and safety issues are yet to be determined. PMID:22275971

  12. Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines: a primary study.

    PubMed

    Barh, D; Viswanathan, G

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women in the Indian subcontinent and the incidences and death rates are gradually increasing over the years. Several dietary phytochemicals have been reported to have growth inhibitory and apoptotic effect on HeLa and other cervical cell lines. In this study, using Hoechst 33342 staining, MTT, Annexin V-FLUOS/PI and TUNEL assays we demonstrated that Syzygium cumini extract inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phytochemical, its mode of action and safety issues are yet to be determined.

  13. Antiapoptotic effects of estrogen in normal and cancer human cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qifang; Li, Xin; Wang, Liqin; Feng, Ying-Hong; Zeng, Robin; Gorodeski, George

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the antiapoptotic effects of estrogen in normal and cancer human cervical cells and the mechanisms involved. Baseline apoptosis in human cervical epithelial cells is mediated predominantly by P2X7-receptor-induced, Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the mitochondrial (caspase-9) pathway. Treatment with 10 nM 17beta-estradiol blocked apoptosis induced by the P2X7-receptor ligands ATP and 2',3'-0-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP in normal human cervical epithelial cells (hECEs) and attenuated the effect in hECEs immortalized with human papillomavirus-16 (ECE16-1) and the cancer cervical cells HT3 and CaSki. Diethylstilbestrol and to a lesser degree estrone could mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol, whereas actinomycin-D and cycloheximide attenuated the response. The antiapoptotic effect of estrogen did not depend on cell cycle phase, and in both normal and cancer cervical cells, it involved attenuation of activation of caspase-9 and the terminal caspase-3. However, involvement of cascades upstream to the caspase-9 differed in normal vs. cancer cervical cells. In the normal hECEs estrogen blocked P2X7-receptor-induced calcium influx. In contrast, in the cancer CaSki cells, estrogen up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and attenuated Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling (i.e. formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores). Estrogen had no effect on P2X7-receptor-induced apoptosis in the anaplastic SiHa and Hela cells. These results point to a novel antiapoptotic effect of estrogen in the cervix that is independent of its mitogenic function. The results also suggest that cancer cervical cells evolved antiapoptotic mechanisms that enable the cells to evade apoptosis and could therefore promote tumor progression.

  14. Preferential recruitment of Th17 cells to cervical cancer via CCR6-CCL20 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Lou, Xiang-ming; He, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that Th17 cells accumulate within tumor tissues and correlate with recurrence of cervical cancer patients. However, the source of the increased tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells remains poorly understood. We investigated the prevalence, phenotype and trafficking property of Th17 cells in patients with cervical cancer. Our results showed that Th17 cells highly aggregated within tumor tissues in an activated phenotype with markedly increased expression of CCR6. Correspondingly, level of CCL20 in the tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in non-tumor and normal control tissues, and strongly positively associated with Th17 cells. Further, in vitro migration assay showed CCL20 had effective chemotaxis to circulating Th17 cells. In conclusion, Th17 cells are recruited into tumor tissues preferentially through CCR6-CCL20 pathway, which can serve as a novel therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

  15. S100A7 promotes the migration, invasion and metastasis of human cervical cancer cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Li, Xukun; Hua, Zhen; Ma, Jianlin; Wu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongyan; Cui, Zhumei

    2017-02-15

    S100A7 is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein that has been suggested to be implicated in cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor metastasis. However, its role in cervical cancer has not yet been fully clarified. The present study used immunohistochemistry analysis of S100A7 in clinical specimens of cervical cancer to show that S100A7 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared with normal cervical tissues and S100A7 expression in high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) was significantly higher than cervical cancer. Statistical analysis showed that S100A7 expression was associated with tumor grade (P <0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P <0.05). Functional studies showed that overexpression of S100A7 in cervical cancer cells promoted migration, invasion and metastasis of cervical cancer cells without influencing cell proliferation. Furthermore, S100A7 was found to be secreted into the conditioned media and extracellular S100A7 enhanced cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, S100A7 bound to RAGE and activated ERK signaling pathway. And S100A7 enhanced cell mesenchymal properties and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In summary, these data reveal a crucial role for S100A7 in regulating cell migration, invasion, metastasis and EMT of cervical cancer and suggest that targeting S100A7 may offer a new targeted strategy for cervical cancer.

  16. Spheres from cervical cancer cells display stemness and cancer drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Tingting; Meng, Xiting; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Haili

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignant tumors and is the cause of a serious health problem worldwide. An increasing amount of evidence has shown that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are present in tumors, and that these CSCs may be responsible for tumor metastasis and relapse. The present study aimed to identify and characterize a CSC population from the CaSki cell line. First, a stem cell culture medium was used to selectively expand the cancer stem-like cell spheres, and the putative stemness markers, Oct4 and Sox2, were identified. These markers were all highly expressed in the CaSki sphere-forming cells. Next, target region amplified polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction was performed and the CaSki sphere-forming cells were found to exhibit higher telomerase activity than the CaSki control cells cultured in non-stem cell medium. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay, it was found that the CaSki sphere-forming cells were more resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs than the control CaSki cells. Using the tumor invasive assay, it was shown that the CaSki sphere-forming cells were more invasive than the control CaSki cells. These characteristics all suggested that the tumor sphere-forming cells mirrored the acknowledged CSC phenotypes. Overall, the use of a suspended sphere culture of CaSki cells may be an easy and feasible approach for enriching cancer stem-like cells in cervical cancer research.

  17. Spheres from cervical cancer cells display stemness and cancer drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Tingting; Meng, Xiting; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Haili

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignant tumors and is the cause of a serious health problem worldwide. An increasing amount of evidence has shown that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are present in tumors, and that these CSCs may be responsible for tumor metastasis and relapse. The present study aimed to identify and characterize a CSC population from the CaSki cell line. First, a stem cell culture medium was used to selectively expand the cancer stem-like cell spheres, and the putative stemness markers, Oct4 and Sox2, were identified. These markers were all highly expressed in the CaSki sphere-forming cells. Next, target region amplified polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction was performed and the CaSki sphere-forming cells were found to exhibit higher telomerase activity than the CaSki control cells cultured in non-stem cell medium. Using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay, it was found that the CaSki sphere-forming cells were more resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs than the control CaSki cells. Using the tumor invasive assay, it was shown that the CaSki sphere-forming cells were more invasive than the control CaSki cells. These characteristics all suggested that the tumor sphere-forming cells mirrored the acknowledged CSC phenotypes. Overall, the use of a suspended sphere culture of CaSki cells may be an easy and feasible approach for enriching cancer stem-like cells in cervical cancer research. PMID:27602161

  18. Amygdalin induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Ma, Jinshu; Wang, Fang; Hu, Jie; Cui, Ai; Wei, Chengguo; Yang, Qing; Li, Fan

    2013-02-01

    Amygdalin, a naturally occurring substance, has been suggested to be efficacious as an anticancer substance. The effect of amygdalin on cervical cancer cells has never been studied. In this study, we found that the viability of human cervical cancer HeLa cell line was significantly inhibited by amygdalin. 4,6-Diamino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) staining showed that amygdalin-treated HeLa cells developed typical apoptotic changes. The development of apoptosis in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells were confirmed by double staining of amygdalin-treated HeLa cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) along with increase in caspase-3 activity in these cells. Further studies indicated that antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was downregulated whereas proapoptotic Bax protein was upregulated in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells implying involvement of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In vivo, amygdalin administration inhibited the growth of HeLa cell xenografts through a mechanism of apoptosis. The results in the present study suggest that amygdalin may offer a new therapeutic option for patients with cervical cancer.

  19. Trichostatin A Enhances the Apoptotic Potential of Palladium Nanoparticles in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Yan, Qi; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-08-19

    Cervical cancer ranks seventh overall among all types of cancer in women. Although several treatments, including radiation, surgery and chemotherapy, are available to eradicate or reduce the size of cancer, many cancers eventually relapse. Thus, it is essential to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches for cancer. We sought to identify alternative and effective therapeutic approaches, by first synthesizing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs), using a novel biomolecule called saponin. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by several analytical techniques. They were significantly spherical in shape, with an average size of 5 nm. Recently, PdNPs gained much interest in various therapies of cancer cells. Similarly, histone deacetylase inhibitors are known to play a vital role in anti-proliferative activity, gene expression, cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various cancer cells. Therefore, we selected trichostatin A (TSA) and PdNPs and studied their combined effect on apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cells treated with either TSA or PdNPs showed a dose-dependent effect on cell viability. The combinatorial effect, tested with 50 nM TSA and 50 nMPdNPs, had a more dramatic inhibitory effect on cell viability, than either TSA or PdNPs alone. The combination of TSA and PdNPs had a more pronounced effect on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-3/9 activity and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. The combinatorial treatment increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated relevant targeted therapy for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the combinatory effect and cytotoxicity mechanism of TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells.

  20. Trichostatin A Enhances the Apoptotic Potential of Palladium Nanoparticles in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Yan, Qi; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer ranks seventh overall among all types of cancer in women. Although several treatments, including radiation, surgery and chemotherapy, are available to eradicate or reduce the size of cancer, many cancers eventually relapse. Thus, it is essential to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches for cancer. We sought to identify alternative and effective therapeutic approaches, by first synthesizing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs), using a novel biomolecule called saponin. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by several analytical techniques. They were significantly spherical in shape, with an average size of 5 nm. Recently, PdNPs gained much interest in various therapies of cancer cells. Similarly, histone deacetylase inhibitors are known to play a vital role in anti-proliferative activity, gene expression, cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various cancer cells. Therefore, we selected trichostatin A (TSA) and PdNPs and studied their combined effect on apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cells treated with either TSA or PdNPs showed a dose-dependent effect on cell viability. The combinatorial effect, tested with 50 nM TSA and 50 nMPdNPs, had a more dramatic inhibitory effect on cell viability, than either TSA or PdNPs alone. The combination of TSA and PdNPs had a more pronounced effect on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-3/9 activity and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. The combinatorial treatment increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated relevant targeted therapy for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the combinatory effect and cytotoxicity mechanism of TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. PMID:27548148

  1. Vaccines against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kathrin U

    2004-11-01

    Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the genital tract are a major threat to women's health worldwide. Although the introduction of screening tests to detect cervical cancer and its precursor lesions has reduced overall cervical cancer rates in the developed world, the approach was largely unsuccessful for developing countries, primarily due to a lack of appropriate infrastructures and high costs. Annually, 470,000 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, of which 80% occur in developing countries. Despite advances in treatment of cervical cancer, approximately half of the women afflicted with the disease will die. Over 20 years of dedicated research has provided conclusive evidence that a subset of human papillomaviruses are the aetiological agents for cervical cancer. Finding a viral origin for this disease provided the basis to fight cervical cancer using prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination. Both vaccine approaches are reviewed here, with an emphasis on recent clinical data.

  2. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  3. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  4. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... A vaccine is available to protect against the HPV types that cause most cervical cancer in women. The vaccine is: Given as a series of 2 shots. ...

  5. miR-196a targets netrin 4 and regulates cell proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Fangxia; Yu, Gang; Yin, Yanhua; Lu, Qingyang

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •miR-196a was overexpressed in cervical cancer tissue compared to normal tissue. •miR-196a expression elevated proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells. •miR-196a inhibited NTN4 expression by binding 3′-UTR region of NTN4 mRNA. •NTN4 inversely correlated with miR-196a expression in cervical tissue and cell line. •NTN4 expression was low in cervical cancer tissue compared to normal tissue. -- Abstract: Recent research has uncovered tumor-suppressive and oncogenic potential of miR-196a in various tumors. However, the expression and mechanism of its function in cervical cancer remains unclear. In this study, we assess relative expression of miR-196a in cervical premalignant lesions, cervical cancer tissues, and four cancer cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR. CaSki and HeLa cells were treated with miR-196a inhibitors, mimics, or pCDNA/miR-196a to investigate the role of miR-196a in cancer cell proliferation and migration. We demonstrated that miR-196a was overexpressed in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2–3 and cervical cancer tissue. Moreover, its expression contributes to the proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells, whereas inhibiting its expression led to a reduction in proliferation and migration. Five candidate targets of miR-196a chosen by computational prediction and Cervical Cancer Gene Database search were measured for their mRNA in both miR-196a-overexpressing and -depleted cancer cells. Only netrin 4 (NTN4) expression displayed an inverse association with miR-196a. Fluorescent reporter assays revealed that miR-196a inhibited NTN4 expression by targeting one binding site in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of NTN4 mRNA. Furthermore, qPCR and Western blot assays verified NTN4 expression was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to normal controls, and in vivo mRNA level of NTN4 inversely correlated with miR-196a expression. In summary, our findings provide new insights about the

  6. Cytotoxic effect and induction of apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells by Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Yu; Hu, Dan-Ning; Liu, Fu-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a Chinese herb indigenous to Taiwan. Previous reports demonstrated that it could induce apoptosis in some cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the apoptotic effect of the crude extract of A. camphorata in cervical cancer cells. Two human cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and C-33A, were treated with extract of A. camphorata (10-1000 μg/mL). We found that A. camphorata extract was cytotoxic to both cervical cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner as examined by MTT assay. Treatment with A. camphorata extract at 400 μg/mL induced a 2.3- and 4.4-fold increase in oligonucleosome formation from the cleaved chromosomal DNA in HeLa and C-33A cells, respectively. A. camphorata extract also activated caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities and increased the cytosolic level of cytochrome c in both cell lines as the dosage increased. Furthermore, A. camphorata extract increased expressions of Bak, Bad and Bim, while decreasing expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL of the Bcl-2 family proteins in HeLa and C-33A cells. The expression of IAP proteins, XIAP and survivin, was also decreased in both cervical cancer cells after treatment with A. camphorata. Our in vitro study suggests that A. camphorata is cytotoxic to cervical cancer cells through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic mechanisms. It could be used as a novel phytotherapeutic agent or auxiliary therapy in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  7. Lobaplatin arrests cell cycle progression, induces apoptosis and alters the proteome in human cervical cancer cell Line CaSki.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqin; Ran, Li; Fang, Wen; Wang, Donghong

    2014-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic tumors. There is an upward trend in the incidence. The objective of this research was to explore the effect of lobaplatin on cervical cancer CaSki cells proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis and analysis of the differential expressed proteins of CaSki cells after exposed to lobaplatin. Our findings have shown that lobaplatin inhibits cell proliferations in human cervical cancer CaSki cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assay confirmed that lobaplatin affected cervical cancer cell survival by blocking cell cycle progression in S phase and G0/G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manner. Lobaplatin treatment reduced polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 2, ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase, hypothetical protein, terminal uridylyltransferase 7, ubiquitin specific protease 16 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 expression and increase zinc finger protein 91, zinc finger protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 10 precursor, stromal cell protein and laminin subunit alpha-4 expression. Some of the differentially expressed proteins may be associated with antitumor effect of lobaplatin. Lobaplatin showed a good antitumour activity in in vitro models of human cervical cancer cells. These results indicate that lobaplatin could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent in human cervical cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and changing many kinds of protein molecule expression level.

  8. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. Biomarker discovery for neuroendocrine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Hsun; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Hu, Ren-Yu; Lin, Meng-Wei; Lin, Szu-Ting; Huang, Shun-Hong; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Lai, Zih-Yin; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chan, Hong-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Neuroendocrine cervical cancer is an aggressive but rare form of cervical cancer. The majority of neuroendocrine cervical cancer patients present with advanced-stage diseases. However, the limited numbers of neuroendocrine tumor markers are insufficient for clinical purposes. Thus, we used a proteomic approach combining lysine labeling 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the biomarkers for neuroendocrine cervical cancer. By analyzing the global proteome alteration between the neuroendocrine cervical cancer line (HM-1) and non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer lines (CaSki cells, ME-180 cells, and Hela cells), we identified 82 proteins exhibiting marked changes between HM-1 and CaSki cells, and between ME-180 and Hela cells. Several proteins involved in protein folding, cytoskeleton, transcription control, signal transduction, glycolysis, and redox regulation exhibited significant changes in abundance. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses indicated respective 49.88-fold and 25-fold increased levels of transgelin in HM-1 cells compared with that in other non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer cell lines, implying that transgelin is a biomarker for neuroendocrine cervical cancer. In summary, we used a comprehensive neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer model based proteomic approach for identifying neuroendocrine cervical cancer markers, which might contribute to the prognosis and diagnosis of neuroendocrine cervical cancer.

  10. Cytotoxic function of gamma delta (gamma/delta) T cells against pamidronate-treated cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lertworapreecha, Monthon; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Niruthisard, Somchai; Hansasuta, Pokrath; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan

    2013-08-01

    The cytotoxic function of polyclonal expanded gamma/delta T cells against pamidronate-treated cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo were determined. The gamma/delta T cells were isolated and purified from PBMCs by using miniMACS and were later treated with 10 microM pamidronate. The expansion of gamma/delta T cells was 15 times more than the non-stimulated cells. Among the expanded gamma/delta T cells, 47% were Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells with a purity of 87%. Analyzing the cytotoxic function of gamma/delta T cells against 3 cervical cancer cells in vitro by LDH cytotoxicity test revealed that the killing efficacy increased if the cervical cancer cells (HeLa, SiHa and CaSki) were pretreated with pamidronate. The presence of CD107 on gamma/delta T cells indicated the degranulation of perforin and granzyme pathway is one of the mechanisms used by the gamma/delta T cells to kill cancer cells. The killing ability of gamma/delta T cells against cancer cells in vivo was preliminary assessed by using mouse baring HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that gamma/delta T cells induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Our study supports the usefulness of gamma/delta T cells in future development of immunotherapy for cervical cancer.

  11. Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Cancer Women with early cervical cancers and pre- ... Ask Your Doctor About Cervical Cancer? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  12. Proteasome inhibition mediates p53 reactivation and anti-cancer activity of 6-Gingerol in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Namrata; Duggal, Shivali; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Porwal, Konica; Srivastava, Vikas Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh; Bhatt, Madan L.B.; Mishra, Durga Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) expressing E6 and E7 oncoproteins, is known to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 through proteasomal degradation in cervical cancers. Therefore, use of small molecules for inhibition of proteasome function and induction of p53 reactivation is a promising strategy for induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. The polyphenolic alkanone, 6-Gingerol (6G), present in the pungent extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has shown potent anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic activities against a variety of cancers. In this study we explored the molecular mechanism of action of 6G in human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. 6G potently inhibited proliferation of the HPV positive cervical cancer cells. 6G was found to: (i) inhibit the chymotrypsin activity of proteasomes, (ii) induce reactivation of p53, (iii) increase levels of p21, (iv) induce DNA damage and G2/M cell cycle arrest, (v) alter expression levels of p53-associated apoptotic markers like, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, and (vi) potentiate the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. 6G treatment induced significant reduction of tumor volume, tumor weight, proteasome inhibition and p53 accumulation in HeLa xenograft tumor cells in vivo. The 6G treatment was devoid of toxic effects as it did not affect body weights, hematological and osteogenic parameters. Taken together, our data underscores the therapeutic and chemosensitizing effects of 6G in the management and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26621832

  13. RBBP6: a potential biomarker of apoptosis induction in human cervical cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Moela, Pontsho; Motadi, Lesetja Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of RBBP6 in cancers of the colon, lung, and esophagus makes it a potential target in anticancer therapy. This is especially important because RBBP6 associates with the tumor suppressor gene p53, the inactivation of which has been linked to over 50% of all cancer types. However, the expression of RBBP6 in cancer and its interaction with p53 are yet to be understood in order to determine whether or not RBBP6 is cancer promoting and therefore a potential biomarker. In this study, we manipulated RBBP6 expression levels followed by treatment with either camptothecin or γ-aminobutyric acid in cervical cancer cells to induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. We began by staining human cervical cancer tissue sections with anti-RBBP6 monoclonal antibody to evaluate the extent of expression of RBBP6 in patients’ specimens. We followed on with silencing the overexpression of RBBP6 and treatment with anticancer agents to evaluate how the specimens respond to combinational therapy. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through confocal microscope, and flow cytometry using annexin V staining, and also by checking the mitochondrial and caspase-3/7 activity. Cell cycle arrest was evaluated using flow cytometry through staining with propidium iodide. RBBP6 was highly expressed in cervical cancer tissue sections that were in stage II or III of development. Silencing RBBP6 followed by treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid and camptothecin seems to sensitize cells to apoptosis induction rather than cell cycle arrest. Overexpression of RBBP6 seems to promote S-phase in cell cycle and cell proliferation. These results predict a proliferative role of RBBP6 in cancer progression rather than as a cancer-causing gene. Furthermore, sensitization of cells to camptothecin-induced apoptosis by RBBP6 targeting suggests a promising tool for halting cervical cancer progression. PMID:27536134

  14. N-WASP promotes invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells through regulating p38 MAPKs signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinxuan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Leng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) is an important member of the WASP family involved in the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Recent evidence suggests that N-WASP may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of N-WASP to cervical cancer is still unknown. The present study focused on elucidating the role of N-WASP in the malignant behavior of cervical cancer cells. We found that N-WASP overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared with paired paracancerous tissues and normal tissues, and similar results were observed in several cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of N-WASP facilitated migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, while downregulation of N-WASP resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion. In addition, the data showed that N-WASP might promote invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells via regulating the activity of p38 MAPKs pathway. Altogether, the study suggested that N-WASP might serve as an oncogene in cervical cancer, and provided novel insights into the mechanism that how N-WASP promoted invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells.

  15. N-WASP promotes invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells through regulating p38 MAPKs signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinxuan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Leng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) is an important member of the WASP family involved in the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Recent evidence suggests that N-WASP may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of N-WASP to cervical cancer is still unknown. The present study focused on elucidating the role of N-WASP in the malignant behavior of cervical cancer cells. We found that N-WASP overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared with paired paracancerous tissues and normal tissues, and similar results were observed in several cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of N-WASP facilitated migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, while downregulation of N-WASP resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion. In addition, the data showed that N-WASP might promote invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells via regulating the activity of p38 MAPKs pathway. Altogether, the study suggested that N-WASP might serve as an oncogene in cervical cancer, and provided novel insights into the mechanism that how N-WASP promoted invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. PMID:28337270

  16. Emerging of fractal geometry on surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer.

    PubMed

    Dokukin, M E; Guz, N V; Woodworth, C D; Sokolov, I

    2015-03-10

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation.

  17. Emergence of fractal geometry on the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Woodworth, C. D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation.

  18. Doxycycline inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of both human papillomavirus positive and negative cervical cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Lei; Li, Changzhong

    2016-05-01

    The clinical management of cervical cancer remains a challenge and the development of new treatment strategies merits attention. However, the discovery and development of novel compounds can be a long and labourious process. Drug repositioning may circumvent this process and facilitate the rapid translation of hypothesis-driven science into the clinics. In this work, we show that a FDA-approved antibiotic, doxycycline, effectively targets human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Doxycycline significantly inhibits proliferation of a panel of cervical cancer cell lines. It also induces apoptosis of cervical cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, the apoptosis induced by doxycycline is through caspase-dependent pathway. Mechanism studies demonstrate that doxycycline affects oxygen consumption rate, glycolysis, and reduces ATP levels in cervical cancer cells. In HeLa xenograft mouse model, doxycycline significantly inhibits growth of tumour. Our in vitro and in vivo data clearly demonstrate the inhibitory effects of doxycycline on the growth and survival of cervical cancer cells. Our work provides the evidence that doxycycline can be repurposed for the treatment of cervical cancer and targeting energy metabolism may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

  19. Statins Inhibit the Proliferation and Induce Cell Death of Human Papilloma Virus Positive and Negative Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crescencio, María Elena; Rodríguez, Emma; Páez, Araceli; Masso, Felipe A.; Montaño, Luis F.; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2009-01-01

    Statins, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, have anti-tumoral effects on multiple cancer types; however, little is known about their effect on cervical cancer. We evaluated the effect on proliferation, cell cycle, oxidative stress and cell death of three statins on CaSki, HeLa (HPV+) and ViBo (HPV−) cervical cancer cell lines. Cell proliferation was assayed by crystal violet staining, cell cycle by flow cytometry and cell death by annexin-V staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated by the oxidation of 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and nitrite concentration (an indirect measure of nitric oxide (NO) production), by the Griess reaction. Inhibition of cell proliferation by atorvastatin, fluvastatin and simvastatin was dose-dependent. ViBo cells were the most responsive. Statins did not affect the cell cycle, instead they induced cell death. The antiproliferative effect in ViBo cells was completely inhibited with mevalonate, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) treatments. In contrast, cell proliferation of CaSki and HeLa cells was partially (33%) rescued with these intermediates. The three statins increased ROS and nitrite production, mainly in the ViBo cell line. These results suggest that statins exert anti-tumoral effects on cervical cancer through inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell death and oxidative stress. Statins could be an aid in the treatment of cervical cancer, especially in HPV− tumors. PMID:23675166

  20. Beclin1 overexpression inhibitis proliferation, invasion and migration of CaSki cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Liu, Jia-hua; Sui, Yu-xia; Jin, Long; Yang, Yin; Lin, Sai-mei; Shi, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the autophagy-related gene Beclin1 on proliferation, invasion and metastasis of the cervical cancer CaSki cells and its possible mechanism in vitro were here targeted. After the overexpression vector pcDNA3.1-Beclin1 and RNA interference vector pSUPER-Beclin1 were transfected into CaSki cells in vitro, stable expression cell lines demonstration Beclin1 expression was upregulated, and VEGF and MMP-9 expression were decreased, leading to cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. MTT assays further revealed proliferation of cells was significantly inhibited in Beclin1-overexpressing transfectant cells, with invasion and metastasis also being inhibited in Transwell chamber assays. The present results suggest that Beclin1 inhibits invasion and metastasis of cervical cancer CaSki cells in vitro. Mechanisms probably involve Beclin1 inhibition of cell proliferation, and decreased expression of VEGF and MMP-9 proteins.

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 ...

  3. Inhibiting the cytoplasmic location of HMGB1 reverses cisplatin resistance in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiyi; Yu, Xiaolan; Song, Xueqin; Li, Gang; Mao, Xiguang; Zhang, Yujiao

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide, and resistance to chemotherapy drugs is the biggest obstacle in the treatment of cervical cancers. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in human cervical cancer cells were investigated. When human cervical cancer cells were treated with 10 µg/ml of cisplatin for 24 and 48 h, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein expression levels significantly increased in a time‑dependent manner. Comparisons between cisplatin‑sensitive HeLa cells and cisplatin‑resistant HeLa/DDP cells revealed higher levels of HMGB1 in HeLa/DDP cells than in HeLa cells. Additionally, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for cisplatin in HeLa/DDP cells was 5.3‑fold that in HeLa cells. Analysis of the distribution of cellular components revealed that HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm contributed to cisplatin resistance. This was further confirmed by demonstration that ethyl pyruvate treatment suppressed the cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1, resulting in inhibition of HeLa cell proliferation. Furthermore, endogenous HMGB1 was inhibited with HMGB1‑specific short hairpin (sh)RNA, and MTT assay results showed that interference with HMGB1 expression reduced cell viability and potentially reversed cisplatin resistance in HeLa cells. Transfection with HMGB1 shRNA was demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in HeLa cells, as detected by FACS analysis. In addition, administration of recombinant HMGB1 protein in HeLa cells promoted cell autophagy, mediated by the phosphorylation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2. Thus, cytoplasmic HMGB1 translocation and HMGB1‑induced cell autophagy are proposed to contribute to cisplatin resistance by inhibiting apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. HMGB1 could, therefore, represent a novel therapeutic target for, and a diagnostic marker of, chemotherapy resistant cervical cancers.

  4. miR-214 down-regulates ARL2 and suppresses growth and invasion of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ruiqing; Men, Jianlong; Ma, Rui; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yang; Sun, Ying; Ren, Jing

    2017-03-11

    Increasing evidence has shown that miRNAs are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. In this study, we confirmed that miR-214 is frequently down-regulated in cervical cancer compared with normal cervical tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-214 suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of HeLa and C33A cervical cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (ARL2) was a potential target of miR-214 and was remarkably up-regulated in cervical cancer. Knockdown of ARL2 markedly inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, similarly to over-expression of miR-214, indicating that ARL2 may function as an oncogene in cervical cancer. In conclusion, our study revealed that miR-214 acts as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells through targeting ARL2, and that both miR-214 and ARL2 may serve as prognostic or therapeutic targets for cervical cancer.

  5. Elevated Expression of Programmed Death-1 and Programmed Death Ligand-1 Negatively Regulates Immune Response against Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhifang; Pang, Nannan; Du, Rong; Zhu, Yuejie; Fan, Lingling; Cai, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    The present study is to measure the expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), as well as its clinical significance in cervical cancer patients. Our results showed that different T cell subsets in patients with cervical cancer had high expression of PD-1, and DCs had high expression of PD-L1. High expression of PD-1 on Treg cells in cervical cancer patients facilitated the production of TGF-β and IL-10 but inhibited the production of IFN-γ. Cervical cancer elevated the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in mRNA level. PD-1 expression in peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients was related with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and invasiveness. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibited lymphocyte proliferation but enhanced the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β in vitro. In summary, our findings demonstrate that elevated levels of PD-1/PD-L1, TGF-β, and IL-10 in peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients may negatively regulate immune response against cervical cancer cells and contribute to the progression of cervical cancer. Therefore, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may become an immunotherapy target in the future. PMID:27721577

  6. Prostitution, condom use, and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D B; Ray, R M; Pardthaisong, T; Chutivongse, S; Koetsawang, S; Silpisornkosol, S; Virutamasen, P; Christopherson, W M; Melnick, J L; Meirik, O; Farley, T M; Riotton, G

    1996-04-15

    Cervical cancer is probably caused by a sexually transmitted agent. A case-control study was conducted in three hospitals in Thailand to investigate further the role of male sexual behavior, particularly regarding sexual contacts with prostitutes, in the development of this disease. Data were obtained from interviews with 225 married women with invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma and 791 hospitalized controls, all of whom reported having only one sexual partner, and from interviews with their husbands. Risk of cervical cancer was strongly related to the women's husbands having visited prostitutes without using a condom when the husbands were less than 30 years old. A strong increasing trend in risk in relation to decreasing frequency of the husbands' condom use with prostitutes was observed, and a weaker increasing trend in risk with husbands' estimated lifetime total number of visits to prostitutes was found. The average latent period between the women's likely initial exposure to a sexually transmitted oncogenic agent and her diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer was about a quarter of a century. Regular use of condoms by customers of prostitutes could reduce the number of invasive cervical cancer cases in the general population of Thailand by at least one fourth.

  7. miR-92a is upregulated in cervical cancer and promotes cell proliferation and invasion by targeting FBXW7

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chuanyi; Shen, Liangfang; Mao, Lei; Wang, Bing; Li, Yang; Yu, Huizhi

    2015-02-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the cervical carcinogenesis and progression. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-92a in progression and invasion of cervical cancer. MiR-92a was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-92a led to remarkably enhanced proliferation by promoting cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase and significantly enhanced invasion of cervical cancer cells, while its knockdown significantly reversed these cellular events. Bioinformatics analysis suggested F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) as a novel target of miR-92a, and miR-92a suppressed the expression level of FBXW7 mRNA by direct binding to its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Expression of miR-92a was negatively correlated with FBXW7 in cervical cancer tissues. Furthermore, Silencing of FBXW7 counteracted the effects of miR-92a suppression, while its overexpression reversed oncogenic effects of miR-92a. Together, these findings indicate that miR-92a acts as an onco-miRNA and may contribute to the progression and invasion of cervical cancer, suggesting miR-92a as a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target of cervical cancer. - Highlights: • miR-92a is elevated in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. • miR-92a promotes cervical cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase and invasion. • FBXW7 is a direct target of miR-92a. • FBXW7 counteracts the oncogenic effects of miR-92a on cervical cancer cells.

  8. Xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in ca ski human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Wai Kuan; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2015-01-01

    We investigate induction of apoptosis by xanthohumol on Ca Ski cervical cancer cell line. Xanthohumol is a prenylated chalcone naturally found in hop plants, previously reported to be an effective anticancer agent in various cancer cell lines. The present study showed that xanthohumol was effective to inhibit proliferation of Ca Ski cells based on IC50 values using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Furthermore, cellular and nuclear morphological changes were observed in the cells using phase contrast microscopy and Hoechst/PI fluorescent staining. In addition, 48-hour long treatment with xanthohumol triggered externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells. Additionally, xanthohumol mediated S phase arrest in cell cycle analysis and increased activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. On the other hand, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of cleaved PARP, p53, and AIF increased, while Bcl-2 and XIAP decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings indicate that xanthohumol-induced cell death might involve intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as downregulation of XIAP, upregulation of p53 proteins, and S phase cell cycle arrest in Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. This work suggests that xanthohumol is a potent chemotherapeutic candidate for cervical cancer.

  9. Xanthohumol Induces Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate induction of apoptosis by xanthohumol on Ca Ski cervical cancer cell line. Xanthohumol is a prenylated chalcone naturally found in hop plants, previously reported to be an effective anticancer agent in various cancer cell lines. The present study showed that xanthohumol was effective to inhibit proliferation of Ca Ski cells based on IC50 values using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Furthermore, cellular and nuclear morphological changes were observed in the cells using phase contrast microscopy and Hoechst/PI fluorescent staining. In addition, 48-hour long treatment with xanthohumol triggered externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells. Additionally, xanthohumol mediated S phase arrest in cell cycle analysis and increased activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. On the other hand, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of cleaved PARP, p53, and AIF increased, while Bcl-2 and XIAP decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings indicate that xanthohumol-induced cell death might involve intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as downregulation of XIAP, upregulation of p53 proteins, and S phase cell cycle arrest in Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. This work suggests that xanthohumol is a potent chemotherapeutic candidate for cervical cancer. PMID:25949267

  10. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  11. Curcumin induces ER stress-mediated apoptosis through selective generation of reactive oxygen species in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyun; Kim, Hee Seung; Jung, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jung Yun; K Tsang, Benjamin; Lim, Jeong Mook; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins caused by cellular stress, including oxidative stress, induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, which then activates an unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress is usually maintained at higher levels in cancer cells as compared to normal cells due to altered metabolism in cancer. Here, we investigated whether curcumin is ER stress-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells, and ROS increased by curcumin are involved in the process as an upstream contributor. Curcumin inhibited proliferation of cervical cancer cells (C33A, CaSki, HeLa, and ME180) and induced apoptotic cell death. Curcumin activated ER-resident UPR sensors, such as PERK, IRE-1α, and ATF6, and their downstream-signaling proteins in cervical cancer cells, but not in normal epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). CHOP, a key factor involved in ER stress-mediated apoptosis, was also activated by curcumin. CHOP decreased the ratio of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 to pro-apoptotic protein Bax expression, and subsequently increased the apoptotic population of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, curcumin elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cervical cancer cells, but not in normal epithelial cells. Scavenging ROS resulted in inhibition of ER stress and partially restored cell viability in curcumin-treated cancer cells. Collectively, these observations show that curcumin promotes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in cervical cancer cells through increase of cell type-specific ROS generation. Therefore, modulation of these differential responses to curcumin between normal and cervical cancer cells could be an effective therapeutic strategy without adverse effects on normal cells.

  12. The significance of G-CSF expression and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the chemoresistance of uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Mahiru; Mabuchi, Seiji; Matsumoto, Yuri; Sasano, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Ryoko; Kuroda, Hiromasa; Kozasa, Katsumi; Hashimoto, Kae; Isobe, Aki; Sawada, Kenjiro; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Morii, Eiichi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-12-15

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) producing malignant tumor has been reported to occur in various organs, and has been associated with poor clinical outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate the significance of tumor G-CSF expression in the chemosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer. The clinical data of recurrent or advanced cervical cancer patients who were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were analyzed. Clinical samples, cervical cancer cell lines, and a mouse model of cervical cancer were employed to examine the mechanisms responsible for the development of chemoresistance in G-CSF-producing cervical cancer, focusing on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). As a result, the tumor G-CSF expression was significantly associated with increased MDSC frequencies and compromised survival. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that the increased MDSC induced by tumor-derived G-CSF is involved in the development of chemoresistance. The depletion of MDSC via splenectomy or the administration of anti-Gr-1 antibody sensitized G-CSF-producing cervical cancer to cisplatin. In conclusion, tumor G-CSF expression is an indicator of an extremely poor prognosis in cervical cancer patients that are treated with chemotherapy. Combining MDSC-targeting treatments with current standard chemotherapies might have therapeutic efficacy as a treatment for G-CSF-producing cervical cancer.

  13. FOXL2 suppresses proliferation, invasion and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing-Long; Meng, Yu-Han; Wang, Jian-Li; Yang, Biao-Bing; Zhang, Fan; Tang, Sheng-Jian

    2014-01-01

    FOXL2 is a transcription factor that is essential for ovarian function and maintenance, the germline mutations of which give rise to the blepharophimosis ptosis epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES), often associated with premature ovarian failure. Recently, its mutations have been found in ovarian granulosa cell tumors (OGCTs). In this study, we measured the expression of FOXL2 in cervical cancer by immunohistochemistry and its mRNA level in cervical cancer cell lines Hela and Siha by RT-PCR. Then we overexpressed FOXL2 in Hela cells and silenced it in Siha cells by plasmid transfection and verified using western blotting. When FOXL2 was overexpressed or silenced, cells proliferation and apoptosis were determined by Brdu assay and Annexin V/PI detection kit, respectively. In addition, we investigated the effects of FOXL2 on the adhesion and invasion of Hela and Siha cells. Finally, we analyzed the influences of FOXL2 on Ki67, PCNA and FasL by flow cytometry. The results showed that FOXL2 was highly expressed in cervical squamous cancer. Overexpressing FOXL2 suppressed Hela proliferation and facilitated its apoptosis. Silencing FOXL2 enhanced Siha proliferation and inhibited its apoptosis. Meanwhile, silencing FOXL2 promoted Siha invasion, but it had no effect on cells adhesion. In addition, overexpressing FOXL2 decreased the expression of Ki67 in Hela and Siha cells. Therefore, our results suggested that FOXL2 restrained cells proliferation and enhanced cells apoptosis mainly through decreasing Ki67 expression. PMID:24817949

  14. Adenosine uptake is the major effector of extracellular ATP toxicity in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Paola de Andrade; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo Cremonese; Nascimento, Jéssica; Beckenkamp, Aline; Santana, Danielle Bertodo; Kipper, Franciele; Casali, Emerson André; Nejar Bruno, Alessandra; Paccez, Juliano Domiraci; Zerbini, Luiz Fernando; Wink, Marcia Rosângela; Lenz, Guido; Buffon, Andréia

    2014-01-01

    In cervical cancer, HPV infection and disruption of mechanisms involving cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis are strictly linked with tumor progression and invasion. Tumor microenvironment is ATP and adenosine rich, suggesting a role for purinergic signaling in cancer cell growth and death. Here we investigate the effect of extracellular ATP on human cervical cancer cells. We find that extracellular ATP itself has a small cytotoxic effect, whereas adenosine formed from ATP degradation by ectonucleotidases is the main factor responsible for apoptosis induction. The level of P2×7 receptor seemed to define the main cytotoxic mechanism triggered by ATP, since ATP itself eliminated a small subpopulation of cells that express high P2×7 levels, probably through its activation. Corroborating these data, blockage or knockdown of P2×7 only slightly reduced ATP cytotoxicity. On the other hand, cell viability was almost totally recovered with dipyridamole, an adenosine transporter inhibitor. Moreover, ATP-induced apoptosis and signaling—p53 increase, AMPK activation, and PARP cleavage—as well as autophagy induction were also inhibited by dipyridamole. In addition, inhibition of adenosine conversion into AMP also blocked cell death, indicating that metabolization of intracellular adenosine originating from extracellular ATP is responsible for the main effects of the latter in human cervical cancer cells. PMID:25103241

  15. Research on chemotherapy efficacy of twist gene on cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenchang; Zhang, Dan; Cui, Yingying; Cheng, Liangxing; Cao, Jingyu; Wu, Xiaolong

    2014-09-01

    The silent Twist gene may increase the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells chemotherapy to paclitaxel, thus was a new idea to improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. The aim was to explore chemotherapy sensitivity of silent Twist gene increased cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel through study the proliferation and apoptosis of cervical cancer Twist gene after paclitaxel treatment. Cervical carcinoma Caski cells and Hela cells was cultured in vitro, mRNA gene expression was detected by using semi-quantitative, fluorescence quantitative PCR, and transferred to Caski cells transiently, and affected with paclitaxel solution of five kinds of different concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 umol/L respectively. Then the results of <0.05). Every 12h after 36 h, the expression inhibition rate in two groups of Caski cells that has transfected this study was Twist gene expression in Caski cells was higher than in Hela cells, which was of significant difference (p siRNA1 and siRNA2 were 20.3%, 38.2%, 33%, 24%, 68.6%, 50.8% respectively. After 48 h in five different concentrations of paclitaxel effect, the cell growth inhibition rate of group siRNA2 with the best transfection efficiency was obviously higher than that of negative control group and blank control group, and the growth inhibition rates showed concentration dependence (p<0.05). It can be concluded that Twist gene in Caski cell was of high expression and the silent Twist gene could inhibit Caski cell proliferation and promote its apoptosis, thus to improve the chemotherapy sensitivity of Caski cells.

  16. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  17. Sonoporation of Cervical Carcinoma Cells Affected with E6-Oncoprotein for the Treatment of Uterine Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel, Laura; Lee, Kyle; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer has been identified as the third leading cause of average years of life lost per person dying of cancer. Since essentially all cervical cancers contain copies of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, we propose a treatment that targets HPV-infected cells using strategies that re-introduce normal functions into the infected cells while sparing healthy cells. We propose the use of focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles as means to deliver antibodies against the E6 protein present only in HPV positive cells. We conducted in vitro studies with cell cultures of SiHa cervical carcinoma cells seeded into Opticell™ chambers. An in-house ultrasound excitation apparatus was used to control and explore the optimal acoustic parameters in order to maximize delivery. We first validated the possibility of delivering the EX-EGFP-M02 vector (Genecopoeia) into the cells; 1.2 μL of activated microbubbles (Definity®) and 50 μg of the vector were mixed in media and then injected into the Opticell™ chamber. We used 32 μs pulses at a central frequency of 930 KHz with a repetition frequency of 1.5 kHz and total exposure duration of 30 s; six pressure values were tested (0 to 1 MPa). Fluorescence imaging was used to determine the levels of intracellular proteins and assess delivery. The delivery of an anti-α-Tubulin antibody was next tested and confirmed that the delivery into HPV16 positive cells was successful.

  18. Twist1 Enhances Hypoxia Induced Radioresistance in Cervical Cancer Cells by Promoting Nuclear EGFR Localization

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hua; Nie, Xin; Zou, Yanmei; Gong, Chen; Li, Yang; Wu, Hua; Qiu, Hong; Yang, Lin; Zhuang, Liang; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yihua; Xiong, Huihua

    2017-01-01

    Twist1 is a crucial transcription factor that regulates epithelial mesenchymal transition and involves in metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that Twist1 plays important role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we investigated the change of Twist1 expression in human cervical squamous cancer cell line SiHa after hypoxia treatment. We also explored the role of Twist1 in radioresistance by manipulating the expression level of Twist1. We observed that hypoxia treatment elevated the expression of Twist1 in SiHa cells. Knockdown of Twist1 with siRNA increased the radiosensitivity of SiHa cells under hypoxia condition, accompanied by reduced levels of nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Conversely, overexpression of Twist1 led to increased radioresistance of SiHa cells, which in turn increased nuclear EGFR localization and expression levels of nuclear DNA-PK. Moreover, concomitant high expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and Twist1 in primary tumors of cervical cancer patients correlated with the worse prognosis after irradiation treatment. Taken together, these data provide new insights into molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced radioresistance in cervical cancer cells, and suggest that Twist1 is a promising molecular target to improve the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. PMID:28261334

  19. Cervical Cancer Cell Line Secretome Highlights the Roles of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Induced Protein ig-h3, Peroxiredoxin-2, and NRF2 on Cervical Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zoidakis, Jerome; Makridakis, Manousos; Lygirou, Vasiliki; Mermelekas, George; Vougas, Konstantinos; Drakakis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells acquire unique secretome compositions that contribute to tumor development and metastasis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the biological processes involved in cervical cancer, by performing a proteomic analysis of the secretome from the following informative cervical cell lines: SiHa (HPV16+), HeLa (HPV18+), C33A (HPV−), and HCK1T (normal). Proteins were analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF-MS. Enrichment of secreted proteins with characteristic profiles for each cell line was followed by the identification of differentially expressed proteins. Particularly, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (Beta ig-h3) and peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2) overexpression in the secretome of cancer cell lines was detected and confirmed by Western blot. Bioinformatics analysis identified the transcription factor NRF2 as a regulator of differentially expressed proteins in the cervical cancer secretome. NRF2 levels were measured by both Western blot and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) in the total cell extract of the four cell lines. NRF2 was upregulated in SiHa and C33A compared to HCK1T. In conclusion, the secreted proteins identified in cervical cancer cell lines indicate that aberrant NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response (OSR) is a prominent feature of cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:28261610

  20. microRNA-328 inhibits cervical cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by targeting TCF7L2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-24

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in tumor development and progression. In this study, we aimed to determine the expression and biological roles of miR-328 in cervical cancer and identify its direct target gene. Our data showed that miR-328 was significantly downregulated in human cervical cancer tissues and cells. Re-expression of miR-328 inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro and suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo. Bioinformatic analysis predicted TCF7L2 (an essential effector of canonical Wnt signaling) as a target gene of miR-328, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assays. Enforced expression of miR-328 led to a decline in the expression of endogenous TCF7L2 in cervical cancer cells. In cervical cancer tissues, TCF7L2 protein levels were negatively correlated with miR-328 expression levels (r = -0.462, P = 0.017). Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of TCF7L2 significantly impaired the proliferation and colony formation of cervical cancer cells. Ectopic expression of a miRNA-resistant form of TCF7L2 significantly reversed the growth suppressive effects of miR-328 on cervical cancer cells, which was accompanied by induction of cyclin D1 expression. Taken together, our results provide first evidence for the growth suppressive activity of miR-328 in cervical cancer, which is largely ascribed to downregulation of TCF7L2. Restoration of miR-328 may have therapeutic potential in cervical cancer.

  1. Antibacterial and Antimetastatic Potential of Diospyros lycioides Extract on Cervical Cancer Cells and Associated Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bagla, V. P.; Lubisi, V. Z.; Ndiitwani, T.; Mokgotho, M. P.; Mampuru, L.; Mbazima, V.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is among the most prevalent forms of cancer in women worldwide. Diospyros lycioides was extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol and finger print profiles were determined. The leaf material was tested for the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides using standard chemical methods and the presence of flavonoids and phenolics using thin layer chromatography. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. The four extracts were tested for antibacterial activity using bioautography against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. The acetone extract with the highest number of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds was assessed for its cytotoxicity on BUD-8 cells using the real-time xCELLigence system and its potential effects on metastatic cervical cancer (HeLa) cell migration and invasion were assessed using wound healing migration and invasion assays. The leaf extract tested positive for flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids while the four different extracts tested in the antimicrobial assay contained constituents active against one or more of the organisms tested, except E. coli. The cytotoxicity of the acetone extract in real-time was concentration-dependent with potent ability to suppress the migration and invasion of HeLa cells. The finding demonstrates the acetone extract to contain constituents with antibacterial and antimetastatic effects on cervical cancer cells. PMID:27239210

  2. Combining metformin and nelfinavir exhibits synergistic effects against the growth of human cervical cancer cells and xenograft in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chenglai; Chen, Ruihong; Chen, Jinman; Qi, Qianqian; Pan, Yanbin; Du, Lanying; Xiao, Guohong; Jiang, Shibo

    2017-01-01

    Human cervical cancer is the fourth most common carcinoma in women worldwide. However, the emergence of drug resistance calls for continuously developing new anticancer drugs and combination chemotherapy regimens. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-cervical cancer effects of metformin, a first-line therapeutic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and nelfinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, when used alone or in combination. We found that both metformin and nelfinavir, when used alone, were moderately effective in inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and suppressing migration and invasion of human cervical cell lines HeLa, SiHa and CaSki. When used in combination, these two drugs acted synergistically to inhibit the growth of human cervical cancer cells in vitro and cervical cancer cell xenograft in vivo in nude mice, and suppress cervical cancer cell migration and invasion. The protein expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit PI3K(p110α), which can promote tumor growth, was remarkably downregulated, while the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21 were substantially upregulated following the combinational treatment in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that clinical use of metformin and nelfinavir in combination is expected to have synergistic antitumor efficacy and significant potential for the treatment of human cervical cancer. PMID:28252027

  3. Combining MPDL3280A with adoptive cell immunotherapy exerts better antitumor effects against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yicheng; Wu, Shu; Zhu, Yongqiang; Tang, Xiaolong; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-10-18

    As the second most common gynecologic malignant tumors with a high mortality rate, cervical cancer jeopardizes women's life worldwide. The low cure rate in cervical cancer patients is mainly attributed to the lack of effective therapies. One feasible novel strategy is to develop immune-based approaches such as adoptive cell immunotherapy of DCCIKs which represents a promising nontoxic antineoplastic immunotherapy preferred in clinic practice. However, the therapeutic effect is not as efficient as anticipated. Possible explanations are tumors exploit immunoregulatory check-points such as programmed death 1(PD1)/PDL1 which provides tumor cells an escape strategy of circumventing immunologic rejection from immune surveillance by hampering activated tumor-specific T cell activities and rendering them functionally exhausted. With reduced transformation activity and enhanced antigenicity, a modified HPV16 E7 (HPV16mE7) was used to load DCs with silenced SOCS1 mediated by a recombinant adenovirus to improve the targetability and efficiency against cervical cancer. Combined with anti-PDL1 antibody MPDL3280A therapy, the co-cultured DCCIKs were transfused into murine models bearing tumor of HPV16 E6/E7 expressing CaSki cells for in vitro/in vivo antitumor activity assay. Although all of the animals succumbed to CaSki tumors even after adoptive DCCIKs transfer or MPDL3280A immunotherapy, the infusion of PDL1 blocking monoclonal antibody with activated T cells cured 40% of animals. These data support PDL1 blockade improves the efficacy of adoptive DCCIKs therapy, providing a new approach of immunotherapy against cervical cancer.

  4. Oxidative Stress Triggered by Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in a Comprehensive Panel of Human Cervical Cancer-Derived Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Raquel P.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Ratti, Bianca A.; Kaplum, Vanessa; Bruschi, Marcos L.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Maria-Engler, Silvya S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the cytotoxic effects of apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), particularly its marked inhibition of cancer cell viability both in vitro and in vivo, have attracted the attention of the anticancer drug discovery field. Despite this, there are few studies of apigenin in cervical cancer, and these studies have mostly been conducted using HeLa cells. To evaluate the possibility of apigenin as a new therapeutic candidate for cervical cancer, we evaluated its cytotoxic effects in a comprehensive panel of human cervical cancer-derived cell lines including HeLa (human papillomavirus/HPV 18-positive), SiHa (HPV 16-positive), CaSki (HPV 16 and HPV 18-positive), and C33A (HPV-negative) cells in comparison to a nontumorigenic spontaneously immortalized human epithelial cell line (HaCaT). Our results demonstrated that apigenin had a selective cytotoxic effect and could induce apoptosis in all cervical cancer cell lines which were positively marked with Annexin V, but not in HaCaT (control cells). Additionally, apigenin was able to induce mitochondrial redox impairment, once it increased ROS levels and H2O2, decreased the Δψm, and increased LPO. Still, apigenin was able to inhibit migration and invasion of cancer cells. Thus, apigenin appears to be a promising new candidate as an anticancer drug for cervical cancer induced by different HPV genotypes. PMID:28191273

  5. Inhibition of antiviral drug cidofovir on proliferation of human papillomavirus-infected cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Dai, Lv-Xia; Chen, Ming; Li, Bei; Ding, Nana; Li, Gang; Liu, Yan-Qing; Li, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Bao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Li; Tan, Hua-Bing

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential application value of cidofovir (CDV) in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and treatment of cervical cancer, the inhibitory effect of CDV on the proliferation of HPV 18-positive HeLa cells in cervical cancer was preliminarily investigated, using cisplatin (DDP) as a positive control. An MTT assay was used to analyze the effects of CDV and DDP on HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, clone formation assay and Giemsa staining were used to examine the extent of HeLa cell apoptosis caused by CDV and DDP. Flow cytometry was also used to detect the shape and size of apoptotic cells following propidium iodide staining, while western blot analysis identified the expression levels of of E6 and p53 proteins in HeLa cells. A cell climbing immunofluorescence technique was used to locate the subcellular position of p53 in HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that CDV and DDP inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that CDV and DDP treatments resulted in cell arrest in the S-phase, and triggered programmed cell death. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that CDV and DDP inhibited E6 protein expression and activated p53 expression in HeLa cells. Finally, the immunofluorescence results indicated that CDV and DDP inhibited the nuclear export of p53 by E6 protein, which is required for degradation of endogenous p53 by MDM2 and human papilloma virus E6. In conclusion, CDV and DDP inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, reduced the expression of E6 protein, and reinstated p53 protein activity. Thus, CDV regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and may be a potential cervical cancer therapeutic strategy. PMID:27882102

  6. Inhibition of antiviral drug cidofovir on proliferation of human papillomavirus-infected cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Dai, Lv-Xia; Chen, Ming; Li, Bei; Ding, Nana; Li, Gang; Liu, Yan-Qing; Li, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Bao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Li; Tan, Hua-Bing

    2016-11-01

    In order to evaluate the potential application value of cidofovir (CDV) in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and treatment of cervical cancer, the inhibitory effect of CDV on the proliferation of HPV 18-positive HeLa cells in cervical cancer was preliminarily investigated, using cisplatin (DDP) as a positive control. An MTT assay was used to analyze the effects of CDV and DDP on HeLa cell proliferation. In addition, clone formation assay and Giemsa staining were used to examine the extent of HeLa cell apoptosis caused by CDV and DDP. Flow cytometry was also used to detect the shape and size of apoptotic cells following propidium iodide staining, while western blot analysis identified the expression levels of of E6 and p53 proteins in HeLa cells. A cell climbing immunofluorescence technique was used to locate the subcellular position of p53 in HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that CDV and DDP inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that CDV and DDP treatments resulted in cell arrest in the S-phase, and triggered programmed cell death. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that CDV and DDP inhibited E6 protein expression and activated p53 expression in HeLa cells. Finally, the immunofluorescence results indicated that CDV and DDP inhibited the nuclear export of p53 by E6 protein, which is required for degradation of endogenous p53 by MDM2 and human papilloma virus E6. In conclusion, CDV and DDP inhibited HeLa cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, reduced the expression of E6 protein, and reinstated p53 protein activity. Thus, CDV regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and may be a potential cervical cancer therapeutic strategy.

  7. Apoptotic and autophagic cell death induced by glucolaxogenin in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, L; Escobar, M L; Sandoval-Ramírez, J; López-Muñoz, H; Fernández-Herrera, M A; Hernández-Vázquez, J M V; Hilario-Martínez, C; Zenteno, E

    2015-12-01

    The antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of glucolaxogenin and its ability to induce apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells are reported. We ascertained that glucolaxogenin exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa, CaSki and ViBo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of DNA distribution in the cell-cycle phase of tumor cells treated with glucolaxogenin suggests that the anti-proliferative activity of this steroid is not always dependent on the cell cycle. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by detection of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in supernatants from tumor cell cultures treated with the steroid. Glucolaxogenin exhibited null cytotoxic activity. With respect to the apoptotic activity, the generation of apoptotic bodies, the presence of active caspase-3 and annexin-V, as well as the DNA fragmentation observed in all tumor lines after treatment with glucolaxogenin suggests that this compound does indeed induce cell death by apoptosis. Also, a significantly increased presence of the LC3-II, LC3 and Lamp-1 proteins was evidenced with the ultrastructural existence of autophagic vacuoles in cells treated with this steroidal glycoside, indicating that glucolaxogenin also induces autophagic cell death. It is important to note that this compound showed no cytotoxic effect and did not affect the proliferative capacity of mononuclear cells obtained from normal human peripheral blood activated by phytohaemagglutinin. Thus, glucolaxogenin is a compound with anti-proliferative properties that induces programmed cell death in cancer cell lines, though it is selective with respect to normal lymphocytic cells. These findings indicate that this glycoside could have a selective action on tumor cells and, therefore, be worthy of consideration as a therapeutic candidate with anti-tumor potential.

  8. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl

    2013-11-15

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer.

  9. Univariate and multivariate methods for chemical mapping of cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of cells and subcellular organelles are currently carried out using available microscopy methods such as cryoelectron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. These methods require external labeling using fluorescent dyes and extensive sample preparations to access the subcellular structures. However, Raman micro-spectroscopy provides a non-invasive, label-free method for imaging the cells with chemical specificity at sub-micrometer spatial resolutions. The scope of this paper is to image the biochemical/molecular distributions in cells associated with cancerous changes. Raman map data sets were acquired from the human cervical carcinoma cell lines (HeLa) after fixation under 785 nm excitation wavelength. The individual spectrum was recorded by raster-scanning the laser beam over the sample with 1μm step size and 10s exposure time. Images revealing nucleic acids, lipids and proteins (phenylalanine, amide I) were reconstructed using univariate methods. In near future, the small pixel to pixel variations will also be imaged using different multivariate methods (PCA, clustering (HCA, K-means, FCM)) to determine the main cellular constitutions. The hyper-spectral image of cell was reconstructed utilizing the spectral contrast at different pixels of the cell (due to the variation in the biochemical distribution) without using fluorescent dyes. Normal cervical squamous cells will also be imaged in order to differentiate normal and cancer cells of cervix using the biochemical changes in different grades of cancer. Based on the information obtained from the pseudo-color maps, constructed from the hyper-spectral cubes, the primary cellular constituents of normal and cervical cancer cells were identified.

  10. What Are the Key Statistics about Cervical Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cervical Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Cervical Cancer? The American Cancer Society's estimates for cervical ... in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  11. Automatic Detection of Cervical Cancer Cells by a Two-Level Cascade Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jie; Xu, Xuan; He, Yongjun; Song, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    We proposed a method for automatic detection of cervical cancer cells in images captured from thin liquid based cytology slides. We selected 20,000 cells in images derived from 120 different thin liquid based cytology slides, which include 5000 epithelial cells (normal 2500, abnormal 2500), lymphoid cells, neutrophils, and junk cells. We first proposed 28 features, including 20 morphologic features and 8 texture features, based on the characteristics of each cell type. We then used a two-level cascade integration system of two classifiers to classify the cervical cells into normal and abnormal epithelial cells. The results showed that the recognition rates for abnormal cervical epithelial cells were 92.7% and 93.2%, respectively, when C4.5 classifier or LR (LR: logical regression) classifier was used individually; while the recognition rate was significantly higher (95.642%) when our two-level cascade integrated classifier system was used. The false negative rate and false positive rate (both 1.44%) of the proposed automatic two-level cascade classification system are also much lower than those of traditional Pap smear review. PMID:27298758

  12. Ginsenoside-Rg5 induces apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, LI-DAN; HE, TAO; DU, TING-WEI; FAN, YONG-GANG; CHEN, DIAN-SEN; WANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng is traditionally used as a remedy for cancer, inflammation, stress and aging, and ginsenoside-Rg5 is a major bioactive constituent of steamed ginseng. The present study aimed to evaluate whether ginsenoside-Rg5 had any marked cytotoxic, apoptotic or DNA-damaging effects in human cervical cancer cells. Five human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, MS751, C33A, Me180 and HT-3) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside-Rg5 using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Additionally, the effects of ginsenoside-Rg5 on the apoptosis of HeLa and MS751 cells were detected using DNA ladder assays and flow cytometry. DNA damage was assessed in the HeLa and MS751 cells using alkaline comet assays and by detection of γH2AX focus formation. The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside-Rg5 treatment compared with the C-33A, HT-3 and Me180 cells. As expected, ginsenoside-Rg5 induced significant concentration- and time-dependent increases in apoptosis. In addition, ginsenoside-Rg5 induced significant concentration-dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control. Consistent with the comet assay data, the percentage of γH2AX-positive HeLa and MS751 cells also revealed that ginsenoside-Rg5 caused DNA double-strands to break in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside-Rg5 had marked genotoxic effects in the HeLa and MS751 cells and, thus, demonstrates potential as a genotoxic or cytotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25355274

  13. Down-regulation of miR-320 associated with cancer progression and cell apoptosis via targeting Mcl-1 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Zou, Ping; Wang, Tiejun; Xiang, Jingying; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Daozhen; Zhou, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated overexpression of Mcl-1 in cervical cancer tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of its overexpression remains not elucidated. MiR-320 has been reported to be down-regulated in various types of cancer, and bioinformatics prediction indicated that it may regulate the expression of Mcl-1. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-320 and its target gene Mcl-1 in cervical cancer progression and to assess their clinical significance. miR-320 and Mcl-1 expressions in human cervical cancer tissues were investigated by qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The clinicopathological implications of these molecules were analyzed. Bioinformatic prediction and luciferase assays were employed to identify the predicted microRNA (miRNA) which regulates Mcl-1. The apoptosis, proliferation, migration, and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effect of miR-320 on the cervical cancer cells. MiR-320 expression is significantly down-regulated versus Mcl-1 expression is up-regulated in cervical cancer tissues compared with normal controls with a negative correlation between them. Luciferase assay showed that miR-320 negatively regulates Mcl-1 expression. In addition, miR-320 induces apoptosis via down-regulation of Mcl-1 and activation of caspase-3 but inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis in cervical cancer cells. Our studies show that miR-320 expression is decreased in cervical cancer, and its expression is negatively correlated with Mcl-1 expression in cervical cancer. In addition, miR-320 inhibits cervical cancer progression by down-regulation of Mcl-1. These results indicate that miR-320 may be an important biomarker and target for diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer patient.

  14. miR-21 modulates resistance of HR-HPV positive cervical cancer cells to radiation through targeting LATS1

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shikai; Song, Lili Zhang, Liang; Zeng, Saitian; Gao, Fangyuan

    2015-04-17

    Although multiple miRNAs are found involved in radioresistance development in HR-HPV positive (+) cervical cancer, only limited studies explored the regulative mechanism of the miRNAs. miR-21 is one of the miRNAs significantly upregulated in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer is also significantly associated with radioresistance. However, the detailed regulative network of miR-21 in radioresistance is still not clear. In this study, we confirmed that miR-21 overexpression was associated with higher level of radioresistance in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer patients and thus decided to further explore its role. Findings of this study found miR-21 can negatively affect radiosensitivity of HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer cells and decrease radiation induced G2/M block and increase S phase accumulation. By using dual luciferase assay, we verified a binding site between miR-21 and 3′-UTR of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1). Through direct binding, miR-21 can regulate LATS1 expression in cervical cancer cells. LATS1 overexpression can reverse miR-21 induced higher colony formation rate and also reduced miR-21 induced S phase accumulation and G2/M phase block reduction under radiation treatment. These results suggested that miR-21-LATS1 axis plays an important role in regulating radiosensitivity. - Highlights: • miR-21 is highly expressed in HR-HPV (+) radioresistant cervical cancer patients. • miR-21 can negatively affect radiosensitivity of HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer cells. • miR-21 can decrease radiation induced G2/M block and increase S phase accumulation. • miR-21 modulates radiosensitivity cervical cancer cell by directly targeting LATS1.

  15. Enhanced Antiproliferative Effect of Carboplatin in Cervical Cancer Cells Utilizing Folate-Grafted Polymeric Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jing; Zuo, Ping; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Carboplatin (CRB) possesses superior anticancer effect in cervical cancer cells with lower incidence of side effects compared to that of cisplatin. However, CRB suffers from severe side effects due to undesirable tissue distributions which contribute to the low therapeutic efficacy. Here, we report a unique folic acid-conjugated chitosan-coated poly( d- l-lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (FPCC) prepared for the selective delivery of carboplatin to the cervical cancer cells. The particles were nanosized and spherical shaped with size less than <200 nm. The presence of protective chitosan layer controlled the overall release rate of CRB from chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles (PCC) and FPCC. FPCC displayed a higher cellular uptake capacity in HeLa cells than compared to non-targeted nanoparticles. Selective uptake of FPCC was due to an interaction of folic acid (FA) with the folate receptors alpha (FRs-α) which is overexpressed on the HeLa and promoted active targeting. These results indicated that FPCC had a specific affinity for the cancerous, HeLa cells owing to ligand-receptor (FA-FR-α) recognition. Consistently, FPCC showed superior cytotoxic effect than any other formulations. The IC50 (concentration of the drug required to kill 50 % of the cells) value of FPCC was 0.65 μg/ml while it was 1.08, 1.56, and 2.35 μg/ml for PCC, PLGA NP, and free CRB, respectively. Consistent with the cytotoxicity assay, FPCC induced higher fraction of early as well as late apoptosis cells. Especially, FPCC induced nearly 45 % of early apoptosis cells and more than 35 % in late apoptosis. Therefore, we propose that folate-conjugated nanoparticles might have potential applications in cervical cancer therapy.

  16. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Eileen M.

    2003-01-01

    Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Identification of precancerous lesions has been primarily by cytologic screening of cervical cells. Cellular abnormalities, however, may be missed or may not be sufficiently distinct, and a portion of patients with borderline or mildly dyskaryotic cytomorphology will have higher-grade disease identified by subsequent colposcopy and biopsy. Sensitive and specific molecular techniques that detect HPV DNA and distinguish high-risk HPV types from low-risk HPV types have been introduced as an adjunct to cytology. Earlier detection of high-risk HPV types may improve triage, treatment, and follow-up in infected patients. Currently, the clearest role for HPV DNA testing is to improve diagnostic accuracy and limit unnecessary colposcopy in patients with borderline or mildly abnormal cytologic test results. PMID:12525422

  17. Methanolic extract of Nigella sativa seed inhibits SiHa human cervical cancer cell proliferation through apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Tarique N; Shafi, Gowhar; Syed, Naveed A; Alfawaz, Muhammad A; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Munshi, Anjana; Lei, Kai Y; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2013-02-01

    Nigella sativa (NS), also known as black cumin, has long been used in traditional medicine for treating various cancer conditions. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential anti-cancer effects of NS extract using SiHa human cervical cancer cells. NS showed an 88.3% inhibition of proliferation of SiHa human cervical cancer cells at a concentration of 125 microL/mL methanolic extract at 24 h, and an IC50 value 93.2 microL/mL. NS exposure increased the expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 several-fold. The analysis of apoptosis by Dead End terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to further confirm that NS induced apoptosis. Thus, NS was concluded to induce apoptosis in SiHa cell through both p53 and caspases activation. NS could potentially be an alternative source of medicine for cervical cancer therapy.

  18. Induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Banerjee, Ayan; Pathak, Suajta; Sharma, Chandresh; Singh, Neeta

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer in women and has a high mortality rate. Cisplatin, an antitumor agent, is generally used for its treatment. However, the administration of cisplatin is associated with side effects and intrinsic resistance. Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a natural plant product, has been shown to have anti-cancer properties. In this study, we used Noni, cisplatin, and the two in combination to study their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects in cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines. We demonstrate here, that Noni/Cisplatin by themselves and their combination were able to induce apoptosis in both these cell lines. Cisplatin showed slightly higher cell killing as compared to Noni and their combination showed additive effects. The observed apoptosis appeared to be mediated particularly through the up-regulation of p53 and pro-apoptotic Bax proteins, as well as down- regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL proteins and survivin. Augmentation in the activity of caspase-9 and -3 was also observed, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis for both Noni and Cisplatin in HeLa and SiHa cell lines.

  19. Apoptotic potential role of Agave palmeri and Tulbaghia violacea extracts in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Nonkululeko N; Motadi, Lesetja Raymond

    2014-09-01

    Cervical cancer, a gynaecological malignant disorder, is a common cause of death in females in Sub-Saharan Africa, striking nearly half a million of lives each year worldwide. Currently, more than 50 % of all modern drugs in clinical use are of natural products, many of which have an ability to control cancer cells (Madhuri and Pandey, Curr Sci 96:779-783, 2009; Richter, Traditional medicines and traditional healers in South Africa, 2003). In South Africa, plants used to treat cancer are rare even though majority of our population continue to put their trust in traditional medicine. In this study we aimed to screen Agave palmeri (AG) and Tulbaghia violacea (TV) for potential role in inducing cell death in cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and ME-180, and in normal human fibroblast cell line KMST-6 cell lines. To achieve this, AG and TV crude extracts were utilized to screen for apoptosis induction, inhibition of cell proliferation followed by elucidation of the role of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, Rb, RBBP and Mdm2 genes in cervical cancer. In brief, plant leaves and roots were collected, crushed and methanolic extracts obtained. Different concentrations of the stock extracts were used to treat cancer cells and measure cell death using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay and flow cytometry. Western blot was applied to measure gene expression at protein level using RBBP6, p53, Mdm2, Rb, Bax, Bcl-2 and β-actin mouse monoclonal primary antibodies (IgG) and goat anti mouse coupled with horseradish peroxidase secondary antibody from Santa Cruz Biotechnology and real time-PCR was used for mRNA expression level. Plant extracts of AG and TV were time (24 h) and dose (50, 100, 150 μg/ml) dependent in their induction of cell death with an IC50 ~ 150 μg/ml. A further mixed respond by several genes was observed following treatment with the two plant extracts where RBBP6 was seen to be spliced in cancer cells while Bax was induced and Bcl-2 was

  20. Proteasomal inhibition sensitizes cervical cancer cells to mitomycin C-induced bystander effect: the role of tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Ajay, A K; Mohammad, N; Malvi, P; Chaube, B; Meena, A S; Bhat, M K

    2015-10-22

    Inaccessibility of drugs to poorly vascularized strata of tumor is one of the limiting factors in cancer therapy. With the advent of bystander effect (BE), it is possible to perpetuate the cellular damage from drug-exposed cells to the unexposed ones. However, the role of infiltrating tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), an integral part of the tumor microenvironment, in further intensifying BE remains obscure. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of mitomycin C (MMC), a chemotherapeutic drug, to induce BE in cervical carcinoma. By using cervical cancer cells and differentiated macrophages, we demonstrate that MMC induces the expression of FasL via upregulation of PPARγ in both cell types (effector cells) in vitro, but it failed to induce bystander killing in cervical cancer cells. This effect was primarily owing to the proteasomal degradation of death receptors in the cervical cancer cells. Pre-treatment of cervical cancer cells with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, facilitates MMC-mediated bystander killing in co-culture and condition medium transfer experiments. In NOD/SCID mice bearing xenografted HeLa tumors administered with the combination of MMC and MG132, tumor progression was significantly reduced in comparison with those treated with either agent alone. FasL expression was increased in TAMs, and the enhanced level of Fas was observed in these tumor sections, thereby causing increased apoptosis. These findings suggest that restoration of death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway in tumor cells with concomitant activation of TAMs could effectively restrict tumor growth.

  1. Promising Nanocarriers for PEDF Gene Targeting Delivery to Cervical Cancer Cells Mediated by the Over-expressing FRα.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuhan; He, Lili; Liu, Yongmei; Xia, Shan; Fang, Aiping; Xie, Yafei; Gan, Li; He, Zhiyao; Tan, Xiaoyue; Jiang, Chunling; Tong, Aiping; Song, Xiangrong

    2016-08-31

    Cervical cancer presents extremely low PEDF expression which is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. In this study, folate receptor α (FRα)-targeted nano-liposomes (FLP) were designed to enhance the anti-tumor effect by targeting delivery of exogenous PEDF gene to cervical cancer cells. The targeting molecule F-PEG-Chol was firstly synthesized by a novel simpler method. FLP encapsulating PEDF gene (FLP/PEDF) with a typical lipid-membrane structure were prepared by a film dispersion method. The transfection experiment found FLP could effectively transfect human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells). FLP/PEDF significantly inhibited the growth of HeLa cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC cells) and suppressed adhension, invasion and migration of HeLa cells in vitro. In the abdominal metastatic tumor model of cervical cancer, FLP/PEDF administered by intraperitoneal injection exhibited a superior anti-tumor effect probably due to the up-regulated PEDF. FLP/PEDF could not only sharply reduce the microvessel density but also dramatically inhibit proliferation and markedly induce apoptosis of tumor cells in vivo. Moreover, the preliminary safety investigation revealed that FLP/PEDF had no obvious toxicity. These results clearly showed that FLP were desired carriers for PEDF gene and FLP/PEDF might represent a potential novel strategy for gene therapy of cervical cancer.

  2. Anthelminthic drug niclosamide sensitizes the responsiveness of cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel via oxidative stress-mediated mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Wang, Li; Shen, Haibin; Lin, Hui; Li, Dan

    2017-03-04

    Drug repurposing represents an alternative therapeutic strategy to cancer treatment. The potent anti-cancer activities of a FDA-approved anthelminthic drug niclosamide have been demonstrated in various cancers. However, whether niclosamide is active against cervical cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of niclosamide alone and its combination with paclitaxel in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. We found that niclosamide significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of a panel of cervical cancer cell lines, regardless of their cellular origin and genetic pattern. Niclosamide also inhibited tumor growth in cervical cancer xenograft mouse model. Importantly, niclosamide significantly enhanced the responsiveness of cervical cancer cell to paclitaxel. We further found that niclosamide induced mitochondrial dysfunctions via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration, complex I activity and ATP generation, which led to oxidative stress. ROS scavenge agent N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) completely reversed the effects of niclosamide in increasing cellular ROS, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, suggesting that oxidative stress induction is the mechanism of action of niclosamide in cervical cancer cells. In addition, niclosamide significantly inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and its inhibitory effect on mTOR is modulated by oxidative stress. Our work suggests that niclosamide is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for cervical cancer and induction of oxidative stress may be a potential therapeutic strategy in cervical cancer.

  3. Kaempferol increases apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells via PI3K/AKT and telomerase pathways.

    PubMed

    Kashafi, Elham; Moradzadeh, Maliheh; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Erfanian, Saiedeh

    2017-02-28

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the disease pathogenesis and its therapy resistance. It is thus a good candidate for treatment by pro-apoptotic agents. Kaempferol as a flavonoid has antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. Kaempferol has been shown to induce apoptosis and cell death in cancer cells. However, due to the problems in the treatment of cervical cancer, this study is designed to investigate the molecular mechanism by which kaempferol suppresses the growth of cervical cancer HeLa cell as compared with HFF cells (normal cells). Cells treated with kaempferol (12-100μM) and 5-FU (1-10μM), as the positive control, up to 72h. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay and real time PCR was used to investigate apoptosis and telomerase genes expression. The results showed that kaempferol decreased cell viability as concentration- and time-dependently. IC50 values were 10.48μM for HeLa and 707.00μM for HFF cells, as compared with 1.40μM and 16.38μM for 5-FU after 72h treatment, respectively. Also, kaempferol induced cellular apoptosis and aging through down-regulating the PI3K/AKT and hTERT pathways. This study suggests that kaempferol may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  4. Constitutively active Notch1 induces growth arrest of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells via separate signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Talora, Claudio; Cialfi, Samantha; Segatto, Oreste; Morrone, Stefania; Kim Choi, John; Frati, Luigi; Paolo Dotto, Gian; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella

    2005-05-01

    Notch signaling plays a key role in cell-fate determination and differentiation in different organisms and cell types. Several reports suggest that Notch signaling may be involved in neoplastic transformation. However, in primary keratinocytes, Notch1 can function as a tumor suppressor. Similarly, in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, constitutively active Notch1 signaling was found to cause growth suppression. Activated Notch1 in these cells represses viral E6/E7 expression through AP-1 down-modulation, resulting in increased p53 expression and a block of pRb hyperphosphorylation. Here we show that in cervical cancer cell lines in which Notch1 ability to repress AP-1 activity is impaired, Notch1-enforced expression elicits an alternative pathway leading to growth arrest. Indeed, activated Notch1 signaling suppresses activity of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor E47, via ERK1/2 activation, resulting in inhibition of cell cycle progression. Moreover, we found that RBP-Jkappa-dependent Notch signaling is specifically repressed in cervical cancer cells and this repression could provide one such mechanism that needs to be activated for cervical carcinogenesis. Finally, we show that inhibition of endogenous Notch1 signaling, although results in a proliferative advantage, sensitizes cervical cancer cell lines to drug-induced apoptosis. Together, our results provide novel molecular insights into Notch1-dependent growth inhibitory effects, counteracting the transforming potential of HPV.

  5. Constitutively active Notch1 induces growth arrest of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells via separate signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Talora, Claudio; Cialfi, Samantha; Segatto, Oreste; Morrone, Stefania; Kim Choi, John; Frati, Luigi; Paolo Dotto, Gian; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella . E-mail: isabella.screpanti@uniroma1.it

    2005-05-01

    Notch signaling plays a key role in cell-fate determination and differentiation in different organisms and cell types. Several reports suggest that Notch signaling may be involved in neoplastic transformation. However, in primary keratinocytes, Notch1 can function as a tumor suppressor. Similarly, in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, constitutively active Notch1 signaling was found to cause growth suppression. Activated Notch1 in these cells represses viral E6/E7 expression through AP-1 down-modulation, resulting in increased p53 expression and a block of pRb hyperphosphorylation. Here we show that in cervical cancer cell lines in which Notch1 ability to repress AP-1 activity is impaired, Notch1-enforced expression elicits an alternative pathway leading to growth arrest. Indeed, activated Notch1 signaling suppresses activity of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor E47, via ERK1/2 activation, resulting in inhibition of cell cycle progression. Moreover, we found that RBP-J{kappa}-dependent Notch signaling is specifically repressed in cervical cancer cells and this repression could provide one such mechanism that needs to be activated for cervical carcinogenesis. Finally, we show that inhibition of endogenous Notch1 signaling, although results in a proliferative advantage, sensitizes cervical cancer cell lines to drug-induced apoptosis. Together, our results provide novel molecular insights into Notch1-dependent growth inhibitory effects, counteracting the transforming potential of HPV.

  6. Cross-talk between Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins and Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Promotes Stemness in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Tyagi, Abhishek; Pandey, Arvind; Verma, Gaurav; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok C

    2016-09-28

    Viral oncoproteins E6/E7 play key oncogenic role in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis in conjunction with aberrant activation of cellular signaling events. GLI-signaling has been implicated in metastasis and tumor recurrence of cervical cancer. However, the interaction of GLI-signaling with HPV oncogenes is unknown. We examined this relationship in established HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using specific GLI inhibitor, cyclopamine and HPVE6/E7 siRNAs. Cervical cancer cell lines showed variable expression of GLI-signaling components. HPV16-positive SiHa cells, overexpressed GLI1, Smo and Patch. Inhibition by cyclopamine resulted in dose-dependent reduction of Smo and GLI1 and loss of cell viability with a higher magnitude in HPV-positive cells. Cyclopamine selectively downregulated HPVE6 expression and resulted in p53 accumulation, whereas HPVE7 and pRb level remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated silencing of HPV16E6 demonstrated reduced GLI1 transcripts in SiHa cells. Cervical cancer stem-like cells isolated by side population analysis, displayed retention of E6 and GLI1 expression. Fraction of SP cells was reduced in cyclopamine-treated cultures. When combined with E6-silencing cyclopamine resulted in loss of SP cell's sphere-forming ability. Co-inhibition of GLI1 and E6 in cervical cancer cells showed additive anti-cancer effects. Overall, our data show existence of a cooperative interaction between GLI signaling and HPVE6.

  7. ARL6IP1 mediates cisplatin-induced apoptosis in CaSki cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengjie; Li, Yalin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jiajia; Li, Guancheng

    2010-05-01

    Cisplatin has been shown to induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. Despite the great efficacy at treating certain kinds of cancers, cisplatin introduced into clinical use shows side effects and the acquisition or presence of resistance to the drug. Thus, it is important that we further understand the anti-cancer mechanism of cisplatin with the goal of enhancing its efficacy. ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 (ARL6IP1) is an apoptotic regulator. We studied cisplatin-induced apoptosis with suppression of ARL6IP1 expression in CaSki cervical cancer cells. Exogenous expression of ARL6IP1 suppressed cisplatin-induced apoptosis in CaSki cells, and siRNA-induced silencing of ARL6IP1 triggered apoptosis in CaSki cells even in the absence of other apoptotic stimuli. Cisplatin treatment induced caspase-3, -9, p53, Bax, NF-kappaB and MAPK expression, and suppressed Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression, whereas cells transfected with pcDNA3.1-ARL6IP1 showed lower levels of cisplatin-induced caspase-3, -9, p53, Bax, NF-kappaB and MAPK up-regulation and higher levels of cisplatin-suppressed Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl down-regulation. These novel findings collectively suggest that ARL6IP1 may play a key role in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in CaSki cervical cancer cells by regulating the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins such as caspase-3, -9, p53, NF-kappaB, MAPK, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Bax.

  8. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes cervical cancer. To learn more about these tests and what happens during them, visit the Web sites listed at the end of this fact ... evidence about the benefits and harms of the test. The grades are explained in the box at ... Web site to read the full recommendation statement on ...

  9. Cross-talk between Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins and Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Promotes Stemness in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Tyagi, Abhishek; Pandey, Arvind; Verma, Gaurav; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok C.

    2016-01-01

    Viral oncoproteins E6/E7 play key oncogenic role in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis in conjunction with aberrant activation of cellular signaling events. GLI-signaling has been implicated in metastasis and tumor recurrence of cervical cancer. However, the interaction of GLI-signaling with HPV oncogenes is unknown. We examined this relationship in established HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using specific GLI inhibitor, cyclopamine and HPVE6/E7 siRNAs. Cervical cancer cell lines showed variable expression of GLI-signaling components. HPV16-positive SiHa cells, overexpressed GLI1, Smo and Patch. Inhibition by cyclopamine resulted in dose-dependent reduction of Smo and GLI1 and loss of cell viability with a higher magnitude in HPV-positive cells. Cyclopamine selectively downregulated HPVE6 expression and resulted in p53 accumulation, whereas HPVE7 and pRb level remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated silencing of HPV16E6 demonstrated reduced GLI1 transcripts in SiHa cells. Cervical cancer stem-like cells isolated by side population analysis, displayed retention of E6 and GLI1 expression. Fraction of SP cells was reduced in cyclopamine-treated cultures. When combined with E6-silencing cyclopamine resulted in loss of SP cell’s sphere-forming ability. Co-inhibition of GLI1 and E6 in cervical cancer cells showed additive anti-cancer effects. Overall, our data show existence of a cooperative interaction between GLI signaling and HPVE6. PMID:27678330

  10. Identification of NDRG1-regulated genes associated with invasive potential in cervical and ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Gang; Chen, Jiawei; Deng, Yanqiu; Gao, Feng; Zhu, Jiwei; Feng, Zhenzhong; Lv, Xiuhong; Zhao, Zheng

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} NDRG1 was knockdown in cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines by shRNA technology. {yields} NDRG1 knockdown resulted in increased cell invasion activities. {yields} Ninety-six common deregulated genes in both cell lines were identified by cDNA microarray. {yields} Eleven common NDRG1-regulated genes might enhance cell invasive activity. {yields} Regulation of invasion by NDRG1 is an indirect and complicated process. -- Abstract: N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is an important gene regulating tumor invasion. In this study, shRNA technology was used to suppress NDRG1 expression in CaSki (a cervical cancer cell line) and HO-8910PM (an ovarian cancer cell line). In vitro assays showed that NDRG1 knockdown enhanced tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion activities without affecting cell proliferation. cDNA microarray analysis revealed 96 deregulated genes with more than 2-fold changes in both cell lines after NDRG1 knockdown. Ten common upregulated genes (LPXN, DDR2, COL6A1, IL6, IL8, FYN, PTP4A3, PAPPA, ETV5 and CYGB) and one common downregulated gene (CLCA2) were considered to enhance tumor cell invasive activity. BisoGenet network analysis indicated that NDRG1 regulated these invasion effector genes/proteins in an indirect manner. Moreover, NDRG1 knockdown also reduced pro-invasion genes expression such as MMP7, TMPRSS4 and CTSK. These results suggest that regulation of invasion and metastasis by NDRG1 is a highly complicated process.

  11. Inhibitory impacts of chemically modified tetracycline-3 and underlying mechanism in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Xu, Jiaying; Yang, Yang; Chong, Yu; Liu, Chang; Jiao, Yang; Fan, Saijun

    2013-09-01

    Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) have been rationally designed from tetracyclines. The CMTs that show the antimicrobial properties are eliminated, whereas matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory properties are retained. Interestingly, CMT-3 (COL-3, by eliminating the dimethylamino, methyl, and hydroxyl functionalities on the basic tetracycline structure), one of the CMTs, has shown strong anticancer activity. In this study, we found that CMT-3 showed dose-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicity in HeLa and Siha cells, two human cervical cancer cell lines. HeLa cells were more sensitive to CMT-3 compared with Siha cells. The antiproliferation potential of CMT-3 was associated with the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, increasing reactive oxygen species level, and proapoptosis protein (e.g. caspase-3) expression, but decreasing antiapoptosis protein expression (e.g. Bcl-2). N-acetylcysteine (a reactive oxygen species inhibitor) and Z-LEHD-FMK significantly reduced or blocked the apoptosis event resulting from cytotoxic effect of CMT-3. CMT-3 also induced G0/G1 phase arrest with the reduction of cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin E and the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our findings provide the important foundation for further investigation of the underlying mechanism for the anticancer activity of CMT-3 and the potential application of CMT-3 as a new therapeutic candidate for clinical cervical cancer therapy.

  12. In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity of formononetin on human cervical cancer cell line HeLa.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue-mei; Xu, Tian-min; Zhao, Yan-hui; Wang, Yi-chao; Cui, Man-hua

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer (CC) is the third most common malignancy in women, and it remains a leading cause of cancer-related death of women. Genomic studies indicate that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling is one of the most frequently deregulated pathways in several human cancers, including CC. This signaling pathway has an important role in cancer cell proliferation, survival, motility, and metabolism, and therefore could be an attractive therapeutic target. In a previous study, we used a sensitive and high-speed homogeneous assay for the detection of kinase activity and for screening of PI3K/AKT signaling inhibitors in a high-throughput screening (HTS) format and then obtain formononetin, as an O-methylated isoflavone existed in a number of plants and herbs like Astragalus membranaceus. We showed that formononetin inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and induced the apoptosis of CC cell line HeLa in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, formononetin suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Our results indicated that formononetin may be used as an anti-cancer drug for cervical cancer in the future.

  13. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-4 Triggers Apoptosis in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Floria; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Espinosa, Magali; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) is a member of extracellular matrix (ECM) metalloproteinases inhibitors that has pleiotropic functions. However, TIMP-4 roles in carcinogenesis are not well understood. Cell viability and flow cytometer assays were employed to evaluate cell death differences between H-Vector and H-TIMP-4 cell lines. Immunobloting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis regulators. We showed that TIMP-4 has apoptosis-sensitizing effects towards several death stimuli. Consistent with these findings, regulators of apoptosis from Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAP), FLICE-like inhibitor proteins (FLIP) and Bcl-2 family members were modulated by TIMP-4. In addition, TIMP-4 knockdown resulted in cell survival increase after serum deprivation, as assessed by clonogenic cell analyses. This report shows that TIMP-4 regulates carcinogenesis through apoptosis activation in cervical cancer cells. Understanding TIMP-4 effects in tumorigenesis may provide clues for future therapies. PMID:26291714

  14. On physical changes on surface of human cervical epithelial cells during cancer transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia; Woodworth, Craig

    2013-03-01

    Physical changes of the cell surface of cells during transformation from normal to cancerous state are rather poorly studied. Here we describe our recent studies of such changes done on human cervical epithelial cells during their transformation from normal through infected with human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16), immortalized (precancerous), to cancerous cells. The changes were studied with the help of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and through the measurement of physical adhesion of fluorescent silica beads to the cell surface. Based on the adhesion experiments, we clearly see the difference in nonspecific adhesion which occurs at the stage of immortalization of cells, precancerous cells. The analysis done with the help of AFM shows that the difference observed comes presumably from the alteration of the cellular ``brush,'' a layer that surrounds cells and which consists of mostly microvilli, microridges, and glycocalyx. Further AFM analysis reveals the emergence of fractal scaling behavior on the surface of cells when normal cells turn into cancerous. The possible causes and potential significance of these observations will be discussed.

  15. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Gary M.; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants. PMID:22500074

  16. Cytotoxicity of selected medicinal and nonmedicinal plant extracts to microbial and cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Booth, Gary M; Malmstrom, Robert D; Kipp, Erica; Paul, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants.

  17. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis.

  18. Families of microRNAs Expressed in Clusters Regulate Cell Signaling in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Servín-González, Luis Steven; Granados-López, Angelica Judith; López, Jesús Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells have developed advantages to acquire hallmarks of cancer like apoptosis resistance, increased proliferation, migration, and invasion through cell signaling pathway misregulation. The sequential activation of genes in a pathway is regulated by miRNAs. Loss or gain of miRNA expression could activate or repress a particular cell axis. It is well known that aberrant miRNA expression is well recognized as an important step in the development of cancer. Individual miRNA expression is reported without considering that miRNAs are grouped in clusters and may have similar functions, such as the case of clusters with anti-oncomiRs (23b~27b~24-1, miR-29a~29b-1, miR-29b-2~29c, miR-99a~125b-2, miR-99b~125a, miR-100~125b-1, miR-199a-2~214, and miR-302s) or oncomiRs activity (miR-1-1~133a-2, miR-1-2~133a-1, miR-133b~206, miR-17~92, miR-106a~363, miR183~96~182, miR-181a-1~181b-1, and miR-181a-2~181b-2), which regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), NOTCH, proteasome-culling rings, and apoptosis cell signaling. In this work we point out the pathways regulated by families of miRNAs grouped in 20 clusters involved in cervical cancer. Reviewing how miRNA families expressed in cluster-regulated cell path signaling will increase the knowledge of cervical cancer progression, providing important information for therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic methodology design. PMID:26057746

  19. Families of microRNAs Expressed in Clusters Regulate Cell Signaling in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Servín-González, Luis Steven; Granados-López, Angelica Judith; López, Jesús Adrián

    2015-06-05

    Tumor cells have developed advantages to acquire hallmarks of cancer like apoptosis resistance, increased proliferation, migration, and invasion through cell signaling pathway misregulation. The sequential activation of genes in a pathway is regulated by miRNAs. Loss or gain of miRNA expression could activate or repress a particular cell axis. It is well known that aberrant miRNA expression is well recognized as an important step in the development of cancer. Individual miRNA expression is reported without considering that miRNAs are grouped in clusters and may have similar functions, such as the case of clusters with anti-oncomiRs (23b~27b~24-1, miR-29a~29b-1, miR-29b-2~29c, miR-99a~125b-2, miR-99b~125a, miR-100~125b-1, miR-199a-2~214, and miR-302s) or oncomiRs activity (miR-1-1~133a-2, miR-1-2~133a-1, miR-133b~206, miR-17~92, miR-106a~363, miR183~96~182, miR-181a-1~181b-1, and miR-181a-2~181b-2), which regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), NOTCH, proteasome-culling rings, and apoptosis cell signaling. In this work we point out the pathways regulated by families of miRNAs grouped in 20 clusters involved in cervical cancer. Reviewing how miRNA families expressed in cluster-regulated cell path signaling will increase the knowledge of cervical cancer progression, providing important information for therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic methodology design.

  20. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, Shuai; Hua, Ling; Takahashi, Y.; Narita, S.; Liu, Yun-Hui; Li, Yan

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy.

  1. Gene network reconstruction reveals cell cycle and antiviral genes as major drivers of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Mine, Karina L; Shulzhenko, Natalia; Yambartsev, Anatoly; Rochman, Mark; Sanson, Gerdine F O; Lando, Malin; Varma, Sudhir; Skinner, Jeff; Volfovsky, Natalia; Deng, Tao; Brenna, Sylvia M F; Carvalho, Carmen R N; Ribalta, Julisa C L; Bustin, Michael; Matzinger, Polly; Silva, Ismael D C G; Lyng, Heidi; Gerbase-DeLima, Maria; Morgun, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Although human papillomavirus was identified as an aetiological factor in cervical cancer, the key human gene drivers of this disease remain unknown. Here we apply an unbiased approach integrating gene expression and chromosomal aberration data. In an independent group of patients, we reconstruct and validate a gene regulatory meta-network, and identify cell cycle and antiviral genes that constitute two major subnetworks upregulated in tumour samples. These genes are located within the same regions as chromosomal amplifications, most frequently on 3q. We propose a model in which selected chromosomal gains drive activation of antiviral genes contributing to episomal virus elimination, which synergizes with cell cycle dysregulation. These findings may help to explain the paradox of episomal human papillomavirus decline in women with invasive cancer who were previously unable to clear the virus.

  2. Aloe vera inhibits proliferation of human breast and cervical cancer cells and acts synergistically with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Arif; Sharma, Chhavi; Khan, Saniyah; Shah, Kruti; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    Many of the anti-cancer agents currently used have an origin in natural sources including plants. Aloe vera is one such plant being studied extensively for its diverse health benefits, including cancer prevention. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of Aloe vera crude extract (ACE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells was studied by cell viability assay, nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis. Effects were correlated with modulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and drug metabolism by RT-PCR. Exposure of cells to ACE resulted in considerable loss of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was found to be mediated by through the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by changes in the nuclear morphology and the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, ACE did not have any significant cytotoxicity towards normal cells, thus placing it in the category of safe chemopreventive agent. Further, the effects were correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, CYP 1A1, CYP 1A2 and increased expression of bax and p21 in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, low dose combination of ACE and cisplatin showed a combination index less than 1, indicating synergistic growth inhibition compared to the agents applied individually. In conclusion, these results signify that Aloe vera may be an effective anti-neoplastic agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs like cispolatin. Thus promoting the development of plant-derived therapeutic agents appears warranted for novel cancer treatment strategies.

  3. LGR5 promotes the proliferation and tumor formation of cervical cancer cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Cao, Hao-Zhe; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a seven transmembrane receptor known as a potential stem cell marker for intestinal crypts and hair follicles, has recently been found to be overexpressed in some types of human cancers. However, the role of LGR5 in cervical cancer remains unclear. In this study, the expression of LGR5 gradually increases from normal cervix to cervical cancer in situ and to cervical cancers as revealed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses. Through knocking down or overexpressing LGR5 in SiHa and HeLa cells, the expression level of LGR5 was found to be positively related to cell proliferation in vitro and to tumor formation in vivo. Further investigation indicated that LGR5 protein could significantly promote the acceleration of cell cycle. Moreover, the TOP-Flash reporter assay and western blot for β-catenin, cyclinD1, and c-myc proteins, target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, indicated that LGR5 significantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Additionally, the blockage of Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation induced by LGR5. Taken together, these results demonstrate that LGR5 can promote proliferation and tumor formation in cervical cancer cells by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:25193857

  4. Characterization of cervical cancer stem cell-like cells: phenotyping, stemness, and human papilloma virus co-receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Santiago-López, Luz; Cruz-Domínguez, Verónica B; Toledo-Guzmán, Mariel E; Hernández-Cueto, Daniel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Garrido, Efraín; Cantú De León, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-05-31

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) exhibit high tumorigenic capacity in several tumor models. We have now determined an extended phenotype for cervical cancer stem cells. Our results showed increased CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ expression in these cells, together with higher Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHbright)activity in Cervical CSC (CCSC) enriched in cervospheres. An increase in stem cell markers, represented by OCT-4, Nanog, and β-catenin proteins, was also observed, indicating that under our culture conditions, CCSC are enriched in cervospheres, as compared to monolayer cultures. In addition, we were able to show that an increased ALDHbright activity correlated with higher tumorigenic activity. Flow cytometry and immunflorescence assays demonstrated that CCSC in cervosphere cultures contain a sub-population of cells that contain Annexin II, a Human papillomavirus (HPV) co-receptor. Taken together, under our conditions there is an increase in the number of CCSC in cervosphere cultures which exhibit the following phenotype: CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ and high ALDH activity, which in turn correlates with higher tumorigenicity. The presence of Annexin II and CD49f in CCSC opens the possibility that normal cervical stem cells could be the initial target of infection by high risk HPV.

  5. Characterization of cervical cancer stem cell-like cells: phenotyping, stemness, and human papilloma virus co-receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Santiago-López, Luz; Cruz-Domínguez, Verónica B.; Toledo-Guzmán, Mariel E.; Hernández-Cueto, Daniel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Garrido, Efraín; De León, David Cantú; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) exhibit high tumorigenic capacity in several tumor models. We have now determined an extended phenotype for cervical cancer stem cells. Our results showed increased CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ expression in these cells, together with higher Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDHbright)activity in Cervical CSC (CCSC) enriched in cervospheres. An increase in stem cell markers, represented by OCT-4, Nanog, and β-catenin proteins, was also observed, indicating that under our culture conditions, CCSC are enriched in cervospheres, as compared to monolayer cultures. In addition, we were able to show that an increased ALDHbright activity correlated with higher tumorigenic activity. Flow cytometry and immunflorescence assays demonstrated that CCSC in cervosphere cultures contain a sub-population of cells that contain Annexin II, a Human papillomavirus (HPV) co-receptor. Taken together, under our conditions there is an increase in the number of CCSC in cervosphere cultures which exhibit the following phenotype: CK-17, p63+, AII+, CD49f+ and high ALDH activity, which in turn correlates with higher tumorigenicity. The presence of Annexin II and CD49f in CCSC opens the possibility that normal cervical stem cells could be the initial target of infection by high risk HPV. PMID:27008711

  6. Regulation of p53 expression and apoptosis by vault RNA2-1-5p in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Hao, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Ping; Zou, Binbin; Zhang, Yu-xiang

    2015-01-01

    nc886 or VRNA2-1 has recently been identified as a noncoding RNA instead of a vault RNA or a pre-microRNA. Several studies have reported that pre-miR-886 plays a tumor-suppressive role in a wide range of cancer cells through its activity as a cellular protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) ligand and repressor. However, by sequencing stem-PCR products, we found that a microRNA originating from this precursor, vault RNA2-1-5p (VTRNA2-1-5p), occurs in cervical cancer cells. The expression levels of the predicted targets of VTRNA2-1-5p are negatively correlated with VTRNA2-1-5p levels by quantitative reversion transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Previous results have shown that VTRNA2-1-5p is overexpressed in human cervical squamous cell carcinomas (CSCCs) compared with adjacent healthy tissues. Inhibition of VTRNA2-1-5p increases Bax protein expression and apoptotic cell death in cervical cancer cells. Our findings suggest that VTRNA2-1-5p has oncogenic activity related to the progression of cervical cancer. Here, we report that VTRNA2-1-5p directly targeted p53 expression and functioned as an oncomir in cervical cancer. VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition decreased cervical cancer cell invasion, proliferation, and tumorigenicity while increasing apoptosis and p53 expression. Interestingly, VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition also increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cells. In human clinical cervical cancer specimens, low p53 expression and high VTRNA2-1-5p expression were positively associated. In addition, VTRNA2-1-5p was found to directly target the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of p53. We propose that VTRNA2-1-5p is a direct regulator of p53 and suggest that it plays an essential role in the apoptosis and proliferation of cervical cancer cells. PMID:26318295

  7. HPV positive neuroendocrine cervical cancer cells are dependent on Myc but not E6/E7 viral oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hang; Krawczyk, Ewa; Blancato, Jan; Albanese, Christopher; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Naidong; Paul, Siddartha; Alkhilaiwi, Faris; Palechor-Ceron, Nancy; Dakic, Aleksandra; Fang, Shuang; Choudhary, Sujata; Hou, Tung-Wei; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Haddad, Bassem R.; Usuda, Yukari; Hartmann, Dan; Symer, David; Gillison, Maura; Agarwal, Seema; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Liu, Xuefeng; Schlegel, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using conditional cell reprogramming, we generated a stable cell culture of an extremely rare and aggressive neuroendocrine cervical cancer. The cultured cells contained HPV-16, formed colonies in soft agar and rapidly produced tumors in immunodeficient mice. The HPV-16 genome was integrated adjacent to the Myc gene, both of which were amplified 40-fold. Analysis of RNA transcripts detected fusion of the HPV/Myc genes, arising from apparent microhomologous recombination. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated coordinate localization and translocation of the amplified Myc and HPV genes on chromosomes 8 and 21. Similar to the primary tumor, tumor cell cultures expressed very high levels of the Myc protein and, in contrast to all other HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines, they harbored a gain-of-function mutation in p53 (R273C). Unexpectedly, viral oncogene knockdown had no effect on the growth of the cells, but it did inhibit the proliferation of a conventional HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cell line. Knockdown of Myc, but not the mutant p53, significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation. On the basis of these data, we propose that the primary driver of transformation in this aggressive cervical cancer is not HPV oncogene expression but rather the overexpression of Myc. PMID:28378747

  8. miR-21 modulates resistance of HR-HPV positive cervical cancer cells to radiation through targeting LATS1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shikai; Song, Lili; Zhang, Liang; Zeng, Saitian; Gao, Fangyuan

    2015-04-17

    Although multiple miRNAs are found involved in radioresistance development in HR-HPV positive (+) cervical cancer, only limited studies explored the regulative mechanism of the miRNAs. miR-21 is one of the miRNAs significantly upregulated in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer is also significantly associated with radioresistance. However, the detailed regulative network of miR-21 in radioresistance is still not clear. In this study, we confirmed that miR-21 overexpression was associated with higher level of radioresistance in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer patients and thus decided to further explore its role. Findings of this study found miR-21 can negatively affect radiosensitivity of HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer cells and decrease radiation induced G2/M block and increase S phase accumulation. By using dual luciferase assay, we verified a binding site between miR-21 and 3'-UTR of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1). Through direct binding, miR-21 can regulate LATS1 expression in cervical cancer cells. LATS1 overexpression can reverse miR-21 induced higher colony formation rate and also reduced miR-21 induced S phase accumulation and G2/M phase block reduction under radiation treatment. These results suggested that miR-21-LATS1 axis plays an important role in regulating radiosensitivity.

  9. Anticarcinogenic effects of glycoalkaloids from potatoes against human cervical, liver, lymphoma, and stomach cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Lee, Kap-Rang; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, In-Seon; Kozukue, Nobuyuke

    2005-07-27

    Methods were devised for the isolation of large amounts of pure alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine from Dejima potatoes and for the extraction and analysis of total glycoalkaloids from five fresh potato varieties (Dejima, Jowon, Sumi, Toya, and Vora Valley). These compounds were then evaluated in experiments using a tetrazolium microculture (MTT) assay to assess the anticarcinogenic effects of (a) the isolated pure glycoalkaloids separately, (b) artificial mixtures of the two glycoalkaloids, and (c) the total glycoalkaloids isolated from each of the five potato varieties. All samples tested reduced the numbers of the following human cell lines: cervical (HeLa), liver (HepG2), lymphoma (U937), stomach (AGS and KATO III) cancer cells and normal liver (Chang) cells. The results show that (a) the effects of the glycoalkaloids were concentration dependent in the range of 0.1-10 mug/mL (0.117-11.7 nmol/mL); (b) alpha-chaconine was more active than was alpha-solanine; (c) some mixtures exhibited synergistic effects, whereas other produced additive ones; (d) the different cancer cells varied in their susceptibilities to destruction; and (e) the destruction of normal liver cells was generally lower than that of cancer liver cells. The decreases in cell populations were also observed visually by reversed-phase microscopy. The results complement related observations on the anticarcinogenic potential of food ingredients.

  10. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for staining human cervical cancer cells and DNA binding assay.

    PubMed

    De, Swati; Kundu, Rikta; Ghorai, Atanu; Mandal, Ranju Prasad; Ghosh, Utpal

    2014-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been functionalized by non-ionic surfactants (polysorbates) used in pharmaceutical formulations. This results in the formation of more well-dispersed gold nanoparticles (GNPs) than the GNPs formed in neat water. The synthesized GNPs show good temporal stability. The synthesis conditions are mild and environmentally benign. The GNPs can bind to ct-DNA and displace bound dye molecules. The DNA-binding assay is significant as it preliminarily indicated that DNA-GNP conjugates can be formed. Such conjugates are extremely promising for applications in nanobiotechnology. The GNPs can also stain the human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells over a wide concentration range while remaining non-cytotoxic, thus providing a non invasive cell staining method. This result is very promising as we observe staining of HeLa cells at very low GNP concentrations (1 μM) while the cell viability is retained even at 10-fold higher GNP concentrations.

  11. Effects of TGF-β1 on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Cervical Cancer Hela Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Xia; Zhou, Tie-Jun; Guo, Qing-Xi; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Cheng-Wan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on the proliferation and apoptosis of cervical cancer Hela cells in vitro. Human cervical cancer Hela cells were cultured in vitro and divided into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental groups, Hela cells were stimulated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng/mL), while Hela cells cultured in serum-free medium without TGF-β1 were used as controls. The CCK8 method was adopted to detect the effect of TGF-β1 on Hela cell proliferation, and flow cytometry was used to determine cell apoptosis 72 h after TGF-β1 treatment. Compared with the control group, the CCK-8 tests showed that different concentrations of TGF-β1 had no obvious effect on Hela cell proliferation 24 h after treatment (P > 0.05). However, upon 48 or 72 h of treatment, TGF-β1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of Hela cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The flow cytometry results indicated that TGF-β1 influenced the apoptosis of human cervical cancer Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner after 72 h of treatment (P < 0.05). TGF-β1 significantly inhibited the growth and induced the apoptosis of human cervical Hela cells in vitro.

  12. Magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) promote selective cervical cancer cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Molina, Aracely; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel Ángel; Palacios-Hernández, Teresa; Contreras-López, Oscar Edel; Hirata-Flores, Gustavo Alonso; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Merino-Contreras, Saul; Valenzuela, Olivia; Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2014-08-01

    The vitamin E analog α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) selectively induces apoptosis in several cancer cells, but it is sensitive to esterases present in cervical cancer cells. Magnetite nanoparticles (Nps) were prepared by a reduction-coprecipitation method; their surface was silanized and conjugated to α-TOS to enhance its resistance. Morphology, size, and crystal structure were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Chemical composition was analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; and α-TOS content was estimated by thermogravimetric analysis. The cytotoxic activity of α-TOS-Nps was evaluated in non-malignant fibroblasts and cervical cancer cells by means of the colorimetric MTT viability test. Intracellular localization was identified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Characterization of α-TOS-Nps revealed sphere-like Nps with 15 nm average size, formed by mineral and organic constituents with high stability. α-TOS-Nps were internalized in the nucleus and selectively affected the viability of cervical cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner but were biocompatible with non-malignant fibroblasts. In conclusion, functionalization of magnetite Nps protected the cytotoxic activity of α-TOS in non-sensitive cervical cancer cells.

  13. Curcumin-mediated decrease in the expression of nucleolar organizer regions in cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Pajak, Justyna; Stoklosa, Sylwia; Kubis, Barbara; Pastuszek, Paulina; Slota, Ewa; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin, the major yellow-orange pigment of turmeric derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a highly pleiotropic molecule with the potential to modulate inflammation, oxidative stress, cell survival, cell secretion, homeostasis and proliferation. Curcumin, at relatively high concentrations, was repeatedly reported to be a potent inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells and thus considered a promising anticancer agent. In the present paper, the effects of low concentrations of curcumin on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were studied. We found curcumin-mediated decrease in the cell number and viability, and increase in apoptotic events and superoxide level. In contrast to previously shown curcumin cytotoxicity toward different cervical cancer lines, we observed toxic effects when even as low as 1 μM concentration of curcumin was used. Curcumin was not genotoxic to HeLa cells. Because argyrophilic nucleolar protein (AgNOR protein) expression is elevated in malignant cells compared to normal cells reflecting the rapidity of cancer cell proliferation, we evaluated curcumin-associated changes in size (area) and number of silver deposits. We showed curcumin-induced decrease in AgNOR protein pools, which may be mediated by global DNA hypermethylation observed after low concentration curcumin treatment. In summary, we have shown for the first time that curcumin at low micromolar range may be effective against HeLa cells, which may have implications for curcumin-based treatment of cervical cancer in humans.

  14. Sexual and reproductive risk factors for invasive squamous cell cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Brinton, L A; Hamman, R F; Huggins, G R; Lehman, H F; Levine, R S; Mallin, K; Fraumeni, J F

    1987-07-01

    A case-control study of 418 women with invasive squamous cell cervical cancer and 704 population controls enabled evaluation of risk factors for this relatively rare cancer. Consistent with an infectious etiology was a pronounced effect of multiple sexual partners, with those reporting 10 or more partners being at a significant threefold excess risk. Early first intercourse also was associated with some residual effect on risk, although the relationship was not linear, nor the explanation readily apparent. Those with multiple births were at significantly elevated risks, even after adjustment for sexual parameters. Menstrual and hygiene factors, including use of tampons, vaginal deodorants, and douching products, were not consistently related to risk. Histories of specific infections involving the genital tract were poor predictors of risk, since few women provided positive responses, but those with nonspecific diseases were at a significant twofold excess risk.

  15. Innovations in understanding the biology of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Judith K; Franco, Eduardo L; Arbeit, Jeffery M; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Herrero, Rolando; Crum, Christopher P

    2003-11-01

    Revelation of the connection between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer is prompting new investigations to expand that understanding and promote vaccines, gene therapy, and other interventions. At the Second International Conference on Cervical Cancer (Houston, TX, April 11-14, 2002), laboratory and clinical researchers reported advances in new studies meant to increase understanding of the natural history of HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, to evaluate new cervical cancer screening techniques, and to promote new therapies. Using K14-HPV type 16 transgenic mice, researchers are investigating the effects of estrogen on cervical cancer carcinogenesis, and results are lending support to epidemiological theories showing a difference in HPV infection rates and the development of cervical lesions in women using oral contraceptives. Other work involves investigating genes that are up-regulated by HPV infection and the role of the p53 homologue, p63, in cervical neoplasia evolution. Telomerase also is under investigation as a biomarker in high-risk populations. Gene therapy that replaced p53 in cervical cancer cell lines in vitro and a nude mouse model inhibited cell and tumor growth, confirming previous findings in squamous epithelial carcinomas of the head and neck. Furthermore, research in intracellular targeting of antigens to subcellular locations shows promise for treating cervical cancer preclinically. Identification of molecular changes in cervical cancer and knowledge about the importance of HPV infection in cervical cancer can lead to new therapies to treat existing cervical cancer and, in the long term, prevent the disease.

  16. EGF upregulates Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 by post-translational regulation that is important for cervical cancer cell invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yihan; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Huang, Yu-Fang; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2008-03-01

    Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) is involved in cell migration but little is known about the signal pathways that regulate NHE1 activity and that are associated with tumor cell invasiveness. This study is to investigate the mechanisms by which epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates NHE1 expression to promote cervical cancer cell invasiveness and the clinical significance in early-stage cervical cancer. NHE1 protein was scanty in normal or noncancerous cervical tissues of all surgical specimens examined (n = 92). Tumor tissues clearly expressed NHE1 protein with different amounts. The differential expression level of NHE1 is associated with the clinical outcome. NHE1 protein was also differentially expressed between normal cervical epithelial cells and two cervical cancer cell lines. Cervical cancer cells benefit some enhanced cellular functions from NHE1 abundance, such as cell volume regulation, migration, and invasion. Interestingly, NHE1 colocalized with EGF in cervical cancer tissues. Studies in cell culture systems indicated that EGF-stimulated NHE1 abundance in a time-dependent manner by post-translational regulation. This implies a likely autocrine or paracrine EGF stimulation of NHE1 production in vivo. In addition, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is the dominant signal controlling EGF-stimulated NHE1 abundance. Pharmacological inhibition of NHE1 activity markedly inhibited the basal and EGF-stimulated cervical cancer cell migration. Image studies and immunoprecipitaion experiments suggest that EGF-induced NHE1 translocation to the leading-edge lamellipodia, where NHE1 interacted with actin-associated protein Ezrin, thereby remodeling cytoskeleton and stimulating cervical cancer cell migration. In conclusion, EGF upregulates NHE1 by post-translational regulation that is important for cervical cancer cell invasiveness.

  17. Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review

    SciTech Connect

    Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Roossink, Frank; Graeff, Pauline de; Pras, Elisabeth; Schuuring, Ed; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Zee, Ate G.J. van der

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in {>=}50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

  18. The inhibitory effects of carnosic acid on cervical cancer cells growth by promoting apoptosis via ROS-regulated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Ke; Wang, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Ying; Cai, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer has been the fourth most common cancer killing many women across the world. Carnosic acid (CA), as a phenolic diterpene, has been suggested to against cancer, exerting protective effects associated with inflammatory cytokines. It is aimed to demonstrate the therapeutic role of carnosic acid against cervical cancer and indicate its underlying molecular mechanisms. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was performed to assess the possible anti-proliferative effects of carnosic acid. And also, colony formation was used to further estimate carnosic acid's ability in suppressing cervical cancer cells proliferation. Flow cytometry assays were performed here to indicate the alterations of cervical cancer cells cycle and the development of apoptosis. Western blot assays and RT-PCR were also applied to clarify the apoptosis-associated signaling pathways affected by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. And immunofluorescence was used to detect ROS-positive cells. In vivo experiments, CaSki xenograft model samples of nude mice were involved to further elucidate the effects of carnosic acid. In our results, we found that carnosic acid exerted anti-tumor ability in vitro supported by up-regulation of apoptosis and ROS production in cervical cancer cells. Also, acceleration of ROS led to the phospharylation of (c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its-related signals, as well as activation of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, promoting the progression of apoptosis via stimulating Caspase3 expression. The development and growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice were found to be inhibited by the administration of carnosic acid for five weeks. And the suppressed role of carnosic acid in proliferation of cervical cancer cells and apoptosis of nude mice with tumor tissues were observed in our study. Taken together, our data indicated that carnosic acid resulted in apoptosis both in vitro and vivo experiments via promoting ROS and

  19. Anticancer property of Bryophyllum pinnata (Lam.) Oken. leaf on human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bryophyllum pinnata (B. pinnata) is a common medicinal plant used in traditional medicine of India and of other countries for curing various infections, bowel diseases, healing wounds and other ailments. However, its anticancer properties are poorly defined. In view of broad spectrum therapeutic potential of B. pinnata we designed a study to examine anti-cancer and anti-Human Papillomavirus (HPV) activities in its leaf extracts and tried to isolate its active principle. Methods A chloroform extract derived from a bulk of botanically well-characterized pulverized B. pinnata leaves was separated using column chromatography with step- gradient of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. Fractions were characterized for phyto-chemical compounds by TLC, HPTLC and NMR and Biological activity of the fractions were examined by MTT-based cell viability assay, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Northern blotting and assay of apoptosis related proteins by immunoblotting in human cervical cancer cells. Results Results showed presence of growth inhibitory activity in the crude leaf extracts with IC50 at 552 μg/ml which resolved to fraction F4 (Petroleum Ether: Ethyl Acetate:: 50:50) and showed IC50 at 91 μg/ml. Investigations of anti-viral activity of the extract and its fraction revealed a specific anti-HPV activity on cervical cancer cells as evidenced by downregulation of constitutively active AP1 specific DNA binding activity and suppression of oncogenic c-Fos and c-Jun expression which was accompanied by inhibition of HPV18 transcription. In addition to inhibiting growth, fraction F4 strongly induced apoptosis as evidenced by an increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, suppression of the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1. Phytochemical analysis of fraction F4 by HPTLC and NMR indicated presence of activity that resembled Bryophyllin A. Conclusions Our study therefore demonstrates presence of

  20. Blocking eIF5A Modification in Cervical Cancer Cells Alters the Expression of Cancer-Related Genes and Suppresses Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mémin, Elisabeth; Hoque, Mainul; Jain, Mohit R.; Heller, Debra S.; Li, Hong; Cracchiolo, Bernadette; Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M.; Pe’ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer etiology is influenced by alterations in protein synthesis that are not fully understood. In this study, we took a novel approach to investigate the role of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A in human cervical cancers, where it is widely overexpressed. eIF5A contains the distinctive amino acid hypusine, which is formed by a posttranslational modification event requiring deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), an enzyme that can be inhibited by the drugs ciclopirox and deferiprone. We found that proliferation of cervical cancer cells can be blocked by DOHH inhibition with either of these pharmacologic agents, as well as by RNA interference–mediated silencing of eIF5A, DOHH, or another enzyme in the hypusine pathway. Proteomic and RNA analyses in HeLa cervical cancer cells identified two groups of proteins in addition to eIF5A that were coordinately affected by ciclopirox and deferiprone. Group 1 proteins (Hsp27, NM23, and DJ-1) were downregulated at the translational level, whereas group 2 proteins (TrpRS and PRDX2) were upregulated at the mRNA level. Further investigations confirmed that eIF5A and DOHH are required for Hsp27 expression in cervical cancer cells and for regulation of its key target IκB and hence NF-κB. Our results argue that mature eIF5A controls a translational network of cancer-driving genes, termed the eIF5A regulon, at the levels of mRNA abundance and translation. In coordinating cell proliferation, the eIF5A regulon can be modulated by drugs such as ciclopirox or deferiprone, which might be repositioned to control cancer cell growth. PMID:24220243

  1. Cervical Cancer Working Group report.

    PubMed

    Konno, Ryo; Sagae, Satoru; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Hanley, Sharon J B; Tan, Jeffrey H J; Shin, Hai-Rim

    2010-09-01

    Disease burden of cervical cancer in Asia was summarized. Human papillomavirus 16 is the most oncogenic human papillomavirus type. Korea's national cervical cancer screening program targets women aged 30 or over, with coverage of almost 80%. Japan has a long history (50 years) of cervical cancer screening, and cytological screening programs have reduced the incidence/mortality of cervical cancer by 70%. But, recent cervical cancer screening coverage is ∼24%. Modeling suggested that vaccination of all 12-year-old girls would reduce cervical cancer cases by 73% in Japan. India has no cervical cancer screening program, as well as a serious lack of awareness in the general population, medical professionals and policy-makers. A realistic, affordable approach would be a low-volume, once-in-a-lifetime human papillomavirus-based screening program. In Australia, the national cervical cancer program has been very successful in reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Australia was the first country to implement free, national human papillomavirus immunization (April 2007), expected to reduce human papillomavirus 16 infections by 56% in 2010 and 92% in 2050. A comparison of the UK and Japan was demonstrated that in the UK, cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus vaccination uptakes are high because the government provides adequate education/funding. The Japanese government needs to put more emphasis on women's health and preventative medicine. Our conclusion and recommendations are that heightened public awareness of cervical cancer prevention, focusing on screening and vaccination will lead to improved survival and a better quality of life.

  2. Sex-determining region Y-related high mobility group box (SOX)-2 is overexpressed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and contributes cervical cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Chenglin; Pang, Xiaoao; Luo, Qingshuang; Zhang, Huijie; Zhang, Shulan

    2015-09-01

    Sex-determining region Y-related high mobility group box 2 (SOX-2) is a key pluripotency-associated transcription factor and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The aim of this study was to explore SOX-2 expression in cervical SCC tissues and to examine whether and how SOX-2 regulates the malignant behaviors of cervical SCC cells in vitro. We here found that SOX-2 expression in the examined cervical SCC tissues was higher than that in the normal cervical and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) tissues. Higher protein level of SOX-2 (nuclear positive staining cells ≥50 %) was detected in 34.9 % (29 out of 83 cases) of cervical SCC patients. We also noted that 100 % of well-differentiated and 66.7 % of moderately differentiated cervical SCCs showed lower SOX-2 expression (nuclear positive staining cells <50 %), while 58.8 % of poorly differentiated tumors had higher SOX-2 expression (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the migratory and invasive capabilities of SiHa cervical cancer cells were enhanced when SOX-2 was upregulated whereas suppressed when SOX-2 was downregulated. Also, the phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2 were increased in SOX-2-overexpressed cancer cells but decreased in SOX-2-depleted cells. Additionally, LY294002 (Akt pathway inhibitor) or U0126 (ERK pathway inhibitor) significantly suppressed SOX-2-overexpression-induced migration and invasion in SiHa cells. Our results indicate that differentially expressed SOX-2 is associated with tumor differentiation (P < 0.05) and that SOX-2 contributes to the migratory and invasive behaviors of cervical SCC in vitro.

  3. Identification of NDRG1-regulated genes associated with invasive potential in cervical and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Chen, Jiawei; Deng, Yanqiu; Gao, Feng; Zhu, Jiwei; Feng, Zhenzhong; Lv, Xiuhong; Zhao, Zheng

    2011-04-29

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is an important gene regulating tumor invasion. In this study, shRNA technology was used to suppress NDRG1 expression in CaSki (a cervical cancer cell line) and HO-8910PM (an ovarian cancer cell line). In vitro assays showed that NDRG1 knockdown enhanced tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion activities without affecting cell proliferation. cDNA microarray analysis revealed 96 deregulated genes with more than 2-fold changes in both cell lines after NDRG1 knockdown. Ten common upregulated genes (LPXN, DDR2, COL6A1, IL6, IL8, FYN, PTP4A3, PAPPA, ETV5 and CYGB) and one common downregulated gene (CLCA2) were considered to enhance tumor cell invasive activity. BisoGenet network analysis indicated that NDRG1 regulated these invasion effector genes/proteins in an indirect manner. Moreover, NDRG1 knockdown also reduced pro-invasion genes expression such as MMP7, TMPRSS4 and CTSK. These results suggest that regulation of invasion and metastasis by NDRG1 is a highly complicated process.

  4. Baicalein induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Guo, Congshan; Yang, Yanhong; Li, Fenglin; Zhang, Yanxia; Jiang, Bin; Li, Qingwang

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that baicalein shows high antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the inhibitory effect of baicalein on human cervical cancer HeLa cells was studied in vitro. HeLa cells were treated with high (100 µg/ml) and low (50 µg/ml) doses of baicalein, and cell growth inhibition rates were examined by the MTT assay. The morphological changes of apoptotic cells were observed under the light and electron microscope, while the rate of cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was analyzed by western blot, and caspase-3 activation was examined by a caspase-3 activity assay and spectrophotometry. The results demonstrated that baicalein inhibits the proliferation of HeLa cells and induces apoptosis in a caspase-3-dependent pathway, through downregulation of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and upregulation of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), Fas, Fas ligand (FasL) and caspase-8. Thus, we conclude that baicalein induces apoptosis of HeLa cells via the mitochondrial and the death receptor pathways. Cell apoptosis in HeLa cells was most likely promoted by the activation of the proteolytic enzyme caspase-3 in both pathways.

  5. HPV-type-specific response of cervical cancer cells to cisplatin after silencing replication licensing factor MCM4.

    PubMed

    Das, Mitali; Prasad, Shyam Babu; Yadav, Suresh Singh; Modi, Arusha; Singh, Sunita; Pradhan, Satyajit; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2015-12-01

    Minichoromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins play key role in cell cycle progression by licensing DNA replication only once per cell cycle. These proteins are found to be overexpressed in cervical cancer cells. In this study, we depleted MCM4, one of the MCM 2-7 complex components by RNA interference (RNAi) in four cervical cancer cell lines. The four cell lines were selected on the basis of their human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: HPV16-positive SiHa, HPV18-positive ME-180, HPV16- and HPV18-positive CaSki, and HPV-negative C-33A. The MCM4-deficient cells irrespective of their HPV status grow for several generations and maintain regular cell cycle. We did not find any evidence of augmented response to a short-term (48 h) cisplatin treatment in these MCM4-deficient cells. However, MCM4-/HPV16+ SiHa cells cannot withstand a prolonged treatment (up to 5 days) of even a sublethal dosage of cisplatin. They show increased chromosomal instability compared to their control counterparts. On the other hand, MCM4-deficient CaSki cells (both HPV16+ and 18+) remain resistant to a prolonged exposure to cisplatin. Our study indicates that cervical cancer cells may be using excess MCMs as a backup for replicative stress; however, its regulatory mechanism is dependent on the HPV status of the cells.

  6. MicroRNA-543 acts as a prognostic marker and promotes the cell proliferation in cervical cancer by BRCA1-interacting protein 1.

    PubMed

    Dang, Huimin; Zheng, Pengsheng; Liu, Yu; Wu, Xiaoling; Wu, Xili

    2017-02-01

    Human cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Recent studies have focused on microRNAs that play crucial roles in cancer development and progression of cervical cancer. In this study, we aimed to analyse the biological function of microRNA-543 in cervical cancer. Samples of human cervical cancer and matched adjacent normal cervical tissues were collected, and expression level of microRNA-543 and the clinical characteristics of cervical cancer were investigated. We found that microRNA-543 expression was significantly elevated in cervical cancer and its aberrant expression levels were positively correlated with tumour size ( p = 0.0315), differentiation ( p = 0.0134), clinical stage ( p = 0.0315) and overall ( p = 0.0426) and disease-free survival ( p = 0.0396) of cervical cancer. Overexpression of microRNA-543 in cancer-derived HeLa and SiHa facilitated cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis, while down-regulation of microRNA-543 exerted a reverse effect on cell growth and apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that BRCA1-interacting protein 1 was directly regulated by microRNA-543 and the restoration of BRCA1-interacting protein 1 expression reversed the effects of microRNA-543 on cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings collectively demonstrate that microRNA-543 exerts its oncogene function by directly targeting BRCA1-interacting protein 1 in cervical cancer, indicating a potential novel potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

  7. Long noncoding RNA MEG3 is downregulated in cervical cancer and affects cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulating miR-21.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yao, Tingting; Wang, Yaxian; Yu, Jin; Liu, Yunyun; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has found that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were involved in various human cancers. However, the role of these lncRNAs in cervical cancer remains unexplored. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the biological function of maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), a cancer-related lncRNA, and its underlying mechanism in cervical cancer. In this study, MEG3 expression of 108 patients' cervical cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR), and the functional effect of MEG3 was determined in vitro assays. We observed that MEG3 was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues, compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and was negatively related with FIGO stages, tumor size, lymphatic metastasis, HR-HPV infection and the expression of homo sapiens microRNA-21 (miR-21). Furthermore, we focused on the function and molecular mechanism of MEG3, finding that overexpression of MEG3 reduced the level of miR-21-5p expression, causing inhibition of proliferation and increased apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. In summary, our findings indicate that MEG3 function as a tumor suppressor by regulating miR-21-5p, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth in cervical cancer. As a result, this study improves our understanding of the function of MEG3 in cervical cancer and will help to provide new potential target sites for cervical cancer treatment.

  8. Expression of WNT genes in cervical cancer-derived cells: Implication of WNT7A in cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D.; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Alvarez-Zavala, Monserrat; and others

    2015-07-01

    According to the multifactorial model of cervical cancer (CC) causation, it is now recognized that other modifications, in addition to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are necessary for the development of this neoplasia. Among these, it has been proposed that a dysregulation of the WNT pathway might favor malignant progression of HPV-immortalized keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to identify components of the WNT pathway differentially expressed in CC vs. non-tumorigenic, but immortalized human keratinocytes. Interestingly, WNT7A expression was found strongly downregulated in cell lines and biopsies derived from CC. Restoration of WNT7A in CC-derived cell lines using a lentiviral gene delivery system or after adding a recombinant human protein decreases cell proliferation. Likewise, WNT7A silencing in non-tumorigenic cells markedly accelerates proliferation. Decreased WNT7A expression was due to hypermethylation at particular CpG sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting reduced WNT7A levels in CC-derived cells and that ectopic WNT7A restoration negatively affects cell proliferation and migration. - Highlights: • WNT7A is expressed in normal keratinocytes or cervical cells without lesion. • WNT7A is significantly reduced in cervical cancer-derived cells. • Restoration of WNT7A expression in HeLa decreases proliferation and cell migration. • Silencing of WNT7A in HaCaT induces an increased proliferation and migration rate. • Decreased WNT7A expression in this model is due to hypermethylation.

  9. Piwil2 is reactivated by HPV oncoproteins and initiates cell reprogramming via epigenetic regulation during cervical cancer tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dingqing; Yan, Keqin; Zhou, Ying; Liang, Haiyan; Liang, Jing; Zhao, Weidong; Dong, Zhongjun; Ling, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins E6 and E7 are risk factors that are primarily responsible for the initiation and progression of cervical cancer, and they play a key role in immortalization and transformation by reprogramming differentiating host epithelial cells. It is unclear how cervical epithelial cells transform into tumor-initiating cells (TICs). Here, we observed that the germ stem cell protein Piwil2 is expressed in pre-cancerous and malignant lesions of the cervix and cervical cancer cell lines with the exception of the non-HPV-infected C33a cell line. Knockdown of Piwil2 by shRNA led to a marked reduction in proliferation and colony formation, in vivo tumorigenicity, chemo-resistance, and the proportion of cancer stem-like cells. In contrast, Piwil2 overexpression induced malignant transformation of HaCaT cells and the acquisition of tumor-initiating capabilities. Gene-set enrichment analysis revealed embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity, malignant biological behavior, and specifically, activation targets of the cell reprogramming factors c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 in Piwil2-overexpressing HaCaT cells. We further confirmed that E6 and E7 reactivated Piwil2 and that E6 and E7 overexpression resulted in a similar gene-set enrichment pattern as Piwil2 overexpression in HaCaT cells. Moreover, Piwil2 overexpression or E6 and E7 activation induced H3K9 acetylation but reduced H3K9 trimethylation, which contributed to the epigenetic reprogramming and ESC signature maintenance, as predicted previously. Our study demonstrates that Piwil2, reactivated by the HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7, plays an essential role in the transformation of cervical epithelial cells to TICs via epigenetics-based cell reprogramming. PMID:27602489

  10. Combination of aloe-emodin with radiation enhances radiation effects and improves differentiation in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinghua; Yuan, Yong; Chang, Pengyu; Li, Dawei; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qu, Yaqin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aloe-emodin (AE) on the radiosensitivity and differentiation of HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Cell proliferation was assessed in the HeLa cervical cancer cell line by a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Radiosensitivity was determined by a colony‑forming assay. Flow cytometry was used for analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The expression of γ-H2AX and cyclin B was assessed by western blotting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured by an ALP activity kit. It was demonstrated that AE inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, induced G2/M and S phase cell cycle arrest and enhanced the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. The combination of AE and radiation induced apoptosis, upregulated cyclin B and γ-H2AX expression and further improved ALP activity compared with treatment with AE or radiation alone. AE enhanced the radiosensitivity of HeLa human cervical cancer cells in vitro, inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and, in combination with radiation, induced the apoptosis and improved the differentiation of HeLa cells.

  11. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    PubMed Central

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC in vitro and in vivo. Celecoxib, sulindac, nimesulide, dexamethasone, meclofenamic acid, flufenamic acid and mefenamic acid were tested in UCC HeLa, VIPA, INBL and SiHa cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the drugs was evaluated in vitro. Celecoxib, sulindac, nimesulide, mefenamic acid and flufenamic acid presented with slight to moderate toxicity (10–40% of cell death corresponding to 100 µM) in certain cell lines, while meclofenamic acid exhibited significant cytotoxicity in all essayed cell lines (50–90% of cell death corresponding to 100 µM). The meclofenamic acid was tested in murine models (immunodeficient and immunocompetent) of UCC, which manifested a significant reduction in tumor growth and increased mouse survival. It was demonstrated that of the evaluated anti-inflammatory drugs, meclofenamic acid was the most cytotoxic, with a significant antitumor effect in murine models. Subsequent studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical utility of this drug. PMID:26622892

  12. MicroRNA-145 sensitizes cervical cancer cells to low-dose irradiation by downregulating OCT4 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Siqi; Li, Xiangjun; Jin, Qiao; Yuan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poor elucidation of the mechanisms involved in regulating the radiosensitivity of cancers prevents the extensive application of low-dose radiotherapy in clinical settings. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of microRNA-145 (miR-145) in the modulation of cervical cancer cell radiosensitivity, as well as to identify the underlying target of miR-145 during this process. Cervical cancer tera cells were initially exposed to doses of radiation between 1 and 6 Gy before the assessments of the cell viability and apoptosis rate. Irradiation at dose of 1 Gy was screened as optimum dose and used in subsequent experiments. A dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to demonstrate that octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) is a target of miR-145 in cervical cancer. Consequently, OCT4 was suggested to be a target of miR-145, as a dual luciferase vector that was ligated to a fragment corresponding to the predicted target site of miR-145 in OCT4 3′-UTR showed an 83% reduction in fluorescence. Following exposure to 1 Gy irradiation, tera cells transfected with miR-145 mimics, which showed downregulation of OCT4 and cyclin D1, had lower cell viability and cell migration rate and higher apoptosis rate compared to non-transfected cells. However, the co-transfection of miR-145 mimics and OCT4 expression vector restored OCT4 and cyclin D1 expression levels and made no significant difference in terms of cell viability, cell migration rate and apoptosis rate. The present results indicate that miR-145 increases the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells by silencing OCT4, that cyclin D1 is putatively under the positive regulation of OCT4 and mediates miR-145 function. PMID:27882128

  13. Expression/localization patterns of sirtuins (SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT7) during progression of cervical cancer and effects of sirtuin inhibitors on growth of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sapna; Kumar, P Uday; Thakur, Suresh; Kiran, Shashi; Sen, Bijoya; Sharma, Shreya; Rao, Vishnu Vardhan; Poongothai, A R; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2015-08-01

    Sirtuins belong to the family of class III histone deacetylases; its role in neoplasia is controversial as both tumor-suppressive and promoting functions have been reported. There are very few reports available, where expressions of sirtuin isoforms are comprehensively analyzed during neoplasia. Therefore, in the present study, the expression of SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT7 during different stages of cervical cancer progression was analyzed. The normal cervical epithelium showed feeble expression of sirtuin isoforms, SIRT1, SIRT2, and SIRT7. A significant increase in SIRT1 expression was noted in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of proliferative layers of cervical epithelium in squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL); however, in the squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), a heterogeneous pattern of SIRT1 expression varying from low to high was noted. A progressive increase in the expression of both SIRT2 and SIRT7 was noted during cancer progression in the following order: normal < preneoplasia < cancer. Cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and SiHa, showed higher levels of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in comparison to the immortalized cell counterpart, HaCaT. Specific inhibitors of SIRT1 (Ex527) and SIRT2 (AGK2) impaired the growth of the cervical cancer cells, SiHa, but not of the HaCaT cells. SIRT1 inhibition caused cell death, while SIRT2 inhibition resulted in cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, we report the overexpression of SIRT2 and SIRT7 proteins in cervical cancer and suggest probable application of sirtuin inhibitors as therapeutic targets. Further, a specific increase in the levels of SIRT1 in intraepithelial lesion makes it a promising candidate for identification of preneoplastic changes.

  14. Inhibition of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 suppresses proliferation and reduces tumor cell invasion in CaSki human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengjie; Liu, Yan; Li, Yalin; Li, Guancheng

    2010-12-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 (ARL6IP1) is an apoptotic regulator. To investigate the role of ARL6IP1 in human cervical cancer progression, we designed and used short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to inhibit ARL6IP1 expression in CaSki cells and validated its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. Changes in gene expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or western blot. Down-regulation of ARL6IP1 expression by infection with ARL6IP1-specific RNAi-expressing vector inhibited CaSki cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, down-regulation of ARL6IP1 expression arrested CaSki cell cycling at the G0/G1 phase and mitigated CaSki cell migration, determined by wound healing assays. ARL6IP1 was involved in cervical cancer cell growth, cell cycle progression, and invasion through regulation of gene expression, such as Caspase-3, Caspase-9, p53, TAp63, NF-κB, MAPK, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL, suggesting that ARL6IP1 could have important implications in cervical cancer biology. Our findings illustrate the biological significance of ARL6IP1 in cervical cancer progression, and provide novel evidence that ARL6IP1 may serve as a therapeutic target in the prevention of human cervical cancer.

  15. MAML1 regulates cell viability via the NF-{kappa}B pathway in cervical cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kuncharin, Yanin; Sangphech, Naunpun; Kueanjinda, Patipark; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-08-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in tumorigenesis in a context-dependent manner. In human cervical cancer, alterations in Notch signaling have been reported, and both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting roles of Notch signaling have been proposed; however, the precise molecular mechanisms governing these roles in cervical cancer remain controversial. MAML is a transcriptional co-activator originally identified by its role in Notch signaling. Recent evidence suggests that it also plays a role in other signaling pathways, such as the p53 and {beta}-catenin pathways. MAML is required for stable formation of Notch transcriptional complexes at the promoters of Notch target genes. Chromosomal translocations affecting MAML have been shown to promote tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a truncated dominant-negative MAML1 (DN-MAML) to investigate the role of MAML in HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines. Three human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa and CaSki) expressed all Notch receptors and the Notch target genes Hes1 and MAML1. Among these 3 cell lines, constitutive appearance of cleaved Notch1 was found only in CaSki cells, which suggests that Notch1 is constitutively activated in this cell line. Gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment, which suppresses Notch receptor activation, completely abrogated this form of Notch1 but had no effect on cell viability. Overexpression of DN-MAML by retroviral transduction in CaSki cells resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA levels of Hes1 and Notch1 but had no effects on the levels of MAML1, p53 or HPV E6/E7. DN-MAML expression induced increased viability of CaSki cells without any effect on cell cycle progression or cell proliferation. In addition, clonogenic assay experiments revealed that overexpression of DN-MAML resulted in increased colony formation compared to the overexpression of the control vector. When the status of the NF-{kappa}B pathway was investigated, CaSki cells overexpressing

  16. [Primary peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the vagina incidentally found at cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Rei; Mituishi, Toshimi; Omote, Mayuko; Mori, Yuichi; Ida, Koichi; Oguchi, Osamu; Nakai, Ikuko; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because a mass lesion had been palpable through the vaginal wall during a cervical cancer screening examination. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed marked thickening of the vaginal wall, constituting a mass 96 mm in diameter. Abnormal FDG uptake was observed in the vaginal mass, but no other lesions were detected by positron emission tomography (PET/CT). A transvaginal biopsy from the tumor revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Although endoscopic examinations revealed no signs of infiltration in either the bladder or the rectum, the MRI findings suggested invasion into the adjacent rectal wall. She achieved complete remission after six courses of biweekly THP-COP therapy, to which field radiation (39.6 Gy) was added. PTCL of the vagina is rare and this case therefore merits description in the literature.

  17. Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Yin; Shieh, Den-En; Chen, Chung-Chi; Yeh, Ching-Sheng; Dong, Huei-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Plantaginaceae, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases from common cold to cancer. Linalool is one of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from Plantaginaceae. Most of the commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drugs have been shown to induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. However, the signaling pathway for apoptosis remains undefined. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of linalool on human cancer cell lines was investigated. Water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1) based colorimetric cellular cytotoxicity assay, was used to test the cytotoxic ability of linalool against U937 and HeLa cells, and flow cytometry (FCM) and genechip analysis were used to investigate the possible mechanism of apoptosis. These results demonstrated that linalool exhibited a good cytotoxic effect on U937 and HeLa cells, with the IC50 value of 2.59 and 11.02 μM, respectively, compared with 5-FU with values of 4.86 and 12.31 μM, respectively. After treating U937 cells with linalool for 6 h, we found an increased sub-G1 peak and a dose-dependent phenomenon, whereby these cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, by using genechip analysis, we observed that linalool can promote p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18 gene expression. Therefore, this study verified that linalool can arrest the cell cycle of U937 cells at the G0/G1 phase and can arrest the cell cycle of HeLa cells at the G2/M phase. Its mechanism facilitates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs) p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18, as well as the non-expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) activity. PMID:26703569

  18. Curcumin Nanoformulation for Cervical Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mohd S.; Chauhan, Neeraj; Yallapu, Murali M.; Gara, Rishi K.; Maher, Diane M.; Kumari, Sonam; Sikander, Mohammed; Khan, Sheema; Zafar, Nadeem; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Current standards of care for cervical cancer includes surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Conventional chemotherapy fails to elicit therapeutic responses and causes severe systemic toxicity. Thus, developing a natural product based, safe treatment modality would be a highly viable option. Curcumin (CUR) is a well-known natural compound, which exhibits excellent anti-cancer potential by regulating many proliferative, oncogenic, and chemo-resistance associated genes/proteins. However, due to rapid degradation and poor bioavailability, its translational and clinical use has been limited. To improve these clinically relevant parameters, we report a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based curcumin nanoparticle formulation (Nano-CUR). This study demonstrates that in comparison to free CUR, Nano-CUR effectively inhibits cell growth, induces apoptosis, and arrests the cell cycle in cervical cancer cell lines. Nano-CUR treatment modulated entities such as miRNAs, transcription factors, and proteins associated with carcinogenesis. Moreover, Nano-CUR effectively reduced the tumor burden in a pre-clinical orthotopic mouse model of cervical cancer by decreasing oncogenic miRNA-21, suppressing nuclear β-catenin, and abrogating expression of E6/E7 HPV oncoproteins including smoking compound benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced E6/E7 and IL-6 expression. These superior pre-clinical data suggest that Nano-CUR may be an effective therapeutic modality for cervical cancer. PMID:26837852

  19. Cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of family physicians in screening for cancer of the cervix, to review the evidence for screening, in particular, frequency and technique for screening, and to review the reasons cervical cancer has not been prevented and the role of family physicians in addressing these failures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The value of screening has been established with level II evidence. Many of the unresolved issues are not supported either way by good evidence; level II and III evidence predominates. MAIN FINDINGS: In Canada, 1350 women were predicted to be diagnosed with cancer of the cervix in 1996. Most of these women had not been screened. Minority, rural, low-income, and older women face important barriers to screening. Family physicians have a role in reaching out to these women to provide effective health care, including cancer screening. When cancer screening is performed, it should conform to recommended techniques with appropriate follow up of abnormal test results. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have an important role in preventing cancer of the cervix. Efforts should be concentrated on encouraging a greater proportion of eligible women to be screened. Criteria are suggested for effective screening. PMID:9721422

  20. Anti-cancer effect of adenovirus p53 on human cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ahn, W S; Bae, S M; Lee, J M; Namkoong, S E; Yoo, J Y; Seo, Y-S; Nam, S L; Cho, Y-L; Nam, K H; Kim, C K; Kim, Y-W

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate anti-tumor effects of recombinant adenovirus p53, time-course p53, E6 expression, and cell growth inhibition were investigated in vitro and in vivo using cervical cancer cell lines such as CaSki, SiHa, HeLa, HeLaS3, C33A, and HT3. The cell growth inhibition was studied via cell count assay, MTT assay and neutral red assay. After transfecting AdCMVp53 into SiHa cells-xenografted nude mice, the transduction efficiency and anti-tumor effect were investigated for a month. The results showed that adenoviral p53 expression induced significant growth suppression on the cancer cells, in which E6 transcript was strongly repressed, and that the expression of p53 and E6 were remarkably dependent on each cell type. The transduction efficiency was highly maintained in vivo as well as in vitro, and the size of tumor was remarkably decreased in comparison with AdCMVLacZ control. The results suggest that the adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transfection was done very effectively in vitro and in vivo experiment, and the cell growth was suppressed via p53-dependent apoptotic cell death, and that the anti-tumor effect could be related to E6 and p53 expression pattern.

  1. Gene expression changes during HPV-mediated carcinogenesis: a comparison between an in vitro cell model and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang; Miao, Xijiang; Quraishi, Iram; Kennedy, Valerie; Creek, Kim E; Pirisi, Lucia

    2008-07-01

    We used oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes associated with multi-step human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-mediated carcinogenesis in vitro. Gene expression profiles in 4 early passage HPV16-immortalized human keratinocyte (HKc) lines derived from different donors were compared with their corresponding 4 late-passage, differentiation-resistant cell lines, and to 4 pools of normal HKc, each composed of 3 individual HKc strains, on Agilent 22 k human oligonucleotide microarrays. The resulting data were analyzed using a modified T-test coded in R to obtain lists of differentially expressed genes. Gene expression changes identified in this model system were then compared with gene expression changes described in published studies of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Common genes in these lists were further studied by cluster analysis. Genes whose expression changed in the same direction as in CIN or cervical cancer (concordant) at late stages of HPV16-mediated transformation in vitro formed one major cluster, while those that changed in the opposite direction (discordant) formed a second major cluster. Further annotation found that many discordant expression changes involved gene products with an extracellular localization. Two novel genes were selected for further study: overexpression of SIX1 and GDF15, observed during in vitro progression in our model system, was confirmed in tissue arrays of cervical cancer. These microarray-based studies show that our in vitro model system reflects many cellular and molecular alterations characteristic of cervical cancer, and identified SIX1 and GDF15 as 2 novel potential biomarkers of cervical cancer progression.

  2. Gene expression changes during HPV-mediated carcinogenesis: A comparison between an in vitro cell model and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Fang; Miao, Xijiang; Quraishi, Iram; Kennedy, Valerie; Creek, Kim E.; Pirisi, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    We used oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes associated with multi-step human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-mediated carcinogenesis in vitro. Gene expression profiles in 4 early passage HPV16-immortalized human keratinocyte (HKc) lines derived from different donors were compared with their corresponding 4 late-passage, differentiation-resistant cell lines, and to 4 pools of normal HKc, each composed of 3 individual HKc strains, on Agilent 22 k human oligonucleotide microarrays. The resulting data were analyzed using a modified T-test coded in R to obtain lists of differentially expressed genes. Gene expression changes identified in this model system were then compared with gene expression changes described in published studies of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. Common genes in these lists were further studied by cluster analysis. Genes whose expression changed in the same direction as in CIN or cervical cancer (concordant) at late stages of HPV16-mediated transformation in vitro formed one major cluster, while those that changed in the opposite direction (discordant) formed a second major cluster. Further annotation found that many discordant expression changes involved gene products with an extracellular localization. Two novel genes were selected for further study: overexpression of SIX1 and GDF15, observed during in vitro progression in our model system, was confirmed in tissue arrays of cervical cancer. These micro-array-based studies show that our in vitro model system reflects many cellular and molecular alterations characteristic of cervical cancer, and identified SIX1 and GDF15 as 2 novel potential bio-markers of cervical cancer progression. PMID:18398830

  3. First ayurvedic approach towards green drugs: anti cervical cancer-cell properties of Clerodendrum viscosum root extract.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chong; Nirmalananda, Swami; Jenkins, Charles E; Debnath, Shawon; Balambika, Rema; Fata, Jimmie E; Raja, Krishnaswami S

    2013-12-01

    The concept of Ayurvedic expert guided drug discovery and development is defined and put to test systematically for the first time in literature. Western Science has explored only ~5% of the approximately 25,000 species of higher plants for drug leads. The ancient medical science of Ayurveda has however employed a much larger spectrum of plants for clinical treatment. Clerodendrum viscosum (CV), a commonly growing weed in the Indian subcontinent has been employed by S. Nirmalananda (Ayurvedic expert) for the treatment of cervical cancer. Here we isolate and characterize a water extract fraction (Cv-AP) from the root of CV and evaluate its anticervical cancer cell bioactivity. Our results indicate that Cv-AP possesses pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-migratory activity in a dose-dependent fashion against cervical cancer cell lines. In contrast, primary fibroblasts (control healthy cells), when exposed to similar concentrations of this extract, fail to undergo apoptosis and remain relatively unaffected. These findings suggest that Clerodendrum viscosum (CV) is a readily available source of components with potent anti-cancer activity and selective bioactivity against cervical cancer cells. The major component in CV-AP was identified as a glycoprotein via SDS Page and Concanavalin-A binding studies. This study serves to illustrate that systematic collaboration with Ayurveda is a practical and powerful strategy in drug discovery and development.

  4. Cancer-initiating cells derived from established cervical cell lines exhibit stem-cell markers and increased radioresistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are proposed to be responsible for the generation of metastasis and resistance to therapy. Accumulating evidences indicates CICs are found among different human cancers and cell lines derived from them. Few studies address the characteristics of CICs in cervical cancer. We identify biological features of CICs from four of the best-know human cell lines from uterine cervix tumors. (HeLa, SiHa, Ca Ski, C-4 I). Methods Cells were cultured as spheres under stem-cell conditions. Flow cytometry was used to detect expression of CD34, CD49f and CD133 antigens and Hoechst 33342 staining to identify side population (SP). Magnetic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting was applied to enrich and purify populations used to evaluate tumorigenicity in nude mice. cDNA microarray analysis and in vitro radioresistance assay were carried out under standard conditions. Results CICs, enriched as spheroids, were capable to generate reproducible tumor phenotypes in nu-nu mice and serial propagation. Injection of 1 × 103 dissociated spheroid cells induced tumors in the majority of animals, whereas injection of 1 × 105 monolayer cells remained nontumorigenic. Sphere-derived CICs expressed CD49f surface marker. Gene profiling analysis of HeLa and SiHa spheroid cells showed up-regulation of CICs markers characteristic of the female reproductive system. Importantly, epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) transition-associated markers were found highly expressed in spheroid cells. More importantly, gene expression analysis indicated that genes required for radioresistance were also up-regulated, including components of the double-strand break (DSB) DNA repair machinery and the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dose-dependent radiation assay indicated indeed that CICs-enriched populations exhibit an increased resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). Conclusions We characterized a self-renewing subpopulation of CICs found among four well known human

  5. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  6. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  7. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. MicroRNA-214 Suppresses Growth and Invasiveness of Cervical Cancer Cells by Targeting UDP-N-acetyl-α-d-galactosamine:Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 7*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Rui-Qing; Wan, Hai-Ying; Li, Hai-Fang; Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Tang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that function as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, we demonstrate that miR-214 is frequently down-regulated in cervical cancer, and its expression reduces the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cervical cancer cells, whereas inhibiting its expression results in enhanced proliferation, migration, and invasion. miR-214 binds to the 3′-UTR of UDP-N-acetyl-α-d-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 7 (GALNT7), thereby repressing GALNT7 expression. Furthermore, we are the first to show, using quantitative real-time PCR, that GALNT7 is frequently up-regulated in cervical cancer. The knockdown of GALNT7 markedly inhibits cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, whereas ectopic expression of GALNT7 significantly enhances these properties, indicating that GALNT7 might function as an oncogene in cervical cancer. The restoration of GALNT7 expression can counteract the effect of miR-214 on cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness of cervical cancer cells. Together, these results indicate that miR-214 is a new regulator of GALNT7, and both miR-214 and GALNT7 play important roles in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. PMID:22399294

  9. Downregulation of p16(ink4a) inhibits cell proliferation and induces G1 cell cycle arrest in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chu-Yue; Bao, Wei; Wang, Li-Hua

    2014-06-01

    Studies have suggested that p16(ink4a) may be a surrogate biomarker for the diagnosis of cervical cancer; however, the function of p16(ink4a) in human cervical cancer cells remains largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the role of p16(ink4a) in human cervical cancer cells. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine invasive squamous cell carcinoma and its precancerous lesions. p16(ink4a)-siRNA was transfected into SiHa and HeLa cells to deplete its expression. The cellular levels of p16(ink4a) mRNA and protein were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Proliferation rates were assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and plate colony formation assays. Cellular migration and invasion ability were assessed by a wound healing assay and Transwell assay. Cellular apoptosis and the cell cycle were measured by flow cytometry. The protein levels of retinoblastoma (Rb), phosphorylated Rb (phospho-Rb), cyclin D1 and caspase-3 were determined by western blot analysis. The results revealed that p16(ink4a) was overexpressed in the cervical cancer and precancerous lesions (P<0.05). The downregulation of p16(ink4a) in the SiHa and HeLa cells inhibited their proliferation, migration and invasion. In the SiHa cells, p16(ink4a)-siRNA also induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that the downregulation of p16(ink4a) in the SiHa cells markedly induced caspase-3 activation and decreased cyclin D1 expression. These data suggest that the overexpression of p16(ink4a) appears to be useful in monitoring cervical precancerous lesions, which supports that the hypothesis that p16(ink4a) is a surrogate biomarker for the diagnosis of cervical cancer. The therapeutic targeting of overexpressed p16(ink4a) in the p16(ink4a)-cyclin-Rb pathway may be a useful strategy in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  10. The HIV-protease inhibitor saquinavir reduces proliferation, invasion and clonogenicity in cervical cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Todeschini, Paola; Romani, Chiara; Zanotti, Laura; Erba, Eugenio; Colmegna, Benedetta; Bignotti, Eliana; Santin, Alessandro Davide; Sartori, Enrico; Odicino, Franco Edoardo; Pecorelli, Sergio; Tassi, Renata Alessandra; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Innovative therapies in cervical cancer (CC) remain a priority. Recent data indicate that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-protease inhibitors used in highly active antiretroviral therapy can exert direct antitumor activities also in HIV-free preclinical and clinical models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antineoplastic effects of various HIV-protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) on primary and established CC cell lines. Two CC cell lines established in our laboratory and four commercially available CC cell lines were treated with indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir at different concentrations and for different times. Proliferation, clonogenicity and radiosensitivity were evaluated by crystal violet staining. Proteasomal activities were assessed using a cell-based assay and immunoblotting. Cell cycle was analyzed by propidium iodide staining and flow cytometric analysis. Invasion was tested with Matrigel chambers. A t-test for paired samples was used for statistical analysis. In all cell lines, saquinavir was more effective than ritonavir in reducing cell proliferation and inhibiting proteasomal activities (P≤0.05). Conversely, indinavir exerted a negligible effect. The saquinavir concentrations required to modulate the proteasome activities were higher than those observed to be effective in inhibiting cell proliferation. In HeLa cells, saquinavir was strongly effective in inhibiting cell invasion and clonogenicity (P≤0.05) at concentrations much lower than those required to perturb proteasomal activities. Saquinavir did not contribute to increase the sensitivity of HeLa cells to X-rays. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that saquinavir is able to significantly reduce cell proliferation, cell invasion and clonogenicity in a proteasome-independent manner in in vitro models of CC, and suggest that saquinavir could be a promising CC therapeutic agent. PMID:27698818

  11. MiR-124 represses vasculogenic mimicry and cell motility by targeting amotL1 in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hai-Ying; Li, Qin-Qin; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Wei; Li, Ya-Nan; Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Tang, Hua

    2014-12-01

    miRNAs have extensive functions in differentiation, metabolism, programmed cell death, and tumor metastasis by post-transcriptional regulation. Vasculogenic mimicry is an important pathway in tumor metastasis. Many factors can regulate vasculogenic mimicry, including miRNAs. In previous studies, miR-124 was found to repress proliferation and metastasis in different types of cancers, but whether it functions in cervical cancer remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that miR-124 can repress vasculogenic mimicry, migration and invasion in HeLa and C33A cells in vitro. Furthermore, we reveal that the effect of miR-124 on vasculogenic mimicry, migration and invasion results from its interaction with AmotL1. MiR-124 regulates AmotL1 negatively by targeting its 3'untranslated region (3'UTR). We found that miR-124 can repress the EMT process. Together, these results improve our understanding of the function of miR-124 in tumor metastasis and will help to provide new potential target sites for cervical cancer treatment.

  12. Cervical cancer cell lines expressing NKG2D-ligands are able to down-modulate the NKG2D receptor on NKL cells with functional implications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer represents the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the defense against viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors. NKG2D, an activating receptor on NK cells, recognizes MHC class I chain-related molecules, such as MICA/B and members of the ULBP/RAET1 family. Tumor-derived soluble NKG2D-ligands have been shown to down-modulate the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. In addition to the down-modulation induced by soluble NKG2D-ligands, it has recently been described that persistent cell-cell contact can also down-modulate NKG2D expression. The goal of this study was to determine whether the NKG2D receptor is down-modulated by cell-cell contact with cervical cancer cells and whether this down-modulation might be associated with changes in NK cell activity. Results We demonstrate that NKG2D expressed on NKL cells is down-modulated by direct cell contact with cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa, and C33A, but not with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this down-modulation had functional implications. We found expression of NKG2D-ligands in all cervical cancer cell lines, but the patterns of ligand distribution were different in each cell line. Cervical cancer cell lines co-cultured with NKL cells or fresh NK cells induced a marked diminution of NKG2D expression on NKL cells. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells against K562 targets was compromised after co-culture with HeLa and SiHa cells, while co-culture with C33A increased the cytotoxic activity of the NKL cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that differential expression of NKG2D-ligands in cervical cancer cell lines might be associated with the down-modulation of NKG2D, as well as with changes in the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells after cell-cell contact with the tumor cells. PMID:22316211

  13. Proteomic investigation into betulinic acid-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Pang, Qiuying; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Aiqin; Luo, Shaman; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that exhibits anticancer functions in human cancer cells. This study provides evidence that betulinic acid is highly effective against the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by inducing dose- and time-dependent apoptosis. The apoptotic process was further investigated using a proteomics approach to reveal protein expression changes in HeLa cells following betulinic acid treatment. Proteomic analysis revealed that there were six up- and thirty down-regulated proteins in betulinic acid-induced HeLa cells, and these proteins were then subjected to functional pathway analysis using multiple analysis software. UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decarboxylating, chain A Horf6-a novel human peroxidase enzyme that involved in redox process, was found to be down-regulated during the apoptosis process of the oxidative stress response pathway. Consistent with our results at the protein level, an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed in betulinic acid-treated cells. The proteins glucose-regulated protein and cargo-selection protein TIP47, which are involved in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, were up-regulated by betulinic acid treatment. Meanwhile, 14-3-3 family proteins, including 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε, were down-regulated in response to betulinic acid treatment, which is consistent with the decrease in expression of the target genes 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ε. Furthermore, it was found that the antiapoptotic bcl-2 gene was down-regulated while the proapoptotic bax gene was up-regulated after betulinic acid treatment in HeLa cells. These results suggest that betulinic acid induces apoptosis of HeLa cells by triggering both the endoplasmic reticulum pathway and the ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

  14. Inhibition of metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 in CaSki human cervical cancer cells suppresses cell proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengjie; Li, Yalin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jiajia; Li, Yuehui; Li, Guancheng

    2010-03-15

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is suggested to be a long (~7 kb) non-coding RNA. MALAT1 is overexpressed in many human carcinomas, but its function remains unknown. To investigate the role of MALAT1 in human cervical cancer progression, we designed and used short hairpin RNA to inhibit MALAT1 expression in CaSki cells and validated its effect on cell proliferation and invasion. Changes in gene expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction. Our data demonstrated that MALAT1 was involved in cervical cancer cell growth, cell cycle progression, and invasion through the regulation of gene expression, such as caspase-3, -8, Bax, Bcl-2, and BclxL, suggesting that MALAT1 could have important implications in cervical cancer biology. Our findings illustrate the biological significance of MALAT1 in cervical cancer progression and provide novel evidence that MALAT1 may serve as a therapeutic target in the prevention of human cervical cancer.

  15. HIF-1 and NDRG2 contribute to hypoxia-induced radioresistance of cervical cancer Hela cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Junye; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xiaowu; Li, Yan; Chen, Yongbin; Li, Kangchu; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Libo; Guo, Guozhen

    2010-07-15

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), the key mediator of hypoxia signaling pathways, has been shown involved in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride could increase the radioresistance of human cervical cancer Hela cells. Meanwhile, ectopic expression of HIF-1 could enhance the resistance of Hela cells to radiation, whereas knocking-down of HIF-1 could increase the sensitivity of Hela cells to radiation in the presence of hypoxia. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a new HIF-1 target gene identified in our lab, was found to be upregulated by hypoxia and radiation in a HIF-1-dependent manner. Overexpression of NDRG2 resulted in decreased sensitivity of Hela cells to radiation while silencing NDRG2 led to radiosensitization. Moreover, NDRG2 was proved to protect Hela cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and abolish radiation-induced upregulation of Bax. Taken together, these data suggest that both HIF-1 and NDRG2 contribute to hypoxia-induced tumor radioresistance and that NDRG2 acts downstream of HIF-1 to promote radioresistance through suppressing radiation-induced Bax expression. It would be meaningful to further explore the clinical application potential of HIF-1 and NDRG2 blockade as radiosensitizer for tumor therapy.

  16. Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Gordon J; Ross, Heather A; Ikeji, Magnus; Stewart, Derek

    2008-05-14

    Polyphenol-rich berry extracts were screened for their antiproliferative effectiveness using human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells grown in microtiter plates. Rowan berry, raspberry, lingonberry, cloudberry, arctic bramble, and strawberry extracts were effective but blueberry, sea buckthorn, and pomegranate extracts were considerably less effective. The most effective extracts (strawberry > arctic bramble > cloudberry > lingonberry) gave EC 50 values in the range of 25-40 microg/(mL of phenols). These extracts were also effective against human colon cancer (CaCo-2) cells, which were generally more sensitive at low concentrations but conversely less sensitive at higher concentrations. The strawberry, cloudberry, arctic bramble, and the raspberry extracts share common polyphenol constituents, especially the ellagitannins, which have been shown to be effective antiproliferative agents. However, the components underlying the effectiveness of the lingonberry extracts are not known. The lingonberry extracts were fractionated into anthocyanin-rich and tannin-rich fractions by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. The anthocyanin-rich fraction was considerably less effective than the original extract, whereas the antiproliferative activity was retained in the tannin-rich fraction. The polyphenolic composition of the lingonberry extract was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and was similar to previous reports. The tannin-rich fraction was almost entirely composed of procyanidins of linkage type A and B. Therefore, the antiproliferative activity of lingonberry was caused predominantly by procyanidins.

  17. Lethality of PAK3 and SGK2 shRNAs to human papillomavirus positive cervical cancer cells is independent of PAK3 and SGK2 knockdown.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nannan; Ding, Bo; Agler, Michele; Cockett, Mark; McPhee, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3) and the serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 2 (SGK2) have been previously proposed as essential kinases for human papillomavirus positive (HPV+) cervical cancer cell survival. This was established using a shRNA knockdown approach. To validate PAK3 and SGK2 as potential targets for HPV+ cervical cancer therapy, the relationship between shRNA-induced phenotypes in HPV+ cervical cancer cells and PAK3 or SGK2 knockdown was carefully examined. We observed that the phenotypes of HPV+ cervical cancer cells induced by various PAK3 and SGK2 shRNAs could not be rescued by complement expression of respective cDNA constructs. A knockdown-deficient PAK3 shRNA with a single mismatch was sufficient to inhibit HeLa cell growth to a similar extent as wild-type PAK3 shRNA. The HPV+ cervical cancer cells were also susceptible to several non-human target shRNAs. The discrepancy between PAK3 and SGK2 shRNA-induced apoptosis and gene expression knockdown, as well as cell death stimulation, suggested that these shRNAs killed HeLa cells through different pathways that may not be target-specific. These data demonstrated that HPV+ cervical cancer cell death was not associated with RNAi-induced PAK3 and SGK2 knockdown but likely through off-target effects.

  18. Mechanism of antiproliferative action of a new d-secoestrone-triazole derivative in cervical cancer cells and its effect on cancer cell motility.

    PubMed

    Bózsity, Noémi; Minorics, Renáta; Szabó, Johanna; Mernyák, Erzsébet; Schneider, Gyula; Wölfling, János; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Chin-Chung; Ocsovszki, Imre; Zupkó, István

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequently diagnosed tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in females worldwide. Cervical cancer is predominantly related with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, with the most oncogenic types being HPV-18 and -16. Our previous studies demonstrated that some d-secoestrone derivatives exert pronounced antiproliferative activity. The aim of the current investigation was to characterize the mechanism of action of d-secoestrone-triazole (D-SET) on three cervical cancer cell lines with different pathological backgrounds. The growth-inhibitory effects of D-SET were determined by a standard MTT assay. We have found that D-SET exerts a pronounced growth-inhibitory effect on HPV 18-positive HeLa and HPV-negative C-33 A cells, but it has no substantial inhibitory activity on HPV 16-positive SiHa or on intact fibroblast MRC-5 cell lines. After 24h incubation, cells showed the morphological and biochemical signs of apoptosis determined by fluorescent double staining, flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay. Besides the elevation of the ratio of cells in the subG1 phase, flow cytometric analysis revealed a cell cycle arrest at G2/M in both HeLa and C-33 A cell lines. To distinguish the G2/M cell population immunocytochemical flow cytometric analysis was performed on HeLa cells. The results show that D-SET significantly increases the ratio of phosphorylated histone H3, indicating cell accumulation in the M phase. Additionally, D-SET significantly increased the maximum rate of microtube formation measured by an in vitro tubulin polymerization assay. Besides its direct antiproliferative activity, the antimigratory property of D-SET has been investigated. Our results demonstrate that D-SET significantly inhibits the migration and invasion of HeLa cells after 24h incubation. These results suggests that D-SET is a potent antiproliferative agent against HPV 16+ and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines, with an efficacious

  19. Radiosensitivity in HeLa cervical cancer cells overexpressing glutathione S-transferase π 1

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LIANG; LIU, REN; MA, HONG-BIN; YING, MING-ZHEN; WANG, YA-JIE

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of overexpressed exogenous glutathione S-transferase π 1 (GSTP1) gene on the radiosensitivity of the HeLa human cervical cancer cell line and conduct a preliminarily investigation into the underlying mechanisms of the effect. The full-length sequence of human GSTP1 was obtained by performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers based on the GenBank sequence of GSTP1. Subsequently, the gene was cloned into a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid, and the resulting construct was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. A HeLa cell line that was stably expressing high levels of GSTP1 was obtained through stable transfection of the constructed plasmids using lipofectamine and screening for G418 resistance, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Using the transfected HeLa cells, a colony formation assay was conducted to detect the influence of GSTP1 overexpression on the cell radiosensitivity. Furthermore, flow cytometry was used to investigate the effect of GSTP1 overexpression on cell cycle progression, with the protein expression levels of the cell cycle regulating factor cyclin B1 detected using western blot analysis. Colony formation and G2/M phase arrest in the GSTP1-expressing cells were significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of cyclin B1 was significantly reduced in the GSTP1-expressing cells. These results demonstrated that increased expression of GSTP1 inhibits radiosensitivity in HeLa cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may be associated with the ability of the GSTP1 protein to reduce cyclin B1 expression, resulting in significant G2/M phase arrest. PMID:26622693

  20. Advocating for cervical cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Sherris, J; Agurto, I; Arrossi, S; Dzuba, I; Gaffikin, L; Herdman, C; Limpaphayom, K; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    Cervical cancer is a significant health problem among women in developing countries. Contributing to the cervical cancer health burden in many countries is a lack of understanding and political will to address the problem. Broad-based advocacy efforts that draw on research and program findings from developing-country settings are key to gaining program and policy support, as are cost-effectiveness analyses based on these findings. The Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) has undertaken advocacy efforts at the international, regional, national, and local levels to raise awareness and understanding of the problem (and workable solutions), galvanize funders and governments to take action, and engage local stakeholders in ensuring program success. ACCP experience demonstrates the role that evidence-based advocacy efforts play in the ultimate success of cervical cancer prevention programs, particularly when new screening and treatment approaches-and, ultimately, radically new approaches such as a human papillomavirus vaccine-are available.

  1. S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis and inhibits metastasis of CasKi human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengjin; Song, Yao; Li, Zijian; Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Youyi; Geng, Li

    2010-09-01

    S100 proteins, a family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins, have been linked to several human diseases in recent years. Deregulated expression of S100 proteins, including S100A9 and its partner S100A8, was reported to be associated with neoplastic disorders. In our previous study using serial analysis of gene expression, we identified decreased expressions of S100A9 and S100A8 in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma. To investigate the functions of S100A8 and S100A9 in cervical cancer, we purified recombinant S100A8 and S100A9 proteins and treated CaSki human cervical cancer cells with these proteins. We found that S100A8/A9 induced apoptosis and inhibited migration of CaSki cells; S100A8/A9 also reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in CaSki cells. In summary, this study suggests that S100A8 and S100A9 have inhibitory effects on the proliferation of CaSki carcinoma cells by inducing cell apoptosis and on the invasiveness of CaSki cells.

  2. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jalan, Sarika; Kanhaiya, Krishna; Rai, Aparna; Bandapalli, Obul Reddy; Yadav, Alok

    2015-01-01

    According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance. PMID:26308848

  3. [Pregnancy and invasive cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Kornovski, Ia; Gorchev, G; Trendafilova

    2008-01-01

    A case of 27-year old woman with spinocellular cervical cancer stage IB1 (FIGO) associated with pregnancy (36 g.w.) was reported. Authors performed cesarean radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and transposition of the ovaries. The review of the literature revealed an algorithm and and practical recommendations in terms of management of cervical cancer during pregnancy, depending on the stage of the pregnancy and the tumor.

  4. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Targeting the MIR34C-5p-ATG4B-autophagy axis enhances the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to pirarubicin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaran; Ni, Zhenhong; Yan, Xiaojing; Dai, Xufang; Hu, Changjiang; Zheng, Yingru; He, Fengtian; Lian, Jiqin

    2016-07-02

    Pirarubicin (THP) is a newer generation anthracycline anticancer drug. In the clinic, THP and THP-based combination therapies have been demonstrated to be effective against various tumors without severe side effects. However, previous clinical studies have shown that most patients with cervical cancer are not sensitive to THP treatment, and the associated mechanisms are not clear. Consistent with the clinical study, we confirmed that cervical cancer cells were resistant to THP in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrated that THP induced a protective macroautophagy/autophagy response in cervical cancer cells, and suppression of this autophagy dramatically enhanced the cytotoxicity of THP. By scanning the mRNA level change of autophagy-related genes, we found that the upregulation of ATG4B (autophagy-related 4B cysteine peptidase) plays an important role in THP-induced autophagy. Moreover, THP increased the mRNA level of ATG4B in cervical cancer cells by promoting mRNA stability without influencing its transcription. Furthermore, THP triggered a downregulation of MIR34C-5p, which was associated with the upregulation of ATG4B and autophagy induction. Overexpression of MIR34C-5p significantly decreased the level of ATG4B and attenuated autophagy, accompanied by enhanced cell death and apoptosis in THP-treated cervical cancer cells. These results for the first time reveal the presence of a MIR34C-5p-ATG4B-autophagy signaling axis in THP-treated cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and the axis, at least partially, accounts for the THP nonsensitivity in cervical cancer patients. This study may provide a new insight for improving the chemotherapeutic effect of THP, which may be beneficial to the further clinical application of THP in cervical cancer treatment.

  6. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression via human papillomavirus oncogene E7 in HPV-18-positive cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Cui, Jinquan

    2015-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection induces chronic and precancerous lesions and results in invasive cervical cancer. Human telomerase as well as inflammatory and angiogenic factors such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could play a role in regulating HPV-induced cervical cancer. This study investigated underlying molecular events in HPV-induced HPV-positive cervical cancer through hTERT and VEGF in vitro. Expressions of hTERT, a rate-limiting subunit of telomerase, and VEGF mRNA and proteins were, respectively, assessed by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and TRAP-ELISA in HPV-positive tissue samples and cervical cancer cell lines. To assess hTERT and VEGF secretion, hTERT overexpression and knockdown were conducted in HPV-18-positive Hela cells by hTERT cDNA and shRNA transfection, respectively. Then, the effect of HPV E6 and E7 on VEGF expressions was assessed in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data have shown that VEGF expression levels are associated with hTERT expressions and telomerase activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of hTERT expression down-regulated VEGF expressions, whereas overexpression of hTERT up-regulated VEGF expressions in HPV-18-positive Hela cells. Furthermore, HPV E7 oncoprotein was necessary for hTERT to up-regulate VEGF expressions in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data from this current study indicate that HPV oncoproteins up-regulated hTERT and telomerase activity and in turn promoted VEGF expressions, which could be a key mechanism for HPV-induced cervical cancer development and progression.

  7. [Overexpression of inhibitor of β-catenin and T cell factor (ICAT) promotes proliferation and migration of cervical cancer Caski cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yayun; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Xia, Jing; Gou, Liyao; Liu, Mengyao; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of overexpressed inhibitor of β-catenin and T cell factor (ICAT) on the proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer Caski cells. Methods Caski cells were transfected with ICAT recombinant adenovirus (AdICAT). The levels of ICAT mRNA and protein were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Effect of ICAT overexpression on proliferation, cell cycle and migration in Caski cells was respectively evaluated by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Transwell(TM) migration assays. Results The expression of ICAT remarkably increased in Caski cells after AdICAT infection. Overexpression of ICAT promoted Caski cells' proliferation, arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and enhanced cell migration. Conclusion Overexpression of ICAT can promote the proliferation and migration of Caski cervical cancer cells.

  8. HeLa human cervical cancer cell migration is inhibited by treatment with dibutyryl-cAMP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jiyoung; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) activates both protein kinase A (PKA) and guanine-nucleotide exchange factor exchange protein directly activated by CAMP (EPAC)-mediated Ras-related Protein1 (RAP1) GTPase that regulates various cellular functions including cell migration. Herein, we investigated whether cAMP-mediated PKA and EPAC1/RAP1 pathways differentially control HeLa cervical cancer cell migration. Although HeLa cell migration was reduced by dibutyryl-cAMP, we observed an increase in cAMP/PKA, cAMP/EPAC1/RAP1-GTPase, and RAC1-GTPase. HeLa cell migration and RAC1-GTPase were increased by treatment with 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cAMP analogue to activate EPAC-specific signaling pathways. When HeLa cells were treated with H-89, a PKA inhibitor, cell migration was enhanced but RAC1-GTPase was inhibited. In addition, cell migration induced by dibutyryl-cAMP was reversed but the activity of Rac1-GTPase was inhibited by H-89 treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cAMP/PKA and cAMP/EPAC1/RAP1-GTPase might inversely control cervical cancer cell migration, although both signaling pathways may up-regulate RAC1-GTPase. It also suggests that cAMP-mediated cancer cell migration was independent of RAC1-GTPase activation.

  9. Activation of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor inhibits the proliferation of cervical cancer cells via sustained activation of ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Yuan-Zhe; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Ji, Xiao-Hong; Hao, Qun

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynaecological women cancer and suggested to be modulated by estrogenic signals. G protein-coupled receptor (GPER), a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, has been reported to regulate the cell proliferation of various cancers. But there is no study investigating the effects of GPER on the progression of cervical cancer. In the present study, we revealed for the first time that GPER was also highly expressed in various human cervical cancer cells. Activation of GPER via its specific agonist G-1 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and down regulation of cyclin B via a time dependent manner. Furthermore, G-1 treatment induced sustained activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals. Both inhibitors of ERK1/2 and EGFR significantly abolished G-1-induced suppression of cell proliferation and down regulation of cyclin B. Generally, our study revealed that GPER is highly expressed in human cervical cancer cells and its activation inhibits cell proliferation via EGFR/ERK1/2 signals. It suggested that G-1 can be considered as a potential new pharmacological tool to reduce the growth of cervical cancer.

  10. Intermediate-Conductance-Ca2-Activated K Channel Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (IKCa1) is Upregulated and Promotes Cell Proliferation in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Zhan, Ping; Nie, Dan; Fan, Lingye; Lin, Hairui; Gao, Lanyang; Mao, Xiguang

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating data point to intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (IKCa1) as a key player in controlling cell cycle progression and proliferation of human cancer cells. However, the role that IKCa1 plays in the growth of human cervical cancer cells is largely unexplored. Material/Methods In this study, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and RT-PCR were first used for IKCa1protein and gene expression assays in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. Then, IKCa1 channel blocker and siRNA were employed to inhibit the functionality of IKCa1 and downregulate gene expression in HeLa cells, respectively. After these treatments, we examined the level of cell proliferation by MTT method and measured IKCa1 currents by conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide (PI) double-staining apoptosis detection kit. Results We demonstrated that IKCa1 mRNA and protein are preferentially expressed in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. We also showed that the IKCa1 channel blocker, clotrimazole, and IKCa1 channel siRNA can be used to suppress cervical cancer cell proliferation and decrease IKCa1 channel current. IKCa1 downregulation by specific siRNAs induced a significant increase in the proportion of apoptotic cells in HeLa cells. Conclusions IKCa1 is overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, and IKCa1 upregulation in cervical cancer cell linea enhances cell proliferation, partly by reducing the proportion of apoptotic cells. PMID:28280257

  11. Myricetin and methyl eugenol combination enhances the anticancer activity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction of cis-platin against HeLa cervical cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jin-Ling; Shi, Song; Shen, Yan-Li; Wang, Ling; Chen, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Drug combination therapies are common practice in the treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of myricetin (MYR), methyl eugenol (MEG) and cisplatin (CP) both separately as well as in combination against cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. To demonstrate whether MYR and MEG enhance the anticancer activity of CP against cervical cancer cells, we treated HeLa cells with MYR and MEG alone or in combination with cisplatin and evaluated cell growth and apoptosis using MTT (3 (4, 5 dimethyl thiazol 2yl) 2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, LDH release assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that, as compared to single drug treatment, the combination of MYR or MEG with CP resulted in greater effect in inhibiting cancer cell growth and inducing apoptosis. Cell apoptosis induction, Caspase-3 activity, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial membrane potential loss were systematically studied to reveal the mechanisms of synergy between MYR, MEG and CP. Combination of MYR or MEG with CP resulted in more potent apoptosis induction as revealed by fluorescence microscopy using Hoechst 33258 and AO-ETBR staining. The combination treatment also increased the number of cells in G0/G1 phase dramatically as compared to single drug treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΛΨm) as well as Caspase-3 activity was much higher in combination treatment as compared to single drug treatment. Findings of this investigation suggest that MYR and MEG combined with cisplatin is a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach in human cervical cancer.

  12. Transactivation of bad by vorinostat-induced acetylated p53 enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Jeong; Hwang, Sung-Ook; Noh, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong-Uk; Nam, Miyoung; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Nam, Joo Hyun; Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2014-02-14

    Vorinostat (VOR) has been reported to enhance the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DOX) with fewer side effects because of the lower DOX dosage in breast cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the novel mechanism underlying the synergistic cytotoxic effects of VOR and DOX co-treatment in cervical cancer cells HeLa, CaSki and SiHa cells. Co-treatment with VOR and DOX at marginal doses led to the induction of apoptosis through caspase-3 activation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and DNA micronuclei. Notably, the synergistic growth inhibition induced by the co-treatment was attributed to the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad, as the silencing of Bad expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the phenomenon. As siRNA against p53 did not result in an increase in acetylated p53 and the consequent upregulation of Bad, the observed Bad upregulation was mediated by acetylated p53. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the co-treatment of HeLa cells with VOR and DOX increased the recruitment of acetylated p53 to the bad promoter, with consequent bad transactivation. Conversely, C33A cervical cancer cells containing mutant p53 co-treated with VOR and DOX did not exhibit Bad upregulation, acetylated p53 induction or consequent synergistic growth inhibition. Together, the synergistic growth inhibition of cervical cancer cell lines induced by co-treatment with VOR and DOX can be attributed to the upregulation of Bad, which is induced by acetylated p53. These results show for the first time that the acetylation of p53, rather than histones, is a mechanism for the synergistic growth inhibition induced by VOR and DOX co-treatments.

  13. Radiosensitization of Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Ribonucleotide Reductase: Enhanced Radiation Response at Low-Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Kunos, Charles A.; Colussi, Valdir C.; Pink, John; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To test whether pharmacologic inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC no. 663249) enhances radiation sensitivity during low-dose-rate ionizing radiation provided by a novel purpose-built iridium-192 cell irradiator. Methods and Materials: The cells were exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (11, 23, 37, 67 cGy/h) using a custom-fabricated cell irradiator or to high-dose-rate radiation (330 cGy/min) using a conventional cell irradiator. The radiation sensitivity of human cervical (CaSki, C33-a) cancer cells with or without RNR inhibition by 3-AP was evaluated using a clonogenic survival and an RNR activity assay. Alteration in the cell cycle distribution was monitored using flow cytometry. Results: Increasing radiation sensitivity of both CaSki and C33-a cells was observed with the incremental increase in radiation dose rates. 3-AP treatment led to enhanced radiation sensitivity in both cell lines, eliminating differences in cell cytotoxicity from the radiation dose rate. RNR blockade by 3-AP during low-dose-rate irradiation was associated with low RNR activity and extended G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: We conclude that RNR inhibition by 3-AP impedes DNA damage repair mechanisms that rely on deoxyribonucleotide production and thereby increases radiation sensitivity of human cervical cancers to low-dose-rate radiation.

  14. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  15. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  17. [Wnt signalling pathway and cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Álvarez-Zavala, Monserrat; García-Castro, Beatriz; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a pathology that arises in the cervical epithelium, whose major cause of risk is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Due to the fact that HPV infection per se is not enough to generate a carcinogenic process, it has been proposed that alterations in the Wnt signaling pathway are involved in cervical carcinogenesis. The Wnt family consists of 13 receptors and 19 ligands, and it is highly conserved phylogenetically due to its contribution in different biological processes, such as embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Additionally, this signaling pathway modulates various cellular functions, for instance: cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell polarity. This paper describes the Wnt signaling pathways and alterations that have been found in members of this family in different cancer types and, especially, in CC.

  18. MHC class I-related chain A and B ligands are differentially expressed in human cervical cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells are an important resource of the innate immune system directly involved in the spontaneous recognition and lysis of virus-infected and tumor cells. An exquisite balance of inhibitory and activating receptors tightly controls the NK cell activity. At present, one of the best-characterized activating receptors is NKG2D, which promotes the NK-mediated lysis of target cells by binding to a family of cell surface ligands encoded by the MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes, among others. The goal of this study was to describe the expression pattern of MICA and MICB at the molecular and cellular levels in human cervical cancer cell lines infected or not with human papillomavirus, as well as in a non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line. Results Here we show that MICA and MICB exhibit differential expression patterns among HPV-infected (SiHa and HeLa) and non-infected cell lines (C33-A, a tumor cell line, and HaCaT, an immortalized keratinocyte cell line). Cell surface expression of MICA was higher than cell surface expression of MICB in the HPV-positive cell lines; in contrast, HPV-negative cells expressed lower levels of MICA. Interestingly, the MICA levels observed in C33-A cells were overcome by significantly higher MICB expression. Also, all cell lines released higher amounts of soluble MICB than of soluble MICA into the cell culture supernatant, although this was most pronounced in C33-A cells. Additionally, Real-Time PCR analysis demonstrated that MICA was strongly upregulated after genotoxic stress. Conclusions This study provides evidence that even when MICA and MICB share a high degree of homology at both genomic and protein levels, differential regulation of their expression and cell surface appearance might be occurring in cervical cancer-derived cells. PMID:21631944

  19. Anti-TROP2 conjugated hollow gold nanospheres as a novel nanostructure for targeted photothermal destruction of cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Tian, Jiguang; Chen, Zhaolong; Liang, Ying; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Si; Li, Huihui; Zhan, Jinhua; Yang, Xingsheng

    2014-08-01

    Photothermal ablation (PTA) is a promising avenue in the area of cancer therapeutics that destroys tumor cells through conversion of near-infrared (NIR) laser light to heat. Hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) are one of the few materials that are capable of converting light to heat and have been previously used for photothermal ablation studies. Selective delivery of functional nanoparticles to the tumor site is considered as an effective therapeutic approach. In this paper, we demonstrated the anti-cancer potential of HGNs. HGNs were conjugated with monoclonal antibody (anti-TROP2) in order to target cervical cancer cells (HeLa) that contain abundant trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) on the cell surface. The efficient uptake and intracellular location of these functionalized HGNs were studied through application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity induced by PTA was measured using CCK-8 assay. HeLa cells incubated with naked HGNs (0.3-3 nmol L-1) within 48 h did not show obvious cytotoxicity. Under laser irradiation at suitable power, anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs achieved significant tumor cell growth inhibition in comparison to the effects of non-specific PEGylated HGNs (P < 0.05). γH2AX assay results revealed higher occurrences of DNA-DSBs with anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs plus laser radiation as compared to treatment with laser alone. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the amount of cell apoptosis was increased after laser irradiation with anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs (P < 0.05). Anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. Our study results confirmed that anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs can selectively destroy cervical cancer cells through inducing its apoptosis and DNA damages. We propose that HGNs have the potentials to mediate targeted cancer treatment.

  20. Ino80 promotes cervical cancer tumorigenesis by activating Nanog expression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Liu, Jie; Chen, Aozheng; Lyu, Jia; Ai, Guihai; Zeng, Qiongjing; Sun, Yi; Chen, Chunxia; Wang, Jinbo; Qiu, Jin; Wu, Yi; Cheng, Jiajing; Shi, Xiujuan; Song, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Ino80 ATPase is an integral component of the INO80 ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, which regulates transcription, DNA repair and replication. We found that Ino80 was highly expressed in cervical cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Ino80 knockdown inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. However, Ino80 knockdown did not affect cell apoptosis, migration or invasion in vitro. Ino80 overexpression promoted proliferation in the H8 immortalized cervical epithelial cell line, which has low endogenous Ino80 expression as compared to cervical cancer cell lines. Ino80 bound to the Nanog transcription start site (TSS) and enhanced its expression in cervical cancer cells. Nanog overexpression in Ino80 knockdown cell lines promoted cell proliferation. This study demonstrated for the first time that Ino80 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Our findings suggest that Ino80 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:27750218

  1. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Ru; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Browning, Joseph A; Wilkins, Robert J; Ellory, J Clive

    2001-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl− channel. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl− channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:11731569

  2. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  3. Anticancer activity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Indian gooseberry): inhibition of transcription factor AP-1 and HPV gene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mahata, Sutapa; Pandey, Arvind; Shukla, Shirish; Tyagi, Abhishek; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Das, Bhudev Chandra; Bharti, Alok Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Plant products of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are traditionally consumed for its immense nutritive and medicinal values. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it exerts it effects is less understood. In this study, we investigated mechanism of action of P. emblica fruit extract (PE) by studying its effect on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity and human papillomavirus (HPV) transcription that are essential for tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells. PE resulted in a dose-and time-dependent inhibition of DNA binding activity of constitutively active AP-1 in both HPV16-positive (SiHa) and HPV18-positive (HeLa) cervical cancer cells. PE-induced AP-1 inhibition was found mediated through downregulation of constituent AP-1 proteins, c-Jun, JunB, JunD, and c-Fos; however, the kinetics of their inhibition varied in both the cell types. Inhibition of AP-1 by PE was accompanied by suppression of viral transcription that resulted in growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells. Growth inhibitory activity of PE was primarily manifested through induction of apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that P. emblica exhibits its anticancer activities through inhibition of AP-1 and targets transcription of viral oncogenes responsible for development and progression of cervical cancer thus indicating its possible utility for treatment of HPV-induced cervical cancers.

  4. Downregulation of CCR5 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells and is regulated by microRNA-107.

    PubMed

    Che, Li-Fan; Shao, Su-Fang; Wang, Li-Xin

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is among the most prevalent forms of cancer worldwide. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is hypothesized to be a key functional protein involved in tumorigenesis. However, the role of CCR5 in cervical cancer remains unclear. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression levels of CCR5 in human cervical carcinoma tissues. Furthermore, a small interfering RNA was employed to knockdown CCR5 in HeLa and C33A cells. MTT, colony formation and Transwell assays were performed to determine the effects of this knockdown on cell viability, proliferation and invasion. In addition, micro RNA (miR)-107 was identified as a potential candidate regulator of CCR5 using miR prediction algorithms, and the effects of miR-107 and its antisense miR on CCR5 mRNA expression were determined. The results of the present study indicated that CCR5 is overexpressed in human cervical cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues, and its downregulation inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the downregulation of CCR5 appears to suppress cervical cancer cell invasion. Finally, the tumor suppressor miR-107 was able to directly target CCR5 and inhibit its expression. These results suggest that the upregulation of CCR5, which is inhibited by miR-107, may play a carcinogenic role in cervical cancer and could provide a novel therapeutic target in the future.

  5. Delivery of small interfering RNAs in human cervical cancer cells by polyethylenimine-functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, I-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2013-06-06

    Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method. PEI functionalization increased the positive charge on the surface of SWNTs and MWNTs, allowing carbon nanotubes to interact electrostatically with the negatively charged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and to serve as nonviral gene delivery reagents. PEI-NH-MWNTs and PEI-NH-SWNTs had a better solubility in water than pristine carbon nanotubes, and further removal of large aggregates by centrifugation produced a stable suspension of reduced particle size and improved homogeneity and dispersity. The amount of grafted PEI estimated by thermogravimetric analysis was 5.08% (w/w) and 5.28% (w/w) for PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs, respectively. For the assessment of cytotoxicity, various concentrations of PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs were incubated with human cervical cancer cells, HeLa-S3, for 48 h. PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs induced cell deaths in a dose-dependent manner but were less cytotoxic compared to pure PEI. As determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, siRNAs directed against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGAPDH) were completely associated with PEI-NH-SWNTs or PEI-NH-MWNTs at a PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH or PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratio of 80:1 or 160:1, respectively. Furthermore, PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs successfully delivered siGAPDH into HeLa-S3 cells at PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH and PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratios of 1:1 to 20:1, resulting in suppression of the mRNA level of GAPDH to an extent similar to that of DharmaFECT, a common transfection

  6. Delivery of small interfering RNAs in human cervical cancer cells by polyethylenimine-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan-Pin; Lin, I.-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chang, Chi-Chang; Lee, Mon-Juan

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are capable of penetrating the cell membrane and are widely considered as potential carriers for gene or drug delivery. Because the C-C and C=C bonds in carbon nanotubes are nonpolar, functionalization is required for carbon nanotubes to interact with genes or drugs as well as to improve their biocompatibility. In this study, polyethylenimine (PEI)-functionalized single-wall (PEI-NH-SWNTs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (PEI-NH-MWNTs) were produced by direct amination method. PEI functionalization increased the positive charge on the surface of SWNTs and MWNTs, allowing carbon nanotubes to interact electrostatically with the negatively charged small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and to serve as nonviral gene delivery reagents. PEI-NH-MWNTs and PEI-NH-SWNTs had a better solubility in water than pristine carbon nanotubes, and further removal of large aggregates by centrifugation produced a stable suspension of reduced particle size and improved homogeneity and dispersity. The amount of grafted PEI estimated by thermogravimetric analysis was 5.08% ( w/ w) and 5.28% ( w/ w) for PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs, respectively. For the assessment of cytotoxicity, various concentrations of PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs were incubated with human cervical cancer cells, HeLa-S3, for 48 h. PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs induced cell deaths in a dose-dependent manner but were less cytotoxic compared to pure PEI. As determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, siRNAs directed against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGAPDH) were completely associated with PEI-NH-SWNTs or PEI-NH-MWNTs at a PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH or PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratio of 80:1 or 160:1, respectively. Furthermore, PEI-NH-SWNTs and PEI-NH-MWNTs successfully delivered siGAPDH into HeLa-S3 cells at PEI-NH-SWNT/siGAPDH and PEI-NH-MWNT/siGAPDH mass ratios of 1:1 to 20:1, resulting in suppression of the mRNA level of GAPDH to an extent similar to that of DharmaFECT, a common transfection

  7. IκB kinase β Mediating the Downregulation of p53 and p21 by Lipopolysaccharide in Human Papillomavirus 16+ Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Yan; Tan, Wei; Li, Ying-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of woman in the world, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays an important role in the development of most of the cases. IκB kinase β (IKKβ) is a kinase-mediating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation by phosphorylating the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) and is related by some diseases caused by virus infection. However, there is little known about the correlation between IKKβ and HPV infection in cervical cancer. This study aimed to investigate the expression of IKKβ protein in cervical cancer tissues and effects of inflammation on HPV positive or negative cervical cancer cells through detecting the expression of IKKβ, IκBα, p53, and p21 proteins after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic bacterial infection. We also examined the effects of LPS on cervical cancer cells after blocking IKKβ with pharmacological inhibitor. Methods: Thirty-six matched specimens of cervical cancer and adjacent normal tissues were collected and analyzed in the study. The expression of IKKβ in the tissue specimens was determined by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, Western blot was used to detect the expression level changes of IKKβ, IκBα, p53, and p21 after LPS stimulated in the HPV16+ (SiHa) and HPV16− (C33A) cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of IKKβ inhibitor SC-514 on LPS-induced expression change of these proteins were investigated. Results: The expression of IKKβ was higher in cervical cancer than adjacent normal tissues, and there was no significant difference between tumor differentiation, size, and invasive depth with IKKβ expression. The LPS, which increased the expression level of IKKβ protein but decreased in the IκBα, p53 and p21 proteins, was illustrated in HPV16+ (SiHa) but not in HPV16− (C33A) cells. Moreover, IKKβ inhibitor SC-514 totally reversed the upregulation of IKKβ and downregulation of p53 and p21 by LPS in SiHa cells. Conclusions

  8. IL-2 enhances cervical cancer cells proliferation and JAK3/STAT5 phosphorylation at low doses, while at high doses IL-2 has opposite effects.

    PubMed

    Valle-Mendiola, Arturo; Weiss-Steider, Benny; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Soto-Cruz, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    The IL-2R signaling is critical for normal lymphocyte proliferation. However, the role of the IL-2 signaling in cervical cancer is not yet fully understood. We show that in IL-2R-expressing cervical cancer cells, JAK1 molecules are not phosphorylated. At low doses of IL-2, the constitutive phosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT5 increases in the tumor cells and decreases in lymphocytes, whereas the opposite occurs at high doses of IL-2. Using AG-490, the activation of JAK3 and the proliferation of cervical cancer cells were inhibited. We describe differences in the response of molecules downstream the IL-2R in lymphocytes and tumor cells.

  9. Cervical cancer in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Eluf-Neto, J; Nascimento, C M

    2001-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Latin America, the incidence rates in several cities are among the highest worldwide, probably due to a high frequency of risk factors and/or a low screening coverage for cervical cancer. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Latin America (and some in the Caribbean), that have investigated the main risk factors for the disease, as well as screening coverage by Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, were reviewed. The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women with negative Pap smears does not seem to explain the risk observed in Latin American countries. Results of some studies have suggested that reproductive factors and male sexual behavior might be responsible, at least partially, for the high occurrence of cervical cancer in Latin America. Concerning cytology screening, many women have a smear taken regularly (some every year). However, a significant proportion of women, probably those with a high risk of cancer of the cervix, have never had a Pap test. To reduce cervical cancer in these countries, screening programs in Latin America should have a wider coverage, especially reaching those women at higher risk. Semin Oncol 28:188-197.

  10. Human papillomavirus oncoproteins differentially modulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in 5-FU-resistant cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Tyagi, Abhishek; Pandey, Arvind; Verma, Gaurav; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok C

    2016-10-01

    Etiological role of viral proteins E6 and E7 of high-risk HPV in cervical carcinogenesis is well established. However, their contribution in chemoresistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that leads to advanced metastatic lesions and chemoresistance is poorly defined. In the present study, contribution of viral oncoproteins in acquisition of EMT character during onset of chemoresistance was assessed. A chemoresistant cell line (SiHaCR) was developed from an established HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell line, SiHa, by escalating selection pressure of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Expression of Survivin, ABCG2, Snail, Slug, Twist, and Vimentin was examined in SiHa and SiHaCR cells by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting assays. Mesenchymal phenotype in SiHaCR cells was confirmed by assessment of migration and invasion potentials. SiHaCR cells displayed elevated level of functional and molecular markers associated with chemoresistance (Survivin, ABCG2) and EMT (Snail, Slug, Twist, Vimentin) and reduced E-cadherin. SiHaCR also showed increased levels of HPV16 E6 and E7 transcripts. Specific silencing of HPV16 E6, but not E7 using corresponding siRNA, demonstrated a differential involvement of HPV oncogenes in manifestation of EMT. HPV16 E6 silencing resulted in reduction of Slug and Twist expression. However, the expression of Snail and Vimentin was only marginally affected. In contrast, there was an increase in the expression of E-cadherin. A reduced migration and invasion capabilities were observed only in E6-silenced SiHaCR cells, which further confirmed functional contribution of HPV16 E6 in manifestation of EMT. Taken together, our study demonstrated an active involvement of HPV16 E6 in regulation of EMT, which promotes chemoresistance in cervical cancer.

  11. Human papillomavirus 16/18 E5 promotes cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and accelerates tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shujie; Deng, Dongrui; Zhang, Weina; Hu, Xiaoji; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Lu, Yunping; Wang, Shixuan; Meng, Li; Ma, Ding

    2013-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are consistently associated with human cervical cancer Additionally, the early oncoproteins of HPVs E5, E6 and E7 are known to contribute to tumor progression. The role of E5 is still nebulous. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of E5 action during the human cervical carcinogenesis process. We created four cell models overexpressing HPV16 or HPV18 E5 (HPV16/18 E5) and investigated their ability to proliferate, along with their metastatic characteristics such as migration and invasion. The expression of HPV16/18 E5 protein in various cell lines was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, we compared the levels of phosphorylated paxillin as well as E-cadherin in cell models and controls by western blot analysis. Finally, we assessed the tumor growth rate of human cervical cancer cells overexpressing HPV16/18 E5 in vivo. We discovered that the expression of HPV16/18 E5 consistently increased the malignant potential of various human cervical cancer cells compared with the primary counterparts. We demonstrated the involvement of HPV16/18 E5 in proliferation, migration, invasion and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in human cervical cancer cells. In particular we discovered that HPV16/18 E5 overexpression in human cervical cancer cells correlated with higher levels of paxillin proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and with the downregulation of E-cadherin. Importantly, injection of HPV16/18 E5-overexpressing human cervical cancer cells into mice increased both HPV-and non-HPV-derived tumor growth. Collectively, our data indicate that HPV16/18 E5 influences progression of the human cervical cancer malignant phenotype. This study provides new insights into HPV16/18 E5 as a possible agent that may have an impact on the therapeutic strategies targeting human cervical cancer.

  12. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  13. Sensitization of the apoptotic effect of gamma-irradiation in genistein-pretreated CaSki cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jang-In; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hong; Choi, Hee-Sook; Kim, Jae-Wha; Lee, Hee-Gu; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Park, Sue-Nie; Park, Ok-Jin; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-03-01

    Radiotherapy is currently applied in the treatment of human cancers. We studied whether genistein would enhance the radiosensitivity and explored its precise molecular mechanism in cervical cancer cells. After co-treatment with genistein and irradiation, the viability, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis signaling cascades were elucidated in CaSki cells. The viability was decreased by co-treatment with genistein and irradiation compared with irradiation treatment alone. Treatment with only gamma-irradiation led to cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. On the other hand, co-treatment with genistein and gamma-irradiation caused a decrease in the G1 phase and a concomitant increase up to 56% in the number of G2 phase. In addition, cotreatment increased the expression of p53 and p21, and Cdc2- tyr-15-p, supporting the occurrence of G2/M arrest. In general, apoptosis signaling cascades were activated by the following events: release of cytochrome c, upregulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of caspase-3 and -8 in the treatment of genistein and irradiation. Apparently, co-treatment downregulated the transcripts of E6*I, E6*II, and E7. Genistein also stimulated irradiation-induced intracellular reactive oxygene, species (ROS) production, and co-treatment-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, suggesting that apoptosis has occurred through the increase in ROS by genistein and gamma-irradiation in cervical cancer cells. Gamma-irradiation increased cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-2) expression, whereas the combination with genistein and gamma-irradiation almost completely prevented irradiation-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Co-treatment with genistein and gamma-irradiation inhibited proliferation through G2/M arrest and induced apoptosis via ROS modulation in the CaSki cancer cells.

  14. p53 dependent apoptosis and cell cycle delay induced by heteroleptic complexes in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gunjan; Rana, Nishant Kumar; Singh, Priya; Dubey, Pradeep; Pandey, Daya Shankar; Koch, Biplob

    2017-04-01

    We previously reported synthesis of novel arene ruthenium (Ru) complexes and evaluated their antitumor activity in murine lymphoma (DL) cells. In this present study we further investigated the mechanism of action of two ruthenium complexes [complex 1 (η6-arene)RuCl(2-pcdpm)] and complex 2 (η6-arene)RuCl(4-mtdpm)] in cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). Our studies demonstrate that anticancer property of these two complexes was due to induction of apoptosis through p53 mediated pathway as well as arrest of cells in G2/M phase of cell cycle. It is worth to note that the complexes did not cause any substantial cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Further in comprehensive studies, apoptosis inducing property of both complexes were established in accordance with array of morphological changes ranging from membrane blebbing to formation of apoptotic bodies and followed by DNA fragmentation assay. Furthermore, Flow cytometry by Annexin V/PI staining delineate that complex 1 and 2 have strident impact to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. The complex 1 and 2 treated cells show increased level of intracellular ROS generation which was preceded by p53 activation. Apoptosis induced by 1 and 2 was preceded by mitochondrial aggregations which were monitored by mitotracker. In addition flow cytometry analysis showed that both complexes also effectively arrest cells at G2/M phase of cell cycle. Western blot, RT-PCR as well as Real Time analysis were used to further confirm that the complexes induced apoptosis in p53 dependent pathway. Thus, our promising results can contribute to the rational design of novel potential anticancer agents.

  15. S100A14, a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, regulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangyu; Yang, Jing; Qian, Jingfeng; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongyan; Cui, Zhumei

    2015-01-01

    S100A14 is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein that has been reported to exert its biological effects on different types of cells. However, the potential clinical significance and biological functions of S100A14 in cervical cancer has not yet been clarified. In this study, we firstly examined the correlation between S100A14 expression and clinical-pathological parameters in cervical cancers. Next, we observed the effect of S100A14 on cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion by employing lentiviral-mediated overexpression and knockdown of S100A14 in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated the underlying mechanism of S100A14 affecting cell migration and invasion. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that S100A14 expression was associated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P = 0.025) and lymph node (LN) metastasis (P = 0.001). Functional assays showed that S100A14 overexpression increased the proportion of G2/M phase, promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, whereas S100A14 knockdown exhibited adverse effect on above properties. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that S100A14 can act as a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). And overexpression of S100A14 increased expression of N-cadherin and Vimentin while decreased expression of E-cadherin. The opposite results were observed in S100A14-silenced cells. Taken together, our data indicate that S100A14 has a crucial role in cervical cancer progression. This study significantly increases our understanding of S100A14 functional roles in cervical cancer, which may lead to the development of a novel therapeutic target for cervical cancer. PMID:26101712

  16. Effect of coating material on uptake of indocyanine green-loaded nanocapsules by HeLa cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Bongsu; Lomeli, Eulieses; Anvari, Bahman

    2010-02-01

    Fluorescent molecular probes offer a potential for early cancer detection. Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDAapproved near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye used in ophthalmic angiography and assessment of cardiac and hepatic functions. However, clinical applications of ICG remain very limited due to its rapid clearance from vascular circulation, unstable optical properties, non-specific interactions with plasma proteins, and inability for localized targeting. To overcome these limitations, we have encapsulated ICG within nanoconstructs composed of poly(allylamine) hydrochloride and disodium hydrogen phosphate salt. To understand the effects of coating materials on the cellular uptake of the nanocapsules, we have measured the uptake of ICG-loaded nanocapsules (ICG-NCs) with various coating materials by HeLa cancerous cervical epithelial cells in-vitro. Results of this study provide important information for the choice of appropriate coating materials that will result in maximal uptake of ICG-NCs in optical and phototherapy of cancerous tissue.

  17. Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Romero-Ramos, Jose E; Olimon-Andalon, Vicente; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Diaz, Jose M; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Morgan-Villela, Gilberto; del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Jave-Suarez, Luis F

    2008-01-01

    Background Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95) in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls. Methods Jurkat cells were exposed to serum from 63 women (20 healthy volunteers, 21 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I [CIN 1] and 22 with cervical-uterine carcinoma). The apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-Fluos and Propidium Iodide as markers. Serum levels of sCD95 and soluble CD95 ligand (sCD95L) were measured by ELISA kits. Results We found that serum from almost all healthy women induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, while only fifty percent of the sera from women with CIN 1 induced cell death in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, only one serum sample from a patient with cervical-uterine cancer was able to induce apoptosis, the rest of the sera protected Jurkat cells from this killing. We were able to demonstrate that elimination of Jurkat cells was mediated by the CD95/Fas/Apo-1 apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the serum levels of sCD95 measured by ELISA were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between low levels of sCD95 in serum of normal women and higher apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. We suggest that an analysis of the apoptotic rate induced

  18. Potential therapeutic effect of the secretome from human uterine cervical stem cells against both cancer and stromal cells compared with adipose tissue stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Samuel; Bermúdez, María A.; Lamelas, Maria Luz; Garcia-Caballero, Tomás; Schneider, José; Perez-Fernandez, Roman; Vizoso, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Evidences indicate that tumor development and progression towards a malignant phenotype depend not only on cancer cells themselves, but are also deeply influenced by tumor stroma reactivity. The present study uses mesenchymal stem cells from normal human uterine cervix (hUCESCs), isolated by the minimally invasive method of routine Pap cervical smear, to study their effect on the three main cell types in a tumor: cancer cells, fibroblasts and macrophages. Administration of hUCESCs-conditioned medium (CM) to a highly invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line and to human breast tumors with high cell proliferation rates had the effect of reducing cell proliferation, modifying the cell cycle, inducing apoptosis, and decreasing invasion. In a xenograft mouse tumor model, hUCESCs-CM reduced tumor growth and increased overall survival. In cancer-associated fibroblasts, administration of hUCESCs-CM resulted in reduced cell proliferation, greater apoptosis and decreased invasion. In addition, hUCESCs-CM inhibited and reverted macrophage differentiation. The analysis of hUCESCs-CM (fresh and lyophilized) suggests that a complex paracrine signaling network could be implicated in the anti-tumor potential of hUCESCs. In light of their anti-tumor potential, the easy cell isolation method, and the fact that lyophilization of their CM conserves original properties make hUCESCs good candidates for experimental or clinical applications in anticancer therapy. PMID:25296979

  19. Potential therapeutic effect of the secretome from human uterine cervical stem cells against both cancer and stromal cells compared with adipose tissue stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eiró, Noemí; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Seoane, Samuel; Bermúdez, María A; Lamelas, Maria Luz; Garcia-Caballero, Tomás; Schneider, José; Perez-Fernandez, Roman; Vizoso, Francisco J

    2014-11-15

    Evidences indicate that tumor development and progression towards a malignant phenotype depend not only on cancer cells themselves, but are also deeply influenced by tumor stroma reactivity. The present study uses mesenchymal stem cells from normal human uterine cervix (hUCESCs), isolated by the minimally invasive method of routine Pap cervical smear, to study their effect on the three main cell types in a tumor: cancer cells, fibroblasts and macrophages. Administration of hUCESCs-conditioned medium (CM) to a highly invasive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line and to human breast tumors with high cell proliferation rates had the effect of reducing cell proliferation, modifying the cell cycle, inducing apoptosis, and decreasing invasion. In a xenograft mouse tumor model, hUCESCs-CM reduced tumor growth and increased overall survival. In cancer-associated fibroblasts, administration of hUCESCs-CM resulted in reduced cell proliferation, greater apoptosis and decreased invasion. In addition, hUCESCs-CM inhibited and reverted macrophage differentiation. The analysis of hUCESCs-CM (fresh and lyophilized) suggests that a complex paracrine signaling network could be implicated in the anti-tumor potential of hUCESCs. In light of their anti-tumor potential, the easy cell isolation method, and the fact that lyophilization of their CM conserves original properties make hUCESCs good candidates for experimental or clinical applications in anticancer therapy.

  20. [Cervical cancer prevention: an update].

    PubMed

    Irico, G; Escobar, H; Marinelli, B

    2005-01-01

    It has been seen an increase of the cervical cancer and of intraepithelial cancer in the last years. The most important risk factors for cervical cancer are sexual conduct, early of sexual relationships, number of partners, cigarettes, oral anticonceptive, pregnancy, immunosuppression, sexually transmitted illness. And an important role of the Human Papilloma Virus. The HPV has been classified in 3 groups; low risk, the most frequents are 11 and 6, middle risk, tipe 31, 33 and 35, and high risk, 16 and 18, that have frequent association with cervical cancer and with high grade intraepithelial lesions. The cervicovaginal citology is still the most accurate diagnosis method to detect SIL or CIN and invasive cancer in early stages, it is discussed the periodicity and group of women to whom the method must point. There are different options depending if it is a SIL of low or high grade or and cancer. With the possibility of doing follow up or treatment, such as. LLETZ, Laser, Criotraphy, cone and interferon for the preneoplastic lesions. The achievement of a vaccine for HPV could have a significant impact on these pathology.

  1. Identification of human papillomavirus-16 E6 variation in cervical cancer and their impact on T and B cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Hussain, Showket; Yadav, Inderjit Singh; Gissmann, Lutz; Natarajan, K; Das, Bhudev C; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

    2015-06-15

    The infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important risk factor for development of cervical cancer. The intra-type variations of HPV have different biological and pathological consequences with respect to disease progression. In the present study, six major Indian variants were experimentally identified in E6 gene of HPV-16 and showed their impact on immunogenicity by in silico methods. Four different phylogenetic lineages were observed in sequences including European (E) prototype, European variant, Asian and American Asian variant classes and complete absence of African phylogenetic lineages. On the prediction of B- and T-cell epitopes, 18 and 23 potent epitopes for MHC-II alleles, 10 potent MHC-I and 15 B-cell epitopes in each reference and variant sequence were identified. Interestingly, the presence of variation H78Y and L83V result in creation of four new epitopes for the HLA-DQA1*0101/DQB1*0501. Out of 15 B-cell predicted epitopes, three most potent epitopes were identified in both reference and variant sequence. Notably the amino acid stretch from amino acid 16-60 and 76-94 are very important for the immunological properties of E6 protein because these regions contain majority of the predicted epitopes. In future, this could control the cervical cancer by targeting these amino acid stretches for the development of HPV-16 vaccine.

  2. Gecko Proteins Exert Anti-Tumor Effect against Cervical Cancer Cells Via PI3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ae-Jin; Chung, Chung-Nam; Kim, Hye-Jin; Bae, Kil Soo; Choi, Song; Jun, Woo Jin; Shim, Sang In; Kang, Tae-Hong; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Anti-tumor activity of the proteins from Gecko (GP) on cervical cancer cells, and its signaling mechanisms were assessed by viable cell counting, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and Western blot analysis. GP induced the cell death of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not affect the viability of normal cells. Western blot analysis showed that GP decreased the activation of Akt, and co-administration of GP and Akt inhibitors synergistically exerted anti-tumor activities on HeLa cells, suggesting the involvement of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in GP-induced cell death of the cancer cells. Indeed, the cytotoxic effect of GP against HeLa cells was inhibited by overexpression of constituvely active form of Akt in HeLa cells. The candidates of the functional proteins in GP were analyzed by Mass-spectrum. Taken together, our results suggest that GP elicits anti-tumor activity against HeLa cells by inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. PMID:23118562

  3. Cisplatin suppresses the growth and proliferation of breast and cervical cancer cell lines by inhibiting integrin β5-mediated glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojia; Xie, Jie; Li, Jiajia; Liu, Fei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Ziliang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells harbor lower energy consumption after rounds of anticancer drugs, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated metabolic alterations in cancer cells exposed to cisplatin. The present study exhibited cisplatin, known as a chemotherapeutic agent interacting with DNA, also acted as an anti-metabolic agent. We found that glycolysis levels of breast and cervical cancer cells were reduced after cisplatin treatment, resulting in cells growth and proliferation inhibition. We demonstrated that cisplatin suppressed glycolysis-related proteins expression, including glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB), through down-regulating integrin β5 (ITGB5)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway. ITGB5 overexpression rescued cisplatin-induced inhibition of cancer cell glycolysis, growth and proliferation. Conclusively, we reveal a novel insight into cisplatin-induced anticancer mechanism, suggesting alternative strategies to the current therapeutic approaches of targeting ITGB5, as well as of a combination of cisplatin with glucose up-regulation chemotherapeutic agents to enhance anticancer effect. PMID:27294003

  4. Myricetin and methyl eugenol combination enhances the anticancer activity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction of cis-platin against HeLa cervical cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jin-Ling; Shi, Song; Shen, Yan-Li; Wang, Ling; Chen, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Jun; Ding, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Drug combination therapies are common practice in the treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of myricetin (MYR), methyl eugenol (MEG) and cisplatin (CP) both separately as well as in combination against cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. To demonstrate whether MYR and MEG enhance the anticancer activity of CP against cervical cancer cells, we treated HeLa cells with MYR and MEG alone or in combination with cisplatin and evaluated cell growth and apoptosis using MTT (3 (4, 5 dimethyl thiazol 2yl) 2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, LDH release assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that, as compared to single drug treatment, the combination of MYR or MEG with CP resulted in greater effect in inhibiting cancer cell growth and inducing apoptosis. Cell apoptosis induction, Caspase-3 activity, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial membrane potential loss were systematically studied to reveal the mechanisms of synergy between MYR, MEG and CP. Combination of MYR or MEG with CP resulted in more potent apoptosis induction as revealed by fluorescence microscopy using Hoechst 33258 and AO-ETBR staining. The combination treatment also increased the number of cells in G0/G1 phase dramatically as compared to single drug treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΛΨm) as well as Caspase-3 activity was much higher in combination treatment as compared to single drug treatment. Findings of this investigation suggest that MYR and MEG combined with cisplatin is a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach in human cervical cancer. PMID:25972998

  5. Interleukin 10 promotes immune response by increasing the survival of activated CD8(+) T cells in human papillomavirus 16-infected cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Yan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Xin-Yan

    2016-10-11

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific CD8(+) T cells are present in HPV-infected cervical cancer patients and have demonstrated potent antitumor properties. However, these cells cannot control tumor progression in most patients. To investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in suppressing or promoting CD8(+) T cell functions, we focused on interleukin 10 (IL-10), a pleiotropic cytokine with controversial roles in antitumor immunity. We found that compared to healthy controls, circulating CD8(+) T cells in HPV 16-infected cervical cancer patients expressed significantly higher levels of IL-10. Interestingly, these CD8(+) T cells from cervical cancer patients, but not those from healthy controls, responded to HPV 16 E6/E7 peptide stimulation by increasing IL-10 expression, demonstrating an antigen-specific IL-10 release. Addition of exogenous IL-10 improved the survival, but did not increase the proliferation, of peptide-stimulated CD8(+) T cells. CD8(+) T cells cultured in the presence of IL-10 also resulted in significantly higher interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and granzyme B concentration, primarily due to improved cell survival. In resected cervical tumors, the frequency of tumor-infiltrating IL-10(+) CD8(+) T cells was positively correlated with the frequency of tumor-infiltrating IFN-gamma(+) and granzyme B(+) CD8(+) T cells. Tumor-associated macrophages were more potent than peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages at inducing IL-10 expression in CD8(+) T cells, possibly explaining the elevated IL-10(+) CD8(+) T cell frequency in cervical cancer patients. Together, these results are consistent with an immunostimulatory role of IL-10, which promoted CD8(+) T cell response by increasing the survival of activated CD8(+) T cells.

  6. Characterization and anticancer potential of ferulic acid-loaded chitosan nanoparticles against ME-180 human cervical cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Richa; Sharma, Asvene K.; Kaloti, Mandeep; Dutt, Dharm; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-08-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a widely distributed hydroxycinnamic acid found in various cereals and fruits exhibiting potent antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, due to low solubility and permeability, its availability to biological systems is limited. Non-toxic chitosan-tripolyphosphate pentasodium (CS-TPP) nanoparticles (NPs) are used to load sparingly soluble molecules and drugs, increasing their bioavailability. In the present work, we have encapsulated FA into the CS-TPP NPs to increase its potential as a therapeutic agent. Different concentrations of FA were tested to obtain optimum sized FA-loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles (FA/CS-TPP NPs) by ionic gelation method. Nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyses and evaluated for their anticancer activity against ME-180 human cervical cancer cell lines. The FTIR spectra confirmed the encapsulation of FA and thermal analysis depicted its degradation profile. A concentration-dependent relationship between FA encapsulation efficiency and FA/CS-TPP NPs diameter was observed. Smooth and spherical FA-loaded cytocompatible nanoparticles with an average diameter of 125 nm were obtained at 40 µM FA conc. The cytotoxicity of 40 µM FA/CS-TPP NPs against ME-180 cervical cancer cell lines was found to be higher as compared to 40 µM native FA. Apoptotic morphological changes as cytoplasmic remnants and damaged wrinkled cells in ME-180 cells were visualized using scanning electron microscopic and fluorescent microscopic techniques. Data concluded that chitosan enveloped FA nanoparticles could be exploited as an excellent therapeutic drug against cancer cells proliferation.

  7. Requirement of T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase for TRAIL resistance of human HeLa cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyeok-Ran; Lee, Ki Won; Dong, Zigang; Lee, Kyung Bok; Oh, Sang-Muk

    2010-01-01

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) appears to be highly expressed in various cancer cells and to play an important role in maintaining proliferation of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism by which TOPK regulates growth of cancer cells remains elusive. Here we report that upregulated endogenous TOPK augments resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Stable knocking down of TOPK markedly increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of human HeLa cervical cancer cells, as compared with control cells. Caspase 8 or caspase 3 activities in response to TRAIL were greatly incremented in TOPK-depleted cells. Ablation of TOPK negatively regulated TRAIL-mediated NF-{kappa}B activity. Furthermore, expression of NF-{kappa}B-dependent genes, FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1), or X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was reduced in TOPK-depleted cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that TOPK contributed to TRAIL resistance of cancer cells via NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that TOPK might be a potential molecular target for successful cancer therapy using TRAIL.

  8. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous NCI Directors NCI Organization Advisory ... History of NCI Contributing to Cancer Research Senior Leadership Director Previous Directors NCI Organization Divisions, Offices & Centers ...

  9. Licochalcone A induces autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR inactivation and autophagy suppression enhances Licochalcone A-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Lin, Chu-Liang; Lin, Chia-Liang; Hsueh, Jung-Tsung; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2015-10-06

    The use of dietary bioactive compounds in chemoprevention can potentially reverse, suppress, or even prevent cancer progression. However, the effects of licochalcone A (LicA) on apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, LicA treatment was found to significantly induce the apoptotic and autophagic capacities of cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay results showed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in four cervical cancer cell lines treated with LicA. We found that LicA induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in SiHa cells, with decreasing Bcl-2 expression. LicA also induced autophagy effects were examined by identifying accumulation of Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Treatment with autophagy-specific inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) enhanced LicA-induced apoptosis. In addition, we suggested the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of mTOR pathway by LicA. Furthermore, the inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002/si-Akt or of mTOR by rapamycin augmented LicA-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, the in vivo mice bearing a SiHa xenograft, LicA dosed at 10 or 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited tumor growth. Our findings demonstrate the chemotherapeutic potential of LicA for treatment of human cervical cancer.

  10. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) Genes Are Silenced by DNA Hypermethylation and Histone Deacetylation and Regulate Response to Radiotherapy in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Hong; Kim, Moon-Sun; Kim, Wonwoo; Kang, Mi Ae; Cacalano, Nicholas A.; Kang, Soon-Beom; Shin, Young-Joo; Jeong, Jae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family is an important negative regulator of cytokine signaling and deregulation of SOCS has been involved in many types of cancer. All cervical cancer cell lines tested showed lower expression of SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS5 than normal tissue or cell lines. The immunohistochemistry result for SOCS proteins in human cervical tissue also confirmed that normal tissue expressed higher level of SOCS proteins than neighboring tumor. Similar to the regulation of SOCS in other types of cancer, DNA methylation contributed to SOCS1 downregulation in CaSki, ME-180, and HeLa cells. However, the expression of SOCS3 or SOCS5 was not recovered by the inhibition of DNA methylation. Histone deacetylation may be another regulatory mechanism involved in SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, however, SOCS5 expression was neither affected by DNA methylation nor histone deacetylation. Ectopic expression of SOCS1 or SOCS3 conferred radioresistance to HeLa cells, which implied SOCS signaling regulates the response to radiation in cervical cancer. In this study, we have shown that SOCS expression repressed by, in part, epigenetically and altered SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression could contribute to the radiosensitive phenotype in cervical cancer. PMID:25849377

  11. LncRNA PVT1 epigenetically silences miR-195 and modulates EMT and chemoresistance in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ching-Ju; Cheng, Ya-Min; Wang, Chiu-Lin

    2017-03-15

    The plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 gene (PVT1) is an oncogenic lncRNA with regulative effect on chemosensitivity in cervical cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms were not fully understood. In this study, HPV16 positive CaSki and SiHa cells were used as in-vitro cell model. Knockdown of HPV16 E7 significantly inhibited PVT1 and restored miR-195 expression. PVT1 directly interacts with EZH2 and the complex anchors in the promoter region of miR-195. PVT1 overexpression resulted in increased H3K27me3 levels in the miR-195 promoter region, while PVT1 knockdown decreased H3K27me3 levels in the promoter region. In addition, PVT1 could competitively bind with miR-195. MiR-195 overexpression suppressed PVT1 expression in the cancer cells. Both PVT1 and miR-195 could inhibit paclitaxel (PTX) induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and also sensitize CaSki cells to PTX. Based on these findings, we infer that PVT1 could decrease miR-195 expression via enhancing histone H3K27me3 in the miR-195 promoter region and also via direct sponging of miR-195. In addition, the PVT1/miR-195 axis can modulate responses of the cancer cells to PTX via regulating EMT.

  12. miR-181b promotes cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis by repressing the expression of adenylyl cyclase 9 (AC9) in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Shang; Zhang, Pei-Pei; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Min; Tang, Hua

    2014-01-03

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators. In this study, we found that miR-181b promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. And we validated a new miR-181b target gene, adenylyl cyclase 9 (AC9). miR-181b restricted cAMP production by post-transcriptionally downregulating AC9 expression. Phenotypic experiments indicated that miR-181b and AC9 exerted opposite effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  13. Diallyl disulfide enhances carbon ion beams–induced apoptotic cell death in cervical cancer cells through regulating Tap73 /ΔNp73

    PubMed Central

    Di, Cuixia; Sun, Chao; Li, Hongyan; Si, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Han, Lu; Zhao, Qiuyue; Liu, Yang; Liu, Bin; Miao, Guoying; Gan, Lu; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), extracted from crushed garlic by steam-distillation, has been reported to provide the anticancer activity in several cancer types. However, the effect of DADS on high-LET carbon beams - induced cell death remains unknown. Therefore, we used human cervical cancer cells to elucidate the molecular effects of this dallyl sulfide. Radiotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, especially in advanced cervical cancer and there is still space to improve the radiosensitivity to reduce radiation dosage. In this study, we found that radiation effects evoked by high-LET carbon beam was marked by inhibition of cell viability, cell cycle arrest, significant rise of apoptotic cells, regulation of transcription factor, such as p73, as well as alterations of crucial mediator of the apoptosis pathway. We further demonstrated that pretreatment of 10 µM DADS in HeLa cells exposed to radiation resulted in decrease in cell viability and increased radiosensitivity. Additionally, cells pretreated with DADS obviously inhibited the radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest, but promoted radiation-induced apoptosis.  Moreover, combination DADS and the radiation exacerbated the activation of apoptosis pathways through up-regulated ration of pro-apoptotic Tap73 to anti-apoptotic ΔNp73, and its downstream proteins, such as FASLG, and APAF1. Taken together, these results suggest that DADS is a potential candidate as radio sensitive agent for cervical cancer. PMID:26505313

  14. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-C-0083 TITLE: Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening...DEC 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-C-0083 5c...care information systems, cervical cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  15. Inhibitory effect and mechanisms of microRNA-146b-5p on the proliferation and metastatic potential of Caski human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cuiping; Yang, Hui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Xiuqin; Zhang, Youzhong; Xu, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cause of cancer‑associate mortality in females, and metastasis is strongly associated with failure of cervical cancer treatment. Previous studies have indicated that microRNA (miR)‑146b‑5p is involved in the inhibition of proliferation and metastasis of numerous human cancer types. The aim of the present study was to explore the inhibitory effect of miR‑156b‑5p on the proliferation and metastatic potential of Caski human cervical cancer cells, as well as to determine the mechanisms by which it proceeds. The results demonstrated that miR‑146b‑5p was able to inhibit the proliferative, invasive and adhesive potential and block the cell cycle progression of Caski human cervical cancer cells, as determined using MTS and transwell assays as well as flow cytometry. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis revealed that transfection with miR‑146b‑5p decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of C‑X‑C chemokine receptor type 4, matrix metalloproteinase‑2 and ‑9, c‑Myc, cyclin D1 and human papilloma virus 16. In addition, the secretion levels of transforming growth factor‑β, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 and tumor necrosis factor‑α, the telomerase activity, the phosphorylation of c‑Jun N‑terminal protein kinase and protein kinase B and the transcriptional activities of nuclear factor‑κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription‑3 and ‑5 were reduced. However, increased levels of p27 and p53 were detected in the miR‑146b‑5p‑overexpressing Caski cells. These results indicate that miR‑146b‑5p may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cervical cancer through regulation of cell chemotaxis and the cell cycle.

  16. Palliative care in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Suhatno

    2000-05-01

    1. Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer in females and also the most frequent among female genital cancers. 2. Ever though the modality of diagnostic procedures for early detection has improved, in fact most of the patients present in the late stages, so the disease is already incurable, and palliative care is really needed. 3. Palliative care is needed not only for the terminally ill patients, but can be started at the time the cancer is diagnosed. 4. Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach requiring teamwork. 5. Palliative care in Indonesia, especially in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, is a new modality in the fight against cancer, so we suffer many disadvantages, e.g., disability, limitation, lack of experience. However, such problems will stimulate the team to learn more.

  17. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy.

  18. Endometrial cancer following radiation therapy for cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gallion, H.H.; van Nagell, J.R. Jr.; Donaldson, E.S.; Powell, D.E.

    1987-05-01

    The clinical and histologic features of eight cases of carcinoma of the endometrium which developed following radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix are described. No patient had a well-differentiated tumor and significant myometrial invasion was present in all cases. Three of the eight tumors were papillary serous adenocarcinoma. Five of the eight patients developed recurrent tumor and died of their disease. The risk of endometrial cancer in patients previously radiated for cervical cancer is evaluated.

  19. High-efficiency lysis of cervical cancer by allogeneic NK cells derived from umbilical cord progenitors is independent of HLA status.

    PubMed

    Veluchamy, John P; Heeren, A Marijne; Spanholtz, Jan; van Eendenburg, Jaap D H; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Kenter, Gemma G; Verheul, Henk M; van der Vliet, Hans J; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; de Gruijl, Tanja D

    2017-01-01

    Down-regulation of HLA in tumor cells, low numbers and dysfunctionality of NK cells are commonly observed in patients with end-stage cervical cancer. Adoptive transfer of high numbers of cytotoxic NK cells might be a promising treatment approach in this setting. Here, we explored the cytotoxic efficacy on ten cervical cancer cell lines of activated allogeneic NK cells from two sources, i.e., peripheral blood (PBNK) with and without cetuximab (CET), a tumor-specific monoclonal antibody directed against EGFR, or derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB-NK). Whereas CET monotherapy was ineffective against the panel of cervical cancer cell lines, irrespective of their EGFR expression levels and despite their RAS (wt) status, it significantly enhanced the in vitro cytotoxic efficacy of activated PBNK (P = 0.002). Equally superior cytotoxicity over activated PBNK alone was achieved by UCB-NK (P < 0.001). Both PBNK- and UCB-NK-mediated cytotoxic activity was dependent on the NK-activating receptors natural killer group 2, member D receptor (NKG2D) and DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) (P < 0.05) and unrelated to expression levels of the inhibitory receptors HLA-E and/or HLA-G. Most strikingly, whereas the PBNK's cytotoxic activity was inversely correlated with HLA-ABC levels (P = 0.036), PBNK + CET and UCB-NK cytotoxicity were entirely independent of HLA-ABC expression. In conclusion, this study provides a rationale to initiate a clinical trial for cervical cancer with adoptively transferred allogeneic NK cells, employing either UCB-NK or PBNK + CET for EGFR-expressing tumors. Adoptive transfer of UCB-NK might serve as a generally applicable treatment for cervical cancer, enabled by HLA-, histology- and HPV-independent killing mechanisms.

  20. Transcription factor AP-2β suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation by promoting the degradation of its interaction partner β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangmei; Huang, Wenhuan; Hu, Xiang; Chen, Cheng; Li, Xinxin; Qiu, Junlu; Liang, Zhongheng; Zhang, Jianmei; Li, Limin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ding, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Shuanglin; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-09

    Transcription factor AP-2β mediates the transcription of a number of genes implicated in mammalian development, cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Although the expression pattern of AP-2β has been analyzed in cervical cancer cell lines, the functions and molecular mechanism of AP-2β are unknown. Here, we found that AP-2β significantly inhibits TCF/LEF reporter activity. Moreover, AP-2β and β-catenin interact both in vitro through GST pull-down assays and in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation. We further identified the interaction regions to the DNA-binding domain of AP-2β and the 1-9 Armadillo repeats of β-catenin. Moreover, AP-2β binds with β-TrCP and promotes the degradation of endogenous β-catenin via the proteasomal degradation pathway. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed a negative correlation between the two proteins in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Finally, functional analysis showed that AP-2β suppresses cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the expression of Wnt downstream genes. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that AP-2β functions as a novel inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in cervical cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. 1-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione Induces G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Autophagy in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jie-Heng; Hsu, Li-Sung; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Chih-Li; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Hong, Hui-Mei; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2016-01-01

    The natural agent, 1-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione (HMDB), has been reported to have growth inhibitory effects on several human cancer cells. However, the role of HMDB in cervical cancer remains unclear. Herein, we found that HMDB dose- and time-dependently inhibited growth of HeLa cervical cancer cells, accompanied with G1 cell cycle arrest. HMDB decreased protein expression of cyclins D1/D3/E and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 2/4/6 and reciprocally increased mRNA and protein levels of CDK inhibitors (p15, p16, p21, and p27), thereby leading to the accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. HMDB also triggered the accumulation of acidic vesicles and formation of microtubule-associated protein-light chain 3 (LC3), followed by increased expression of LC3 and Beclin-1 and decreased expression of p62, suggesting that HMDB triggered autophagy in HeLa cells. Meanwhile, suppression of the expression of survivin and Bcl-2 implied that HMDB-induced autophagy is tightly linked to apoptosis. Exploring the action mechanism, HMDB induced autophagy via the modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mTOR signaling pathway rather than the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. These results suggest that HMDB inhibits HeLa cell growth by eliciting a G1 arrest through modulation of G1 cell cycle regulators and by concomitantly inducing autophagy through the mediation of AMPK-mTOR and Akt-mTOR pathways, and may be a promising antitumor agent against cervical cancer. PMID:27527160

  2. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients.

  3. Cucurbitacin D exhibits potent anti-cancer activity in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sikander, Mohammed; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Malik, Shabnam; Alsayari, Abdulrhman; Halaweish, Fathi T.; Yallapu, Murali M.; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Jaggi, Meena

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we for the first time, investigated the potential anti-cancer effects of a novel analogue of cucurbitacin (Cucurbitacin D) against cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cucurbitacin D inhibited viability and growth of cervical cancer cells (CaSki and SiHa) in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 of Cucurbitacin D was recorded at 400 nM and 250 nM in CaSki and SiHa cells, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was observed in Cucurbitacin D treated cervical cancer cells as measured by enhanced Annexin V staining and cleavage in PARP protein. Cucurbitacin D treatment of cervical cancer cells arrested the cell cycle in G1/S phase, inhibited constitutive expression of E6, Cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb, and Rb and induced the protein levels of p21 and p27. Cucurbitacin D also inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 at Ser727 and Tyr705 residues as well as its downstream target genes c-Myc, and MMP9. Cucurbitacin D enhanced the expression of tumor suppressor microRNAs (miR-145, miRNA-143, and miRNA34a) in cervical cancer cells. Cucurbitacin D treatment (1 mg/kg body weight) effectively inhibited growth of cervical cancer cells derived orthotopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. These results demonstrate the potential therapeutic efficacy of Cucurbitacin D against cervical cancer. PMID:27824155

  4. Impact of histological subtype on survival in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy: adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Hiromasa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival outcomes of patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) among patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy. Methods The baseline characteristics and outcome data of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy between November 1993 and February 2014 were collected and retrospectively reviewed. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to investigate the prognostic significance of AC/ASC histology. Results The patients with AC/ASC of the cervix exhibited significantly shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.004) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.002) than the patients with SCC of the cervix. Multivariate analysis showed that AC/ASC histology was an independent negative prognostic factor for PFS. Among the patients who displayed AC/ASC histology, larger tumor size, older age, and incomplete response to radiotherapy were found to be independent prognostic factors. PFS was inversely associated with the number of poor prognostic factors the patients exhibited (the estimated 1-year PFS rates; 100.0%, 77.8%, 42.8%, 0.0% for 0, 1, 2, 3 factors, respectively). Conclusion Locally advanced cervical cancer patients with AC/ASC histology experience significantly worse survival outcomes than those with SCC. Further clinical studies are warranted to develop a concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) protocol that is specifically tailored to locally advanced cervical AC/ASC. PMID:28028992

  5. Synergistic combination of fluoro chalcone and doxorubicin on HeLa cervical cancer cells by inducing apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianingrum, Retno; Arty, Indyah Sulistyo; Atun, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), a primary chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer treatment is known to have various side effect included multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. Combination chemotherapy is one of some approaches to reduce Dox side effect. Chalcones have been reported to reduce the proliferation of many cancer cells. The research were conducted to investigate the cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction of a chalcone derivate which is containing fluoro substituent [1 - (4" - fluorophenyl) -3 - (4' - hydroxy - 3' - methoxyphenyl) - 2 - propene - 1 -on] (FHM) and its combination with Dox on HeLa cells line. The observation of the cytotoxic activity was conducted using MTT [3 - (4, 5 - dimethyl thiazol - 2 - y1) - 2.5 - diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Apoptosis induction was determined by flow cytometric. The changes of cell morphology were observed using phase contrast microscopy. The combination index (CI) was used to determine the effect of the combination. The study showed that FHM inhibited the HeLa cell growth with IC50 of 34 μM, while the IC50 of Dox was 1 μM. The combination had a higher inhibitory effect on cell growth compare to the single treatment of FHM and Dox. All of the combination doses under IC50 of FHM and Dox gave synergistic (CI: - 0.7) up to strong synergistic effect (CI: 0.l - 0.3). The synergistic effects of the combination were due to their ability to induce apoptosis in the HeLa cells. According to the result, FHM was potential to be developed as a co-chemotherapeutic agent with Dox for cervical cancer.

  6. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kaarthigeyan, K

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context.

  7. Radiosensitizing effect of gold nanoparticles in carbon ion irradiation of human cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Harminder; Avasthi, D. K.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Sarma, Asitikantha

    2013-07-18

    Noble metal nanoparticles have received considerable attention in biotechnology for their role in bio sensing due to surface plasmon resonance, medical diagnostics due to better imaging contrast and therapy. The radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) has been gaining popularity in radiation therapy of cancer cells. The better depth dose profile of energetic ion beam proves its superiority over gamma radiation for fighting against cancer. In the present work, the glucose capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-AuNP) were synthesised and internalized in the HeLa cells. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of ultrathin sections of Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells confirmed the internalization of Glu-AuNPs. Control HeLa cells and Glu-AuNp treated HeLa cells were irradiated at different doses of 62 MeV 12C ion beam (LET - 290keV/{mu}m) at BIO beam line of using 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. The survival fraction was assessed by colony forming assay which revealed that the dose of carbon ion for 90% cell killing in Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells and control HeLa cells are 2.3 and 3.2 Gy respectively. This observation shows {approx} 28% reduction of {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ion dose for Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells as compared to control HeLa cells.

  8. Radiosensitizing effect of gold nanoparticles in carbon ion irradiation of human cervical cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Harminder; Avasthi, D. K.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Sarma, Asitikantha

    2013-07-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have received considerable attention in biotechnology for their role in bio sensing due to surface plasmon resonance, medical diagnostics due to better imaging contrast and therapy. The radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) has been gaining popularity in radiation therapy of cancer cells. The better depth dose profile of energetic ion beam proves its superiority over gamma radiation for fighting against cancer. In the present work, the glucose capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-AuNP) were synthesised and internalized in the HeLa cells. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of ultrathin sections of Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells confirmed the internalization of Glu-AuNPs. Control HeLa cells and Glu-AuNp treated HeLa cells were irradiated at different doses of 62 MeV 12C ion beam (LET - 290keV/μm) at BIO beam line of using 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. The survival fraction was assessed by colony forming assay which revealed that the dose of carbon ion for 90% cell killing in Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells and control HeLa cells are 2.3 and 3.2 Gy respectively. This observation shows ˜ 28% reduction of 12C6+ ion dose for Glu-AuNP treated HeLa cells as compared to control HeLa cells.

  9. Sulforaphane, a Dietary Isothiocyanate, Induces G2/M Arrest in Cervical Cancer Cells through CyclinB1 Downregulation and GADD45β/CDC2 Association

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ya-Min; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Globally, cervical cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women. The main treatment methods for this type of cancer include conization or hysterectomy procedures. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural, compound-based drug derived from dietary isothiocyanates which has previously been shown to possess potent anti-tumor and chemopreventive effects against several types of cancer. The present study investigated the effects of SFN on anti-proliferation and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in cervical cancer cell lines (Cx, CxWJ, and HeLa). We found that cytotoxicity is associated with an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phases of the cell-cycle. Treatment with SFN led to cell cycle arrest as well as the down-regulation of Cyclin B1 expression, but not of CDC2 expression. In addition, the effects of GADD45β gene activation in cell cycle arrest increase proportionally with the dose of SFN; however, mitotic delay and the inhibition of proliferation both depend on the dosage of SFN used to treat cancer cells. These results indicate that SFN may delay the development of cancer by arresting cell growth in the G2/M phase via down-regulation of Cyclin B1 gene expression, dissociation of the cyclin B1/CDC2 complex, and up-regulation of GADD45β proteins. PMID:27626412

  10. Alantolactone induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells via reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion and inhibition of the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, YAN; XU, HANJIE; WANG, JIAFEI

    2016-01-01

    Alantolactone is the active ingredient in frankincense, and is extracted from the dry root of elecampane. It has a wide variety of uses, including as an insect repellent, antibacterial, antidiuretic, analgesic and anticancer agent. In addition, alantolactone induces apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells, however, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated whether alantolactone was able to induce apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells, and its potential mechanisms of action were analyzed. Treatment of HeLa cells with alantolactone (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 µM) for 12 h significantly inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with 30 µM of alantolactone for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h demonstrated marked induction of apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of HeLa cells with 30 µM of alantolactone for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h significantly induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited glutathione (GSH) production in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Alantolactone additionally markedly inhibited the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in HeLa cells. Therefore, administration of alantolactone induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells via ROS generation, GSH depletion and inhibition of the Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway. PMID:27313767

  11. Suppression of microRNA-629 enhances sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to 1′S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate via regulating RSU1

    PubMed Central

    Phuah, Neoh Hun; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Awang, Khalijah; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide, but drug resistance and toxicities remain a major challenge in chemotherapy. The use of natural compounds is promising because they are less toxic and able to target multiple signaling pathways. The 1′S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), a natural compound isolated from wild ginger Alpinia conchigera, induced cytotoxicity on various cancer cells including cervical cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that regulate numerous biological processes, such as apoptosis and chemosensitivity. Past studies reported that miR-629 is upregulated in many cancers, and its expression was altered in ACA-treated cervical cancer cells. However, the role of miR-629 in regulating sensitivity toward ACA or other anticancer agents has not been reported. Hence, this study aims to investigate the role of miR-629 in regulating response toward ACA on cervical cancer cells. Methods The miR-629 expression following transfection with miR-629 hairpin inhibitor and hairpin inhibitor negative control was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to investigate sensitivity toward ACA. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V/propidium iodide and Caspase 3/7 assays. The gene target for miR-629 was identified using miRNA target prediction programs, luciferase reporter assay and Western blots. Gene overexpression studies were performed to evaluate its role in regulating response toward ACA. Results Transfection with miR-629 hairpin inhibitor downregulated its expression in both cervical cancer cell lines. Suppression of miR-629 increased sensitivity toward ACA by reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed RSU1 as a direct target of miR-629. Overexpression of miR-629 decreased RSU1 protein expression, while inhibition of miR-629

  12. 8-p-Hdroxybenzoyl Tovarol Induces Paraptosis Like Cell Death and Protective Autophagy in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui; Jiang, Yingnan; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Jian; Wang, Jinhui

    2015-07-02

    8-p-Hdroxybenzoyl tovarol (TAW) is a germacrane-type sesquiterpenoid that can be isolated from the roots of Ferula dissecta (Ledeb.) Ledeb. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects induced by TAW were screened on some types of tumor cells, and the mechanism was investigated on TAW-induced growth inhibition, including paraptosis and autophagy in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. TAW-induced paraptosis involved extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization in the absence of caspase activation. Additionally, TAW evoked cell paraptotic death mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Autophagy induced by TAW was found to antagonize paraptosis in HeLa cells. This effect was enhanced by rapamycin and suppressed by the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA). Loss of beclin 1 (an autophagic regulator) function led to promote ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that TAW induces paraptosis like cell death and protective autophagy in HeLa cells, which would provide a new clue for exploiting TAW as a promising agent for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  13. Anticancer activity of synthetic bis(indolyl)methane-ortho-biaryls against human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

    PubMed

    Jamsheena, Vellekkatt; Shilpa, Ganesan; Saranya, Jayaram; Harry, Nissy Ann; Lankalapalli, Ravi Shankar; Priya, Sulochana

    2016-03-05

    Bis(indolyl)methane appended biaryls were designed, synthesized and evaluated in human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa) for their anticancer activities and compared against normal rat cardiac myoblasts (H9C2) cells. Compounds 1-12 were synthesized, with variations in one of the phenyl unit, in a single step by condensation of biaryl-2-carbaldehydes with indole in the presence of para-toluenesulfonic acid. Compound 1 exhibited a GI50 value of 11.00 ± 0.707 μM and the derivatives, compounds 4 and 11 showed a GI50 value of 8.33 ± 0.416 μM and 9.13 ± 0.177 μM respectively in HeLa cells and was found to be non-toxic to H9C2 cells up to 20 μM. Furthermore, compounds 1, 4 and 11 induced caspase dependent cellular apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited the cell migration and downregulated the production of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HeLa cells.

  14. Morusin inhibits human cervical cancer stem cell growth and migration through attenuation of NF-κB activity and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Guo, Huijie; Yang, Liuqi; Dong, Lihua; Lin, Caiyu; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Wang, Xiujie

    2013-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be responsible for tumor metastasis, recurrence, and high mortality of cancer patients due to their high tumorigenicity resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. Morusin possesses anti-cancer activity through attenuation of NF-κB activity, which is up-regulated in cancer stem cells. The purpose of this study is to confirm the growth and migration inhibition effect of morusin on human cervical CSCs, and to clarify its partial mechanism of activity. Human cervical CSCs were enriched using non-adhesive culture system. Their stemness characteristics were identified with tumor sphere formation, self-renewal, toluidine blue staining, migration assays, RT-PCR analysis, and immunofluorescence staining of putative stem cell markers, Oct4, SOX2, and ALDH1; the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition markers and relevant transcription factors were evaluated with Western blotting. The growth and migration inhibition effects of morusin on human cervical CSCs were tested by cell proliferation, tumor sphere formation, and transwell assay; apoptotic death of human cervical CSCs in response to morusin was measured with DAPI staining, apoptotic DNA fragmentation; NF-κBp65, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 protein expressions were detected through Western blotting. Under this non-adhesive culture system, typical tumor spheres appeared within 5-7 days, the tumor sphere formation, self-renewal, and cell migration, expressions of putative stem cell markers, EMT markers, and relevant transcription factors of the tumor sphere cells were increased significantly. After morusin treatment, the proliferation, tumor sphere formation, and migration of human cervical CSCs were decreased significantly, DAPI-stained apoptotic cells increased, apoptotic DNA fragmentations formed evidently; the expression levels of NF-κBp65 and Bcl-2 decreased significantly, Bax, and caspase-3 increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Using the non-adhesive culture system

  15. Preferential cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticle towards cervical cancer cells induced by ROS-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirelkhatim, Amna; Mahmud, Shahrom; Seeni, Azman; Kaus, Noor Haida Mohd

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to synthesize multifunctional ZnO-NP samples, namely ZnO-20, ZnO-40, and ZnO-80 nm, using different approaches, to be used as efficient anticancer agents. Systematic characterizations revealed their particle sizes and demonstrated nanostructures of nanorods (ZnO-80 nm) and nanogranules (ZnO-20 and ZnO-40 nm). They exhibited significant ( p < 0.05) toxicity to HeLa cancer cells. HeLa cell viabilities at 1 mM dose reduced to 37, 32, 15 %, by ZnO-80, ZnO-40, and ZnO-20 nm, respectively, at 48 h. However, the same dose exerted different effects of 79.6, 76, and 75 % on L929 normal cells at 48 h. Measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed a considerable ROS yields on HeLa cells by all samples with a pronounced percentage (50 %) displayed by ZnO-20 nm. Moreover, ROS-mediated apoptosis induction and blocked cell cycle progression in the S, G2/M, and G0/G1 phases significantly ( p < 0.05). Apoptosis induction was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation and Hoechst-PI costained images viewed under fluorescence microscope. Additionally, morphological changes of HeLa cells visualized under light microscope showed assortment of cell death involved shrinkage, vacuolization and apoptotic bodies' formation. Most importantly, results exposed the impact of size and morphology of ZnO samples on their toxicity to Hela cells mediated mainly by ROS production. ZnO-20 nm in disk form with its nanogranule shape and smallest particle size was the most toxic sample, followed by ZnO-40 nm and then ZnO-80 nm. An additional proposed mechanism contributed in the cell death herein was ZnO decomposition producing zinc ions (Zn2+) into the acidic cancer microenvironment due to the smaller sizes of ZnO-NPs. This mechanism has been adopted in the literatures as a size-dependent phenomenon. The emerged findings were suggested to provide new platforms in the development of therapeutics as selective agents to the fatal cervical cancer, and to benefit from the

  16. Ezrin contributes to cervical cancer progression through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jienan; Di, Chunchan; Piao, Junjie; Sun, Jie; Han, Longzhe; Chen, Liyan; Yan, Guanghai; Lin, Zhenhua

    2016-04-12

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in females worldwide. The treatment options for advanced cervical cancer are limited, leading to high mortality. Ezrin is a membrane-cytoskeleton-binding protein recently reported to act as a tumor promoter, and we previously indicated that the aberrant localization and overexpression of Ezrin could be an independent effective biomarker for prognostic evaluation of cervical cancers. In this study, we identified Ezrin as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in cervical cancer. Ezrin knock-down inhibited anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and invasion of cervical cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. EMT was inhibited in Ezrin-depleted cells, with up-regulation of E-cadherin and Cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers. Ezrin knock-down also induced Akt phosphorylation. These results implicate Ezrin as an EMT regulator and tumor promoter in cervical cancer, and down-regulation of Ezrin suppressed cervical cancer progression, possibly via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Furthermore, the expression pattern of Ezrin protein was closely related with the lymphovascular invasion status of cervical cancer by immunohistochemistry, and the survival analysis revealed that the cervical cancer patients with the perinuclear Ezrin expression pattern had longer survival time than those with the cytoplasmic Ezrin expression pattern. Ezrin thus represents a promising target for the development of novel and effective strategies aimed at preventing the progression of cervical cancer.

  17. Cervical cancer: is vaccination necessary in India?

    PubMed

    Farhath, Seema; Vijaya, P P; Mumtaj, P

    2013-01-01

    In India, cervical cancer is the most common woman-related cancer, followed by breast cancer. The rate of cervical cancer in India is fourth worldwide. Two vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, both targeting HPV-16 and 18 which account for 70% of invasive cervical carcinomas, are licensed in the United States and numerous countries worldwide. Both vaccine formulations have shown excellent efficacy with minimal toxicity in active female population but numerous questions arise in vaccinating like cost effectiveness, lack of proven efficacy against other HPV strains, social acceptance of HPV vaccination and other ethical issues. The main objective of this study is to emphasis the advantages and disadvantages of the vaccination in India.

  18. [Chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Bazaeva, I Ia; Gorbunova, V A; Kravets, O A; Khokhlova, S V; Limareva, S V; Panov, V O; Strel'tsova, O N; Tarachkova, E V

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer takes second place in morbidity and third place in mortality from gynecological cancer. Advanced stages among newly diagnosed cases is still large. The "gold standard" of treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer is chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin that results in a lower risk of death. Improvement of radiotherapy methods allowed to bring optimal dose to the primary tumor with the inclusion of regional metastasis areas with less risk of damage to surrounding healthy tissue and organs. The search for alternative combinations of cytostatics, modes of drug administration, adjuvant chemotherapy after chemoradiotherapy showed an increase in survival of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

  19. Effects of docetaxel in combination with radiation on human head and neck cancer cells (ZMK-1) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells (CaSki ).

    PubMed

    Pradier, O; Rave-Fränk, M; Lehmann, J; Lücke, E; Boghun, O; Hess, C F; Schmidberger, H

    2001-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine, as we did for paclitaxel, the cytotoxic and radiosensitizing potential of docetaxel in human head and neck cancer cells (ZMK-1), and in cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells (CaSki). ZMK-1 cells were incubated with docetaxel for 3, 9 or 24 hr before irradiation and 24 hr after irradiation. CaSki cells were incubated with docetaxel 24 hr before and after irradiation. For ZMK-1 cells, the docetaxel concentrations (0.7, 0.7 and 0.35 nM) were determined to obtain approximately equivalent cell survival at the different incubation times (3, 9 and 24 hr, respectively). For CaSki cells, the necessary concentration of docetaxel was 0.07 nM. Radiation doses were given from 0 to 7 Gy. Cell survival was measured by a standard clonogenic assay after a 9-day incubation. Flow cytometry was used to measure the capacity of docetaxel to accumulate cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. We observed a weak accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase for the ZMK-1 cells and a pronounced accumulation for CaSki cells. For docetaxel incubation before irradiation, the isoeffect enhancement ratios for ZMK-1 cells determined at the 37% survival level were 1.18, 2.01, and 2.40 for pre-incubation at 3, 9 and 24 hr, respectively; for CaSki cells the ratio was 1.44. For a docetaxel incubation of 24 hr after irradiation, the isoeffect enhancement ratios determined at the 37% survival level were 1.54 and 1.17 for the ZMK-1, and CaSki cells, respectively. A radiosensitizing effect of docetaxel could be demonstrated unambiguously in the two cell lines used. In contrast to our previously published results with paclitaxel, docetaxel seems to be a better radiosensitizer than paclitaxel.

  20. Pseudolaric acid B exerts antitumor activity via suppression of the Akt signaling pathway in HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqun; Hong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid isolated from the bark of the root and trunk of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae), which has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against various types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of PAB have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of PAB on the viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells were investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, Rhodamine 123 staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that PAB had antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on HeLa cells. PAB markedly inhibited HeLa cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that PAB induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PAB suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic factor B cell lymphoma-2, and promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bcl-2-associated X protein. In addition, PAB induced an increase in Caspase-3 activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that this apoptosis may be mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Furthermore, the results of western blot analysis indicated that PAB was able to reduce Akt phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the Akt pathway. These results suggested that PAB inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, and that the anti-tumor effects of PAB were associated with inhibition of the Akt pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PAB may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human cervical cancer. However, additional studies are required to investigate the underlying apoptotic mechanisms.

  1. Toxicity of Raw and Purified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Rat's Lung Epithelial and Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Goornavar, Virupaxi; Biradar, Santoshkumar; Ezeagwu, Christian; Ezeagwu, Dexter; Hall, Joseph C; Ramesh, Govindarajan T

    2015-03-01

    The increased applications of carbon nanotubes in the field of drug delivery, bioimaging and biosensors demand nanotubes to be of highest purity, free from metallic impurities and amorphous carbon. All of these sectors require a profound investigation about the toxic effects on human and the environment. Many attempts have been made to purify and surface modify the carbon nanotubes, however a detailed study on the raw and purified material has yet to be conducted. Here we present the toxicity studies of raw and the purified single-walled carbon nanotubes in rat's lung epithelial cell and cervical cancer cells (HeLa). These cells were treated with increasing concentration of 0.5 µg/mL to 50 µg/mL and the various biocompatibility assays were performed. The results showed an increased cell death with purified single-walled carbon nanotubes followed by the depletion of antioxidant levels and activation of the caspase cascade at a rapid rate compared to raw single-walled carbon nanotubes. This suggests that purified single walled carbon nanotubes are more toxic to the cells and exhibit ultra-fine particulate matter like toxicity.

  2. Effect of EBI3 on radiation-induced immunosuppression of cervical cancer HeLa cells by regulating Treg cells through PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-An; Niyazi, Hu-Er-Xi-Dan; Hong, Wen; Tuluwengjiang, Gu-Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yang; Su, Wei-Peng; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of EBI3 on radiation-induced immunosuppression of cervical cancer HeLa cells by regulating Treg cells through PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway. A total of 43 adult female Wistar rats were selected and injected with HeLa cells in the caudal vein to construct a rat model of cervical cancer. All model rats were randomly divided into the radiotherapy group ( n = 31) and the control group ( n = 12). The immunophenotype of Treg cells was detected by the flow cytometry. The protein expressions of EBI3, PD-1, and PD-L1 in cervical cancer tissues were tested by the streptavidin-peroxidase method. HeLa cells in the logarithmic growth phase were divided into four groups: the blank, the negative control group, the EBI3 mimics group, and the EBI3 inhibitors group. Western blotting was used to detect PD-1 and PD-L1 protein expressions. MTT assay was performed to measure the proliferation of Treg cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle and apoptosis, and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell ratio in each group. Compared with before and 1 week after radiotherapy, the percentages of CD4(+)T cells and CD8(+)T cells were significantly decreased in the radiotherapy group at 1 month after radiotherapy. Furthermore, down-regulation of EBI3 and up-regulation of PD-1 and PD-L1 were observed in cervical cancer tissues at 1 month after radiotherapy. In comparison to the blank and negative control groups, increased expression of EBI3 and decreased expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were found in the EBI3 mimics group. However, the EBI3 inhibitors group had a lower expression of EBI3 and higher expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 than those in the blank and negative control groups. The EBI3 mimics group showed an increase in the optical density value (0.43 ± 0.05), while a decrease in the optical density value (0.31 ± 0.02) was found in the EBI3 inhibitors group. Moreover, compared with the blank and negative control groups, the apoptosis rates

  3. EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone, targets thioredoxin reductase to activate JNK and cell death pathways in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Wang, Guo-Cai; Ma, Dong-Lei; Wong, Nai Sum; Xiao, Hao; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Zhou, Guang-Xiong; Li, Yao-Lan; Li, Man-Mei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Liu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the active constituents of a variety of medicinal plants and found to have potential anticancer activities. However, the intracellular molecular targets of SLs and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we observed that EM23, a natural SL, exhibited anti-cancer activity in human cervical cancer cell lines by inducing apoptosis as indicated by caspase 3 activation, XIAP downregulation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mechanistic studies indicated that EM23-induced apoptosis was mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the knockdown of thioredoxin (Trx) or thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) resulted in a reduction in apoptosis. EM23 attenuated TrxR activity by alkylation of C-terminal redox-active site Sec498 of TrxR and inhibited the expression levels of Trx/TrxR to facilitate ROS accumulation. Furthermore, inhibition of Trx/TrxR system resulted in the dissociation of ASK1 from Trx and the downstream activation of JNK. Pretreatment with ASK1/JNK inhibitors partially rescued cells from EM23-induced apoptosis. Additionally, EM23 inhibited Akt/mTOR pathway and induced autophagy, which was observed to be proapoptotic and mediated by ROS. Together, these results reveal a potential molecular mechanism for the apoptotic induction observed with SL compound EM23, and emphasize its putative role as a therapeutic agent for human cervical cancer. PMID:26758418

  4. Role of E-cadherin in the induction of apoptosis of HPV16-positive CaSki cervical cancer cells during multicellular tumor spheroid formation.

    PubMed

    Haga, Takeshi; Uchide, Noboru; Tugizov, Sharof; Palefsky, Joel M

    2008-01-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are three dimensional cell culture systems induced by suspension culture. MCTS are widely used in cancer research because of their similarity to solid tumors. CaSki cells are derived from a metastatic cervical cancer containing human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16). Cell death of CaSki cells in MCTS has been previously reported, and our model is used to better characterize the mechanisms of cell death of HPV16-positive keratinocytes. In this study, we found that apoptosis of CaSki cells was induced by suspension culture along with the formation of MCTS after 24 h of incubation. In suspended CaSki cells, monoclonal antibodies blocking E-cadherin function inhibited MCTS formation and suppressed suspension-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot for E-cadherin detected upregulation of the authentic 120 kDa band from MCTS of CaSki cells as well as a shorter 100 kDa band. Addition of EGF, whose receptor is known to form a complex with E-cadherin, abrogated apoptosis of suspended CaSki cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell contact, directly or indirectly, mediates the signal to undergo apoptosis of CaSki cells during MCTS formation, and thus provides new information on the role of E-cadherin in cervical cancer cell apoptosis.

  5. Reversal of the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer CaSki cells through adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of HPV16 E7 antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sufang; Meng, Li; Wang, Shixuan; Wang, Wei; Xi, Ling; Tian, Xun; Chen, Gang; Wu, Ying; Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Gang; Lu, Yunping; Ma, Ding

    2006-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. The oncogene E7 from high-risk HPV strains has the ability to immortalize epithelial cells and increase cellular transformation in culture. In this study, we explored the possibility of preventing cervical cancer growth by inhibiting HPV16 E7 expression through gene transfer of an antisense construct. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector was chosen for the transfer, based on its transfection efficiency, in vivo stability, and lack of detectable pathology. In vitro transfer of an rAAV vector expressing antisense HPV16 E7 (AAV-HPV16E7AS) inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, reduced cell migration, and restrained in vivo proliferation of HPV16/HPV18-positive cervical cancer CaSki cells. These results indicate that down-regulation of HPV16 E7 with antisense RNA is beneficial in reducing the tumorigenicity of CaSki cells, and rAAV vectors ought to be a new efficient approach for delivering the expression of therapeutic genes.

  6. Licochalcone A induces autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR inactivation and autophagy suppression enhances Licochalcone A-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tsung-Ho; Lin, Chu-Liang; Lin, Chia-Liang; Hsueh, Jung-Tsung; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    The use of dietary bioactive compounds in chemoprevention can potentially reverse, suppress, or even prevent cancer progression. However, the effects of licochalcone A (LicA) on apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, LicA treatment was found to significantly induce the apoptotic and autophagic capacities of cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay results showed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in four cervical cancer cell lines treated with LicA. We found that LicA induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in SiHa cells, with decreasing Bcl-2 expression. LicA also induced autophagy effects were examined by identifying accumulation of Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Treatment with autophagy-specific inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) enhanced LicA-induced apoptosis. In addition, we suggested the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of mTOR pathway by LicA. Furthermore, the inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002/si-Akt or of mTOR by rapamycin augmented LicA-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, the in vivo mice bearing a SiHa xenograft, LicA dosed at 10 or 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited tumor growth. Our findings demonstrate the chemotherapeutic potential of LicA for treatment of human cervical cancer. PMID:26311737

  7. MicroRNA-373 functions as an oncogene and targets YOD1 gene in cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Luo-Qiao; Zhang, Yue; Yan, Huan; Liu, Kai-Jiang Zhang, Shu

    2015-04-10

    miR-373 was reported to be elevated in several tumors; however, the role of miR-373 in cervical cancer has not been investigated. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-373 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 45 cervical specimens and cervical cancer cell lines. The role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells was assessed by cell proliferation, colony formation in vitro as well as tumor growth assays in vivo with the overexpression of miR-373 or gene silencing. The functional target gene of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells was identified using integrated bioinformatics analysis, gene expression arrays, and luciferase assay. We founded that the expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues and cervical carcinoma cell lines when compared to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-373 in human cervical cancer cells promoted cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas silencing the expression of miR-373 decreased the rate of cell growth. YOD1 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells. Expression levels of miR-373 were inversely correlated with YOD1 levels in human cervical cancer tissues. RNAi-mediated knockdown of YOD1 phenocopied the proliferation-promoting effect of miR-373. Moreover, overexpression of YOD1 abrogated miR-373-induced proliferation of cervical cancer cells. These results demonstrate that miR-373 increases proliferation by directly targeting YOD1, a new potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues. • miR-373 effects as oncogenic miRNA in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. • miR-373 increases proliferation of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting YOD1.

  8. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  9. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  10. Nanoquinacrine induced apoptosis in cervical cancer stem cells through the inhibition of hedgehog-GLI1 cascade: Role of GLI-1

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Anmada; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Siddharth, Sumit; Tripathi, Neha; Bharatam, Prasad V.; Kundu, ChanakyaNath

    2016-01-01

    To improve the pharmacokinetics and to study the anti-cervical cancer and anti-stem cells (CSCs) mechanism of Quinacrine (QC), a spherical nano particle of QC (i.e. NQC) was prepared and characterized. QC and NQC showed higher cytotoxicity in multiple cancer cells than the normal epithelial cells. NQC exhibited more toxicity in cervical cancer cells and its CSCs than QC. A dose-dependent decreased expression of Hedgehog-GLI (HH-GLI) components were noted in NQC treated HeLa cells and its CSCs. NQC increased the expressions of negatively regulated HH-GLI components (GSK3β, PTEN) and caused apoptosis in CSCs. Reduction of GLI1 at mRNA and promoter level were noted after NQC exposure. The expressions of HH-GLI components, GLI1 promoter activity and apoptosis were unaltered in NQC treated GLI1-knockdown cells. In silico, cell based and in vitro reconstitution assay revealed that NQC inhibit HH-GLI cascade by binding to the consensus sequence (5′GACCACCCA3′) of GLI1 in GLI-DNA complex through destabilizing DNA-GLI1 complex. NQC reduced the tumors size and proliferation marker Ki-67 in an in vivo xenograft mice model. Thus, NQC induced apoptosis in cancers through inhibition of HH-GLI cascade by GLI1. Detail interaction of QC-DNA-GLI complex can pave path for anticancer drug design. PMID:26846872

  11. Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops erythromelas Snake Venoms Promote Cell Cycle Arrest and Induce Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Depolarization of Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Martelli Palomino, Gustavo; da Silva, Wilmar Dias; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas; Crispim, Janaina Cristiana de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Bothrops jararaca (BJ) and Bothrops erythromelas (BE) are viper snakes found in South-Southeast and Northeast regions of Brazil, respectively. Snake venoms are bioactive neurotoxic substances synthesized and stored by venom glands, with different physiological and pharmacological effects, recently suggesting a possible preference for targets in cancer cells; however, mechanisms of snakes have been little studied. Here, we investigated the mechanism responsible for snake crude venoms toxicity in cultured cervical cancer cells SiHa and HeLa. We show that BJ and BE snake crude venoms exert cytotoxic effects to these cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle analysis and cell proliferation were assessed by flow cytometry and MTT assay. Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine-123), nuclei morphological change, and DNA fragmentation were examined by staining with DAPI. The results showed that both the BJ and BE venoms were capable of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, promoting cytotoxicity and death by apoptosis of target SiHa and HeLa cells when treated with BJ and BE venoms. Furthermore, data revealed that both BJ venoms in SiHa cell promoted nuclear condensation, fragmentation, and formation of apoptotic bodies by DAPI assay, mitochondrial damage by Rhodamine-123, and cell cycle block in the G1-G0 phase. BJ and BE venoms present anticancer potential, suggesting that both Bothrops venoms could be used as prototypes for the development of new therapies. PMID:28050190

  12. Cervical cancer: screening and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Thara, Somanathan; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown to have a wide range of sensitivity in most routine settings including in developing countries. Although liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, claims on improved sensitivity remain controversial. Human papillomavirus testing is more sensitive than cytology, but whether this gain represents protection against future cervical cancer is not clear. Recently, in a randomized trial, the use of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid was shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Cryotherapy and large loop excision of the transformation zone are effective and safe treatment methods for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The clinical stage of cancer is the single most important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal treatment between surgery and radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. At the public health level, health care infrastructure, affordability and capacity for initiating and sustaining vaccination and screening programmes are critical factors in cervical cancer control. On the other hand, an informed practitioner can utilize the multiple opportunities in routine primary care interactions for prevention, screening, early detection and prompt referral for treatment.

  13. miR-424 acts as a tumor radiosensitizer by targeting aprataxin in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hua; Zou, Hua; Xia, Wei; Dai, Nan; Dai, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Dong; Xu, Cheng-Xiong; Qing, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that some dysregulated miRNAs are involved in radioresistance of tumor cells. Here, we identified significantly decreased miR-424 expression in radioresistant cervical cancer cells and specimens from cervical cancer patients with radioresistance compared to their radiosensitive parental cells and specimens from radiosensitive patients, respectively. Ectopic expression of miR-424 significantly increased radiation-induced DNA damage, cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in radioresistant cervical cancer cells. Notably, miR-424 agomiR treatment can sensitize radioresistant cervical cancer cells to radiation in a xenograft model. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-424 regulated radiosensitivity by directly targeting aprataxin. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-424 acts as a radiosensitizing miRNA and reveal a new therapeutic strategy for radioresistant cervical cancers. PMID:27769049

  14. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    MedlinePlus

    ... No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P.; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether this could reduce drug toxicity and improve the efficacy of ATO in treating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. HeLa, C33a, and human keratinocytes were exposed to 5 μm of ATO in both free and liposomal forms for 48 h. The stability of the prepared samples was tested using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to measure the intracellular arsenic concentrations after treatment. Fluorescent double-immunocytochemical staining was carried out to evaluate the protein expression levels of HPV-E6 oncogene and caspase-3. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. Results showed that liposomal ATO was more effective than free ATO in reducing protein levels of HPV-E6 and inducing cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, lower toxicity was observed when liposomal-delivered ATO was used. This could be explained by lower intracellular concentrations of arsenic. The slowly accumulated intracellular ATO through liposomal delivery might act as a reservoir which releases ATO gradually to maintain its anti-HPV effects. To conclude, liposome-delivered ATO could protect cells from the direct toxic effects induced by higher concentrations of intracellular ATO. Different pathways may be involved in this process, depending on local architecture of the tissues and HPV status.

  17. Latex of Euphorbia antiquorum-induced S-phase arrest via active ATM kinase and MAPK pathways in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Jou-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Chung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wood, W Gibson; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-09-01

    Latex of Euphorbia antiquorum (EA) has demonstrated great chemotherapeutic potential for cancer. However, the mechanisms of anti-proliferation of EA on cancer cell remain to be further investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of EA in human cervical cancer cells. Here, the cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry was examined and the protein expression by the western blotting methods was analyzed. From the cytometric results it was shown that EA-induced S-phase arrest in a concentration manner both in human cervical cancer HeLa and CaSki cells. According the western blot results it was illustrated that EA could downregulate early cyclin E1-Cdk2; and cyclin A-Cdc2 provides a significant additional quantity of S-phase promotion, that in turn promoted the expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1) which were the inhibitors in the complex of cyclin A and Cdc2 that led to cell cycle arrest. Moreover, EA promoted the activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and check-point kinase-2 (Chk2); however, it negatively regulated the expression of Topoisomerases I and II, Cdc25A, and Cdc25C signaling. Caffeine, an ATM/ATR inhibitor significantly reversed EA downregulation in the levels of Cdc25A. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor SP600125 and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 both could reverse the EA upregulation of the protein of Chk2 level, significantly. This study, therefore, revealed that EA could downregulate topoisomerase, and activate ATM kinase, which then induce parallel Chk 1/2 and MAPK signaling pathways to promote the degradation of Cdc25A to induced S-phase arrest in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

  18. Simple trachelectomy during pregnancy for cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Luna, Estefania; Alonso, Patricia; Santiago, Javier De; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is rare during a pregnancy, even though it is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasias during that time. It is noted that around 30% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer are of reproductive age. This means that up to 3% of cases of cervical cancer are found in pregnant women or those who are in the post-birth period. A cervicovaginal Pap smear is performed as part of the regular checkup for a pregnant woman during the first visit so that cervical cancer can easily be diagnosed early in these women, detecting it early in up to 70–80% of cases. We present here the case of a patient with initial diagnosis of cervical cancer made around 20th week of pregnancy. It was then treated by a simple trachelectomy and cerclage during week 24. The pregnant woman gave birth to a healthy baby at the end of her pregnancy. Definitive treatment was completed three months after giving birth with a total hysterectomy and laparoscopic bilateral salpingectomy while preserving both ovaries. After 17 months of monitoring the patient showed no signs of reoccurrence. In conclusion, during the early stage of cervical cancer conservative management may be a reasonable option to preserve the current pregnancy. PMID:27610199

  19. Roles of plant extracts and constituents in cervical cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem worldwide and is the most frequent cause of cancer in women in India. Early detection and affordable drugs with clinical efficacy have to go hand-in-hand in order to comprehensibly address this serious health challenge. Plant-based drugs with potent anticancer effects should add to the efforts to find a cheap drug with limited clinical side effects. Keeping this very purpose in mind, an attempt has been made in this review to explore the potential of plant extracts or constituents known to exhibit antitumorigenic activity or exert cytotoxic effect in human cervical carcinoma cells. Alkaloids such as those isolated from C. vincetoxicum and T. Tanakae, naucleaorals A and B, isolated from the roots of N. orientalis, (6aR)-normecambroline, isolated from the bark of N. dealbata appear promising in different human cervical carcinoma cells with the IC50 of 4.0-8 μg/mL. However, other compounds such as rhinacanthone and neolignans isolated from different plants are not far behind and kill cervical cancer cells at a very low concentrations. Among plant extracts or its constituents that enhance the effect of known anticancer drugs, noni, derived from the plant M. citrifolia perhaps is the best candidate. The cytotoxic potency and apoptotic index of cisplatin was found to significantly enhanced in combination with noni in different human cervical carcinoma cells and it therefore holds significance as promising herbal-based anticancer agent. However, efficacy needs to be further investigated in various cervical cell lines and more importantly, in in vivo cervical cancer models for possible use as an alternative and safe anticancer drug.

  20. Mechanism of the reversal effect of mifepristone on drug resistance of the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa/MMC.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Duan, J; Zuo, F

    2014-02-27

    We examined the ability of mifepristone to reverse the in vitro drug resistance of human cervical cancer cells resistant to mitomycin-C (HeLa/MMC) cells and investigated the mechanism of this effect. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to detect the drug resistance of HeLa/MMC cells and the reversed drug resistance in vitro. Expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) were measured in HeLa and HeLa/MMC cells. The resistance index of HeLa/MMC cells on MMC was reduced from 5.02 to 1.46 after 10 mg/mL mifepristone exposure. A combination of mifepristone upregulated the Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression ratio and apoptosis in HeLa/MMC cells. GCS expression was significantly higher in HeLa/MMC cells than in HeLa cells (P < 0.01), but distinctly declined in both cell lines after mifepristone application (P < 0.01). Mifepristone reversed the resistance of HeLa/MMC cells to MMC in vitro; the overexpression of the GCS gene and the increased expression of apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 may play important roles in the formation of multidrug resistance in cervical cancer.

  1. Tyrosine kinase LYN is an oncotarget in human cervical cancer: A quantitative proteomic based study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuaibin; Hao, Xiaoming; Ouyang, Xiaolan; Dong, Xiaojing; Yang, Yixuan; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Jianguo; Hu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor in women. The mechanisms of cervical cancer are intricate and have not been fully understood. Therefore, we employed iTRAQ to obtain novel proteins profile which participates in the tumor oncogenesis of cervical cancer. 3300 proteins were identified aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer, and western bolt was performed to validate the results of iTRAQ. Then, we selected LYN for further study. Immunohistochemistry identified that LYN expression was significantly increased in cervical cancer tissues than that in cancer adjacent normal cervical tissues and normal cervical tissues. The increased LYN expression was significantly correlated with cancer differentiation and FIGO stage. Silencing LYN inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, conversely, overexpression LYN promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In terms of mechanism, LYN could also promote cervical cancer cells metastasis through activating IL-6/STAT3 pathway. In vivo study, overexpression LYN promoted tumor growth, meanwhile knockdown LYN inhibited tumor growth. These results indicate that LYN tyrosine kinase is an oncogenic gene and can serve as a novel target for cervical cancer research and therapy. PMID:27690342

  2. Tyrosine kinase LYN is an oncotarget in human cervical cancer: A quantitative proteomic based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuaibin; Hao, Xiaoming; Ouyang, Xiaolan; Dong, Xiaojing; Yang, Yixuan; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Jianguo; Hu, Lina

    2016-11-15

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor in women. The mechanisms of cervical cancer are intricate and have not been fully understood. Therefore, we employed iTRAQ to obtain novel proteins profile which participates in the tumor oncogenesis of cervical cancer. 3300 proteins were identified aberrantly expressed in cervical cancer, and western bolt was performed to validate the results of iTRAQ. Then, we selected LYN for further study. Immunohistochemistry identified that LYN expression was significantly increased in cervical cancer tissues than that in cancer adjacent normal cervical tissues and normal cervical tissues. The increased LYN expression was significantly correlated with cancer differentiation and FIGO stage. Silencing LYN inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, conversely, overexpression LYN promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In terms of mechanism, LYN could also promote cervical cancer cells metastasis through activating IL-6/STAT3 pathway. In vivo study, overexpression LYN promoted tumor growth, meanwhile knockdown LYN inhibited tumor growth. These results indicate that LYN tyrosine kinase is an oncogenic gene and can serve as a novel target for cervical cancer research and therapy.

  3. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kaarthigeyan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context. PMID:22754202

  4. Integration of the full-length HPV16 genome in cervical cancer and Caski and Siha cell lines and the possible ways of HPV integration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Cao, Meng; Shi, Qinfeng; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Yili; Li, Xu

    2015-04-01

    Integration of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) into the host genome is a key event for cervical carcinogenesis. Different methods have been used to explore the physical states of the HPV genome to reveal the mechanisms for malignant transformation of the infected cells. Consensus has been reached that, although variable portions of the HPV genome are deleted in the integrated HPV sequences, common disruption of the viral E2 gene has been demonstrated in different studies. The head-to-tail concatemers of the full-length HPV16 genome is another typical integration pattern of HPV16, typically found in Caski cell lines, but its prevalence in cervical cancer has never been tested. Here, by introducing a modified PCR, we identified this head-to-tail concatemers of full-length HPV genomes in advanced cervical cancer with HPV16 single positive. Our results show that more than half of the cases contain this integrated head-to-tail concatemers of full-length HPV16 genomes. Further studies in two cervical cell lines, Caski cells and Siha cells, revealed a correlation between the prevalence of the spliced variants of integrated HPV16 sequences and the full-length transcription of the integrated head-to-tail concatemers of the full-length HPV16 genome. Based on these results, we propose that HPV16 integrated into host cells by two mechanisms: one mechanism is shared by other DNA virus and cause integration of the head-to-tail concatemers of the viral genome; another is related to the reverse transcription process, which the integrated HPV sequence is generated by the reverse transcription of the viral mRNA.

  5. Interferon α Induces the Apoptosis of Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells by Activating both the Intrinsic Mitochondrial Pathway and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Ye; Cao, Cheng; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The interferon α (IFN-α) has been often used as a sensitizing agent for the treatment of various malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and renal cell cancer by promoting the apoptosis of thesetumor cell types. However, the effect of IFN-α on cervical cancer remains unknown. In this study, HeLa cells were used as a testing model for the treatment of IFN-α on cervical cancer. The results indicate that IFN-α markedly inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of HeLa cells. The activation of caspase 3, the up-regulation of both Bim and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1, the down-regulation of Bcl-xL, as well as the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were significantly induced upon IFN-α treatment, indicating that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway could be activated by IFN-α treatment. In addition, caspase 4—which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis—was activated in response to IFN-α treatment. Knocking down caspase 4 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly reduced the IFN-α-mediated cell apoptosis. However, no significant changes in the expressions of caspases 8 and 10 were observed upon IFN-α treatment, indicating that the apoptosis caused by IFN-α might be independent of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. These findings suggest that IFN-α may possess anti-cervical cancer capacity by activating cell apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and caspase-4-related ER stress-induced pathway. PMID:27827850

  6. [Remodeling of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in cervical cancer development].

    PubMed

    Kurmyshkina, O V; Belova, L L; Kovchur, P I; Volkova, T O

    2015-01-01

    Ability to stimulate angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis is recognized as an inherent feature of cancer cells providing necessary conditions for their growth and dissemination. "Angiogenic switch" is one of the earliest consequences of malignant transformation that encompasses a great number of genes and triggers a complex set of signaling cascades in endothelial cells. The processes of tumor microvasculature development are closely connected to the steps of carcinogenesis (from benign lesions to invasive forms) and occur through multiple deviations from the norm. Analysis of expression of proangiogenic factors at successive steps of cervical cancer development (intraepithelial neoplasia, cancer in situ, microinvasive, and invasive cancer) enables to reconstruct the regulatory mechanisms of (lymph-)angiogenesis and to discriminate the most important components. This review presents detailed analysis of literature data on expression of the key regulators of angiogenesis in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. Their possible involvement in molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells, as well as invasion and tumor metastasis is discussed. Correlation between expression of proangiogenic molecular factors and various clinicopathological parameters is considered, the potential of their use in molecular diagnostics and targeted therapy of cervical cancer is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to relatively poorly studied regulators of lymphangiogenesis and "non-VEGF dependent", or alternative, angiogenic pathways that constitute the prospect of future research in the field.

  7. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Reassessing cervical cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... here' section of MedlinePlus.gov's cervical cancer health topic page . The National Cancer Institute provides additional information about ... factors' section of MedlinePlus.gov's cervical cancer health topic page. MedlinePlus.gov's cervical cancer health topic page also ...

  8. [Epigenetic alterations in cervical cancer progression].

    PubMed

    Ríos-Romero, Magdalena; Soto-Valladares, Ana Guadalupe; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of the screening test, such as Papanicolaou, and the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer remains as a public health problem in México and it is the second leading cause of death for malignant neoplasias among women. High-risk HPV infection is the main risk factor for the development of premalignant lesions and cervical cancer; however, HPV infection is not the only factor; there are various genetic and epigenetic alterations required for the development of neoplasias; some of them have been described and even in some cases they have been suggested as biomarkers for prognosis. However, in contrast with other cancer types, such as breast cancer, in cervical cancer the use of biomarkers has not been established for clinical applications. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic alterations are potentially reversible; in this sense, their characterization is important, since they have not only a potential use as biomarkers, but they also could represent new therapeutic targets for treatment of cervical cancer. This review describes some of the more common epigenetic alterations in cervical cancer and its potential use in routine clinical practice.

  9. The neem limonoids azadirachtin and nimbolide induce cell cycle arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, R Vidya; Murugan, R Senthil; Sripriya, P; Karunagaran, D; Nagini, S

    2010-06-01

    Limonoids from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have attracted considerable research attention in recent years owing to their potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative effects. The present study was designed to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which azadirachtin and nimbolide exert cytotoxic effects in the human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. Both azadirachtin and nimbolide significantly suppressed the viability of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase accompanied by p53-dependent p21 accumulation and down-regulation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin B, cyclin D1 and PCNA. Characteristic changes in nuclear morphology, presence of a subdiploid peak and annexin-V staining pointed to apoptosis as the mode of cell death. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species with decline in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and release of cytochrome c confirmed that the neem limonoids transduced the apoptotic signal via the mitochondrial pathway. Altered expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and over-expression of caspases and survivin provide compelling evidence that azadirachtin and nimbolide induce a shift of balance toward a pro-apoptotic phenotype. Antioxidants such as azadirachtin and nimbolide that can simultaneously arrest the cell cycle and target multiple molecules involved in mitochondrial apoptosis offer immense potential as anti-cancer therapeutic drugs.

  10. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer.

  11. Targeting Pro-Apoptotic TRAIL Receptors Sensitizes HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells to Irradiation-Induced Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maduro, John H.; Vries, Elisabeth de; Meersma, Gert-Jan; Hougardy, Brigitte; Zee, Ate G.J. van der; Jong, Steven de

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of irradiation in combination with drugs targeting the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor (DR)4 and DR5 and their mechanism of action in a cervical cancer cell line. Methods and Materials: Recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) and the agonistic antibodies against DR4 and DR5 were added to irradiated HeLa cells. The effect was evaluated with apoptosis and cytotoxicity assays and at the protein level. Membrane receptor expression was measured with flow cytometry. Small-interfering RNA against p53, DR4, and DR5 was used to investigate their function on the combined effect. Results: rhTRAIL and the agonistic DR4 and DR5 antibodies strongly enhanced 10-Gy-induced apoptosis. This extra effect was 22%, 23%, and 29% for rhTRAIL, DR4, and DR5, respectively. Irradiation increased p53 expression and increased the membrane expression of DR5 and DR4. p53 suppression, as well as small-interfering RNA against DR5, resulted in a significant downregulation of DR5 membrane expression but did not affect apoptosis induced by irradiation and rhTRAIL. After small-interfering RNA against DR4, rhTRAIL-induced apoptosis and the additive effect of irradiation on rhTRAIL-induced apoptosis were abrogated, implicating an important role for DR4 in apoptosis induced through irradiation in combination with rhTRAIL. Conclusion: Irradiation-induced apoptosis is strongly enhanced by targeting the pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptors DR4 or DR5. Irradiation results in a p53-dependent increase in DR5 membrane expression. The sensitizing effect of rhTRAIL on irradiation in the HeLa cell line is, however especially mediated through the DR4 receptor.

  12. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Cancer.gov

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  13. TLR2 ligand-synthetic long peptide conjugates effectively stimulate tumor-draining lymph node T cells of cervical cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zom, Gijs G.; Welters, Marij J.P.; Loof, Nikki M.; Goedemans, Renske; Lougheed, Sinéad; Valentijn, Rob R.P.M.; Zandvliet, Maarten L.; Meeuwenoord, Nico J.; Melief, Cornelis J.M.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Filippov, Dmitri V.

    2016-01-01

    The potency of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-encoded synthetic long peptides (SLP), conjugated to an optimized Toll-like receptor 2 ligand (TLR2-L), was assessed in ex vivo activation of HPV16+ cancer patient-derived T cells. Two highly immunogenic SLP sequences derived from the oncogenic E6 protein of HPV16 were selected and conjugated to a Pam3CSK4-based TLR2-L under GMP conditions. Both conjugates were able to mature human DCs in vitro and to activate human skin-derived antigen-presenting cells (APCs) upon intradermal injection in an ex vivo skin model, associated with induction of a favorable chemokine profile to attract and activate T cells. The conjugated SLPs were efficiently processed by APCs, since HPV16-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell clones isolated from HPV16+ cervical tumors proliferated in response to both conjugates. The TLR2-L SLP conjugates significantly enhanced ex vivo T helper type 1 T-cell activation in cell suspensions obtained from tumor-draining lymph nodes (LN) resected during hysterectomy of HPV16+ cervical cancer patients. These results show that TLR2-L SLP conjugates can activate circulating or LN-derived tumor-specific T cells, a promising outcome for studying these two conjugates in a phase I/II clinical safety and immunogenicity trial. PMID:27564262

  14. Tumor-Targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in Combination with Trastuzumab Eradicates HER-2-Positive Cervical Cancer Cells in Patient-Derived Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Nan; Murakami, Takashi; Maawy, Ali; Mii, Sumiyuki; Uehara, Fuminari; Yamamoto, Mako; Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Momiyama, Masashi; Mori, Ryutaro; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We have previously developed mouse models of HER-2-positive cervical cancer. Tumors in nude mice had histological structures similar to the original tumor and were stained by anti-HER-2 antibody in the same pattern as the patient's cancer. We have also previously developed tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and have demonstrated its efficacy against patient-derived tumor mouse models, both alone and in combination. In the current study, we determined the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R in combination with trastuzumab on a patient-cancer nude-mouse model of HER-2 positive cervical cancer. Mice were randomized to 5 groups and treated as follows: (1) no treatment; (2) carboplatinum (30 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks); (3) trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks); (4) S. typhimurium A1-R (5 × 107 CFU/body, ip, weekly, 5 weeks); (5) S. typhimurium A1-R (5 × 107 CFU/body, ip, weekly, 5 weeks) + trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks). All regimens had significant efficacy compared to the untreated mice. The relative tumor volume of S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab-treated mice was smaller compared to trastuzumab alone (p = 0.007) and S. typhimurium A1-R alone (p = 0.039). No significant body weight loss was found compared to the no treatment group except for carboplatinum-treated mice (p = 0.021). Upon histological examination, viable tumor cells were not detected, and replaced by stromal cells in the tumors treated with S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab. The results of the present study suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R and trastuzumab in combination are highly effective against HER-2-expressing cervical cancer.

  15. Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M.; Riggs, Bridget M.; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97–1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  16. MicroRNA-331-3p Suppresses Cervical Cancer Cell Proliferation and E6/E7 Expression by Targeting NRP2

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Tomomi; Shimada, Keiji; Asano, Aya; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Naoko; Yamazaki, Masaharu; Konishi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the development and progression of various types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-331-3p in cell proliferation and the expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers of uterine cervical cancer cells. Moreover, we evaluated whether neuropilin 2 (NRP2) are putative target molecules that regulate the human papillomavirus (HPV) related oncoproteins E6 and E7. Cell proliferation in the human cervical cancer cell lines SKG-II, HCS-2, and HeLa was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. Cellular apoptosis was measured using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Annexin V assays. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the NRP2, E6, E7, p63, and involucrin (IVL) genes. A functional assay for cell growth was performed using cell cycle analyses. Overexpression of miR-331-3p inhibited cell proliferation, and induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in SKG-II, HCS-2 and HeLa cells. The luciferase reporter assay of the NRP2 3′-untranslated region revealed the direct regulation of NRP2 by miR-331-3p. Gene expression analyses using quantitative RT-PCR in SKG-II, HCS-2, and HeLa cells overexpressing miR-331-3p or suppressing NRP2 revealed down-regulation of E6, E7, and p63 mRNA and up-regulation of IVL mRNA. Moreover, miR-331-3p overexpression was suppressed NRP2 expression in protein level. We showed that miR-331-3p and NRP2 were key effectors of cell proliferation by regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis. NRP-2 also regulates the expression of E6/E7 and keratinocyte differentiation markers. Our findings suggest that miR-331-3p has an important role in regulating cervical cancer cell proliferation, and that miR-331-3p may contribute to keratinocyte differentiation through NRP2 suppression. miR-331-3p and NRP2 may contribute to anti-cancer effects

  17. Ursolic acid nanoparticles inhibit cervical cancer growth in vitro and in vivo via apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoguang; Meng, Xiaomei; Dong, Yaozhong

    2017-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a cause of cancer death, making it one of the most common causes of death among women globally. Previously, a variety of studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms by which cervical cancer develops. However, there are still limitations in treatment for cervical cancer. Ursolic acid is a naturally derived pentacyclic triterpene acid, exhibiting broad anticancer effects. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have been known to better the bioavailability of drugs on intranasal administration compared with only drug solutions. Administration of ursolic acid nanoparticles is thought to be sufficient to lead to considerable suppression of cervical cancer progression. We loaded gold-ursolic acid into poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to cervical cancer cell lines due to the properties of ursolic acid in altering cellular processes and the easier absorbance of nanoparticles. In addition, in this study, ursolic acid nanoparticles were administered to cervical cancer cells to find effective treatments for cervical cancer inhibition. In the present study, ELISA, western blotting, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry assays were carried out to calculate the molecular mechanism by which ursolic acid nanoparticles modulated cervical cancer progression. Data indicated that ursolic acid nanoparticles, indeed, significantly suppress cervial cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration compared to the control group, and apoptosis was induced by ursolic acid nanoparticles in cervical cancer cells through activating caspases, p53 and suppressing anti-apoptosis-related signals. Furthermore, tumor size was reduced by treatment of ursolic acid nanoparticles in in vivo experiments. In conclusion, this study suggests that ursolic acid nanoparticles inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation via apoptosis induction, which could be a potential target for future therapeutic strategy clinically.

  18. Inotodiol inhabits proliferation and induces apoptosis through modulating expression of cyclinE, p27, bcl-2, and bax in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Yang, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Zhong; Yang, Ning-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom that has been used as an effective agent to treat various diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis and cancer. Inotodiol, an included triterpenoid shows significant anti-tumor effect. However, the mechanisms have not been well documented. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of inotodiol on proliferation and apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. HeLa cells were treated with different concentrations of inotodiol. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell proliferating ability, flow cytometry (FCM) was employed for cell cycle analysis and cell apoptosis, while expression of cyclinE, p27, bcl-2 and bax was detected by immunocytochemistry. Proliferation of HeLa cells was inhibited by inotodiolin a dose-dependent manner at 24h (r=0.9999, p<0.01). A sub-G1 peak (apoptotic cells) of HeLa cells was detected after treatment and the apoptosis rate with the concentration and longer incubation time (r=1.0, p<0.01), while the percentage of cells in S phase and G2/M phase decreased significantly. Immunocytochemistry assay showed that the expression of cyclin E and bcl-2 in the treated cells significantly decreased, while the expression of p27 and bax obviously increased, compared with the control group (p<0.05). The results of our research indicate that inotodiol isolated from Inonotus obliquus inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells and induced apoptosis in vitro. The mechanisms may be related to promoting apoptosis through increasing the expression of bax and cutting bcl-2 and affecting the cell cycle by down-regulation the expression of cyclin E and up-regulation of p27. The results further indicate the potential value of inotodiol for treatment of human cervical cancer.

  19. Influence of continuous intervention on growth and metastasis of human cervical cancer cells and expression of RNAmiR-574-5p.

    PubMed

    Ma, D L; Li, J Y; Liu, Y E; Liu, C M; Li, J; Lin, G Z; Yan, J

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to acquire solid evidence that some common treatments could affect micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) by revealing the regulatory effect of genes, so as to provide a reference for further exploration of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. Nude mouse tumorigenicity assay was used to study the effect of inhibiting miR-574-5p on development and tumorigenic ability of Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) tumor. Cell wound scratch assay, flow cytometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were adopted to study the effects of anoxia and temperature, etc., on expression of miR-574-5p and QKI in HeLa as well as on the clone and migration ability of cells, to provide prevention and treatment of cervical cancer with new ideas and evidence. The results demonstrated that cervical cancer tissues had a significantly increased miR-574-5p expression compared with para-carcinoma tissues; conversely, Gomafu, overall QKI (pan-QKI) and QKI-5 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression all decreased. Part of the common nursing methods had a certain influence on miR-574-5p expression, HeLa reproduction and metastasis, and even cell cycle. For example, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was effective in decreasing miR-574-5p expression of HeLa and inhibiting cell migration; severe hypoxia significantly decreased the survival rate of HeLa, leading to the increase of programmed death percentage and cell ratio in G2/M phase as well as the decrease of cell ratio in G1 phase. Incubation at different temperatures also affected miR-574-5p expression and cell proliferation. Thus, it can be known that miR-574-5p, Gomafu and QKI expression in cervical cancer tissues and para-carcinoma tissues are significantly up-regulated or down-regulated. Some treatments, such as UV irradiation, hypoxia, incubation temperatures, etc., can affect miR-574-5p expression and HeLa proliferation as well as metastases in different degrees. These findings provide

  20. Lnc-CC3 increases metastasis in cervical cancer by increasing Slug expression

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Binyuan; Sun, Ruili; Fang, Shujuan; Qin, Changfei; Pan, Xi; Peng, Li; Li, Yuehui; Li, Guancheng

    2016-01-01

    Although screening has reduced mortality rates, metastasis still results in poor survival and prognosis in cervical cancer patients. We compared cervical cancer ESTs libraries with other ESTs libraries to identify candidate genes and cloned a novel cervical cancer-associated lncRNA, lnc-CC3. Overexpression of lnc-CC3 promoted migration and invasion by SiHa cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, increased Slug expression, and reduced the expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. Conversely, lnc-CC3 knockdown altered SiHa cell morphology and increased the expression of E-cadherin, thereby suppressing migration and invasion. These results suggest lnc-CC3 may be a useful marker of metastasis in cervical cancer. PMID:27223436

  1. Antigen-specific immunotherapy of cervical and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-fu; Wu, TC; Monie, Archana; Roden, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary We contrast the efforts to treat ovarian cancer and cervical cancer through vaccination because of their different pathobiology. A plethora of approaches have been developed for therapeutic vaccination against cancer, many of which target defined tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary cause of cervical cancer. Furthermore, cervical cancer patients frequently mount both humoral and T cell immune responses to the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is required for the transformed phenotype. Numerous vaccine studies target these viral TAAs, including recent trials that may enhance clearance of pre-malignant disease. By contrast little is known about the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer. Although it is clear that p53 mutation or loss is a critical early event in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, no precursor lesion has been described for the most common serous histotype, and even the location of its origin is debated. These issues have complicated the selection of appropriate ovarian TAAs and the design of vaccines. Here we focus on mesothelin as a promising ovarian TAA because it is overexpressed and immunogenic at high frequency in patients, is displayed on the cell surface and potentially contributes to ovarian cancer biology. PMID:18363994

  2. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for cervical adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Harushige; Monk, Bradley; Treilleux, Isabelle; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Davis, Alison; Kim, Jae-Weon; Mahner, Sven; Stany, Michael; Pignata, Sandro; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    Cervical adenocarcinoma is known to be less common than squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix comprising approximately 25% of all cervical carcinomas. Differences in associated human papillomavirus types, patterns of spread, and prognosis call for treatments that are not always like those for squamous cancers. In this review, we report a consensus developed by the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup surrounding cervical adenocarcinoma for epidemiology, pathology, treatment, and unanswered questions. Prospective clinical trials are needed to help develop treatment guidelines.

  3. Gene Expression Analysis Reveals the Concurrent Activation of Proapoptotic and Antioxidant-Defensive Mechanisms in Flavokawain B-Treated Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Abu, Nadiah; Akthar, Nadeem; Ho, Wan Yong; Ky, Huynh; Tan, Sheau Wei; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-24

    Flavokawain B (FKB) is known to possess promising anticancer abilities. This is demonstrated in various cancer cell lines including HeLa cells. Cervical cancer is among the most widely diagnosed cancer among women today. Though FKB has been shown to be effective in treating cancer cells, the exact molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study is aimed at understanding the effects of FKB on HeLa cells using a microarray-based mRNA expression profiling and proteome profiling of stress-related proteins. The results of this study suggest that FKB induced cell death through p21-mediated cell cycle arrest and activation of p38. However, concurrent activation of antioxidant-related pathways and iron sequestration pathway followed by activation of ER-resident stress proteins clearly indicate that FKB failed to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via oxidative stress. This effect implies that the protection of HeLa cells by FKB from H2O2-induced cell death is via neutralization of reactive oxygen species.

  4. Enhancer-promoter activity of human papillomavirus type 16 long control regions isolated from cell lines SiHa and CaSki and cervical cancer biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, T; Aoki, Y; Nakagawa, K; Ohtomo, K; Yoshikawa, H; Matsumoto, K; Yoshiike, K; Kanda, T

    2000-03-01

    Expression of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) oncogenes is markedly higher in cervical cancer cells than in precancerous cells, and the elevated expression is believed to be required for the malignant phenotypes. We compared cancer cell lines CaSki (with 200 to 400 copies of HPV-16 DNA per cell) and SiHa (with one to two copies of HPV-16 DNA per cell) for the E7 expression in cells and the enhancer-promoter activity of the isolated viral long control region (LCR). Although these parameters per cell were 10-fold higher in CaSki than in SiHa, the levels of the E7 mRNA and protein per HPV DNA copy were 10- to 20-fold higher in SiHa than in CaSki. Characterization of the isolated LCRs showed that, whereas the LCR from CaSki resembled the prototype in structure and activity, the LCR from SiHa, with a deletion of 38 base pairs, enhanced transcription from P97 as assayed by using a plasmid capable of expressing luciferase. The upregulation appeared to be due to removal of one of the silencer YY1-binding sites. Furthermore, we isolated and characterized LCRs from 51 cervical cancer patients' biopsies. Among them, one with a deletion including YY1-binding sites and the other with a substitution in a YY1-motif were found to enhance the transcription. These findings suggest that mutation affecting YY1-motifs in the LCR is one of the mechanisms enhancing the viral oncogene expression in the course of progression of cancer cells.

  5. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy. PMID:28361987

  6. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-03-31

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy.

  7. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  8. The mechanism of kaempferol induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in human cervical cancer SiHa cell: From macro to nano.

    PubMed

    Tu, Lv-Ying; Bai, Hai-Hua; Cai, Ji-Ye; Deng, Sui-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Kaempferol has been identified as a potential cancer therapeutic agent by an increasing amount of evidences. However, the changes in the topography of cell membrane induced by kaempferol at subcellular- or nanometer-level were still unclear. In this work, the topographical changes of cytomembrane in human cervical cancer cell (SiHa) induced by kaempferol, as well as the role of kaempferol in apoptosis induction and its possible mechanisms, were investigated. At the macro level, MTT assays showed that kaempferol inhibited the proliferation of SiHa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that kaempferol could induce SiHa cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, and intracellular free calcium elevation. At the micro level, fluorescence imaging by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) indicated that kaempferol could also destroy the networks of microtubules. Using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM), we determined the precise changes of cellular membrane induced by kaempferol at subcellular or nanometer level. The spindle-shaped SiHa cells shrank after kaempferol treatment, with significantly increased cell surface roughness. These data showed structural characterizations of cellular topography in kaempferol-induced SiHa cell apoptosis and might provide novel integrated information from macro to nano level to assess the impact of kaempferol on cancer cells, which might be important for the understanding of the anti-cancer mechanisms of drugs. SCANNING 38:644-653, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008-2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden.

  10. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008–2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  11. [The role of developmental HOX genes in cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Ricardo; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Villegas, Vanessa; Valdivia, Alejandra; Arreola, Hugo; Huerta-Padilla, Víctor; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a multifactorial disease associated to genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors, being the infection by human papillomavirus the main etiologic agent. Additionally, the alteration in the expression of transcription factors has been considered of importance for the development of this tumor. HOX genes encode a group of transcription factors involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation processes during the development of embryonic structures in vertebrates; their aberrant expression is associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. A range of evidence suggests a role for HOX genes in the development of cervical neoplastic cell. Studies in CC cell lines, primary tumors and premalignant lesions have suggested the involvement of HOXA1, HOXC5, C6, C8 and C10, HOXD9 and HOXD13 in the process of cervical carcinogenesis. Also, the de novo expression of genes HOXB2, B4, B13 and HOXC11-C13 appears to be involved in the process of malignant transformation of cervical epithelial cell. These data would allow to open a field in search of new molecular markers in cervical cancer and the development of new therapeutic strategies for this malignancy.

  12. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    PubMed

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  13. Evaluation of the antitumour activity of Rinvanil and Phenylacetylrinvanil on the cervical cancer tumour cell lines HeLa, CaSKi and ViBo.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Luis; Alvarado-Sansininea, Jesús J; Escobar, María L; López-Muñoz, Hugo; Hernández-Vázquez, José M V; Monsalvo-Montiel, Iván; Demare, Patricia; Regla, Ignacio; Weiss-Steider, Benny

    2015-07-05

    Capsaicin is a potent inducer of apoptosis in tumourreceptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). The present study determined the IC50 and cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the Capsaicin analogues Rinvanil and Phenylacetylrinvanil (PhAR) on three cervical cancer cell lines: HeLa, CaSKi and ViBo. These analogues possess an increased affinity for TRPV1 receptors. The IC50 obtained proved to be cytotoxic for all three cell lines; however, in the cells treated with Capsaicin both active caspase-3 and nuclear fragmentation were present. Capsaicin and its analogues also inhibited the normal proliferation of lymphocytes, suggesting that they are non-selective antitumour compounds. Finally, we discuss the possible loss of the relation between apoptosis and affinity to TRPV1, and the need for other strategies to synthesise Capsaicin analogues that can be useful in cancer treatments.

  14. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chunhao; Sun, Xiaoying; Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Xu, Liqun; Li, Jun; Xu, Benke; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6) in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC). NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. Results: There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p = 0.006), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006), vital status (p < 0.001), tumor recurrence (p = 0.001), chemotherapy (p = 0.039), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001). Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer. PMID:27775588

  15. Expression of transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 is diminished in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Reyes, Luis A; Alvarado-Ruiz, Liliana; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Martínez-Silva, María G; Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Olimón-Andalón, Vicente; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suarez, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) is evolutionarily conserved in many different species, and is involved in morphogenesis, epithelial differentiation, and the control of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. It has also recently been implicated in carcinogenesis, but its role in this remains controversial. Expression of GRHL2 has not previously been reported in cervical cancer, so the present study aimed to characterize GRHL2 expression in cervical cancer-derived cell lines (CCCLs) and cervical tissues with different grades of lesions. Microarray analysis found that the expression of 58 genes was down-regulated in CCCLs compared to HaCaT cells (non-tumorigenic human epithelial cell line). The expression of eight of these genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and GRHL2 was found to be the most down-regulated. Western blot assays corroborated that GRHL2 protein levels were strongly down-regulated in CCCLs. Cervical cells from women without cervical lesions were shown to express GRHL2, while immunohistochemistry found that positivity to GRHL2 decreased in cervical cancer tissues. In conclusion, a loss or strong reduction in GRHL2 expression appears to be a characteristic of cervical cancer, suggesting that GRHL2 down-regulation is a necessary step during cervical carcinogenesis. However, further studies are needed to delineate the role of GRHL2 in cervical cancer and during malignant progression. PMID:25550776

  16. The role of MALAT1 correlates with HPV in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, YAN; LI, YUEHUI; FANG, SHUJUAN; JIANG, BINYUAN; QIN, CHANGFEI; XIE, PINGLI; ZHOU, GUOHUA; LI, GUANCHENG

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer, the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, is responsible for >275,100 mortalities each year and is associated with high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV). HPVs have two important oncogenes, E6 and E7, which have crucial roles in malignant transformation in cervical cancer. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA originally identified in non-small cell lung cancer. Previous studies have revealed that MALAT1 is expressed in numerous tissue types, and is significant in maintaining the normal function of the body. However, it also appeared to be notably upregulated in numerous carcinoma types compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. In the present study, it was identified that MALAT1 expression was upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines compared with normal cervical squamous cell samples. Further study into the effect of MALAT1 on cellular phenotype revealed that MALAT1 was able to promote cell migration and proliferation. Of note, it was revealed that the expression of MALAT1 was decreased with the knockdown of HPV16 E6/E7 in CaSki cells. Furthermore, the investigations in clinical samples also revealed that MALAT1 was expressed in HPV-positive cervical squamous cells, but not in HPV-negative normal cervical squamous cells. These results indicate that HPV correlates with MALAT1 deregulation in cervical cancer. PMID:24932303

  17. Characterization of P1 promoter activity of the beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase I gene (siat 1) in cervical and hepatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Milflores-Flores, Lorena; Millán-Pérez, Lourdes; Santos-López, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica

    2012-06-01

    The level of beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase I (ST6Gal I) mRNA, encoded by the gene siat1, is increased in malignant tissues. Expression is regulated by different promoters - P1, P2 and P3 - generating three mRNA isoforms H, X and YZ. In cervical cancer tissue the mRNA isoform H, which results from P1 promoter activity, is increased. To study the regulation of P1 promoter, different constructs from P1 promoter were evaluated by luciferase assays in cervical and hepatic cell lines. Deletion of a fragment of 1048 bp (-89 to +24 bp) increased 5- and 3-fold the promoter activity in C33A and HepG2 cell lines, respectively. The minimal region with promoter activity was a 37 bp fragment in C33A cells. The activity of this region does not require the presence of an initiator sequence. In HepG2 cells the minimal promoter activity was detected in the 66 bp fragment. Sp1 (-32) mutation increased the promoter activity only in HepG2 cells. HNF1 mutation decreased promoter activity in HepG2 cell line but not in C33A cells. We identified a large region that plays a negative regulation role. The regulation of promoter activity is cell type specific. Our study provides new insights into the complex transcriptional regulation of siat1 gene.

  18. Use of rhenium-188 for in vivo imaging and treatment of human cervical cancer cells transfected with lentivirus expressing sodium iodide symporter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Shi, Shuo; Guo, Rui; Miao, Yin; Li, Biao

    2016-10-01

    Although survival rates for cervical cancer have improved, they need further improvement in patients with distant metastases. The sodium iodine symporter (NIS) gene has often been used in cancer therapy and imaging. We examined the therapeutic effects of rhenium-188 (188Re) in a cervical cancer xenograft model expressing the NIS gene under the control of the tumor-specific human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter. We constructed two recombinant lentiviral vectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or the NIS gene driven by the hTERT promoter. To determine the tumor-specific transcriptional activity of the hTERT promoter, the eGFP-expressing vector was stably transfected into tumor cells and normal cells. A cervical cancer HeLa cell line stably expressing NIS (HeLa-TERTNIS) was created and examined in a similar way. HeLa and HeLa-TERTNIS tumor xenografts were transplanted in nude mice, and in vivo 188Re distribution was measured using micro-SPECT/CT imaging. The therapeutic effects of 188Re were assessed over 21 days on the basis of tumor volume and the immunohistochemical findings of excised tumors. eGFP expression controlled by the hTERT promoter was substantially higher in the tumor cells than normal cells. Quantitative PCR and western blotting confirmed that HeLa-TERTNIS cells expressed high levels of NIS mRNA and protein, respectively. Further, 188Re uptake and accumulation were significantly higher in HeLa-TERTNIS cells and xenografts than HeLa cells and xenografts. In vitro and in vivo, 188Re significantly reduced the survival of HeLa-TERTNIS cells and inhibited the growth of HeLa-TERTNIS xenografts, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining showed that HeLa-TERTNIS xenograft tumors expressed higher levels of NIS and caspase-3 and lower levels of Ki-67 than HeLa xenograft tumors. Our findings indicated that hTERT promoter-driven expression of the NIS gene in HeLa cells led to 188Re uptake and therapeutic effects. Thus, NIS

  19. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava) Root

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rakhi; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Chopra, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava) roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5) had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant. PMID:21869896

  20. [Chromosomal instability in carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    de Los Santos-Munive, Victoria; Alonso-Avelino, Juan Angel

    2013-01-01

    In order to spot common chromosomal imbalances in early and late lesions of cervical cancer that might be used as progression biomarkers, we made a search of literature in PubMed from 1996 to 2011. The medical subject headings employed were chromosomal alterations, loss of heterozygosis, cervical cancer, cervical tumorigenesis, chromosomal aberrations, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The common chromosomal imbalances were gains in 8q24 (77.7 %), 20q13 (66.9 %), 3q26 (47.1 %), Xp22 (43.8 %), and 5p15 (60 %), principally. On the other hand, integration of the high-risk human papillomavirus genome into the host chromosome has been associated with the development of neoplasia, but the chromosomal imbalances seem to precede and promote such integration. Chromosomal imbalances in 8q24, 20q13, 3q21-26 and 5p15-Xp22, determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization assay or comparative genomic hybridization assay for early detection of the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus, are promising markers of cervical cancer progression.

  1. Anticancer effects of the engineered stem cells transduced with therapeutic genes via a selective tumor tropism caused by vascular endothelial growth factor toward HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Sun; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Seung U; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) expressing bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) and/or human interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene against HeLa cervical cancer and the migration factors of the GESTECs toward the cancer cells. Anticancer effect of GESTECs was examined in a co-culture with HeLa cells using MTT assay to measure cell viability. A transwell migration assay was performed so as to assess the migration capability of the stem cells to cervical cancer cells. Next, several chemoattractant ligands and their receptors related to a selective migration of the stem cells toward HeLa cells were determined by real-time PCR. The cell viability of HeLa cells was decreased in response to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a prodrug, indicating that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a toxic metabolite, was converted from 5-FC by CD gene and it caused the cell death in a co-culture system. When IFN-β was additionally expressed with CD gene by these GESTECs, the anticancer activity was significantly increased. In the migration assay, the GESTECs selectively migrated to HeLa cervical cancer cells. As results of real-time PCR, chemoattractant ligands such as MCP-1, SCF, and VEGF were expressed in HeLa cells, and several receptors such as uPAR, VEGFR2, and c-kit were produced by the GESTECs. These GESTECs transduced with CD gene and IFN-β may provide a potential of a novel gene therapy for anticervical cancer treatments via their selective tumor tropism derived from VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions between HeLa cells and the GESTECs.

  2. Melatonin sensitizes human cervical cancer HeLa cells to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis: effects on oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Pariente, Roberto; Pariente, José A; Rodríguez, Ana B; Espino, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has antitumor activity via several mechanisms including its antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects as well as its potent antioxidant actions, although recent evidence has indicated that melatonin may perform pro-oxidant actions in tumor cells. Therefore, melatonin may be useful in the treatment of tumors in association with chemotherapy drugs. This study was intended to evaluate the in vitro effect of melatonin on the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic actions of various chemotherapeutic agents in cervical cancer HeLa cells. Herein, we found that both melatonin and three of the chemotherapeutic drugs tested, namely cisplatin (CIS), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and doxorubicin, induced a decrease in HeLa cell viability. Furthermore, melatonin significantly increased the cytotoxic effect of such chemotherapeutic agents. Consistently, costimulation of HeLa cells with any chemotherapeutic agent in the presence of melatonin further increased caspase-3 activation, particularly in CIS- and 5-FU-challenged cells. Likewise, concomitant treatments with melatonin and CIS significantly enhanced the ratio of cells entering mitochondrial apoptosis due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, substantially augmented the population of apoptotic cells, and markedly enlarged DNA fragmentation compared to the treatments with CIS alone. Nonetheless, melatonin only displayed moderate chemosensitizing effects in 5-FU-stimulated HeLa cells, as suggested by slight increments in the percentage of cells stimulated for ROS production and in the proportion of early apoptotic cells compared to the treatments with 5-FU alone. In summary, our findings provided evidence that in vitro melatonin strongly enhances CIS-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HeLa cells and, hence, the indoleamine could be potentially applied to cervical cancer treatment as a powerful synergistic agent.

  3. Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; Kędzia, W.; Kędzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczyński, M.

    2011-12-01

    The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

  4. Downregulation of a novel human gene, ROGDI, increases radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Cho, Jonathan J.; Huang, Tsai-Hua; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Huang, Eng-Yen; Cho, Chung-Lung

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ROGDI is a protein that contains a leucine zipper domain and may be involved in cell proliferation. In addition, ROGDI is associated with genome stability by regulating the activity of a DNA damage marker, γ-H2AX. The role of ROGDI in tumor radiosensitization has not been investigated. Previous studies have indicated that radiosensitivity is associated with DNA repair and the cell cycle. In general, the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint is more sensitive to radiation, whereas the G1/S phase transition is more resistant to radiation. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) can lead to a halt of cell cycle progression and a stay at different phases or checkpoints. Our data show that the downregulation of ROGDI led to a decreased expression of CDK 1, 2, cyclin A, B and resulted in a G2/M phase transition block. In addition, the downregulation of ROGDI increased cell accumulation at the G2 phase as detected using flow cytometry and decreased cell survival as revealed by clonogenic assay in HeLa and C33A cells following irradiation. These findings suggest that the downregulation of ROGDI can mediate radiosensitivity by blocking cells at G2/M, the most radiosensitive phase of the cell cycle, as well as exerting deleterious effects in the form of DNA damage, as shown by increased γ-H2AX activation. PMID:27636029

  5. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P < 0.001), as well as in retrospective studies (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.74–2.74, P < 0.001). Additionally, with a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for HPV and age, C. trachomatis infection was identified as an independent predictor of cervical cancer in 11 studies (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03–3.01, P = 0.04). Coinfection of human papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P < 0.001). A subgroup analysis based on histological type indicated an elevated risk for both squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 2.00–2.45, P < 0.001), and adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21–2.15, P = 0.001), in associated with C. trachomatis. Subgroup analysis by where C. trachomatis infection was detected showed a significantly higher risk of cervical cancer associated with C. trachomatis infection detected in serum (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 2.01–2.42, P < 0.001), cervical tissue blocks (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.21–6.83, P = 0

  6. An overview of prevention and early detection of cervical cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Pimple, Sharmila A.; Shastri, Surendra S.

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer still remains the most common cancer affecting the Indian women. India alone contributes 25.41% and 26.48% of the global burden of cervical cancer cases and mortality, respectively. Ironically, unlike most other cancers, cervical cancer can be prevented through screening by identifying and treating the precancerous lesions, any time during the course of its long natural history, thus preventing the potential progression to cervical carcinoma. Several screening methods, both traditional and newer technologies, are available to screen women for cervical precancers and cancers. No screening test is perfect and hence the choice of screening test will depend on the setting where it is to be used. Similarly, various methods are available for treatment of cervical precancers and the selection will depend on the cost, morbidity, requirement of reliable biopsy specimens, resources available, etc. The recommendations of screening for cervical cancer in the Indian scenario are discussed. PMID:22557777

  7. Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  8. The enhanced inhibitory effect of different antitumor agents in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems on human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Kalantari, Azin; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Róka, Eszter; Fenyvesi, Ferenc; Póka, Róbert; Kozma, Bence; Bácskay, Ildikó

    2015-07-21

    The aim of this study was to develop topical self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing antitumor agents (bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide) and to investigate their inhibitory potential in SMEDDS on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The physicochemical properties of cytostatic drug loaded SMEDDS were characterized. The cytotoxicity of main components of SMEDDS was also investigated. Their IC50 values were determined. HeLa cells were treated by different concentrations of cisplatin, bleomycin and ifosfamide alone and in various SMEDDS. The inhibitory effect on cell growth was analyzed by MTT cell viability assay. Inflammation is a driving force that accelerates cancer development. The inhibitory effect of these antitumor agents has also been tested on HeLa cells in the presence of inflammatory mediators (IL-1-β, TNF-α) as an in vitro model of inflamed human cervix. Significant differences in the cytotoxicity of cytostatic drugs alone and in SMEDDS have been found in a concentration-dependent manner. The self-micro emulsifying system may potentiate the effectiveness of bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide topically. The effect of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents was decreased significantly in the presence of inflammatory mediators. According to our experiments, the optimal SMEDDS formulation is 1:1:2:6:2 ratios of Isopropyl myristate, Capryol 90, Kolliphor RH 40, Cremophor RH40, Transcutol HP and Labrasol. It can be concluded that SMEDDS may increase the inhibitory effect of bleomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Inflammation on HeLa cells hinders the effectiveness of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents. Our results might ensure useful data for development of optimal antitumor formulations.

  9. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Das, Soumen; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cytosensors over a frequency range offers instantaneous and quantitative means to monitor cellular events and is an upcoming technique in real time to classify cells as normal and abnormal ones. This technology is exploited for label-free detection of diseases by identifying and measuring nonbiological parameters of the cell which may carry the disease signature. PMID:27006939

  10. Neuropilin-1 expression identifies a subset of regulatory T cells in human lymph nodes that is modulated by preoperative chemoradiation therapy in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Alessandra; Buzzonetti, Alexia; Monego, Giovanni; Peri, Laura; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Fanfani, Francesco; Scambia, Giovanni; Fattorossi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We examined the phenotype and function of CD4+ T cells expressing the semaphorin III receptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) in human lymph nodes and peripheral blood. In lymph nodes, Nrp1 identified a small regulatory CD4+ CD25(high) T-cell subpopulation (Nrp1+ Treg) that expressed higher levels of Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) message and protein than Nrp1- Treg, and various molecular markers of activated Treg, i.e. CD45RO, human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR). Similarly to conventional Treg, Nrp1+ Treg proliferated poorly in vitro, and exerted contact-dependent in vitro suppression of T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. However, Nrp1+ Treg were more efficient than Nrp1- Treg at inducing suppression. Nrp1 was also expressed on a small subpopulation of CD25(int) and CD25- CD4+ T cells that expressed more Foxp3, CD45RO, HLA-DR and GITR than their Nrp1- counterparts. In contrast, in peripheral blood Nrp1 identified a minor CD4+ T-cell subset that did not display the phenotypic features of Treg lacking Foxp3 expression and marginally expressing CD25. Hence, the function of Nrp1+ CD4+ T cells seemingly depends on their anatomical location. In a previous report, we proposed that Treg may curb the anti-tumour T-cell response in cervical cancer. We show here that Treg and Nrp1+ Treg levels dropped in the tumour-draining lymph nodes of patients with cervical cancer following preoperative chemoradiotherapy in a direct relationship with the reduction of tumour mass, suggesting that suppressor cell elimination facilitated the generation of T cells mediating the destruction of the neoplastic cells left behind after cytotoxic therapy.

  11. Microarray analysis of DNA damage repair gene expression profiles in cervical cancer cells radioresistant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to obtain stable radioresistant sub-lines from the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by prolonged exposure to 252Cf neutron and X-rays. Radioresistance mechanisms were investigated in the resulting cells using microarray analysis of DNA damage repair genes. Methods HeLa cells were treated with fractionated 252Cf neutron and X-rays, with a cumulative dose of 75 Gy each, over 8 months, yielding the sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR. Radioresistant characteristics were detected by clone formation assay, ultrastructural observations, cell doubling time, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis assay. Gene expression patterns of the radioresistant sub-lines were studied through microarray analysis and verified by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Results The radioresistant sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR were more radioresisitant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays than parental HeLa cells by detecting their radioresistant characteristics, respectively. Compared to HeLa cells, the expression of 24 genes was significantly altered by at least 2-fold in HeLaNR cells. Of these, 19 genes were up-regulated and 5 down-regulated. In HeLaXR cells, 41 genes were significantly altered by at least 2-fold; 38 genes were up-regulated and 3 down-regulated. Conclusions Chronic exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces adaptive responses that enhance tolerance of ionizing radiation and allow investigations of cellular radioresistance mechanisms. The insights gained into the molecular mechanisms activated by these "radioresistance" genes will lead to new therapeutic targets for cervical cancer. PMID:20184742

  12. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol’s iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

  13. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-10-10

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented.

  14. Chan-Yu-Bao-Yuan-Tang and 5-fluorouracil synergistically induce apoptosis by means of the caspase-3 signaling pathway in lung and cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Li, Yuncheng; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yekai; Zhou, Shiquan; Zhu, Wangyu; Huang, Yanyan; Zhou, Jiehang; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Yongkui

    2011-01-01

    Previous clinical studies have shown the safety and efficacy of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbal aqueous extract Chan-Yu-Bao-Yuan-Tang (CYBYT) for the treatment of lung and cervical cancer patients. Used in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), CYBYT has been observed to be particularly effective in cancer treatment. Herein, the combined anticancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of 5-Fu and CYBYT in the human lung cancer cell line A549 and the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa were investigated in vitro. The MTT assay, Annexin V-FITC staining and Western blotting were applied to identify cell viability, the stages of apoptosis and the expression of signaling proteins, respectively. The results indicated that CYBYT and 5-Fu, alone or in combination, significantly inhibited proliferation and induced marked apoptosis in A549 and HeLa cells, but had no significant inhibitory effects on normal human IMR-90 fibroblasts. The rate of mid and late apoptosis or necrosis was greater after 5-Fu treatment compared to treatment with CYBYT or the combination of agents; however, the early apoptotic rate showed opposite results. CYBYT and 5-Fu, alone or in combination, up-regulated cleaved caspase-3 expression in a time-dependent manner, with CYBYT being more effective than 5-Fu. Taken together, our data show that the pro-apoptotic activity of the two-drug combination was much stronger than that of CYBYT or 5-Fu alone; CYBYT combined with 5-Fu had synergistic effects at lower concentrations and promoted apoptosis, while the combined treatment also decreased the cytotoxic side effects of 5-Fu.

  15. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  17. Meta-analysis of type-specific human papillomavirus prevalence in Iranian women with normal cytology, precancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer: Implications for screening and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Tohidi, Hamid Reza; Hamkar, Rasool

    2015-02-01

    To predict the impact of current vaccines on cervical cancer and for the improvement of screening programs, regional data on distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with or without cervical cancer is crucial. The present meta-analysis intend to comprehensively evaluate the HPV burden in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology, as these data will help decision making in regards with screening programs and HPV vaccination in Iran. To determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in Iranian women with or without cervical cancer, 20 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. In total, 713, 124, 104, 60, and 2577 women invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal were reviewed, respectively. Overall HPV prevalence in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology were 77.4%, 71.8%, 65.3%, 61.7%, and 8.4%, respectively. The six most common types were HPV 16, 18, 6/11, 31, and 33; among them HPV 16 was the most frequent type in all five different groups. According to this study, it was estimated that HPV vaccines could have a great impact on prevention of cervical cancer in Iran. In conclusion, this meta-analysis highlights the necessity of introducing vaccination program in Iran.

  18. Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Cervical Cancer Cell-Induced Angiogenesis in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Changtam, Chatchawan

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the important in vivo metabolites of curcumin, inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Its effects on angiogenesis in cervical cancer- (CaSki-) implanted nude mice and its mechanisms on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were investigated. Female BALB/c nude mice were divided into control (CON) and CaSki-implanted groups (CaSki group). One month after the injection with cervical cancer cells, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. The microvascular density (MVD) was evaluated using the CD31 expression. VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. The MVD in CaSki + vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the CON + vehicle group. Interestingly, when treated with THC at all doses, the CaSki group showed a significant smaller number of the MVD. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expressions, but they were downregulated when mice were treated with THC at all doses. THC demonstrated an inhibitory effect against tumor angiogenesis in CaSki-implanted nude mice model. This effect is likely to be mediated by the downregulation of HIF-1-α, VEGF expression, and its receptor. THC could be developed into a promising agent for cancer therapy in the future. PMID:25789317

  19. Effects of tetrahydrocurcumin on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cervical cancer cell-induced angiogenesis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Changtam, Chatchawan

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the important in vivo metabolites of curcumin, inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Its effects on angiogenesis in cervical cancer- (CaSki-) implanted nude mice and its mechanisms on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were investigated. Female BALB/c nude mice were divided into control (CON) and CaSki-implanted groups (CaSki group). One month after the injection with cervical cancer cells, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. The microvascular density (MVD) was evaluated using the CD31 expression. VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. The MVD in CaSki + vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the CON + vehicle group. Interestingly, when treated with THC at all doses, the CaSki group showed a significant smaller number of the MVD. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expressions, but they were downregulated when mice were treated with THC at all doses. THC demonstrated an inhibitory effect against tumor angiogenesis in CaSki-implanted nude mice model. This effect is likely to be mediated by the downregulation of HIF-1-α, VEGF expression, and its receptor. THC could be developed into a promising agent for cancer therapy in the future.

  20. Requirement for Estrogen Receptor Alpha in a Mouse Model for Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Wiedmeyer, Kerri; Shai, Anny; Korach, Kenneth S.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of human cervical cancers are associated with the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which encode the potent E6 and E7 oncogenes. Upon prolonged treatment with physiological levels of exogenous estrogen, K14E7 transgenic mice expressing HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein in their squamous epithelia succumb to uterine cervical cancer. Furthermore, prolonged withdrawal of exogenous estrogen results in complete or partial regression of tumors in this mouse model. In the current study we investigated whether estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is required for the development of cervical cancer in K14E7 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that exogenous estrogen fails to promote either dysplasia or cervical cancer in K14E7/ERα−/− mice despite the continued presence of the presumed cervical cancer precursor cell type, reserve cells, and evidence for E7 expression therein. We also observed that cervical cancers in our mouse models are strictly associated with atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM), which is believed to be the precursor for cervical cancer in women. Consistently, E7 and exogenous estrogen failed to promote ASM in the absence of ERα. We conclude that ERα plays a crucial role at an early stage of cervical carcinogenesis in this mouse model. PMID:19047174

  1. Securinine from Phyllanthus glaucus Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława; Ochocka, J. Renata

    2016-01-01

    Background The Securinega-type alkaloids occur in plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae family. One of the most widely distributed alkaloid of this group is securinine, which was identified next to allosecurinine in Phyllanthus glaucus (leafflower). Recently, some Securinega-type alkaloids have paid attention to its antiproliferative potency towards different cancer cells. However, the cytotoxic properties of allosecurinine have not yet been evaluated. Methods The cytotoxicity of the extract, alkaloid fraction obtained from P. glaucus, isolated securinine and allosecurinine against HeLa cells was evaluated by real-time xCELLigence system and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V and 7-amino-actinomycin (7-AAD) staining and confirmed with fluorescent Hoechst 33342 dye. The assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the level of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), caspase-3/7 activity and cell cycle analysis were measured by flow cytometry. The enzymatic activity of caspase-9 was assessed by a luminometric assay. The expression of apoptosis associated genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Results The experimental data revealed that securinine and the alkaloid fraction were significantly potent on HeLa cells growth inhibition with IC50 values of 7.02 ± 0.52 μg/ml (32.3 μM) and 25.46 ± 1.79 μg/ml, respectively. The activity of allosecurinine and Phyllanthus extract were much lower. Furthermore, our study showed that the most active securinine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the tested cells, increased the percentage of ROS positive cells and depolarized cells as well as stimulated the activity of ERK1/2, caspase-9 and -3/7. Securinine also induced cell cycle arrest in S phase. Real-time PCR analysis showed high expression of TNFRSF genes in the cells stimulated with securinine. Conclusions Securinine

  2. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Cancer.gov

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  3. A systematic study on dysregulated microRNAs in cervical cancer development.

    PubMed

    He, Yuqing; Lin, Juanjuan; Ding, Yuanlin; Liu, Guodong; Luo, Yanhong; Huang, Mingyuan; Xu, Chengkai; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Etheridge, Alton; Lin, Mi; Kong, Danli; Wang, Kai

    2016-03-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that modulate the transcriptome and proteome at the post-transcriptional level. To obtain a better understanding on the role of miRNAs in the progression of cervical cancer, meta-analysis and gene set enrichment analysis were used to analyze published cervical cancer miRNA studies. From 85 published reports, which include 3,922 cases and 2,099 noncancerous control tissue samples, 63 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified in different stages of cervical cancer development (CIN 1-3 and CC). It was found that some of the dysregulated miRNAs were associated with specific stages of cervical cancer development. To illustrate the impact of miRNAs on the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network on selected pathways was built by integrating viral oncoproteins, dysregulated miRNAs and their predicted/validated targets. The results indicated that the deregulated miRNAs at the different stages of cervical cancer were functionally involved in several key cancer related pathways, such as cell cycle, p53 and Wnt signaling pathways. These dysregulated miRNAs could play an important role in cervical cancer development. Some of the stage-specific miRNAs can also be used as biomarkers for cancer classification and monitoring the progression of cancer development.

  4. Synthesis of 26-hydroxy-22-oxocholestanic frameworks from diosgenin and hecogenin and their in vitro antiproliferative and apoptotic activity on human cervical cancer CaSki cells.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Herrera, María A; López-Muñoz, Hugo; Hernández-Vázquez, José M V; López-Dávila, Moisés; Escobar-Sánchez, María L; Sánchez-Sánchez, Luis; Pinto, B Mario; Sandoval-Ramírez, Jesús

    2010-04-01

    Certain steroidal compounds have demonstrated an antiproliferative effect against several tumor cell lines; however, their complete role on cancer cells is not currently established. Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of two new 26-hydroxy-22-oxocholestanic steroids on cervical cancer CaSki cells. The title compounds were prepared from diosgenin and hecogenin in excellent yields. We determined their effect on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell death. The cytotoxic effect of the title compounds on CaSki and human lymphocytes was also evaluated, indicating that the main cell death process is not necrosis; the null effect on lymphocytes implies that they are not cytotoxic. The observation of apoptotic bodies as well as the increase in the expression of active caspase-3 along with the fragmentation of DNA confirmed that such new cholestanic frameworks induced apoptosis in tumor cells. Significantly, their antiproliferative activity on tumor cells did not affect the proliferative potential of normal fibroblasts from cervix and peripheral blood lymphocytes. The title compounds show selective antitumor activity and therefore serve as promising lead candidates for further optimization.

  5. Long noncoding RNA PVT1 promotes cervical cancer progression through epigenetically silencing miR-200b.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaorong; Zhang, Guanli; Liu, Jingying

    2016-08-01

    Long noncoding RNA PVT1 has been reported to be dysregulated and play vital roles in a variety of cancers. However, the functions and molecular mechanisms of PVT1 in cervical cancer remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression, clinical significance, biological roles, and underlying functional mechanisms of PVT1 in cervical cancer. Our results revealed that PVT1 is upregulated in cervical cancer tissues. Enhanced expression of PVT1 is associated with larger tumor size, advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, and poor prognosis of cervical cancer patients. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrated that overexpression of PVT1 promotes cervical cancer cells proliferation, cell cycle progression and migration, and depletion of PVT1 inhibits cervical cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and migration. Mechanistically, we verified that PVT1 binds to EZH2, recruits EZH2 to the miR-200b promoter, increases histone H3K27 trimethylation level on the miR-200b promoter, and inhibits miR-200b expression. Furthermore, the effects of PVT1 on cervical cell proliferation and migration depend upon silencing of miR-200b. Taken together, our findings confirmed that PVT1 functions as an oncogene in cervical cancer and indicated that PVT1 is not only an important prognostic marker, but also a potential therapy target for cervical cancer.

  6. Recommendations for a national agenda to substantially reduce cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Noel T.; Saslow, Debbie; Alexander, Kenneth; Chernofsky, Mildred R.; Crosby, Richard; Derting, Libby; Devlin, Leah; Dunton, Charles J.; Engle, Jeffrey; Fernandez, Maria; Fouad, Mona; Huh, Warner; Kinney, Walter; Pierce, Jennifer; Rios, Elena; Rothholz, Mitchel C.; Shlay, Judith C.; Shedd-Steele, Rivienne; Vernon, Sally W.; Walker, Joan; Wynn, Theresa; Zimet, Gregory D.; Casey, Baretta R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and new HPV screening tests, combined with traditional Pap test screening, provide an unprecedented opportunity to greatly reduce cervical cancer in the USA. Despite these advances, thousands of women continue to be diagnosed with and die of this highly preventable disease each year. This paper describes the initiatives and recommendations of national cervical cancer experts toward preventing and possibly eliminating this disease. Methods In May 2011, Cervical Cancer-Free America, a national initiative, convened a cervical cancer summit in Washington, DC. Over 120 experts from the public and private sector met to develop a national agenda for reducing cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in the USA. Results Summit participants evaluated four broad challenges to reducing cervical cancer: (1) low use of HPV vaccines, (2) low use of cervical cancer screening, (3) screening errors, and (4) lack of continuity of care for women diagnosed with cervical cancer. The summit offered 12 concrete recommendations to guide future national and local efforts toward this goal. Conclusions Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be greatly reduced by better deploying existing methods and systems. The challenge lies in ensuring that the array of available prevention options are accessible and utilized by all age-appropriate women—particularly minority and underserved women who are disproportionately affected by this disease. The consensus was that cervical cancer can be greatly reduced and that prevention efforts can lead the way towards a dramatic reduction in this preventable disease in our country. PMID:23828553

  7. DeltaNp63alpha repression of the Notch1 gene supports the proliferative capacity of normal human keratinocytes and cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yugawa, Takashi; Narisawa-Saito, Mako; Yoshimatsu, Yuki; Haga, Kei; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Egawa, Nagayasu; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2010-05-15

    The p53 family member p63 is a master regulator of epithelial development. One of its isoforms, DeltaNp63alpha, is predominantly expressed in the basal cells of stratified epithelia and plays a fundamental role in control of regenerative potential and epithelial integrity. In contrast to p53, p63 is rarely mutated in human cancers, but it is frequently overexpressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). However, its functional relevance to tumorigenesis remains largely unclear. We previously identified the Notch1 gene as a novel transcriptional target of p53. Here, we show that DeltaNp63alpha functions as a transcriptional repressor of the Notch1 gene through the p53-responsive element. Knockdown of p63 caused upregulation of Notch1 expression and marked reduction in proliferation and clonogenicity of both normal human keratinocytes and cervical cancer cell lines overexpressing DeltaNp63alpha. Concomitant silencing of Notch1 significantly rescued this phenotype, indicating the growth defect induced by p63 deficiency to be, at least in part, attributable to Notch1 function. Conversely, overexpression of DeltaNp63alpha decreased basal levels of Notch1, increased proliferative potential of normal human keratinocytes, and inhibited both p53-dependent and p53-independent induction of Notch1 and differentiation markers upon genotoxic stress and serum exposure, respectively. These results suggest that DeltaNp63alpha maintains the self-renewing capacity of normal human keratinocytes and cervical cancer cells partly through transcriptional repression of the Notch1 gene and imply a novel pathogenetical significance of frequently observed overexpression of DeltaNp63alpha together with p53 inactivation in SCCs.

  8. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  9. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa).

    PubMed

    Santos, P A S R; Avanço, G B; Nerilo, S B; Marcelino, R I A; Janeiro, V; Valadares, M C; Machinski, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells.

  10. Assessment of Cytotoxic Activity of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) Essential Oils in Cervical Cancer Cells (HeLa)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, P. A. S. R.; Avanço, G. B.; Nerilo, S. B.; Marcelino, R. I. A.; Janeiro, V.; Valadares, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of rosemary (REO, Rosmarinus officinalis L.), turmeric (CEO, Curcuma longa L.), and ginger (GEO, Zingiber officinale R.) essential oils in HeLa cells. Cytotoxicity tests were performed in vitro, using tetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red assays for evaluation of antiproliferative activity by different mechanisms, trypan blue assay to assess cell viability and evaluation of cell morphology for Giemsa to observe the cell damage, and Annexin V to evaluate cell death by apoptosis. CEO and GEO exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells. IC50 obtained was 36.6 μg/mL for CEO and 129.9 μg/mL for GEO. The morphology of HeLa cells showed condensation of chromatin, loss of cell membrane integrity with protrusions (blebs), and cell content leakage for cells treated with CEO and GEO, from the lowest concentrations studied, 32.81 μg/mL of CEO and 32.12 μg/mL of GEO. The Annexin V assay revealed a profile of cell death by apoptosis for both CEO and GEO. The results indicate cytotoxic activity in vitro for CEO and GEO, suggesting potential use as anticancer agents for cervical cancer cells. PMID:28042599

  11. Expression of cancer stem markers could be influenced by silencing of p16 gene in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Zhang, J; Shi, H

    2016-01-01

    Effect of the tumor suppression gene p16 on the biological characteristics of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was explored. The expression of p16 protein was increased in HeLa tumor sphere cells, and no significant difference in tumor spheres from the first to the fourth passages. Compared with those of parental HeLa cells, the proportion of CD44+/CD24- and ABCG2+ cells increased significantly in tumor spheres. However after the cells were silenced by the p16-sh289 vector, expression of P16 protein and the cell number of CD44+/CD24- and ABCG2+ decreased. Moreover, HeLa cells with p16 gene silencing showed decreased abilities of sphere formation and matrigel invasion. More HeLa cells with p16 gene silence were needed for tumor formation in nude mice. Tumor size and weight in mouse model established with p16 gene silenced HeLa cells were less than those with HeLa parental cell model. The present results indicate that silencing of the p16 gene inhibits expression of cancer stem cell markers and tumorigenic ability of HeLa cells.

  12. Update knowledge on cervical cancer incidence and prevalence in Asia.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Naheed; Ahmad, Saeed; Fatima, Urooj; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide, with over 500,000 new cases diagnosed annually and 50% mortality rate in Asia. In the United States, approximately 10,370 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed annually, and estimated 3,710 deaths occur from the disease, making it the sixth most common cause of malignancy among American women. This study aims to provide awareness about cervical cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the prevalence and incidence of cervical cancer in Asia.

  13. The Hippo/YAP pathway interacts with EGFR signaling and HPV oncoproteins to regulate cervical cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunbo; Mao, Dagan; Hua, Guohua; Lv, Xiangmin; Chen, Xingcheng; Angeletti, Peter C; Dong, Jixin; Remmenga, Steven W; Rodabaugh, Kerry J; Zhou, Jin; Lambert, Paul F; Yang, Peixin; Davis, John S; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size and tumorigenesis through a kinase cascade that inactivates Yes-associated protein (YAP). Here, we show that YAP plays a central role in controlling the progression of cervical cancer. Our results suggest that YAP expression is associated with a poor prognosis for cervical cancer. TGF-α and amphiregulin (AREG), via EGFR, inhibit the Hippo signaling pathway and activate YAP to induce cervical cancer cell proliferation and migration. Activated YAP allows for up-regulation of TGF-α, AREG, and EGFR, forming a positive signaling loop to drive cervical cancer cell proliferation. HPV E6 protein, a major etiological molecule of cervical cancer, maintains high YAP protein levels in cervical cancer cells by preventing proteasome-dependent YAP degradation to drive cervical cancer cell proliferation. Results from human cervical cancer genomic databases and an accepted transgenic mouse model strongly support the clinical relevance of the discovered feed-forward signaling loop. Our study indicates that combined targeting of the Hippo and the ERBB signaling pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26417066

  14. Development of an Expert System as a Diagnostic Support of Cervical Cancer in Atypical Glandular Cells, Based on Fuzzy Logics and Image Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez Hernández, Karem R.; Aguilar Lasserre, Alberto A.; Posada Gómez, Rubén; Palet Guzmán, José A.; González Sánchez, Blanca E.

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN) precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC). The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1) risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient's clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2) cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM) and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3) determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL) model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN. PMID:23690881

  15. Development of an expert system as a diagnostic support of cervical cancer in atypical glandular cells, based on fuzzy logics and image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Domínguez Hernández, Karem R; Aguilar Lasserre, Alberto A; Posada Gómez, Rubén; Palet Guzmán, José A; González Sánchez, Blanca E

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of death among women worldwide. Nowadays, this disease is preventable and curable at low cost and low risk when an accurate diagnosis is done in due time, since it is the neoplasm with the highest prevention potential. This work describes the development of an expert system able to provide a diagnosis to cervical neoplasia (CN) precursor injuries through the integration of fuzzy logics and image interpretation techniques. The key contribution of this research focuses on atypical cases, specifically on atypical glandular cells (AGC). The expert system consists of 3 phases: (1) risk diagnosis which consists of the interpretation of a patient's clinical background and the risks for contracting CN according to specialists; (2) cytology images detection which consists of image interpretation (IM) and the Bethesda system for cytology interpretation, and (3) determination of cancer precursor injuries which consists of in retrieving the information from the prior phases and integrating the expert system by means of a fuzzy logics (FL) model. During the validation stage of the system, 21 already diagnosed cases were tested with a positive correlation in which 100% effectiveness was obtained. The main contribution of this work relies on the reduction of false positives and false negatives by providing a more accurate diagnosis for CN.

  16. Overexpression of TRIM24 is correlated with the progression of human cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Zhao, Weihua; Sun, Bo; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    TRIM24, originally known as intermediary factor 1-alpha, is involved in the development of several cancers. This study aimed to evaluate the expression level and prognostic value of TRIM24 in cervical cancer. In the present study, we showed that the expression of TRIM24 was markedly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and cancerous specimens at both transcriptional and translational levels. TRIM24 expression was analyzed in 147 archived cervical cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between TRIM24 expression and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Statistical analysis suggested that TRIM24 expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage and (P=0.007) and lymphatic metastasis (P=0.001). Patients with higher TRIM24 expression had shorter overall (P=0.005) and recurrence-free (P=0.011) survival time. Moreover, we found that silencing TRIM24 by short hairpin RNAi caused an inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Further study indicated that TRIM24 induced cervical cancer cell migration and invasion was through the NF-κB and AKT signaling pathways. In conclusion, TRIM24 is overexpressed in cervical cancer and regulates malignant cell metastasis, which makes TRIM24 a candidate therapeutic target for cervical cancer. PMID:28337289

  17. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR is associated with human cervical cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Dae Woo; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-02-01

    The functions of many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human cancers remain to be clarified. The lncRNA Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has been reported to reprogram chromatin organization and promote breast and colorectal cancer metastasis, the involvement of lncRNAs in cervical cancer is just beginning to be studied. In the present study, we examined the expression and the functional role of HOTAIR in cervical cancer. HOTAIR expression was determined in cervical cancer tissues (n=111) and corresponding normal tissues (n=40) by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and its correlation with clinical parameters and prognosis were analyzed. To determine the effect of HOTAIR knockdown and overexpression in cervical cancer cell lines, we used the CCK-8 assay, wound healing migration and matrigel invasion assay. The expression level of HOTAIR in cervical cancer tissues was higher than that in corresponding non-cancerous tissues. High HOTAIR expression correlated with lymph node metastasis, and reduced overall survival. A multivariate analysis showed that HOTAIR was a prognostic factor for predicting cervical cancer recurrence. Knockdown of HOTAIR reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in cervical cancer cell lines. Moreover, HOTAIR regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, which are important for cell motility and metastasis. Therefore, HOTAIR may promote tumor aggressiveness through the upregulation of VEGF and MMP-9 and EMT-related genes. These findings indicate that HOTAIR may represent a novel biomarker for predicting recurrence and prognosis and serve as a promising therapeutic target in cervical cancer.

  18. Effects of A.marina-Derived Isoquercitrin on TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptor (TRAIL-R) Expression and Apoptosis Induction in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sathishkumar; Bandil, Kapil; Proksch, Peter; Murugiyan, Kalaiselvam; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

    2016-12-24

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an anticancer agent, which has greater apoptosis inducing capacity, but most of the cancer cells become resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The combined treatment of TRAIL with natural products could restore the cancer cell sensitivity to recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) protein and might enhance the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R) expression. This investigation was aimed to isolate flavonoids from leaves of Avicennia marina and evaluate their potential for sensitization of rhTRAIL in human cervical cancer cells (SiHa). The methanolic extract of A.marina leaves were purified and structure was elucidated as isoquercitrin by NMR and LC-MS analysis. Isolated isoquercitrin showed cytotoxicity against SiHa cell line at IC50 of 980 μM. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of TRAIL-Rs was quantified by qRT-PCR, combination of isoquercitrin, and/or rhTRAIL increased TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 gene expression by 7 folds and 4 folds, respectively. Also, FACS assay revealed that combined treatment has increased the early apoptosis up to 7.24%. In the present study, we found that isoquercitrin enhances the mRNA expression of TRAIL-Rs, but the percentage of apoptosis was meager, possibly due to the influence of other anti-apoptotic proteins.

  19. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis Inducing Effects of Non-Polar Fractions from Lawsonia inermis L. in Cervical (HeLa) Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Kaur, Paramjeet; Kumar, Subodh; Kaur, Satwinderjeet

    2015-04-01

    Two non-polar fractions viz. hexane (Hex-LI) and chloroform fraction (CHCl3-LI) of Lawsonia inermis were studied for their antiproliferative potential in various cancer cell lines viz. HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and C6 glioma cells. Both the fractions showed more than 60 % of growth inhibition in all the tested cell lines at highest tested concentration. In clonogenic assay, different concentrations of Hex-LI and CHCl3-LI decreased the number and size of colonies as compared to control in HeLa cells. The apoptotic effects as nuclear condensation, fragmentation were visualized with Hoechst-33342 staining of HeLa cells using confocal microscope. Both fractions induced apoptotic cell death in human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells as evident from flow cytometric analysis carried out using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide dyes. CHCl3-LI treated cells significantly induced apoptosis (25.43 %) in comparison to control. Results from Neutral Comet assay demonstrated that both fractions induced double stranded breaks (DSB's) in HeLa cells. Our data indicated that Hex-LI and CHCl3-LI treated cells showed significant increase of 32.2 and 18.56 % reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in DCFH-DA assay respectively. Further, experimental studies to decipher exact pathway via which these fractions induce cell death are in progress.

  20. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 facilitates cervical cancer progression in human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi Hong; Wright, Jason D; Belt, Brian; Cardiff, Robert D; Arbeit, Jeffrey M

    2007-08-01

    Advanced cervical cancer remains a vexing clinical challenge despite screening programs. Many of these cancers are hypoxic, and expression of the alpha subunit of the major regulator of the hypoxic cellular response, the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), is correlated with poor prognosis. Here, we tested a functional role for HIF-1alpha in pathogenesis of cervical cancer in estrogen-treated transgenic mice. Double-transgenic (DTG) mice developed locally invasive cervical cancers 70 times larger than K14-HPV16 mice. In vivo bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was elevated in DTG cancers without a significant increase in apoptosis. HIF-1alpha gain of function did not up-regulate canonical HIF-1 targets in premalignant DTG cervices, in contrast to elevation of these targets in K14-HIF-1alpha transgenic cervices. The DTG transcriptional signature included up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cytokines and chemokines, immune signaling molecules, extracellular proteases, and cell motility factors, as well as reduced expression of cell adhesion and epithelial differentiation genes. Importantly, a set of gene markers derived from the DTG transcriptome predicted cervical cancer progression in patients. This study suggests a novel paradigm for HIF-1 function evident in multistage carcinogenesis as opposed to established malignancies, including interaction with viral oncogenes to induce multiple genomic networks in premalignancy that fosters the development of advanced cervical cancer.

  1. Anticancer effects of brominated indole alkaloid Eudistomin H from marine ascidian Eudistoma viride against cervical cancer cells (HeLa).

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Rajaian Pushpabai; Annappan, Murugan

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates called ascidians are prolific producers of bioactive substances. The ascidian Eudistoma viride, distributed along the Southeast coast of India, was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells by the MTT assay. The crude methanolic extract of E. viride, with an IC50 of 53 μg/ml, was dose-dependently cytotoxic. It was more potent at 100 μg/ml than cyclohexamide (1 μg/ml), reducing cell viability to 9.2%. Among nine fractions separated by chromatography, ECF-8 exhibited prominent cytoxic activity at 10 μg/ml. The HPLC fraction EHF-21 of ECF-8 was remarkably dose- and time-dependently cytotoxic, with 39.8% viable cells at 1 μg/ml compared to 51% in cyclohexamide-treated cells at the same concentration; the IC50 was 0.49 μg/ml. Hoechst staining of HeLa cells treated with EHF-21 at 0.5 μg/ml revealed apoptotic events such an cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Cell size and granularity study showed changes in light scatter, indicating the characteristic feature of cells dying by apoptosis. The cell-cycle analysis of HeLa cells treated with fraction EHF-21 at 1 μg/ml showed the marked arrest of cells in G0/G1, S and G2/M phases and an increase in the sub G0/G1 population indicated an increase in the apoptotic cell population. The statistical analysis of the sub-G1 region showed a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was also observed in HeLa cells treated with EHF-21. The active EHF-21 fraction, a brominated indole alkaloid Eudistomin H, led to apoptotic death of HeLa cells.

  2. Multiple biomarkers in molecular oncology. I. Molecular diagnostics applications in cervical cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Douglas P

    2007-03-01

    The screening for cervical carcinoma and its malignant precursors (cervical neoplasia) currently employs morphology-based detection methods (Papanicolaou [Pap] smear) in addition to the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus. The combination of the Pap smear with human papillomavirus testing has achieved significant improvements in sensitivity for the detection of cervical disease. Diagnosis of cervical neoplasia is dependent upon histology assessment of cervical biopsy specimens. Attempts to improve the specificity of cervical disease screening have focused on the investigation of molecular biomarkers for adjunctive use in combination with the Pap smear. Active research into the genomic and proteomic alterations that occur during human papillomavirus-induced neoplastic transformation have begun to characterize some of the basic mechanisms inherent to the disease process of cervical cancer development. This research continues to demonstrate the complexity of multiple genomic and proteomic alterations that accumulate during the tumorigenesis process. Despite this diversity, basic patterns of uncontrolled signal transduction, cell cycle deregulation, activation of DNA replication and altered extracellular matrix interactions are beginning to emerge as common features inherent to cervical cancer development. Some of these gene or protein expression alterations have been investigated as potential biomarkers for screening and diagnostics applications. The contribution of multiple gene alterations in the development of cervical cancer suggests that the application of multiple biomarker panels has the potential to develop clinically useful molecular diagnostics. In this review, the application of biomarkers for the improvement of sensitivity and specificity of the detection of cervical neoplasia within cytology specimens will be discussed.

  3. Suppression of HPV E6 and E7 expression by BAF53 depletion in cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Ah-Young; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Kwon, Hyockman

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Integration of HPV into host genome critical for activation of E6 and E7 oncogenes. {yields} BAF53 is essential for higher-order chromatin structure. {yields} BAF53 knockdown suppresses E6 and E7 from HPV integrants, but not from episomal HPVs. {yields} BAF53 knockdown decreases H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18. {yields} BAF53 knockdown restores the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. -- Abstract: Deregulation of the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 plays a pivotal role in cervical carcinogenesis because the E6 and E7 proteins neutralize p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways, respectively. In approximately 90% of all cervical carcinomas, HPVs are found to be integrated into the host genome. Following integration, the core-enhancer element and P105 promoter that control expression of E6 and E7 adopt a chromatin structure that is different from that of episomal HPV, and this has been proposed to contribute to activation of E6 and E7 expression. However, the molecular basis underlying this chromatin structural change remains unknown. Previously, BAF53 has been shown to be essential for the integrity of higher-order chromatin structure and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we examined whether BAF53 is required for activated expression of E6 and E7 genes. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to suppression of expression of E6 and E7 genes from HPV integrants in cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa and SiHa. Conversely, expression of transiently transfected HPV18-LCR-Luciferase was not suppressed by BAF53 knockdown. The level of the active histone marks H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on the P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18 was decreased in BAF53 knockdown cells. BAF53 knockdown restored the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. These results suggest that activated expression of the E6 and E7 genes of integrated HPV is dependent on BAF53-dependent higher-order chromatin

  4. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented. PMID:26557875

  5. A major constituent of green tea, EGCG, inhibits the growth of a human cervical cancer cell line, CaSki cells, through apoptosis, G(1) arrest, and regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woong Shick; Huh, Seung Won; Bae, Su-Mi; Lee, Insu P; Lee, Jun Mo; Namkoong, Sung Eun; Kim, Chong Kook; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2003-03-01

    A constituent of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been known to possess antiproliferative properties. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EGCG in human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 associated cervical cancer cell line, CaSki cells. The growth inhibitory mechanism(s) and regulation of gene expression by EGCG were also evaluated. EGCG showed growth inhibitory effects in CaSki cells in a dose-dependent fashion, with an inhibitory dose (ID)(50) of approximately 35 microM. When CaSki cells were further tested for EGCG-induced apoptosis, apoptotic cells were significantly observed after 24 h at 100 microM EGCG. In contrast, an insignificant induction of apoptotic cells was observed at 35 microM EGCG. However, cell cycles at the G1 phase were arrested at 35 microM EGCG, suggesting that cell cycle arrests might precede apoptosis. When CaSki cells were tested for their gene expression using 384 cDNA microarray, an alteration in the gene expression was observed by EGCG treatment. EGCG downregulated the expression of 16 genes over time more than twofold. In contrast, EGCG upregulated the expression of four genes more than twofold, suggesting a possible gene regulatory role of EGCG. This data supports that EGCG can inhibit cervical cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as regulation of gene expression in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo antitumor effects of EGCG were also observed. Thus, EGCG likely provides an additional option for a new and potential drug approach for cervical cancer patients.

  6. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  7. Cationic PEGylated liposomes incorporating an antimicrobial peptide tilapia hepcidin 2-3: an adjuvant of epirubicin to overcome multidrug resistance in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Juang, Vivian; Lee, Hsin-Pin; Lin, Anya Maan-Yuh; Lo, Yu-Li

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been recently evaluated as a new generation of adjuvants in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we designed PEGylated liposomes encapsulating epirubicin as an antineoplastic agent and tilapia hepcidin 2-3, an AMP, as a multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter suppressor and an apoptosis/autophagy modulator in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with PEGylated liposomal formulation of epirubicin and hepcidin 2-3 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of epirubicin. The liposomal formulations of epirubicin and/or hepcidin 2-3 were found to noticeably escalate the intracellular H2O2 and O2(-) levels of cancer cells. Furthermore, these treatments considerably reduced the mRNA expressions of MDR protein 1, MDR-associated protein (MRP) 1, and MRP2. The addition of hepcidin 2-3 in liposomes was shown to markedly enhance the intracellular epirubicin uptake and mainly localized into the nucleus. Moreover, this formulation was also found to trigger apoptosis and autophagy in HeLa cells, as validated by significant increases in the expressions of cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase, caspase-3, caspase-9, and light chain 3 (LC3)-II, as well as a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. The apoptosis induction was also confirmed by the rise in sub-G1 phase of cell cycle assay and apoptosis percentage of annexin V/propidium iodide assay. We found that liposomal epirubicin and hepcidin 2-3 augmented the accumulation of GFP-LC3 puncta as amplified by chloroquine, implying the involvement of autophagy. Interestingly, the partial inhibition of necroptosis and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by this combination was also verified. Altogether, our results provide evidence that coincubation with PEGylated liposomes of hepcidin 2-3 and epirubicin caused programmed cell death in cervical cancer cells through modulation of multiple signaling pathways, including MDR transporters, apoptosis, autophagy, and/or necroptosis

  8. Cationic PEGylated liposomes incorporating an antimicrobial peptide tilapia hepcidin 2–3: an adjuvant of epirubicin to overcome multidrug resistance in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Vivian; Lee, Hsin-Pin; Lin, Anya Maan-Yuh; Lo, Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been recently evaluated as a new generation of adjuvants in cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we designed PEGylated liposomes encapsulating epirubicin as an antineoplastic agent and tilapia hepcidin 2–3, an AMP, as a multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter suppressor and an apoptosis/autophagy modulator in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with PEGylated liposomal formulation of epirubicin and hepcidin 2–3 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of epirubicin. The liposomal formulations of epirubicin and/or hepcidin 2–3 were found to noticeably escalate the intracellular H2O2 and O2− levels of cancer cells. Furthermore, these treatments considerably reduced the mRNA expressions of MDR protein 1, MDR-associated protein (MRP) 1, and MRP2. The addition of hepcidin 2–3 in liposomes was shown to markedly enhance the intracellular epirubicin uptake and mainly localized into the nucleus. Moreover, this formulation was also found to trigger apoptosis and autophagy in HeLa cells, as validated by significant increases in the expressions of cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase, caspase-3, caspase-9, and light chain 3 (LC3)-II, as well as a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. The apoptosis induction was also confirmed by the rise in sub-G1 phase of cell cycle assay and apoptosis percentage of annexin V/propidium iodide assay. We found that liposomal epirubicin and hepcidin 2–3 augmented the accumulation of GFP-LC3 puncta as amplified by chloroquine, implying the involvement of autophagy. Interestingly, the partial inhibition of necroptosis and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition by this combination was also verified. Altogether, our results provide evidence that coincubation with PEGylated liposomes of hepcidin 2–3 and epirubicin caused programmed cell death in cervical cancer cells through modulation of multiple signaling pathways, including MDR transporters, apoptosis, autophagy, and

  9. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ordikhani, Farideh; Erdem Arslan, Mustafa; Marcelo, Raymundo; Sahin, Ilyas; Grigsby, Perry; Schwarz, Julie K.; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. PMID:27447664

  10. Program for the control of cervical cancer in Peru.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    This brief article presents a profile of cervical cancer prevention in Peru. Limited information is available on the extent of cervical cancer due to lack of a national cancer registry. The only statistics on cervical cancer pertain to Lima. During 1952-91, 44.6% of cases treated were due to cervical cancer, according to the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases in Lima. The Anti-Cancer League reports that 95.9% of the 1403 cancers of the genital organs among 500,445 women examined during 1953-94 were cervical cancers. 80%-86% of these cancers were advanced-stage cervical neoplasms. The Maes-Heller Center for Research on Cancer reports that the incidence of cervical cancer declined during 1970-80. Reproductive health care provided through the Ministry of Health focuses on reducing maternal mortality and promoting family planning. PAHO/WHO funding has been limited to reducing maternal mortality and to promoting family planning. The focus is on obstetric care rather than gynecologic care. Funding deficits are a constraint to the development of a centralized national program for the control of cervical cancer. In the year 2000, the Ministry of Health should have established the new Reproductive Health and Family Planning Program. One of the program goals is to provide at least 30% of Peruvian women with an annual Pap smear.

  11. Fisetin inhibits migration and invasion of human cervical cancer cells by down-regulating urokinase plasminogen activator expression through suppressing the p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Yu, Yung-Luen; Huang, Min-Hsien; Huang, Yi-Chang; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer types. However, its effect on the anti-metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that fisetin inhibits the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. The expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was significantly suppressed by fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that fisetin reduces the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, or AKT. Addition of a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, further enhanced the inhibitory effect of fisetin on the expression and activity of uPA and the invasion and motility in cervical cancer cells. Fisetin suppressed the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced activation of p38 MAPK and uPA, and inhibited the TPA-enhanced migratory and invasive abilities. Furthermore, the promoter activity of the uPA gene was dramatically repressed by fisetin, which disrupted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding amount on the promoter of the uPA gene, and these suppressive effects could be further enhanced by SB203580. This study provides strong evidence for the molecular mechanism of fisetin in inhibiting the aggressive phenotypes by repression of uPA via interruption of p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and thus contributes insight to the potential of using fisetin as a therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer by inhibiting migration and invasion.

  12. Fisetin Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Down-Regulating Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Expression through Suppressing the p38 MAPK-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Yu, Yung-Luen; Huang, Min-Hsien; Huang, Yi-Chang; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Fisetin (3,3’,4’,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer types. However, its effect on the anti-metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, we found that fisetin inhibits the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells. The expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was significantly suppressed by fisetin in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that fisetin reduces the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, or AKT. Addition of a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, further enhanced the inhibitory effect of fisetin on the expression and activity of uPA and the invasion and motility in cervical cancer cells. Fisetin suppressed the TPA (tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced activation of p38 MAPK and uPA, and inhibited the TPA-enhanced migratory and invasive abilities. Furthermore, the promoter activity of the uPA gene was dramatically repressed by fisetin, which disrupted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding amount on the promoter of the uPA gene, and these suppressive effects could be further enhanced by SB203580. This study provides strong evidence for the molecular mechanism of fisetin in inhibiting the aggressive phenotypes by repression of uPA via interruption of p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway in cervical cancer cells and thus contributes insight to the potential of using fisetin as a therapeutic strategy against cervical cancer by inhibiting migration and invasion. PMID:23940799

  13. MiR-375 Is Epigenetically Downregulated by HPV-16 E6 Mediated DNMT1 Upregulation and Modulates EMT of Cervical Cancer Cells by Suppressing lncRNA MALAT1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shikai; Song, Lili; Yao, Hairong; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Dongkui; Gao, Fangyuan; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic modulation is an important mechanism of miRNA dysregulation in cervical cancer. In this study, we firstly studied how this mechanism contributes to miR-375 downregulation in cervical cancer cells. Then, we further studied the association between miR-375 and MALAT1 (metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. HPV-16 positive SiHa and CaSki cells were used as in vitro model. Our data showed that HPV-16 E6 positively modulated DNMT1 expression in both SiHa and CaSki cells. Knockdown of DNMT1 partly restored miR-375 levels in the cells. The following methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay and qRT-PCR analysis showed that methylation was common in the promoter region of miR-375 in both SiHa and CaSki cells and demethylation partly restored miR-375 levels in the cells. Therefore, we infer that miR-375 is downregulated partly due to promoter hypermethylation mediated by DNMT1 in HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cells. Our bioinformatics analysis showed that MALAT1 has three putative binding sites with miR-375 and the following dual luciferase assay confirmed two of them. QRT-PCR analysis showed that miR-375 overexpression significantly reduced MALAT1 expression, while MALAT1 overexpression reversely suppressed miR-375 levels. Therefore, we infer that there is a reciprocal regulation between miR-375 and MALAT1 in the cells. In SiHa cells, miR-375 overexpression or MALAT1 siRNA partly restored E-cadherin expression, significantly reduced N-cadherin and also reduced invasion capacity of SiHa cells. Therefore, these results suggest that miR-375 and MALAT1 form a functional axis modulating EMT in cervical cancer. PMID:27658300

  14. Primary Health Care and Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Lein, Adriana; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Staton, Catherine; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common neoplasm that is responsible for nearly 230 000 deaths annually in Brazil. Despite this burden, cervical cancer is considered preventable with appropriate care. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study from 2002 to 2012 to examine the relationship between the delivery of preventive primary care and cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil. Brazilian states and the federal district were the unit of analysis (N = 27). Results suggest that primary health care has contributed to reducing cervical cancer mortality rates in Brazil; however, the full potential of preventive care has yet to be realized. PMID:28252500

  15. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haiyan; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Zhaojun; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer. PMID:27354763

  16. Cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Ditzian, Lauren R; David-West, Gizelka; Maza, Mauricio; Hartmann, Beatrix; Shirazian, Taraneh; Cremer, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death among women in the developing world. Conventional cytology-based cervical cancer screening programs have been largely ineffectual at reducing the cervical cancer burden in low-resource settings. In response, alternative strategies have been tested, such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA-based testing. This manuscript reviews literature addressing the programmatic approaches to implementing cervical cancer screening programs in low-resource settings, highlighting the challenges, barriers, and successes related to the use of cytology, VIA, and HPV-DNA based screening programs.

  17. Human papillomavirus induced transformation in cervical and head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Allie K; Wise-Draper, Trisha M; Wells, Susanne I

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  18. Interferon-β Induced microRNA-129-5p Down-Regulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 Viral Gene Expression by Targeting SP1 in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiarong; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Yixia; Liu, Xuelian; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Down-regulation of E6 and E7 expression may be responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed with IFN treatment, but the molecular basis has not been well determined. As miRNAs play an important role in HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis, we hypothesize that IFN-β can regulate the expressions of specific miRNAs in cervical cancer cells, and that these miRNAs can mediate E6 and E7 expression, thus modulate their oncogenic potential. In this study, we found that miR-129-5p to be a candidate IFN-β inducible miRNA. MiR-129-5p levels gradually decrease with the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Manipulation of miR-129-5p expression in Hela cells modulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression. Exogenous miR-129-5p inhibits cell proliferation in Hela cells, promotes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in Hela cells. SP1 is a direct target of miR-129-5p in Hela cells. This study is the first report of a cellular miRNA with anti-HPV activity and provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms between the HPV and the IFN system in host cells at the miRNA level. PMID:24358111

  19. Interferon-β induced microRNA-129-5p down-regulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression by targeting SP1 in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiarong; Li, Shuangdi; Yan, Qin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Yixia; Liu, Xuelian; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. Down-regulation of E6 and E7 expression may be responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed with IFN treatment, but the molecular basis has not been well determined. As miRNAs play an important role in HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis, we hypothesize that IFN-β can regulate the expressions of specific miRNAs in cervical cancer cells, and that these miRNAs can mediate E6 and E7 expression, thus modulate their oncogenic potential. In this study, we found that miR-129-5p to be a candidate IFN-β inducible miRNA. MiR-129-5p levels gradually decrease with the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Manipulation of miR-129-5p expression in Hela cells modulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression. Exogenous miR-129-5p inhibits cell proliferation in Hela cells, promotes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in Hela cells. SP1 is a direct target of miR-129-5p in Hela cells. This study is the first report of a cellular miRNA with anti-HPV activity and provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms between the HPV and the IFN system in host cells at the miRNA level.

  20. E3 ubiquitin ligase isolated by differential display regulates cervical cancer growth in vitro and in vivo via microRNA-143.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibin; Wang, Xinling; Zhang, Yanshang; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers worldwide. Aberrant expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase isolated by differential display (EDD) has been detected in various types of tumor and has been demonstrated to have an important role in carcinogenesis, tumor growth and drug resistance. However, the role of EDD in cervical cancer and its underlying molecular mechanisms remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of EDD in the tumorigenicity of cervical cancer. EDD expression levels were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting in SiHa, HeLa, CaSki, c-41 and c-33A cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissue specimens. A functional study was performed using cell proliferation, colony formation, cell apoptosis assays in vitro and tumor growth assays in vivo with EDD either overexpressed or silenced. In the present study, EDD expression levels were significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and tissue samples. EDD knockdown significantly inhibited colony formation, cell proliferation and tumor growth and accelerated cell apoptosis in the cervical cancer cell lines and tissue samples. Furthermore, microRNA (miR)-143 expression levels were low in cervical cancer tissue samples and were negatively correlated with EDD expression. miR-143 silencing eliminated the effect of EDD on cell proliferation, colony formation and cell apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells, which suggested that miR-143 is critical for EDD-mediated regulation of cervical cancer cell growth. The results of the present study indicated that EDD may promote cervical cancer growth in vivo and in vitro by targeting miR-143. In conclusion, EDD may have an oncogenic role in cervical cancer and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with cervical cancer.

  1. Diagnosis of cervical cancer cell taken from scanning electron and atomic force microscope images of the same patients using discrete wavelet entropy energy and Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, Triangle Measure classifier.

    PubMed

    Aytac Korkmaz, Sevcan

    2016-05-05

    The aim of this article is to provide early detection of cervical cancer by using both Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of same patient. When the studies in the literature are examined, it is seen that the AFM and SEM images of the same patient are not used together for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. AFM and SEM images can be limited when using only one of them for the early detection of cervical cancer. Therefore, multi-modality solutions which give more accuracy results than single solutions have been realized in this paper. Optimum feature space has been obtained by Discrete Wavelet Entropy Energy (DWEE) applying to the 3×180 AFM and SEM images. Then, optimum features of these images are classified with Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and Triangle Measure (JHT) Classifier for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. However, between classifiers which are Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and triangle distance have been validated the measures via relationships. Afterwards, accuracy diagnosis of normal, benign, and malign cervical cancer cell was found by combining mean success rates of Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and Triangle Measure which are connected with each other. Averages of accuracy diagnosis for AFM and SEM images by averaging the results obtained from these 3 classifiers are found as 98.29% and 97.10%, respectively. It has been observed that AFM images for early diagnosis of cervical cancer have higher performance than SEM images. Also in this article, surface roughness of malign AFM images in the result of the analysis made for the AFM images, according to the normal and benign AFM images is observed as larger, If the volume of particles has found as smaller.

  2. Diagnosis of cervical cancer cell taken from scanning electron and atomic force microscope images of the same patients using discrete wavelet entropy energy and Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, Triangle Measure classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac Korkmaz, Sevcan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this article is to provide early detection of cervical cancer by using both Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of same patient. When the studies in the literature are examined, it is seen that the AFM and SEM images of the same patient are not used together for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. AFM and SEM images can be limited when using only one of them for the early detection of cervical cancer. Therefore, multi-modality solutions which give more accuracy results than single solutions have been realized in this paper. Optimum feature space has been obtained by Discrete Wavelet Entropy Energy (DWEE) applying to the 3 × 180 AFM and SEM images. Then, optimum features of these images are classified with Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and Triangle Measure (JHT) Classifier for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. However, between classifiers which are Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and triangle distance have been validated the measures via relationships. Afterwards, accuracy diagnosis of normal, benign, and malign cervical cancer cell was found by combining mean success rates of Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and Triangle Measure which are connected with each other. Averages of accuracy diagnosis for AFM and SEM images by averaging the results obtained from these 3 classifiers are found as 98.29% and 97.10%, respectively. It has been observed that AFM images for early diagnosis of cervical cancer have higher performance than SEM images. Also in this article, surface roughness of malign AFM images in the result of the analysis made for the AFM images, according to the normal and benign AFM images is observed as larger, If the volume of particles has found as smaller. She has been a Faculty Member at Fırat University in the Electrical- Electronic Engineering Department since 2007. Her research interests include image processing, computer vision systems, pattern recognition, data fusion, wavelet theory, artificial neural

  3. [Cervical cancer even after recovery from preliminary stage].

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthé P M

    2013-01-01

    Patients with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1-3 who have completed a 2-year follow-up period with three negative cytological test results show an incidence of invasive carcinoma of 35.1 per 100,000 women years. Their risk for invasive cancer is 4-fold the risk in healthy women who had a negative primary test result. It has been proposed that this group should be kept in long-term, frequent follow-up. The author argues that if cervical cancer develops in these women, the treatment and diagnostics of CIN might have been incorrect. If the thickness of the electrosurgically excised tissue strips is insufficient, more deeply situated parts of the cervical crypts may be left behind in the stroma. After healing, cervical carcinoma may develop beneath a normal surface if these parts of the crypts contain intraepithelial neoplastic cells. This carcinoma is not amenable to early diagnosis. Before deciding on a more intense follow-up, we have to investigate the quality of the diagnostics and treatment in this group of women.

  4. Cervical cancer screening in England.

    PubMed

    Patnick, J

    2000-11-01

    Cervical screening in England is provided free of charge by the National Health Service to all women aged 20-64 years. Computerised call and recall was introduced in 1988 and women receive an invitation every 3-5 years. Smears are taken by the local family doctor, by his/her nurse or at community clinics. Approximately 85% of English women have had a smear in the last 5 years. Quality assurance programmes have recently been established for laboratories and colposcopy clinics and lessons have been learned from previous failures of the service. The incidence has fallen from 16 per 100000 in 1986 to 9.3 per 100000 in 1997. Mortality is currently falling by 7% per year.

  5. Association between war and cervical cancer among Vietnamese women.

    PubMed

    Huynh, My Linh D; Raab, Stephen S; Suba, Eric J

    2004-07-10

    Decades ago, cervical cancer was the leading form of cancer among women in both North Vietnam and South Vietnam. Currently, cervical cancer rates are considerably lower in the northern region of the country. We performed a case-control study to measure factors associated with the development of cervical cancer among Vietnamese women. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 202 women in southern Vietnam and 97 women in northern Vietnam. Case subjects were women hospitalized with cervical cancer. Control subjects were women hospitalized with extrauterine neoplasms. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, and odds ratios for the development of invasive cervical cancer were measured. The development of invasive cervical cancer was significantly associated with military service by husbands during the Second Indochinese War and with parity status. Odds ratio for the development of cervical cancer among southern Vietnamese women whose husbands had served in the armed forces was 2.6 (95% CI = 1.2-5.5). Odds ratio for the development of cervical cancer among northern women whose husbands had served in the armed forces was 3.9 (95% CI = 1.5-10.4) if their husbands had been stationed in South Vietnam during the war years. Northern women whose husbands had served in the military experienced no significant increase in cervical cancer risk if their husbands had been stationed in North Vietnam during the war years. Geographic and temporal variation in cervical cancer rates among Vietnamese women was associated with the movement of soldiers. These findings may be useful for cervical cancer prevention efforts in Vietnam and in other countries.

  6. Sulforaphane Reverses the Expression of Various Tumor Suppressor Genes by Targeting DNMT3B and HDAC1 in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ali Khan, Munawwar; Kedhari Sundaram, Madhumitha; Hamza, Amina; Quraishi, Uzma; Gunasekera, Dian; Ramesh, Laveena; Goala, Payal; Al Alami, Usama; Ansari, Mohammad Zeeshan; Rizvi, Tahir A; Sharma, Chhavi; Hussain, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) may hinder carcinogenesis by altering epigenetic events in the cells; however, its molecular mechanisms are unclear. The present study investigates the role of SFN in modifying epigenetic events in human cervical cancer cells, HeLa. HeLa cells were treated with SFN (2.5 µM) for a period of 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours for all experiments. After treatment, expressions of DNMT3B, HDAC1, RARβ, CDH1, DAPK1, and GSTP1 were studied using RT-PCR while promoter DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) was studied using MS-PCR. Inhibition assays of DNA methyl transferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) were performed at varying time points. Molecular modeling and docking studies were performed to explore the possible interaction of SFN with HDAC1 and DNMT3B. Time-dependent exposure to SFN decreases the expression of DNMT3B and HDAC1 and significantly reduces the enzymatic activity of DNMTs and HDACs. Molecular modeling data suggests that SFN may interact directly with DNMT3B and HDAC1 which may explain the inhibitory action of SFN. Interestingly, time-dependent reactivation of the studied TSGs via reversal of methylation in SFN treated cells correlates well with its impact on the epigenetic alterations accumulated during cancer development. Thus, SFN may have significant implications for epigenetic based therapy.

  7. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Effects of Three Peptide Fractions of Germinated Soybeans on Breast and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Marcela, González-Montoya; Eva, Ramón-Gallegos; Del Carmen, Robles-Ramírez María; Rosalva, Mora-Escobedo

    2016-12-01

    Soybeans are an important source of bioactive molecules, such as peptides, which generation can improve through germination. In this study, the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of three peptide fractions (>10 kDa, 5-10 kDa and <5 kDa) that were obtained by ultrafiltration of soybean protein hydrolysate after six days of germination were evaluated. The antioxidant activities of the peptide fractions were assessed by reducing power, Cu(+2) and Fe(+2) chelation and OH· scavenging assays, whereas their antiproliferative effects against cervical (HeLa, SiHa, CasKi) and breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines were evaluated by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by Hoechst-PI staining. The most active peptide fraction (MAPF) was the >10 kDa fraction, which showed the greatest antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The most sensitive cancer cell lines were the HeLa, CasKi and MDA-MB-231 cells, which had IC50 values of 16.2, 14.3 and 15.2 mg/mL, respectively, and apoptotic indices above 50 % after 6 or 8 h of exposure. The effect of MAPF on normal cells (HaCaT) was minimal. The amino acid composition of MAPF was characterized by high proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine content, and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis showed six signals with molecular weights of 12 to 42 kDa.

  8. High Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) and NF-κB Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiwang; Zhang, Xia; Ye, Xiaojuan; Feng, Chan; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yonglin; Lin, Yun; Dong, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Background SDF-1 and NF-κB are associated with the prognosis of a wide range of cancers, but their value in cervical cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer and their significance in clinical prognosis. Material/Methods The expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in 105 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed by chi-square test. The overall survival times (OS) were collected by follow-up and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The expression level of both SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer are higher than that in the adjacent tissues (P<0.05). SDF-1 expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade (P<0.05). NF-κB expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) status (P<0.05). The patients with a positive expression of SDF-1or NF-κB tended to have much shorter survival time than patients with negative expression. In addition, multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 expression and lymph node metastasis are independent predictors of the OS in cervical cancer patients. Conclusions The expression of SDF-1 is significantly associated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade. The expression of NF-κB is significantly associated with tumor size, FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis. The positive SDF-1or NF-κB expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis. These may be valuable biomarkers for the prognosis and the potential therapeutic targets of cervical cancer. PMID:28074045

  9. High Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) and NF-κB Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiwang; Zhang, Xia; Ye, Xiaojuan; Feng, Chan; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yonglin; Lin, Yun; Dong, Chunyan

    2017-01-11

    BACKGROUND SDF-1 and NF-κB are associated with the prognosis of a wide range of cancers, but their value in cervical cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer and their significance in clinical prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in 105 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed by chi-square test. The overall survival times (OS) were collected by follow-up and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS The expression level of both SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer are higher than that in the adjacent tissues (P<0.05). SDF-1 expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade (P<0.05). NF-κB expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) status (P<0.05). The patients with a positive expression of SDF-1or NF-κB tended to have much shorter survival time than patients with negative expression. In addition, multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 expression and lymph node metastasis are independent predictors of the OS in cervical cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS The expression of SDF-1 is significantly associated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade. The expression of NF-κB is significantly associated with tumor size, FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis. The positive SDF-1or NF-κB expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis. These may be valuable biomarkers for the prognosis and the potential therapeutic targets of cervical cancer.

  10. Profiling analysis of circulating microRNA expression in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagamitsu, Yuzo; Nishi, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Toru; Takaesu, Yotaro; Terauchi, Fumitoshi; Isaka, Keiichi

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is altered in cancer cells and is associated with the development and progression of various types of cancer. Accordingly, miRNAs may serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in cancer patients. In this study, we attempted to analyze circulating exosomal miRNA in patients with cervical cancer. Total RNA was extracted from the serum of healthy subjects, subjects with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and patients with cervical cancer. We first investigated miRNA expression profiles in 6 serum samples from healthy subjects and patients with cervical cancer using the miRCURY LNA microRNA array. miRNAs with significant differences in expression were validated in a larger sample set by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, using TaqMan gene expression assays. The results of the miRCURY LNA microRNA array indicated that 6 of 1,223 miRNAs found in serum samples from cervical cancer patients and normal controls exhibited a >3.0-fold change in expression level in subjects with cervical cancer, with a P-value of <0.01. In a validation set (n=131) that investigated the expression of 4 of the 6 miRNAs (miR-483-5p, miR-1246, miR-1275 and miR-1290), miR-1290 was found to have significantly higher expression levels in cervical cancer samples (n=45) compared with control samples (n=31). We also found that the median levels of these miRNAs were significantly higher in subjects with cervical cancer (n=45) compared with those in subjects with CIN (n=55). Circulating miRNAs were not correlated with clinicopathological parameters. However, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that these serum miRNAs may be useful diagnostic markers in cervical cancer. The expression of circulating miR-1290 was significantly higher in the blood of cervical cancer patients compared with that in controls and may thus serve as a useful biomarker in cervical cancer diagnosis. However, larger studies are required to fully

  11. Near-Infrared Micro-Raman Spectroscopy for in Vitro Detection of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    KAMEMOTO, LORI E.; MISRA, ANUPAM K.; SHARMA, SHIV K.; GOODMAN, MARC T.; LUK, HUGH; DYKES, AVA C.; ACOSTA, TAYRO

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for detecting critical differences in biological samples with minimum interference in the Raman spectra from the native fluorescence of the samples. The technique is often suggested as a potential screening tool for cancer. In this article we report in vitro Raman spectra of squamous cells in normal and cancerous cervical human tissue from seven patients, which have good signal-to-noise ratio and which were found to be reproducible. These preliminary results show that several Raman features in these spectra could be used to distinguish cancerous cervical squamous cells from normal cervical squamous cells. In general, the Raman spectra of cervical cancer cells show intensity differences compared to those of normal squamous cell spectra. For example, several well-defined Raman peaks of collagen in the 775 to 975 cm −1 region are observed in the case of normal squamous cells, but these are below the detection limit of normal Raman spectroscopy in the spectra of invasive cervical cancer cells. In the high frequency 2800 to 3100 cm −1 region, it is found that the peak area under the CH stretching band is lower by a factor of approximately six in the spectra of cervical cancer cells as compared with that of the normal cells. The Raman chemical maps of regions of cancer and normal cells in the cervical epithelium made from the spectral features in the 775 to 975 cm −1 and 2800 to 3100 cm −1 regions are also found to show good correlation with each other. PMID:20223058

  12. Essential oil of Cephalotaxus griffithii needle inhibits proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer cells: involvement of mitochondria-initiated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Laishram, Surbala; Rana, Virendra Singh; Borah, Jagat Chandra; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cephalotaxus griffithii needle essential oil (CGNO) on proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer (HCC) cells. CGNO treatment decreased the viability of all the tested HCC (HeLa, ME-180 and SiHa) cells. Morphological and DNA fragmentation analysis of CGNO-treated HeLa cells indicated the involvement of apoptosis in inducing HCC cell death. CGNO increased mitochondrial membrane depolarisation and upregulated the expression of caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP. The activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9 was also significantly increased. Wound healing and transwell migration assay demonstrated that CGNO significantly inhibited the migration of HeLa cells to close a scratched wound and also inhibited their migration through filter towards a chemotactic stimulus. Taken together, these results indicated that CGNO inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCC cells. Of note, CGNO induced HeLa cell death through mitochondria-initiated and death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  13. Uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis from uterine cervical cancer is rare, with an incidence of 0.5%, and usually occurs late in the course of the disease. We report a case of uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation. A 50-year-old woman with headache, vertigo, amnesia and loss of appetite was admitted for persistent vomiting. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a solitary right frontal cerebral lesion with ring enhancement and uterine cervical tumor. She was diagnosed with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma with parametrium invasion and no other distant affected organs were detected. The cerebral lesion was surgically removed and pathologically proved to be metastasis of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by cerebral radiation therapy, but multiple metastases to the liver and lung developed and the patient died 7 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis.

  14. Cervical cancer prevented by screening: Long-term incidence trends by morphology in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lönnberg, Stefan; Hansen, Bo Terning; Haldorsen, Tor; Campbell, Suzanne; Schee, Kristina; Nygård, Mari

    2015-10-01

    Both major morphologic types of cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC), are causally related to persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV), but screening has primarily been effective at preventing SCC. We analysed incidence trends of cervical cancer in Norway stratified by morphologies over 55 years, and projected SCC incidence in the absence of screening by assessing the changes in the incidence rate of AC. The Cancer Registry of Norway was used to identify all 19,530 malignancies in the cervix diagnosed in the period 1956-2010. The majority of these (82.9%) were classified as SCCs, 10.5% as ACs and the remaining 6.6% were of other or undefined morphology. By joint-point analyses of a period of more than five decades, the average annual percentage change in the age-standardised incidence was -1.0 (95%CI: -2.1-0.1) for cervical SCC, 1.5 (95%CI:1.1-1.9) for cervical AC and -0.9 (95%CI: -1.4 to -0.3) for cervical cancers of other or undefined morphology. The projected age-standardised incidence rate of cervical SCC in Norway, assuming no screening, was 28.6 per 100,000 woman-years in 2010, which compared with the observed SCC rate of 7.3 corresponds to an estimated 74% reduction in SCC or a 68% reduction due to screening in the total cervical cancer burden. Cytology screening has impacted cervical cancer burden more than suggested by the overall observed cervical cancer incidence reduction since its peak in the mid-1970s. The simultaneous substantial increase in cervical adenocarcinoma in Norway is presumably indicative of an increase in exposure to HPV over time.

  15. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    PubMed

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship b